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1

Can potassium citrate replace sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride of oral rehydration solution?  

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Ninety four children aged less than 5 years with diarrhoeal dehydration and acidosis were treated randomly with either World Health Organisation (WHO) oral rehydration solution containing sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and glucose or an oral solution with tripotassium citrate monohydrate replacing the sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride in the WHO solution. Fifty five children (58%) were hypokalaemic (potassium less than 3.5 mmol/l) on admission. All but two in ...

Islam, M. R.

1985-01-01

2

Physical Compatibility of Magnesium Sulfate and Sodium Bicarbonate in a Pharmacy-compounded Bicarbonate-buffered Hemofiltration Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE To assess the physical compatibility of magnesium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution used at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (http://www.cc.nih.gov). METHODS Two hemofiltration fluid formulations with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L or 15 mEq/L were prepared in triplicate with an automated compounding device. The hemofiltration solution with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L contains the maximum concentration of additives that we use in clinical practice. The hemofiltration solution of 15 mEq/L of magnesium and 50 mEq/L of bicarbonate was used to study the physicochemical properties of this interaction. The solutions were stored without light protection at 22 to 25 °C for 48 hours. Physical compatibility was assessed by visual inspection and microscopy. The pH of the solutions was assayed at 3 to 4 hours and 52 to 53 hours after compounding. In addition, electrolyte and glucose concentrations in the solutions were assayed at two time points after preparation: 3 to 4 hours and 50 to 51 hours. RESULTS No particulate matter was observed by visual and microscopic inspection in the compounded hemofiltration solutions at 48 hours. Electrolyte and glucose concentrations and pH were similar at both time points after solution preparation. CONCLUSION Magnesium sulfate (1.5 mEq/L) and sodium bicarbonate (50 mEq/L) were physically compatible in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution at room temperature without light protection at 48 hours.

Moriyama, Brad; Henning, Stacey A.; Jin, Haksong; Kolf, Mike; Rehak, Nadja N.; Danner, Robert L.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Grimes, George J.

2011-01-01

3

Renal function following sea snake venom (Lapemis hardwicki) administration in dogs treated with sodium bicarbonate solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of sea snake venom (SSV) on renal function were studied in two groups of anesthetized experimental dogs pretreated with intravenous infusion of 4.2 gm% NaHCO3 solution. Animals were envenomated by intramuscular injection of SSV at a dosage of 0.34 mg/kg. Systemic hemodynamics showed no significant changes except for a tendency of decrease in cardiac output (CO). The glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the rate of urine flow (V) and effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), and effective renal blood flow (ERBF) significantly decreased, while filtration fraction (FF) significantly increased at 180 min after envenomation. Envenomated animals showed a reduction in renal fraction (RF), while renal vascular resistance (RVR) increased stepwise throughout the experimental periods. Animals pretreated with sodium bicarbonate showed no significant changes of CO, TPR MAP, HR, and packed cell volume (PCV) while receiving sea snake venom. Animals pretreated with sodium bicarbonate showed no changes in GFR, ERPF, ERBF, RF, and RVR after envenomation. The rate of urine flow markedly increased in envenomated animals which received pretreatment with bicarbonate. After envenomation alone, there were no differences in the plasma concentration of sodium (PNa) and chloride (PCl) as compared to the control value, whereas the plasma concentration of potassium (PK) increased at 180 min after envenomation. Animals pre-treated with bicarbonate showed a stepwise increase in both UNaV, FE(NA), U(Cl)V, and FE(Cl) accompanying SSV injection. Neither PNa nor PCl were affected, while PK significantly decreased in animals given SSV with bicarbonate loading. UKV and FEK increased stepwise in envenomated animals treated with bicarbonate throughout the period of study. All groups of animals given SSV, with or without NaHCO3 infusion, showed a marked elevation of the concentration of urinary myoglobin (U(Mb)), plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and plasma creatine phosphokinase (CPK) throughout experimental periods. The urinary myoglobin excretion markedly increased in animals after SSV injection accompanied by NaHCO3 infusion. It can be concluded that large amounts of myoglobin present in the renal tubules in envenomated animals can precipitate, particularly under acidic conditions, resulting in increased intratubular pressure and subsequently decreased renal hemodynamics including GFR and ERBF. An infusion of NaHCO3 to render urine more alkaline could have a protective role against depression of renal function following sea snake venom administration. PMID:12009111

Sakwiwatkul, K; Chaiyabutr, N; Sitprija, V

2002-05-01

4

Sodium Bicarbonate in Chemical Flooding: Part 1: Topical Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil re...

D. A. Peru P. B. Lorenz

1987-01-01

5

Solubility of ammonium metavanadate in ammonium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions at 25 deg C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solubility at 25 deg C has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - sodium bicarbonate - water which is a stable section of the corresponding quaternary mutual system. In the eutonic point the content of ammonium metavanadate is 4.95% and of sodium bicarbonate 12.1%. The crystallization branch of ammonium metavanadate has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - water at 25 deg C. Metavanadate solubility attains minimum (0.14%) at ammonium carbonate concentration 2.6%. Three sections have been studied of the quaternary system ammonium - metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate-water at 25 deg C in the crystallization region of ammonium metavanadate at a ratio of sodium bicarbonate to ammonium carbonate 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. A region of minimum solubility of ammonium metavanadate has been detected (0.1%)

1978-06-01

6

Thermodynamics of aqueous carbonate solutions including mixtures of sodium carbonate, bicarbonate, and chloride  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently the authors examined electrochemical-cell data leading to values of the activity coefficient for aqueous sodium bicarbonate. Since that preliminary analysis, new experimental measurements have been published which contribute significantly to the overall thermodynamic understanding of (sodium carbonate + sodium bicarbonate + carbonic acid). In this more extensive examination we consider a wide variety of measurements leading to activity coefficients of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ from 273 to 323 K and to relative molar enthalpies and heat capacities at 298.15 K. Tables of thermodynamic quantities at selected temperatures are included. 47 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

Peiper, J.C.; Pitzer, K.S.

1982-01-01

7

Synthetic carbonaceous fuels and feedstocks. [by hydrolysis of aqueous sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solution obtained by scrubbing atmospheric carbon dioxide with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This invention relates to the use of three compartment electrolytic cell in the production of synthetic carbonaceous fuels and chemical feedstocks such as gasoline, methane and methanol by electrolyzing an aqueous sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solution, obtained from scrubbing atmospheric carbon dioxide with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, whereby the hydrogen generated at the cathode and the carbon dioxide liberated in the center compartment are combined thermocatalytically into methanol and gasoline blends. The oxygen generated at the anode is preferably vented into the atmosphere, and the regenerated sodium hydroxide produced at the cathode is reused for scrubbing the CO/sub 2/ from the atmosphere.

Steinberg, M.

1978-08-17

8

Quality Assessment of Lightly Salted Atlantic Salmon Fillets Injected With Brine Solutions Containing Sodium Bicarbonate  

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The objective of this study was to produce lightly salted Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fillets with improved technical and sensory attributes. Brine containing 0, 50, 150 or 250 g/L NaCl with or without additional 25 g/L sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) was injected into the fillets. 24 hours after injection, the muscle NaCl concentration ranged from 0.2 to 2.4%, and pH ranged from 6.18 to 6.48. Untreated fillets lost 1% weight, whereas the weight increase was 4% of the ...

Magnus Åsli; Marit Rødbotten; Gjermund Vogt; Sergey Afanasyev; Turid Mørkøre

2013-01-01

9

The anodic dissolution of SIMFUEL (UO2) in slightly alkaline sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion of nuclear fuel under waste disposal conditions is likely to be influenced by the bicarbonate/carbonate content of the groundwater since it increases the solubility of the UVI corrosion product, [UO2]2+. As one of the half reactions involved in the corrosion process, the anodic dissolution of SIMFUEL (UO2) has been studied in bicarbonate/carbonate solutions (pH 9.8) using voltammetric and potentiostatic techniques and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The reaction proceeds by two consecutive one electron transfer reactions (UIV ? UV ? UVI). At low potentials (?250 mV (vs. SCE) the rate of the first electron transfer reaction is rate determining irrespective of the total carbonate concentration. At potentials >250 mV (vs. SCE) the formation of a UVIO2CO3 surface layer begins to inhibit the dissolution rate and the current becomes independent of potential indicating rate control by the chemical dissolution of this layer.

2011-09-30

10

Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication  

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Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

2012-01-01

11

Sodium Bicarbonate—A Potent Ergogenic Aid?  

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This report aims to look at the role of Sodium bicarbonate as a potent Ergogenic aid and its role in improving the performance of athletes. It includes the mechanism of action of sodium bicarbonate during high-intensity exercise. The report also shows the various types of athletes who can be benefited from sodium bicarbonate loading, evidences for improvement in performance, conflicting evidences, recommended dosages and side-effects for bicarbonate loading.

Jose Shelton; Praveen Kumar, Gideon V.

2010-01-01

12

Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

2012-02-01

13

Supported palladium catalysts for the reduction of sodium bicarbonate to sodium formate in aqueous solution at room temperature and one atmosphere of hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reduction has been effected by using a variety of Pd (palladium)-based catalysts. The typical procedure was to suspend 0.25 g of catalyst in 25 cc of an aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate purged slowly with hydrogen gas. The sodium formate concentration was followed by withdrawing aliquots for formate determination by /sup 13/C, /sup H/NMR. The reduction may be quite rapid; an initial rate of reduction after 1 h reaction produces a turnover rate of 35 formate anions produced/ palladium atom/h. All forms of Pd used appear to be active. The overall results indicate that carbon dioxide may be reduced at room temperature near its thermodynamic potential. 2 figures, 1 table.

Stalder, C.J.; Chao, S.; Summers, D.P.; Wrighton, M.S.

1983-10-05

14

Elimination of Escherichia coli from Oysters using Sodium Bicarbonate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sodium bicarbonate has been reported as disinfectant that normal use in food processing. Because its safety for human and cause effective. In this study, sodium bicarbonate was used to eliminate E. coli in oysters.  The experiments were divided into 3 trials. First, was disinfection of E. coli using sodium bicarbonate in vitro. Second, was study the toxicity of sodium bicarbonate in oysters. Final trial was effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate to eliminate E. coli i...

Labaiden, Matthura; Kasai, Hisae; Yoshimizu, Mamoru; Direkbusrakom, Sataporn

2013-01-01

15

Oxidation of Am(III) in carbonate - bicarbonate solution by sodium perxenate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oxidation of Am(III) by Na_4XeO_6 in KHCO_3, KHCO_3 + K_2CO_3, and K_2CO_3 solutions is studied by spectrophotometry. In 1.5M solutions (HCO_3"- + CO_3"2"-) with perxenate concentrations comparable to those of Am, Am(III) is quickly converted to a mixture of Am(IV) + Am(V) + Am(VI). In concentrated K_2CO_3 solutions (5.9 M), Am(III) is in general not oxidized by perxenate. A mechanism is proposed for the oxidation of Am(III) by perxenate that includes the reaction of Am(III) with Xe(VIII) and possibly with Xe(VI). The reaction of Na_4XeO_6 and Am(IV) was also investigated. In this instance Am(IV) was quickly converted to Am(V) and Am(VI)

1995-01-01

16

Oxidation of Am(III) in carbonate - bicarbonate solution by sodium perxenate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The oxidation of Am(III) by Na{sub 4}XeO{sub 6} in KHCO{sub 3}, KHCO{sub 3} + K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions is studied by spectrophotometry. In 1.5M solutions (HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} + CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) with perxenate concentrations comparable to those of Am, Am(III) is quickly converted to a mixture of Am(IV) + Am(V) + Am(VI). In concentrated K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions (5.9 M), Am(III) is in general not oxidized by perxenate. A mechanism is proposed for the oxidation of Am(III) by perxenate that includes the reaction of Am(III) with Xe(VIII) and possibly with Xe(VI). The reaction of Na{sub 4}XeO{sub 6} and Am(IV) was also investigated. In this instance Am(IV) was quickly converted to Am(V) and Am(VI).

Anan`ev, A.V.; Shilov, V.P.; Yusov, A.B.

1995-01-01

17

Grocery store baking soda. A source of sodium bicarbonate in the management of chronic metabolic acidosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral sodium bicarbonate is used to treat metabolic acidosis in patients with renal tubular acidosis. Since infants and young children are unable to swallow tablets, those affected must ingest sodium bicarbonate in a powder or liquid form. Pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate is expensive and inconvenient to obtain; some pharmacists are reluctant to provide it. We determined that the sodium bicarbonate contained in 8-oz boxes of Arm and Hammer Baking Soda was sufficiently constant in weight that, dissolved in water to a given volume, it yielded a quantitatively acceptable therapeutic solution of sodium bicarbonate at a cost of approximately 3 percent of that of pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate. Grocery store baking soda can be a safe, economical, and convenient source of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of chronic metabolic acidosis in infants and young children. PMID:6319065

Booth, B E; Gates, J; Morris, R C

1984-02-01

18

Oral rehydration solution without bicarbonate.  

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The efficacy of oral rehydration solution without bicarbonate was compared with World Health Organisation oral rehydration solution in 98 young children in a double blind and randomised clinical trial. These children had varying degrees of dehydration and acidosis caused by acute watery diarrhoea. The mean serum bicarbonate concentration on admission was 13.3 mmol(mEq)/1 in the former and 13.1 mmol(mEq)/1 in the latter group of children. All but three children who received the rehydration sol...

1984-01-01

19

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

2010-07-01

20

Investigation of crystallization kinetics of sodium bicarbonate in a continuous stirred tank crystallizer  

Science.gov (United States)

In our previous work [J. Crystal Growth 263 (2004) 459], a supersaturation determination method using a high-precision densimeter was designed and developed for monitoring sodium bicarbonate supersaturation in the sodium carbonate-bicarbonate system, a two-component solution in equilibrium. In the present paper, we apply this method to the study of sodium bicarbonate continuous crystallization. It gives us access to the sodium bicarbonate supersaturation evolution. The sodium bicarbonate supersaturation evolution and their crystallization kinetics obtained in a continuous stirred tank crystallizer are investigated under different operational conditions, such as residence time, initial supersaturation and seeding. The induction time determined by density measurements is discussed. Mathematical modeling is used to interpret the supersaturation evolution. It is shown that measuring the density gives satisfying performances for studying the crystallization of a two-component solution in equilibrium, such as the sodium carbonate-bicarbonate system.

Zhu, Yi; Haut, Benoît; Halloin, Veronique; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule

2005-08-01

 
 
 
 
21

Bicarbonate and bicarbonate/lactate peritoneal dialysis solutions for the treatment of infusion pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study was undertaken to determine the effects of novel bicarbonate (38 mM) and bicarbonate (25 mM)/lactate (15 mM) containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions on infusion pain in patients who experienced inflow pain with conventional lactate (40 mM) solution. Pain was assessed using a verbal rating scale and the validated McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Eighteen patients were recruited to the study. Both novel solutions resulted in highly statistically significant reductions in inflow pain compared to the control lactate solution, as assessed with both the verbal rating scale and the MPQ. For all pain variables assessed, the bicarbonate/lactate solution was more effective than the bicarbonate solution in alleviating pain. In conclusion, both solutions reduced the infusion pain experienced with control solution, but the bicarbonate/lactate solution appears to be the most effective. In contrast to the most widespread current treatment, which is the manual injection of sodium bicarbonate, the bicarbonate/lactate solution does not have the associated increased risk of peritonitis. PMID:9551418

Mactier, R A; Sprosen, T S; Gokal, R; Williams, P F; Lindbergh, M; Naik, R B; Wrege, U; Gröntoft, K C; Larsson, R; Berglund, J; Tranaeus, A P; Faict, D

1998-04-01

22

The anodic dissolution of SIMFUEL (UO{sub 2}) in slightly alkaline sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion of nuclear fuel under waste disposal conditions is likely to be influenced by the bicarbonate/carbonate content of the groundwater since it increases the solubility of the U{sup VI} corrosion product, [UO{sub 2}]{sup 2+}. As one of the half reactions involved in the corrosion process, the anodic dissolution of SIMFUEL (UO{sub 2}) has been studied in bicarbonate/carbonate solutions (pH 9.8) using voltammetric and potentiostatic techniques and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The reaction proceeds by two consecutive one electron transfer reactions (U{sup IV} {yields} U{sup V} {yields} U{sup VI}). At low potentials ({<=}250 mV (vs. SCE) the rate of the first electron transfer reaction is rate determining irrespective of the total carbonate concentration. At potentials >250 mV (vs. SCE) the formation of a U{sup VI}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} surface layer begins to inhibit the dissolution rate and the current becomes independent of potential indicating rate control by the chemical dissolution of this layer.

Keech, P.G.; Goldik, J.S.; Qin, Z. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St, London ON, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Shoesmith, D.W., E-mail: dwshoesm@uwo.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St, London ON, N6A 5B7 (Canada)

2011-09-30

23

Leaching of uranium from Syrian phosphorite (sodium carbonate-bicarbonate)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The leaching of uranium from Syrian phosphorite by sodium carbonate-bicarbonate solution has been studied, using a batch technique. Parameters influencing percentage extraction of uranium that are considered and studies in this work are: Leachant concentration, particle size, heat treatment, leachant renewal, phosphorite renewal and contact time. All measurements of uranium from aqueous solutions were carried out by fluorometry. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

1991-01-01

24

Oral rehydration therapy: efficacy of sodium citrate equals to sodium bicarbonate for correction of acidosis in diarrhoea.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Forty patients with moderate degrees of dehydration and acidosis because of acute watery diarrhoea were successfully treated randomly with either WHO recommended oral rehydration solution containing 2.5 g sodium bicarbonate or an oral solution containing 2.94 g sodium citrate in place of sodium bicarbonate per litre of oral rehydration rehydration solution. Efficacies were compared by measuring oral fluid intake, stool and vomitus output, change in body weight, hydration status, and rate of c...

Islam, M. R.; Samadi, A. R.; Ahmed, S. M.; Bardhan, P. K.; Ali, A.

1984-01-01

25

Elimination of Escherichia coli from Oysters using Sodium Bicarbonate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate has been reported as disinfectant that normal use in food processing. Because its safety for human and cause effective. In this study, sodium bicarbonate was used to eliminate E. coli in oysters.  The experiments were divided into 3 trials. First, was disinfection of E. coli using sodium bicarbonate in vitro. Second, was study the toxicity of sodium bicarbonate in oysters. Final trial was effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate to eliminate E. coli in naturally contaminated oysters.  Results from in vitro study indicated that sodium bicarbonate inhibited E. coli and the effective concentration to disinfection E. coli was 10 and 100 mM. And it was low toxic for oyster due to the 50% lethal concentration was high as 63 mM. Moreover, the sodium bicarbonate application to eliminate was effective.  E. coli in natural contaminated oyster decreased to 96 E. coli MPN/100 g that below the standard level (230 MPN/100 g after depuration with 10 mM sodium bicarbonate for 1 h. From these results, sodium bicarbonate was considered to be alternative way for farmer because it is simple method and effectiveness to elimination of E. coli from oyster.

Matthura LABAIDEN

2013-01-01

26

An Outpatient, Ambulant-Design, Controlled Human Infection Model Using Escalating Doses of Salmonella Typhi Challenge Delivered in Sodium Bicarbonate Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Background.?Typhoid fever is a major global health problem, the control of which is hindered by lack of a suitable animal model in which to study Salmonella Typhi infection. Until 1974, a human challenge model advanced understanding of typhoid and was used in vaccine development. We set out to establish a new human challenge model and ascertain the S. Typhi (Quailes strain) inoculum required for an attack rate of 60%–75% in typhoid-naive volunteers when ingested with sodium bicarbonate solution. Methods.?Groups of healthy consenting adults ingested escalating dose levels of S. Typhi and were closely monitored in an outpatient setting for 2 weeks. Antibiotic treatment was initiated if typhoid diagnosis occurred (temperature ?38°C sustained ?12 hours or bacteremia) or at day 14 in those remaining untreated. Results.?Two dose levels (103 or 104 colony-forming units) were required to achieve the primary objective, resulting in attack rates of 55% (11/20) or 65% (13/20), respectively. Challenge was well tolerated; 4 of 40 participants fulfilled prespecified criteria for severe infection. Most diagnoses (87.5%) were confirmed by blood culture, and asymptomatic bacteremia and stool shedding of S. Typhi was also observed. Participants who developed typhoid infection demonstrated serological responses to flagellin and lipopolysaccharide antigens by day 14; however, no anti-Vi antibody responses were detected. Conclusions.?Human challenge with a small inoculum of virulent S. Typhi administered in bicarbonate solution can be performed safely using an ambulant-model design to advance understanding of host–pathogen interactions and immunity. This model should expedite development of diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics for typhoid control.

Waddington, Claire S.; Darton, Thomas C.; Jones, Claire; Haworth, Kathryn; Peters, Anna; John, Tessa; Thompson, Ben A. V.; Kerridge, Simon A.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Zhou, Liqing; Holt, Kathryn E.; Yu, Ly-Mee; Lockhart, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M.; Pollard, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

27

Effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on swim performance in youth athletes  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w.) on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years) youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years) male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s-1, p sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m. Key points Sodium bicarbonate is an effective ergogenic aid, also in youth athletes. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves swimming sprint performance. Sodium bicarbonate intake increases resting blood pH and bicarbonate level

Zajac, Adam; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Waskiewicz, Zbigniew; Langfort, Jozef

2009-01-01

28

40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

2010-07-01

29

The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains  

Science.gov (United States)

Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material, together with calcium carbonate and base-exchange minerals in a formation is, therefore, sufficient to account for the occurrence in it of high sodium bicarbonate waters. ?? 1950.

Foster, M. D.

1950-01-01

30

Effect of bicarbonate ion additives on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of bicarbonate ions (HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel (SS, UNS S3 1603) was investigated in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution using potentiodynamic polarization, the abrading electrode technique, alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions extended the passive potential region in width and, at the same time, raised the pitting potential in value on the potentiodynamic polarization curve. Potentiostatic current transients obtained from the moment just after interrupting the abrading action showed the repassivation rate of propagating pits increased and that the pit growth rate decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Over the whole applied potential, the oxide film resistance was higher in the presence of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions. The pit number density decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Moreover, addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions retarded lateral pit growth, while promoting downward pit growth from the surface. The bare surface of the specimen repassivated preferentially along the pit mouth and walls, compared to the pit bottom, as a result of formation of a surface film with a high content of protective mixed ferrous-chromous carbonate ([Fe,Cr]CO{sub 3}) that formed from preferential adsorption of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions.

Park, J.J.; Pyun, S.I.; Lee, W.J. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Kim, H.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1999-04-01

31

Measurement and analysis of polarization curves of mild steel in sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solution under erosion-corrosion conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The polarization curves of mild steel in de-aerated 0.5 and mol NaHCO{sub 3} + 0.5 mol Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution with and without erodent particles of 300 g/L of 100 {mu}m alumina have been measured using a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) apparatus over the range of rotation speeds fro 0 to 4,000 r/min. The results show that the mild steel in the de-aerated slurry exhibits classical active/passive polarization behavior. The speed of cylinder rotation has a great effect in the presence of particles on the active dissolution current density. The erosion-corrosion process is severely erosion-dominated for the mild steel. However, the poor corrosion resistance of the mild steel in such turbulent slurries is also significant, especially at lower than 4 m/s. 19 refs., 5 figs.

Yuan, Q. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China). Research Institute of Surface Engineering

2002-06-01

32

X-ray off-specular reflectivity studies of electrochemical pitting of Cu surfaces in sodium bicarbonate solution.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have studied the electrochemically-induced pitting process on a Cu electrode in NaHCO{sub 3} solution using in-situ X-ray off-specular reflectivity measurements. The morphology and growth dynamics of the localized corrosion sites or pits were studied as the applied potential was varied from the cathodic region where the Cu surface is relatively free of oxide films to the anodic region where surface roughening occurs by general corrosion with concomitant formation of an oxide film. Quantitative analysis of the experimental results indicates that early pitting proceeds in favor of nucleation of pit clusters over individual pit growth. It was found that the lateral distribution of the pits is not random but exhibits a short-range order as evidenced by the appearance of a side peak in the transverse off-specular reflectivity. The position, height, and width of the peak was modeled to yield the average size, nearest-neighbor distance (within any one of the clusters), and over-all density of the pits averaged over the entire illuminated surface. In addition, measurements of the longitudinal off-specular reflectivity indicate a bimodal depth distribution for the pits, suggesting a 'film breaking' type of pitting mechanism.

Feng, Y. P.; Sinha, S. K.; Melendres, C. A.; Lee, D. D.; Chemical Engineering; Exxon Research and Engineering Co.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.

1996-01-01

33

Effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated sprints.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated bouts of intensive short duration exercise. Twenty-three subjects participated in the investigation (8 females and 15 males, age 21.4 +/- 2.3, mean +/- sd). Subjects completed six trials; three following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg/kg body weight) and three following the ingestion of a placebo (8 g sodium chloride). Each trial consisted of ten ten-second sprints on a cycle ergometer...

Lavender, G.; Bird, S. R.

1989-01-01

34

Etude de la cristallisation du bicarbonate de sodium raffiné:contribution au modèle des colonnes à bulles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

La société Solvay est le plus grand producteur de bicarbonate de sodium raffiné au monde. Le NaHCO3 est un des produits parmi les plus connus et utilisés. Sa production a lieu dans des colonnes à bulles de volumes très importants. La production du bicarbonate de sodium raffiné dans ces réacteurs peut se résumer par la réaction entre une solution saturée de carbonate de sodium (Na2CO3) et le CO2(gaz)

2010-01-01

35

Influence of calcium ions on the crystallization of sodium bicarbonate  

Science.gov (United States)

In industrial crystallization of sodium bicarbonate (sodium hydrogenocarbonate), the presence of calcium ions in solutions is unavoidable due to the production process. The understanding of the Ca 2+ role in NaHCO 3 crystallization would be helpful for improving the quality of the final products. The influence of calcium ions on NaHCO 3 crystallization was investigated in a 5-l mixed suspension mixed product removal crystallizer under controlled conditions. A density meter was used for continuous supersaturation monitoring. After a steady state had been reached, different CaCl 2 amounts were added at a constant flow rate. It was found that limited calcium ion levels in the system reduce drastically the nucleation frequency of NaHCO 3 and has a limited influence on crystal growth rate. The supersaturation measurements and other methods confirmed this phenomenon. The relationship between the Ca 2+ influence on NaHCO 3 crystallization, the calcium carbonate solubility and its metastable zone in concentrated NaHCO 3 solution was established. In fact, Ca 2+ has a maximum effect on NaHCO 3 crystallization kinetics when the saturation of calcium carbonate in NaHCO 3 solution has been reached, and the effect is constant in the metastable zone. The excess of Ca 2+ precipitates in NaHCO 3 solution as CaCO 3, as observed by energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. This explained why an increasing Ca 2+ concentration in the solution has a limited influence on NaHCO 3 crystal size distribution and habit, but decreases the crystal purity. It is also confirmed that an impurity as Ca 2+ has no influence on the equilibrium NaHCO 3-Na 2CO 3.

Zhu, Yi; Demilie, Paul; Davoine, Perrine; Cartage, Thierry; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule

2005-02-01

36

Sodium bicarbonate-augmented stress thallium myocardial scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well known that sodium bicarbonate in pharmacological doses induces transient alkalosis, causing intracellular transport of serum potassium. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate whether, in humans, myocardial thallium-201 uptake can be augmented by pretreatment with a single bolus of sodium bicarbonate at a pharmacological dose, (b) to verify general safety aspects of the intervention and (c) to evaluate the clinical implications of augmentation of 201Tl uptake, if any. Routine exercise myocardial scintigraphy was performed twice in eight adult volunteers (five normal and three abnormal), once without intervention and the second time (within a week) following intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (88 mEq in 50 ml) as a slow bolus 1 h prior to the injection of 201Tl. Conventional myocardial thallium study was compared with sodium bicarbonate interventional myocardial scintigraphy with respect to myocardial uptake (counts per minute per mCi injected dose), washout patterns in normal and abnormal myocardial segments, and overall clinical interpretation based on planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) images. All patients remained asymptomatic after the intervention. A mean increase of 53% in myocardial uptake of thallium was noted in post-exercise acquisitions after the intervention, confirming uptake of the tracer via the potassium-hydrogen pump and its augmentation by transient alkalosis. The washout pattern remained unchanged. The visual quality of planar and SPET images improved significantly after the intervention. Out of the five abnormal myocardial segments identified in three cases, four showed significant filling-in after the intervention, causing the diagnosis to be upgraded from ''partial scar'' to ''ischaemia'', or from ''ischaemia'' to ''normal''. The overall scan impression changed in two out of three such cases. Sodium bicarbonate augmentation may have significant implications for stress-thallium scintigraphy and may be a new parameter for defining myocardial viability. (orig.)

2004-04-01

37

Chemical kinetic studies on dry sorbents. Final report. [Sodium bicarbonate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scope of this research investigation has included a review of potential additives suitable for dry flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) and a bench scale laboratory study to determine the chemical kinetics for the reaction of five different sorbents with sulfur dioxide. The sorbents chosen included sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/), soda ash (Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/), trona, lime (CaO) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). This study has shown that: (1) The reaction rate increases with temperature for soda ash and calcium oxide. The reaction temperature has an inverse effect on sodium bicarbonate and trona due, primarily, to the simultaneous thermal activation reaction. The calcium hydroxide-SO/sub 2/ reaction increased up to 550/sup 0/F, and then decreased, due to uneven gas flow distribution. (2) The reaction rates for soda ash, calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide were increased by decreasing their particle size. This effect was not confirmed for sodium bicarbonate and trona where reaction temperature was the most important reaction parameter. (3) Reaction with soda ash was found to be limited by the presence of an impervious ash layer which prevented interparticle gaseous diffusion. Calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide were found to be limited by a slow chemical reaction rate. Results on the rate-limiting steps for sodium bicarbonate and trona were inconclusive because of the simultaneous thermal activation reaction. (4) The effect of thermal activation was to increase the reaction rate for sodium bicarbonate and trona at lower temperatures. This effect was less pronounced at higher temperatures. (5) Results obtained for nitric oxide show limited adsorption for the five sorbents tested as compared to the finding for sulfur dioxide.

Davis, W.T.; Keener, T.C.

1982-02-15

38

Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

2013-02-01

39

The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 is a high-affinity bicarbonate carrier in cortical astrocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 (SLC4A4) is a robust regulator of intracellular H(+) and a significant base carrier in many cell types. Using wild-type (WT) and NBCe1-deficient (NBC-KO) mice, we have studied the role of NBCe1 in cortical astrocytes in culture and in situ by monitoring intracellular H(+) using the H(+)-sensitive dye BCECF [2',7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein] in wide-field and confocal microscopy. Adding 0.1-3 mm HCO3(-) to an O2-gassed, HEPES-buffered saline solution lowered the intracellular H(+) concentration with a Km of 0.65 mm HCO3(-) in WT astrocytes, but slowly raised [H(+)]i in NBCe1-KO astrocytes. Human NBCe1 heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes could be activated by adding 1-3 mm HCO3(-), and even by residual HCO3(-) in a nominally CO2/HCO3(-)-free saline solution. Our results demonstrate a surprisingly high apparent bicarbonate sensitivity mediated by NBCe1 in cortical astrocytes, suggesting that NBCe1 may operate over a wide bicarbonate concentration in these cells. PMID:24453308

Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Ruminot, Iván; Schneider, Hans-Peter; Shull, Gary E; Deitmer, Joachim W

2014-01-22

40

Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na"2CO"3-0.5 N NaHCO"3) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/l uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluent (5% NaCl-0.5% Na"2CO"3). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased. (author)

1982-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na2CO3-0.5 N NaHCO3) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/1 uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluant (5 % NaCl-0.5 % Na2CO3). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased. (author)

1982-01-01

42

Production of sodium bicarbonate from a basic process stream:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present invention is in the area of the treatment of a gas flow containing carbon dioxide obtained from burning at least one organic waste or feed stream, on the one hand to produce sodium bicarbonate and optionally remove and/or recover molybdenum compounds and/or other impurities from the said waste streams for further use and on the other hand to produce an effluent that is sufficiently clean to be discharged into surface water.

Witkamp, G. J.; Spronsen, J.; Hasselaar, M.

2012-01-01

43

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm² specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then immersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37ºC, the specimens were divided into four groups according to the substance used for disinfection (5% sodium bicarbonate, 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine, vinegar and Corega Tabs. A control group was included, in which distilled water was used. The adhered microorganisms were dispersed, diluted and plated onto culture media to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL. The results were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney statistical test at the 5% level of significance. Only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine and 5% sodium bicarbonate presented a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0156, respectively compared to the control group, decreasing the number of cfu/mL. However, when the different disinfecting solutions were compared with each other, only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine presented a statistically significant difference in the reduction of cfu/mL. It was concluded that although 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine was more effective in the reduction of Candida albicans adherence values to thermally activated acrylic resin, 5% sodium bicarbonate also proved to be a viable alternative.

Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de Sousa

2009-12-01

44

Gram-scale solution-phase synthesis of selective sodium bicarbonate Co-transport Inhibitor S0859 : in vitro efficacy studies in breast cancer cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters (NBCs) mediate the transport of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes and are thus ubiquitous regulators of intracellular pH. NBC dysregulation is associated with a range of diseases; for instance, NBCn1 is strongly up-regulated in a model of ErbB2-dependent breast cancer, a malignant and widespread cancer with no targeted treatment options, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NBCn1 genetically link to breast cancer development and hypertension. The N-cyanosulfonamide S0859 has been shown to selectively inhibit NBCs, and its availability on the gram scale is therefore of significant interest to the scientific community. Herein we describe a short and efficient synthesis of S0859 with an overall yield of 45?% from commercially available starting materials. The inhibitory effect of S0859 on recovery of intracellular pH after an acid load was verified in human and murine cancer cell lines in Ringer solutions. However, S0859 binds very strongly to components in plasma, and accordingly, measurements on isolated murine tissues showed no effect of S0859 at concentrations up to 50 mu M.

Larsen, Ann Møller; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels

2012-01-01

45

Magnesium bicarbonate as an in situ uranium lixiviant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the subsurface solution mining of mineral values, especially uranium, in situ, magnesium bicarbonate leaching solution is used instead of sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonate and bicarbonates. The magnesium bicarbonate solution is formed by combining carbon dioxide with magnesium oxide and water. The magnesium bicarbonate lixivant has four major advantages over prior art sodium, potassium and ammonium bicarbonates

1984-01-01

46

Unusual radiolytic behavior of neptunium ions in aqueous bicarbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Behavior of neptunium ions in carbonate and bicarbonate aqueous solutions saturated with air, oxygen or argon during gamma radiation (60Co) by doses up to 3 kGy at dose rates 10 and 25 Gy/min was studied by the method of spectrophotometry. It is shown that in neptunium (5) bicarbonate solution nearly complete (95%) neptunium ion oxidation occurs under the effect of radiation, whereas no oxidation is observed in carbonate solution. Radiation-chemical yield of neptunium (5) oxidation and stationary concentration of neptunium (6) ions depend on concentration of bicarbonate-ions. Explanation to the results obtained is made from the viewpoint of potential radiolytic reactions

2000-11-01

47

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm² specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then i [...] mmersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37ºC, the specimens were divided into four groups according to the substance used for disinfection (5% sodium bicarbonate, 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine, vinegar and Corega Tabs). A control group was included, in which distilled water was used. The adhered microorganisms were dispersed, diluted and plated onto culture media to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL). The results were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney statistical test at the 5% level of significance. Only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine and 5% sodium bicarbonate presented a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0156, respectively) compared to the control group, decreasing the number of cfu/mL. However, when the different disinfecting solutions were compared with each other, only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine presented a statistically significant difference in the reduction of cfu/mL. It was concluded that although 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine was more effective in the reduction of Candida albicans adherence values to thermally activated acrylic resin, 5% sodium bicarbonate also proved to be a viable alternative.

Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de, Sousa; Thaís Cachuté, Paradella; Cristiane Yumi, Koga-Ito; Antonio Olavo Cardoso, Jorge.

48

Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-0.5 N NaHCO/sub 3/) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/1 uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluant (5 % NaCl-0.5 % Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased.

Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko (Government Industrial Research Inst., Shikoku, Takamatsu (Japan))

1982-09-01

49

Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-0.5 N NaHCO/sub 3/) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/l uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluent (5% NaCl-0.5% Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased.

Sakane, K.; Hirotsu, T.; Fujii, A.; Katoh, S.; Sugasaka, K. (Government Industrial Research. Inst., Shikoku, Takamatsu (Japan))

1982-01-01

50

Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs. Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

NingYan

2013-09-01

51

Radiolysis of Bicarbonate and Carbonate Aqueous Solutions: Product Analysis and Simulation of Radiolytic Processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An understanding of the radiation-induced effects in groundwater is essential to evaluate the safe geological disposal of spent fuel. In groundwater, the bicarbonate ion is the predominant and common anion; this work investigated radiation-induced chemical reactions of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions with steady-state irradiation and pulse radiolysis methods. Aqueous solutions of sodium (bi)carbonate as high as 50 mmol.dm-3 were used. The formation of formate, oxalate, and H2O2 were measured under different conditions. A complete set of reaction steps and reliable kinetic data for the radiolysis of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions at ionic strength close to the groundwater were proposed. Kinetic calculations were completed based on the proposed reaction steps and the kinetic data obtained in the present work. The results from the calculation are in good agreement with the experimental results. With these proposed reaction steps and kinetic data, computer simulation can be performed to predict the yield of radiolytic products of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions as a function of irradiation time and used to evaluate the safety of geological disposal options of spent fuel

2001-11-01

52

The Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter (NBCe1) Is Essential for Normal Development of Mouse Dentition*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) is a syndrome caused by abnormal proximal tubule reabsorption of bicarbonate resulting in metabolic acidosis. Patients with mutations to the SLC4A4 gene (coding for the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1), have pRTA, growth delay, ocular defects, and enamel abnormalities. In an earlier report, we provided the first evidence that enamel cells, the ameloblasts, express NBCe1 in a polarized fashion, thereby contributing to trans-cellular bicarbonate tra...

2010-01-01

53

In Situ Investigation of the Remineralizing Effect of Saliva and Fluoride on Enamel Following Prophylaxis Using Sodium Bicarbonate  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: This in situ study evaluated the effect of saliva, associated or not with fluoride, on enamel previously submitted to prophylaxis using sodium bicarbonate. Methods: The study was conducted on enamel blocks submitted to in vitro prophylaxis using sodium bicarbonate. The blocks were randomly divided into 2 groups (G1/G2) and mounted on intraoral appliances wore by 10 volunteers. G1 blocks were directly exposed to saliva in situ, while blocks in G2 were exposed to saliva with fluoride (rinsing with 0.2% NaF solution during the initial minute). Enamel alterations were evaluated using surface microhardness and profilometry. Enamel hardness data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey tests and surface wear was evaluated using paired t test (Psodium bicarbonate.

Grazziotin, Gladis Benjamina; Rios, Daniela; Honorio, Heitor Marques; Silva, Salete Moura Bonifacio; Lima, Jose Eduardo Oliveira

2011-01-01

54

Mechanisms of contrast-induced nephropathy reduction for saline (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3).  

Science.gov (United States)

Nephropathy following contrast media (CM) exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline) or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb). The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid. PMID:24826379

Burgess, W Patrick; Walker, Phillip J

2014-01-01

55

Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl) and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3)  

Science.gov (United States)

Nephropathy following contrast media (CM) exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline) or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb). The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid.

Burgess, W. Patrick; Walker, Phillip J.

2014-01-01

56

Surfactant-enhanced sodium bicarbonate flooding. Project OE6  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three anionic and four nonionic surfactants were tested for their emulsification behavior with TRONACRAB (sodium bicarbonate) and Wilmington crude oil. Three of the surfactants were found to enhance the solubilization of oil in the brine phase in the presence of TRONACARB according to the screening guide established in this study. Interfacial tension measurements were made on the most promising systems. The results support the hypothesis that a synergistic relationship can exist between low concentrations of synthetic surfactant and TRONACRAB. In batch experiments using kaolinite and in a linear coreflood using consolidated Berea sandstone, TRONACRAB reduced adsorption of surfactant by up to 93%. TRONACARB was less effective in preventing adsorption onto crushed Berea sandstone probably due to an unusually high amount of ferrodolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate with iron impurities). The following conclusion have been made from the results of this work. (1) Addition of water-soluble synthetic surfactants to brines containing TRONACARB enhances the aqueous solubility of surfactants formed in situ. (2) The greatest solubilization of oil into the brine phase occurs when TRONACARB is used with synthetic surfactant. (3) The use of TRONACARB in combination with synthetic surfactants results in ultralow interfacial tension upon contact with the oil phase. (4) TRONACARB decreases the temperature at which ninionics can solubilize oil effectively (lower IFT). The use of nonionics at lower temperatures will reduce adsorption significantly. (5) TRONACARB is as useful as higher pH alkaline agents in preventing adsoprtion of anionic surfactants. 12 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Peru, D.A.

1986-08-01

57

Quantification of Kinetic Rate Law Parameters of Uranium Release from Sodium Autunite as a Function of Aqueous Bicarbonate Concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABSTRACT: Hydrogen carbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, hydrogen carbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous hydrogen carbonate solutions to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate solutions (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and temperatures of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release from sodium autunite exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH and increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions. Most notably at pH 7, the rate of uranium release exhibited 370 fold increases relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release. Results indicate the activation energies were unaffected by temperature and bicarbonate concentration variations, but were strongly dependent on pH conditions. As pH increased from 6 to 11, activation energy values were observed to decrease from 29.94 kJ mol-1 to 13.07 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energies suggest a surface controlled dissolution mechanism.

Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

2013-09-05

58

Use of sodium bicarbonate to treat tricyclic antidepressant-induced arrhythmias in a patient with alkalosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sodium bicarbonate has been recommended for the treatment of arrhythmias induced by tricyclic antidepressants. It is unclear, however, whether this therapy is effective only in the presence of acidosis. A case is presented in which there was an immediate response to sodium bicarbonate in three episodes of ventricular tachycardia despite the presence of alkalosis on two of the three occasions. Given the poor response to conventional therapy of arrhythmias induced by tricyclic antidepressants t...

Molloy, D. W.; Penner, S. B.; Rabson, J.; Hall, K. W.

1984-01-01

59

Interactive Effects of the Carbon Paper, Sodium Bicarbonate and Oral Contraceptive Pills on Morphine Urine Test  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and objectives: A major problem for labs. esp. medicolegal centers is drug test false positive and negative results. Using carbonpaper, sodium bicarbonate or oral contraceptive pills (OCP) are commonamong addict people to make the results negative. Therefore, we decidedto evaluate the effect of carbon paper, sodium bicarbonate or OCP onmorphine urine test.Material and Methods: We performed this pre-experimental study onthe urine samples of all people referred to narcotic drug labor...

2010-01-01

60

Urease-independent chemotactic responses of Helicobacter pylori to urea, urease inhibitors, and sodium bicarbonate.  

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Helicobacter pylori CPY3401 and an isogenic urease-negative mutant, HPT73, showed chemotactic responses to urea, flurofamide (a potent urease inhibitor), and sodium bicarbonate. Since urea and sodium bicarbonate are secreted through the gastric epithelial surface and hydrolysis of urea by urease on the bacterial surface is essential for colonization, the chemotactic response of H. pylori may be crucial for its colonization and persistence in the stomach.

Mizote, T.; Yoshiyama, H.; Nakazawa, T.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

A study of the catalytic role of a gold electrode in the electrochemical activation of four macrolide antibiotics in sodium bicarbonate solution  

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Full Text Available Using the cyclic voltammetry, it has been shown that hydrogen evolution at a gold electrode is necessary in the electrochemical activation of azithromycin dihydrate and erythromycin A. After four hours of the potential holding at –1.2 V vs. SCE, the pH of the electrolyte has been changed from 8.40 to 8.96; from 8.40 to 8.77 in the presence of erythromycin A, and from 8.40 to 9.18 in the presence of azithromycin, indicating the reaction of the hydrogen species with antibiotics. This effect has been confirmed by using the phenolphthalein indicator and by analysing colours of the solutions by UV-Vis, as well as by FTIR spectroscopy. Under the identical experimental conditions at the gold electrode, in contrast to azithromycin dihydrate and erythromycin A, roxithromycin and midecamycin electroactivity promotion has been obtained during the first forward sweep starting from the area of a double layer region.

Milka L. Avramov Ivi?

