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1

Can potassium citrate replace sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride of oral rehydration solution?  

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Ninety four children aged less than 5 years with diarrhoeal dehydration and acidosis were treated randomly with either World Health Organisation (WHO) oral rehydration solution containing sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and glucose or an oral solution with tripotassium citrate monohydrate replacing the sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride in the WHO solution. Fifty five children (58%) were hypokalaemic (potassium less than 3.5 mmol/l) on admission. All but two in ...

Islam, M. R.

1985-01-01

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Solubility of hydrogen in aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K  

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An experimental study is presented of the hydrogen solubility in aqueous salt solutions containing sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K. For this purpose, gas consumption measurements have been performed by determining the ultimate pressure decrease in an intensively stirred, high pressure autoclave. Experiments were carried out at salt concentrations up to 1.0 mol kg-1. At higher salt molalities, the hydrogen solubility was too low to be measured reliably. It was demonstrated t...

Engel, D. C.; Versteeg, G. F.; Swaaij, W. P. M.

1996-01-01

3

Effect of intravenous infusion of isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution on acidemic calves with diarrhea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of 1.35% isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (ISB) administered intravenously on acid-base equilibrium was examined in 18 acidemic Japanese black beef calves with spontaneous diarrhea. The infusion volumes of ISB were decided based on the first half volumes of base needed. In 72.2% (13/18) of calves, improvement of acidemia was detected. There was good correlation (r=0.693, p<0.01) between infused volume of ISB and changes in base excess (y=1.097x + 4.762). Infusion volumes of ISB were 7.5, 10.2, 12.9 and 15.7 ml/kg, respectively, enough to correcting the first half of 5, 10, 15 and 20 mEq/l of base deficit in acidemic calves. Our finding suggested that ISB could be used to correct metabolic acidosis without altering electrolyte concentrations in calves. PMID:12520117

Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Kato, Tosihide; Tsunoda, Gensei; Iwabuchi, Shigehiro; Asano, Kimi; Asano, Ryuji

2002-12-01

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Postharvest behaviour of two Sardinian apple varieties following immersion in heated sodium bicarbonate solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

'Miali' and 'Caddina' are apple varieties of Sardinian germplasm, mainly produced under sustainable conditions. Fruit is rarely subjected to cold storage and postharvest losses are generally high. In order to prolong the marketing period and contain postharvest decay of these local varieties, we investigated on their storage behaviour and on the efficacy of combined alternative postharvest treatments. Pre-climateric fruit was harvested and immersed for 0 (control), 15, 30, 45 or 60 sec. in water at 20, 50, 55 or 60 degrees C with or without 2% (W/V) NaHCO3 (SBC). Then, fruit was stored for 4 months at 5 degrees C and 90% RH followed by a 6 day simulated marketing period (SMP) at 10 degrees C and 75% RH. Decay was monitored at the end of storage and after the SMP, while appearance and physiological disorders were evaluated after SMP. During storage 56 and 62% of the untreated 'Caddina' and 'Miali' apples rotted, respectively. During the SMP, an additional 3% of 'Caddina' and 5% of 'Miali' was lost. Among the treatments the best decay control, for both varieties, was attained when fruit was immersed in the SBC solution at 55 degrees C for 60 sec. Compared to control, decay was reduced by 91 and 95% for 'Caddina' and 'Miali', respectively. This combination induced some rind damage, mainly on 'Caddina' fruit. Superficial scald was evident on 'Caddina' and scored as medium while, cold storage induced a significant deposition of epicuticular wax in 'Miali' fruit, affecting significantly fruit appearance. A significant reduction of decay was also achieved when fruit was immersed at 60 degrees C for 30 or 45 sec., attaining for 'Caddina' a reduction of 82 and 88% of decay, respectively. Other combinations were lesser effective or produced rind damages and most decay was caused by Penicillium expansum. PMID:21534486

Venditti, T; Molinu, M G; Dore, A; Agabbio, M; D'Hallewin, G

2010-01-01

5

Oral rehydration solution without bicarbonate.  

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The efficacy of oral rehydration solution without bicarbonate was compared with World Health Organisation oral rehydration solution in 98 young children in a double blind and randomised clinical trial. These children had varying degrees of dehydration and acidosis caused by acute watery diarrhoea. The mean serum bicarbonate concentration on admission was 13.3 mmol(mEq)/1 in the former and 13.1 mmol(mEq)/1 in the latter group of children. All but three children who received the rehydration sol...

Islam, M. R.; Ahmed, S. M.

1984-01-01

6

Bicarbonate and bicarbonate/lactate peritoneal dialysis solutions for the treatment of infusion pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study was undertaken to determine the effects of novel bicarbonate (38 mM) and bicarbonate (25 mM)/lactate (15 mM) containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions on infusion pain in patients who experienced inflow pain with conventional lactate (40 mM) solution. Pain was assessed using a verbal rating scale and the validated McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Eighteen patients were recruited to the study. Both novel solutions resulted in highly statistically significant reductions in inflow pain compared to the control lactate solution, as assessed with both the verbal rating scale and the MPQ. For all pain variables assessed, the bicarbonate/lactate solution was more effective than the bicarbonate solution in alleviating pain. In conclusion, both solutions reduced the infusion pain experienced with control solution, but the bicarbonate/lactate solution appears to be the most effective. In contrast to the most widespread current treatment, which is the manual injection of sodium bicarbonate, the bicarbonate/lactate solution does not have the associated increased risk of peritonitis. PMID:9551418