2010-07-01

62

Sodium bicarbonate in-duct injection with sodium sulfate recovery for SO2/NOx control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dry sodium injection with sodium bicarbonate has been used commercially at industrial sites since the mid 1980's. In the past three years, five full scale commercial demonstrations have been completed on electric utility coal fired units. Up to 75% SO2 removal with 0-40% NOx removal has been achieved on units equipped with ESPs. Recent slip stream studies have proven up to 90% SO2 removal and 25% NOx removal when injection is ahead of a baghouse. If dry sodium bicarbonate sorbent injection technology is used prior to a retrofitted baghouse, but after an existing ESP the sodium sulfate by-product/flyash mixture in the baghouse is over 90% Na2SO4. Simple filtration and crystallization will yield a high value 99% + pure Na2SO4 for sale. In this application, no liquid discharge occurs and potentially no solids discharge, since flyash recovered from the filter is either recycled to the boiler with the coal stream or reinjected into the boiler. EPA IAPCS model Version 4 is modified to project costs for this SO2/NOx removal technology when couples with Na2SO4 recovery. In this paper an example is used to show hardware requirements, consumables accountability, by-product recovery rates, capital costs and levelized costs

1991-03-04

63

Effect of molecular weight of polystyrensulfonic acid sodium salt polymers on the precipitation kinetics of sodium bicarbonate  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyzes the effect of polystyrensulfonic acid sodium salt (NaPSS), obtained by kinetic precipitation from solutions of polymers of molecular weight 245 000 and 38 000 g mol -1 in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3) itself precipitated from synthetic brine. Crystal size, shape and the additive adsorbed are reported. X shaped and hexagonal prisms crystals with different aspect ratios were obtained. The results show that with increasing polymer concentration the crystal size decreases, from 0.27 to 0.48 mm. Additionally, the higher molecular weight polymer shows both higher adsorption capacity and higher crystal habit modification. Crystal shape patterns were similar for both polymers; however, the higher molecular weight material induced changes at lower concentration. It was observed that the precipitation rate reached a minimum with increasing additive concentration.

Martínez-Cruz, Nancy; Carrillo-Romo, Felipe; Jaramillo-Vigueras, David

2004-10-01

64

Studies on the kinetics of UO2 dissolution in carbonate-bicarbonate medium using sodium hypochlorite as oxidant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dissolution of UO2 in carbonate-bicarbonate solutions containing sodium hypochlorite as an oxidant has been investigated. The effect of temperature, sodium hypochlorite concentration and stirring speed was examined. In the temperature range of 303 to 318 K, the leaching reaction displayed linear kinetics. Apparent activation energy obtained from the differential approach was found to be 57 kJ mol-1. This relatively high activation energy value indicates a chemically controlled behavior of UO2 dissolution. The order of reaction with respect to sodium hypochlorite concentration was found to be unity. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs

1996-01-01

65

Plasma exchange successfully treats central pontine myelinolysis after acute hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) primarily occurs after rapid correction of severe hyponatremia. There are no proven effective therapies for ODS, but we describe the first case showing the successful treatment of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) by plasma exchange, which occurred after rapid development of hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy. Case presentation A 40-year-old woman presented with general weakness, hypokalemia, and metabolic acidosis. The patient was treated with oral and intravenous potassium chloride, along with intravenous sodium bicarbonate. Although her bicarbonate deficit was 365 mEq, we treated her with an overdose of intravenous sodium bicarbonate, 480 mEq for 24 hours, due to the severity of her acidemia and her altered mental status. The next day, she developed hypernatremia with serum sodium levels rising from 142.8 mEq/L to 172.8 mEq/L. Six days after developing hypernatremia, she exhibited tetraparesis, drooling, difficulty swallowing, and dysarthria, and a brain MRI revealed high signal intensity in the central pons with sparing of the peripheral portion, suggesting CPM. We diagnosed her with CPM associated with the rapid development of hypernatremia after intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy and treated her with plasma exchange. After two consecutive plasma exchange sessions, her neurologic symptoms were markedly improved except for mild diplopia. After the plasma exchange sessions, we examined the patient to determine the reason for her symptoms upon presentation to the hospital. She had normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, low blood bicarbonate levels, a urine pH of 6.5, and a calyceal stone in her left kidney. We performed a sodium bicarbonate loading test and diagnosed distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA). We also found that she had Sjögren’s syndrome after a positive screen for anti-Lo, anti-Ra, and after the results of Schirmer’s test and a lower lip biopsy. She was discharged and treated as an outpatient with oral sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride. Conclusion This case indicates that serum sodium concentrations should be carefully monitored in patients with distal RTA receiving intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy. We should keep in mind that acute hypernatremia and CPM can be associated with intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy, and that CPM due to acute hypernatremia may be effectively treated with plasma exchange.

2014-01-01

66

Some aspects of the electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate (600 ppm) has been investigated using potentiodynamic polarization. In the pre-passive region three well-defined peaks are observed associated to reduction peaks corresponding to Fe(II) and Fe(III) species. A transpassive anodic peak is also observed being attributed to Fe(VI) species showing, in sweep reversal experiments, an associated reduction peak and an increase in the peak associated to the reduction of Fe(III) species. The characterization of the transpassive peak will be subject of further publication. (author)

1986-01-01

67

Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves hypertrophy-type resistance exercise performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) administration on lower-body, hypertrophy-type resistance exercise (HRE). Using a double-blind randomized counterbalanced design, 12 resistance-trained male participants (mean ± SD; age = 20.3 ± 2 years, mass = 88.3 ± 13.2 kg, height = 1.80 ± 0.07 m) ingested 0.3 g kg(-1) of NaHCO(3) or placebo 60 min before initiation of an HRE regimen. The protocol employed multiple exercises: squat, leg press, and knee extension, utilizing four sets each, with 10-12 repetition-maximum loads and short rest periods between sets. Exercise performance was determined by total repetitions generated during each exercise, total accumulated repetitions, and a performance test involving a fifth set of knee extensions to failure. Arterialized capillary blood was collected via fingertip puncture at four time points and analyzed for pH, [HCO(3)(-)], base excess (BE), and lactate [Lac(-)]. NaHCO(3) supplementation induced a significant alkaline state (pH: NaHCO(3): 7.49 ± 0.02, placebo: 7.42 ± 0.02, P < 0.05; [HCO(3)(-)]: NaHCO(3): 31.50 ± 2.59, placebo: 25.38 ± 1.78 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05; BE: NaHCO(3): 7.92 ± 2.57, placebo: 1.08 ± 2.11 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05). NaHCO(3) administration resulted in significantly more total repetitions than placebo (NaHCO(3): 139.8 ± 13.2, placebo: 134.4 ± 13.5), as well as significantly greater blood [Lac(-)] after the exercise protocol (NaHCO(3): 17.92 ± 2.08, placebo: 15.55 ± 2.50 mM, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate ergogenic efficacy for NaHCO(3) during HRE and warrant further investigation into chronic training applications. PMID:22941193

Carr, Benjamin M; Webster, Michael J; Boyd, Joseph C; Hudson, Geoffrey M; Scheett, Timothy P

2013-03-01

68

Effect of Phytase on the Sodium Requirement of Starting Broilers 1. Sodium Bicarbonate as Primary Sodium Source  

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Recent work has indicated that phytase enzymes may influence Sodium (Na) metabolism in the chick but to date no work has conclusively demonstrated that the Na requirement of the chick for live performance is influenced by phytase supplementation. In this study male broilers were fed diets with Na levels ranging from 0.10-0.28% using sodium bicarbonate as the primary source of supplemental Na. Diets were supplemented with no phytase, 500 FTU/kg (1x) or 2,000 FTU/kg (4x) of phytase. When phytas...

Goodgame, S. D.; Mussini, F. J.; Lu, C.; Bradley, C. D.; Waldroup, P. W.

2011-01-01

69

Electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransport in human ciliary muscle cells  

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We investigated membrane voltage and intracellular pH (pHi) in cultured human ciliary muscle cells using a cell line (H7CM) and primary-cultured human ciliary muscle cells. 1) Resting potential was 58.9 +/- 1.0 mV in H7CM cells and 61.9 +/- 1.4 mV in primary cultures. The following data are from H7CM cells, but results from primary cultures were basically similar. 2) In HCO3(-)-CO2-buffered solution, removal of extracellular sodium resulted in a depolarization [change in membrane resistance (...

Stahl, F.; Lepple-wienhues, A.; Kuppinger, M.; Tamm, Ernst R.; Wiederholt, M.

1992-01-01

70

Effect of Potassium Chloride and Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Thermotolerance of Broilers Exposed to Heat Stress  

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A total of 100-day-old broiler chicken were randomly divided into five groups and kept under elevated temperature (95-98.6oF) to observe the effect of potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on the weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum potassium and serum bicarbonate level. Thermostress lead to significant in decrease (P< 0.05) weight gain, serum potassium and serum bicarbonate level, while FCR was increased. During heat stress, KCl and NaHCO3 at le...

Naseem, M. T.; Shamoon Naseem; Younus, M.; Zafar Iqbal Ch.; Aamir Ghafoor; Asim Aslam; Akhter, S.

2005-01-01

71

Sodium bicarbonate to prevent cardiac surgery-associated kidney injury: the end of a dream?  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT: The rationale of urine alkalinization through intravenous sodium bicarbonate to prevent cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury relies on several pathophysiological arguments. Urine alkalinization is easily feasible in the ICU setting and is often considered to be associated with few side effects. In a previous issue of Critical Care, a retrospective study evaluates the effect of routine intravenous bicarbonate use to prevent cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury with cardiopulmonary bypass. This commentary discusses recent data on the use of bicarbonate to prevent cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury. PMID:23234469

Hougardy, Jean-Michel; De Backer, Daniel

2012-12-12

72

Interactive Effects of the Carbon Paper, Sodium Bicarbonate and Oral Contraceptive Pills on Morphine Urine Test  

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Full Text Available Background and objectives: A major problem for labs. esp. medicolegal centers is drug test false positive and negative results. Using carbonpaper, sodium bicarbonate or oral contraceptive pills (OCP are commonamong addict people to make the results negative. Therefore, we decidedto evaluate the effect of carbon paper, sodium bicarbonate or OCP onmorphine urine test.Material and Methods: We performed this pre-experimental study onthe urine samples of all people referred to narcotic drug laboratory ofMarkazi province during May of 2005. Of 2110 urine samples, theMorphine Rapid Test of 208 samples was positive. Then by means ofTLC method, we confirmed the presence of morphine metabolites in 150urine samples. After that, we divided these samples into three equalgroups for adding carbon paper, sodium bicarbonate or OCP.Results: The results show that in carbon paper group, 41 cases arepositive and nine cases unclear. In sodium bicarbonate group, 45 samplesare positive and 5 cases unclear. In estrogen conjugate group, all 50samples are positive.Conclusion: According to this study, adding carbon paper, sodiumbicarbonate or oral contraceptive pills cannot make negative theMorphine Rapid Test result.Key words: Morphine Rapid Test, Carbon paper, Sodium bicarbonate,Oral contraceptive pill.

Solhi, H

2010-01-01

73

Survival after an amniotic fluid embolism following the use of sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare and potentially fatal complication of pregnancy. In this case report, we highlight the successful use of sodium bicarbonate in a patient with an AFE. We present a case of a 38-year-old mother admitted for an elective caesarean section. Following the delivery of her baby, the mother suffered a cardiac arrest. Following a protracted resuscitation, transoesophageal echocardiography demonstrated evidence of acute pulmonary hypertension, with an empty left ventricle and an over-distended right ventricle. In view of these findings and no improvement noted from on-going resuscitation, sodium bicarbonate was infused as a pulmonary vasodilator. Almost instantaneous return of spontaneous circulation was noted, with normalisation of cardiac parameters. We propose that in patients suspected with AFE and who have been unresponsive to advance cardiac life support measures, and where right ventricular failure is present with acidosis and/or hypercarbia, the use of sodium bicarbonate should be considered. PMID:24879737

Evans, Sorcha; Brown, Brigid; Mathieson, Matthew; Tay, Stan

2014-01-01

74

Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal. (orig.)

1983-08-01

75

Electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransport in rabbit renal cortical basolateral membrane vesicles.  

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The present studies examined the mechanism of bicarbonate transport across basolateral membrane vesicles prepared from rabbit renal cortex. Isotopic sodium uptake was stimulated by bicarbonate when compared with gluconate (2.5 nmol/mg protein per 5 s versus 1.4 nmol/mg protein per 5 s), and this process was inhibited by disulfonic stilbenes. Imposition of an interior-positive potassium diffusion potential further stimulated isotopic sodium uptake to 3.4 nmol/mg protein per 5 s, an effect that...

Akiba, T.; Alpern, R. J.; Eveloff, J.; Calamina, J.; Warnock, D. G.

1986-01-01

76

Comparison of Talc Powder, Starch and Sodium Bicarbonate to Postsurgical Adhesion Formation in Rat Model  

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To find out Sodium bicarbonate comparatively with Talc and Starch in intraperitonealy adhesion formation an experimental study on rat model was designed. Forty eight female rats were selected divided randomly into four groups. After a laparotomy, in the first group, 0.7 mg Talc powder (sterilized with ethyl oxide) plus 3 cc normal saline; in the second group, 0.7 mg Sodium bicarbonate (sterilized with ethyl oxide) plus 3 cc normal saline; in the third group, 0.7 mg starches powder (sterilized...

Hamid Zeinalynejad; Mohammad Arash Ramezani

2004-01-01

77

Sodium bicarbonate reduces viability and alters aflatoxin distribution of Aspergillus parasiticus in Czapek's agar.  

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The potential of sodium bicarbonate to inhibit growth of and aflatoxin synthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus was examined in Czapek's agar (CA), a medium in which fluorescence under UV light indicates aflatoxin production. Incorporation of sodium bicarbonate (SB) into CA at 0.011, 0.022, and 0.033 mol% reduced cell viability 63-, 10(3)-, and greater than 10(7)-fold, respectively. Colonies resulting from surviving cells did not fluoresce under UV light, but thin-layer chromatography analysis of...

1987-01-01

78

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) remains a common complication of coronary angiography (CAG) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although a previous study reported pretreatment with sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride for prophylaxis of CIN, this has not been a universal finding and the long-term effects of sodium bicarbonate on CIN have not been studied before. We performed a prospective, single-center, randomized trial to investigate whether CIN can be avoided by sodium bicarbonate in patients with chronic renal failure. Eighty patients with chronic renal failure (defined as serum creatinine concentration (SCr), >1.1 mg per deciliter), who were undergoing CAG, were enrolled in this study. We assigned them to either sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate (Group B: n=35) or sodium chloride alone (Group C: n=45). In all patients, an infusion of sodium chloride of 1 ml/kg per hour was given between 12 hours before and after the procedure. In Group B, sodium bicarbonate infusion of 1 ml/kg per hour continued from 3 hours before procedure to 6 hours after procedure, changing from sodium chloride at 1 ml/kg per hour. SCr was measured at baseline, day 1, day 2 and 1 month after the procedure. CIN was defined as a 25% increase in SCr from baseline value, or an absolute increase of at least 0.5 mg/dl, which appears within 2 days after CAG. No differences in age, sex and contrast volume were observed between the two groups. SCr at baseline was not significantly different in the two groups (Group B: 1.41±0.32 versus Group C: 1.50±0.38 mg/dl). SCr at day 2 was significantly lower in Group B than Group C (1.44±0.38 versus 1.60±0.5 mg/dl, p<0.05) and 1 month (1.28±0.27 versus 1.49±0.55 mg/dl, p<0.05). CIN occurred in 9 patients (20%) in Group C but in only 2 (6%) in Group B (p=0.03). Sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride alone for prophylaxis of CIN and can help retain long-term renal function. (author)

2007-12-01

79

Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm-3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60Co gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the ?-radiolysis, G(HCOO-) = 2.2, is due to the reaction COO- + HCO3-? HCOO- +CO3-. The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO- + CO3- is particularly significant. (author)

1991-01-01

80

The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system during haemodialysis with acetate or bicarbonate at different dialysate sodium concentrations  

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The hormones of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system were measured during regular haemodialysis with acetate or bicarbonate at dialysate sodium concentrations of 135, 140, 145, and 150 mmol/l. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration were higher during acetate haemodialysis than during bicarbonate haemodialysis. At lower dialysate sodium concentrations, plasma renin activity (acetate dialysis and bicarbonate dialysis) and aldosterone concentration (only acetate dialysis) were h...

Kra?mer, Bernhard K.; Ress, K. M.; Ulsho?fer, T. M.; Risler, T.

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Sodium Bicarbonate for the Prevention of Contrast Induced-Acute Kidney Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis  

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Background and objectives: Infusion of sodium bicarbonate has been suggested as a preventative strategy but reports are conflicting on its efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of hydration with sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI).

Brar, Somjot S.; Hiremath, Swapnil; Dangas, George; Mehran, Roxana; Brar, Simerjeet K.; Leon, Martin B.

2009-01-01

82

Effect of Beta-Alanine With and Without Sodium Bicarbonate on 2,000-m Rowing Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To examine the effect of beta-alanine only and beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2,000-m rowing performance. Methods: Twenty well-trained rowers (age 23 ± 4 y; height 1.85 ± 0.08 m; body mass 82.5 ± 8.9 kg) were assigned to either a placebo or beta-alanine (6.4 g·d-1 for 4 weeks) group. A 2,000-m rowing time trial (TT) was performed before supplementation (Baseline) and after 28 and 30 days of supplementation. The post supplementation trials involved supplementation with either maltodextrin or sodium bicarbonate in a double-blind, crossover design, creating four study conditions (placebo with maltodextrin; placebo with sodium bicarbonate; beta-alanine with maltodextrin; beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate). Blood lactate, pH, bicarbonate, and base excess were measured pre-TT, immediately post-TT and at TT+5 min. Performance data were analyzed using magnitude based inferences. Results: Beta-alanine supplementation was very likely to be beneficial to 2,000-m rowing performance (6.4 ± 8.1 s effect compared with placebo), with the effect of sodium bicarbonate having a likely benefit (3.2 ± 8.8 s). There was a small (1.1 ± 5.6 s) but possibly beneficial additional effect when combining chronic beta-alanine supplementation with acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation compared with chronic beta-alanine supplementation alone. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion led to increases in plasma pH, base excess, bicarbonate, and lactate concentrations. Conclusions: Both chronic beta-alanine and acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation alone had positive effects on 2,000-m rowing performance. The addition of acute sodium bicarbonate to chronic beta-alanine supplementation may further enhance rowing performance. PMID:24172994

Hobson, Ruth M; Harris, Roger C; Martin, Dan; Smith, Perry; Macklin, Ben; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig

2013-10-01

83

Crack Cocaine-Induced Cardiac Conduction Abnormalities Are Reversed by Sodium Bicarbonate Infusion  

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We report a dramatic case of a 19-year-old man with crack cocaine overdose with important clinical complications as cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation and epileptics status. During this intoxication, electrocardiographic abnormalities similar to those found in tricyclic antidepressant poisoning were observed, and they were reversed by intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion.

Miranda, Carlos Henrique; Pazin-filho, Anto?nio

2013-01-01

84

Critical alkalosis following intraperitoneal irrigation with sodium bicarbonate in a patient with pseudomyxoma peritonei.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare disease, presenting with large amounts of mucinous ascites, and treatment with intraperitoneal irrigation with mucolytic agents has been tried. We report a patient with PMP who underwent intraperitoneal irrigation with sodium bicarbonate and exhibited marked alkalosis. The patient was a 78-year-old woman who had mucinous ascites, and an appendiceal and an ovarian tumor. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and appendectomy were performed, and she then underwent intraperitoneal irrigation with sodium bicarbonate (7%, 1000 ml). Shortly after the irrigation, blood gas analysis showed critical alkalosis (pH, 7.66; base excess [BE], 24 mEq x l(-1); HCO3 (-), 50 mEq x l(-1)) with electrolyte imbalance (Na+, 153 mEq x l(-1); K+, 2.8 mEq x l(-1); Ca2+, 0.98 mEq x l(-1), Cl(-1), 99 mEq x l(-1)). The alkalosis and electrolyte imbalance were ameliorated with the administration of potassium chloride and calcium chloride intravenously, and the patient was extubated after the 2-h surgical procedure. The patient was discharged home after 15 days without problems. Sodium bicarbonate may be an effective mucolytic agent for PMP. However, during irrigation with sodium bicarbonate, careful evaluation of the acid-base balance and serum electrolytes, and prompt treatment of alkalosis or electrolyte imbalance, should this occur, are of great importance. PMID:18685934

Shirasawa, Yumiko; Orita, Hanayo; Ishida, Kazuyoshi; Morimoto, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Mishiya; Sakabe, Takefumi

2008-01-01

85

Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration prevents contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Contrast-induced nephropathy is the leading cause of in-hospital acute renal failure. This side effect of contrast agents leads to increased morbidity, mortality, and health costs. Ensuring adequate hydration prior to contrast exposure is highly effective at preventing this complication, although the optimal hydration strategy to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy still remains an unresolved issue. Former meta-analyses and several recent studies have shown conflicting results regarding the protective effect of sodium bicarbonate. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of normal saline versus sodium bicarbonate for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. Methods The study searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts database, ISI Web of Science (until 15 December 2008), and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials that compared normal saline with sodium bicarbonate-based hydration regimen regarding contrast-induced nephropathy. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary odds ratios. Results A total of 17 trials including 2,633 subjects were pooled. Pre-procedural hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of contrast-induced nephropathy (odds ratios 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.80, P = 0.003). Number needed to treat to prevent one case of contrast-induced nephropathy was 16 (95% confidence interval 10–34). No significant differences in the rates of post-procedure hemodialysis (P = 0.20) or death (P = 0.53) was observed. Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration was found to be superior to normal saline in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in this updated meta-analysis.

Meier, Pascal; Ko, Dennis T; Tamura, Akira; Tamhane, Umesh; Gurm, Hitinder S

2009-01-01

86

Successful correction of D-lactic acid neurotoxicity (drunken lamb syndrome) by bolus administration of oral sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drunken lamb syndrome (DLS) has recently been described as lamb D-lactic acidosis syndrome (LDLAS). In 2012, 18 lambs aged between 7 days and 28 days with LDLAS were identified. Biochemically, each lamb had a metabolic acidosis characterised by D-lactic acidosis and exhibited clinical signs including: not hyperthermic, no evidence of dehydration, demonstrating an ataxic gait tending to recumbency (DLS) and possibly somnolence. These lambs received 50 mmol of sodium bicarbonate as an 8.4 per cent solution given orally, together with parenteral long-acting amoxicillin. All 18 cases made a full clinical recovery. This study demonstrates a novel effective treatment for a disease that is usually fatal, and also demonstrates a strong correlation between venous plasma bicarbonate concentrations and venous plasma D-lactate concentrations (R(2)=0.49). PMID:23812111

Angell, J W; Jones, G L; Voigt, K; Grove-White, D H

2013-08-31

87

Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (ie, 300 mg?kg?¹) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind crossover trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6 ± 0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65 ± 6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg?kg?¹) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (P = .38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = .01) and higher heart rate (main treatment effect, +10.1 ± 2.4 beats per minute, P = .002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0-10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.2, P bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial gastrointestinal distress. PMID:23746564

Kahle, Laura E; Kelly, Patrick V; Eliot, Kathrin A; Weiss, Edward P

2013-06-01

88

EFFECTS OF SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION ON SWIM PERFORMANCE IN YOUTH ATHLETES  

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w.) on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years) youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years) male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same t...

2009-01-01

89

Isotonic sodium bicarbonate-triggered emodin release from borate stabilized emodin nanoparticles-loaded polymeric microgel films.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrosoluble emodin-borate (EmB) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated by a simple solvent exchange method to address emodin's poor water solubility. As the result, negative charges were introduced in the surface of EmB NPs. In addition, layer-by-layer assembled multilayer films containing cation-rich polymeric microgels (named PAHD) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) were employed as drug carrier. Anionic EmB can be loaded into the PAHD/CMC multilayer films. The influences of various experimental parameters on cargo capacity of the PAHD/CMC film were studied in detail. The loaded EmB can be released in the form of emodin molecule in presence of isotonic sodium bicarbonate (ISB) solution. Gratifyingly, EmB did not almost release in presence of water, PBS buffer solution, 0.9% normal saline, and 5% glucose solution. PMID:24755249

Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaozhou

2014-07-20

90

Photochemical oxidation of americium(3) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions saturated with N2O  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of UV radiation on 1.1x10-4 mol/l Am(3) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions of sodium and potassium saturated with N2O was studied by spectrographic method. In all the cases Am(4) was formed as a primary product. Initial rate of Am(4) accumulation remains stable in solutions up to HCO3- or HCO3-+CO32- concentration of approximately 1.5 mol/l, but it decreases in case of their higher concentration. In solutions with pH 8.4-10 Am(4) disproportionates at a slow rate and the method suggested permits attaining practically 100% yield of it

1993-01-01

91

The role of sodium bicarbonate in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds  

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It is proposed that a component of meteoric smoke, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), provides particularly effective condensation nuclei for noctilucent clouds. This assertion is based on three conditions being met. The first is that NaHCO3 is present at sufficient concentration (±104 cm-3) in the upper mesosphere between 80 and 90 km. It is demonstrated that there is strong evidence for this based on recent laboratory measurements coupled with atmosphe...

Plane, J. M. C.

2000-01-01

92

Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-b...

Wu Ching-Lin; Shih Mu-Chin; Yang Chia-Cheng; Huang Ming-Hsiang; Chang Chen-Kang

2010-01-01

93

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin  

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm² specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then immersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37ºC, the specimens were divided into four groups according to the substance ...

Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de Sousa; Thaís Cachuté Paradella; Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito; Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge

2009-01-01

94

Comparing Sodium Bicarbonate with Normal Saline for Reversing of Epidural Anesthesia with Plain 2% Lidocaine  

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In this study we investigated whether washout of local anesthetic with sodium bicarbonate compared with 0.9% NaCl through an epidural catheter could provide a faster recovery of motor and sensory block in patients undergoing 2% plain lidocaine epidural anesthesia. In a randomized and double-blinded clinical trial, 60 ASA classes I and II male patients scheduled for elective knee or ankle orthopedic procedures underwent epidural anesthesia with 2% plain lidocaine were enrolled. A T4 dermatome ...

Gita Shoeibi; Sussan Soltani Mohammadi; Mojtaba Marashi

2007-01-01

95

Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match  

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The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants consumed NaH...

Wu, Ching-lin; Shih, Mu-chin; Yang, Chia-cheng; Huang, Ming-hsiang; Chang, Chen-kang

2010-01-01

96

Sodium Bicarbonate Enhances the Severity of Infection in Neutropenic Mice Orally Inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes EGD  

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Epidemiological studies have suggested an association between antacid therapy and development of listeriosis in humans. In this study we used a neutropenic mouse model to demonstrate that oral administration of sodium bicarbonate shortly before intragastric (i.g.) inoculation with Listeria monocytogenes EGD (serotype 1/2a) significantly increased the severity of the resulting systemic infection. An explanation for this observation is provided by evidence that L. monocytogenes EGD is rapidly i...

Czuprynski, C. J.; Faith, N. G.

2002-01-01

97

Influence of mixing and solid concentration on sodium bicarbonate secondary nucleation rate in stirred tank  

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This work aims to investigate the influence of the solid concentration in suspension on the contact secondary nucleation rate of sodium bicarbonate crystallization in a stirred tank crystallizer and to show the necessity of a local description of the mixing for a nucleation rate influence study. Experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are realized. Crystallization kinetic parameters are extracted from experimental data using a mass distribution fitting approach. CFD and...

Wylock, Christophe; Gutierrez Moran, Vanessa; Debaste, Fre?de?ric; Cartage, Thierry; Delplancke, Marie-paule; Haut, Benoi?t

2010-01-01

98

Effects of Cheap Antidotes; Sodium Bicarbonate and Magnesium Sulfate in Organophosphorous Poisoning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organophosphorous (OP) compounds have been used as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Despite administration of well known antidotes (atropine and oximes), morbidity and mortality of OP poisoning were still high. Besides, oximes are very expensive and not available in most developing countries. It was thus aimed to study the effects of cheap available antidotes; sodium bicarbonate and magnesium sulfate in OP poisoning. In addition to the standard antidotal treatment, out of 117 patients (63M, 47F) aged 25.2 ± 9.5 years with moderate to severe acute OP pesticide poisoning 59 were given sodium bicarbonate 5 mEq/kg in 60 min. followed by 5-6 mEq/kg/day to obtain arterial blood pH of 7.45 to 7.55. Arterial blood pH increased significantly (p less than 0.01) to 7.48 ± 0.05 compared to the controls (7.32 ± 0.06). Morbidity based on hospitalization days reduced significantly (p less than 0.05) from 5.62 ± 3.4 in the controls to 3.1 ± 2.6 days in the sodium bicarbonate group. Total atropine dose was also significantly (p less than 0.05) lower in the test group. Mortality was lower, but not significantly due to the low numbers (5 and 2 of the controls and test group, respectively). Sodium bicarbonate appeared to be effective and could be added to the treatment regime of OP poisoning. Magnesium sulfate was administered four gram intravenously only for the first 24 hr of hospitalization day for the patients with moderate to severe OP poisoning in a pilot study. The results were promising and thus further investigations are continued.(author)

2007-04-14

99

The effect of sodium bicarbonate on intracellular pH using 31P-MR spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report deals with the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the intracellular pH of the brain and cerebral blood flow (CBF); five normal volunteers were studied. Intracellular pH and CBF were measured by phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and stable xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT), respectively. Each individual received 7% sodium bicarbonate (3.5 ml/kg body weight), infused intravenously over a 15-min period. Intracellular pH, CBF, and physiological parameters were determined before and after the injection. Intracellular pH was significantly decreased and CBF was increased. Among the physiological parameters, the hematocrit was significantly decreased and arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), increased. These results suggest that increasing CO2 contributes to the decrease in intracellular pH. In conclusion, three factors increase CBF during the administration of sodium bicarbonate to humans: arterial dilatation in response to carbon dioxide; decrease of the hematocrit, and intracellular cerebral acidosis. (author)

1997-03-01

100

pH and salivary sodium bicarbonate during the administration protocol for methotrexate in children with leukemia  

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Objective: To analyze the behavior of pH and sodium bicarbonate (NAHCO3) in the saliva of patients with leukemia during the administration protocol for Methotrexate (Mtx). Materials and Methods: A controlled clinical essay was carried out on 23 patients between 4 and 18 years of age with high-risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Sampling was carried out at To: basal condition; T1: 12 hours after intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, before administering Mtx and T2: 3 hours after adm...

Thais Rojas de Morales; Rita Navas; Ninoska Viera; Carmen Julia Álvarez; Neira Chaparro; Dariana Griman

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Facilitated Lactate Transport by MCT1 when Coexpressed with the Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter (NBC) in Xenopus Oocytes  

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Monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) and sodium-bicarbonate cotransporters (NBC) transport acid/base equivalents and coexist in many epithelial and glial cells. In nervous systems, the electroneutral MCT1 isoform cotransports lactate and other monocarboxylates with H+, and is believed to be involved in the shuttling of energy-rich substrates between astrocytes and neurons. The NBC cotransports bicarbonate with sodium and generates a membrane current. We have expressed these transporter proteins...

Becker, Holger M.; Bro?er, Stefan; Deitmer, Joachim W.

2004-01-01

102

The effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on back squat and bench press exercise to failure.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the acute effects of NaHCO3 ingestion on repetitions to failure and rating of perceived exertion in the back squat and bench press in trained men. Eight resistance-trained men took part in this double-blind, randomized crossover experimental study whereby they ingested NaHCO3 (0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass) or placebo (sodium chloride NaCl: 0.045 g·kg(-1) body mass) solution 60 minutes before completing a bout of resistance exercise (3 sets of bench press and back squat exercise to failure at an intensity of 80% 1 repetition maximum). Experimental conditions were separated by at least 48 hours. Participants completed more repetitions to failure in the back squat after NaHCO3 ingestion (p = 0.04) but not for bench press (p = 0.679). Mean ± SD of total repetitions was 31.3 ± 15.3 and 24.6 ± 16.2 for back squat and 28.7 ± 12.2 and 26.7 ± 10.2 for bench press in NaHCO3 and placebo conditions, respectively. Repetitions to failure decreased as set increased for the back squat and bench press (p = 0.001, both). Rating of perceived exertion significantly increased with set for the back squat and bench press (p = 0.002, both). There was no significant change in blood lactate across time or between conditions. There were however treatment × time interactions for blood pH (p = 0.014) and blood HCO3 concentration (p = 0.001). After ingestion, blood pH and HCO3 (p = 0.008) concentrations were greater for the NaHCO3 condition compared with the placebo condition (p sodium bicarbonate ingestion can enhance resistance exercise performance using a repetition to failure protocol in the first exercise in a resistance exercise session. PMID:24126895

Duncan, Michael J; Weldon, Anthony; Price, Michael J

2014-05-01

103

Lack of the Sodium-Driven Chloride Bicarbonate Exchanger NCBE Impairs Visual Function in the Mouse Retina  

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Regulation of ion and pH homeostasis is essential for normal neuronal function. The sodium-driven chloride bicarbonate exchanger NCBE (Slc4a10), a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, uses the transmembrane gradient of sodium to drive cellular net uptake of bicarbonate and to extrude chloride, thereby modulating both intracellular pH (pHi) and chloride concentration ([Cl?]i) in neurons. Here we show that NCBE is strongly expressed in the retina. As GABAA receptors conduct ...

Hilgen, Gerrit; Huebner, Antje K.; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Sothilingam, Vithiyanjali; Seide, Christina; Garrido, Marina Garcia; Schmidt, Karl-friedrich; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Lo?wel, Siegrid; Weiler, Reto; Hu?bner, Christian A.; Dedek, Karin

2012-01-01

104

Sodium Bicarbonate Treatment during Transient or Sustained Lactic Acidemia in Normoxic and Normotensive Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Lactic acidosis is a frequent cause of poor outcome in the intensive care settings. We set up an experimental model of lactic acid infusion in normoxic and normotensive rats to investigate the systemic effects of lactic acidemia per se without the confounding factor of an underlying organic cause of acidosis. Methodology Sprague Dawley rats underwent a primed endovenous infusion of L(+) lactic acid during general anesthesia. Normoxic and normotensive animals were then randomized to the following study groups (n?=?8 per group): S) sustained infusion of lactic acid, S+B) sustained infusion+sodium bicarbonate, T) transient infusion, T+B transient infusion+sodium bicarbonate. Hemodynamic, respiratory and acid-base parameters were measured over time. Lactate pharmacokinetics and muscle phosphofructokinase enzyme's activity were also measured. Principal Findings Following lactic acid infusion blood lactate rose (Pbicarbonate treatment normalized pH during sustained infusion of lactic acid (from 7.22±0.02 to 7.36±0.04, Pbicarbonate infusion affected lactate wash-out kinetics (Pbicarbonate administration but the effects of bicarbonate infusion on pH differed under a persistent or transient acid load. Alkalization affected the rate of lactate disposal during the transient acid load.

Valenza, Franco; Pizzocri, Marta; Salice, Valentina; Chevallard, Giorgio; Fossali, Tommaso; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Polli, Federico; Gatti, Stefano; Fortunato, Francesco; Comi, Giacomo P.; Gattinoni, Luciano

2012-01-01

105

Sodium bicarbonate absorption and anabolism by detatched root of young paddy rice, corn and wheat plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is aimed at investigating species-to-species difference in the capability of absorption and anabolism through the root and examining the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the capability. Roots detatched from young plants of paddy rice, corn and wheat are used as the samples. The respiratory rate and anabolic rate of the detatched roots are measured by using the 14C tracer. It is found that paddy rice whows the greatest initial anabolic rate, while the rates of corn and wheat are 14 - 30 % of that of paddy rice. The initial anabolic rate is almost independent of the concentration of sodium bicarbonate. The initial absorption rate is greatest in paddy rice, followed by corn (30 - 78 %) and wheat (16 - 21 %). It is also shown that paddy rice has the greatest capability both in anabolism and absorption. The anabolism and absorption capabilities of corn are 17 - 29 % and 31 - 80 % of those of paddy rice, respectively. The corresponding values of wheat are 16 - 38 % and 24 - 66 %. Sidium bicarbonate has little effect on the anabolism capability, while the absorption capability is affected above a high concentration of 50 mM. (Nogami, K.)

1985-01-01

106

The effect of varying levels of sodium bicarbonate on polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination in Hudson River sediment cultures  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary The addition of different concentrations of sodium bicarbonate had a profound effect on 2,3,4,5-chlorobiphenyl (2,3,4,5-CB) dechlorination in Hudson River sediment cultures. The most extensive dechlorination was observed in cultures to which 100 mg l?1 bicarbonate was added. Cultures amended with 1000 mg l?1 bicarbonate had the least extensive dechlorination, with 2,4-CB and 2,5-CB as predominant end-products. A significant loss of total chlorinated biphenyl mass was observed in cultures to which ?500 mg l?1 bicarbonate was added, suggesting that degradation beyond chlorinated biphenyls occurred. The dynamics of acetate formation were different among the treatments, with high acetate concentrations detected throughout the 303-day experiment in cultures to which 1000 mg l?1 bicarbonate had been added. Sodium bicarbonate addition also had a significant impact on bacterial community structure as detected by polymerase chain reaction-denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Three putative polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorinators were identified; one Dehalococcoides-like population was detected in all enrichment cultures, whereas two Dehalobacter-like populations were only detected in the enrichment cultures with the most extensive dechlorination. These results suggest that the availability of bicarbonate, and potentially sodium, may affect PCB dechlorination in Hudson River sediment and thus need to be taken into consideration when assessing the fate of PCBs or implementing bioremediation.

Yan, Tao; LaPara, Timothy M.; Novak, Paige J.

2007-01-01

107

Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match  

Science.gov (United States)

The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants consumed NaHCO3 (0.3 g. kg-1) or NaCl (0.209 g. kg-1) before the trial. An additional supplementation of 0.1 g. kg-1 NaHCO3 or 0.07 g. kg-1 NaCl was ingested after the third game in the simulated match. The Loughborough Tennis Skill Test was performed before and after the simulated match. Post-match [HCO3-] and base excess were significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial than those in the placebo trial. Blood [lactate] was significantly increased in the placebo (pre: 1.22 ± 0.54; post: 2.17 ± 1.46 mM) and bicarbonate (pre: 1.23 ± 0.41; post: 3.21 ± 1.89 mM) trials. The match-induced change in blood [lactate] was significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial. Blood pH remained unchanged in the placebo trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.32; post: 7.37 ± 0.14) but was significantly increased in the bicarbonate trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.26; post: 7.45 ± 0.63), indicating a more alkaline environment. The service and forehand ground stroke consistency scores were declined significantly after the simulated match in the placebo trial, while they were maintained in the bicarbonate trial. The match-induced declines in the consistency scores were significantly larger in the placebo trial than those in the bicarbonate trial. This study suggested that NaHCO3 supplementation could prevent the decline in skilled tennis performance after a simulated match.

2010-01-01

108

Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants consumed NaHCO3 (0.3 g. kg-1 or NaCl (0.209 g. kg-1 before the trial. An additional supplementation of 0.1 g. kg-1 NaHCO3 or 0.07 g. kg-1 NaCl was ingested after the third game in the simulated match. The Loughborough Tennis Skill Test was performed before and after the simulated match. Post-match [HCO3-] and base excess were significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial than those in the placebo trial. Blood [lactate] was significantly increased in the placebo (pre: 1.22 ± 0.54; post: 2.17 ± 1.46 mM and bicarbonate (pre: 1.23 ± 0.41; post: 3.21 ± 1.89 mM trials. The match-induced change in blood [lactate] was significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial. Blood pH remained unchanged in the placebo trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.32; post: 7.37 ± 0.14 but was significantly increased in the bicarbonate trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.26; post: 7.45 ± 0.63, indicating a more alkaline environment. The service and forehand ground stroke consistency scores were declined significantly after the simulated match in the placebo trial, while they were maintained in the bicarbonate trial. The match-induced declines in the consistency scores were significantly larger in the placebo trial than those in the bicarbonate trial. This study suggested that NaHCO3 supplementation could prevent the decline in skilled tennis performance after a simulated match.

Huang Ming-Hsiang

2010-10-01

109

The influence of calcium lignosulphonate - sodium bicarbonate on the status of ettringite crystallization in fly ash cement paste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Calcium lignosulphonate (CL) - sodium bicarbonate (SB) (a total of 0.7% by weight of cement and CL to SB ratio of 1:1.8) will cause the fluidity of fly ash cement paste to decrease rapidly. It is the variation of the status of ettringite crystallization that causes this phenomenon. Experimental results show that CL-SB affects the liquid-phase composition of fly ash cement paste remarkably. As a result, ettringite crystallizes out in the shape of needles from the solution. These needle-like crystal particles are distributed in the solution at a certain distance from the surface of clinker particles. At the initial hydration stage, the crystallization of ettringite is stronger in fly ash cement with calcined gypsum than in fly ash cement with gypsum. 5 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Yang, K.; Zhang, C.; Liu, Z. [Hebei Institute of Technology, Tang Shan (China)

2002-01-01

110

Exhaust gas purification with sodium bicarbonate. Analysis and evaluation; Abgasreinigung mit Natriumhydrogencarbonat. Analyse und Bewertung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dry exhaust gas cleaning uses sodium bicarbonate in order to absorb acid components of exhaust gases such as sulphur dioxide or hydrochloric acid. Recently, sodium and calcium based adsorbents are compared with respect to their economic and ecologic options. None of the investigations performed considered decidedly practical experiences from the system operation such as differences in the management, availability, personnel expenditure and maintenance expenditure. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on exhaust gas cleaning systems using sodium carbonate as well as lime adsorbents. The operators of these exhaust gas cleaning systems were questioned on their experiences, and all relevant operational data (consumption of additives, consumption of energy, emissions, standstill, maintenance effort) were recorded and evaluated at a very detailed level.

Quicker, Peter; Rotheut, Martin; Schulten, Marc [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Technologie der Energierohstoffe (TEER); Athmann, Uwe [dezentec ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Essen (Germany)

2013-03-01

111

Sodium bicarbonate injection: a small-plant SO sub 2 /NO sub x option  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sodium bicarbonate injection process provides a cost effective alternative to flue gas desulfurization for smaller power plants. EPRI and NaTec Resources have been conducting demonstrations on coal-fired utility boilers. 90% SO{sub 2} reduction was achieved in EPRI's High-Sulfur Test Centre 4 MW pilot HYPAS installation near Barker, NY. During 1990 Public Service Company of Colorado and NaTec completed a two-phase commercial demonstration for continuous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} control on Cherokee Unit 1 to determine levels of urea and injection locations for urea and sodium bicarbonate to minimise NO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} emissions while maintaining a high level of SO{sub 2} reduction. Methods for sodium sulphate by-product recovery/sale are described - these are higher value than those from the limestone process. Costs for the whole process, driven by sorbent costs, work out typically for a dry sorbent injection/HYPAS system at $610/ton SO{sub 2} removed. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Darmstaedter, E. (NaTec Resources Inc. (USA). Environmental Systems Division)

1990-12-01

112

Effect of cimetidine and sodium bicarbonate on pancreatic replacement therapy in cystic fibrosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fifteen patients with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency were studied during four randomised seven day treatment periods in which they received only pancreatic supplement (Pancrelipase, 27 capsules per day) or supplement plus cimetidine (20 mg/kg body weight/24 h) or sodium bicarbonate (15 g/m2/24 h) alone or in combination. Dietary intake was not fixed but was restricted to foods of known fat and nitrogen content from which daily intakes could be computed. Faecal fat and nitrogen w...

Durie, P. R.; Bell, L.; Linton, W.; Corey, M. L.; Forstner, G. G.

1980-01-01

113

Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance  

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We examined the isolated and combined effects of beta-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) on high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in judo and jiu-jitsu competitors. 37 athletes were assigned to one of four groups: (1) placebo (PL)+PL; (2) BA+PL; (3) PL+SB or (4) BA+SB. BA or dextrose (placebo) (6.4 g day?1) was ingested for 4 weeks and 500 mg kg?1 BM of SB or calcium carbonate (placebo) was ingested for 7 days during the 4th week. Before and after 4 weeks of supp...

Tobias, Gabriel; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Salles Painelli, Vitor; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C.; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni

2013-01-01

114

The Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter (NBCe1) Is Essential for Normal Development of Mouse Dentition*  

Science.gov (United States)

Proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) is a syndrome caused by abnormal proximal tubule reabsorption of bicarbonate resulting in metabolic acidosis. Patients with mutations to the SLC4A4 gene (coding for the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1), have pRTA, growth delay, ocular defects, and enamel abnormalities. In an earlier report, we provided the first evidence that enamel cells, the ameloblasts, express NBCe1 in a polarized fashion, thereby contributing to trans-cellular bicarbonate transport. To determine whether NBCe1 plays a critical role in enamel development, we studied the expression of NBCe1 at various stages of enamel formation in wild-type mice and characterized the biophysical properties of enamel in NBCe1?/? animals. The enamel of NBCe1?/? animals was extremely hypomineralized and weak with an abnormal prismatic architecture. The expression profile of amelogenin, a known enamel-specific gene, was not altered in NBCe1?/? animals. Our results show for the first time that NBCe1 expression is required for the development of normal enamel. This study provides a mechanistic model to account for enamel abnormalities in certain patients with pRTA.

Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Nanci, Antonio; White, Shane N.; Wen, Xin; Wang, HongJun; Zalzal, Sylvia F.; Luong, Vivian Q.; Schuetter, Verna L.; Conti, Peter S.; Kurtz, Ira; Paine, Michael L.

2010-01-01

115

Sodium Bicarbonate for the Prevention of Contrast Induced-Acute Kidney Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and objectives: Infusion of sodium bicarbonate has been suggested as a preventative strategy but reports are conflicting on its efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of hydration with sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and the Internet were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing hydration between sodium bicarbonate and chloride for the prevention of CI-AKI between 1966 and November 2008. Fourteen trials that included 2290 patients were identified. There was significant heterogeneity between studies (P heterogeneity = 0.02; I2 = 47.8%), which was largely accounted for by trial size (P = 0.016). Trials were therefore classified by size. Results: Three trials were categorized as large (n = 1145) and 12 as small (n = 1145). Among the large trials, the incidence of CI-AKI for sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride was 10.7 and 12.5%, respectively; the relative risk (RR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] was 0.85 (0.63 to 1.16) without evidence of heterogeneity (P = 0.89, I2 = 0%). The pooled RR (95% CI) among the 12 small trials was 0.50 (0.27 to 0.93) with significant between-trial heterogeneity (P = 0.01; I2 = 56%). The small trials were more likely to be of lower methodological quality. Conclusions: A significant clinical and statistical heterogeneity was observed that was largely explained by trial size and published status. Among the large randomized trials there was no evidence of benefit for hydration with sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium chloride for the prevention of CI-AKI. The benefit of sodium bicarbonate was limited to small trials of lower methodological quality.

Hiremath, Swapnil; Dangas, George; Mehran, Roxana; Brar, Simerjeet K.; Leon, Martin B.

2009-01-01

116

Facile and Efficient Acetylation of Primary Alcohols and Phenols with Acetic Anhydride Catalyzed by Dried Sodium Bicarbonate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A variety of primary alcohols and phenols were reacted with acetic anhydride at room temperature in the presence of sodium bicarbonate to produce corresponding esters in good to excellent yields. The acetylation of 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol was also carried out using other bicarbonates and carbonates. The reaction in the presence of cesium bicarbonate and lithium carbonate gave 4-nitrobenzyl acetate in excellent yield, while in the presence of Na2CO3, K2CO3, Cs2CO3, or KHCO3 the yield was in the ...

Fulgentius Nelson Lugemwa; Koonj Shaikh; Edwin Hochstedt

2013-01-01

117

The effect of varying levels of sodium bicarbonate on polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination in Hudson River sediment cultures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The addition of different concentrations of sodium bicarbonate had a profound effect on 2,3,4,5-chlorobiphenyl (2,3,4,5-CB) dechlorination in Hudson River sediment cultures. The most extensive dechlorination was observed in cultures to which 100 mg l(-1) bicarbonate was added. Cultures amended with 1000 mg l(-1) bicarbonate had the least extensive dechlorination, with 2,4-CB and 2,5-CB as predominant end-products. A significant loss of total chlorinated biphenyl mass was observed in cultures to which Hudson River sediment and thus need to be taken into consideration when assessing the fate of PCBs or implementing bioremediation. PMID:16817937

Yan, Tao; LaPara, Timothy M; Novak, Paige J

2006-07-01

118

The effect of varying levels of sodium bicarbonate on polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination in Hudson River sediment cultures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The addition of different concentrations of sodium bicarbonate had a profound effect on 2,3,4,5-chlorobiphenyl (2,3,4,5-CB) dechlorination in Hudson River sediment cultures. The most extensive dechlorination was observed in cultures to which 100 mg l?1 bicarbonate was added. Cultures amended with 1000 mg l?1 bicarbonate had the least extensive dechlorination, with 2,4-CB and 2,5-CB as predominant end-products. A significant loss of total chlorinated biphenyl mass was observed in cultures ...

Yan, Tao; Lapara, Timothy M.; Novak, Paige J.

2006-01-01

119

Geochemistry of fly ash from desulphurisation process performed by sodium bicarbonate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of NEUTREC {sup registered} technology - desulphurisation by means of sodium bicarbonate - has been tested at the Trebovice coal-fired power plant (Ostrava, Czech Republic). This technology significantly influences the chemical composition of fly ash and the leachability of total dissolved substances (TDS), e.g., sulphates, fluorides and oxyanions (Se, Sb, Cr, As), which are monitored according to the Council of the European Union Decision 2003/33/EC. An increase of TDS in the water leachate from the fly ash obtained at 60% desulphurisation was influenced by sodium content, which is present in the form of Na{sup +} ions (85-90%). The percentages of sodium sulphate and sodium carbonate were between 5 and 10% of the total sodium content. In order to decrease the leachability of TDS, sodium, sulphates and oxyanion mixtures were prepared containing a sorbent (60% bentonite) and mixed with desulphurised and non-desulphurised fly ash in various ratios. The addition of CaO resulted in the formation of a new mineral phase, burkeite. None of the applied technologies tested for the processed fly ash resulted in the preparation of a water leachate which complied in all monitored parameters to the requirements of Council Decision 2003/33 EC for nonhazardous wastes. (author)

Raclavska, Helena; Matysek, Dalibor; Raclavsky, Konstantin; Juchelkova, Dagmar [VSB - Technical University Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic)

2010-02-15

120

Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges  

Science.gov (United States)

Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC) started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction) of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in association with sodium bicarbonate salt, a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) substance. The yeast was able to survive at different concentrations of the salt (1%, 2% and 5%), and continued to grow for a week at the wound site, remaining viable at high population for 14 days on the fruit surface. The yeast alone reduced the severity of decay by 41.7% and sodium bicarbonate alone reduced severity of decay by 19.8%, whereas the application of both led to a delay in the development of symptoms from 2 to 10 days. Ingredients of the formulations were not aggressive to fruits since no lesions were produced in control experiments.

Pimenta, R. S.; Silva, J. F. M.; Coelho, C. M.; Morais, P. B.; Rosa, C. A.; Correa Jr, A.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC) started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmenta [...] l conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction) of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in association with sodium bicarbonate salt, a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) substance. The yeast was able to survive at different concentrations of the salt (1%, 2% and 5%), and continued to grow for a week at the wound site, remaining viable at high population for 14 days on the fruit surface. The yeast alone reduced the severity of decay by 41.7% and sodium bicarbonate alone reduced severity of decay by 19.8%, whereas the application of both led to a delay in the development of symptoms from 2 to 10 days. Ingredients of the formulations were not aggressive to fruits since no lesions were produced in control experiments.

Pimenta, R. S.; Silva, J. F. M.; Coelho, C. M.; Morais, P. B.; Rosa, C. A.; Corrêa Jr, A..

122

Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in association with sodium bicarbonate salt, a generally regarded as safe (GRAS substance. The yeast was able to survive at different concentrations of the salt (1%, 2% and 5%, and continued to grow for a week at the wound site, remaining viable at high population for 14 days on the fruit surface. The yeast alone reduced the severity of decay by 41.7% and sodium bicarbonate alone reduced severity of decay by 19.8%, whereas the application of both led to a delay in the development of symptoms from 2 to 10 days. Ingredients of the formulations were not aggressive to fruits since no lesions were produced in control experiments.

R. S. Pimenta

2010-06-01

123

Patterns in the Parathyroid Response to Sodium Bicarbonate Infusion Test in Healthy Volunteers  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. The sodium bicarbonate infusion test evaluates the function of the parathyroid glands. The present study aims to evaluate the range of parathyroid response in healthy individuals and the potential influence of various factors. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers were subjected to the test. Levels of vitamin D, calcium, albumin, and PTH were measured before infusion. PTH was measured at 3, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after infusion. Results. A curve describing the response of parathyroids to the test was drawn. Twenty percent of the subjects had blunted PTH response. No significant difference was observed between normal and blunted responders concerning age, BMI, baseline PTH, or calcium levels. Nonetheless, there was a significant difference in vitamin D levels (P = 0.024). Interpretation. The test is easy to perform and may be used for everyday screening. It has to be clarified whether our observations are, at least partly, produced due to the presence of individuals with a constitutively blunted response or if low levels of vitamin D decrease the ability of the parathyroids to respond. Whichever the case, PTH response of normal individuals to sodium bicarbonate infusion test is more varied than previously thought and vitamin D levels influence it.

Papavramidis, Theodossis S.; Anastasiou, Olympia E.; Pliakos, Ioannis; Triantafyllopoulou, Konstantina; Kokaraki, Georgia; Papavramidis, Spiros

2014-01-01

124

Effect of Beta alanine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated-sprint performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate if combining beta alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation could lead to enhanced repeated-sprint performance in team-sport athletes, beyond what is possible with either supplement alone. Participants (n = 24) completed duplicate trials of a repeated-sprint test (3 sets; 6 × 20 m departing every 25 seconds, 4 minutes active recovery between sets) and were then allocated into 4 groups as follows: BA only (n = 6; 28 days BA, acute sodium chloride placebo); NaHCO3 only (n = 6; 28 days glucose placebo, acute NaHCO3); BA/NaHCO3 (n = 6; 28 days BA, acute NaHCO3); placebo only (n = 6; 28 days glucose placebo, acute sodium chloride placebo), then completed duplicate trials postsupplementation. Sodium bicarbonate alone resulted in moderate effect size (d = 0.40-0.71) and "likely" and "very likely" benefit for overall total sprint times (TST) and for each individual set and for first sprint (sets 2 and 3) and best sprint time (sets 2 and 3). Combining BA and NaHCO3 resulted in "possible" to "likely" benefits for overall TST and for sets 2 and 3. First sprint (set 3) and best sprint time (sets 2 and 3) also showed "likely" benefit after this trial. The BA and placebo groups showed no differences in performance after supplementation. In conclusion, these results indicate that supplementation with acute NaHCO3 improved repeated-sprint performance more than either a combination of NaHCO3 and BA or BA alone. PMID:23524361

Ducker, Kagan J; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen E

2013-12-01

125

Interactions in the solid state. II: Interaction of sodium bicarbonate with substituted benzoic acids in the presence of moisture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interaction of an organic acid with sodium bicarbonate in water produces an effervescent reaction. The reaction products are carbon dioxide, water, and the sodium salt of the acid. The kinetic rate-determining step for this reaction is the dehydration of carbonic acid. The solid-solid interaction with known amounts of moisture was followed by quantitatively determining carbon dioxide evolution as a function of time. The aqueous solubilities, diffusion coefficients, dissociation constants, and solid-solid interaction rates of six different substituted benzoic acids were determined. Using a model based on diffusion of the organic acid through the aqueous layer coupled with chemical reaction, predicted rates and levels of carbon dioxide production were compared with experimental results. Included in the model were the effects of the reaction products on the solution properties of the reactants. It was found that high concentrations of substituted sodium benzoate were generated very quickly and affected the solubility of the reactants, diffusion coefficient of the acid, and the carbonic acid dehydration rate constant. Moisture content was found to have a profound influence on the interaction rate. Water provides a medium for diffusion of the reacting species as well as the reaction solvent.

Wright, J.L.; Carstensen, J.T.

1986-06-01

126

A model for dry sodium bicarbonate duct injection flue gas desulfurization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical model is developed for simulation of dry sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) duct injection for the removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in flue gases across a fabric filter (baghouse). The model employs parallel reaction kinetics and assumes that the sodium bicarbonate injection process can be separated into two stages. The first stage is a transport duct section where NaHCO{sub 3} particles are injected into the sulfur dioxide laden gas stream. The second stage is the fabric filter section where sodium sorbents are collected and behave as a variable depth fixed bed reactor. The process simulation for the efficiency of desulfurization in flue gas is performed and evaluated for a variety of operating conditions. It is found that the removal of SO{sub 2} within the duct section is small and negligible for most practical conditions, with a contribution normally less than 5% of total SO{sub 2} removal. The major removal of SO{sub 2} occurs across the filter cake, which accumulates the sorbent particles on the fabric filter. These particles are periodically disposed as the filter is cleaned. The major factors for the process are temperature, particle size and SO{sub 2} gas concentration for all operating conditions. At low temperatures, the removal of SO{sub 2} increases as temperature increases, but the removal decreases at higher temperatures due to the impact of the thermal decomposition reaction of NaHCO{sub 3} on SO{sub 2} removal. It was found that the temperature for the highest removal of SO{sub 2} is within the range of 127-150{sup o}C and the removal efficiency also depends on particle size.

Changfa Wu; Soon-Jai Khang; Tim C. Keener; Sang-Kwun Lee [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

2004-03-01

127

Infusion of sodium bicarbonate in experimentally induced metabolic acidosis does not provoke cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis in calves  

Science.gov (United States)

In a crossover study, 5 calves were made acidotic by intermittent intravenous infusion of isotonic hydrochloric acid (HCl) over approximately 24 h. This was followed by rapid (4 h) or slow (24 h) correction of blood pH with isotonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) to determine if rapid correction of acidemia produced paradoxical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis. Infusion of HCl produced a marked metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation. Venous blood pH (mean ± Sx) was 7.362 ± 0.021 and 7.116 ± 0.032, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2, torr) 48.8 ± 1.3 and 34.8 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate (mmol/L), 27.2 ± 1.27 and 11 ± 0.96; CSF pH was 7.344 ± 0.031 and 7.240 ± 0.039, Pco2 42.8 ± 2.9 and 34.5 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate 23.5 ± 0.91 and 14.2 ± 1.09 for the period before the infusion of hydrochloric acid and immediately before the start of sodium bicarbonate correction, respectively. In calves treated with rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate, correction of venous acidemia was significantly more rapid and increases in Pco2 and bicarbonate in CSF were also more rapid. However, there was no significant difference in CSF pH. After 4 h of correction, CSF pH was 7.238 ± 0.040 and 7.256 ± 0.050, Pco2 44.4 ± 2.2 and 34.2 ± 2.1, and bicarbonate 17.8 ± 1.02 and 14.6 ± 1.4 for rapid and slow correction, respectively. Under the conditions of this experiment, rapid correction of acidemia did not provoke paradoxical CSF acidosis.

Abeysekara, Saman; Zello, Gordon A.; Lohmann, Katharina L.; Alcorn, Jane; Hamilton, Don L.; Naylor, Jonathan M.

2012-01-01

128

Sodium bicarbonate enhances biocontrol efficacy of yeasts on fungal spoilage of pears.  

Science.gov (United States)

The addition of 2% (w/v) sodium bicarbonate (SBC) in the suspensions of antagonistic yeast Cryptococcus laurentii or Trichosporon pullulans significantly limited spore germination and germ tube elongation of Penicillium expansum and Alternaria alternata in potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium. Biocontrol activity of C. laurentii or T. pullulans against postharvest decay caused by P. expansum and A. alternata in pear fruits was significantly increased when C. laurentii or T. pullulans combined with SBC. Combining C. laurentii or T. pullulans with SBC provided a more effective control on P. expansum and A. alternata than applying the antagonistic yeast or SBC alone. Effects of C. laurentii with and without SBC on controlling P. expansum and A. alternata were better than those of T. pullulans. C. laurentii in combination with SBC showed the best control of disease caused by A. alternata in pear fruits. PMID:15163586

Yao, Hongjie; Tian, Shiping; Wang, Yousheng

2004-06-15

129

Influence of mixing and solid concentration on sodium bicarbonate secondary nucleation rate in stirred tank  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work aims to investigate the influence of the solid concentration in suspension on the contact secondary nucleation rate of sodium bicarbonate crystallization in a stirred tank crystallizer and to show the necessity of a local description of the mixing for a nucleation rate influence study. Experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are realized. Crystallization kinetic parameters are extracted from experimental data using a mass distribution fitting approach. CFD and the experimental results allow identifying that a mixing property correlated with the measurements of the secondary nucleation rate in the stirred tank crystallizer appears to be the turbulent dissipation rate on the edge of the impeller. Its influence and the influence of the solid concentration in the suspension on the secondary nucleation rate are estimated by the evaluation of their exponents in a kinetic law. The obtained exponent values are then discussed qualitatively. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Wylock, C.; Debaste, F.; Haut, B. [Transfers, Interfaces and Processes - Chemical Engineering Unit, ULB, Brussels (Belgium); Gutierrez, V.; Delplancke-Ogletree, M.P. [Chemicals and Materials Department, ULB, Brussels (Belgium); Cartage, T. [Solvay SA, Brussels (Belgium)

2010-09-15

130

Pressure--temperature relationship for decomposition of sodium bicarbonate from 200 to 600/sup 0/F  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The equilibrium dissociation pressure of initially dry sodium bicarbonate (nahcolite) was experimentally determined between 200 and 600/sup 0/F. It was found necessary to use a constant ratio of initial gas volume to solid nahcolite volume, V/sub g//V/sub s/, to obtain a unique pressure--temperature curve. Such pressure--temperature relationships were measured for three values of V/sub g//V/sub s/, each curve showing three points of discontinuous slope. For V/sub g//V/sub s/ = 1, the pressure exceeded 6000 psia above 487/sup 0/F. Since the Green River oil shale formation in Colorado contains both beds and isolated nodules of nahcolite, the pressure developed by heating nahcolite may be a factor in developing porosity and permeability during an in situ thermal process for producing shale oil.

Templeton, C.C.

1978-01-01

131

Interactions in the solid state. I: Interactions of sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid under compressed conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction of NaHCO3 and tartaric acid in powder mixtures and compressed tablets has been studied. It has been found that in an open system the reaction is simply a decarboxylation of NaHCO3 and that the effect of compression on the reaction rate can be attributed to the brittle fracture (and subsequent surface area increase) that occurs on compaction. In a closed system the decomposition of the mixture is an interaction between the acid and the base, and it is mediated by the amount of moisture in the system. This latter is a product of reaction, and a suitable kinetic scheme is described for this. It is shown that "curing" the sodium bicarbonate by heating it to, e.g., 90 degrees C stabilizes the system by virtue of the formation of surface Na2CO3, which acts as a moisture scavenger. PMID:3003337

Usui, F; Carstensen, J T

1985-12-01

132

Oligomeric Structure and Minimal Functional Unit of the Electrogenic Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe1-A*  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1-A mediates the basolateral absorption of sodium and bicarbonate in the proximal tubule. In this study the oligomeric state and minimal functional unit of NBCe1-A were investigated. Wild-type (wt) NBCe1-A isolated from mouse kidney or heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells was predominantly in a dimeric state as was shown using fluorescence energy transfer, pulldown, immunoprecipitation, cross-linking experiments, and nondenaturing perfluorooctanoate-PAGE. NBCe1-A monomers were found to be covalently linked by S-S bonds. When each of the 15 native cysteine residues were individually removed on a wt-NBCe1-A backbone, dimerization of the cotransporter was not affected. In experiments involving multiple native cysteine residue removal, both Cys630 and Cys642 in extracellular loop 3 were shown to mediate S-S bond formation between NBCe1-A monomers. When native NBCe1-A cysteine residues were individually reintroduced into a cysteineless NBCe1-A mutant backbone, the finding that a Cys992 construct that lacked S-S bonds functioned normally indicated that stable covalent linkage of NBCe1-A monomers was not a necessary requirement for functional activity of the cotransporter. Studies using concatameric constructs of wt-NBCe1-A, whose activity is resistant to methanesulfonate reagents, and an NBCe1-AT442C mutant, whose activity is completely inhibited by methanesulfonate reagents, confirmed that NBCe1-A monomers are functional. Our results demonstrate that wt-NBCe1-A is predominantly a homodimer, dependent on S-S bond formation that is composed of functionally active monomers.

Kao, Liyo; Sassani, Pakan; Azimov, Rustam; Pushkin, Alexander; Abuladze, Natalia; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Liu, Weixin; Newman, Debra; Kurtz, Ira

2008-01-01

133

Bicarbonate-form anion exchange: affinity, regeneration, and stoichiometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) is an effective process for removing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from natural waters, but its implementation has been limited due to production of waste sodium chloride solution (i.e., brine) from the regeneration process. Chloride is of concern because elevated concentrations can have adverse effects on engineered and natural systems. The goal of this research was to explore the efficacy of using anion exchange resin with bicarbonate as the mobile counter ion, which would produce a non-chloride regeneration solution. It was found that bicarbonate-form MIEX resin had a similar affinity as chloride-form MIEX resin for sulfate, nitrate, DOC, and ultraviolet-absorbing substances. Both bicarbonate-form and chloride-form MIEX resins showed the greatest removal efficiencies as fresh resin, and removal efficiency decreased with multiple regeneration cycles. Nevertheless, sodium bicarbonate solution was as effective as sodium chloride solution at regenerating MIEX resin. Regeneration of the bicarbonate-form MIEX resin was illustrated by sparging carbon dioxide gas in a water/resin slurry. This regeneration process would eliminate the need for the addition of salts such as sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate. The stoichiometry of the bicarbonate-form resin revealed that the bicarbonate was deprotonating within the resin matrix leading to a mixture of both carbonate and bicarbonate mobile counter ions. This work makes an important contribution to ion exchange applications for water treatment by evaluating the affinity, regeneration, and stoichiometry of bicarbonate-form anion exchange. PMID:21056451

Rokicki, Christopher A; Boyer, Treavor H

2011-01-01

134

In vitro effects of bicarbonate and bicarbonate-lactate buffered peritoneal dialysis solutions on mesothelial and neutrophil function.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inclusion of bicarbonate in the formulation of peritoneal dialysis solutions may avoid the in vitro impairment of certain cell functions seen with acidic lactate-based fluids. The supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 inherent in such formulations may, however, not be biocompatible. This study compared the in vitro biocompatibility of a pH 5.2 lactate-based formulation with formulations containing either 40 mM lactate at pH 7.4, 38 mM HCO3- at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 240 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 60 mm Hg), and 25 mM HCO3- plus 15 mM lactate at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 160 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 40 mm Hg). Significant release of lactate dehydrogenase or decreases in ATP content by human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) and human peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) after a 30-min exposure to each test solution was only seen with the pH 5.2 lactate-based fluid. The ATP content of HPMC exposed to this fluid returned to control levels after 30 min of recovery in M199 control medium but showed a trend toward decreasing ATP content at 240 min. Similarly, interleukin (IL)-1 beta-induced IL-6 synthesis by HPMC was also only significantly reduced by the pH 5.2 lactate solution. PMN chemiluminescence was unaffected by 30-min exposure to all test solutions except for the pH 5.2 lactate formulation. Staphylococcus epidermidis phagocytosis was reduced to between 46 to 57% of control with all test solutions except the pH 5.2 lactate solution, which further suppressed the chemiluminescence response to 17% of control. These data suggest that short exposure to supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 does not impair HPMC or PMN viability and function. Furthermore, neutral pH lactate-containing solutions show equivalent biocompatibility to bicarbonate-based ones. PMID:8785390

Topley, N; Kaur, D; Petersen, M M; Jörres, A; Williams, J D; Faict, D; Holmes, C J

1996-02-01

135

Effects of potential and concentration of bicarbonate solution on stress corrosion cracking of annealed carbon steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of potential and concentration of bicarbonate on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of annealed SM 400 B carbon steel has been investigated in bicarbonate solutions at 343 K. The surface of annealed specimen had decarburized layer of about 0. 5 mm thickness. A potentiostatic slow strain rate testing apparatus equipped with a charge coupled device camera system was employed to evaluate SCC susceptibility from the viewpoint of the crack behavior. In a constant bicarbonate concentration of 1 M, cracks were observed in the potential range from -800 to 600 mVAg/AgCl. and especially, the initiation and the propagation of the cracks were accelerated at -600 mV. At a constant potential of -600 mV, cracks were observed in the concentration range from 0.001 to 1 M, and the initiation and the propagation of the cracks were suppressed as the concentration decreased. Polarization curves for the decarburized surface were measured with two different scan rates. High SCC susceptibility may be expected in the potential range where the difference between the two current densities is large. It was found in this system that the potential with the maximum difference in the current density was -600 mV for 1 M bicarbonate solution, and the potential increased with a decrease in the concentration of bicarbonate. This means that an applied potential of -600 mV provides the highest SCC susceptibility for 1 M bicarbonate solution, and that the SCC susceptibility decreases as the concentration decreases. These findings support the dependence of the actual SCC behavior on the potential and the concentration of bicarbonate. (author)

2000-03-01

136

Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter polymorphisms are associated with baseline and 10-year follow-up blood pressures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The NaHCO3 cotransporter gene (SLC4A5) on chromosome 2 encodes a protein that transports sodium and bicarbonate across the cell membrane and regulates cellular pH. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Blood Pressure Program found linkage of blood pressure-related traits to the chromosomal region containing SLC4A5 and phenotype associations with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in this gene. However, the results were inconsistent over various phenotypes and SNPs. Nevertheless, the evidence was strong enough to propose this gene as a blood pressure-related gene. To extend these findings, SLC4A5 SNPs were genotyped in an independent set of 96 Utah pedigrees of 1040 adult subjects at baseline, 760 of whom were followed longitudinally for 10 years. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, and polygenic correlations within pedigrees, SNP hcv1137534 was significantly associated with both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at baseline (unadjusted P=0.009 and P=0.043; respectively) and at 10-year follow-up (P=0.008 and P=0.007; respectively). In secondary tests of association of baseline-stressed blood pressure, hcv1137534 was borderline or significantly associated with DBP change during an isometric handgrip test (P=0.054), DBP change from supine to standing (P=0.020), and DBP change after a 50 degrees tilt (P=0.034). There was no evidence for compensation of abnormal SLC4A5 sodium transport by genotype-specific differences in sodium-lithium countertransport, lithium-potassium cotransport, altered plasma sodium, chloride, or CO2 levels. Therefore, in these Utah pedigrees, the SLC4A5 gene was significantly associated with blood pressure and persisted after 10 years of follow-up. These results additionally confirm the involvement of SLC4A5 with blood pressure control, although the mechanism is still unclear. PMID:16365189

Hunt, Steven C; Xin, Yuanpei; Wu, Lily L; Cawthon, Richard M; Coon, Hilary; Hasstedt, Sandra J; Hopkins, Paul N

2006-03-01

137

On photochemical reactions of Am(5) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of UV radiation on Am(5) in solutions of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate with pH 9.00-11.40 has been studied by spectrophotometric method. At pH 9-10 a mixture of Am(4)+Am(6) is formed, but the degree of Am(5) transformation does not exceed 60-70%. The reaction order in terms of Am(5) is close to 1. Quantum yield of the reaction during photolysis by light with ? = 337 nm is estimated as 0.003. With increase in pH the reaction rate and degree of Am(5) transformation decrease. The reaction starts with absorption of UV light quantum by Am(5) carbonate complex. It is assumed that the reaction first stage is electron transfer either from water molecule to Am(5) in coordination sphere of excited carbonate complex of Am(5) or between two Am(5) ions in excimer, consisting of excited and non-excited carbonate complexes of Am(5). 10 refs., 2 figs

1995-01-01

138

Cromolyn Sodium Nasal Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...

139

The role of perioperative sodium bicarbonate infusion affecting renal function after cardiothoracic surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is associated with poor outcomes including increased mortality, length of hospital stay (LOS) and cost. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is reported to be between 3 and 30% depending on the definition of AKI. We designed a multicenter randomized controlled trial to test our hypothesis that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate (SB) during cardiac surgery will attenuate the post-operative rise in creatinine indicating renal injury when compared to a perioperative infusion with normal saline. An interim analysis was performed after data was available on the first 120 participants. A similar number of patients in the two treatment groups developed AKI, defined as an increase in serum creatinine the first 48 h after surgery of 0.3 mg/dl or more. Specifically 14 patients (24%) who received sodium chloride (SC) and 17 patients (27%) who received SB were observed to develop AKI post-surgery, resulting in a relative risk of AKI of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6–2.1, chi-square p-value = 0.68) for patients receiving SB compared to those who received SC. The data safety monitoring board for the trial recommended closing the study early as there was only a 12% probability that the null hypothesis would be rejected. We therefore concluded that a perioperative infusion of SB failed to attenuate the risk of CSA-AKI.

Turner, Katja R.; Fisher, Edward C.; Hade, Erinn M.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rocco, Michael V.

2014-01-01

140

The role of perioperative sodium bicarbonate infusion affecting renal function after cardiothoracic surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is associated with poor outcomes including increased mortality, length of hospital stay (LOS) and cost. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is reported to be between 3 and 30% depending on the definition of AKI. We designed a multicenter randomized controlled trial to test our hypothesis that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate (SB) during cardiac surgery will attenuate the post-operative rise in creatinine indicating renal injury when compared to a perioperative infusion with normal saline. An interim analysis was performed after data was available on the first 120 participants. A similar number of patients in the two treatment groups developed AKI, defined as an increase in serum creatinine the first 48 h after surgery of 0.3 mg/dl or more. Specifically 14 patients (24%) who received sodium chloride (SC) and 17 patients (27%) who received SB were observed to develop AKI post-surgery, resulting in a relative risk of AKI of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6-2.1, chi-square p-value = 0.68) for patients receiving SB compared to those who received SC. The data safety monitoring board for the trial recommended closing the study early as there was only a 12% probability that the null hypothesis would be rejected. We therefore concluded that a perioperative infusion of SB failed to attenuate the risk of CSA-AKI. PMID:24917818

Turner, Katja R; Fisher, Edward C; Hade, Erinn M; Houle, Timothy T; Rocco, Michael V

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Coadministration of a Na(+)-H(+) exchange inhibitor and sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest in piglets.  

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Background:The present study tested the hypothesis that addition of an inhibitor of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE1) to sodium bicarbonate might improve the response to base therapy from prolonged asphyxial cardiac arrest in piglets.Methods:Asphyxial cardiac arrest was induced by endotracheal tube clamping. Animals were randomly assigned to four study groups: (i) vehicle control, (ii) administration of sabiporide (NHE1 inhibitor), (iii) administration of sodium bicarbonate, and (iv) administration of sabiporide and sodium bicarbonate.Results:Administration of sodium bicarbonate alone did not affect survival, hemodynamic measures, and regional blood flow to critical tissues such as brain, heart, kidney, liver, and spleen. In contrast, sabiporide given alone or combined with sodium bicarbonate improved these. Furthermore, treatment with sabiporide reduced accumulation of neutrophils, reduced cytokine production in the lung, and reduced plasma levels of cardiac troponin-I, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and urea. In addition, the combined use of sabiporide and sodium bicarbonate had more profound reduction in interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, compared to sabiporide alone.Conclusion:These results suggest that addition of sabiporide to the administration of sodium bicarbonate might improve hemodynamic response and dampen the inflammatory cascade noted with cardiac arrest, and therefore being an attractive option in the treatment of cardiac arrest. PMID:24796369

Lin, Xinchun; Kraut, Jeffrey A; Wu, Dongmei

2014-08-01

142

A perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate does not improve renal function in cardiac surgery patients: a prospective observational cohort study  

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Introduction Cardiac-surgery-associated-acute-kidney-injury (CSA-AKI) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Recent data from patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting suggest that a perioperative infusion of sodium-bicarbonate may decrease the incidence of CSA-AKI. The present study aims to analyze the renoprotective effects of a 24h infusion of sodium-bicarbonate in a large, heterogeneous group of cardiac surgical patients Methods Starting in 4/2009, all patients undergoing cardiac surgery at our institution were enrolled in a prospective trial analyzing the relationship between preoperative cerebral oxygen saturation and postoperative organ dysfunction. We used this prospectively sampled data set to perform a cohort analysis of the renoprotective efficiency of a 24h continuous perioperative infusion of sodium-bicarbonate on the incidence of CSA-AKI that was routinely introduced in 7/2009. After exclusion of patients with endstage chronic kidney disease, off-pump procedures, and emergency cases, perioperative changes in renal function were assessed in 280 patients treated with a perioperative infusion of 4 mmol sodium-bicarbonate / kg body weight in comparison with a control cohort of 304 patients enrolled from April to June in this prospective cohort study. Postoperative changes in urine flow, plasma creatinine, estimated creatinine clearance, and the need for renal replacement therapy were determined according to AKI injury network criteria. Concomitantly, hemodynamics, treatments, complications, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Univariate statistical analyses were performed para- and nonparametrically, as appropriate. Results With the exception of a lower prevalence of a history of myocardial infarction and a lower preoperative use of intravenous heparin in the bicarbonate-group, no significant between group differences in patient demographics, surgical risk, type, and duration of surgery were observed. Patients in the bicarbonate group had a lower mean arterial blood pressure after induction of anesthesia, needed more fluids, more vasopressors, and a longer treatment time in the high dependency unit. Despite a higher postoperative diuresis, no differences in the incidence of AKI grade 1 to 3 and the need for renal replacement were observed. Conclusions Routine perioperative administration of sodium bicarbonate failed to improve postoperative renal function in a large population of cardiac surgical patients.

2012-01-01

143

Facile and Efficient Acetylation of Primary Alcohols and Phenols with Acetic Anhydride Catalyzed by Dried Sodium Bicarbonate  

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Full Text Available A variety of primary alcohols and phenols were reacted with acetic anhydride at room temperature in the presence of sodium bicarbonate to produce corresponding esters in good to excellent yields. The acetylation of 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol was also carried out using other bicarbonates and carbonates. The reaction in the presence of cesium bicarbonate and lithium carbonate gave 4-nitrobenzyl acetate in excellent yield, while in the presence of Na2CO3, K2CO3, Cs2CO3, or KHCO3 the yield was in the range of 80%–95%. Calcium carbonate and cobaltous carbonate did not promote the acetylation of 4-ntirobenzyl alcohol using acetic anhydride. The acetylation of 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol was carried out using ethyl acetate, THF, toluene, diethyl ether, dichloromethane and acetonitrile, and gave good yields ranging from 75%–99%. Toluene was the best solvent for the reaction, while diethyl ether was the poorest.

Fulgentius Nelson Lugemwa

2013-12-01

144

Investigation of the chemical pathway of gaseous nitrogen dioxide formation during flue gas desulfurization with dry sodium bicarbonate injection  

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The chemical reaction pathway for the viable flue gas desulfurization process, dry sodium bicarbonate injection, was investigated to mitigate undesirable plume discoloration. Based on a foundation of past findings, a simplified three-step reaction pathway was hypothesized for the formation of the plume-discoloring constituent, NO2. As the first step, it was hypothesized that sodium sulfite formed by sodium bicarbonate reaction with flue gas SO 2. As the second step, it was hypothesized that sodium nitrate formed by sodium sulfite reaction with flue gas NO. And as the third step, it was hypothesized that NO2 and sodium sulfate formed by sodium nitrate reaction with SO2. The second and third hypothesized steps were experimentally investigated using an isothermal fixed bed reactor. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium sulfite was found to be un-reactive with NO and O2. Freshly prepared sodium sulfite, maintained unexposed to moist air, was shown to react with NO and O2 resulting in a mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate together with a significant temperature rise. This reaction was found to proceed only when oxygen was present in the flue gas. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium nitrate was shown to be un-reactive with SO2. But freshly formed sodium nitrate kept unexposed to humidity was found to be reactive with SO2 and O 2 resulting in the formation of NO2 and sodium sulfate polymorphic Form I. The NO2 formation by this reaction was shown to be temperature dependent with maximum formation at 175°C. Plume mitigation methods were studied based on the validated three-step reaction pathway. Mitigation of NO2 was exhibited by limiting oxygen concentration in the flue gas to a level below 5%. It was also shown that significant NO2 mitigation was achieved by operating below 110°C or above 250°C. An innovative NO2 mitigation method was patented as a result of the findings of this study. The patented process incorporated a process step of sodium sulfite injection to remove flue gas NO prior to sodium bicarbonate injection.

Stein, Antoinette Weil

145

Results from a one-year leach test: long-term use of MCC-1. [Three leachants-pure water; silicic acid/sodium bicarbonate solution; K, Mg, and Na chloride brine  

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This paper presents results from the long-term use of the MCC-1P Static Leach Test Method which has already been used for short-term testing and for comparing waste forms. Data were obtained on the leaching behavior of PNL 76-68 glass over a 1-year period. The results of this test led to the following conclusions. The MCC-1P Static Leach Test Method has been demonstrated to be useful for studies up to 1 year at temperatures up to 90/sup 0/C. Accurate measurements of leachant volume at the start and the end of the test are important. PNL 76-68 glass appears to continue to alter, albeit at a significantly reduced rate, even though the solution concentrations of many elements are saturated or supersaturated with respect to alteration phases. The original surface of the glass was still present after 1 year, evidence that the gel layer will slowly get thicker but dissolution will not occur, or will occur at extremely slow rates. At 40/sup 0/C, more than 1 year is required to reach saturation of some important elements. Even at 90/sup 0/C, testing beyond 1 year is needed to define alteration rates and details of the leaching mechanisms.

Strachan, D.M.

1982-04-01

146

Optimization of sodium bicarbonate injection for acid scrubbing in hospital waste incineration plant  

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Optimization of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) injection for acid hydrochloric (HCl) scrubbing was conducted on a hospital waste incineration plant. The plant employs a rotary kiln system having burning capacity of 350 kg/h hospital waste (average calorific value of 17.4 MJ/kg) and is operated on a 24 hr/ day basis. Currently, NaHCO3 injection rate is 25 kg/h as recommended by manufacturer to meet the Department of Environment (DOE) standard emission limit of 200 mg/Nm3 HCl. Testing of HCl emission at various injection rates of 25, 20, 15 and 10 kg/ h results in HCl final concentration in the range of 0.58-7.13, 5.63-7.74, 0.07-2.99 and 3-28 mg/Nm3 respectively. The results showed that NaHCO3 injection rate as low as 10 kg/ h could still meet the HCl stipulated emission limit. Economic comparison between 25 and 10 kg/ h injection rates showed that total saving on NaHCO3 and disposal of fly ash was RM 22,000 per month (equivalent to saving RM 260,000 per year) when using 10 kg/ h injection rate. It was concluded from the study that optimum injection rate would not only save cost and reduce wastage but also reduce bag house loading rate and prolong the life span of filter bags. (author)

2010-07-26

147

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on the properties of metronidazole floating matrix tablets.  

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The effect of sodium bicarbonate (SB) on the swelling behavior and the sustained release of floating systems was studied with varied proportions of this excipient and metronidazole. Two polymers with different hydration characteristics, Methocel K4M and Carbopol 971P NF, were used to formulate the matrices. Under in vitro dissolution conditions, the addition of SB to metronidazole sustained-release tablets modifies the matrix hydration volume, increasing at the beginning, reaching a maximum, and then declining. Pure Carbopol matrices show a rapid hydration with a limited further effect of the SB and metronidazole loads. Methocel show a significant increase of the apparent hydration volume due to SB addition with no further notable change due to metronidazole load. Increasing the metronidazole load reduces the floating time of Carbopol matrices while no effect on Methocel matrices could be observed within 8 hours dissolution. Matrices show increasing release constant values (k) as the metronidazole load increases. Methocel matrices release the drug 10% to 15% faster than Carbopol matrices. SB increases the cumulative amount of drug released from Methocel but not that releasing from Carbopol. These results are attributed to the intrinsic polymer properties, the barrier effect of CO(2) bubbles, and the matrix volume expansion produced after addition of SB. PMID:18302036

Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Pablo Emilio; Hernández-León, Alejandra; Villafuerte-Robles, Leopoldo

2008-02-01

148

MODULATION OF THE CARDIAC SODIUM/BICARBONATE COTRANSPORTER BY THE RENIN ANGIOTENSIN ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM: PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES.  

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Full Text Available The sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC is one of the major alkalinizing mechanisms in the cardiomyocytes. It has been demonstrated the existence of at least two functional isoforms, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 1 molecule of HCO3- (electroneutral isoform; NBCn1 and the other one that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 2 molecules of HCO3- (electrogenic isoform; NBCe1. Both isoforms are important to maintain intracellular pH (pHi and sodium concentration ([Na+]i. In addition, NBCe1 generates an anionic repolarizing current that modulates the action potential duration (APD. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS is implicated in the modulation of almost all physiological cardiac functions and is also involved in the development and progression of cardiac diseases. It was reported that angiotensin II (Ang II exhibits an opposite effect on NBC isoforms: it activates NBCn1 and inhibits NBCe1. The activation of NBCn1 leads to an increase in pHi and [Na+]i, which indirectly, due to the stimulation of reverse mode of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX, conduces to an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. On the other hand, the inhibition of NBCe1 generates an APD prolongation, potentially representing a risk of arrhythmias. In the last years, the potentially altered NBC function in pathological scenarios, as cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia-reperfusion, has raised increasing interest among investigators. This review attempts to draw the attention on the relevant regulation of NBC activity by RAAS, since it modulates pHi and [Na+]i, which are involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, the damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion and the generation of arrhythmic events, suggesting a potential role of NBC in cardiac diseases.

ErnestoAlejandroAiello

2014-01-01

149

Repeated supra-maximal sprint cycling with and without sodium bicarbonate supplementation induces endothelial microparticle release.  

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Under normal homeostatic conditions, the endothelium releases microparticles (MPs), which are known to increase under stressful conditions and in disease states. CD105 (endoglin) and CD106 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) are expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and increased expression in response to stress may be observed. A randomised-controlled double-blinded study aimed to examine the use of endothelial MPs as a marker for the state of one's endothelium, as well as whether maintaining acid-base homeostasis affects the release of these MPs. This study tested seven healthy male volunteers, who completed a strenuous cycling protocol, with venous blood analysed for CD105+ and CD106+ MPs by flow cytometry at regular intervals. Prior to each trial participants consumed either 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or 0.045 g·kg(-1) body mass of sodium chloride (NaCl). A significant rise in endothelial CD105+ MPs and CD106+ MPs (p<0.05) was observed at 90 min post-exercise. A significant trend was shown for these MPs to return to resting levels 180 min post-exercise in both groups. No significance was found between experimental groups, suggesting that maintaining acid-base variables closer to basal levels has little effect upon the endothelial stress response for this particular exercise mode. In conclusion, strenuous exercise is accompanied by MP release and the endothelium is able to rapidly recover in healthy individuals, whilst maintaining acid-base homeostasis does not attenuate the MP release from the endothelium after exercise. PMID:23679091

Kirk, Richard J; Peart, Daniel J; Madden, Leigh A; Vince, Rebecca V

2014-01-01

150

Effect of lactate supplementation and sodium bicarbonate on 40-km cycling time trial performance.  

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The use of nutritional supplements to improve sporting performance and increase training adaptations is commonplace among athletes and is an expanding market in terms of product choice and availability. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 ergogenic aids with extracellular blood buffering potential, namely sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and a lactate supplement, during a 40-km cycling time trial. Seven recreationally active men (age, 22.3 ± 3.3 years; height, 182.5 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 79.2 ± 6.3 kg) completed five 40-km cycling time trials, including a familiarization trial in a randomized, blind, double placebo-controlled design. Subjects ingested (a) 300 mg·kg-1 body mass NaHCO3 (BICARB), (b) 45 mg·kg-1 body mass sodium chloride (PL-BICARB) as the placebo for the NaHCO3 trial, (c) 1115 mg lactate (LACTATE), or (d) plain flour as the placebo for the lactate trial (PL-LACTATE) 60 minutes before exercise. There was no significant difference in performance between the 4 conditions (p > 0.05). Although NaHCO3 ingestion induced significant changes in all the acid-base variables (all p 0.05). Subjects in the LACTATE condition did have a significantly higher heart rate (p 0.05) than the other 3 conditions. Neither NaHCO3 nor lactate supplementation seem to improve 40-km cycling time trial performance. However, the potential benefits following LACTATE regarding perceived exertion require further research. PMID:23660571

Northgraves, Matthew J; Peart, Daniel J; Jordan, Christian A; Vince, Rebecca V

2014-01-01

151

The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters  

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Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000?mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500?mg NaHCO3/L to 1000?mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952?mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359?mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450?mg NaHCO3/L.

Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

2014-01-01

152

Transport Activity of the Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe1 Is Enhanced by Different Isoforms of Carbonic Anhydrase  

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Transport metabolons have been discussed between carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and several membrane transporters. We have now studied different CA isoforms, expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and together with the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1), to determine their catalytic activity and their ability to enhance NBCe1 transport activity. pH measurements in intact oocytes indicated similar activity of CAI, CAII and CAIII, while in vitro CAIII had no measurable activity a...

Schueler, Christina; Becker, Holger M.; Mckenna, Robert; Deitmer, Joachim W.

2011-01-01

153

Mutation of Aspartate 555 of the Sodium/Bicarbonate Transporter SLC4A4/NBCe1 Induces Chloride Transport*  

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To understand the mechanism for ion transport through the sodium/bicarbonate transporter SLC4A4 (NBCe1), we examined amino acid residues, within transmembrane domains, that are conserved among electrogenic Na/HCO3 transporters but are substituted with residues at the corresponding site of all electroneutral Na/HCO3 transporters. Point mutants were constructed and expressed in Xenopus oocytes to assess function using two-electrode voltage clamp. Among the mutants, D555E (charge-conserved subst...

Yang, Han Soo; Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Soojung; Park, Hae Jeong; Cooper, Deborah S.; Rajbhandari, Ira; Choi, Inyeong

2009-01-01

154

Sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy: A meta-analysis of published clinical trials  

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Background: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious but rare complication following contrast based procedures. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been postulated to prevent CIN by various mechanisms. However, the outcomes following sodium bicarbonate administration to prevent CIN have been inconsistent. Methods: A meta-analysis of published randomized clinical trials to determine if the administration of sodium bicarbonate is superior to sodium chloride among patients with chronic renal failure undergoing catheterization and interventional procedures in preventing CIN was performed. Results: Data were combined across seven published clinical trials consisting of 1734 patients. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the NaHCO3 and NaCl groups except patients in the bicarbonate group were heavier (P = 0.04). The odds ratio (OR) for the development of contrast nephropathy for NaHCO3 versus NaCl was 0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.69; P = 0.003). Heterogeneity and publication bias were detectable with P-values 0.01 and 0.0005 respectively. There was no difference between the NaHCO3 group and the NaCl group in the occurrence of death [OR 0.6; 95% CI (0.26-1.41); P = 0.24], congestive heart failure [OR 0.85; 95% CI (0.32-2.24); P = 0.74] and the requirement for renal replacement therapy [OR 0.56; 95% CI (0.22-1.41); P = 0.22]. Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrates that based on currently available randomized trials, the administration of NaHCO3 is superior to the administration of NaCl alone in the prevention of CIN among patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. However, further controlled clinical trials are needed due to significant study heterogeneity and publication bias.