Mactier, R A; Sprosen, T S; Gokal, R; Williams, P F; Lindbergh, M; Naik, R B; Wrege, U; Gröntoft, K C; Larsson, R; Berglund, J; Tranaeus, A P; Faict, D

1998-04-01

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The anodic dissolution of SIMFUEL (UO{sub 2}) in slightly alkaline sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion of nuclear fuel under waste disposal conditions is likely to be influenced by the bicarbonate/carbonate content of the groundwater since it increases the solubility of the U{sup VI} corrosion product, [UO{sub 2}]{sup 2+}. As one of the half reactions involved in the corrosion process, the anodic dissolution of SIMFUEL (UO{sub 2}) has been studied in bicarbonate/carbonate solutions (pH 9.8) using voltammetric and potentiostatic techniques and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The reaction proceeds by two consecutive one electron transfer reactions (U{sup IV} {yields} U{sup V} {yields} U{sup VI}). At low potentials ({<=}250 mV (vs. SCE) the rate of the first electron transfer reaction is rate determining irrespective of the total carbonate concentration. At potentials >250 mV (vs. SCE) the formation of a U{sup VI}O{sub 2}CO{sub 3} surface layer begins to inhibit the dissolution rate and the current becomes independent of potential indicating rate control by the chemical dissolution of this layer.

Keech, P.G.; Goldik, J.S.; Qin, Z. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St, London ON, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Shoesmith, D.W., E-mail: dwshoesm@uwo.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St, London ON, N6A 5B7 (Canada)

2011-09-30

8

Oral rehydration therapy: efficacy of sodium citrate equals to sodium bicarbonate for correction of acidosis in diarrhoea.  

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Forty patients with moderate degrees of dehydration and acidosis because of acute watery diarrhoea were successfully treated randomly with either WHO recommended oral rehydration solution containing 2.5 g sodium bicarbonate or an oral solution containing 2.94 g sodium citrate in place of sodium bicarbonate per litre of oral rehydration rehydration solution. Efficacies were compared by measuring oral fluid intake, stool and vomitus output, change in body weight, hydration status, and rate of c...

Islam, M. R.; Samadi, A. R.; Ahmed, S. M.; Bardhan, P. K.; Ali, A.

1984-01-01

9

Elimination of Escherichia coli from Oysters using Sodium Bicarbonate  

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Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate is a disinfectant that can be used in food processing because it is safe for humans and is cost effective. In this study, sodium bicarbonate was used to eliminate E. coli from oysters (Crassostrea belcheri. The experiments were divided into 3 trials; in vitro disinfection of E. coli using sodium bicarbonate and the toxicity of sodium bicarbonate in oysters were determined in the first and second trials, and the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate in eliminating E. coli in naturally contaminated oysters was performed in the final trial. From the in vitro study, it was found that sodium bicarbonate at 10 and 100 mM could inhibit E. coli; however, the high dose of 100 mM is not suitable to use on oysters, since the 50 % lethal concentration of sodium bicarbonate for oysters was 63 mM. An application of sodium bicarbonate to eliminate E. coli in naturally contaminated oysters at 10 mM for 1 h could decrease the E. coli to 96 MPN/100 g, lower than the standard level (230 MPN/100 g after depuration. These results suggest that sodium bicarbonate could be potentially used to eliminate E. coli contamination in oysters.

Matthura LABAIDEN

2013-12-01

10

Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p punches landed during the BICARB condition (p punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance. PMID:19625976

Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

2010-01-01

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An Outpatient, Ambulant-Design, Controlled Human Infection Model Using Escalating Doses of Salmonella Typhi Challenge Delivered in Sodium Bicarbonate Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Background.?Typhoid fever is a major global health problem, the control of which is hindered by lack of a suitable animal model in which to study Salmonella Typhi infection. Until 1974, a human challenge model advanced understanding of typhoid and was used in vaccine development. We set out to establish a new human challenge model and ascertain the S. Typhi (Quailes strain) inoculum required for an attack rate of 60%–75% in typhoid-naive volunteers when ingested with sodium bicarbonate solution. Methods.?Groups of healthy consenting adults ingested escalating dose levels of S. Typhi and were closely monitored in an outpatient setting for 2 weeks. Antibiotic treatment was initiated if typhoid diagnosis occurred (temperature ?38°C sustained ?12 hours or bacteremia) or at day 14 in those remaining untreated. Results.?Two dose levels (103 or 104 colony-forming units) were required to achieve the primary objective, resulting in attack rates of 55% (11/20) or 65% (13/20), respectively. Challenge was well tolerated; 4 of 40 participants fulfilled prespecified criteria for severe infection. Most diagnoses (87.5%) were confirmed by blood culture, and asymptomatic bacteremia and stool shedding of S. Typhi was also observed. Participants who developed typhoid infection demonstrated serological responses to flagellin and lipopolysaccharide antigens by day 14; however, no anti-Vi antibody responses were detected. Conclusions.?Human challenge with a small inoculum of virulent S. Typhi administered in bicarbonate solution can be performed safely using an ambulant-model design to advance understanding of host–pathogen interactions and immunity. This model should expedite development of diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics for typhoid control. PMID:24519873

Waddington, Claire S.; Darton, Thomas C.; Jones, Claire; Haworth, Kathryn; Peters, Anna; John, Tessa; Thompson, Ben A. V.; Kerridge, Simon A.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Zhou, Liqing; Holt, Kathryn E.; Yu, Ly-Mee; Lockhart, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M.; Pollard, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

12

Sodium bicarbonated mineral water decreases postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal women compared to a low mineral water  

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The role of bicarbonated mineral waters on lipid metabolism and lipoprotein concentrations in man has scarcely been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether drinking sodium bicarbonated mineral water affects postprandial cholesterol and triacylglycerol metabolism in postmenopausal women. In a three-way, randomised, crossover study, eighteen healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodium bicarbonated mineral waters (bicarbonated mineral water 1 and bicarbonated mineral wa...

Schoppen, S.; Pe?rez Granados, Ana M.; Carbajal, A.; Sarria?, Beatriz; Sa?nchez-muniz, F. J.; Go?mez-gerique, J. A.; Vaquero, M. Pilar

2005-01-01

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Production of sodium bicarbonate from a basic process stream:  

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The present invention is in the area of the treatment of a gas flow containing carbon dioxide obtained from burning at least one organic waste or feed stream, on the one hand to produce sodium bicarbonate and optionally remove and/or recover molybdenum compounds and/or other impurities from the said waste streams for further use and on the other hand to produce an effluent that is sufficiently clean to be discharged into surface water.

Witkamp, G. J.; Spronsen, J.; Hasselaar, M.

2012-01-01

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Gram-scale solution-phase synthesis of selective sodium bicarbonate Co-transport Inhibitor S0859 : in vitro efficacy studies in breast cancer cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters (NBCs) mediate the transport of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes and are thus ubiquitous regulators of intracellular pH. NBC dysregulation is associated with a range of diseases; for instance, NBCn1 is strongly up-regulated in a model of ErbB2-dependent breast cancer, a malignant and widespread cancer with no targeted treatment options, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NBCn1 genetically link to breast cancer development and hypertension. The N-cyanosulfonamide S0859 has been shown to selectively inhibit NBCs, and its availability on the gram scale is therefore of significant interest to the scientific community. Herein we describe a short and efficient synthesis of S0859 with an overall yield of 45?% from commercially available starting materials. The inhibitory effect of S0859 on recovery of intracellular pH after an acid load was verified in human and murine cancer cell lines in Ringer solutions. However, S0859 binds very strongly to components in plasma, and accordingly, measurements on isolated murine tissues showed no effect of S0859 at concentrations up to 50 mu M.

Larsen, Ann MØller; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels

2012-01-01

15

Sodium bicarbonate-augmented stress thallium myocardial scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

y transient alkalosis. The washout pattern remained unchanged. The visual quality of planar and SPET images improved significantly after the intervention. Out of the five abnormal myocardial segments identified in three cases, four showed significant filling-in after the intervention, causing the diagnosis to be upgraded from ''partial scar'' to ''ischaemia'', or from ''ischaemia'' to ''normal''. The overall scan impression changed in two out of three such cases. Sodium bicarbonate augmentation may have significant implications for stress-thallium scintigraphy and may be a new parameter for defining myocardial viability. (orig.)

16

Reduction in cardiovascular risk by sodium-bicarbonated mineral water in moderately hypercholesterolemic young adults.  

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Effects of drinking a sodium bicarbonated mineral water on cardiovascular risk in young men and women with moderate cardiovascular risk were studied. Eighteen young volunteers, total cholesterol levels >5.2 mmol/L without any disease participated. The study consisted in two 8-week intervention periods. Subjects consumed, as a supplement of their usual diet, 1 L/d of a control low mineral water followed by 1 L/d of the bicarbonated mineral water (mmol/L: sodium, 48; bicarbonate,...

Pe?rez-granados, A. M.; Navas-carretero, S.; Schoppen, S.; Vaquero, M. P.

2010-01-01

17

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm² specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then i [...] mmersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37ºC, the specimens were divided into four groups according to the substance used for disinfection (5% sodium bicarbonate, 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine, vinegar and Corega Tabs). A control group was included, in which distilled water was used. The adhered microorganisms were dispersed, diluted and plated onto culture media to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL). The results were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney statistical test at the 5% level of significance. Only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine and 5% sodium bicarbonate presented a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0156, respectively) compared to the control group, decreasing the number of cfu/mL. However, when the different disinfecting solutions were compared with each other, only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine presented a statistically significant difference in the reduction of cfu/mL. It was concluded that although 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine was more effective in the reduction of Candida albicans adherence values to thermally activated acrylic resin, 5% sodium bicarbonate also proved to be a viable alternative.

Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de, Sousa; Thaís Cachuté, Paradella; Cristiane Yumi, Koga-Ito; Antonio Olavo Cardoso, Jorge.

18

Effects of sodium bicarbonate on butyric acid-induced epithelial cell damage in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Butyric acid is detected in periodontal pockets and is thought to be involved in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. We examined the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the butyric acid-induced epithelial cell damage. The human gingival carcinoma cell line Ca9-22 was cultured in medium that contained butyric acid with or without sodium bicarbonate. The viability of cells treated with sodium bicarbonate was significantly higher than that of cells treated with butyric acid alone. The effects of butyric acid on ICAM-1 expression were significantly improved by sodium bicarbonate. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, sodium bicarbonate was indicated to be a useful therapeutic agent to reduce the butyric acid-induced periodontal tissue damage. PMID:19106468

Takigawa, Satoko; Sugano, Naoyuki; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Arai, Noriyuki; Ota, Noriko; Ito, Koichi

2008-12-01

19

Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst  

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Full Text Available The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs. Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

NingYan

2013-09-01

20

Transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over NiPd nanoparticle catalyst.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability. PMID:24790945

Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Anodic deposition of Np(7) compounds from bicarbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented are several results of electrochemical oxidation of Np(6) up to Np(7) in pure carbonate solutions. It is shown that Np can be oxidated electrochemically up to Np(7) on platinum anode at current density of 1.5-20 ma/cm2 and at room temperature. Np(7) solutions in bicarbonate solutions of alkali metal with excessive concentration of bicarbonate in solution have been used as electrolyte. At anode potentials higher than 1.3 V an intensive oxidation of Np(6) up to Np(7) takes place, Np(7), producing, being separated from the solution in the form of hard soluble compound with cation of alkali metal. Anodic oxidation of neptunium up to seven-valent state in bicarbonate solutions can be a convinient way of electrosynthesis of Np(7) solid compounds

22

Effect of dietary sodium bicarbonate and magnesium oxide on production and physiology in early lactation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty cows were in an experiment to measure effects of dietary buffers, sodium bicarbonate and magnesium oxide, on ration adjustment and incidence of metabolic problems in the first 8 wk postpartum. Cows were fed 2.7 kg grain per day and alfalfa ad libitum prepartum and switched immediately to a complete ration of 40% corn silage and 60% concentrate (dry matter) postpartum. Treatments included 1.5% sodium bicarbonate and .8% magnesium oxide (total ration dry matter) fed in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Cows receiving bicarbonate peaked 2 to 3 wk earlier in intake and averaged 2.1 kg per day greater intake than those fed the control diet. Actual milk production was increased by sodium bicarbonate with greatest differences for cows receiving both buffers averaging 3.8 kg per day more milk than control cows. Increases over co ntrols were 2.6 and 5.6 kg fat-corrected milk per day for cows receiving sodium bicarbonate alone or in combination with magnesium oxide, respectively. Sodium bicarbonate increased acetate to propionate molar ratios in rumen samples taken at 1 and 2 wk postpartum whereas neither buffer had any effect on rumen pH. Blood hematocrit and urine pH were not affected by treament. Magnesium oxide increased fecal pH .8 units and slightly decreased fecal starch, but sodium bicarbonate had no effect. PMID:7190580

Erdman, R A; Botts, R L; Hemken, R W; Bull, L S

1980-06-01

23

A study of the catalytic role of a gold electrode in the electrochemical activation of four macrolide antibiotics in sodium bicarbonate solution  

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Full Text Available Using the cyclic voltammetry, it has been shown that hydrogen evolution at a gold electrode is necessary in the electrochemical activation of azithromycin dihydrate and erythromycin A. After four hours of the potential holding at –1.2 V vs. SCE, the pH of the electrolyte has been changed from 8.40 to 8.96; from 8.40 to 8.77 in the presence of erythromycin A, and from 8.40 to 9.18 in the presence of azithromycin, indicating the reaction of the hydrogen species with antibiotics. This effect has been confirmed by using the phenolphthalein indicator and by analysing colours of the solutions by UV-Vis, as well as by FTIR spectroscopy. Under the identical experimental conditions at the gold electrode, in contrast to azithromycin dihydrate and erythromycin A, roxithromycin and midecamycin electroactivity promotion has been obtained during the first forward sweep starting from the area of a double layer region.

Milka L. Avramov Ivi?

2010-07-01

24

Quantification of Kinetic Rate Law Parameters of Uranium Release from Sodium Autunite as a Function of Aqueous Bicarbonate Concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABSTRACT: Hydrogen carbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, hydrogen carbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous hydrogen carbonate solutions to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate solutions (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and temperatures of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release from sodium autunite exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH and increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions. Most notably at pH 7, the rate of uranium release exhibited 370 fold increases relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release. Results indicate the activation energies were unaffected by temperature and bicarbonate concentration variations, but were strongly dependent on pH conditions. As pH increased from 6 to 11, activation energy values were observed to decrease from 29.94 kJ mol-1 to 13.07 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energies suggest a surface controlled dissolution mechanism.

Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

2013-09-05

25

Reduction of cardiovascular risk by a sodium bicarbonated mineral water in moderately hypercholesterolemic young adults  

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Effects of drinking a sodium bicarbonated mineral water on cardiovascular risk in young men and women with moderate cardiovascular risk were studied. Eighteen young volunteers, total cholesterol levels >5.2 mmol/L without any disease participated. The study consisted in two 8-week intervention periods. Subjects consumed, as a supplement of their usual diet, 1 L/d of a control low mineral water followed by 1 L/d of the bicarbonated mineral water (mmol/L: sodium, 48; bicarbonate, 35; and chlori...

Pe?rez Granados, Ana M.; Navas-carretero, S.; Schoppen, S.; Vaquero, M. Pilar

2009-01-01

26

[Application of a paste composed of sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and hydrogen peroxide in treating of active periodontal pockets].  

Science.gov (United States)

Close relationship existing between dentobacterial plaque and chronic inflammatory periodontal disease, as well as effectiveness of conservative treatments used to eliminate chronic gingivitis, is wordly known. However, several years ago, chronic destructive periodontal disease was only solved by surgical techniques, most of them bloody and of doubtful solution for some periodontal problems; for such reasons, a study was carried out in order to learn about the role played by a medicament formed with sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and hydrogen peroxide, deeply applied as a paste into active periodontal pockets, after an exquisite open radicular planing. Results obtained point out that the use of this procedure effective in the therapy of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. PMID:2856151