2011-07-01

155

Onset response of bupivacaine 0.5% which has been added with sodium bicarbonate on epidural block  

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Full Text Available There are many advantages in using epidural anesthesia technique. However, there are also some constraints, such as the relatively long onset, particularly in the case of bupivacaine. Whereas the need of a rapid onset of anesthesia technique for emergency cares is increasing lately. The objective of this study was to find a method to hasten the onset of bupivacaine. This is a cross sectional randomized double blind controlled clinical trial performed on 40 patients who would undergo lower abdomen and extremity surgery with epidural block. We evaluated the onset of action of bupivacaine which has been added with sodium bicarbonate. Consecutive sampling method was applied to get the sample. The criteria of sample are ASA I – II patient, aged of 20-60 years old, 50-60 kg of weight, 150-170 cm of height. Patients were allocated randomly into two groups. The treatment group would get epidural block using mixture of 20 cc of bupivacaine 0,5 % + 0.5 cc of sodium bicarbonate 1.4 %, whereas the control group received 20 cc bupivacaine 0.5 % + 0.5 cc aqua bides. Time to reach sensoric block at the level of thoracal 10 dermatome using the pinprick method and time to reach motoric blockade using the bromage scale was recorded. The result of this study showed a significant shortening of the onset of sensory blockade (p<0.05 in the treatment group (10.2±1.4 minutes compared with the control group (19.5±1.3 minutes. The onset of motor blockade had also a significant shortening (p<0.05 in the treatment group(13.3±1.6 minutes compared with the control group (23.0±1.2 minutes. It was concluded that the addition of sodium bicarbonate can hasten the onset of bupivacaine on epidural block. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 7-10Keywords : onset response, bupivacaine 0.5%, sodium bicarbonate, epidural block

Marwoto Marwoto

2005-03-01

156

Prophylactic Perioperative Sodium Bicarbonate to Prevent Acute Kidney Injury Following Open Heart Surgery: A Multicenter Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial  

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In a double-blinded randomized controlled trial, Anja Haase-Fielitz and colleagues find that an infusion of sodium bicarbonate during open heart surgery did not reduce the risk for acute kidney injury, compared with saline control.

Haase, Michael; Haase-fielitz, Anja; Plass, Michael; Kuppe, Hermann; Hetzer, Roland; Hannon, Claire; Murray, Patrick T.; Bailey, Michael J.; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Bagshaw, Sean M.

2013-01-01

157

The effect of sodium bicarbonate on intracellular pH using {sup 31}P-MR spectroscopy  

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This report deals with the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the intracellular pH of the brain and cerebral blood flow (CBF); five normal volunteers were studied. Intracellular pH and CBF were measured by phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-MRS) and stable xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT), respectively. Each individual received 7% sodium bicarbonate (3.5 ml/kg body weight), infused intravenously over a 15-min period. Intracellular pH, CBF, and physiological parameters were determined before and after the injection. Intracellular pH was significantly decreased and CBF was increased. Among the physiological parameters, the hematocrit was significantly decreased and arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO{sub 2}), increased. These results suggest that increasing CO{sub 2} contributes to the decrease in intracellular pH. In conclusion, three factors increase CBF during the administration of sodium bicarbonate to humans: arterial dilatation in response to carbon dioxide; decrease of the hematocrit, and intracellular cerebral acidosis. (author)

Nakashima, Kazuya; Kashiwagi, Shiro; Ito, Haruhide [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine; Yamashita, Tetsuo; Kitahara, Tetsuhiro; Nakayama, Naoto; Saito, Kennichi

1997-03-01

158

Sodium Bicarbonate is Associated with an Increased Incidence of Contrast Nephropathy: A Retrospective Cohort Study of 7977 Patients at Mayo Clinic  

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Background and objectives: The role of sodium bicarbonate in preventing contrast nephropathy needs to be evaluated in clinical settings. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We performed a retrospective cohort study at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, to assess the risk of contrast nephropathy associated with the use of sodium bicarbonate, N-acetylcysteine, and the combination of sodium bicarbonate with N-acetylcysteine from April 2004 to May 2005. Contrast nephropathy was defined as postexposure creatinine elevation of ?25% or >0.5 mg/dl within 7 d of contrast exposure. Results: A total of 11,516 contrast exposures in 7977 patients had creatinine values available for review before and after contrast exposure. More than 90% of exposures to agents prophylactic for contrast nephropathy were available for analysis. Sodium bicarbonate was used in 268 cases, N-acetylcysteine was used in 616 cases, and both agents were used in combination in 221 cases of contrast exposure. After adjustment for total volume of hydration, medications, age, gender, prior creatinine, contrast iodine load, prior exposure to contrast material, type of imaging study, heart failure, hypertension, renal failure, multiple myeloma, and diabetes mellitus, use of sodium bicarbonate alone was associated with an increased risk of contrast nephropathy compared with no treatment (odds ratio 3.10, 95% confidence interval 2.28 to 4.18; P sodium bicarbonate was not associated with any significant difference in the incidence of contrast nephropathy. Conclusions: The use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate was associated with increased incidence of contrast nephropathy. Use of sodium bicarbonate to prevent contrast nephropathy should be evaluated further rather than adopted into clinical practice.

From, Aaron M.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Williams, Amy W.; Cha, Stephen S.; Pflueger, Axel; McDonald, Furman S.

2008-01-01

159

Sodium Coupled Bicarbonate Influx Regulates Intracellular and Apical pH in Cultured Rat Caput Epididymal Epithelium  

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Background The epithelium lining the epididymis provides an optimal acidic fluid microenvironment in the epididymal tract that enable spermatozoa to complete the maturation process. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of Na+/HCO3? cotransporter in the pH regulation in rat epididymis. Method/Principal Findings Immunofluorescence staining of pan cytokeratin in the primary culture of rat caput epididymal epithelium showed that the system was a suitable model for investigating the function of epididymal epithelium. Intracellular and apical pH were measured using the fluorescent pH sensitive probe carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-4F acetoxymethyl ester (SNARF-4F) and sparklet pH electrode respectively to explore the functional role of rat epididymal epithelium. In the HEPES buffered Krebs-Henseleit(KH) solution, the intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from NH4Cl induced acidification in the cultured caput epididymal epithelium was completely inhibited by amiloride, the inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE). Immediately changing of the KH solution from HEPES buffered to HCO3? buffered would cause another pHi recovery. The pHi recovery in HCO3? buffered KH solution was inhibited by 4, 4diisothiocyanatostilbene-2, 2-disulfonic acid (DIDS), the inhibitor of HCO3? transporter or by removal of extracellular Na+. The extracellular pH measurement showed that the apical pH would increase when adding DIDS to the apical side of epididymal epithelial monolayer, however adding DIDS to the basolateral side had no effect on apical pH. Conclusions The present study shows that sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured caput epididymal epithelium.

Yang, Deng-Liang; Zhang, Geng; Chen, Si-Liang; Ruan, Ye-Chun; Ye, Ke-Nan; Cheng, Christopher H. K.; Zhou, Wen-Liang

2011-01-01

160

Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance.  

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We examined the isolated and combined effects of beta-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) on high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in judo and jiu-jitsu competitors. 37 athletes were assigned to one of four groups: (1) placebo (PL)+PL; (2) BA+PL; (3) PL+SB or (4) BA+SB. BA or dextrose (placebo) (6.4 g day?¹) was ingested for 4 weeks and 500 mg kg?¹ BM of SB or calcium carbonate (placebo) was ingested for 7 days during the 4th week. Before and after 4 weeks of supplementation, the athletes completed four 30-s upper-body Wingate tests, separated by 3 min. Blood lactate was determined at rest, immediately after and 5 min after the 4th exercise bout, with perceived exertion reported immediately after the 4th bout. BA and SB alone increased the total work done in +7 and 8 %, respectively. The co-ingestion resulted in an additive effect (+14 %, p < 0.05 vs. BA and SB alone). BA alone significantly improved mean power in the 2nd and 3rd bouts and tended to improve the 4th bout. SB alone significantly improved mean power in the 4th bout and tended to improve in the 2nd and 3rd bouts. BA+SB enhanced mean power in all four bouts. PL+PL did not elicit any alteration on mean and peak power. Post-exercise blood lactate increased with all treatments except with PL+PL. Only BA+SB resulted in lower ratings of perceived exertion (p = 0.05). Chronic BA and SB supplementation alone equally enhanced high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in well-trained athletes. Combined BA and SB promoted a clear additive ergogenic effect. PMID:23595205

Tobias, Gabriel; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
161

Salt sensitivity of blood pressure is associated with polymorphisms in the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter gene (SLC4A5) are associated with hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that SNPs in SLC4A5 are associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure in 185 whites consuming an isocaloric constant diet with a randomized order of 7 days of low Na(+) (10 mmol/d) and 7 days of high Na(+) (300 mmol/d) intake. Salt sensitivity was defined as a ? 7-mm?Hg increase in mean arterial pressure during a randomized transition between high and low Na(+) diet. A total of 35 polymorphisms in 17 candidate genes were assayed, 25 of which were tested for association. Association analyses with salt sensitivity revealed 3 variants that associated with salt sensitivity, 2 in SLC4A5 (PSLC4A5 (rs7571842 and rs10177833) demonstrated highly significant results and large effects sizes, using logistic regression. These 2 SNPs had P values of 1.0 × 10(-4) and 3.1 × 10(-4) with odds ratios of 0.221 and 0.221 in unadjusted regression models, respectively, with the G allele at both sites conferring protection. These SNPs remained significant after adjusting for body mass index and age (P=8.9 × 10(-5) and 2.6 × 10(-4) and odds ratios 0.210 and 0.286, respectively). Furthermore, the association of these SNPs with salt sensitivity was replicated in a second hypertensive population. Meta-analysis demonstrated significant associations of both SNPs with salt sensitivity (rs7571842 [P=1.2 × 10(-5)]; rs1017783 [P=1.1 × 10(-4)]). In conclusion, SLC4A5 variants are strongly associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure in 2 separate white populations. PMID:22987918

Carey, Robert M; Schoeffel, Cynthia D; Gildea, John J; Jones, John E; McGrath, Helen E; Gordon, Lindsay N; Park, Min Jeong; Sobota, Rafal S; Underwood, Patricia C; Williams, Jonathan; Sun, Bei; Raby, Benjamin; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Hopkins, Paul N; Adler, Gail K; Williams, Scott M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

2012-11-01

162

Corrosion-electrochemical behavior of carbon steels in carbonate-bicarbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peculiarities of corrosion-electrochemical behaviour of carbon steel (St3) in carbonate-bicarbonate solution (1 N Na2CO3 + 1 N NaHCO3), including one containing hydrogen sulfide, are studied. The ambiguous effect of anions (Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-) on the steel corrosion behaviour is established. the peculiarity of forming the passivating anode layers on the steel is shown through the volt-ampere characteristic measuring method

1997-01-01

163

The regulation of corneal hydration by a salt pump requiring the presence of sodium and bicarbonate ions  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The use of polyacrylamide gel salt bridges enables trans-membrane potentials to be measured to an accuracy of 20 ?V over long periods. 2. The technique is applied to measure electrical potentials across corneal endothelia of rabbits. 3. In de-epithelialized corneas which translocate water, a spontaneous potential of 550 ?V is found across the endothelium (tissue resistance 20 ? cm2). 4. This electrical potential (and water translocation) is reduced to zero when sodium is absent from the Ringer, and by about 80% when bicarbonate ions are absent. Removal of chloride has no such effect. 5. Under a variety of conditions, the potential correlates with the observed translocation of fluid across corneal endothelium. The translocated fluid is shown to be isotonic with sodium in the Ringer and therefore the potential correlates with `active' sodium transport. 6. The potential and water translocation are abolished in the presence of ouabain at concentrations greater than 10-5 M. 7. The potential (lens-side negative) is of the wrong polarity to explain the net sodium transport (into the lens-side) by a sodium ion `pump'. 8. The current does not equal the net sodium flux under short circuit conditions. They differ in magnitude and polarity. 9. A model is proposed where the endothelium `pumps' salt out of the corneal stroma into the aqueous humour. 10. Flux equations are derived for a condition where the membrane (corneal endothelium) separates an ion exchanger (corneal stroma) from free solution (aqueous humour), where the usual relationship for free-free solutions ?? = cs??s does not apply. 11. The model is of use only when the stroma is well stirred. It may be used in whole corneas retaining their epithelium but it may not be used in de-epithelialized corneas. 12. The model predicts that the presence of an `active' salt flux out across the endothelium would create passive water and salt fluxes. The passive water flux would also travel out of the stroma across the endothelium; the passive salt flux would travel, in the opposite direction, into the stroma across the endothelium. 13. The kinetics of the passive water efflux, as a swollen cornea reverts to physiological hydration (the temperature reversal phenomenon) are predicted extremely well if the `active' salt flux is chosen at 3·3 × 10-7 m-mole. cm-2 sec-1. 14. The value of the active salt flux which cannot be measured directly is extrapolated to be somewhat greater than 2·8 × 10-7 m-moles. cm-2 sec-1; in good agreement with that required by the model to explain the temperature reversal phenomenon. 15. The model is further used to calculate the salt concentration difference across the endothelium (which drives salt passively into the stroma) at various stromal hydrations. 16. When an appropriate salt concentration is applied across the endothelium of de-epithelialized cornea, it generates a potential of the same polarity and similar magnitude to that found across the endothelium of equilibrated whole cornea. The endothelium acts like a cation exchange membrane. 17. Additionally the calculated salt concentration difference across the endothelium correlates well with the measured transendothelial potentials in whole cornea as the corneal hydration varies. 18. It is concluded that the model of an endothelial neutral salt `pump' regulating corneal hydration is self consistent. The spontaneous potential found across the endothelium could be caused by the consequential passive flux of salt in the opposite direction.

Hodson, Stuart

1974-01-01

164

Mutation of Aspartate 555 of the Sodium/Bicarbonate Transporter SLC4A4/NBCe1 Induces Chloride Transport*  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the mechanism for ion transport through the sodium/bicarbonate transporter SLC4A4 (NBCe1), we examined amino acid residues, within transmembrane domains, that are conserved among electrogenic Na/HCO3 transporters but are substituted with residues at the corresponding site of all electroneutral Na/HCO3 transporters. Point mutants were constructed and expressed in Xenopus oocytes to assess function using two-electrode voltage clamp. Among the mutants, D555E (charge-conserved substitution of the aspartate at position 555 with a glutamate) produced decreasing HCO3? currents at more positive membrane voltages. Immunohistochemistry showed D555E protein expression in oocyte membranes. D555E induced Na/HCO3-dependent pH recovery from a CO2-induced acidification. Current-voltage relationships revealed that D555E produced an outwardly rectifying current in the nominally CO2/HCO3?-free solution that was abolished by Cl? removal from the bath. In the presence of CO2/HCO3?, however, the outward current produced by D555E decreased only slightly after Cl? removal. Starting from a Cl?-free condition, D555E produced dose-dependent outward currents in response to a series of chloride additions. The D555E-mediated chloride current decreased by 70% in the presence of CO2/HCO3?. The substitution of Asp555 with an asparagine also produced a Cl? current. Anion selectivity experiments revealed that D555E was broadly permissive to other anions including NO3?. Fluorescence measurements of chloride transport were done with human embryonic kidney HEK 293 cells expressing NBCe1 and D555E. A marked increase in chloride transport was detected in cells expressing D555E. We conclude that Asp555 plays a role in HCO3? selectivity.

Yang, Han Soo; Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Soojung; Park, Hae Jeong; Cooper, Deborah S.; Rajbhandari, Ira; Choi, Inyeong

2009-01-01

165

Effects of liquorice extract, probiotic, potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on productive performance of broiler chickens exposed to heat stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to compare the effect of licorice extract, probiotic, potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on productive performance of broilers exposed to heat stress. A total of 900 Fawbro broiler chicks were allocated at random into 6 treatments groups of 3 replicates each. Experimental treatments were as follows: Treatment 1: control group was subjected to heat stress; Treatment 2: control group was not subjected to heat stress; Treatment 3: Probiotic group were early exposed to 106 Colony Forming Unit (CFU of Lactobacilli at their first day of age, and then subjected to heat stress; Treatment 4: heat distressed birds and supplemented with 0.5 % potassium chloride in their drinking water; Treatment 5: heat distressed birds and supplemented with 0.5% sodium bicarbonate in their drinking water; and Treatment 6: heat distressed birds and supplemented with 450 mg / liter licorice extract in their drinking water. At the third week of age, birds in treatments 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were exposed to heat stress (38 – 43 ºC for 6 hours(1200 – 1800 h each day until the end of experiment (8th week of age. Results revealed that treated the birds with probiotic or licorice extract resulted in a significant improvement in mean body weight, feed conversion ratio, water consumption, cumulative body weight, cumulative weight gain, cumulative feed conversion ratio, livability, productive index, economic figure and dressing percentage with or without viscera as compared with control group which was subjected to heat stress, potassium chloride treatment and sodium bicarbonate treatment. Furthermore, licorice extract treatment surpasses probiotic treatment in respect to mean body weight, water consumption, final body weight, cumulative feed consumption, livability, and dressing percentage with or without giblet. In conclusion, licorice extract and probiotic can be used as an efficient tools in alleviate the deleterious effects of heat stress on productive performance of broiler chickens.

Hazim J. Al-Daraji

2013-06-01

166

Infusion of sodium bicarbonate in experimentally induced metabolic acidosis does not provoke cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis in calves  

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In a crossover study, 5 calves were made acidotic by intermittent intravenous infusion of isotonic hydrochloric acid (HCl) over approximately 24 h. This was followed by rapid (4 h) or slow (24 h) correction of blood pH with isotonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) to determine if rapid correction of acidemia produced paradoxical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis. Infusion of HCl produced a marked metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation. Venous blood pH (mean ± Sx) was 7.362 ± 0.021 an...

Abeysekara, Saman; Zello, Gordon A.; Lohmann, Katharina L.; Alcorn, Jane; Hamilton, Don L.; Naylor, Jonathan M.

2012-01-01

167

Neuronal expression of sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) and its response to chronic metabolic acidosis  

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The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) is an acid-base transporter that normally moves Na+ and HCO3? into the cell. This membrane protein is sensitive to cellular and systemic pH changes. We examined NBCn1 expression and localization in the brain and its response to chronic metabolic acidosis. Two new NBCn1 antibodies were generated by immunizing a rabbit and a guinea pig. The antibodies stained neurons in a variety of rat brain regions, including hippocampal pyramidal neurons,...

Park, Hae Jeong; Rajbhandari, Ira; Yang, Han Soo; Lee, Soojung; Cucoranu, Delia; Cooper, Deborah S.; Klein, Janet D.; Sands, Jeff M.; Choi, Inyeong

2010-01-01

168

Effect of ion concentrations on uranium absorption from sodium carbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of various ion concentrations on uranium absorption from a sodium carbonate solution by a strong-base, anion resin was investigated in order to help assure an adequate uranium supply for future needs. The studies were conducted to improve the recovery of uranium from in situ leach solutions by ion exchange. The effects of carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate ions were examined. Relatively low (less than 5 g/l) concentrations of chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate were found to be detrimental to the absorption of uranium. High (greater than 10 g/l) carbonate concentrations also adversely affected the uranium absorption. In addition, the effect of initial resin form was investigated in tests of the chloride, carbonate, and bicarbonate forms; resin form was shown to have no effect on the absorption of uranium

1979-01-01

169

Replacement of forage or concentrate with combinations of soyhulls, sodium bicarbonate, or fat for lactating dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

A lactation study was performed from wk 4 to 19 of lactation to evaluate the ability of soyhulls with or without 1% sodium bicarbonate to replace corn silage and the ability of soyhulls, roasted soybeans, and rumen-inert fat to replace concentrate. All diets contained similar concentrations of NE(L) (tabular value), CP, and degradable protein. When forage NDF was reduced to 62.5% of total dietary NDF (32 to 36% NDF, depending on analytical method) with soyhulls, milk production and total tract nutrient digestibility were unaffected. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to the soyhull diet reduced milk production, but other production aspects were similar. As evaluated using body condition scoring, cows fed soyhulls with buffer appeared to lose less condition before the trial and to recondition earlier and more during the trial than did those fed soyhulls without buffer, which explains differences in milk production. Buffer did not increase digestibility of OM and NDF, perhaps because the high rate of passage of soyhulls limited digestibility more than did ruminal pH. Replacement of concentrate with soyhulls and fat tended to increase milk and FCM production, resulting in improved efficiency of milk production. However, fat fed to cows reduced the percentage of milk protein. As evaluated during the last 4 wk of a 6-wk posttreatment period, fat fed to cows had no residual effects on any production aspect measured. PMID:1331214

Firkins, J L; Eastridge, M L

1992-10-01

170

Tentative method for separation and collection of particulate and gaseous fluorides in the atmosphere (sodium bicarbonate-coated glass tube and a particulate filter method). [None  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described for the separation and collection of gaseous atmospheric forms of fluoride reactive with sodium bicarbonate and particulate forms of fluoride which are collected by filter. The particulate matter is collected on a membrane filter, and the gaseous fluorides are removed by reaction with sodium bicarbonate coated on the inside wall of a borosilicate glass tube. The fluoride collected by the tube is eluted with water or buffer and analyzed for fluoride, and the particles collected by the filter are eluted with acid and analyzed for fluoride. (BLM)

1975-01-01

171

The radiation chemistry of aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation chemistry of cobalt-60 gamma-irradiated aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions has been studied. In aerated 4 x 10"-"4M sodium hydroxide solutions, the main products are hydroxyterephthalate (HTA) (G = 0.99 +- 0.01), carbonate (G = 1.31 +- 0.08), and peroxides (G = 2.84 +- 0.04). The HTA and carbonate species are both formed as a result of hydroxyl radical attack and account for approximately 90 per cent of hydroxyl radical reactions. Oxygen needs to be present for efficient conversion of the terephthalate-OH radical adduct to HTA and oxygenation increases G(HTA) above the aerated solution value. G(HTA) is unaffected by changes in terephthalate concentration between 1 x 10"-"4M and 1 x 10"-"2M in sodium hydroxide solutions at pH 10. Decreasing the solution pH does however affect G(HTA). In phosphate buffered solutions pH 6.85, G(HTA) is 0.93 +- 0.01 and lower values are obtained with further decrease in solution pH. The lowering of the G(HTA) value is attributed to recombination reactions between the terephthalate-OH radical products and reducing radical products. Experimental evidence supporting the recombination postulate was obtained from the measurement of a parallel decrease in the peroxide yield and the observation of a dose rate effect on G(HTA). Competition kinetic studies with the added solutes carbonate and bicarbonate gave the rate ratios k (OH + TA"2"-) : k(OH + CO_3"2"-) : k(OH + HCO_3"-) = 1 : 0.105 : 0.0036

1980-01-01

172

Degradation of hydroxyapatite in vivo and in vitro requires osteoclastic sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter NBCn1  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dissolution of the inorganic bone matrix releases not only calcium and phosphate ions, but also bicarbonate. Electroneutral sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter (NBCn1) is expressed in inactive osteoclasts, but its physiological role in bone resorption has remained unknown. We show here that NBCn1, encoded by the SLC4A7 gene, is directly involved in bone resorption. NBCn1 protein was specifically found at the bone-facing ruffled border areas, and metabolic acidosis increased NBCn1 expression in rats in vivo. In human hematopoietic stem cell cultures, NBCn1 mRNA expression was observed only after formation of resorbing osteoclasts. To further confirm the critical role of NBCn1 during bone resorption, human hematopoietic stem cells were transduced with SLC4A7 shRNA lentiviral particles. Downregulation of NBCn1 both on mRNA and protein level by lentiviral shRNAs significantly inhibited bone resorption and increased intracellular acidification in osteoclasts. The lentiviral particles did not impair osteoclast survival, or differentiation of the hematopoietic or mesenchymal precursor cells into osteoclasts or osteoblasts in vitro. Inhibition of NBCn1 activity may thus provide a new way to regulate osteoclast activity during pathological bone resorption.

Riihonen, Riikka; Nielsen, Søren

2010-01-01

173

SO sub 2 and NO sub x control by combined dry injection of hydrated lime and sodium bicarbonate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dry sorbent injection process for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal form coal-fired boiler flue gas consists of the use of low NO{sub x} burner technology for primary NO{sub x} reduction, injection of hydrated lime at economizer temperatures for primary capture of SO{sub 2} and injection of sodium bicarbonate at the air heater exit for additional SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. This concept has been separately tested at the .25 and 50 MM Btu/hour scales, utilizing test systems that duplicate the flue gas time-temperature profile found in full scale boiler systems. The results of these tests, including the effects of the sorbent injection on particle control devices, are described in this paper.

Helfritch, D.J.; Botz, S.J. (Research-Cottrell Co., Somerville, NJ (US)); Beittel, R. (Riley Stoker Corp., Worcester, MA (US)); Bergman, P.D. (U.S. Department of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (US)); Toole-O' Neil, B. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (US))

1992-01-01

174

Uso del bicarbonato de sodio en las urgencias hiperglucémicas diabéticas Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Diabetic Hyperglycemic Emergencies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fundamento: la cetoacidosis diabética y el estado hiperglucémico hiperosmolar no cetósico son dos de las más graves emergencias metabólicas que pueden ocurrir. Estos estados no siempre son tratados adecuadamente. Objetivo: describir las urgencias metabólicas hiperglicémicas del diabético atendidas en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos y valorar el uso del bicarbonato de sodio. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, en 52 pacientes ingresados en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva del Hospital Enrique Cabrera entre los años 2000 al 2007. Las variables analizadas en el estudio fueron: tipo de diabetes mellitus, tipo de complicación aguda, uso o no del bicarbonato de sodio, gasometría, ionograma y evolución de los pacientes. Fueron utilizados los criterios de Kitabchi para los diagnósticos de la cetoacidosis diabética y su severidad, y los del estado hiperglucémico. Para el diagnóstico de diabetes y el tipo se adoptaron los criterios propuestos por un Comité de Expertos de la Asociación Americana de Diabetes y un Comité de Expertos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados: se confirmó cetoacidosis diabética en el 57,5 % de los diabéticos tipo 1 y en el 42,5 % de los tipo 2. Se observó estado hiperglucémico hiperosmolar no cetósico en el 23,0 % de los diabéticos tipo 2. Entre los pacientes con cetoacidosis diabética que no usaron bicarbonato de sodio NaHCO3 no hubo muerte, y aquellos con estado hiperglucémico que lo utilizaron fue del 80,0 %. Conclusiones: la cetoacidosis diabética fue la complicación que predominó. La mortalidad por cetoacidosis y el estado hiperglucémico hiperosmolar no cetósico fue elevada y se utilizó inadecuadamente el NaHCO3.Background: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state are two of the major metabolic emergencies that may occur. These conditions are not always treated properly.Objective: to describe the metabolic hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetic patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit, and to assess the use of sodium bicarbonate. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted including 52 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the Enrique Cabrera Hospital from 2000 through 2007. The following variables were analyzed: type of diabetes mellitus, type of acute complication, use or not of sodium bicarbonate, blood gases, ionogram and progress of patients. Kitabchi criteria were used for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and its severity and for the diagnosis of the hyperglycemic state as well. Criteria proposed by an Expert Committee of the American Diabetes Association and a World Health Organization Expert Committee were adopted for the diagnosis of diabetes and its classification. Results: diabetic ketoacidosis was confirmed in 57,5 % of type 1 diabetic patients and in 42,5 % of those with type 2 diabetes. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was observed in 23,0 % of type 2 diabetics. There was not any death among patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who did not use sodium bicarbonate whereas 80,0 % of patients with hyperglycemic state who used it died. Conclusions: diabetic ketoacidosis was the most common complication. Mortality due to ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was high. Sodium bicarbonate was not properly used.

Diana Machado Ramírez

2013-10-01

175

Carbonic acid ionization and the stability of sodium bicarbonate and carbonate ion pairs to 200 °C - A potentiometric and spectrophotometric study  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbonic acid ionization and sodium bicarbonate and carbonate ion pair formation constants have been experimentally determined in dilute hydrothermal solutions to 200 °C. Two experimental approaches were applied, potentiometric acid-base titrations at 10-60 °C and spectrophotometric pH measurements using the pH indicators, 2-napthol and 4-nitrophenol, at 25-200 °C. At a given temperature, the first and second ionization constants of carbonic acid (K1, K2) and the ion pair formation constants for NaHCO(aq)(K) and NaCO3-(aq)(K) were simultaneously fitted to the data. Results of this study compare well with previously determined values of K1 and K2. The NaHCO(aq) and NaCO3-(aq) ion pair formation constants vary between 25 and 200 °C having values of logK=-0.18 to 0.58 and logK=1.01 to 2.21, respectively. These ion pairs are weak at low-temperatures but become increasingly important with increasing temperature under neutral to alkaline conditions in moderately dilute to concentrated NaCl solutions, with NaCO3-(aq) predominating over CO32-(aq) in ?0.1 M NaCl solution at temperatures above 100 °C. The results demonstrate that NaCl cannot be considered as an inert (non-complexing) electrolyte in aqueous carbon dioxide containing solutions at elevated temperatures.

Stefánsson, Andri; Bénézeth, Pascale; Schott, Jacques

2013-11-01

176

Effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, PaCO2, HCO3-, PH and cerebral blood flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To estimate the quantitative reactivity of cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2), HCO3-, pH and CBF were examined. The CBF was measured by 133Xe inhalation method with ring type SPECT (HEADTOME). Activation study with sodium bicarbonate administration was performed after 30 minutes of resting study, and the reactivity of each parameters was investigated. The arterial HCO3- and pH increased with similar reactivity, but PaCO2, end-tidal CO2 and CBF in the non-injured hemisphere changed with irregular reactivity. The excellent correlation between PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2 was vanished by the administration of sodium bicarbonate. The reactivity of CBF did not correlate with reactivity of PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2, but correlated with arterial HCO3- and pH. Thus the measurement of arterial HCO3- and pH may be indispensable to estimate the CBF reactivity with the administration of sodium bicarbonate. (author)

1992-09-01

177

Decomposição térmica do bicarbonato de sódio: do processo Solvay ao diagrama tipo Ellingham Thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate: from Solvay process to an Ellingham type diagram  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A didactic experiment based on the thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate using a reagent found in the marketplace is proposed. The reaction products are identified by qualitative tests and stoichiometric calculations. The thermal stability of carbonates and the influence of lattice energies are discussed, emphasizing periodic trends in the alkali and alkaline earth families. The industrial importance of the reaction is also explored.

2003-01-01

178

Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 ?g/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

2014-02-01

179

Transport Activity of the Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe1 Is Enhanced by Different Isoforms of Carbonic Anhydrase  

Science.gov (United States)

Transport metabolons have been discussed between carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and several membrane transporters. We have now studied different CA isoforms, expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and together with the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1), to determine their catalytic activity and their ability to enhance NBCe1 transport activity. pH measurements in intact oocytes indicated similar activity of CAI, CAII and CAIII, while in vitro CAIII had no measurable activity and CAI only 30% of the activity of CAII. All three CA isoforms increased transport activity of NBCe1, as measured by the transport current and the rate of intracellular sodium rise in oocytes. Two CAII mutants, altered in their intramolecular proton pathway, CAII-H64A and CAII-Y7F, showed significant catalytic activity and also enhanced NBCe1 transport activity. The effect of CAI, CAII, and CAII mutants on NBCe1 activity could be reversed by blocking CA activity with ethoxyzolamide (EZA, 10 µM), while the effect of the less EZA-sensitive CAIII was not reversed. Our results indicate that different CA isoforms and mutants, even if they show little enzymatic activity in vitro, may display significant catalytic activity in intact cells, and that the ability of CA to enhance NBCe1 transport appears to depend primarily on its catalytic activity.

Schueler, Christina; Becker, Holger M.; McKenna, Robert; Deitmer, Joachim W.

2011-01-01

180

Interaction of chloride and bicarbonate transport across the basolateral membrane of rabbit proximal straight tubule. Evidence for sodium coupled chloride/bicarbonate exchange.  

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The existence of chloride/bicarbonate exchange across the basolateral membrane and its physiologic significance were examined in rabbit proximal tubules. S2 segments of the proximal straight tubule were perfused in vitro and changes in intracellular pH (pHi) and chloride activity (aCli) were monitored by double-barreled microelectrodes. Total peritubular chloride replacement with gluconate increased pHi by 0.8, and this change was inhibited by a pretreatment with an anion transport inhibitor,...

Sasaki, S.; Yoshiyama, N.

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio não previne a nefropatia de contraste: ensaio clínico multicêntrico Hydration with sodium bicarbonate does not prevent contrast nephropathy: a multicenter clinical trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A exposição ao meio de contraste radiográfico pode causar comprometimento agudo da função renal. Há evidências limitadas e conflitantes de que a hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio previne a Nefropatia Induzida por Contraste (NIC em pacientes submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar se o bicarbonato de sódio é superior à hidratação com soro fisiológico para evitar a nefropatia em pacientes de risco submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. MÉTODOS: Trezentos e um pacientes submetidos a intervenção coronariana percutânea ou angiografia coronariana com creatinina sérica > 1,2 mg/dL ou Taxa de Filtração Glomerular (TFG BACKGROUND: Radiographic contrast media exposition can cause acute renal function impairment. There is limited and conflicting evidence that hydration with sodium bicarbonate prevents contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at determining whether sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline to prevent nephropathy in patients at risk undergoing cardiac catheterization. METHODS: Three hundred and one patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention with serum creatinine > 1.2mg/dL or glomerular filtration rate (GFR < 50ml/min were randomized to receive hydration with sodium bicarbonate starting 1 hour before the procedure and 6 hours after the procedure, or hydration with 0.9% saline. CIN was defined as an increase of 0.5mg/dL in creatinine in 48h RESULTS: Eighteen patients (5.9% developed contrast induced nephropathy: 9 patients in the bicarbonate group (6.1% and 9 patients in the saline group (6.0%, p = 0.97. The change in serum creatinine was similar in both groups, 0.01 ± 0.26 mg/dL in the bicarbonate group and 0.01 ± 0.35 mg/dL in the saline group, p = 0.9. No statistical difference was observed between the change in glomerular filtration rate (0.89 ± 9 ml/min vs. 2.29 ± 10 ml/min, p = 0.2 bicarbonate group and saline group, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hydration with sodium bicarbonate was not superior to saline to prevent contrast media induced nephropathy in patients at risk undergoing cardiac catheterization.

Vitor O. Gomes

2012-12-01

182

Hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio não previne a nefropatia de contraste: ensaio clínico multicêntrico Hydration with sodium bicarbonate does not prevent contrast nephropathy: a multicenter clinical trial  

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Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A exposição ao meio de contraste radiográfico pode causar comprometimento agudo da função renal. Há evidências limitadas e conflitantes de que a hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio previne a Nefropatia Induzida por Contraste (NIC em pacientes submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar se o bicarbonato de sódio é superior à hidratação com soro fisiológico para evitar a nefropatia em pacientes de risco submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. MÉTODOS: Trezentos e um pacientes submetidos a intervenção coronariana percutânea ou angiografia coronariana com creatinina sérica > 1,2 mg/dL ou Taxa de Filtração Glomerular (TFG BACKGROUND: Radiographic contrast media exposition can cause acute renal function impairment. There is limited and conflicting evidence that hydration with sodium bicarbonate prevents contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at determining whether sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline to prevent nephropathy in patients at risk undergoing cardiac catheterization. METHODS: Three hundred and one patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention with serum creatinine > 1.2mg/dL or glomerular filtration rate (GFR < 50ml/min were randomized to receive hydration with sodium bicarbonate starting 1 hour before the procedure and 6 hours after the procedure, or hydration with 0.9% saline. CIN was defined as an increase of 0.5mg/dL in creatinine in 48h RESULTS: Eighteen patients (5.9% developed contrast induced nephropathy: 9 patients in the bicarbonate group (6.1% and 9 patients in the saline group (6.0%, p = 0.97. The change in serum creatinine was similar in both groups, 0.01 ± 0.26 mg/dL in the bicarbonate group and 0.01 ± 0.35 mg/dL in the saline group, p = 0.9. No statistical difference was observed between the change in glomerular filtration rate (0.89 ± 9 ml/min vs. 2.29 ± 10 ml/min, p = 0.2 bicarbonate group and saline group, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hydration with sodium bicarbonate was not superior to saline to prevent contrast media induced nephropathy in patients at risk undergoing cardiac catheterization.

Vitor O. Gomes

2012-01-01

183

The effect of ammonium chloride and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold.  

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The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold (PWCFT). Eighteen adult males (mean age, SD = 23, 2 years) volunteered for two experiments (experiment 1, n = 9; experiment 2, n = 9). In both experiments, the subjects orally ingested 0.3 g.kg-1 body weight of NH4Cl and NaHCO3 over a 3-h period in random order on days separated by 72 h or more. In experiment 1, following ingestion of the substance, the subjects performed a discontinuous incremental cycle ergometer test to the onset of PWCFT which was estimated from integrated electromyography voltages at the vastus lateralis muscle. In experiment 2, the subjects performed a continuous PWCFT test. The results of these experiments indicated that NH4Cl and NaHCO3 ingestion had no significant (P greater than 0.05) effect on PWCFT (experiment 1: NH4Cl = 257, SD 26 W; NaHCO3 = 256, SD 22 W; t = 0.06; r = 0.866; experiment 2: NH4Cl = 231, 14 W; NaHCO3 = 216, 16 W; t = 1.78; r = 0.857). PMID:1646106

Housh, T J; deVries, H A; Johnson, G O; Evans, S A; McDowell, S

1991-01-01

184

Eating barley too frequently or in excess decreases lambs' preference for barley but sodium bicarbonate and lasalocid attenuate the response.  

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We conducted experiments to determine whether preference for barley was affected when lambs ate various amounts of barley and whether lambs ate more barley when it contained lasalocid and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), both of which attenuate acidosis. In Exp. 1, lambs were assigned to two treatments (six lambs/treatment). For 2 d, lambs in two treatments were offered either 400 or 1,200 g of rolled barley from 0600 to 0700 as a preload meal. A preference ratio [PR = barley ingested/(total amount of alfalfa + barley ingested)] was calculated based on lambs' intake when offered a choice of 200 g each of rolled barley and alfalfa pellets hourly from 0700 to 1100. After the preload meal, lambs in Treatment 1 (400 g preload) showed equal preference for barley (.52) and alfalfa (.48) for 4 h on d 1 (P > .05); their preference for barley was less after the meal of barley on d 1 (.52) than on d 2 (.72), but their preference for barley declined between h 3 (.81) and 4 (.55) of d 2 (P = .11). Lambs in Treatment 2 (1,200 g preload) showed a low preference for barley on d 1 (.29) and 2 (.19) (P .05) to that by controls. We conclude that eating barley too frequently or in excess caused a decrease in lambs' preference for barley and that NaHCO3 and lasalocid attenuated the aversion. PMID:9655577

Phy, T S; Provenza, F D

1998-06-01

185

Decomposição térmica do bicarbonato de sódio: do processo Solvay ao diagrama tipo Ellingham Thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate: from Solvay process to an Ellingham type diagram  

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Full Text Available A didactic experiment based on the thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate using a reagent found in the marketplace is proposed. The reaction products are identified by qualitative tests and stoichiometric calculations. The thermal stability of carbonates and the influence of lattice energies are discussed, emphasizing periodic trends in the alkali and alkaline earth families. The industrial importance of the reaction is also explored.

Alessandra de Souza Maia

2003-08-01

186

X-ray diffraction studies on merohedrally twinned ?1–62NtNBCe1-A crystals of the sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter  

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A truncated mutant missing the first 62 residues of the N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain of the sodium-bicarbonate NBCe1-A cotransporter crystallizes in space group P31 with pseudo-P3121 symmetry and a hemihedral twin fraction of 33.0%. Twinned fractions and twin-pair statistics over binned resolutions confirm that the calculated twin fraction is associated with hemihedral twinning and not to non-crystallographic symmetry.

Gill, Harindarpal S.; Dutcher, Lauren; Boron, Walter F.; Patel, Samir; Guay-woodford, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

187

The role of aspartic acid residues 405 and 416 of the kidney isotype of sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter 1 in its targeting to the plasma membrane  

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The NH2 terminus of the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) plays an important role in its targeting to the plasma membrane. To identify the amino acid residues that contribute to the targeting of NBCe1 to the plasma membrane, polarized MDCK cells were transfected with expression constructs coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NBCe1 NH2-terminal deletion mutants, and the localization of GFP-tagged proteins was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Our results indicate that the ...

Li, Hong C.; Kucher, Volodymyr; Li, Emily Y.; Conforti, Laura; Zahedi, Kamyar A.; Soleimani, Manoocher

2012-01-01

188

Oral Prostaglandin E1 in Combination with Sodium Bicarbonate and Normal Saline in the Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: A Pilot Study  

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) as a renal protective medication for patients exposed to contrast agents, as well as to demonstrate the safety, efficacy, and low side-effect profile of PGE1. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was designed to compare combination of intravenous sodium bicarbonate, normal saline, and oral PGE1 200 ?g versus the combination and placebo for renal protection from contrast agents. All patients receiving nonion...

Franz, Randall W.; Hinze, Scott S.; Knapp, Eric D.; Jenkins, James J.

2011-01-01

189

The effects of acute and chronic sodium bicarbonate supplementation on high-intensity intermittent performance, recovery and subsequent performance in rugby union players  

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Exogenous ingestion of alkalising agents, such as sodium bicarbonate (SB), has been shown to enhance muscle buffering capacity, thereby delaying the metabolic acidosis associated with high-intensity exercise and potentially improving performance. Aim: The aim of this research was to examine the effects of acute and chronic SB supplementation and a placebo (PLA) on high-intensity intermittent performance, recovery and subsequent performance in trained rugby union players. Methods: This aim was...

Fitzpatrick, Paula

2012-01-01

190

A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of the Anesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate Buffered 2% Lidocaine With 1?:?100,000 Epinephrine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks  

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The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a double-blind manner, inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks using a buffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine/sodium bicarbonate formulation and an unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine formulation at 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. An electric pulp tester was used in 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes to test for anesthesia of the first and second molars, premolars, and latera...

Whitcomb, Michael; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

2010-01-01

191

Uso de bicarbonato de sódio na acidose metabólica do paciente gravemente enfermo Sodium bicarbonate in the critically lll patient with metabolic acidosis  

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Full Text Available A acidose lática é um distúrbio do equilíbrio ácido-base muito frequente em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva e está associado a um mau prognóstico. Embora exista um acúmulo substancial de evidências de que níveis críticos de acidemia provocam inúmeros efeitos adversos sobre o funcionamento celular, a utilização de bicarbonato de sódio para o tratamento da acidose lática em pacientes gravemente enfermos permanece alvo de controvérsias. Neste artigo, pretendemos: 1 analisar as principais diferenças entre as acidoses hiperclorêmicas e as acidoses orgânicas, com ânion gap (AG elevado, visando embasar a discussão sobre os fundamentos da terapia com bicarbonato de sódio nas acidoses metabólicas; 2 avaliar os riscos associados à persistência de níveis críticos de acidemia, contrastando-os com os riscos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio; 3 analisar criticamente as evidências da literatura sobre o uso de bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento da acidose lática do paciente crítico, com ênfase em ensaios clínicos randomizados em seres humanos; 4 fornecer um fundamento para a utilização judiciosa de bicarbonato de sódio nesta situação.Lactic acidosis is an acid-base imbalance frequently found in critically ill patients. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite the substantial body of evidence that critical levels of acidemia have several adverse effects on cell function, the use of sodium bicarbonate to treat lactic acidosis in critically ill patients remains highly controversial. This article aimed at: 1 analyzing the main differences between hyperchloremic and organic acidoses, with high anion gap; 2 comparing the risks associated with critical levels of acidemia with those associated with the use of sodium bicarbonate; 3 critically analyzing the literature evidence about the use of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of lactic acidosis in critically ill patients, with an emphasis on randomized control trials in human beings; and 4 providing a rationale for the judicious use of sodium bicarbonate in that situation.

Paulo Novis Rocha

2009-12-01

192

Effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on the cariogenic microbiota Efeito da profilaxia profissional com jato de bicarbonato de sódio sobre a microbiota cariogênica  

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The effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on salivary counting of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in 32 children ranging from 7 to 10 years of age, has been assessed. Whole stimulated saliva was collected before the prophylaxis, immediately after it and 30 days later, and the number of CFU/ml in the saliva was detected through the Caritest system. A statistically significant immediate decrease on salivary levels of both microorganisms was observed, 50% for...