Martínez Silveira, G; Suárez Fagundo, E; Ortega Delgado, L

1988-01-01

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The use of sodium bicarbonate in oral hygiene products and practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early dentifrices contained natural ingredients, mostly in coarse particle form, and were quite abrasive. Salts, either sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or a mixture of both, have also been used for tooth cleaning because of their ready availability and low cost. Because of both their relatively low intrinsic hardness and their high solubility, another advantage is low abrasivity. Their biggest disadvantage is a salty, unpalatable taste. Many modern dentifrices that contain sodium bicarbonate, either as the sole abrasive or one of several, disguise the saltiness with flavoring and sweetening agents. An almost inverse relationship exists between the percentage of baking soda in a dentifrice and its abrasivity. Sodium bicarbonate has no anticaries activity per se but is compatible with fluoride. In high concentrations, sodium bicarbonate is bactericidal against most periodontal pathogens. Most clinical studies have not found significant differences in periodontal response to baking soda as compared with other commercial dentifrices, probably because of its rapid clearance from the gingival sulcus. Sodium bicarbonate may not be the "magic bullet" for curing dental diseases, but its safety (if ingested), low abrasivity, low cost, and compatibility with fluoride make it a consummate dentifrice ingredient. PMID:12017930

Newbrun, E

1997-01-01

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Interactive Effects of the Carbon Paper, Sodium Bicarbonate and Oral Contraceptive Pills on Morphine Urine Test  

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Full Text Available Background and objectives: A major problem for labs. esp. medicolegal centers is drug test false positive and negative results. Using carbonpaper, sodium bicarbonate or oral contraceptive pills (OCP are commonamong addict people to make the results negative. Therefore, we decidedto evaluate the effect of carbon paper, sodium bicarbonate or OCP onmorphine urine test.Material and Methods: We performed this pre-experimental study onthe urine samples of all people referred to narcotic drug laboratory ofMarkazi province during May of 2005. Of 2110 urine samples, theMorphine Rapid Test of 208 samples was positive. Then by means ofTLC method, we confirmed the presence of morphine metabolites in 150urine samples. After that, we divided these samples into three equalgroups for adding carbon paper, sodium bicarbonate or OCP.Results: The results show that in carbon paper group, 41 cases arepositive and nine cases unclear. In sodium bicarbonate group, 45 samplesare positive and 5 cases unclear. In estrogen conjugate group, all 50samples are positive.Conclusion: According to this study, adding carbon paper, sodiumbicarbonate or oral contraceptive pills cannot make negative theMorphine Rapid Test result.Key words: Morphine Rapid Test, Carbon paper, Sodium bicarbonate,Oral contraceptive pill.

Solhi, H

2010-01-01

29

Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation independently increase exercise performance, but it remains unclear whether combining these 2 supplements is more beneficial on exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of combining creatine monohydrate and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance. Thirteen healthy, trained men (21.1 ± 0.6 years, 23.5 ± 0.5 kg·m(-2), 66.7 ± 5.7 ml·(kg·m)(-1) completed 3 conditions in a double-blinded, crossover fashion: (a) Placebo (Pl; 20 g maltodextrin + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), (b) Creatine (Cr; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), and (c) Creatine plus sodium bicarbonate (Cr + Sb; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate). Each condition consisted of supplementation for 2 days followed by a 3-week washout. Peak power, mean power, relative peak power, and bicarbonate concentrations were assessed during six 10-second repeated Wingate sprint tests on a cycle ergometer with a 60-second rest period between each sprint. Compared with Pl, relative peak power was significantly higher in Cr (4%) and Cr + Sb (7%). Relative peak power was significantly lower in sprints 4-6, compared with that in sprint 1, in both Pl and Cr. However, in Cr + Sb, sprint 6 was the only sprint significantly lower compared with sprint 1. Pre-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in Cr + Sb (10%), compared with in Pl and Cr, and mean concentrations remained higher after sprint 6, although not significantly. Combining creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased peak and mean power and had the greatest attenuation of decline in relative peak power over the 6 repeated sprints. These data suggest that combining these 2 supplements may be advantageous for athletes participating in high-intensity, intermittent exercise. PMID:23254493

Barber, James J; McDermott, Ann Y; McGaughey, Karen J; Olmstead, Jennifer D; Hagobian, Todd A

2013-01-01

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Axial heterogeneity of sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter expression in the rabbit proximal tubule.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is generally accepted that Na(HCO3)n cotransport is the most important mechanism mediating basolateral bicarbonate efflux in the early proximal tubule. The presence of basolateral Na(HCO3)n cotransport in the late proximal tubule (S3 segment) and in the juxtamedullary S1 and S2 segments has been controversial. The renal sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) has been recently cloned from rat (M. F. Romero, M. A. Hediger, E. L. Boulpaep, and W. F. Boron. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 7: 1259, 1996), salamander (M. F. Romero, M. A. Hediger, E. L. Boulpaep, and W. F. Boron. Nature 387: 409-413, 1997), and human (C. E. Burnham, H. Amlal, Z. Wang, G. E. Shull, and M. Soleimani. J. Biol. Chem. 272: 19111-19114, 1997). The localization of NBC in the kidney is unknown. The present study was designed to localize NBC mRNA expression in the rabbit proximal tubule. In situ hybridization studies were combined with functional studies of basolateral Na(HCO3)n cotransport in superficial and juxtamedullary S1, S2, and S3 segments of the rabbit proximal tubule. The results demonstrate that NBC mRNA is localized predominantly to the cortex, with less expression in the outer medulla. NBC expression was not detected in the inner medulla. The highest level of NBC mRNA is in the S1 proximal tubule. NBC is expressed at a low levels in the S3 segment, with intermediate expression in the S2 segment. In bicarbonate-buffered solutions, the rate of base efflux mediated by Na(HCO3)n cotransport followed a similar pattern in superficial and juxtamedullary proximal tubule segments, i.e., S1 > S2 > S3. The juxtamedullary S1 segment had the greatest rate of basolateral Na(HCO3)n cotransport and the highest level of NBC expression in the proximal tubule. PMID:9530281

Abuladze, N; Lee, I; Newman, D; Hwang, J; Pushkin, A; Kurtz, I

1998-03-01

31

Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal. (orig.)

32

Daily oral sodium bicarbonate preserves glomerular filtration rate by slowing its decline in early hypertensive nephropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In most patients with hypertensive nephropathy and low glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the kidney function progressively declines despite the adequate control of the hypertension with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. Previously we found that 2 years of oral sodium citrate slowed GFR decline in patients whose estimated GFR (eGFR) was very low (mean 33 ml/min). This treatment also slowed GFR decline in an animal model of surgically reduced nephron mass. Here, we tested if daily oral sodium bicarbonate slowed GFR decline in patients with hypertensive nephropathy with reduced but relatively preserved eGFR (mean 75 ml/min) in a 5-year, prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, and blinded interventional study. Patients matched for age, ethnicity, albuminuria, and eGFR received daily placebo or equimolar sodium chloride or bicarbonate while maintaining antihypertensive regimens (including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition) aiming for their recommended blood pressure targets. After 5 years, the rate of eGFR decline, estimated using plasma cystatin C, was slower and eGFR was higher in patients given sodium bicarbonate than in those given placebo or sodium chloride. Thus, our study shows that in hypertensive nephropathy, daily sodium bicarbonate is an effective kidney protective adjunct to blood pressure control along with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition. PMID:20445497

Mahajan, Ashutosh; Simoni, Jan; Sheather, Simon J; Broglio, Kristine R; Rajab, M H; Wesson, Donald E

2010-08-01

33

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) remains a common complication of coronary angiography (CAG) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although a previous study reported pretreatment with sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride for prophylaxis of CIN, this has not been a universal finding and the long-term effects of sodium bicarbonate on CIN have not been studied before. We performed a prospective, single-center, randomized trial to investigate whether CIN can be avoided by sodium bicarbonate in patients with chronic renal failure. Eighty patients with chronic renal failure (defined as serum creatinine concentration (SCr), >1.1 mg per deciliter), who were undergoing CAG, were enrolled in this study. We assigned them to either sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate (Group B: n=35) or sodium chloride alone (Group C: n=45). In all patients, an infusion of sodium chloride of 1 ml/kg per hour was given between 12 hours before and after the procedure. In Group B, sodium bicarbonate infusion of 1 ml/kg per hour continued from 3 hours before procedure to 6 hours after procedure, changing from sodium chloride at 1 ml/kg per hour. SCr was measured at baseline, day 1, day 2 and 1 month after the procedure. CIN was defined as a 25% increase in SCr from baseline value, or an absolute increase of at least 0.5 mg/dl, which appears within 2 days after CAG. No differences in age, sex and contrast volume were observed between the two groups. SCr were observed between the two groups. SCr at baseline was not significantly different in the two groups (Group B: 1.41±0.32 versus Group C: 1.50±0.38 mg/dl). SCr at day 2 was significantly lower in Group B than Group C (1.44±0.38 versus 1.60±0.5 mg/dl, p<0.05) and 1 month (1.28±0.27 versus 1.49±0.55 mg/dl, p<0.05). CIN occurred in 9 patients (20%) in Group C but in only 2 (6%) in Group B (p=0.03). Sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride alone for prophylaxis of CIN and can help retain long-term renal function. (author)

34

CRACK2 - Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solution in cracks in concrete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description of the model. Hydroxyl ions are transported by diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. The cementitious material is simulated as calcium hydroxide mixed with inert material but with sodium hydroxide dissolved in the pore solution. Diffusive migration of cesium as radioactive isotope is also considered. Electrical interaction of the migrating ions is taken into account. Example calculations demonstrate effects of parameter variations on distribution of precipitated calcite in the crack and on the composition of the outflowing solution, which can be compared directly with experimental results. Leaching behavior of sodium can be used to tune the model to experimental observations. The calcite is mostly precipitated on top of the original crack surface and may under certain circumstances fill the crack. The produced thin layers of low porosity calcite act as a diffusion barrier limiting contact between cement and solution. Pore closure mechanisms in such layers are discussed. Implications for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal are shortly mentioned. The model is also relevant for conventional uses of concrete. (au)

Brodersen, K

2003-03-01

35

Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration prevents contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrast-induced nephropathy is the leading cause of in-hospital acute renal failure. This side effect of contrast agents leads to increased morbidity, mortality, and health costs. Ensuring adequate hydration prior to contrast exposure is highly effective at preventing this complication, although the optimal hydration strategy to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy still remains an unresolved issue. Former meta-analyses and several recent studies have shown conflicting results regarding the protective effect of sodium bicarbonate. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of normal saline versus sodium bicarbonate for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. Methods The study searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts database, ISI Web of Science (until 15 December 2008, and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials that compared normal saline with sodium bicarbonate-based hydration regimen regarding contrast-induced nephropathy. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary odds ratios. Results A total of 17 trials including 2,633 subjects were pooled. Pre-procedural hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of contrast-induced nephropathy (odds ratios 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.80, P = 0.003. Number needed to treat to prevent one case of contrast-induced nephropathy was 16 (95% confidence interval 10–34. No significant differences in the rates of post-procedure hemodialysis (P = 0.20 or death (P = 0.53 was observed. Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration was found to be superior to normal saline in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in this updated meta-analysis.