Lanza, Ce?lia Regina Moreira; Lima, Jose? Eduardo Oliveira; Torres, Sergio Aparecido; Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira

2000-01-01

193

Stress corrosion cracking tests on electron beam welded carbon steel specimens in carbonate-bicarbonate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stress corrosion cracking tests have been performed on tapered carbon steel test pieces containing electron beam welds with a view to defining susceptibility to such cracking in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution at 90 C and an appropriate electrode potential. The tests involved applying cyclic loads to the specimens and it is shown that the threshold stress for cracking reduces linearly with increase in the magnitude of the cyclic load component. Extrapolation of these trends to zero fluctuating stress indicates static load threshold stresses in the vicinity of the yield stress (i.e. about 300 N/mm2 for parent plate without a weld, 400 N/mm2 for specimens with welds on one side only and 600 N/mm2 for specimens having welds penetrating through the thickness of the specimen). The averages of the maximum crack velocities observed were least for parent plate material and greatest for weld metal, the former being essentially intergranular in morphology and the latter mostly transgranular, with heat affected zone material being intermediate between these extremes. (author)

1985-01-01

194

Assessment of Adequacy of Dialysis in Patients Undergoing Dialysis With Bicarbonate Solution  

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Full Text Available Background & Aim: Hemodialysis is a common replacement therapy for patients with ESRD, worldwide. Effective and adequate hemodialysis can improve quality of life and reduce complications of renal failure. Enhancing quality of dialysis results in reducing the complications and mortality rate in patients with chronic renal failure. The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of dialysis in patients undergoing dialysis with Bicarbonate solution in hemodialysis ward of a hospital in Sary.Methods & Materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 patients admitted in the hemodialysis ward with chronic renal failure diagnosis. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to gather data. The KT/V formula was used to assess the adequacy of hemodialysis. The URR common characteristic was also measured. Data were analyzed using statistical tests.Results: The mean age of patients was 54.76±12.55 years. The mean of KT/V and URR were 0.26±0.92 and 0.47±0.09, respectively. The kt/v ratio was lower than 1.2 in 85.2% of the patients; and the URR was lower than 65% in 97.8% of the patients.Conclusion: The hemodialysis adequacy was low in 85.2% of the patients in the hospital and the hemodialysis efficacy indicators were lower than the standard measures. Assessment to find the reasons of low efficacy of hemodialysis is recommended.

Ehteram Sadat Ilali

2011-12-01

195

A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of the Anesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate Buffered 2% Lidocaine With 1 : 100,000 Epinephrine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks  

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Abstract The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a double-blind manner, inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks using a buffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine/sodium bicarbonate formulation and an unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine formulation at 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. An electric pulp tester was used in 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes to test for anesthesia of the first and second molars, premolars, and lateral and central incisors. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained within 15 minutes, and the 80 reading was continuously sustained for 60 minutes. For the buffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine/sodium bicarbonate formulation, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 10–71%. For the unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine formulation, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 10–72%. No significant differences between the 2 anesthetic formulations were noted. The buffered lidocaine formulation did not statistically result in faster onset of pulpal anesthesia or less pain during injection than did the unbuffered lidocaine formulation. We concluded that buffering a 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine with sodium bicarbonate, as was formulated in the current study, did not statistically increase anesthetic success, provide faster onset, or result in less pain of injection when compared with unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine for an IAN block.

Whitcomb, Michael; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

2010-01-01

196

Americium(3) oxidation in bicarbonate-carbonate medium by sodium perxenate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The action of Na_4XeO_6 on Am(3) in KHCO_3, KHCO_3+K_2CO_3 and K_2CO_3 solution is investigated by the spectrophotometric method. It is ascertained that in 1.5 mol/l solutions (in terms of HCO_3"-+CO_3"2"-) at the concentrations of perxenate comparable with Am concentrates, the latter fastly moves in Am(4)+Am(5)+Am(6) mixture. The mechanism of Am(3) oxidation with perxanate is proposed; it includes reactions of Am(3 with Xe(3) and, probably, with Xe(6). 9 refs

1994-01-01

197

Sodium bicarbonate causes dose-dependent increases in cerebral blood flow in infants and children with single ventricle physiology  

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Background Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is a common treatment for metabolic acidemia, however little definitive information exists regarding its treatment efficacy and cerebral hemodynamic effects. This pilot observational study quantifies relative changes in cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and oxy and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations (?HbO2 and ?Hb) due to bolus administration of NaHCO3 in patients with mild base deficits. Methods Infants and children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) were recruited prior to cardiac surgery. NaHCO3 was given as needed for treatment of base deficit. Diffuse optical spectroscopies were employed for 15 minutes post-injection to non-invasively monitor ?Hb, ?HbO2 and rCBF relative to baseline prior to NaHCO3 administration. Results Twenty-two anesthetized and mechanically ventilated HLHS patients (1 day to 4 years old) received a median (interquartile range) dose of 1.1 (0.8, 1.8) mEq/kg NaHCO3 administered intravenously over 10–20 seconds to treat a base deficit of ?4 (?6, ?3) mEq/l. NaHCO3 caused significant dose-dependent increases in rCBF, however population averaged ?Hb or ?4HbO2 compared to controls were not significant. Conclusions Dose-dependent increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) caused by bolus NaHCO3 are an important consideration in vulnerable populations wherein risk of rapid CBF fluctuations does not outweigh the benefit of treating a base deficit.

Buckley, Erin M.; Naim, Maryam Y.; Lynch, Jennifer M.; Goff, Donna A.; Schwab, Peter J.; Diaz, Laura K.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Lavin, Natasha A.; Durduran, Turgut; Spray, Thomas L.; Gaynor, J. William; Putt, Mary E.; Yodh, A.G.; Fogel, Mark A.; Licht, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

198

Neuronal expression of sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) and its response to chronic metabolic acidosis  

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The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) is an acid-base transporter that normally moves Na+ and HCO3? into the cell. This membrane protein is sensitive to cellular and systemic pH changes. We examined NBCn1 expression and localization in the brain and its response to chronic metabolic acidosis. Two new NBCn1 antibodies were generated by immunizing a rabbit and a guinea pig. The antibodies stained neurons in a variety of rat brain regions, including hippocampal pyramidal neurons, dentate gyrus granular neurons, posterior cortical neurons, and cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Choroid plexus epithelia were also stained. Double immunofluorescence labeling showed that NBCn1 and the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 were found in the same hippocampal CA3 neurons and partially colocalized in dendrites. PSD-95 was pulled down from rat brain lysates with the GST/NBCn1 fusion protein and was also coimmunoprecipitated with NBCn1. Chronic metabolic acidosis was induced by feeding rats with normal chow or 0.4 M HCl-containing chow for 7 days. Real-time PCR and immunoblot showed upregulation of NBCn1 mRNA and protein in the hippocampus of acidotic rats. NBCn1 immunostaining was enhanced in CA3 neurons, posterior cortical neurons, and cerebellar granular cells. Intraperitoneal administration of N-methyl-d-aspartate caused neuronal death determined by caspase-3 activity, and this effect was more severe in acidotic rats. Administering N-methyl-d-aspartate also inhibited NBCn1 upregulation in acidotic rats. We conclude that NBCn1 in neurons is upregulated by chronic acid loads, and this upregulation is associated with glutamate excitotoxicity.

Park, Hae Jeong; Rajbhandari, Ira; Yang, Han Soo; Lee, Soojung; Cucoranu, Delia; Cooper, Deborah S.; Klein, Janet D.; Sands, Jeff M.

2010-01-01

199

SALT-SENSITIVITY OF BLOOD PRESSURE IS ASSOCIATED WITH POLYMORPHISMS IN THE SODIUM-BICARBONATE CO-TRANSPORTER  

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Past studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter gene (SLC4A5) are associated with hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that SNPs in SLC4A5 are associated with salt-sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) in 185 Caucasians consuming an isocaloric constant diet with a randomized order of 7 days low Na+ (10 mmol/d) and 7 days high Na+ (300 mmol/d) intake. Salt-sensitivity was defined as a ?7mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during a randomized transition between high and low Na+ diet. A total of 35 polymorphisms in 17 candidate genes were assayed, 25 of which were tested for association. Association analyses with salt-sensitivity revealed three variants that associated with salt-sensitivity, two in SLC4A5 (P SLC4A5 (rs7571842 and rs10177833) demonstrated highly significant results and large effects sizes, using logistic regression. These two SNPs had P values of 1.0×10?4 and 3.1×10?4 with odds ratios of 0.221 and 0.221 in unadjusted regression models, respectively, with the G allele at both sites conferring protection. These SNPs remained significant after adjusting for BMI and age, (P = 8.9×10?5 and 2.6×10?4 and odds ratios 0.210 and 0.286, respectively). Further, the association of these SNPS with salt-sensitivity was replicated in a second hypertensive population. Meta-analysis demonstrated significant associations of both SNPs with salt-sensitivity [rs7571842 (P=1.2×10?5); rs1017783 (P=1.1×10?4)]. In conclusion, SLC4A5 variants are strongly associated with salt-sensitivity of BP in two separate Caucasian populations.

Carey, Robert M.; Schoeffel, Cynthia D.; Gildea, John J.; Jones, John E.; McGrath, Helen E.; Gordon, Lindsay N.; Park, Min Jeong; Sobota, Rafal S.; Underwood, Patricia C.; Williams, Jonathan; Sun, Bei; Raby, Benjamin; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Hopkins, Paul N.; Adler, Gail K.; Williams, Scott M.; Jose, Pedro A.; Felder, Robin A.

2012-01-01

200

Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo calves fed different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age [...] and weight were divided into five treatment groups of 12 per group. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated and randomly allocated to a treatment group. The control diet (0SB) contained no NaHCO3, while diets 4SB, 8SB, 12SB and 16SB contained 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6% NaHCO3, respectively. An increase in nutrient intake was recorded with increasing dietary NaHCO3 level while the reverse was true for nutrient digestibility. Calves fed the 12SB and 16SB diets had higher nitrogen retentions than those fed the 0SB and 4SB diets. Significant increases in blood pH, serum HCO3 and urine pH were recorded with increasing NaHCO3 levels, with the highest in calves receiving the 16SB diet. Calves fed the 14SB and 16SB diets gained more weight than those fed the 0SB and 4SB diets. These results indicate that the best nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen retention and weight gain occurred in the calves receiving the diet containing 1.2% NaHCO3.

Sarwar, M; Shahzad, M.A; Nisa, M; Amjad, S.

 
 
 
 
201

The potential effects of sodium bicarbonate, a major constituent from coalbed natural gas production, on aquatic life  

Science.gov (United States)

The production water from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) extraction contains many constituents. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established aquatic life criteria for some of these constituents, and it is therefore possible to evaluate their risk to aquatic life. However, of the major ions associated with produced waters, chloride is the only one with an established aquatic life criterion (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1988). The focus of this research was NaHCO3, a compound that is a major constituent of coalbed natural gas produced waters in the Tongue and Powder River Basins. This project included laboratory experiments, field in situ experiments, a field mixing zone study, and a fishery presence/absence assessment. Though this investigation focuses on the Tongue and Powder River Basins, the information is applicable to other watersheds where sodium bicarbonate is a principle component of product water either from CBNG or from traditional or unconventional oil and gas development. These data can also be used to separate effects of saline discharges from those potentially posed by other constituents. Finally, this research effort and the additional collaboration with USGS Water Resources and Mapping, Bureau of Land Management, US Environmental Protection Agency, State of Montana, State of Wyoming, Montana State University, University of Wyoming, and others as part of a Powder River Aquatic Task Group, can be used as a model for successful approaches to studying landscapes with energy development. The laboratory acute toxicity experiments were completed with a suite of organisms, including 7 species of fish, 5 species of invertebrates, and 1 amphibian species. Experiments performed on these multiple species resulted in LC50s that ranged from 1,120 to greater than (>) 8,000 milligrams sodium bicarbonate per liter (mg NaHCO3/L) (also defined as 769 to >8,000 milligrams bicarbonate per liter (mg HCO3-/L) or total alkalinity expressed as 608 to >4,181 milligrams calcium carbonate per liter (mg CaCO3/L)) that varied across species and lifestage within a species. The age at which fish were exposed to NaHCO3 significantly affected the severity of toxic responses for some organisms. The chronic toxicity of NaHCO3 was defined in experiments that lasted from 7—60 days post-hatch. For these experiments, sublethal effects such as growth and reproduction, in addition to significant reductions in survival were included in the final determination of effects. Chronic toxicity was observed at concentrations that ranged from 450 to 800mg NaHCO3/L (also defined as 430 to 657 mg HCO3-/L or total alkalinity expressed as 354 to 539 mg CaCO3/L) and the specific concentration depended on the sensitivity of the four species of invertebrates and fish exposed. Sublethal investigations during chronic studies revealed percent decrease in the activity of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K ATPase, an enzyme involved in ionoregulation) and the age of the fish at the onset of the decrease may affect the ability of fathead minnow to survive exposures to NaHCO3. A database of toxicity evaluations of NaHCO3 on aquatic life has been constructed. Using these data, sample acute and chronic criteria of 459 and 381 mg NaHCO3/L, respectively, can be calculated for the protection of aquatic life. The final derivation and implementation of such criteria is, of course, left to the discretion of the concerned management agencies. A combination of in situ experiments, static-renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory, demonstrated that untreated coalbed natural gas (CBNG) product water from the Tongue and Powder River Basins reduces survival of fathead minnow and pallid sturgeon. More precisely, the survival of early-lifestage fathead minnow, especially those less than 6-days post hatch (dph), likely is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO3 rise above 1,500 mg/L. However, age was not a factor for pallid

Edited by Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

2012-01-01

202

Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na supplementation did not affect either water intake or water evaporation. This study demonstrates that the development of predictive models for water intake that include environmental variables could be based on mechanistic models of evaporation. PMID:24485695

Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

2014-04-01

203

Sodium bicarbonate treatment prevents gastric emptying delay caused by acute exercise in awake rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical exercise, mainly after vigorous activity, may induce gastrointestinal dysmotility whose mechanisms are still unknown. We hypothesized that physical exercise and ensuing lactate-related acidemia alter gastrointestinal motor behavior. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of short-term exercise on gastric emptying rate in awake rats subjected to 15-min swimming sessions against a load equivalent to 5% of their body weight. After 0, 10, or 20 min of exercise testing, the rats were gavage fed with 1.5 ml of a liquid test meal (0.5 mg/ml of phenol red in 5% glucose solution) and euthanized 10 min postprandially to measure fractional gastric dye recovery. In addition to inducing acidemia and increasing blood lactate levels, acute exercise increased (P < 0.05) gastric retention. Such a phenomenon presented a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between blood lactate levels and fractional gastric dye recovery. Gastric retention and other acidbase-related changes were all prevented by NaHCO3 pretreatment. Additionally, exercise enhanced (P < 0.05) the marker's progression through the small intestine. In anesthetized rats, exercise increased (P < 0.05) gastric volume, measured by a balloon catheter in a barostat system. Compared with sedentary control rats, acute exercise also inhibited (P < 0.05) the contractility of gastric fundus strips in vitro. In conclusion, acute exercise delayed the gastric emptying of a liquid test meal by interfering with the acid-base balance. PMID:24557800

Silva, Moisés T B; Palheta-Junior, Raimundo C; Sousa, Daniel F; Fonseca-Magalhães, Patrícia A; Okoba, Willy; Campos, Caio P S; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Magalhães, Pedro J C; Santos, Armenio A

2014-05-01

204

Effects of the inorganic salts sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and magnesium sulfate upon the growth and motility of Treponema vincentii.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of inorganic salt solutions as chemotherapeutic agents in the control of periodontal disease has received considerable attention in the past few years. Although some research has been published on their clinical effectiveness, little is known about their therapeutic activity and bactericidal effects upon oral spirochetes. The present study investigated the effects of varied concentrations of NaCl, NaHCO3, and MgSO4 upon the in vitro growth and motility of Treponema vincentii. Growth determinations were performed using a turbidiometric analysis at 545 nm. Motility was qualitatively studied by direct examination of 200 treponemes in a wet mount specimen. Samples were taken at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours following inoculation with the treponemes. Concentrations of 0.5 M NaCl, NaHCO3, or MgSO4 totally inhibited the growth and motility of T. vincentii over a 96-hour period. Salt concentrations less than or equal to 0.10 M had little if any effect upon growth and motility. The data support the hypothesis that the bactericidal and antimotility effects of these salts are related more to their concentrations than to the presence of a specific inorganic ion. They also suggest that motility may be a valid indicator of bacterial viability. Before the clinical significance of the results can be ascertained, human studies are needed to establish sulcular salt concentrations which can be achieved with local irrigation and to determine how long bactericidal concentrations can be maintained. PMID:3007725

Wolinsky, L E; Lott, T

1986-03-01

205

Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

1977-04-01

206

Intraocular Irrigating Solutions. A Clinical Study of BSS Plus ® and Dextrose Bicarbonate Fortified BSS ® as an Infusate during Pars Plana Vitrectomy.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the effect of Balanced Salt Solution Plus (BSS Plus, Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA and fortified regular BSS on the cornea and lens, when used for continuous irrigation in pars plana vitrectomy (PPV surgery. Methods: Prospective, investigator masked, randomised study. Forty patients were randomly assigned to undergo PPV using BSS Plus (n=20 or fortified BSS (n=20 [regular BSS, fortified with 10.5 cc. of dextrose in water (D5W and 13.1cc. of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate]. Intraoperative features of the corneal epithelium, postoperative changes in the corneal endothelial cell denstiy (ECD at 3 months, and clarity of the lens during surgery and postoperatively were evaluated. Results: Intraoperative epithelial changes were similar in both groups with 7 (35% of the cases having the epithelium removed in the BSS Plus group and 8 (40% in the BSS fortified group (P=0.23. The mean differences in ECD (3 months versus preoperative in the operated eyes when adjusted for changes in the control eye showed no difference with the type of BSS (P=0.98. Intraoperative lens changes were more significant (P=0.018 in the BSS fortified group. Postoperative lens status at 3 months was similar for both groups. Though there was a trend towards worse postoperative nuclear sclerosis change in the BSS fortified group, it was not significant (P=0.160. Conclusion: Standard BSS fortified with dextrose and bicarbonate is an efficacious infusion fluid during pars plana vitrectomy. Both solutions showed comparable effects on postoperative corneal endothelial cell density and corneal epithelial changes intraoperatively. BSS fortified has more lenticular changes intraoperatively than BSS Plus although no lens had to be removed in either group. The study implications are important since BSS fortified is significantly less expensive than BSS Plus.

Samuel Michael

2003-01-01

207

Effect of bicarbonate on efficacy of oral rehydration therapy: studies in an experimental model of secretory diarrhoea.  

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In situ perfusion of rat intestine was used to evaluate the effect of bicarbonate on the efficacy of a low sodium (35 mmol/l) glucose-electrolyte oral rehydration solution in normal and cholera toxin-treated rat small intestine. In normal intestine, absorption of water was greater (108 (8.1) microliters/min/g; p less than 0.01) and sodium secretion less (-4.3 (0.3) mumol/min/g; p less than 0.01) from the oral rehydration solution containing bicarbonate than from the solution in which bicarbon...

Elliott, E. J.; Watson, A. J.; Walker-smith, J. A.; Farthing, M. J.

1988-01-01

208

Tentative method for separation and collection of particulate and gaseous fluorides in the atmosphere (sodium bicarbonate-coated glass tube and a particulate filter method)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sodium bicarbonate-coated glass tube and membrane filter method provides a means for the separation and collection of gaseous atmospheric forms of fluoride reactive with sodium bicarbonate and particulate forms of fluoride which are collected by a filter. The method is applicable to 12-h sampling periods, collecting 2 to 500 ..mu..g of gaseous fluoride at a 14.2 liters/min (0.5 ft/sup 3//min) sampling rate or about 0.2 to 50 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. The actual lower limit of the method will depend upon the sensitivity of the analytical method employed and the quality of reagents used in tube preparation and analysis. It is recommended that the lower limit of detection should be considered as two times the standard deviation of the monthly arithmetic mean blank value. Any values greater than the blank by less than this amount should be reported as ''blank value.'' Gaseous fluorides are removed from the air stream by reaction with sodium bicarbonate coated on the inside wall of a borosilicate glass tube. Particulate fluorides are collected on a filter following the tube. The fluoride collected by the tube is eluted with water or buffer and analyzed for fluoride. The particulates collected by the filter are eluted with acid and analyzed for fluoride. The results are reported as micrograms of gaseous fluoride and micrograms of particulate fluoride per cubic meter of air at 21/sup 0/C (70/sup 0/F) and 760 torr (29.92 in. Hg).

1975-01-01

209

Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy: A randomized controlled trial of sodium bicarbonate and N-acetylcysteine  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) continues to be a common cause of acute renal failure in high-risk patients undergoing radiocontrast studies. However, there is still a lack of consensus regarding the most effective measures to prevent CIN. METHODS: One hundred eighteen patients with diabetes mellitus and/or renal insufficiency, scheduled for coronary angiography or intervention, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: intravenous (IV) 0.9% NaCl alone, IV 0.9% NaCl plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC), IV 0.9% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) alone or IV 0.9% NaHCO3 plus NAC. All patients received IV hydration as a preprocedure bolus and as maintenance. Iso-osmolar contrast was used in all patients. CIN was defined as an increase of greater than 25% in the serum creatinine concentration from baseline to 72 h. RESULTS: The overall incidence of CIN was 6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of CIN among the groups. There was a CIN incidence of 7% in the NaCl only group, 5% in the NaCl/NAC group, 11% in the NaHCO3 only group and 4% in the NaHCO3/NAC group (P=0.86). The maximum increase in serum creatinine was 14.14±12.38 ?mol/L in the NaHCO3 group, 10.60±29.14 ?mol/L in the NaCl only group, 9.72±13.26 ?mol/L in the NaCl/NAC group and 0.177±15.91 ?mol/L for the NaHCO3/NAC group (P=0.0792). CONCLUSION: CIN in high-risk patients may be effectively minimized solely through the use of an aggressive hydration protocol and an iso-osmolar contrast agent. The addition of NaHCO3 and/or NAC did not have an effect on the incidence of CIN.

Ratcliffe, Justin A; Thiagarajah, Prashan; Chen, Jennifer; Kavala, Gita; Kanei, Yumiko; Fox, John; Gowda, Ramesh; Schmitz, Sabrina J; Friedmann, Patricia; Bergmann, Steven

2009-01-01

210

Infusing Sodium Bicarbonate Suppresses Hydrogen Peroxide Accumulation and Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Hypoxic-Reoxygenated Newborn Piglets  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) has recently been questioned although it is often used to correct metabolic acidosis of neonates. The aim of the present study was to examine its effect on hemodynamic changes and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation in the resuscitation of hypoxic newborn animals with severe acidosis. Methods Newborn piglets were block-randomized into a sham-operated control group without hypoxia (n?=?6) and two hypoxia-reoxygenation groups (2 h normocapnic alveolar hypoxia followed by 4 h room-air reoxygenation, n?=?8/group). At 10 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. SB (2 mEq/kg), or saline (hypoxia-reoxygenation controls) in a blinded, randomized fashion. Hemodynamic data and blood gas were collected at specific time points and cerebral cortical H2O2 production was continuously monitored throughout experimental period. Plasma superoxide dismutase and catalase and brain tissue glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, nitrotyrosine and lactate levels were assayed. Results Two hours of normocapnic alveolar hypoxia caused cardiogenic shock with metabolic acidosis (pH: 6.99±0.07, HCO3?: 8.5±1.6 mmol/L). Upon resuscitation, systemic hemodynamics immediately recovered and then gradually deteriorated with normalization of acid-base imbalance over 4 h of reoxygenation. SB administration significantly enhanced the recovery of both pH and HCO3? recovery within the first hour of reoxygenation but did not cause any significant effect in the acid-base at 4 h of reoxygenation and the temporal hemodynamic changes. SB administration significantly suppressed the increase in H2O2 accumulation in the brain with inhibition of superoxide dismutase, but not catalase, activity during hypoxia-reoxygenation as compared to those of saline-treated controls. Conclusions Despite enhancing the normalization of acid-base imbalance, SB administration during resuscitation did not provide any beneficial effects on hemodynamic recovery in asphyxiated newborn piglets. SB treatment also reduced the H2O2 accumulation in the cerebral cortex without significant effects on oxidative stress markers presumably by suppressing superoxide dismutase but not catalase activity.

Liu, Jiang-Qin; Manouchehri, Namdar; Lee, Tze-Fun; Yao, Mingzhu; Bigam, David L.; Cheung, Po-Yin

2012-01-01

211

Sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1/slc4a7 increases cytotoxicity in magnesium depletion in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Growing evidence suggests that pharmacological inhibition of Na/H exchange and Na/HCO3 transport provides protection against damage or injury in cardiac ischemia. In this study, we examined the contribution of the sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 (slc4a7) to cytotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons of rats. In neurons exposed to extracellular pH (pHo) ranging from 6.2 to 8.3, NBCn1 protein expression increased by fivefold at pH < 6.5 compared to the expression at pHo 7.4. At pHo 6.5...

Cooper, Deborah S.; Yang, Han Soo; He, Peijian; Kim, Eunjin; Rajbhandari, Ira; Yun, Chris C.; Choi, Inyeong

2009-01-01

212

The effect of sodium bicarbonate as an abrasive media on ferrous and non-ferrous metal surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of bicarbonate ions on the surface of carbon steel, aluminium and copper has been investigated using corrosion analyzer. The corrosion rate of samples due to corrosion action, under static conditions at room temperature has been obtained from the current response using Faradays law. The degree of bicarbonate ions attack was referred to the corrosion rate of each sample. The significant resistance to corrosion and the outstanding stability of the corrosion resistance shows that the excellent performances of the carbon steel over that of aluminium and copper. From the results obtained show that the bicarbonate ions were not attacked on the surface of carbon steel but slightly attacked on the aluminium and copper surfaces. (Author)

2006-09-01

213

Parallel adaptation of the rabbit renal cortical sodium/proton antiporter and sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter in metabolic acidosis and alkalosis.  

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Recent studies have shown that the bicarbonate reabsorptive capacity of the proximal tubule is increased in metabolic acidosis. For net bicarbonate reabsorption to be regulated, there may be changes in the rate of apical H+ secretion as well as in the basolateral base exit step. The present studies examined the rate of Na+/H+ exchange (acridine orange method) and Na+/HCO3 cotransport (22Na uptake) in apical and basolateral membranes prepared from the rabbit renal cortex by sucrose density gra...

Akiba, T.; Rocco, V. K.; Warnock, D. G.

1987-01-01

214

Aggregation of sodium alkylbenzenesulfonates in aqueous solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The origins of the ultralow tensions (less than 10/sup -2/ dyn/cm) between phases in multi-component systems containing surfactants are currently being actively investigated. Generation and maintenance of these ultralow tensions are essential for successful mobilization of residual oil to immiscible surfactant-water or microemulsion flooding processes. The object of the study is to see whether surfactant aggregation in the aqueous phase has anything to do with the producion of ultralow interfacial tensions (IFTs). Since commercially available petroleum sulfonates contain complex mixtures of surfactants (plus other components) which are unsuitable for fundamental physicochemical work, two pure sodium alkylbenzenesulfonates were used as models for the commercial material. The surfactants studied were sodium p(1-heptylnonyl)benzenesulfonate, 8-phenyl-C/sub 16/SNa, also known as Texas No. 1, and sodium p(1-pentylheptyl)benzenesulfonate, 6-phenyl-C/sub 12/SNa. The surfactant 6-phenyl-C/sub 12/SNa forms a small spherical micelles in aqueous solution, having an aggregation number of 20 to 30 and a fractional charge of 0.45. These micelles are hydrated to the extent of approximately 18 moles H/sub 2/O per moles of surfactant. A second larger aggregate is also present in 6-phenyl-C/sub 12/SNa solution; its importance increases with solution age. Addition of NaCl causes both aggregates to apparently increase modestly in size. The surfactant 8-phenyl-C/sub 16/SNa also contains both aggregates in its solutions; the larger one is relatively more important here. The larger aggregate does not correspond to dispersed bits of a liquid crystalline mesophase.

Magid, L.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN); Shaver, R.J.; Gulari, E.; Bedwell, B.; Alkhafaji, S.

1981-02-01

215

Evaluation of the efficacy of oral rehydration solutions using human whole gut perfusion.  

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Whole gut perfusion in humans was used to compare the effect on intestinal water and electrolyte transport of the World Health Organisation oral rehydration solution (solution II, composition in mmol/l: glucose 111, sodium 90, bicarbonate 30, potassium 20; 308 mOsm/kg); a hypertonic commercial oral rehydration solution (solution III, glucose 188, sodium 50, bicarbonate 20, potassium 20 mmol/l; 335 mOsm/kg); and three experimental bicarbonate free, hypotonic oral rehydration solutions: solutio...

Rolston, D. D.; Zinzuvadia, S. N.; Mathan, V. I.

1990-01-01

216

Pulse radiolysis of solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pulse radiolysis of solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh4) indicates that the absorption observed in organic amides with ?/sub max/ in the range 650-724 nm is not due to Na-, an electron adduct to BPh4-, a triplet excited state, or a proton-donating solvent cation. Experiments in aqueous solution are described in which the reactions of selected radicals with NaBPh4 are studied. One-electron oxidation of NaBPh4 by N3/sup .-/ radicals yields a species, assumed to be NaBPh4/sup ./, with absorption maxima at 335 and 800 nm. A similar spectrum is observed on pulse radiolysis of solutions of NaBPh4 in tetramethylurea (TMU), but the long-wavelength absorption is shifted to 725 nm. The formation of an oxidizing radical in irradiated TMU was confirmed by the observation of I2/sup .-/ on pulse radiolysis of solutions of KI in this solvent. Pulse radiolysis of solution of NaBPh4 and KI in TMU demonstrated that these solutes compete for the oxidizing intermediate

1988-05-05

217

Np(V)/Np(IV) in concentrated carbonate/bicarbonate solutions; Np(V)/Np(IV) en solutions carbonate/bicarbonate concentrees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution of Np(V) is electrolysed to Np(IV) at -2.0 V/SHE. -1g(H{sup +}) is decreased from 10.4 to 7.2 by bubbling CO{sub 2} in these solutions, where Np(IV) spectra can be interpreted with the only lost of one CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anion from the Np(IV) limiting complex. From these spectral changes, the following parameters are fitted: 20.5 {+-} 2.1, 8.44 {+-} 0.9 and 28.9 {+-} 2.9 l/mol./cm for the Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}{sup 6-} molar absorptivity at 823, 990 and 1013 nm respectively, and 54.5 {+-} 5.5, 40.6 {+-} 4.1 and 8.53 {+-} 0.9 for the Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 4-} ones, and log((Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}{sup 6-}) / ((Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 4-})(CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}))) = 1.47 {+-} 0.08, 1.63 {+-} 0.05, 1.80 {+-} 0.04, 1.79 {+-} 0.10 and 2.21 {+-} 0.03 at the half point reaction in initially 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. These values are extrapolated to 0 ionic strength by using the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT). The redox potential of 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions of Np(V) and Np(IV) mixtures, is stable usually after three hours at T from 5 to 60 deg C, and then for up to three weeks at 21.5 deg C. At 25 deg C, its values are 0.247, 0.234, 0.244 and 0.228 V/SEH in 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. When the tonic strength is equal to 0: E = 0.52 {+-} 0.1 V/SEH and {Delta}S/F = -1.1 {+-} 0.7 mV. deg C{sup -1}. Assuming this potential is controlled by the NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 5-} + 2 CO{sub 2} + e{sup -} {r_reversible} Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}{sup 6-} equilibrium, the formation constant of the limiting complex is deduced by using published values of the other needed equilibria: log {Beta}{sub 5}{sup d}eg = 38 {+-} 4. Qualitative results on the preparation and on the spectra of Np(IV) are used to explain the apparent contradictions between some published results. (authors). 39 refs., figs., tabs.

Delmau, L.H.; Vitorge, P.; Capdevila, H.

1996-01-01

218

Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000?mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3?), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000?mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300?mg/L HCO3?. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989?mg/L, 1120?mg/L, 1249?mg/L, and 1430?mg/L NaHCO3, or 699?mg/L, 844?mg/L, 831?mg/L, and 1038?mg/L HCO3?. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3? compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24?h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3?.

Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

2014-01-01

219

Better preservation of peritoneal morphologic features and defense in rats after long-term exposure to a bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-term effects of a standard lactate-buffered dialysis fluid and a new, two-chamber, bicarbonate/lactate-buffered dialysis fluid (with fewer glucose degradation products and a neutral pH) were compared in an in vivo peritoneal exposure model. Rats were given daily injections, via an access port, of 10 ml of standard solution or bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution for 9 to 10 wk. The omentum, peritoneum, and mesothelial cell layer were screened for morphologic changes. In addition, the bacterial clearing capacity of the peritoneal cells was studied. Significantly more milky spots and blood vessels were observed in the omenta of animals treated with standard solution (P < 0.03 for both parameters). Electron-microscopic analysis demonstrated dramatic changes in the appearance of the vascular endothelial cells of the milky spots and a severely damaged or even absent mesothelium on the peritoneal membrane of the standard solution-treated animals. In contrast, the mesothelium was still present in the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, although the cells lost microvilli. Both peritoneal dialysis fluids significantly increased the density of mesothelial cells (per square millimeter) on the surface of the liver and the thickness of the submesothelial extracellular matrix of the peritoneum (both P < 0.04 for both fluids versus control). A significantly better ex vivo bacterial clearing capacity was observed with peritoneal cells from the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, compared with the standard solution group (P < 0.05 in both experiments). These results demonstrate that instillation of bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution into rats for 9 to 10 wk preserves both morphologic and immune parameters much more effectively, compared with standard solution. These findings may be of considerable clinical importance. PMID:11729248

Hekking, L H; Zareie, M; Driesprong, B A; Faict, D; Welten, A G; de Greeuw, I; Schadee-Eestermans, I L; Havenith, C E; van den Born, J; ter Wee, P M; Beelen, R H

2001-12-01

220

The variation of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate concentration, pH and conductivity in groundwater of Karachi region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater in Karachi is influenced mainly by the evaporation / crystallization process as expressed by the Na/(Na+Ca) weight concentration ratio. The high coefficient of determined between conductivity and total dissolved ions concentration in meq/sup -1/ revealed that major ions affect the conductivity of groundwater. It was also found that groundwater quality with respect to cations is not significantly influenced by geology, particularly in the Urban are of the city, where the 90% of the population resides. The relationship between conductivity and bicarbonate concentration shows that supersaturation of groundwater with carbon dioxide is responsible for general depression of pH. (author)

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

The effects of elevated levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO?) on the acute power output and time to fatigue of maximally stimulated mouse soleus and EDL muscles.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of elevated buffer capacity [~32 mM HCO?(-)] through administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO?) on maximally stimulated isolated mouse soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles undergoing cyclical length changes at 37 °C. The elevated buffering capacity was of an equivalent level to that achieved in humans with acute oral supplementation. We evaluated the acute effects of elevated [HCO?(-)] on (1) maximal acute power output (PO) and (2) time to fatigue to 60 % of maximum control PO (TLIM60), the level of decline in muscle PO observed in humans undertaking similar exercise, using the work loop technique. Acute PO was on average 7.0 ± 4.8 % greater for NaHCO?-treated EDL muscles (P PO were likely due to greater force production throughout shortening. The acute effects of NaHCO? on EDL were significantly greater (P power output. PMID:23203385

Higgins, M F; Tallis, J; Price, M J; James, R S

2013-05-01

222

X-ray diffraction studies on merohedrally twinned ?1-62NtNBCe1-A crystals of the sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter.  

Science.gov (United States)

NBCe1-A membrane-embedded macromolecules that cotransport sodium and bicarbonate ions across the bilayer serve to maintain acid-base homeostasis throughout the body. Defects result in a number of renal and eye disorders, including type-II renal tubular acidosis and cataracts. Here, crystals of a human truncated mutant of the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of NBCe1 (?1-62NtNBCe1-A) are reported that diffract X-rays to 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal symmetry of ?1-62NtNBCe1-A is of space group P31 with pseudo-P3121 symmetry and it has a hemihedral twin fraction of 33.0%. The crystals may provide insight into the pathogenic processes observed in a subset of patients with truncating and point mutations in the gene encoding NBCe1. PMID:23832211

Gill, Harindarpal S; Dutcher, Lauren; Boron, Walter F; Patel, Samir; Guay-Woodford, Lisa M

2013-07-01

223

Dry process of smokes treatment with sodium bicarbonate and the recycling of sodic wastes; Proceso seco de depuracion de humos con bicarbonato sodico de reciclado de productos sodicos residuales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Neutrec process of Solvay for the acid emissions treatment by sodium bicarbonate is using in Belgium, France, Italy, The Netherland and Spain. there are 28 facilities for the smokes treatment. these smokes are coming from the urban, sanitary and hazardous wastes. The Neutrec process is using dry reactive for neutralizing the acid smoker. (Author)

Catalan, X.

1996-12-01

224

Influence of zinc, sodium bicarbonate, and citric acid on the antibacterial activity of ovotransferrin against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in model systems and ham.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of NaHCO(3) and citric acid on the antibacterial activity of apo-ovotransferrin in model systems and ham was investigated. The antibacterial activity of 20 mg/mL of ovotransferrin solution with added NaHCO(3) (0, 25, 50, or 100 mM) or citric acid (0.25 or 0.5%) was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in brain heart infusion broth. The antimicrobial activity of ovotransferrin saturated with Fe(2+) or Zn(2+) against both pathogens was also measured. In addition, ovotransferrin solutions containing either 100 mM NaHCO(3) or 0.5% citric acid were applied to commercial hams inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes and stored at 4 degrees C for 4 wk. The antimicrobial activity of ovotransferrin increased as the concentration of added NaHCO(3) increased. Sodium bicarbonate (100 mM) significantly improved the antibacterial activity of ovotransferrin against E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. Citric acid (0.5%) combined with ovotransferrin resulted in a synergistic antibacterial effect against E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes was susceptible to 0.5% citric acid alone. Sodium bicarbonate diminished the strong antibacterial activity of ovotransferrin + citric acid against E. coli O157:H7, and use of sodium citrate instead of citric acid did not produce any antibacterial activity against the pathogens. The antimicrobial activity of ovotransferrin increased significantly under acidic conditions. The Zn-bound ovotransferrin prevented the growth of L. monocytogenes as detected in the apo-ovotransferrin combined with 100 mM NaHCO(3) treatment, but Fe-bound ovotransferrin had little or no inhibitory activity against E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. Ovotransferrin + 100 mM NaHCO(3) did not exhibit any antibacterial activity against the 2 pathogens in commercial hams, whereas ovotransferrin + 0.5% citric acid suppressed the growth of L. monocytogenes in irradiated hams. In conclusion, combinations of ovotransferrin with NaHCO(3), citric acid, or Zn(2+) enhanced the antibacterial activity of ovotransferrin against E. coli and L. monocytogenes, but there are some limitations as discussed for applying ovotransferrin to meat or meat products. PMID:19038824

Ko, K Y; Mendonca, A F; Ahn, D U

2008-12-01

225

Bicarbonate secretion in vivo by rat distal tubules during alkalosis induced by dietary chloride restriction and alkali loading.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To examine in vivo the separate effects on distal tubule JtCO2, of dietary chloride restriction, bicarbonate loading, and changes in luminal chloride concentration, we microperfused distal tubules at a physiologic flow rate (8 nl/min) with solutions containing either 45 or 0 mM chloride (after gluconate substitution). Rats were fed a diet containing zero, minimal, or normal amounts of chloride, while drinking either water or a solution of 0.15 M sodium bicarbonate. Neither extracellular fluid...

Levine, D. Z.; Iacovitti, M.; Harrison, V.

1991-01-01

226

Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy With N-Acetylcysteine or Sodium Bicarbonate in Patients With ST-Segment-Myocardial Infarction : A Prospective, Randomized, Open-Labeled Trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious condition in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We compared the risk of acute CIN and the influence of preventive strategies in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 720 patients were randomized in the Prevention of Contrast-induced Nephropathy in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (CINSTEMI) trial. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive hydration with sodium chloride together with 1 of 4 prophylactic regimes (1) N-acetylcysteine (NAC), (2) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) infusion, (3) NAC in combination with NaHCO3, or (4) hydration with sodium chloride infusion alone. Patients in cardiogenic shock were excluded. Acute CIN was defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration >25% from the baseline value within a 3-day period. Overall, CIN occurred in 141 (21.9%) patients. The prevention treatment with NAC, NaHCO3, or the combined NAC and NaHCO3 did not reduce the rate of CIN significantly compared with hydration with intravenous sodium chloride infusion alone (20.1% versus 20.1% versus 20.8% versus 26.5%; P=NS). However, an increase in serum creatinine >25% from the baseline value to 30 day was significantly lower in patients treated with combined NAC and NaHCO3 (18.7% versus 19.1% versus 9.2% versus 21.3%; P=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with NAC or NaHCO3 did not reduce the rate of acute CIN significantly. Combined treatment with NAC and NaHCO3 may reduce the risk of renal dysfunction after 30 days. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01160627.

Thayssen, Per; Lassen, Jens Flensted

2014-01-01

227

The radiation induced chemistry of uranyl cation in aqueous carbonate –bicarbonate solutions as followed by NMR spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alpha radiation induced formation of hydrogen peroxide in carbonate ?bicarbonate media was followed by 13C NMR using dissolved [233UO2(13CO3)3]4- as the alpha source (Dalpha= 12.1 Gy/hr). Between the pH region between 5.9 and 11.6 hydrogen peroxide causes a varied speciation of the uranyl carbonates that is a function of the uranium, carbonate and the hydrogen peroxide concentrations. It is shown that the speciation of the peroxy carbonates (or other species) formed in solution by titration with hydrogen peroxide are common to those formed by hydrogen peroxide generated by radiolysis. The radiolysis experiment was carried out above pH = 9.96 to minimize the loss of 13CO2 over a 2800 hr period. Radiolytic generation of hydrogen peroxide was followed by formation of a uranyl peroxy carbonate complex and complex formation accelerated for about 1200 hours. Complex formation was observed to terminate at a concentration between 1x10-4 and 5x10-4 M. It is assumed that either a steady state H2O2 production rate was established in solution or that some limiting feature of the experiment was responsible for slowing the yield of product.

McNamara, Bruce K.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Cho, Herman M.; Friese, Judah I.

2006-05-01

228

Ecological comparison between hydrated lime and sodium bicarbonate when used for dry flue gas purification; Oekologischer Vergleich von Kalkhydrat und Natriumbicarbonat beim Einsatz in der trockenen Rauchgasreinigung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lime plays an important role in environmental protection. Not only due to its properties but also due to its natural occurrence, it is suitable and accepted for universal application in the environment sector. Lime and its refined products can be used in various processes to remove the acid gases, the gaseous metal compounds and organic trace constituents from the flue gas of waste incineration plants. The choice of the suitable process depends on the raw gas load, the separation efficiency to be achieved and the way of recovery of the reaction product obtained as a result of flue gas cleaning. The dry sorption processes have been established for many years and have been continuously further developed, in which lime is injected into the flue gas flow and the reaction product is retained via a filtering separator. As an alternative to lime products, it is also possible, under certain boundary conditions, to use sodium hydrogen-carbonate NaHCO{sub 3} (below called sodium bicarbonate) as a basic reaction component in the dry sorption process. As opposed to calcium hydroxide, there are differences, for example as regards the reaction temperature required and the necessary amount of sorbent to achieve the desired purification effect. (orig.)

Wecker, Andreas [Federal German Association of the Lime Industry, Koeln (Germany)

2009-07-01

229

Prevenção de nefrotoxicidade por contraste com solução de bicarbonato: resultados preliminares e revisão da literatura / Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by use of bicarbonate solution: preliminary results and literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A incidência da nefropatia por contraste tem aumentado simultaneamente ao aumento da sua utilização com fins diagnósticos e de intervenção terapêutica. A sua incidência na população geral é baixa, porém aumenta exponencialmente em pacientes com fatores de risco como diabetes e doença ren [...] al prévia. Várias estratégias têm sido utilizadas na tentativa de prevenir a nefropatia por contraste. Hidratação com solução fisiológica, contraste de baixa osmolalidade ou iso-osmolar e infusão de bicarbonato de sódio são consideradas como as mais eficazes. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar a literatura pertinente sobre prevenção de nefropatia do contraste e estudar, de forma inicial, a eficácia da hidratação a base de bicarbonato de sódio a 1,3% comparada à hidratação a base de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% na prevenção da nefrotoxicidade do contraste em pacientes de alto risco para o seu desenvolvimento. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a literatura por meio de busca sistemática no banco de dados PubMed usando as palavras-chave bicarbonato, nefrotoxicidade, contraste e insuficiência renal aguda e, adicionalmente, foram estudados 27 pacientes, portadores de diabetes mellitus e/ou doença renal crônica prévia e diagnosticados com algum tipo de câncer. RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes desenvolveu nefropatia do contraste, caracterizada como aumento de 0,5 mg/ dL e/ou de 25% na creatinina basal. CONCLUSÃO: A revisão de literatura sugere fortemente que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio é eficaz na prevenção de nefropatia por contraste. Em relação ao estudo randomizado e controlado o soro fisiológico e o bicarbonato de sódio apresentaram eficácia similar quanto à prevenção de nefrotoxicidade do contraste. No entanto, o pequeno número de pacientes não permite conclusões definitivas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy has increased simultaneously with the increase in contrast medium use in diagnostic and interventional procedures. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in the general population is low, but increases exponentially in patients with [...] risk factors, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Several strategies have been used in order to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. The most efficient strategies are saline hydration (0.9% or 0.45%), use of low-or iso-osmolality contrast medium, and sodium bicarbonate infusion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the pertinent literature and to assess the efficacy of hydration with 1.3% sodium bicarbonate compared with hydration with 0.9% saline solution in preventing contrastinduced nephropathy in high-risk patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed by using the following keywords: bicarbonate, nephropathy, contrast medium, and acute kidney failure. In addition, 27 patients with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, diagnosed with some kind of cancer were randomized for study. RESULTS: None of the patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy characterized as a 0.5 mg/ dL-increase and/or a relative 25%-increase in baseline creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review strongly suggested that sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. Regarding the randomized study, saline solution and bicarbonate solution had similar efficacy in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. However, the small number of patients does not allow definite conclusions.