Tamhane Umesh

2009-05-01

36

Sodium Is Not Required for Chloride Efflux via Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger from Rat Thymic Lymphocytes  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium-dependent Cl?/HCO3? exchanger acts as a chloride (Cl?) efflux in lymphocytes. Its functional characterization had been described when Cl? efflux was measured upon substituting extracellular sodium (Na+) by N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG). For Na+ and Cl? substitution, we have used D-mannitol or NMDG. Thymocytes of male Wistar rats aged 7–9 weeks were used and intracellular Cl? was measured by spectrofluorimetry using MQAE dye in bicarbonate buffers. Chloride efflux was measured in a Cl?-free buffer (Cl? substituted with isethionate acid) and in Na+ and Cl?-free buffer with D-mannitol or with NMDG. The data have shown that Cl? efflux is mediated in the absence of Na+ in a solution containing D-mannitol and is inhibited by H2DIDS. Mathematical modelling has shown that Cl? efflux mathematical model parameters (relative membrane permeability, relative rate of exchanger transition, and exchanger efficacy) were the same in control and in the medium in which Na+ had been substituted by D-mannitol. The net Cl? efflux was completely blocked in the NMDG buffer. The same blockage of Cl? efflux was caused by H2DIDS. The study results allow concluding that Na+ is not required for Cl? efflux via Cl?/HCO3? exchanger. NMDG in buffers cannot be used for substituting Na+ because NMDG inhibits the exchanger. PMID:25003116

Stakisaitis, Donatas; Meilus, Vaidevutis; Juska, Alfonsas; Matusevicius, Paulius; Didziapetriene, Janina

2014-01-01

37

Comparison of Talc Powder, Starch and Sodium Bicarbonate to Postsurgical Adhesion Formation in Rat Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To find out Sodium bicarbonate comparatively with Talc and Starch in intraperitonealy adhesion formation an experimental study on rat model was designed. Forty eight female rats were selected divided randomly into four groups. After a laparotomy, in the first group, 0.7 mg Talc powder (sterilized with ethyl oxide plus 3 cc normal saline; in the second group, 0.7 mg Sodium bicarbonate (sterilized with ethyl oxide plus 3 cc normal saline; in the third group, 0.7 mg starches powder (sterilized with ethyl oxide plus 3 cc normal saline and in the forth group (controlling group, 3 cc normal saline entered. Four weeks following surgery, adhesion formation was evaluated by modified Swolin scoring system. There was statistical significant difference between groups in adhesion grade. Talc group had the highest grade of adhesion (P<0.001 and bicarbonate was equal to control group. Multivariable analysis determined statistical significant difference between groups in adhesion parameters (P<0.0001. Present findings suggested Sodium bicarbonate gave at least adhesion. Despite of it is inexpensive and suitable substance for dusting glove powder but needs more study about it.

Hamid Zeinalynejad

2004-01-01

38

In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis). Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine. PMID:18060262

Pires, Juliana Rico; Rossa Junior, Carlos; Pizzolitto, Antonio Carlos

2007-01-01

39

CRACK2. Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solutions in cracks in concrete  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description ofthe model. Hydroxyl ions are transported by diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. Thecementitious material is simulated as calcium hydroxide mixed with inert material but with sodium hydroxide dissolved in the pore solution. Diffusive migration of cesium as radioactive isotope is also considered. Electrical interaction of the migratingions is taken into account. Example calculations demonstrate effects of parameter variations on distribution of precipitated calcite in the crack and on the composition of the outflowing solution, which can be compared directly with experimental results.Leaching behavior ofsodium can be used to tune the model to experimental observations. The calcite is mostly precipitated on top of the original crack surface and may under certain circumstances fill the crack. The produced thin layers of low porositycalcite act as a diffusion barrier limiting contact between cement and solution. Pore closure mechanisms in such layers are discussed. Implications for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal are shortly mentioned. The model is also relevant forconventional uses of concrete.

Brodersen, Knud Erik

2003-01-01

40

The use of sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide in periodontal therapy: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The comparative benefits from the use of sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide over the use of a commercial dentifrice in periodontal therapy is controversial. The consensus of the clinical research indicates that application by patients of sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide offers no advantage over the preestablished, properly performed home oral hygiene procedures. Any improvements in clinical and microbial parameters generally were attributed to scaling and root planing. The studies that have reported beneficial results with sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide have used additional antimicrobial agents, concomitant professional application of these substances, and scaling and root planing. In one of these reports, inorganic salts and chloramine-T were delivered subgingivally throughout root-planing procedures, in addition to home application of inorganic salts. Most of these patients also received at least one course of systemic tetracycline therapy. Because this study had no control group, it is impossible to determine whether this program is more effective than are other periodontal therapy programs. A more controlled clinical study involving professional application of sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, hydrogen peroxide, and povidone-iodine has shown greater gains in clinical attachment and bone mass than has brushing with toothpaste and water. Again, subgingival scaling and root planing were necessary to attain these results. Because multiple topical agents were applied in both of these reports and systemic antimicrobial agents were used by the Keyes group, it is impossible to determine which agent was responsible for the improvements. Further, professional application may be the crucial factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3029203

Amigoni, N A; Johnson, G K; Kalkwarf, K L

1987-02-01

 
 
 
 
41

A sodium bicarbonate-acid powered blow-gun syringe for remote injection of wildlife.  