Ricardo Gonçalves da, Silva; Nelson Gonçalves da, Silva; Fabiano, Lucchesi; Emmanuel A, Burdmann.

230

Prevenção de nefrotoxicidade por contraste com solução de bicarbonato: resultados preliminares e revisão da literatura Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by use of bicarbonate solution: preliminary results and literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A incidência da nefropatia por contraste tem aumentado simultaneamente ao aumento da sua utilização com fins diagnósticos e de intervenção terapêutica. A sua incidência na população geral é baixa, porém aumenta exponencialmente em pacientes com fatores de risco como diabetes e doença renal prévia. Várias estratégias têm sido utilizadas na tentativa de prevenir a nefropatia por contraste. Hidratação com solução fisiológica, contraste de baixa osmolalidade ou iso-osmolar e infusão de bicarbonato de sódio são consideradas como as mais eficazes. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar a literatura pertinente sobre prevenção de nefropatia do contraste e estudar, de forma inicial, a eficácia da hidratação a base de bicarbonato de sódio a 1,3% comparada à hidratação a base de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% na prevenção da nefrotoxicidade do contraste em pacientes de alto risco para o seu desenvolvimento. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a literatura por meio de busca sistemática no banco de dados PubMed usando as palavras-chave bicarbonato, nefrotoxicidade, contraste e insuficiência renal aguda e, adicionalmente, foram estudados 27 pacientes, portadores de diabetes mellitus e/ou doença renal crônica prévia e diagnosticados com algum tipo de câncer. RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes desenvolveu nefropatia do contraste, caracterizada como aumento de 0,5 mg/ dL e/ou de 25% na creatinina basal. CONCLUSÃO: A revisão de literatura sugere fortemente que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio é eficaz na prevenção de nefropatia por contraste. Em relação ao estudo randomizado e controlado o soro fisiológico e o bicarbonato de sódio apresentaram eficácia similar quanto à prevenção de nefrotoxicidade do contraste. No entanto, o pequeno número de pacientes não permite conclusões definitivas.INTRODUCTION: The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy has increased simultaneously with the increase in contrast medium use in diagnostic and interventional procedures. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in the general population is low, but increases exponentially in patients with risk factors, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Several strategies have been used in order to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. The most efficient strategies are saline hydration (0.9% or 0.45%, use of low-or iso-osmolality contrast medium, and sodium bicarbonate infusion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the pertinent literature and to assess the efficacy of hydration with 1.3% sodium bicarbonate compared with hydration with 0.9% saline solution in preventing contrastinduced nephropathy in high-risk patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed by using the following keywords: bicarbonate, nephropathy, contrast medium, and acute kidney failure. In addition, 27 patients with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, diagnosed with some kind of cancer were randomized for study. RESULTS: None of the patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy characterized as a 0.5 mg/ dL-increase and/or a relative 25%-increase in baseline creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review strongly suggested that sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. Regarding the randomized study, saline solution and bicarbonate solution had similar efficacy in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. However, the small number of patients does not allow definite conclusions.

Ricardo Gonçalves da Silva

2010-09-01

231

Pre-harvest treatments with fungicides and post-harvest dips in sodium bicarbonate to control postharvest decay in stone fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different commercial formulations of fungicides containing one or more active ingredients in controlling postharvest decay of Thyrinthos and Boccuccia apricots, Red top peaches and Caldesi nectarines. Field treatments consisted of two sprays with cupric compounds, at the end of leaf fall and before bud swelling, one with sulfur compound, at fruit about half final size stage, and one with one of the following commercial formulations at the label suggested rates, one week before harvest: Teldor (fenexamid 50%; Bayer Crop Protection), Folicur (Tebuconazole 4.35%; Bayer Crop Protection), Signum (boscalid 26.7%, pyraclostrobin 6.7%; Basf Crop Protection), Score (difenoconazole 23.23%, Syngenta Crop Protection) and Switch (cyprodinil 37.5%, fludioxonil 25%, Syngenta Crop Protection). After harvest the fruit were stored for 1 week at 6 degrees C and 90% RH followed by 1 week at 20 degrees C and 60% RH to simulate retail conditions, or placed directly at 20 degrees C. All formulations significantly reduced decay in all cultivars. Switch, Signum and Folicur were the most active, while Score was slightly less effective. Teldor activity was low, especially in Thyrintos apricots, where the percentage of rotten fruit was slightly lower than in control fruit. Brown rot was the most representative disease, but in apricots a high percentage of fruit was affected by blue mold and grey mold. Rhizopus rot generally developed as a secondary disease on fruit previously affected by other pathogens and was more frequent in control and Teldor treated fruit. Preharvest sprays with Signum 3 days before harvest reduced postharvest decay after 1 week storage at 20 degrees C in Glo haven peaches and Venus nectarine harvested at advanced stage of maturity. Combining pre-harvest sprays with Signum and a 2-min postharvest dip in 2% sodium bicarbonate at 20 degrees C further reduced decay. In Sothern regions of Italy, the use of synthetic fungicides only immediately before harvest in years when the weather conditions are not favorable to brown rot and other pathogens inducing postharvest decay, combined with a postharvest treatment with sodium bicarbonate could be a feasible integrated approach to reduce the risk of selection of resistant strains of fungi to synthetic fungicides while controlling effectively postharvest decay. PMID:23878974

D'Aquino, S; Barberis, A; Satta, D; De Pau, L; Schirra, M

2012-01-01

232

21 CFR 520.2261a - Sulfamethazine sodium drinking water solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Sulfamethazine sodium drinking water solution. 520.2261a Section...Sulfamethazine sodium drinking water solution. (a) Sponsors...sulfamethazine sodium solution. (b) Related tolerances...Administer in drinking water to...

2009-04-01

233

The Structure and Spectroscopy of Cyanate and Bicarbonate Ions. Astrophysical Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanate and bicarbonate are two ions that play active roles in many fields of physics and chemistry, including biological sciences and astrochemistry. We present here a comprehensive study of these species covering a range of phases and methodologies. We have performed theoretical calculations on the isolated ions and their hydrates with one to four water molecules, and in clusters with 15 water molecules. The predicted infrared spectra are compared with observed spectra from experiments where liquid droplets of their solutions are frozen at 14 K on a substrate, to mimic some astrophysical conditions. Crystals of cyanate and bicarbonate sodium and potassium salts are also studied experimental and theoretically. As well, the spontaneous decomposition of cyanate into bicarbonate is documented from the spectra of an aged solution. Finally, the possible astrophysical observation of bicarbonate in water-containing particles is discussed.

Moreno, M. A.; Maté, B.; Rodríguez-Lazcano, Y.; Gálvez, O.; Gómez, P. C.; Herrero, V. J.; Escribano, R.

2013-10-01

234

The structure and spectroscopy of cyanate and bicarbonate ions. Astrophysical implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanate and bicarbonate are two ions that play active roles in many fields of physics and chemistry, including biological sciences and astrochemistry. We present here a comprehensive study of these species covering a range of phases and methodologies. We have performed theoretical calculations on the isolated ions and their hydrates with one to four water molecules, and in clusters with 15 water molecules. The predicted infrared spectra are compared with observed spectra from experiments where liquid droplets of their solutions are frozen at 14 K on a substrate, to mimic some astrophysical conditions. Crystals of cyanate and bicarbonate sodium and potassium salts are also studied experimental and theoretically. As well, the spontaneous decomposition of cyanate into bicarbonate is documented from the spectra of an aged solution. Finally, the possible astrophysical observation of bicarbonate in water-containing particles is discussed. PMID:23360125

Moreno, M A; Maté, B; Rodríguez-Lazcano, Y; Gálvez, O; Gómez, P C; Herrero, V J; Escribano, R

2013-10-01

235

Electron transfer across anodic films formed on tin in carbonate-bicarbonate buffer solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Impedance and steady-state data were recorded in order to study the kinetics of electron transfer between passive tin electrodes and an electrolytic solution containing the K3Fe(CN)6-K4Fe(CN)6 redox couple. Film thickness plays a key role in determining the type of electronic conduction of these oxide covered electrodes. Electron exchange with the oxide takes place with participation of the conduction band in the semiconducting film. A mechanism involving direct electron tunneling through the space charge barrier is the most suitable to interpret the experimental evidence

2005-01-15

236

Use of saturated sodium chloride solution as a tissue fixative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the capability of saturated sodium chloride solution as a fixative agent instead of formalin which is regarded as a carcinogenic material. For this purpose 3 rabbits were used and their livers, kidneys and spleens were exposed and removed. Neutral buffered formalin solution, saturated sodium chloride solution and distilled water were used as fixatives for specimens obtained from the first, second and third rabbits respectively. Routine histological technique was performed to prepare a stained histological sections for light microscopic examination. The result showed that the tissue sections which were obtained by using sodium chloride have the same histological features and without any artifacts when they compared with the results obtained using formalin fixation method. We conclude that the saturated sodium chloride solution can be used as a fixative agent in some circumstances when no any fixative agent is available.

A. Al-Saraj

2010-01-01

237

Crystal growth of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solutions at constant PCO2 and 25??C: a test of a calcite dissolution model  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly reproducible seeded growth technique was used to study calcite crystallization from calcium bicarbonate solutions at 25??C and fixed carbon dioxide partial pressures between 0.03 and 0.3 atm. The results are not consistent with empirical crystallization models that have successfully described calcite growth at low PCO2 (< 10-3 atm). Good agreement was found between observed crystallization rates and those calculated from the calcite dissolution rate law and mechanism proposed by Plummer et al. (1978). ?? 1981.

Reddy, M. M.; Plummer, L. N.; Busenberg, E.

1981-01-01

238

Bicarbonate exporting transporters in the ovine ruminal epithelium.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to stabilize the intraruminal pH, bicarbonate secretion by the ruminal epithelium seems to be an important prerequisite. The present study therefore focussed on the characterization of bicarbonate exporting systems in ruminal epithelial cells. Intracellular pH (pH(i)) was measured spectrofluorometrically in primary cultured ruminal epithelial cells loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, 2,7-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6')-carboxyfluorescein acetomethyl ester. Switching from CO2/HCO3- -buffered to HEPES-buffered solution caused a rapid intracellular alkalinization followed by a counter-regulation towards initial pH(i). The recovery of pH(i) was dependent upon extracellular chloride, but independent of extracellular sodium. Adding 500 microM H2DIDS significantly reduced the increase of pH(i). For further characterization of the bicarbonate exporting systems, we tested the ability to reverse the direction from HCO3- export to import in the absence of sodium and chloride. Under sodium and chloride-free conditions, counter-regulation after CO2-induced pH(i) decrease did not differ from pH(i) recovery in the presence of sodium and chloride. Existence of bicarbonate exporting systems in cultured ruminal epithelial cells and intact ruminal epithelium was verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Using RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing, expression of mRNA encoding for AE2, DRA and PAT1 could be found. Bicarbonate exporting systems could therefore be detected both on the functional and structural level. PMID:15926041

Bilk, S; Huhn, K; Honscha, K U; Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G

2005-07-01

239

The origin of recharge waters and their evolution into effervescent sodium-bicarbonate groundwater from the Ballimore region, central New South Wales: oxygen and hydrogen isotope data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oxygen-18 and deuterium stable isotopic data were used to investigate the origin of water recharging the Ballimore region's groundwater system. The sodium-bicarbonate-rich groundwater (soda-water) is of meteoric origin with both ?18O and ?D values being shifted to the left of Global Meteoric Water Line. This shift is linked to the influx of mixed mantle-magmatic CO2 gas: the ?18O depletion in the soda-water is interpreted to result from isotopic exchange between groundwater and CO2 gas. The local flow system is shown to be open to the influx of CO2 with the gas being of mixed mantle-magmatic origin. The more saline Na-HCO3 groundwaters have the lowest ?18O and ?D values. Additionally weathering of aluminosilicates and precipitation of kaolinite further depletes the groundwater in both ?18O and D. The stable isotope data support the interpreted major ion chemical processes and ?13C data show that fractionation related to CO2 gas exchange produces groundwater with depleted ?18O and ?D values

2000-01-01

240

Separtion and collection of particulate and gaseous fluorides in the atmosphere (sodium bicarbonate-coated glass tube and a particulate filter method)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reaction with sodium bicarbonate coated on the inside walls of a borosilicate glass tube serves to remove gaseous fluorides from an air stream flowing through the tube. A filter following the tube removes particulate fluorides. After elution of the fluorides from the tube with water or a buffer and from the filter with acid, the fluoride is determined by either a potentiometric method (D3269) or a semiautomated method (D3270). This method is applicable to 12-hr sampling periods collecting 2 to 500 ..mu..g of gaseous fluoride at a flow rate of approx. 141/min or about 0.2 to 50 g/m/sup 3/. Acid aerosols, aluminum, certain other metals, and phosphates are known to cause interference. For a range of fluoride concentration of 0.5 to 3.3 ..mu..gF/sup -//m/sup 3/, the precision is 0.051 ..mu..gF/sup -//m/sup 3/, and the accuracy of the method is reported as > 95% with amounts of fluoride up to approx. 40 ..mu..g for sampling periods of 15 to 150 min. (BLM)

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Distinct and additive effects of sodium bicarbonate and continuous mild heat stress on fiber type shift via calcineurin/NFAT pathway in human skeletal myoblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is known to enhance athletic performance, probably via increased extracellular buffering capacity. At present, little is known about the direct effects of NaHCO3 on myogenesis, especially in vitro. Here, we examined the effects of NaHCO3 and the combined effects of NaHCO3 and continuous mild heat stress (CMHS) at 39°C on the differentiation of human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMMs). Levels of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) type I mRNA increased with increasing NaHCO3 concentrations; in contrast, those of MyHC IIx decreased. The NaHCO3-induced fast-to-slow shift was additively enhanced by CMHS. Likewise, intracellular calcium levels and expression of three factors, nuclear factor of activated T cells c2 (NFATc2), NFATc4, and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, were upregulated with increasing NaHCO3 concentrations; moreover, these effects of NaHCO3 were additively enhanced by CMHS. Overexpression experiments and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown experiments confirmed that NFATc2 and NFATc4 were involved in MyHC I regulation. The present study provided evidence that NaHCO3 and CMHS distinctly and additively induced a fast-to-slow fiber type shift through changes in intracellular calcium levels and the modulation of calcium signaling. PMID:23703530

Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Omori, Maiko; Tanaka, Nobuho; Fukui, Naoshi

2013-08-01

242

Effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on the cariogenic microbiota Efeito da profilaxia profissional com jato de bicarbonato de sódio sobre a microbiota cariogênica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on salivary counting of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in 32 children ranging from 7 to 10 years of age, has been assessed. Whole stimulated saliva was collected before the prophylaxis, immediately after it and 30 days later, and the number of CFU/ml in the saliva was detected through the Caritest system. A statistically significant immediate decrease on salivary levels of both microorganisms was observed, 50% for mutans streptococci and 27% for lactobacilli. For mutans streptococci this decrease continued through the 30 days period; the same did not occur with lactobacilli, that returned to their baseline values.Avaliou-se o efeito da profilaxia dentária profissional com o jato de bicarbonato de sódio na contagem salivar de estreptococos do grupo mutans e de lactobacilos em 32 crianças entre 7-10 anos. Coletou-se saliva total estimulada antes e 60 minutos após o procedimento, e decorridos 30 dias, sendo o número de UFC/mL saliva detectado através do sistema Caritest. Constatou-se uma redução imediata, estatisticamente significativa, nos níveis salivares de ambos os microrganismos, sendo de 50% para estreptococos do grupo mutans e de 27% para lactobacilos. Para os estreptococos do grupo mutans, esta redução persistiu pelo período de 30 dias, o mesmo não ocorrendo para os lactobacilos, que retornaram aos seus valores iniciais.

Célia Regina Moreira LANZA

2000-03-01

243

Effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on the cariogenic microbiota / Efeito da profilaxia profissional com jato de bicarbonato de sódio sobre a microbiota cariogênica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito da profilaxia dentária profissional com o jato de bicarbonato de sódio na contagem salivar de estreptococos do grupo mutans e de lactobacilos em 32 crianças entre 7-10 anos. Coletou-se saliva total estimulada antes e 60 minutos após o procedimento, e decorridos 30 dias, sendo o n [...] úmero de UFC/mL saliva detectado através do sistema Caritest. Constatou-se uma redução imediata, estatisticamente significativa, nos níveis salivares de ambos os microrganismos, sendo de 50% para estreptococos do grupo mutans e de 27% para lactobacilos. Para os estreptococos do grupo mutans, esta redução persistiu pelo período de 30 dias, o mesmo não ocorrendo para os lactobacilos, que retornaram aos seus valores iniciais. Abstract in english The effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on salivary counting of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in 32 children ranging from 7 to 10 years of age, has been assessed. Whole stimulated saliva was collected before the prophylaxis, immediately after it and 30 days l [...] ater, and the number of CFU/ml in the saliva was detected through the Caritest system. A statistically significant immediate decrease on salivary levels of both microorganisms was observed, 50% for mutans streptococci and 27% for lactobacilli. For mutans streptococci this decrease continued through the 30 days period; the same did not occur with lactobacilli, that returned to their baseline values.

LANZA, Célia Regina Moreira; LIMA, José Eduardo de Oliveira; TORRES, Sergio Aparecido; MACHADO, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira.

244

Severe Neurologic Impairment in Mice with Targeted Disruption of the Electrogenic Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe2 (Slc4a5 Gene)*  

Science.gov (United States)

The choroid plexus lining the four ventricles in the brain is where the majority of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. The secretory function of the choroid plexus is mediated by specific transport systems that allow the directional flux of nutrients and ions into the CSF and the removal of toxins. Normal CSF dynamics and chemistry ensure that the environment for neural function is optimal. Here, we report that targeted disruption of the Slc4a5 gene encoding the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 results in significant remodeling of choroid plexus epithelial cells, including abnormal mitochondrial distribution, cytoskeletal protein expression, and ion transporter polarity. These changes are accompanied by very significant abnormalities in intracerebral ventricle volume, intracranial pressure, and CSF electrolyte levels. The Slc4a5?/? mice are significantly more resistant to induction of seizure behavior than wild-type controls. In the retina of Slc4a5?/? mice, loss of photoreceptors, ganglion cells, and retinal detachment results in visual impairment assessed by abnormal electroretinogram waveforms. Our findings are the first demonstration of the fundamental importance of NBCe2 in the biology of the nervous system.

Kao, Liyo; Kurtz, Lisa M.; Shao, Xuesi; Papadopoulos, Marios C.; Liu, Li; Bok, Dean; Nusinowitz, Steven; Chen, Bryan; Stella, Salvatore L.; Andre, Mark; Weinreb, Josh; Luong, Serena S.; Piri, Natik; Kwong, Jacky M. K.; Newman, Debra; Kurtz, Ira

2011-01-01

245

Severe neurologic impairment in mice with targeted disruption of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (Slc4a5 gene).  

Science.gov (United States)

The choroid plexus lining the four ventricles in the brain is where the majority of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. The secretory function of the choroid plexus is mediated by specific transport systems that allow the directional flux of nutrients and ions into the CSF and the removal of toxins. Normal CSF dynamics and chemistry ensure that the environment for neural function is optimal. Here, we report that targeted disruption of the Slc4a5 gene encoding the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 results in significant remodeling of choroid plexus epithelial cells, including abnormal mitochondrial distribution, cytoskeletal protein expression, and ion transporter polarity. These changes are accompanied by very significant abnormalities in intracerebral ventricle volume, intracranial pressure, and CSF electrolyte levels. The Slc4a5(-/-) mice are significantly more resistant to induction of seizure behavior than wild-type controls. In the retina of Slc4a5(-/-) mice, loss of photoreceptors, ganglion cells, and retinal detachment results in visual impairment assessed by abnormal electroretinogram waveforms. Our findings are the first demonstration of the fundamental importance of NBCe2 in the biology of the nervous system. PMID:21705333

Kao, Liyo; Kurtz, Lisa M; Shao, Xuesi; Papadopoulos, Marios C; Liu, Li; Bok, Dean; Nusinowitz, Steven; Chen, Bryan; Stella, Salvatore L; Andre, Mark; Weinreb, Josh; Luong, Serena S; Piri, Natik; Kwong, Jacky M K; Newman, Debra; Kurtz, Ira

2011-09-16

246

In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mut...

Juliana Rico Pires; Carlos Rossa Junior; Antonio Carlos Pizzolitto

2007-01-01

247

Recovery of acids and sodium hydroxide from solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride with the use of bipolar membranes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors examined the kinetic laws governing the electrodialysis recovery of hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, as well as sodium hydroxide, from 1M sodium chloride and 0.5 M sodium sulfate solutions and from a mixture of these salts with the use of the MB-1, MB-2, and MB-3 bipolar membranes. Kinetic plots of the current density and the concentration of the acid and the base in the chambers next to the bipolar membranes during the electrodialysis treatment of 1M sodium chloride, 0.5 M sodium sulfate, and solutions are presented. It was established that it is better to use the MB-3 membrane for the electrodialysis conversion of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate into acids and sodium hydroxide owing to the high rate and current efficiency and low expenditure of electrical energy and degree of contamination of the products obtained by the salts. It was also established that the resistance of the MB-1 and MB-2 bipolar membranes is almost an order of magnitude higher than that of the MB-3 membrane.

Bobrinskaya, G.A.; Pavlova, T.V.; Shatalov, A.Ya.

1985-09-01

248

The carbon source for effervescent sodium-bicarbonate groundwater in the Ballimore region, central New South Wales  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the integrated use of stable isotopic (?13C) data for delineating the origin of carbon in groundwater systems. Groundwater in the Ballimore region is unusual: the main interests of this study are artesian boreholes that produce effervescent Na-HCO3 (soda) waters. Carbon-dioxide gas is present in concentrations of up to 1g/l, and CO2 partial pressures are one thousand times higher than atmospheric levels. Major-ion geochemical interpretation indicates that the evolution of the effervescent Na-HCO3-rich groundwater in the region relies on fresh water entering the deep cell of the local flow system from Late Jurassic depocentres that are filled with fresh water. This groundwater flows S-SE through the fracture network that constitutes the deep cell of the local groundwater system. As it travels along the flowpath it mixes with CO2(g): decreasing the groundwater pH and making it chemically aggressive. When this water comes into contact with Late Miocene (?), sodium-rich intrusive rocks along flow path, sodic silicates (probably nepheline) weather to form kaolinite, this reaction produces a Na:HCO3 ratio (in mmol/l) of unity. Stable isotopic data from rock samples and groundwater collected throughout the Ballimore region provide support for the interpreted major-ion chemical evolution of effervescent Na-HCO3-rich groundwater. Carbon isotope data helps constrain the source of carbon in this system

2000-01-01

249

Tetragonal Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Solubility in Sodium Chloride Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

The solubility of chicken egg white lysozyme, crystallized in the tetragonal form was measured in sodium chloride solutions from 1.6 to 30.7 C, using a miniature column solubility apparatus. Sodium chloride solution concentrations ranged from 1 to 7% (w/v). The solutions were buffered with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with the solubility being measured at pH values in 0.2 pH unit increments in the range pH 4.0 to 5.4, with data also included at pH 4.5. Lysozyme solubility was found to increase with increases in temperature and decreasing salt concentration. Solution pH has a varied and unpredictable effect on solubility.

Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

1998-01-01

250

Sodium carbonate-bicarbonate leaching of a New Mexico uranium ore and removal of long half-life radionuclides from the leach residue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study demonstrates the possibility to develop an efficient carbonate-bicarbonate leaching process for the extraction of uranium from a low-grade ore. In this process uranium extraction is coupled with the removal of radionuclides from the leach residue to yield environmentally safe and radiochemically innocuous tailings. Radionuclides are concentrated in small volumes and stored under controlled containment until uses for the radioisotopes are found. The influence of leach parameters Na_2CO_3, NaHCO_3, pulp density, agitation, temperature and oxygen pressure was assessed. Uranium extractions as high as 96% were obtained at atmospheric air pressure with leach suspensions containing 20% pulp density at 75"0C in 2 h of leaching and at 1700 kPa oxygen pressure with 10% pulp density leach suspensions at 75"0C in 1.5 h. The activation energy was calculated to be ?Esub(a) = 18.8 kJ mol"-"1, which suggests a diffusion-controlled mechanism for uranium extraction. Using leach residues of carbonate leaching and brine solutions containing HCl and CaCl_2, the highest extraction of radionuclides was approximately 79% of Th-230, 91% of Ra-226 and 69% of Pb-210. The selective extraction of Ra-226 from the brine-containing leach solution was demonstrated with barium-loaded organic solid ion exchangers. (orig.)

1985-09-01

251

Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions was studied. Chromatographic separation and quantitative determination were performed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-DAD detection. During the stability study, poly(vinylchloride) minibags were filled with a solution containing 5?mg of ceftiofur sodium or cefquinome sulphate and diluted to 0.2?mg/mL with suitable intravenous solution depending on the test conditions. The solutions for the study were protected from light and stored at room temperature (22°C), refrigerated (6°C), frozen (-20°C) for 30 days, and then thawed at room temperature. A comparison of results obtained at 22°C and 6°C for the same intravenous solutions showed that temperature as well as components of solutions and their concentration had an influence on the stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate. It was found that ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate dissolved in intravenous solutions used in this study may be stored at room temperature and at 6°C for up to 48?h. PMID:25025091

Do?ha?, Agnieszka; Jeli?ska, Anna; B?benek, Marcelina

2014-01-01

252

Sodium Hydroxide Extraction From Caustic Leaching Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes experiments conducted to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a method to recover NaOH from Hanford tank sludge leaching solutions. Aqueous solutions generated from leaching actual Hanford tank waste solids were used. The process involves neutralization of a lipophilic weak acid (t-octylphenol was used in these experiments) by reaction with NaOH in the aqueous phase. This results in the transfer of Na into the organic phase. Contacting with water reverses this process, reprotonating the lipophilic weak acid and transferring Na back into the aqueous phase as NaOH. The work described here confirms the potential application of solvent extraction to recover and recycle NaOH from solutions generated by leaching Hanford tank sludges. Solutions obtained by leaching sludges from tanks S-110 and T-110 were used in this work. It was demonstrated that Na+ is transferred from caustic leaching solution to the organic phase when contacted with t-octylphenol solutions. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the aqueous-phase hydroxide ion concentration. Seventy to 80 % of the extracted Na was recovered by 3 to 4 sequential contacts of the organic phase with water. Cesium was co-extracted by the procedure, but Al and Cr remained in the feed stream.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Garza, Priscilla A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

2002-09-18

253

Sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1/slc4a7 increases cytotoxicity in magnesium depletion in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing evidence suggests that pharmacological inhibition of Na/H exchange and Na/HCO3 transport provides protection against damage or injury in cardiac ischemia. In this study, we examined the contribution of the sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 (slc4a7) to cytotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons of rats. In neurons exposed to extracellular pH (pHo) ranging from 6.2 to 8.3, NBCn1 protein expression increased by fivefold at pH < 6.5 compared to the expression at pHo 7.4. At pHo 6.5, the intracellular pH of neurons was ~1 unit lower than that at pH 7.4. Immunochemistry showed a marked increase in NBCn1 immunofluorescence in plasma membranes and cytosol of the soma as well as in dendrites, at pHo 6.5. NBCn1 expression also increased by 40% in a prolonged Mg2+-free incubation at normal pHo. Knockdown of NBCn1 in neurons had negligible effect on cell viability. The effect of NBCn1 knockdown on cytotoxicity was then determined by exposing neurons to 0.5 mM glutamate for 10 min and measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from neurons. Compared to normal incubation (pHo 7.2 for 6 h) after glutamate exposure, acidic incubation (pHo 6.3 for 6 h) reduced cytotoxicity by 75% for control neurons and 78% for NBCn1-knockdown neurons. Thus, both controls and knockdown neurons showed acidic protection from cytotoxicity. However, in Mg2+-free incubation after glutamate exposure, NBCn1 knockdown progressively attenuated cytotoxicity. This attenuation was unaffected by acidic preincubation before glutamate exposure. We conclude that NBCn1 has a dynamic upregulation in low pHo and Mg2+ depletion. NBCn1 is not required for acidic protection, but increases cytotoxicity in Mg2+-free conditions.

Cooper, Deborah S.; Yang, Han Soo; He, Peijian; Kim, Eunjin; Rajbhandari, Ira; Yun, Chris C.; Choi, Inyeong

2009-01-01

254

Kinetic Analysis of Isothermal Decomposition Process of Sodium Bicarbonate Using the Weibull Probability Function—Estimation of Density Distribution Functions of the Apparent Activation Energies  

Science.gov (United States)

The decomposition process of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been studied by thermogravimetry in isothermal conditions at four different operating temperatures (380 K, 400 K, 420 K, and 440 K). It was found that the experimental integral and differential conversion curves at the different operating temperatures can be successfully described by the isothermal Weibull distribution function with a unique value of the shape parameter ( ? = 1.07). It was also established that the Weibull distribution parameters ( ? and ?) show independent behavior on the operating temperature. Using the integral and differential (Friedman) isoconversional methods, in the conversion (?) range of 0.20 ? ? ? 0.80, the apparent activation energy ( E a ) value was approximately constant ( E a, int = 95.2 kJmol-1 and E a, diff = 96.6 kJmol-1, respectively). The values of E a calculated by both isoconversional methods are in good agreement with the value of E a evaluated from the Arrhenius equation (94.3 kJmol-1), which was expressed through the scale distribution parameter ( ?). The Málek isothermal procedure was used for estimation of the kinetic model for the investigated decomposition process. It was found that the two-parameter Šesták-Berggren (SB) autocatalytic model best describes the NaHCO3 decomposition process with the conversion function f(?) = ?0.18(1-?)1.19. It was also concluded that the calculated density distribution functions of the apparent activation energies ( ddfE a ’s) are not dependent on the operating temperature, which exhibit the highly symmetrical behavior (shape factor = 1.00). The obtained isothermal decomposition results were compared with corresponding results of the nonisothermal decomposition process of NaHCO3.

Jankovi?, Bojan

2009-10-01

255

Zirconium sulfate interaction with sodium carbonate in solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zirconium sulfate interaction with sodium carbonate is studied in aqueous solution. By pH-metry and infrared spectroscopy it is stated that depending on the carbonate concentration Zr(OH)_2x(CO_3)_2"2"-, ZrOH(CO_3)_3"3"- and Zr(CO_3)_4"4"- compounds can be formed in sulfatocarbonate solutions. pH range in which soluble carbonate complexes exist also depends on the concentration of sodium carbonate. Calculated is the fourth stability constant

1980-08-01

256

Aggregation of Sodium Alkylbenzenesulfonates in Aqueous Solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The surfactant 6 phenyl C sub 12 SNa forms small spherical micelles in aqueous solution, having an aggregation number of 20 to 30 and a fractional charge of 0.45. These micelles are hydrated to the extent of approximately 18 moles H sub 2 O per moles of s...

L. J. Magid R. J. Shaver E. Gulari B. Bedwell S. Alkhafaji

1981-01-01

257

The electrogenicity of the rat sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 requires interactions among transmembrane segments of the transporter  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrogenic Na+–HCO3? cotransporter (NBCe1) plays a central role in intracellular pH (pHi) regulation as well as HCO3? secretion by pancreatic ducts and HCO3? reabsorption by renal proximal tubules. To understand the structural requirements for the electrogenicity of NBCe1, we constructed chimeras of NBCe1-A and the electroneutral NBCn1-B, and used two-electrode voltage clamp to measure electrogenic transporter current in Xenopus oocytes exposed to 5% CO2–26 mm HCO3?(pH 7.40). The chimera consisting of NBCe1-A (i.e. NBCe1-A ‘background’) with the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain (Nt) of NBCn1-B had a reversal potential of ?156.3 mV (compared with a membrane potential Vm of ?43.1 mV in a HCO3?-free solution) and a slope conductance of 3.0 ?S (compared with 12.5 ?S for NBCe1-A). Also electrogenic were chimeras with an NBCe1-A background but with NBCn1-B contributing the extracellular loop (L) between transmembrane segment (TM) 5 and 6 (?140.9 mV/11.1 ?S), the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain (Ct; ?123.8 mV/9.7 ?S) or Nt + L + Ct (?120.9 mV/3.7 ?S). Reciprocal chimeras (with an NBCn1 background but with NBCe1 contributing Nt, L, Ct or Nt + L + Ct) produced no measurable electrogenic transporter currents in the presence of CO2–HCO3?. pHi recovered from an acid load, but without the negative shift of Vm that is characteristic of electrogenic Na+–HCO3? cotransporters. Thus, these chimeras were electroneutral, as were two others consisting of NBCe1(Nt–L)/NBCn1(TM6–Ct) and NBCn1(Nt–L)/NBCe1(TM6–Ct). We propose that the electrogenicity of NBCe1 requires interactions between TM1–5 and TM6–13.

Choi, Inyeong; Soo Yang, Han; Boron, Walter F

2007-01-01

258

[Serious risk related to oral use of sodium phosphate solution].  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium phosphate solutions are commonly used to cleanse the bowel in preparation for colonoscopy, for barium enema or surgical procedures and eventually for treatment of severe constipation. Though relatively safe, these drugs must be used with caution in patients with kidney disease, small intestinal disorders, or poor gut motility and are prohibited in renal insufficiency and bowel obstruction. Especially elderly patients are at increased risk for phosphate intoxication due to decreased glomerular filtration rate, concomitant medication use, and systemic and gastrointestinal diseases. Sodium phosphate solution could induce by at-risk patients serious electrolyte abnormalities (hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia) and acute kidney injury called acute phosphate nephropathy, which is potentially life-threatening condition with slowly progressive renal insufficiency. This article gives a report on two cases of severe adverse effects after administration of oral sodium phosphate solution: an elderly women who developed increase in serum phosphate with compensatory severe hypokalcemia with tetany; and an elderly man who developed acute phosphate nephropathy following colon preparation prior to colonoscopy and barium enema. Especially in elderly and in patients in whom sodium phosphate solution is contraindicated or should be used with caution, we recommend to use isosmotic macrogol (polyethylene glycol) solution for the bowel cleansing a for the treatment of constipation. PMID:24350942

Hoffmanová, I; And?l, M

2013-12-01

259

Corrosion behaviour of Alloy 800 in high temperature aqueous solutions: Electrochemical studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anodic behaviour and passivity breakdown of Alloy 800 in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and sodium bicarbonate were studied by electrochemical techniques in the temperature range from 60 C to 280 C. The pitting resistance and pitting morphology of the alloy in chloride plus sulphate and chloride plus bicarbonate mixtures, at 60 C and 280 C, were also examined. Increasing bicarbonate or sulphate additions to chloride solutions shift the characteristic pitting potential of Alloy 800 to higher values, both at low and high temperatures. Changes in pitting morphology were observed in sulphate containing solutions while the morphology of the attack found in bicarbonate containing solutions was similar to that in pure chloride solutions. Finally, no localized or substantial generalized corrosion was detected in pure sulphate or bicarbonate solutions at any temperature. (orig.)

1996-04-01

260

21 CFR 520.563 - Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution...DRUGS § 520.563 Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution...Specifications. Diatrizoate meglumine oral solution is a water...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Effect of orthoaminothiophenol on nickel in 3% sodium chloride solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of thiol compounds as inhibitors against corrosion of nickel in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was studied using a rotating disk electrode (RDE). Stationary and transient measurements were made. Results implied the formation of a thick and compact inhibitor film. A correlation between the inhibiting film and the structure of orthoaminothiophenol (OATP) was shown.

Srhiri, A. [Electrochemistry Lab., Kenitra City (Morocco); Derbali, Y. [National High School of Sciences and Technics, Tunis City (Tunisia). Applied Chemistry Lab.; Picaud, T. [National High School of Chemistry, Toulouse (France). Metallurgy Lab.

1995-10-01

262

Potentiometric monitoring of sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Platinum, palladium, gold, cadmium, nickel and niobium immersed in sodium borohydride alkaline solutions are characterised by electrode responses that allow monitoring the borohydride present in aqueous media. A simple and relatively precise potentiometric titration technique is described and applied for the analysis of borohydride solutions.Platina, paládio, ouro, cádmio, níquel e nióbio imersos em soluções alcalinas de borohidreto de sódio são caracterizados por respostas de el?...

Santos, Diogo M. F.; Sequeira, Ce?sar A. C.

2008-01-01

263

Oral Prostaglandin E1 in Combination with Sodium Bicarbonate and Normal Saline in the Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy: A Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) as a renal protective medication for patients exposed to contrast agents, as well as to demonstrate the safety, efficacy, and low side-effect profile of PGE1. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was designed to compare combination of intravenous sodium bicarbonate, normal saline, and oral PGE1 200 ?g versus the combination and placebo for renal protection from contrast agents. All patients receiving nonionic contrast during their interventional procedure were eligible for enrollment. Creatinine levels were recorded before and after the administration of contrast and renal protective medications. Contrast-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) was defined as an increase of 0.5 mg/dL or greater in creatinine level, or an increase of 25% or more above baseline. Age, gender, total amount of contrast used, and incidence of renal failure requiring dialysis were recorded. We conducted the study on 41 patients. Of these, 20 patients received PGE1 and 21 received the placebo. The study group comprised 29 males and 12 females. Diabetes mellitus occurred in 41.5% of the cases (including 40% of PGE1 and 43% of placebo patients). Average contrast use was 77.2 mL (range, 15 to 200 mL). Mean age of the groups was 67.2 years. Average baseline creatinine level was 1.17. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant. CIN by definition occurred in one patient, who received the placebo. Incidence of new onset renal failure requiring dialysis was zero. Postcontrast change in creatinine level for the study was 0.11. There was a change in the creatinine level of 0.161 in the PGE1 group and 0.061 in the placebo group; an improvement of 0.10. PGE1 was not effective in significantly altering postcreatinine levels (p?=?0.176). None of the patients enrolled in the study suffered any side effects from taking the PGE1 tablet. Although preliminary, this study shows that the addition of PGE1 for the prevention of CIN is well-tolerated by patients and is a safe modality. Additional studies are required to evaluate efficacy.

Franz, Randall W.; Hinze, Scott S.; Knapp, Eric D.; Jenkins, James J.

2011-01-01

264

Colostrum replacer feeding regimen, addition of sodium bicarbonate, and milk replacer: The combined effects on absorptive efficiency of immunoglobulin G in neonatal calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighty Holstein and Holstein cross dairy calves were blocked by birth date and randomly assigned to 1 of 8 treatments within each block to examine the effect of a colostrum replacer (CR) feeding regimen, supplementation of CR with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and provision of a milk replacer (MR) feeding on IgG absorption. Calves were offered a CR containing 184.5g/L of IgG in either 1 feeding at 0h (within 30 min of birth), with or without 30g of NaHCO3, with or without a feeding of MR at 6h of age, or 2 feedings of CR (123g of IgG at 0h with or without 20g of NaHCO3 and 61.5g of IgG at 6h with or without 10g of NaHCO3), with or without a MR feeding at 12h. Therefore, treatments were (1) 1 feeding of CR; (2) 2 feedings of CR; (3) 1 feeding of CR + 30g of NaHCO3; (4) 2 feedings of CR + 30g of NaHCO3; (5) 1 feeding of CR + MR feeding; (6) 2 feedings of CR + MR feeding; (7) 1 feeding of CR + 30g NaHCO3 + MR feeding; and (8) 2 feedings of CR + 30g NaHCO3 + MR feeding. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24h after birth and were analyzed for IgG via radial immunoassay. Results indicated that CR feeding schedule, MR feeding, and the interactions CR × Na, CR × MR, and CR × Na × MR were similar for 24-h serum IgG, apparent efficiency of absorption, or area under the curve. Serum IgG at 24h, apparent efficiency of absorption, and area under the curve were decreased with addition of NaHCO3 compared with calves not supplemented with NaHCO3. These data indicate that supplementation of CR with NaHCO3 is not beneficial to IgG absorption and feeding MR within 6h of CR feeding does not affect IgG absorption. PMID:24534514

Cabral, R G; Cabral, M A; Chapman, C E; Kent, E J; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

2014-04-01

265

Optimization of sodium sulfonate extraction from oil solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficiency of sodium sulfonate extraction from oil solutions depends to a great degree on the concentration and quantity of the extractant, an aqueous isopropyl alcohol solution. Attempts to determine how the yield of sodium sulfonate concentrate, the content of sulfonates in the concentrate, and the degree of sulfonate recovery from the oil solutions are influenced by the concentration and amount of extractant, with a constant extraction temperature (55-60 C) and constant pH of the medium (pH 10). Finds that the optimal concentration of the extractant and the amount of extractant used (both relative to the content of sulfonates) are 50-55% and 250-300% by weight, respectively.

Matselyukh, V.S.; Bodan, A.N.; Garun, Ya.E.; Kachmar, O.S.; Kravchuk, G.G.; Topil' nitskii, P.I.

1983-03-01

266

A low-sodium solution for gastrointestinal lavage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Golytely is a sodium sulfate-based solution used for lavage cleansing of the colon. Although most patients and physicians prefer Golytely lavage over other methods of bowel cleansing, its highly salty taste is a drawback. This report describes the development of a modified lavage solution that has a barely perceptible salty taste. This solution was developed by removing sodium sulfate, increasing the concentration of polyethylene glycol, and making minor adjustments in the concentration of other salts. Golytely, reduced sodium sulfate Golytely (Golytely-RSS), and a balanced electrolyte solution were infused into the stomachs of normal subjects. After steady-state lavage conditions were established, the rates of fluid and electrolyte absorption were measured. Average fluid absorption rate was 791 ml/h with the balanced electrolyte solution, compared with only 63 and 45 ml/h with Golytely and Golytely-RSS, respectively. Golytely-RSS was studied at 3 infusion rates, from 0.9-1.8 L/h, and the time and volume of solution required for colon cleansing was determined; the lower infusion rate (0.9 L/h) took longer but required less solution to cleanse the colon. In conclusion, Golytely-RSS has the essential feature of Golytely; i.e., lavage is associated with negligible salt and water absorption. The less-salty taste of Golytely-RSS may make it less difficult to drink and thereby enhance patient compliance; the total volume of solution required for cleansing is less when the solution is ingested at 0.9 L/h than when the ingestion rate is 1.8 L/h. PMID:2293568

Fordtran, J S; Santa Ana, C A; Cleveland MvB

1990-01-01

267

Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin), Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets Efeitos do Coccídeostático lonóforo (Monensina ou Salinomicina), Bicarbonato de Sódio ou Potássio, ou Ambos, e Dissalicitato-Metileno de Bacitracina em Dietas para Frangos de Corte  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20%) or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14%) was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg) or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg) in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg), three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each) were tested with o...

Dm, Hooge; Kr, Cummings; Jl, Mcnaughton

2000-01-01

268

Mutual diffusion of sodium hyaluranate in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Binary diffusion coefficients for the systems containing sodium hyaluronate. • Influence of the aggregation on diffusion of the sodium hyaluronate in the aqueous media. • Estimation of the thermodynamic and mobility factors from mutual diffusion. -- Abstract: The Taylor dispersion technique has been used for measuring mutual diffusion coefficients of sodium hyaluronate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K, and concentrations ranging from (0.00 to 0.50) g · dm?3. The results are interpreted on the basis of Nernst, and Onsager and Fuoss theoretical equations. From the diffusion coefficient at infinitesimal concentration, the limiting ionic conductivity and the tracer diffusion coefficient of hyaluronate ion were estimated. These studies have been complemented by molecular mechanics calculations

2014-04-01

269

Molybdenum recovery from sulfide ores by alkali sodium hypochlorite solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The specified kinetic characteristics of hydrochemical oxidation of molybdenite by sodium hypochlorite are discussed. The methods of hypochlorite synthesis, Mo recovery from solutions after leaching are selected. It is shown that the most acceptable method of preparing hypochlorite should be considered the NaCl solution electrolysis. Mo recovery from solutions after leaching has been performed by sorption on V-P-1p anionite, eluated from resin by 10% solution of ammonia, commodity product has been extracted in a form of ammonium polymolybdate. A principle flowsheet of Mo recovery from sulfide ores is suggested. The flowsheet has been tested under laboratory conditions. It ensures a closed cycle of leaching solution circulation and meets the requirements of environment control

1985-01-01

270

Evaluation of sodium hypochlorite solutions used by endodontists  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The success of endodontic therapy is conditioned by several variables, being the use of good quality chemical agents one ofthem. Objective: In this study, some characteristics of commonly used sodium hypochlorite irrigants were investigated, such as: concentration, pH, and storage conditions. Material and methods: For this purpose, a questionnaire comprising questions regarding the employed irrigant was sent to 100 endodontists. Besides that, a 100mL sample of the sodium hypochlorite irrigant used by them was collected. Free residual chlorine determination was laboratorially carried out through titration method. Additionally, pH was measured, through peagameter reading. Results: Only 1% of the professionals did know the pH value of the solutions used by them. Concerning to pH value, 36% of the solutions presented pH 9; 22%, pH 10; 16%, pH 13; 14%, pH 12; 11%, pH 11; and 1%, pH 8. 37% of the endodontists kept the solution flasks under refrigeration,and 67% kept them at environmental temperature. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the endodontists are using altered hypochlorite solutions because they fail to observe the necessary conditions for maintaining the solution’s chemical stability.

Leandro Marques Ávila

2010-10-01

271

Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH)3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT) and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

Pavlovi? Ljubica J.; A?imovi?-Pavlovi? Zagorka; Andri? Ljubiša D.; Prsti? Aurel

2002-01-01

272

Radiation chemistry of sodium-dimethyl phosphate in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dissertation deals with the radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions of sodium-dimethyl phosphate (CH_3O)_2P(O)O"-Na"+, (DMP), with the intention to get more detailed information about the mechanism of the radical phosphate ester fission by this simple model substance. In order to find out the mechanism of the fission of the C-OPO_3 binding, the product formation was followed up after the gamma-irradiation of DMP in aqueous solutions. Moreover it was possible by applying the pulse radiolysis to observe the absorption spectra of radical intermediate products and to investigate the kinetic phenomena of their disappearance. (orig./HK)

1975-01-01

273

Cryoscopic studies of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, potassium tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freezing temperature lowerings of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate were determined. These values and those taken from the literature for potassium tartrate were used in the determination of the osmotic and activity coefficients in the studied systems, via the numerical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation

2003-08-01

274

Cryoscopic studies of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, potassium tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Freezing temperature lowerings of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate were determined. These values and those taken from the literature for potassium tartrate were used in the determination of the osmotic and activity coefficients in the studied systems, via the numerical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation.

Apelblat, Alexander. E-mail: apelblat@bgumail.bgu.ac.il; Manzurola, Emanuel

2003-08-01

275

Measurements of the viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 liquid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adding UO2 produces an increase of viscosity of borax and sodium metaborate. For temperatures below 9200C the measurements with the borax-UO2 solution show a phase separation. Contrary to borax the sodium metaborate solutions indicate a well defined melting point. At temperatures slightly below the melting point a solid phase is formed. The tested sodium-borates-UO2 mixtures are in liquid form. (DG)

1983-01-01

276

Effect of sodium chloride on the solubility of ethane in micellar solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments have been carried out to determine the solubility of ethane in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate containing sodium chloride. Addition of successive increments of NaCl to a micellar solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) causes a small increase in gas solubility at low salt concentrations (< 0.1 M). However, at higher salt concentrations NaCl suppresses the solubility of ethane. These salt effects are found to be independent of surfactant concentration. The variation in ethane solubility with salt concentration is interpreted as reflecting the combined effects of an increase in micellar SDS at the expense of the monomeric form which occurs at low salt concentrations and the salting out of ethane from the external aqueous phase. The intramicellar solubility of ethane is not affected by added salt, even in solutions having very high NaCl concentrations (> 0.6 M) which are thought to contain SDS in the form of large aggregates which are thermodynamically unstable with respect to the hydrated solid state.

Hoskins, J.C.; King, A.D. Jr.

1981-07-01

277

Radiolytic oxidation behavior of neptunium in sodium chloride solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiolytic oxidation behavior of neptunium was investigated in order to predict its migration behavior at the disposal site for radioactive waste. Neptunium, in 5 mol/dm3 sodium chloride solutions of several pH values, was irradiated by ?-particles of 238Pu which had been placed in the solutions as dioxide powder. Solution neptunium redox behavior was compared with that of an unirradiated sample. Pentavalent neptunium, which was stable in the absence of 238Pu, was found to be oxidized to hexavalent and even to heptavalent neptunium. Oxidizing species would be chloride molecule anion (Cl2-) and/or hypochlorite anion (ClO-) which were generated by the reaction between radiolytically generated hydroxide radical (OH) and chloride ion (Cl-). The oxidation rate of pentavalent neptunium was independent of its concentration, but dependent on solution pH. The measured rate constant was (19±4)[H] mol/dm3/d. (author)

1996-06-01

278

Solution 6. Sodium-air. [Thermodynamical conversion of solar energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solar energy concentration allows to reach temperatures sufficiently high to feed a thermodynamical cycle using a gas as working fluid. As gas does not permit to collect very high heat flows, it is attractive to introduce a primary fluid like sodium to reduce the size of the boiler and to bring back to ground level the most cumbersome equipments. The use of sodium at a temperature higher than 600C is exceptional and corrosion problems appear quickly beyond this temperature, problems which become prohibitive around 750C. In order that the gas turbine reaches a satisfying efficiency, it is necessary to bring the air to a higher temperature by means of a combustion chamber and to turn this solution into an hybrid system ''sun-fuel oil''.

Genier, R. (E.D.F., Chatou (France))

1982-01-01

279

SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE FOULING AND CLEANING OF DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION COALESCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During initial non-radioactive operations at the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the pressure drop across the decontaminated salt solution coalescer reached {approx}10 psi while processing {approx}1250 gallons of salt solution, indicating possible fouling or plugging of the coalescer. An analysis of the feed solution and the 'plugged coalescer' concluded that the plugging was due to sodium aluminosilicate solids. MCU personnel requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate the formation of the sodium aluminosilicate solids (NAS) and the impact of the solids on the decontaminated salt solution coalescer. Researchers performed developmental testing of the cleaning protocols with a bench-scale coalescer container 1-inch long segments of a new coalescer element fouled using simulant solution. In addition, the authors obtained a 'plugged' Decontaminated Salt Solution coalescer from non-radioactive testing in the MCU and cleaned it according to the proposed cleaning procedure. Conclusions from this testing include the following: (1) Testing with the bench-scale coalescer showed an increase in pressure drop from solid particles, but the increase was not as large as observed at MCU. (2) Cleaning the bench-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (11 g of bayerite if all aluminum is present in that form or 23 g of sodium aluminosilicate if all silicon is present in that form). (3) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from bench-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for the NAS solids tested is calculated as 450-950 grams. (4) Cleaning the full-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (60 g of aluminum and 5 g of silicon). (5) Piping holdup in the full-scale coalescer system caused the pH to differ from the target value. Comparable hold-up in the facility could lead to less effective cleaning and precipitation of bayerite solid particles. (6) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from the full-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for these NAS solids was calculated to be 40-170 grams.

Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

2008-10-28

280

Interaction of hafnium sulfate with sodium carbonate in solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The processes of hafnium sulfate complexing with sodium carbonate in aqueous solutions are studied using the methods of pH-metry and IR spectroscopy of aqueous solutions and solid phases. It is shown that in the range of pH>7 complexes of the compositions Hf(CO3)44- and HfOH(CO3)33- are present in solutions. At the ratio Na2CO3:Hf>=7 formation of the complexes with the ratio CO32-:Hf>4, containing bi- and monodentate carbonate ion% is possible. The stability constant of Hf(CO3)44- complex is calculated on the basis of pH-metry data, lgK4=10.1+-0.8

1981-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

Diffusion and aggregation of sodium fluorescein in aqueous solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diffusion and aggregation of sodium fluorescein in aqueous solutions was investigated adopting density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. First, DFT calculations in implicit water were used to determine minimum energy structure and atomic charges of the solute, which were then used as input for explicit water MD simulations. The self-diffusion coefficient of sodium fluorescein was calculated using the Einstein equation, computing the mean square displacement from 24 ns trajectories. The calculated diffusion coefficient, 0.42 · 10(-5) cm(2) s(-1), is in good agreement with literature experimental data. The simulations confirmed the tendency of fluorescein to form dimers. In order to achieve a deeper understanding of aggregation phenomena, the dimer geometry was investigated through DFT calculations both in vacuo and in implicit water using different functionals and solvation theories. The results showed that dimerization does not occur in vacuo, as charge repulsion dominates, and that the minimum energy dimer structure is symmetric and stabilized by edge-to-face ?-? interactions. The interaction energy was computed both at the DFT level and through MD simulations using Umbrella Sampling. The free interaction energy calculated with the WHAM and Umbrella Integration protocol, -1.3 kcal/mol, is in good agreement with experimental data, while the value determined using DFT calculations is significantly smaller and depends largely from the chosen functional and the computational methodology used to determine the solute-solvent boundary surface. PMID:21957875

Casalini, Tommaso; Salvalaglio, Matteo; Perale, Giuseppe; Masi, Maurizio; Cavallotti, Carlo

2011-11-10

282

Expression and/or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter may be decreased in many aggressive cancers, suggesting potential utility for sodium bicarbonate and dehydroascorbic acid in cancer therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimer transcription factor whose elevated activity in many cancers helps them to survive under hypoxic conditions and enhances their capacity to grow invasively, establish metastases, and survive chemo- or radiotherapy. Optimal intracellular levels of ascorbate suppress the level and transcriptional activity of HIF-1under normoxic or mildly hypoxic conditions by supporting the activity of proly and asparagyl hydroxylases that target HIF-1alpha. High intracellular ascorbate can also work in various ways to down-regulate activation of NF-kappaB which, like HIF-1 is constitutively active in many cancers and promotes aggressive behavior - in part by promoting transcription of HIF-1alpha. Yet recent evidence suggests that, even in the context of adequate ascorbate nutrition, the intracellular ascorbate content of many aggressive cancers may be supoptimal for effective HIF-1 control. This likely reflects low expression or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter. The expression of SVCT2 in cancers has so far received little study; but the extracellular acidity characteristic of many tumors would be expected to reduce the activity of this transporter, which has a mildly alkaline pH optimum. Unfortunately, since SVCT2 has a high affinity for ascorbate, and its activity is nearly saturated at normal healthy serum levels of this vitamin, increased oral administration of ascorbate would be unlikely to have much impact on the intracellular ascorbate content of tumors. However, cancers in which HIF-1 is active express high levels of glucose transporters such as GLUT-1, and these transporters can promote influx of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) via facilitated diffusion; once inside the cell, DHA is rapidly reduced to ascorbate, which effectively is "trapped" within the cell. Hence, episodic intravenous infusions of modest doses of DHA may have potential for optimizing the intracellular ascorbate content of cancers, potentially rendering them less aggressive. Indeed, several published studies have concluded that parenteral DHA--sometimes in quite modest doses--can retard the growth of transplanted tumors in rodents. As an alternative or adjunctive strategy, oral administration of sodium bicarbonate, by normalizing the extracellular pH of tumors, has the potential to boost the activity of SCTV2 in tumor cells, thereby promoting increased ascorbate uptake. Indeed, the utility of oral sodium bicarbonate for suppressing metastasis formation in nude mice xenografted with a human breast cancer has been reported. Hence, oral sodium bicarbonate and intravenous DHA may have the potential to blunt the aggressiveness of certain cancers in which suboptimal intracellular ascorbate levels contribute to elevated HIF-1 activity. PMID:23916956

McCarty, Mark F

2013-10-01

283

Crevice Corrosion of 321 Stainless Steel in Sodium Chloride Solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrochemical techniques have been applied to study the crevice corrosion behaviour of stabilized 321 stainless steel in both 0.5, 1 and 2 M sodium chloride solutions at 25 and 80 degree . This type of stainless steel enjoys a good corrosion resistance especially in the heat affected zone (Haz) of welds. In this investigation the crevice corrosion of 321 stainless steel was studied in both bulk solution environments as well as in chloride solutions simulating those formed inside crevices. A metal-to-nonmetal crevice assembly, in which disc type specimens were faced to a PTFE crevice former, is used for bulk solution tests. Crevice-free specimens of solutions formed inside crevices (known as the critical crevice solutions, CCS). Cyclic potentiodynamic technique was used in evaluating the electrochemical corrosion performance of the alloy in bulk (0.5 and 1 M Nacl) environment. This revealed that both chloride ion concentration and temperature have a marked effect on the electrochemical parameters generally used for the evaluation of the crevice corrosion susceptibility. This included the corrosion potential. E corr. The passivity breakdown potential, Eb, and the protection potential, E p

1998-06-01

284

Use of a new polyclonal antibody to study the distribution and glycosylation of the sodium-coupled bicarbonate transporter NCBE in rodent brain  

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NCBE (SLC4A10) is a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, several of which play important roles in intracellular-pH regulation and transepithelial HCO3? transport. Here we characterize a new antibody that was generated in rabbit against a fusion protein consisting of maltose-binding protein and the first 135 amino acids (aa) of the N-terminus of human NCBE. Western blotting—both of purified peptides representing the initial ~120aa of the transporters and of full-length tr...

Chen, Li-ming; Kelly, Michelle L.; Rojas, Jose? D.; Parker, Mark D.; Gill, Harindarpal S.; Davis, Bruce A.; Boron, Walter F.

2008-01-01

285

Laser chemical etching of metals in sodium nitrate solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A focused cw argon-ion laser has been used to etch several metals, including copper, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, and stainless steel in a 0.5M sodium nitrate neutral salt solution. Exceedingly smooth etch surfaces have been obtained for several of these metals with etch rates as high as 4 ..mu..m/s. Experiments were carried out as a function of laser intensity and laser dwell time to etch arrays of small holes, 100 ..mu..m or less in diameter on the different samples. From experiments performed in water under similar laser conditions we conclude that melt or near-melt temperatures are required to obtain etching in the salt solution. A comparison of the power required to produce incipient etching is made with calculated temperatures obtained for similar powers using a theory which approximates the experimental conditions. These calculated temperatures are reasonably close to the melt temperatures for most cases and offer supporting evidence for our etching model.

von Gutfeld, R.J.; Vigliotti, D.R.; Datta, M.

1988-11-15

286

Stability of apomorphine hydrochloride in aqueous sodium bisulphite solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apomorphine (Apo), a dopamine receptor agonist used extensively in clinical research, is known to be chemically unstable. The authors have used a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to study the long-term stability of pharmaceutical preparations of R(-) Apomorphine hydrochloride (ApoHCI) for parenteral use. In a concentration of 1 mg/ml, ApoHCI in aqueous solutions of sodium metabisulphite (0.125%), kept at 4 degrees and shielded from light, was found to be stable for up to six months. On the other hand, solutions of 0.1 mg/ml were found to decompose after only three weeks, showing extraneous peaks in the HPLC. However, the blue-green discoloration, characteristic of Apo degradation, was only apparent after six weeks storage. The rapidity of the HPLC method used, its reproducibility and sensitivity make it suitable for quality control studies of pharmaceutical preparations of ApoHCI intended for clinical research. PMID:11513359

Ng Ying Kin, N M; Lal, S; Thavundayil, J X

2001-10-01

287

Association of riboflavin, caffeine, and sodium salicylate in aqueous solution  

Science.gov (United States)

We have used UV and visible spectrophotometry to study self-association of aromatic riboflavin molecules (RFN, vitamin B2, 7,8-dimethyl-10-N-(1'-D-ribityl)isoalloxazine) in aqueous solution (pH 6.86) at T = 298 K, using a dimer model. We have determined the equilibrium dimerization constant for riboflavin, KdB = 125 ± 40 M-1. We have studied heteroassociation in the system of molecules of 7,8-dimethyl-10-ribitylisoalloxazine with 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) and sodium salicylate (NAS) in aqueous solution (pH 6.86; T = 298 K). We have determined the heteroassociation constants for RFN-NAS and RFN-caffeine molecules in the absence and in the presence of urea in solutions using a modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation: 25 ± 4, 17 ± 3, and 74 ± 11, 53 ± 7 M-1 respectively. We have determined the dimerization constants for NAS (2.7 ± 0.5 M-1) and caffeine (17.0 ± 1.5 M-1). We conclude that heteroassociation of the aromatic molecules leads to a lower effective riboflavin concentration in solution, and the presence of urea in mixed solutions leads to an decrease in the complexation constants for the RFN-NAS and RFN-caffeine systems.

Baranovskii, S. F.; Bolotin, P. A.

2007-03-01

288

Efeitos da correção da acidose metabólica com bicarbonato de sódio sobre o catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica / The effects of the correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate on protein catabolism in chronic kidney failure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A desnutrição protéico-energética constitui problema comum aos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica, influenciando diretamente na sua morbi-mortalidade. A acidose metabólica tem papel no catabolismo protéico, ativando a via proteolítica proteasoma-ubiquitina, dependente de adenosina trifosfato, [...] e conjuntamente com glicocorticóides induz uma maior atividade na desidrogenase que degrada os aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada. Esta revisão teve como objetivo descrever o mecanismo pelo qual a acidose metabólica nos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica promove o catabolismo protéico, favorecendo assim a desnutrição, bem como avaliar os efeitos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio na correção da acidose e conseqüentemente redução do catabolismo protéico. Pesquisas mostram melhora da acidose pelo uso de bicarbonato de sódio e conseqüente redução do catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica, podendo ser esta uma conduta promissora na atenuação da desnutrição nestes pacientes. Abstract in english Protein-Energy Malnutrition is common among patients with chronic kidney failure, thus increasing morbidity and mortality. Several studies have shown that metabolic acidosis is a major cause of muscle protein breakdown, and recently it was attributed to ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic [...] pathway. Acidosis, plus glucocorticoids, also respond to increasing branched-chain amino acids oxidation. In this review, the impact of metabolic acidosis on protein and amino acid metabolism is examined in order to understand its effect on lean body mass and the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney failure. The study also observes whether or not sodium bicarbonate supplementation is beneficial to chronic kidney failure patients. In summary, there is a preliminary evidence suggesting that the correction of acidosis using sodium bicarbonate reduces protein degradation in chronic kidney failure patients, thus emerging as a potential therapy for reducing protein-energy malnutrition among them.

Denise, MAFRA; Roberto Carlos, BURINI.

289

Isotonic high-sodium oral rehydration solution for increasing sodium absorption in patients with short-bowel syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared the effect of a standard oral rehydration solution and a high-sodium polymeric-glucose solution on sodium absorption in short-bowel syndrome. Six patients with high jejunostomy were tested in a random order with the standard solution or a solution containing maltodextrins (18 g Glucidex 12/L) enriched with 2.5 g NaCl/L. Solutions were administered via a nasogastric tube at a rate of 2 mL/min. Jejunal effluent was collected during an 8-h period. The net 8-h fluid absorption was not significantly different in the two periods. Glucose absorption was greater than 90% of the administered amount for both solutions. Net sodium absorption was greater for the maltodextrin solution than for the standard solution (56 +/- 12 vs 24 +/- 20 mmol, P less than 0.05). We conclude that replacement of glucose with maltodextrins and addition of sodium in the standard oral rehydration solution results in improved sodium absorption in short-bowel syndrome. PMID:2000833

Beaugerie, L; Cosnes, J; Verwaerde, F; Dupas, H; Lamy, P; Gendre, J P; Le Quintrec, Y

1991-03-01

290

Effect of Strength and Microstructure on Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior and Mechanism of X80 Pipeline Steel in High pH Carbonate/Bicarbonate Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviors and mechanisms of X80 pipeline steels with different strength and microstructure in high pH carbonate/bicarbonate solution were investigated by slow strain rate testing and electrochemical test. The results showed that the cracking mode of low strength X80 steel composed of bulky polygonal ferrite and granular bainite in high pH solution was intergranular (IGSCC), and the SCC mechanism was anodic dissolution (AD). While the mixed cracking mode of high strength X80 steel consisted of fine acicular ferrite and granular bainite was intergranular (IGSCC) in the early stage, and transgranular (TGSCC) in the later stage. The decrease of pH value of crack tip was probably the key reason for the occurrence of TGSCC. The SCC mechanism may be a mixed mode of AD and hydrogen embrittlement (HE), and the HE mechanism may play a significant role in the deep crack propagation at the later stage. The cracking modes and SCC mechanisms of the two X80 steels were associated with its microstructure and strength.

Zhu, Min; Du, Cuiwei; Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Shengrong; Zhao, Tianliang; Jia, Jinghuan

2014-04-01

291

Speciation and chemical activities in superheated sodium borate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system H2O-B2O3-Na2O has been studied experimentally at 277 degrees and 317 degrees C. The activities of water and boric acid have been determined at mole ratios Na/B from 0 to 1.5, and total dissolved solids 3 to 80 weight percent. The activity of boric acid has been fitted to within experimental error using a speciation model with eight complex species. This model is consistent with the model previously published by Mesmer et al. The electrolyte properties of the liquid are modelled using the Pitzer-Simonson Model of very concentrated electrolyte solutions. The calculated values of water activity agree with experiment, and the activity of NaOH and pOH have also been calculated. These data will allow prediction of the composition and chemical behavior of sodium borate liquids that may accumulate in the superheated crevices within a steam generator. A modified form of the model is provided for use with MULTEQ. The potassium borate system also was briefly studied at 317 degrees C, and is adequately described by a model with five complex species. The potassium borate liquid is more alkaline at K/B = 1 than a sodium borate liquid at the same mole ratio, but pOH in the two systems is the same at lower mole ratios

1993-01-01

292

Visco-Elastic Properties of Sodium Hyaluronate Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium Hyaluronate (NaHA) is a member of the glycosaminoglycans and is present in the human organism as part of the synovial fluid and the vitreous body. HA is mainly commercialized as sodium or potassium salt. It can be extracted from cockscombs or can be produced by bacterial fermentation ensuring a low protein content. Because of its natural origin and toxicological harmlessness, NaHA is used to a great extent for pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. In medical applications, NaHA is already being used as a component of flushing and stabilizing fluids in the treatment of eye cataract and as a surrogate for natural synovial fluid. Another growing domain in the commercial utilization of NaHA is the field of skin care products like dermal fillers or moisturizers. In this spectrum, NaHA is used in dilute over semidilute up to concentrated (0solutions. In order to optimize NaHA samples for their specific utilization and to find new applications, it is of great interest to understand its viscoelastic behavior. We therefore present in this contribution the results of a comprehensive investigation of the viscous and elastic material functions of different NaHA samples. This includes, besides shear flow and oscillatory experiments, the performance of rheo-optical measurements in order to determine the elastic component in the range of low shear rates and low concentrations.

Kulicke, Werner-Michael; Meyer, Fabian; Bingöl, Ali Ö.; Lohmann, Derek

2008-07-01

293

Photo-electrochemical analysis of passive film formed on X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate/carbonate buffer solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photo-electrochemical measurement was used to explore the formation potential, formation time, chloride ions concentration, applied potential and pH value of the solution on the electronic property of passive film formed on X80 pipeline steel in 1 M NaHCO3/0.5 M Na2CO3 buffer solution. The results showed that the photocurrent is positive, indicating an n-type semiconductor character of the passive film, the photocurrent increased with increasing the formation potential, prolonging the formation time, decreasing chloride ions concentration, rising applied potential and decreasing the pH value of the solution. Capacitance measurement exhibited a positive slope of Mott-Schottky plot, and the slopes of Mott-Schottky plots increased with the increasing formation potential, showing a decrement of the donor density of the passive film

2008-02-28

294

The relevance of the CO2 partial pressure of sodium bicarbonate solutions for the mass cultivation of the microalga Spirulina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O meio de cultivo na base de bicarbonato de sódio usado para produzir a microalga Spirulina em massa e preparado seguinte ZARROUK¹ é meta-estável em contato com a atmosfera. Este fato causa uma grande perda de CO2. Com cálculos e experiências foi determinada a relação entre a pressão parcial de CO2 [...] de soluções de bicarbonato de sódio e o pH da solução. Com pH 10.2 existe um equilíbrio com a concentração de CO2 no ar e desta maneira não há perda de CO2. Abstract in english It is demonstrated by experiments and calculations that the medium used for growing the microalga Spirulina (prepared according to ZARROUK¹ with a resulting pH of 8.7) is highly meta-stable in contact with the atmosphere and is thus loosing considerable amounts of CO2. This economic problem can be a [...] voided by raising the pH of the culture medium to 10.2 where its partial pressure of CO2 corresponds to the partial pressure of CO2 in the atmosphere. The pH shift has practically no influence on the growth of the algae.

Daniel de, Alava; Paulo Corrêa de, Mello; Klaus, Wagener.

295

Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5 were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide in the presence of sodium benzoate/sodium sulphite inhibitive mixtures range 0.322mmpy to 1.1269mmpy across the three volumetric ratios considered. The 15ml5ml sodium benzoatesodium sulphite mixture had the best average corrosion rate of 0.5123mmpy.The corrosion rate followed reducing pattern after the first 200 hours of immersion. The average corrosion rate in the sodium benzoate / sodium sulphite mixture is less than the rate in sodium sulphite and the mixture is only effective after long time exposure.It is concluded that adding sodium benzoate to sodium sulphite in the volumetric ratio 155ml improves the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide environment.

Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

2008-12-01

296

Drop-on-demand for aqueous solutions of sodium alginate  

Science.gov (United States)

Inkjet printing is a rapidly growing commercial process for applications that depend on precisely patterning micro-scale droplets. These applications increasingly require complex fluids, introducing viscoelastic properties which play an important role in droplet formation. The objective of this study is to determine how to obtain single, uniform and spherical ("successful") droplets from aqueous solutions of sodium alginate with a piezoelectric drop-on-demand printing method. In order to control the volume and velocities of droplets, the effect on the droplet formation of the characteristics of the waveform such as voltage amplitude and dwell time is studied. The results depend also on the fluid rheology. The viscosity of the chosen fluid is a function of the concentration, as the viscoelastic properties increase at higher concentration. In this paper, the droplet formation process is characterized in terms of both the waveform and the rheological properties of the solution. The characterization of the fluids and waveform will be pursued first and the droplet formation and its control will be studied. Finally, the results will be presented with a map in ranges of the Ohnesorge, Deborah and Weber numbers.

Herran, C. Leigh; Coutris, Nicole

2013-06-01

297

Sodium silicate solutions from dissolution of glasswastes. Statistical analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has studied the solubility process of four different waste glasses (with different particle sizes, 125 µm in alkaline solutions (NaOH and NaOH/Na?CO? and water as a reference and under different conditions of solubility (at room temperature, at 80°C and a mechano-chemical process. Have established the optimal conditions of solubility and generation of sodium silicates solutions, and these were: the smaller particle size (Se ha estudiado el proceso de solubilidad de cuatro diferentes residuos vítreos (con distintas granulometrías, 125 µm en disoluciones alcalinas de NaOH y NaOH/Na?CO? y agua como medio de referencia y bajo distintas condiciones de solubilidad (a temperatura ambiente, a 80°C y con un proceso mecano-químico. Se han establecido las condiciones óptimas de solubilidad y generación de disoluciones de silicato sódico, y estas son: menor tamaño de partícula del residuo vítreo (inferior a 45 µm, con la disolución de NaOH/Na?CO? y tratamiento térmico a 80°C durante 6 horas de agitación. El análisis estadístico realizado a los resultados obtenidos da importancia a las variables estudiadas y a las interacciones de las mismas. A través de ²?Si RMN MAS se ha confirmado la formación, tras los procesos de disolución, de un silicato monomérico, apto para su utilización como activador en la preparación de cementos y hormigones alcalinos.

Torres-Carrasco, M.

2014-05-01

298

Sodium sulfate as an eluant for concentrated solution of pertechnetate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fission molybdenum-99 based technetium-99m chromatography generators are the most widely employed generator systems in the field of diagnostic nuclear medicine. In the first week these generators provide high specific volume activity Na99mTcO4, but in the second week the radioactive concentration of the eluate (99mTc) becomes ?17% of that at the beginning of the first week. Low specific volume activity limits the clinical procedures (e.g. 99mTc-DTPA for lung ventilation scanning, 99mTc-sestamibi for myocardial perfusion studies, 99mTc-ECD for brain imaging and 99mTc-red cells for testicles) that can be performed at the beginning of the second week. To overcome such limitations sodium sulfate was used as an eluant, which provides >80% of 99mTc radioactivity in 2 ml solution, while 0.9% NaCl provides only 40-45% 99mTc in first 2 ml solution

2008-08-01

299

Kinetics of conversion of celestite to strontium carbonate in solutions containing carbonate, bicarbonate and ammonium ions and dissolved ammonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Celestite concentrate (SrSO4 has been converted to SrCO3 in solutions containing CO32-, HCO3- and NH4+ ions and dissolved ammonia. The effects of stirring speed, CO32- ion concentration; temperature and particle size of SrSO4 on the reaction rate were investigated. It was found that the conversion of SrSO4 was increased by increasing the temperature and decreasing the particle size, while the reaction rate was decreased with increasing the CO32- ion concentration. However, there was no effect of the stirring speed on the reaction rate. The conversion reaction was under chemical reaction control and the Shrinking Core Model was suitable to explain the reaction kinetics. The activation energy for the conversion reaction was found to be 41.9 kJ mol-1. The amounts of the elements in the reaction solution were determined quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The characterization of the solid reactant and product was made using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray powder diffraction analytical techniques.

Zoraga Mert

2014-01-01

300

Stress corrosion cracking of X80 pipeline steel exposed to high pH solutions with different concentrations of bicarbonate  

Science.gov (United States)

Susceptibilities to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of X80 pipeline steel in high pH solutions with various concentrations of HCO{3/-} at a passive potential of -0.2 V vs. SCE were investigated by slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test. The SCC mechanism and the effect of HCO{3/-} were discussed with the aid of electrochemical techniques. It is indicated that X80 steel shows enhanced susceptibility to SCC with the concentration of HCO{3/-} increasing from 0.15 to 1.00 mol/L, and the susceptibility can be evaluated in terms of current density at -0.2 V vs. SCE. The SCC behavior is controlled by the dissolution-based mechanism in these circumstances. Increasing the concentration of HCO{3/-} not only increases the risk of rupture of passive films but also promotes the anodic dissolution of crack tips. Besides, little susceptibility to SCC is found in dilute solution containing 0.05 mol/L HCO{3/-} for X80 steel. This can be attributed to the inhibited repassivation of passive films, manifesting as a more intensive dissolution in the non-crack tip areas than at the crack tips.

Fan, Lin; Du, Cui-wei; Liu, Zhi-yong; Li, Xiao-gang

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Clinical Effect of a Mixed Solution of Sodium Hyaluronate and Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose During the Transconjunctival Approach for Orbital Wall Reconstruction  

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This study aimed to evaluate the anti-adhesive effect of a mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (HACMC, Guardix-sol®) during the transconjunctival approach to orbital wall reconstruction. Eighty-seven patients who underwent orbital wall reconstruction by the transconjunctival approach were enrolled in this prospective study. We applied HACMC between the orbicularis oculi muscle and the orbital septum after surgery in 47 patients and did not use it in 40 pati...

2012-01-01

302

The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium acetates, chlorates, and perchlorates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of sodium acetate, potassium acetate, sodium perchlorate, and potassium perchlorate were determined over the (278 to 318) K temperature range and compared with available in the literature data. The cases of saturated solutions of sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate are also considered. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the osmotic coefficients, and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in considered systems

2007-08-01

303

The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium acetates, chlorates, and perchlorates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of sodium acetate, potassium acetate, sodium perchlorate, and potassium perchlorate were determined over the (278 to 318) K temperature range and compared with available in the literature data. The cases of saturated solutions of sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate are also considered. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the osmotic coefficients, and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in considered systems.

Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Manzurola, Emanuel [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2007-08-15

304

The dissolution and crystallisation of amphoteric metal hydroxides from sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dissolution and recrystallisation of beryllium, zinc, cadmium and tin(II) hydroxides and chromium(III), iron(III), aluminium, scandium, yttrium, gallium and indium hydroxides, from sodium hydroxide solutions of concentrations C = 1 to 20 M at ambient temperatures, are surveyed. The different ionic equilibria in metal hydroxide-sodium hydroxide systems are examined: the phases crystallising from different sodium hydroxide solutions are tabulated and crystallisation mechanisms are analysed. (author)

1981-01-01

305

Pulse and steady-state radiolysis of sodium tetraphenylborate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Major products and their G-Values from Co-60 gamma radiolysis of 0.05 M sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) at 25 degrees C are hydrogen (0.46), biphenyl (2.0), benzene (1.3), and phenol (0.41). A dose of 4.4 Mrad increased the pH from 8.2 (initial) to 9.2. Reactions of transient species in aqueous TPB"- solutions were studied by electron pulse radiolysis. The lack of reactivity between TPB"- and e_a_q"- was shown by monitoring was shown by monitoring the transient optical absorbance of e_a_q"-. The results suggests that OH"+ addition is the main reaction pathway. Using N_2O saturation, the authors found k = 6.2x10"9 M"-"1s"-"1. A mechanism based on an initial 1st order decomposition of the OH"+ adduct, (C_6H_5)_3BC_6H_5OH"-"., with a measured rate constant of 4x10"4 s"-"1 is proposed. Kinetic modeling based on the proposed mechanistic scheme gives good agreement with experimental results

1994-08-21

306

Water structure, dynamics, and vibrational spectroscopy in sodium bromide solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

We study theoretically the steady-state and ultrafast vibrational spectroscopy, in the OD-stretch region, of dilute HOD in aqueous solutions of sodium bromide. Based on electronic-structure calculations on clusters containing salt ions and water, we develop new spectroscopic maps that enable us to undertake this study. We calculate OD-stretch absorption line shapes as a function of salt concentration, finding good agreement with experiment. We provide molecular-level understandings of the monotonic (as a function of concentration) blueshift, and nonmonotonic line width. We also calculate the frequency time-correlation function, as measured by spectral diffusion experiments. Here again we obtain good agreement with experiment, finding that at the highest salt concentration spectral diffusion slows down by a factor of 3 or 4 (compared to pure water). For longer times than can be accessed experimentally, we find that spectral diffusion is very complicated, with processes occurring on multiple time scales. We argue that from 6 to 40 ps, relaxation involves anionic solvation shell rearrangements. Finally, we consider our findings within the general context of the Hofmeister series, concluding that this series must reflect only local ordering of water molecules.

Lin, Y.-S.; Auer, B. M.; Skinner, J. L.

2009-10-01

307

Severe Neurologic Impairment in Mice with Targeted Disruption of the Electrogenic Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe2 (Slc4a5 Gene)*  

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The choroid plexus lining the four ventricles in the brain is where the majority of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. The secretory function of the choroid plexus is mediated by specific transport systems that allow the directional flux of nutrients and ions into the CSF and the removal of toxins. Normal CSF dynamics and chemistry ensure that the environment for neural function is optimal. Here, we report that targeted disruption of the Slc4a5 gene encoding the electrogenic sodium bicarb...

2011-01-01

308

Improved extraction of sodium sulphonates from oil solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The extraction process of sodium sulphonate is described with the aid of a rotatable, centrally composed planned experiment. The derived regression equations establish the relationship of extraction and composition of the product to the extraction mode. Determines optimal extraction regimen for sodium sulphonate production.

Matselyukh, V.S.; Bodan, A.N.; Garun, Ya.Ye.; Kachmar, O.S.; Kravchuk, G.G.; Topil' nitskiy, P.I.

1982-01-01

309

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 1404) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Arti...

Tetens, Inge

2011-01-01

310

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone (ID 331, 1402) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in th...

Tetens, Inge

2011-01-01

311

Relevance of Rheological Properties of Sodium Alginate in Solution to Calcium Alginate Gel Properties  

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The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium alginate solutions’ rheological parameters are meaningful relative to sodium alginate’s use in the formulation of calcium alginate gels. Calcium alginate gels were prepared from six different grades of sodium alginate (FMC Biopolymer), one of which was available in ten batches. Cylindrical gel samples were prepared from each of the gels and subjected to compression to fracture on an Instron Universal Testing Machine, equipped with a...

Fu, Shao; Thacker, Ankur; Sperger, Diana M.; Boni, Riccardo L.; Buckner, Ira S.; Velankar, Sachin; Munson, Eric J.; Block, Lawrence H.

2011-01-01

312

Bicarbonate Supplementation Slows Progression of CKD and Improves Nutritional Status  

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Bicarbonate supplementation preserves renal function in experimental chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether the same benefit occurs in humans is unknown. Here, we randomly assigned 134 adult patients with CKD (creatinine clearance [CrCl] 15 to 30 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and serum bicarbonate 16 to 20 mmol/L to either supplementation with oral sodium bicarbonate or standard care for 2 yr. The primary end points were rate of CrCl decline, the proportion of patients with rapid decline of CrCl (>3...

Brito-ashurst, Ione; Varagunam, Mira; Raftery, Martin J.; Yaqoob, Muhammad M.

2009-01-01

313

Myocardial uptake of thallium-201 augmented with bicarbonate: concise communication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium bicarbonate was used to enhance the myocardial concentration of Tl-201 in rabbits and dogs. Organ distribution studies in rabbits and in vivo imaging in dogs showed a 1.5 to 2-fold increase in myocardial Tl-201 concentration in bicarbonate-treated animals as compared with matched controls. Image improvement was noted, with threefold enhancement of myocardium-to-liver ratios. The results suggest that a similar improvement may be possible for clinical myocardial imaging

1977-01-01

314

Settling-out of Cobalt from Lean Solutions with Sodium Sulfide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium sulfide appears to be an inexpensive generally accessible reagent for the settling out of cobalt and nickel from manganese and iron contaminated sulfuric acid solutions, obtained in the process of hydrometallurgical treating of oxidized iron ores a...

V. I. Smirnov Y. A. Yablonskii

1965-01-01

315

Synthesis of carbon nano tubes by electrical arc discharge method in sodium chloride solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work, synthesis of carbon nano tubes were investigated in sodium chloride-distilled water solution by electrical arc discharge method with different molarities and Scanning Electron Microscopy images for all samples were analyzed.

2006-08-28

316

Volumetric properties of aqueous sodium sulfate solutions at high temperatures and pressures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium sulfate is one of the main impurities of aqueous heat carrier of steam turbine power units. The study of the thermodynamic properties of aqueous sodium sulfate solutions was motivated by practical needs and by the necessity for decreasing corrosion of thermal power equipment, concentration, and scaling of heat-exchanger surface. In this work they studied the volumetric properties of aqueous sodium sulfate solutions at temperatures 323-573/sup 0/K, pressures 10-80 MPa, and concentrations 0.05-0.3 mole/kg of H/sub 2/O. The measurements were performed on a setup based on the method of study of volumetric properties using a constant volume piezometer. For the preparation of the solutions ultrapure 6-4 grade sodium sulfate was used. The concentration of the solutions was determined gravimetrically. The PVTX data obtained experimentally are furnished.

Tsai, S.V.; Gilyarov, V.N.; Puchkov, L.V.; Zarembo, V.I.

1986-10-20

317

Amorphous silica solubilities IV. Behavior in pure water and aqueous sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium sulfate solutions up to 350/sup 0/C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solubilities of amorphous silica were determined in separate aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium sulfate at temperatures up to 350/sup 0/C. These salts, of strong interest in hydrothermal oceanography and geothermal energy, generally ranged in concentration from zero to saturation. Solubilities in the sodium chloride solutions followed closely earlier observed decreases in sodium nitrate solutions at high temperatures. Amorphous silica solubilities were depressed most by magnesium chloride, followed by magnesium sulfate, and less by sodium chloride. As the temperature rose the relative decrease in solubility caused by added salt became smaller. Surprisingly, sodium sulfate solutions, showing little effect at 25/sup 0/C, sharply raised the solubility as the temperature increased to 350/sup 0/C. Plots of the logarithms of derived activity coefficients against molalities of added salt gave approximately straight lines. These plots allow simple predictions of amorphous silica solubility in single salt solutions.

Chen, C.T.A.; Marshall, W.L.

1982-02-01

318

The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate.

Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2008-05-15

319

The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate

2008-05-01

320

Clinical application of sodium hyaluronate,levarterenol and indicarmine solution in endoscopic submucosal dissection  

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Objective To assess the clinical value of sodium hyaluronate,levarterenol and indicarmine solution used in endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD).Methods Sixteen patients were involved in present study who were diagnosed as precancerous lesion or submucosal tumor in digestive tract by chromoendoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography from Nov,2010 to Feb,2011 at General Hospital of Shenyang Command.The injected solution was mixed with 0.2% indicarmine 10ml,levarterenol 10mg,sodium hyaluronate 20m...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Interaction of ammonium perrhenate with sodium thiosulfate in sulfuric-acid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interaction of ammonium perrhenate with sodium thiosulfate in sulfuric-acid solution is studied in a wide range of component ratios. It is established that the medium mainly affects the rate of sodium thiosulfate decomposition to elemental sulphur and sulphur dioxide. Simultaneous increase of thiosulfate and rhenium concentrations in the initial solutions results in their less complete interaction. Composition of solid phases depends but slightly on the acid nature

1982-02-01

322

A new intralesional therapy of cutaneous leishmaniasis with hypertonic sodium chloride solution.  

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ABSTRACT: One hundred and fifty eight lesions of acute cutaneous leishmaniasis in 70 patients were treated with hypertonic sodium chloride solution (88 lesions), pentostam (50 lesions) and 20 lesions were left untreated as controls. The injections were given at 7-10 day intervals and patients were followed-up for 42 days. Hypertonic sodium chloride solution was shown to be very effective local therapy (96 percent cure rate) and was as effective as local pentostam (96.4 percent cure rate). In ...

Ke, Sharquie

1994-01-01

323

Investigation of dissolution processes of rhenium sulfides in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetic characteristics (rate constant, activation energy) for the reaction of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide dissolution with provision for change of their surface value were determined and the possible mechanism of rhenium sulfide dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of oxygen was suggested. It was shown, that change of Gibbs energy of sulfide formation correlates with change of Gibbs energy of their dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions

1983-02-01

324

Interaction of zirconium hydroxide with sodium silicide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that sodium silicate sorption on zirconium hydroxide prevents the ageing processes of the latter, that results in quick depolimerization of hydroxide in nitric acid. As a result determination of zirconium with pyrocatechol violet and its extraction ability by tributylphosphate increases. Sorbed silicate ion prevents OH group substitution for F in zirconium hydroxide at ph 8-10

1980-01-01

325

Mutual solubility of vanadate and fluoride of sodium alkaline solutions at 15 deg C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using isothermal method, mutual solubility of sodium vanadate and fluoride at permanent concentrations of Na2OH, corresponding to industrial ones, is investigated. Equilibrium solutions and bottom phases are analyzed by physicochemical methods of analysis. Dta of the analyses confirm the existence of double salt 2Na3VO4·NaF·1/4NaOH·19H2O. Certain difference of solid phases isolated from aqueous and alkaline solutions permits to assume the presence of alkaline complexes. Crystallization region of alkaline complex of congruently soluble double salt of sodium fluoride and alkaline complex of sodium vanadate dodecahydrate is ascertained

1988-01-01

326

Avaliação de procedimentos de extração dos óxidos de ferro pedogênicos com ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio / Evaluation of pedogenic iron oxide extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em 20 amostras hematíticas e goethíticas de horizontes B latossólicos, uma de B plíntico, uma de B incipiente e uma de saprolito, foram avaliados dois procedimentos de extração de óxidos de ferro pedogênicos (Fe d) por ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio (DCB). O procedimento a 80 ºC (DCB80) extr [...] aiu aproximadamente 90 % do Fe d na primeira extração e praticamente a totalidade do mesmo na segunda extração, sendo mais efetivo que o procedimento a temperatura ambiente (DCB20), o qual teve sua eficiência reduzida com o aumento da substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita. A substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita determinada por DCB80 superestimou os valores determinados por DRX conforme aumentaram as extrações. Em amostras hematíticas, esta estimativa foi prejudicada pela presença de maghemita que dissolveu juntamente com a hematita. Abstract in english Pedogenic iron oxides (Fe d) were quantified in 22 hematitic and goethitic soil samples (19 from oxic horizons; one from a plinthic horizon; one from a cambic horizon; one from saprolite) by use of two extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB). Approximately ninety perce [...] nt of the Fe d content was extracted at the first extraction by the DCB80 procedure. This procedure was more effective at extracting Fe d than the DCB20, whose efficiency decreased with increasing Al3+-substitution in goethite. Compared with the DRX analysis, Al3+-substitution in goethite determined by the DCB80 procedure was superestimated. Maghemite masked Al3+-substitution estimates in hematite from hematitic samples.

A. V., Inda Junior; N., Kämpf.

327

Avaliação de procedimentos de extração dos óxidos de ferro pedogênicos com ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio Evaluation of pedogenic iron oxide extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em 20 amostras hematíticas e goethíticas de horizontes B latossólicos, uma de B plíntico, uma de B incipiente e uma de saprolito, foram avaliados dois procedimentos de extração de óxidos de ferro pedogênicos (Fe d por ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio (DCB. O procedimento a 80 ºC (DCB80 extraiu aproximadamente 90 % do Fe d na primeira extração e praticamente a totalidade do mesmo na segunda extração, sendo mais efetivo que o procedimento a temperatura ambiente (DCB20, o qual teve sua eficiência reduzida com o aumento da substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita. A substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita determinada por DCB80 superestimou os valores determinados por DRX conforme aumentaram as extrações. Em amostras hematíticas, esta estimativa foi prejudicada pela presença de maghemita que dissolveu juntamente com a hematita.Pedogenic iron oxides (Fe d were quantified in 22 hematitic and goethitic soil samples (19 from oxic horizons; one from a plinthic horizon; one from a cambic horizon; one from saprolite by use of two extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB. Approximately ninety percent of the Fe d content was extracted at the first extraction by the DCB80 procedure. This procedure was more effective at extracting Fe d than the DCB20, whose efficiency decreased with increasing Al3+-substitution in goethite. Compared with the DRX analysis, Al3+-substitution in goethite determined by the DCB80 procedure was superestimated. Maghemite masked Al3+-substitution estimates in hematite from hematitic samples.

A. V. Inda Junior

2003-12-01

328

Variants of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) in mouse hippocampal neurons are regulated by extracellular pH changes: evidence for a Rab8a-dependent mechanism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in extracellular pH are common events in both pathological conditions and during normal brain function. In organs other than the brain, cells may respond to pH changes by trafficking of acid-base transporters. However, regulation of neuronal acid-base transporters during pH shifts is not understood. The aim of this study was to investigate regulatory mechanisms of the variants of the electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter 1, NBCe1-A and NBCe1-B/C, in neurons following changes of extracellular pH. Therefore, primary mouse hippocampal neurons were exposed to extracellular acidosis or alkalosis. We show that acid-base changes regulated trafficking and membrane expression of neuronal NBCe1 but the underlying molecular cues were distinct for individual NBCe1 variants. Following extracellular acidosis NBCe1-A was recruited from intracellular pools to the plasma membrane, followed by increased membrane expression, whereas NBCe1-B/C was retrieved from the membrane. Extracellular alkalosis had no impact on NBCe1-A, but caused translocation of NBCe1-B/C toward the dendrites. We also show that acidosis-induced NBCe1-A, but not NBCe1-B/C, trafficking is mediated by Rab8a. Rab8a is expressed in hippocampal neurons, co-localizes, and interacts with NBCe1-A. Loss-of-function of Rab8a using specific siRNA prevented acidosis-induced redistribution of NBCe1-A. These data propose opposite recruitment pattern for NBCe1 variants in neurons following extracellular acid-base changes, implicating distinct physiological functions of individual NBCe1 variants, and introduce Rab8a as a novel molecular determinant and crucial mediator of acidosis-induced NBCe1 trafficking in neurons. PMID:23583738

Oehlke, Oliver; Speer, Jan Manuel; Roussa, Eleni

2013-07-01

329

Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women? / ¿Modifica el agua mineral bicarbonatada rica en sodio la sensibilidad a la insulina de las mujeres postmenopáusicas?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Estudiar los efectos de la ingesta de 0.5L de dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2), junto con una comida estándar, sobre los cambios en la insulina y la glucosa postprandial; y determinar si los posibles efectos varían en función de la resistencia a la insulina eva [...] luada a través del modelo homeostático (HOMA). Métodos: 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas sanas participaron en un estudio triple cruzado aleatorizado, en el que bebieron 2 aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2) y un agua mineral débil (LMW) junto con una comida estándar rica en grasa. Se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas y postprandiales a los 30, 60 y 120 min. Se determinó glucosa, insulina, colesterol y triglicéridos en suero. La resistencia a la insulina fue estimada a través del HOMA y la sensibilidad a la insulina se calculó mediante el índice de sensibilidad cuantitativa a la insulina (QUICKY). Resultados: Los niveles de glucosa no presentaron cambios. Los valores de HOMA y QUICKY presentaron una fuerte correlación inversa (r = -1,000; p Abstract in english Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2), with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Methods [...] : In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW) with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY). Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p

S., Schoppen; F. J., Sánchez-Muniz; A. M.ª, Pérez-Granados; J. A., Gómez-Gerique; B., Sarriá; S., Navas-Carretero; M.ª Pilar, Vaquero.

330

Sodium/Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCn1/Slc4a7 Inhibits NH4Cl-mediated Inward Current in Xenopus Oocytes  

Science.gov (United States)

The electroneutral Na/HCO3 cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) contributes to intracellular pH maintenance and transepithelial HCO3? movement. In this study, we expressed NBCn1 in Xenopus oocytes and examined the effect of NBCn1 on oocyte NH4+ transport by analyzing changes in membrane potential, current, and intracellular pH mediated by NH4Cl. In the presence of HCO3?/CO2, applying NH4Cl (20 mM) produced intracellular acidification of oocytes. The acidification was faster in oocytes expressing NBCn1 than in control oocytes injected with water. However, NH4Cl-mediated membrane depolarization was smaller in oocytes expressing NBCn1. In HCO3?/CO2-free solution, NH4Cl produced a smaller inward current in NBCn1-expressing oocytes (56% inhibition by 20 mM NH4Cl; measured at ?60 mV), while minimally affecting intracellular acidification. The inhibition of the current by NBCn1 was unaffected when BaCl2 replaced KCl. Current-voltage relationships showed a positive and nearly linear relationship between NH4Cl-mediated current and voltage, which was markedly reduced by NBCn1. Large basal currents (before NH4Cl exposure) were produced in NBCn1-expressing oocytes due to the previously characterized channel-like activity of NBCn1. Inhibiting this channel-like activity by Na+ removal abolished NBCn1’s inhibitory effect on NH4Cl-mediated currents. The currents were progressively reduced over 72–120 h after NBCn1 cRNA injection, during which the channel-like activity was high. These results indicate that NBCn1 by its Na/HCO3 cotransport activity stimulates NH4+ transport, while reducing NH4+ conductance by its channel-like activity.

Lee, Soojung; Choi, Inyeong

2011-01-01

331

Radiation protection by ascorbic acid in sodium alginate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alginates are gelling hydrocolloids extracted from brown seaweed used widely in the nourishing and pharmaceutical industries. As alginic acid gellification retard food entrance in the stomach alginate is an additive used in diets. The objective of this work was to study the protective action of the ascorbic acid in alginate solutions against the action of "6"0 Co gamma radiation. One % (w/v) solutions of alginate had been used and concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 0 to 2.5% (w/v). The solutions were irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy. Viscosity/dose relationship and the p H of the solutions at 25 Centigrade were determined. Ascorbic acid behaved as an antioxidant against radiation oxidative shock in this model system of an irradiated viscous solution. Besides its radiation protective role on alginate solutions ascorbic acid promoted a viscosity increase in the range of concentrations employed. (Author)

2004-07-11

332

Activity coefficients of sodium tetraphenylborate in aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Data are presented on medium ionic activity coefficients of sodium tetraphenylborate in water, determined by potentiometric method with electrode, reversed to BPh4--anion on the basis of diethylferrocene and tetraphenylborate-diethylferricenium. To determine the activity coefficient of NaBPh4 the dependence of electromotive force of galvanic cell without transfer, composed of tetraphenylborate and glass with Na+-function electrodes on NaBPh4 concentration in water was analyzed. Sharp decrease of activity factors in 0.04-0.2 M tetraphenylborate concentration range was established; it is the consequence of formation of rather stable associates and, possibly, the agregates of higher order

1983-01-01

333

Deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the oxidation of sodium (2-D2) propionate with permanganate in water solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetic parameters characterizing the oxidation of sodium (2-1H2) propionate and the oxidation of sodium (2-2H2) propionate with permanganate in water solutions have been determined. The results were compared with kinetic parameters derived from the investigation of the deuterium isotope effect on the activation parameters in the permanganate and manganate oxidation of sodium (2-2H2) propionate in water solutions of sodium hydroxide. (author) 3 refs.; 3 tabs

1988-04-01

334

Computer simulations of sodium formate solution in a mixing tank  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, solid-liquid mixing has always been regarded as an empirical technology with many aspects of mixing, dispersing and contacting were related to power draw. One important application of solid-liquid mixing is the preparation of brine from sodium formate. This material has been widely used as a drilling and completion fluid in challenging environments such as the Barents Sea. In this paper, large-eddy simulations of a turbulent flow in a solid-liquid baffled cylindrical mixing vessel with large number of solid particles are performed to obtain insight into the fundamental aspects of a mixing tank. The impeller-induced flow at the blade tip radius is modeled by using the dynamic-mesh Lagrangian method. The simulations are four-way coupled, which implies that both solid-liquid and solid-solid interactions are taken into account. By employing a soft particle approach the normal and tangential forces are calculated acting on a particle due to viscoelastic contacts with other neighboring particles. The results show that the granulated form of sodium formate may provide a mixture that allows faster and easier preparation of formate brine in a mixing tank. In addition it is found that exceeding a critical size for grains phenomena, such as caking, can be prevented. The obtained numerical results suggest that by choosing appropriate parameters a mixture can be produced that remains free-flowing no matter how long it is stored before use.

Mousavi, S. M.; Zamankhan, P.; Jafari, A.

2008-03-01

335

A prospective randomised study comparing polyethylene glycol and sodium phosphate bowel cleansing solutions for colonoscopy.  

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Polyethylene glycol (Klean-Prep, Norgine) is widely used for bowel cleansing in the United Kingdom. This study compares the efficacy, acceptability and adverse effects of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution with sodium phosphate (Fleet Phospho-soda, De Witt) for bowel preparation prior to colonoscopy. Two hundred and nine consecutive patients were prospectively randomised to either PEG or sodium phosphate (SP) preparation. The endoscopist was blinded to the randomisation process. Fifty patie...

1999-01-01

336

Anodic dissolution of molybdenum and tungsten in sodium sulfate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anodic dissolution of molybdenum and tungsten in the 0.5 m Na2SO4 solution by various potentials and temperatures was studied for determining the conditions of the molybdenum primary solution from the Mo-W bimetal system. It is established, that the tungsten dissolution rate is a larger extent depends on the temperature than the molybdenum solution rate, while it is controlled by diffusion in the solid state. The process of the molybdenum extraction from the Mo-W bimetal system proceeds most effectively at 20 deg C with in the potential range of 0.7-0.9 V

2002-04-01

337

Purification of sodium vanadate solutions from silicon, iron, manganese  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dependence of solution purification on the amount of precipitant, the time of the procedure and the temperature of the process as well as on the selected mole ratio Na2O/V2O5 is studied. It is shown that the content of admixtures in tungsten pentoxide decreases 12-fold as to silicon, 18-fold as to iron and 30-fold as to manganese as compared with the product obtained from non-purified solutions

1980-10-01

338

Crystallization of sodium vanadate from industrial solutions of alumina production  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studied has been the kinetics of the vanadium salts crystallization from the industrial aluminate solutions. Considered is the possibility to intensify the process by supersaturating the solution through its subcooling. Since the vanadium salts do not precipitate after cooling the solution down to 35 deg C and following a prolonged hold time, this temperature has been selected as the initial one. The relative subcooling of the solution was being detected by the deviation from the above temperature. It is shown that the bigger the relative subcooling and the lower the process final temperature (in the experiments tsub(fin)=30; 24; 20 deg C), the faster and the ampler is the recovery of the vanadium salts from the solution. A conclusion is drawn that it is expedient to stage the crystallization process in the polythermal regime at a higher initial temperature and a lower final temperature with intensive mixing. When the mixing intensity grows, the crystallization process rate increases. 84-86% V2O5 may be recovered from the reusable industrial solution during 2 hours

1978-01-01

339

The interaction of long chain sodium carboxylates and sodium dodecylsulfate with lead(II) ions in aqueous solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction of sodium octanoate, decanoate or dodecanoate with lead(II) has been studied in aqueous solutions using potentiometry, electrical conductivity, turbidity and ICP-OES measurements. These show an alkyl chain length dependence on the behavior. At the lead(II) concentration used (1.0 mM), relatively strong interactions are observed with the decanoate and dodecanaote, leading to formation of the lead carboxylates (soaps) as insoluble complexes. All techniques show 1:2 (metal:carboxylate) stoichiometry corresponding to charge neutralization. With sodium octanoate and lead(II), a rather weaker interaction is seen, and complexation is only observed at metal:carboxylate ratios > 0.5. However, in contrast to our previous work on octanoate and calcium(II) in aqueous solutions [1], precipitation does occur at higher concentrations. This difference between the behavior of the metal ions is probably due to the more covalent nature of the bonds of the carboxylate with Pb(2+) than with Ca(2+). Association constants of the complexes have been determined from potentiometric measurements and are consistent with data on solubility products. A comparison is made of the effect of surfactant head group on the interactions with lead(II) using two surfactants with the same chain length: dodecanoate and dodecylsulfate. Differences in their interactions with this metal ion in aqueous solutions are interpreted in terms of greater covalency of the bond between the metal and the carboxylate than with the sulfate group. PMID:24231086

Pereira, Rui F P; Valente, Artur J M; Burrows, Hugh D

2014-01-15

340

Solute-solvent interactions in micellar electrokinetic chromatography: VII. Characterization of sodium cholate-sodium deoxycholate mixed-micellar systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) systems with mixed pseudostationary phases of the bile surfactants sodium cholate (SC) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) have been characterized by means of the solvation parameter model. The importance of characterizing systems with an appropriate set of solutes that embrace a wide range of descriptor values has been proven as they can significantly influence the value of the system constants. The fit of the solvation parameter model to the experimental log k data has been compared for each SC-SDC system when the Abraham descriptors and the Poole optimized descriptors, recently proposed, are used. In both cases, the variation in MEKC surfactant composition results in similar changes in the coefficients of the correlation equations, which in turn leads to similar information on solute-solvent and solute-micelle interactions. It is demonstrated that SDC is more hydrogen-bond acidic and hydrophobic but slightly less polarizable than SC. Systems with intermediate selectivity are obtained through mixtures of both surfactants. PMID:20092822

Hidalgo-Rodríguez, Marta; Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

The influence of low oxygen and contaminated sodium environments on the fatigue behavior of solution treated AISI 316 stainless steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of air and sodium environments on the fatigue properties of solution treated AISI 316 steel was studied by predictive methods and by conducting tests in air, in high temperature sodium, or following pre-exposure to sodium. The sodium environments studied included contaminated sodium or the products of sodium/water flames possibly typical of fast reactor fault conditions, and low oxygen sodium more appropriate to normal plant operation. Generally, fatigue properties were reduced by contaminated sodium or the products of sodium/water flames and improved by low oxygen sodium when compared with similar tests conducted in air. However, complex effects were observed with respect to crack initiation. The experimental results are discussed and generally follow trends predicted by physically based fatigue models. (author)

1977-10-17

342

CHLORIDEDETERMINATION IN HIGH IONIC STRENGTH SOLUTION OF AMMONIUM ACETATE USING NEGATIVE ION ELECTRON SPRAY IONIZATION (HPLC/MS)  

Science.gov (United States)

A precise ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of chloride in high ionic strength ammonium acetate solutions (10-5 M-5 M) using sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate as eluent. Negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was used for q...

343

On the influence of molecular structure on the conductivity of electrolyte solutions - sodium nitrate in water  

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Full Text Available Theoretical calculations of the conductivity of sodium nitrate in water are presented and compared with experimental measurements. The method of direct correlation force in the framework of the interionic theory is used for the calculation of transport properties in connection with the associative mean spherical approximation (AMSA. The effective interactions between ions in solutions are derived with the help of Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics calculations on the Born-Oppenheimer level. This work is based on earlier theoretical and experimental studies of the structure of concentrated aqueous sodium nitrate solutions.

H. Krienke

2013-01-01

344

Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO_3) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10"-"6M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO_3 and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar"1, Ile"8)-Angiotensin II(10"-"6M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO_3. Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO_3. Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium

1986-03-01

345

Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO/sub 3/) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10/sup -6/M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO/sub 3/ and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar/sup 1/, Ile/sup 8/)-Angiotensin II(10/sup -6/M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium.

Chatsudthipong, V.; Chan, Y.L.

1986-03-01

346

Use of hypertonic solutions of sodium chloride in hypergranulating wounds  

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Objective: to verify the efficiency of hypertonic solution (NaCl/20%) on the hypergranulation due to the constant hypergranulating wound beds treated in venous ulcers in the daily clinic practice, which delays and disables cells epithelization. Methodology: clinical case study, performed in an outpatient’s clinic of Médio Vale do Paraíba, from February to March 2008. MCT, 60 years old, female, white skin, systematic arterial hypertension controlled, with wounds on the middle part and regi...

2009-01-01

347

An in vivo microperfusion study of distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption in normal and ammonium chloride rats.  

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For many years it has been thought that distal nephron hydrogen ion secretion can be importantly modulated by factors such as sodium delivery, sodium avidity, and potassium stores. Free flow micropuncture studies have also indicated that the rate of bicarbonate delivery may also alter the rate of bicarbonate reabsorption. The present studies were undertaken to examine possible luminal influences on total CO2 reabsorption in microperfused distal tubules in the rat in vivo. Tubules from normal ...

1985-01-01

348

Permanganate-ion reduction by sodium tetrahydrideborates in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reaction of MnO4- with BH4- in aqueous solutions was studied. It is shown that the permanganate ion reduced to MnO4- in an alkaline medium (0.1-1.0 mol. NaOH) to MnO2 in a weakly acid and a weakly alkaline medium, while in a strongly acid (pH 2+. The stoichiometry of the processes was investigated, and the corresponding reaction equations were proposed with an allowance for the relative role of the products of hydrolysis of BH4-

1978-03-01

349

Effect of bismuth subcitrate on amphibian gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion.  

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The ulcer healing and cytoprotective properties of colloidal bismuth (De-Nol) are well established although its mode of action is unclear. We have examined the action of bismuth subcitrate, the active ingredient of De-Nol, on gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion by isolated amphibian mucosa. Addition of bismuth subcitrate (10(-6) to 10(-4) M) to the luminal solution produced a dose dependent increase in bicarbonate secretion from both gastric and duodenal mucosae without a change in transmuco...

Shorrock, C. J.; Crampton, J. R.; Gibbons, L. C.; Rees, W. D.

1989-01-01

350

Removal of sodium-24 by chromatographic extraction with a kieselguhr column and crown ether solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium-24 was readily removed from aqueous solutions by a chromatographic process based on an isotopic exchange reaction. The reaction was carried out with a granular Kieselguhr column and a chloroform solution of crown ether-sodium picrate. The process took about 1 h and can be utilized in neutron activation analysis of many elements, Cl, Br, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ru, In, Sn, Ce and W. It cannot be used, however, for alkali and alkaline earth elements. The amount of 24Na in a treated sample was 10-2 of the original amount. The Compton background was reduced in the range of ?-ray energy after the removal of sodium-24. 3 figures, 3 tables

1982-01-01

351

Pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate  

Science.gov (United States)

In previous work on the 60Co ?-radiolysis of aqueous tetraphenylborate (TPB -) solutions carried out in this laboratory, it was found that several organic products, including benzene, phenol and biphenyl, are produced with substantial yield. However, the reaction mechanism was not established. In the present study, reactions initiated by O? radicals, N 3 radicals and e -aq in aqueous TPB - solutions were studied by pulse radiolysis using a 600 keV Febetron electron accelerator. The lack of reactivity between TPB - and e -aq was demonstrated by directly monitoring the transient optical absorbance of e -aq. Concerning the reaction with O ?, two schemes were considered: (1) electron transfer from B(C 6H 5) -4 to O ?; or (2) O ? addition to B(C 6H 5) -4. Comparison of observed transient absorption spectra with expectations based on two different schemes suggests that O ? addition is the dominant reaction pathway under conditions of N 2O saturation, with an experimentally determined second-order rate constant of 6.2×10 9M -1s -1. A mechanism based on an initial first-order self-decomposition of the O ? adduct, (C 6H 5) 3BC 6H 5OH -· with a measured rate constant of 4×10 4s -1 is proposed. Kinetic modeling on the proposed mechanistic scheme gives good agreement with our experimental results.

Crawford, Charles L.; Gholami, Mohammad R.; Bhave, Ravindra N.; Hanrahan, Robert J.

1994-09-01

352

Removal of thorium from aqueous solutions by sodium clinoptilolite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adsorptive behavior of natural clinoptilolite was assessed for removal of thorium from aqueous solutions. Natural zeolite was characterized by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The zeolite sample composed mainly of clinoptilolite. Na-exchanged form of zeolite was prepared and its sorption capacity for removal of thorium from aqueous solutions was examined. The effects of relevant parameters, including initial concentration, contact time, solid to liquid ratio, temperature and initial pH on the removal efficiency were investigated in batch studies. The pH strongly influenced thorium adsorption capacity and maximal capacity was obtained at pH 4.0. Kinetics and isotherm of adsorption were also studied. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetic data. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided excellent kinetic data fitting (R2 > 0.999) with rate constant of 1.25, 1.37 and 1.44 g mmol-1 min-1 respectively for 25, 40 and 55 deg C. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms for thorium uptake and the Langmuir model agrees very well with experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters were determined and are discussed. (author)

2011-08-01

353

Special features of humus acids extraction from soils by sodium pyrophosphate solutions of different alkalinity  

Science.gov (United States)

The regularities of extracting humus acids from soils of different types with solutions of sodium pyrophosphate at the equilibrium pH values of 5-13 were studied. The increase in the humus acids yield from the soils with the increasing alkalinity of the solution applied is directly related to the capability of acid functional groups (carboxyl and phenol hydroxyl) for dissociation at definite pH values. The regularities of the changes in the chemical nature and degree of humification of humus acids extracted from the soils related to the pH of the solution were revealed. A sodium pyrophosphate solution (pH 10) was suggested for extracting the humus acids most active in the given soil.

Bakina, L. G.; Orlova, N. E.

2012-04-01

354

Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Sodium Bicarbonate/Carbonate Buffer in an Open Aqueous Carbon Dioxide System and Corollary Electrochemical/Chemical Reactions Relative to System pH Changes  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) experienced a number of chemical changes driven by system absorption of CO2 which altered the coolant’s pH. The natural effects of the decrease in pH from approximately 9.2 to less than 8.4 had immediate consequences on system corrosion rates and corrosion product interactions with specified coolant constituents. The alkalinity of the system was increased through the development and implementation of a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer that would increase coolant pH to 9.0 – 10.0 and maintain pH above 9.0 in the presence of ISS cabin concentrations of CO2 up to twenty times higher than ground concentrations. This paper defines how a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer works in an open carbon dioxide system and summarizes the analyses performed on the buffer for safe and effective application in the on-orbit system. The importance of the relationship between the cabin environment and the IATCS is demonstrated as the dominant factor in understanding the system chemistry and pH trends before and after addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. The paper also documents the corollary electrochemical and chemical reactions the system has experienced and the rationale for remediation of these effects with the addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer.

Stegman, Thomas W.; Wilson, Mark E.; Glasscock, Brad; Holt, Mike

2014-01-01

355

Properties of cement composites by the mechanoactivation of solution of the sodium silicate ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mixing of cement by the mechanoactivation of the sodium liquid glass solution resulted in increasing of the heat stability and the compressive and flexural strengths of cement stone and reducing of the water adsorption. These data point to compacting of cement stone structure.??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?????, ? ????? ?? ??????????????, ?????????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????? (??? ?????? ? ??? ??????. ?????????? ??????? ???????????????????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ? ?????????? ?????????????? ? ????????? ?????????? ????? ? ?????????? ??????????????, ??? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????.

Fedosov Sergey Viktorovich

2012-01-01

356

Ionic Clusters in Zeolites Formed by Interaction with Sodium Solutions in Liquid-Ammonia  

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An alternative route for the preparation of Na4(3+) paramagnetic clusters in Y zeolites is described involving contact of the solid with a solution of sodium in liquid ammonia. Besides the EPR signal of the cluster a second signal, likely due to be a solvated electron in the sodalitic cage, is also observed.

1991-01-01

357

Effect of microwave radiation on the stability of frozen cefoxitin sodium solution in plastic bags  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of microwave radiation on the stability of frozen cefoxitin sodium solutions was investigated. The i.v. fluids used as vehicles for the 1-g admixtures of cefoxitin sodium were 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection in 50-ml and 100-ml polyvinyl chloride flexible containers. The antibiotic small-volume parenteral solutions were frozen at -20 degrees C for 72 hours and thawed by microwave radiation. Before and after the freeze-thaw process, the solutions were observed for changes in appearance with a light and dark field visual surveillance technique. In addition, pH determinations were made with a microprocessor ionanalyzer, and high-performance liquid chromatographic determinations of concentration were performed. No significant drug concentration changes were detected and no visible changes were observed. The pH changes were minimal. Microwave radiation can reduce thawing time of antibiotic admixtures. In this study, the stability of cefoxitin sodium solutions was not affected by the freeze-thaw process.

Stiles, M.L.

1981-11-01

358

Micellization of Sodium Dodecylsulfate in Aqueous Solutions Studied by Positron Annihilation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The peak count rate H of 2 gamma -angular correlation of the positron annihilation radiation was used to study the micellization of sodium dodecylsulfate (NaLS) in aqueous solutions both in the absence and in the presence of protein. It is evident from th...

G. Brauer A. V. Volynskaya B. P. Molin A. Y. Skripkin V. P. Shantarovich

1981-01-01

359

Reduction of potassium permanganate solution by ?-irradiated sodium chloride [Paper No. RD-21  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dissolution of ?-irradiated sodium chloride in potassium permanganate solution results in the reduction of MnO_4"- ions. This has been inferred from spectrophotometric studies. This has been explained on the basis of interaction of colour centres with MnO_4"- ions. The extent to which MnO_4"- ions are reduced are found to vary with

1982-01-01

360

RESEARCH OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRIC PULSE DISCHARGE IN CHLORIDE SODIUM SOLUTIONS ???????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electro physical and energetic properties of electric pulse discharge in various concentration solutions of chloride sodium as the results of the researches are provided in this article. The possibility of applying the Yutkin effect in technological processes of food industry has been reviewed

Nagdalyan A. A.

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
361

Effects of pressure, temperature, and concentration on the viscosity of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of pressure (0.1-375 MPa), temperature (283.15-323.15 K), and concentration (0.5-3 mol/kg) on the viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solution, namely, the activation energy and B coefficient, are measured. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

1992-06-25

362

Colon cleansing before colonoscopy: Does oral sodium phosphate solution still make sense?  

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Oral sodium phosphate (NaP) solution has been withdrawn from the market in the United States but remains available for over-the-counter purchase for bowel preparation for colonoscopy in Canada. The present review summarizes recent data regarding the renal toxicity of oral NaP as well as its efficacy and tolerability relative to other preparations. Given the availability of effective alternatives to NaP solution, its use for colonoscopy preparation in Canada should be limited. Candidate patien...

2009-01-01

363

Acute therapy for hyperkalemia with the combined regimen of bicarbonate and beta(2)-adrenergic agonist (salbutamol) in chronic renal failure patients.  

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This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combination therapy of bicarbonate and salbutamol for hyperkalemia in 9 hemodialysis patients. Simultaneous administration of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (i.v., 2 mEq/kg) for 1/2 hour and salbutamol (15 mg) in nebulized form for 10 min was compared with treatment modality of either bicarbonate or salbutamol alone. Infusion of sodium bicarbonate induced a significant rise in plasma bicarbonate from 17.3 +/- 3.2 to 22.1 +/- 2.4 mEq/L (p < 0.01), but ...

Kim, H. J.

1997-01-01

364

Stability Test of Ampicillin Sodium Solutions in the Accufuser® Elastomeric Infusion Device Using HPLC: UV Method  

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Full Text Available The stabilities of two kinds of solutions (30 mg/mL of Ampicillin sodium in 0.9% NaCl in water (NS, normal saline and in sterile water (SW in the intravenous elastomeric infusion device (Accufuser® were evaluated based on recommended solutions and storage periods. The injectable NS- and SW-Ampicillin solutions in the Accufuser® device were stored and evaluated at controlled temperature (room temperature, 25? ± 2? and cold temperature, 4? ± 2? during 7 days. Effects of the periods of storage (from 0 to 7 days and the temperatures of storage (RT and CT on the physico-chemical appearances and concentrations of active compounds were determined. The visual clarity, pH, and concentrations of Ampicillin were determined by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ultraviolet (UV detection. The results showed that the amount of Ampicillin in studied solutions gradually decreased with time. The Ampicillin in NS, which was stored in CT, was relatively stable, retaining 94% of its original amount up to 7 days. The solution that showed least stability was Ampicillin in SW, which was stored in RT, retaining 80% of its original amount. Generally, solutions that were stored in CT were more stable than the solutions that were stored in RT. No significant changes in physical appearance or color of the solutions were observed during the study. Particles were not detected in any solution samples. In summary, two kinds of solutions of Ampicillin sodium, in NS and SW, showed different chemical stabilities with time in intravenous infusion device without any significant physical changes and retained about 94% vs 89% and 83% vs 80% of initial concentrations after 7 days in CT and RT, respectively. We suggest that 30 mg/mL of Ampicillin sodium in NS solution in an Accufuser® infusion device which is stored in CT can be applicable for 7 days in clinical situations.

Min A Kang

2012-10-01

365

The absorption of caesium by stainless steel from liquid sodium-caesium solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stainless steel (types AISI 321) has been shown to be inert towards sodium containing 3 wppm caesium and less than 20 wppm oxygen over 635 d at 673 K. Stainless steel (type AISI 316) has been shown to be inert towards both pure caesium and sodium-caesium solutions (up to 50 wppm caesium) containing less than 20 wppm oxygen over 115 d at 873 K. Penetration and corrosion by the liquid metals was negligible. The addition of ca. 2 mol.% oxygen to the pure caesium caused minor grain-boundary corrosion of the steel, revealed after chemical etching to be ca. 10 ?m in depth after 25 d at 873 K. The only corrosion product detected was chromium. By diluting the caesium with sodium and then adding 0.35 mol.% oxygen to the sodium-caesium system produced a more corrosive liquid which caused more severe grain-boundary degradation of the steel surface. The corrosion mechanism in each case is thought to begin with the formation of Cr2O3 on the steel surface which then undergoes further reaction with the alkali metal. Grinding the flat steel surface against an abrasive paper allowed the removal of thin sections and by this with a #betta#-tracer technique, depth profiles were determined for the caesium penetration from sodium-caesium solutions. The results are reported, analysed and discussed. (author)

1982-01-01

366

Development and Validation of a Successful Microbiological Agar Assay for Determination of Ceftriaxone Sodium in Powder for Injectable Solution  

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Ceftriaxone sodium is a cephalosporin with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and belongs to the third generation of cephalosporins. Regarding the quality control of medicines, a validated microbiological assay for the determination of ceftriaxone sodium in powder for injectable solution has not been reported yet. This paper reports the development and validation of a simple, accurate and reproducible agar diffusion method to quantify ceftriaxone sodium in powder for injectable solution. T...

Ale?ssio, Patri?cia V.; Salgado, He?rida R. N.

2012-01-01

367

Concentration of rhenium from dilute sodium chloride solutions  

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Full Text Available The conditions for the desorption of rhenium from the anion exchange resin Dowex 1-x8 by HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH were determined. The solution (5.0´10-3 mol dm-3 Re in 0.15 mol dm-3 NaCl was passed through a column containing 0.10 g of the resin. The total sorbed amount of rhenium was 0.20 g/g of the resin. It was then eluted by the corresponding eluent in the concentration range up to about 3.0 mol dm-3. The highest elution efficiency and the most favourable elution profile were found with 3.0 mol dm-3 HNO3. Over 77 % of the sorbed rhenium was found in the first 5 ml of the eluate. Practically all the rhenium was recovered with 20 ml of the acid. Under the given experimental conditions, HCl and H2SO4 were less favourable while NaOH was not applicable, due to very low efficiency of rhenium elution.

DRAGOLJUB M. LUKIC

2008-03-01

368

Volumetric and conductometric studies on the interactions of dipeptides with sodium acetate and sodium butyrate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Densities and conductivity data for the sodium carboxylate (sodium acetate and sodium butyrate)-dipeptides {l_brace}(glycyl-L-glutamine and L-alanyl-L-glutamine) + water{r_brace} systems were determined at T = 298.15 K. The apparent molar volumes of the peptides and the molar conductivity ({lambda}) of sodium acetate and sodium butyrate have been calculated. These data have been utilized to deduce the standard partial molar volumes (V{sub 2,{phi}}{sup 0}), standard partial molar volumes of transfer for dipeptide from water to aqueous sodium carboxylate solutions ({delta}{sub t}V{sup o}), volumetric interaction coefficient, the limiting molar conductivity ({lambda}{sup o}), and Walden product ({lambda}{sup o}o{eta}). Both V{sub 2,{phi}}{sup 0} and {delta}{sub t}V{sup o} for the dipeptides increase with increasing concentration of sodium carboxylate. The interpretation is that this result arises from the dominant interactions of the sodium carboxylate with the charged group and polar groups of peptides. The decrease in {lambda}{sup o} of sodium carboxylate with increasing dipeptide concentration and nonconstant Walden product are attributed to the interactions of sodium carboxylate with peptide and friction resistance of the solvent medium.

Yan Zhenning [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052 (China)], E-mail: yanzzn@zzu.edu.cn; Wang Xiaoge; Xing Ronghua [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052 (China); Wang Jianji [Department of Chemistry, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

2009-12-15

369

Volumetric and conductometric studies on the interactions of dipeptides with sodium acetate and sodium butyrate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Densities and conductivity data for the sodium carboxylate (sodium acetate and sodium butyrate)-dipeptides {(glycyl-L-glutamine and L-alanyl-L-glutamine) + water} systems were determined at T = 298.15 K. The apparent molar volumes of the peptides and the molar conductivity (?) of sodium acetate and sodium butyrate have been calculated. These data have been utilized to deduce the standard partial molar volumes (V2,?0), standard partial molar volumes of transfer for dipeptide from water to aqueous sodium carboxylate solutions (?tVo), volumetric interaction coefficient, the limiting molar conductivity (?o), and Walden product (?o?). Both V2,?0 and ?tVo for the dipeptides increase with increasing concentration of sodium carboxylate. The interpretation is that this result arises from the dominant interactions of the sodium carboxylate with the charged group and polar groups of peptides. The decrease in ?o of sodium carboxylate with increasing dipeptide concentration and nonconstant Walden product are attributed to the interactions of sodium carboxylate with peptide and friction resistance of the solvent medium.

2009-12-01

370

Direct rotating ring-disk measurement of the sodium borohydride diffusion coefficient in sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of borohydride anion and solution kinematic viscosity for a large panel of NaOH + NaBH{sub 4} electrolytic solutions relevant for use as anolyte in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC). The diffusion coefficients have been measured by the transit-time technique on gold rotating ring-disk electrodes, and verified using other classical techniques reported in the literature, namely the Levich method and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on a gold RDE, or chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk. The agreement between these methods is generally good. The diffusion coefficients measured from the RRDE technique are however ca. twice larger than those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ca. 3 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaBH{sub 4} at 25 deg. C in the present study vs. ca. 1.6 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.02 M NaBH{sub 4} at 30 deg. C in the literature, as measured by chronoamperometry at a gold microsphere), which is thoroughly discussed. Our measurements using chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk showed that such technique can yield diffusion coefficient values below what expected. The origin of such finding is explained in the frame of the formation of both a film of boron-oxide(s) at the surface of the (static) gold microdisk and the generation of H{sub 2} bubbles at the electrode surface (as a result of the heterogeneous hydrolysis at Au), which alter the access to the electrode surface and thus prevents efficient measurements. Such film formation and H{sub 2} bubbles generation is not so much of an issue for rotating electrodes thanks to the convection of electrolyte which sweeps the electrode surface. In addition, should such film be present, the transit-time determination technique on a RRDE displays the advantage of not being very sensible to its presence: the parameter measured is the time taken by a perturbation generated the disk to reach the ring trough a distance several orders of magnitude bigger than the film thickness, thus minimizing its effect.

Chatenet, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: Marian.Chatenet@phelma.grenoble-inp.fr; Molina-Concha, M.B. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); El-Kissi, N. [Laboratoire de Rheologie, UMR 5520 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1301 rue de la piscine, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Parrour, G.; Diard, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

2009-07-15

371

Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women? ¿Modifica el agua mineral bicarbonatada rica en sodio la sensibilidad a la insulina de las mujeres postmenopáusicas?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2, with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Methods: In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY. Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p Objetivo: Estudiar los efectos de la ingesta de 0.5L de dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2, junto con una comida estándar, sobre los cambios en la insulina y la glucosa postprandial; y determinar si los posibles efectos varían en función de la resistencia a la insulina evaluada a través del modelo homeostático (HOMA. Métodos: 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas sanas participaron en un estudio triple cruzado aleatorizado, en el que bebieron 2 aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2 y un agua mineral débil (LMW junto con una comida estándar rica en grasa. Se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas y postprandiales a los 30, 60 y 120 min. Se determinó glucosa, insulina, colesterol y triglicéridos en suero. La resistencia a la insulina fue estimada a través del HOMA y la sensibilidad a la insulina se calculó mediante el índice de sensibilidad cuantitativa a la insulina (QUICKY. Resultados: Los niveles de glucosa no presentaron cambios. Los valores de HOMA y QUICKY presentaron una fuerte correlación inversa (r = -1,000; p < 0,0001. Las concentraciones de insulina mostraron un efecto significativo en el tiempo (p < 0,0001 y una interacción agua x tiempo significativa (p < 0,021. A los 120 min los niveles de insulina fueron significativamente inferiores con BMW1 respecto a LMW (p = 0,022. Las concentraciones postprandiales de insulina mostraron patrones significativamente distintos según el tipo de agua que se bebía dependiendo de los n-tiles del HOMA (p = 0,016. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren un aumento de la sensibilidad a la insulina tras el consumo de las dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio. Este efecto es más marcado en las mujeres que tienen unos valores de HOMA más altos. Este tipo de aguas deberían ser consideradas como parte de una dieta saludable con objeto de prevenir la resistencia a la insulina y las enfermedades cardiovasculares.

S. Schoppen

2007-10-01

372

The solubility of iron hydroxide in sodium chloride solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

The solubility of iron(III) hydroxide as a function of pH was investigated in NaCl solutions at different temperatures (5-50°C) and ionic strengths (0-5 M). Our results at 25°C and 0.7 M in the acidic range are similar to the solubility in seawater. The results between 7.5 to 9 are constant (close to 10-11 M) and are lower than those found in seawater (>10-10) in this pH range. The solubility subsequently increases as the pH increases from 9 to 12. The solubility between 6 and 7.5 has a change of slope that cannot be accounted for by changes in the speciation of Fe(III). This effect has been attributed to a solid-state transformation of Fe(OH)3 to FeOOH. The effect of ionic strength from 0.1 to 5 M at a pH near 8 was quite small. The solubility at 5°C is considerably higher than at 25°C at neutral pH range. The effects of temperature and ionic strength on the solubility at low and high pH have been attributed to the effects on the solubility product and the formation of FeOH2+ and Fe(OH)4-. The results have been used to determine the solubility products of Fe(OH)3, K?Fe(OH)3 and hydrolysis constants, ??1, ??2, ??3, and ??4 as a function of temperature (T, K) and ionic strength (I): log K?Fe(OH)3 = -13.486 - 0.1856 I0.5 + 0.3073 I + 5254/T (? = 0.08) log ??1 = 2.517 - 0.8885 I0.5 + 0.2139 I - 1320/T (? = 0.03) log ??2 = 0.4511 - 0.3305 I0.5 - 1996/T (? = 0.1) log ??3 = -0.2965 - 0.7881 I0.5 - 4086/T (? = 0.6) log ??4 = 4.4466 - 0.8505 I0.5 - 7980/T. (? = 0.2) Both strong ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and weak (HA) organic ligands greatly affect iron solubility. The additions of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and humic material were shown to increase the solubility near pH 8. The higher solubility of Fe(III) in seawater compared to 0.7 M NaCl may be caused by natural organic ligands.

Liu, Xuewu; Millero, Frank J.

1999-10-01

373

Effect of ultrasound on sodium arsenate induction time and crystallization property during solution crystallization processes  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of ultrasound vibrations on the cooling crystallization of sodium arsenate in supersaturated solutions was investigated. In particular, the effects of ultrasound vibrations on induction time and crystal size distribution were studied using a laser-based apparatus with relative supersaturation ranging from 1.3 to 1.8. The results show that ultrasound vibrations have a significant effect on reducing induction time and crystal size distribution. The application of ultrasound vibrations to the system resulted in a small change in surface tension; however, the induction time and crystal size significantly decreased. The mean size of sodium arsenate crystals decreased from 398.87 ± 3.27 to 168.68 ± 2.07 ?m, as the ultrasound power increases from 26 to 130 W. Ultrasound vibrations significantly reduced the induction time in a highly supersaturated solution compared to that in a low supersaturated solution.

Zeng, Guisheng; Wang, Xianyong; Luo, Shenglian; Li, Hui; Tu, Xinman; Luo, Xubiao; Zou, Jianping

2014-05-01

374

Bicarbonate transport along the loop of Henle. II. Effects of acid-base, dietary, and neurohumoral determinants.  

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The loop of Henle contributes to renal acidification by reabsorbing about 15% of filtered bicarbonate. To study the effects on loop of Henle bicarbonate transport (JHCO3) of acid-base disturbances and of several factors known to modulate sodium transport, these in vivo microperfusion studies were carried out in rats during: (a) acute and chronic metabolic acidosis, (b) acute and chronic (hypokalemic) metabolic alkalosis, (c) a control sodium diet, (d) a high-sodium diet, (e) angiotensin II (A...

Capasso, G.; Unwin, R.; Ciani, F.; Santo, N. G.; Tommaso, G.; Russo, F.; Giebisch, G.

1994-01-01

375

Thermogravimetric analysis of phase transitions in cement compositions mixed by sodium silicate solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the capability to modify cement by mechanical activation of sodium silicate water solution. Admixtures or blends of binding agents were employed for modifying concrete properties. The liquid glass is applied to protect from chemically or physically unfavorable environmental impacts, such as acidic medium and high temperature. The sodium silicate is a high-capacity setting accelerator. The increasing of the liquid glass proportion in the mix leads to the degradation of the cement paste plasticity and for this reason it is necessary to reduce the amount of liquid glass in the cement paste. The activation of dilute water solution of sodium silicate into rotary pulsating apparatus directly before tempering of the cement paste is an effective way to decrease mass fraction of liquid glass in the cement paste. The results of the combined influence of liquid glass and mechanical activation on physicochemical processes taking place in cement stone are represented in this research. Thermogravimetric analysis was used in order to study cement blends. Thermogravimetric analysis of modified cement stone assays was performed by thermo analyzer SETARAM TGA 92-24. The results of the analysis of phase transition taking place under high-temperature heating of cement stone modified by the mechanical activation of the water solution of the sodium silicate were introduced. Thermograms of cement stone assays were obtained at different hardening age. The comparison of these thermograms allows us to come to a conclusion on the formation and the retention during long time of a more dense structure of the composite matrix mixed by the mechanical activation of sodium silicate water solution. The relation between the concrete composition and its strength properties was stated. Perhaps, the capability of modified concrete to keep calcium ions in sparingly soluble hydrosilicates leads to the increase in its durability and corrosion resistance.

Fedosov Sergey Viktorovich

2014-01-01

376

Investigation of bivalent lanthanide stabilization in solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate and polyether 18-crown-6  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and polyether 18-crown-6 on solution stability of SM2+, Tm2+ Nd2+ and Dy2+ in certain solvents has been studied. It is shown that the use of NaTPB for stabilization of Dy2+ and Nd2+ is impossible due to instability of the reagent to oxidation potentials below - 2.3 V. The use of 18-crown-6 permitted to prepare more stable Sm2+ solutions in water and Tm2+ solutions in acetonitrile, than in pure solvents. The values of oxidation rate constants and certain spectroscopic data for bivalent lanthanides in the media studied are presented

1985-03-01

377

Colon cleansing before colonoscopy: Does oral sodium phosphate solution still make sense?  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral sodium phosphate (NaP) solution has been withdrawn from the market in the United States but remains available for over-the-counter purchase for bowel preparation for colonoscopy in Canada. The present review summarizes recent data regarding the renal toxicity of oral NaP as well as its efficacy and tolerability relative to other preparations. Given the availability of effective alternatives to NaP solution, its use for colonoscopy preparation in Canada should be limited. Candidate patients for oral NaP solution should be assessed for eligibility and preparation instructions should adhere to the current recommendations for maximizing the safety of oral NaP.

Rex, Douglas K; Vanner, Stephen J

2009-01-01

378

The mechanism for the stability of graphene oxide membranes in a sodium sulfate solution  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of graphene oxide (GO) membranes in a sodium sulfate aqueous solution is reported. The mechanism for the stability was interpreted with the assistance of molecular dynamic (MD) simulations as follows: GO disperses uniformly in water because it is hydrated. However, the hydration of GO is weakened when Na2SO4 is present because the Na+ and SO42- ions are preferentially hydrated over GO. Thus the movement of GO in the Na2SO4 solution becomes restricted and it is difficult for the GO in a GO membrane to uniformly disperse in a Na2SO4 solution even with ultrasonic treatment.

Sun, Shuai; Wang, Chengyang; Chen, Mingming; Li, Mingwei

2013-03-01

379

On interaction of cadmium and indium nitrate mixture with sodium tungstate in aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interaction of the mixture of cadmium and indium nitrates with sodium tungstate in aqueous solution is studied using the methods of ''residual concentrations'', pH potentiometry and conductometry. Independent on the ratio of components in the initial solution a mixture of coprecipitated normal tungstates of cadmium and indium is formed in the system. Heat treatment of the precipitates at 800 deg C for 50 hrs with subsequent hardening results in the formation of solid solutions on the basis of normal cadmium and indium tungstates

1982-01-01

380

Investigation of Cs(I) adsorption on densely crosslinked poly(sodium methacrylate) from aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a crosslinked copolymer bearing sodium methacrylate functional groups has been proposed to remove Cs(I) ions from aqueous solutions. For this purpose, the crosslinked copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) and methacrylic acid (MA) containing 25% MA as weight percentage was synthesized by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO)-N,N-dimethyl aniline initiator system. The available carboxyl groups in copolymer were converted to the groups of sodium methacrylate using 2 N NaOH. The adsorption behavior of cesium ions on the densely crosslinked poly(sodium methacrylate) from aqueous solutions were investigated by the technique of ICP-MS measurements of cesium ions in solutions. Batch adsorption method was used to analyze the Cs(I) adsorption as a function of parameters such as the amount of adsorbent, contact time, pH of solution, initial Cs(I) concentration and temperature. The adsorption data were evaluated by the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The adsorption cavity and free energy change were calculated by using D-R isotherm. The adsorption data obtained from experimental results have been tested by the fractional power, the Elovich, the pseudo-first order and the pseudo-second order kinetic models. (author)

2011-08-01