Science.gov (United States)

An automatic blow-gun syringe which uses carbon dioxide gas as the injecting force is described. Upon striking the animal, carbon dioxide gas is released by the chemical combination of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and acid (vinegar), within the blow-gun syringe. The syringe has been used successfully with captive collared peccaries (Dicotyles tajacu). It has the advantages of longer stability, dependable gas expansion, reduction of drug loss, and consistent drug injection. PMID:6302330

Lochmiller, R L; Grant, W E

1983-01-01

42

Effects of Cheap Antidotes; Sodium Bicarbonate and Magnesium Sulfate in Organophosphorous Poisoning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organophosphorous (OP) compounds have been used as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Despite administration of well known antidotes (atropine and oximes), morbidity and mortality of OP poisoning were still high. Besides, oximes are very expensive and not available in most developing countries. It was thus aimed to study the effects of cheap available antidotes; sodium bicarbonate and magnesium sulfate in OP poisoning. In addition to the standard antidotal treatment, out of 117 patients (63M, 47F) aged 25.2 ± 9.5 years with moderate to severe acute OP pesticide poisoning 59 were given sodium bicarbonate 5 mEq/kg in 60 min. followed by 5-6 mEq/kg/day to obtain arterial blood pH of 7.45 to 7.55. Arterial blood pH increased significantly (p less than 0.01) to 7.48 ± 0.05 compared to the controls (7.32 ± 0.06). Morbidity based on hospitalization days reduced significantly (p less than 0.05) from 5.62 ± 3.4 in the controls to 3.1 ± 2.6 days in the sodium bicarbonate group. Total atropine dose was also significantly (p less than 0.05) lower in the test group. Mortality was lower, but not significantly due to the low numbers (5 and 2 of the controls and test group, respectively). Sodium bicarbonate appeared to be effective and could be added to the treatment regime of OP poisoning. Magnesium sulfate was administered four gram intravenously only for the first 24 hr of hospitalization day for the patients with moderate to severe OP poisoning in a pilot study. The results were promising and thus further investigations are continued.(author)

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Comparing Sodium Bicarbonate with Normal Saline for Reversing of Epidural Anesthesia with Plain 2% Lidocaine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether washout of local anesthetic with sodium bicarbonate compared with 0.9% NaCl through an epidural catheter could provide a faster recovery of motor and sensory block in patients undergoing 2% plain lidocaine epidural anesthesia. In a randomized and double-blinded clinical trial, 60 ASA classes I and II male patients scheduled for elective knee or ankle orthopedic procedures underwent epidural anesthesia with 2% plain lidocaine were enrolled. A T4 dermatome level of analgesia was maintained intraoperatively. Following surgery, patients were randomly allocated to receive no epidural bolus (control, 15 mL Normal Saline (NS or 0.4 mL sodium bicarbonate plus 14.6 mL normal saline (BC postoperatively through epidural catheter. Assessment of motor and sensory block was performed at 5 min intervals until complete motor and sensory block recovery. Times to complete sensory and motor block recovery were significantly less in NS and BC groups compared with control group (p = 0.012 but there were no significant differences between NS and BC group (p = 0.08. The results suggest that recovery of sensory and motor function of the lower extremities in patients undergoing epidural anesthesia with plain 2% lidocaine can be accelerated with epidural administration of 15 mL NS or 0.4 mL Sodium bicarbonate plus 14.6 mL NS.

Gita Shoeibi

2007-01-01

44

Investigation of sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and water systems for saturated solar ponds. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of this study was to gather relevant data primarily from the published literature to investigate the technical feasibility of using a Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-NaHCO/sub 3/ mixture for a saturated solar pond. This objective was accomplished by a literature search and review of existing chemical information and by performing simple chemistry experiments in the laboratory. Information on density, solubility, phase diagram, equilibrium compositions, reaction rate constant, equilibrium constant, diffusion coefficient, vapor pressure and potentially useful additives is compiled. It is concluded that even though both the saturation density and solubility increase with temperature for trona, it is not chemically stable either at room temperature or higher temperatures (80/sup 0/C). Therefore, as is, trona is not suitable for use in a saturated solar pond. From the literature it has been found that sugar and gum can retard the decomposition of bicarbonate to carbonate in the mixture. Nevertheless, trona is a very attractive solute for an unsaturated solar pond. A laboratory unsaturated pond with a stable density gradient has worked without any problems for about two months at InterTechnology/Solar Corporation.

None

1980-03-28

45

Manganese-catalyzed epoxidations of alkenes in bicarbonate solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a method, discovered and refined by parallel screening, for the epoxidation of alkenes. It uses hydrogen peroxide as the terminal oxidant, is promoted by catalytic amounts (1.0-0.1 mol %) of manganese(2+) salts, and must be performed using at least catalytic amounts of bicarbonate buffer. Peroxymonocarbonate, HCO(4)(-), forms in the reaction, but without manganese, minimal epoxidation activity is observed in the solvents used for this research, that is, DMF and (t)BuOH. More than 30 d-block and f-block transition metal salts were screened for epoxidation activity under similar conditions, but the best catalyst found was MnSO(4). EPR studies show that Mn(2+) is initially consumed in the catalytic reaction but is regenerated toward the end of the process when presumably the hydrogen peroxide is spent. A variety of aryl-substituted, cyclic, and trialkyl-substituted alkenes were epoxidized under these conditions using 10 equiv of hydrogen peroxide, but monoalkyl-alkenes were not. To improve the substrate scope, and to increase the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide consumption, 68 diverse compounds were screened to find additives that would enhance the rate of the epoxidation reaction relative to a competing disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide. Successful additives were 6 mol % sodium acetate in the (t)BuOH system and 4 mol % salicylic acid in the DMF system. These additives enhanced the rate of the desired epoxidation reaction by 2-3 times. Reactions performed in the presence of these additives require less hydrogen peroxide and shorter reaction times, and they enhance the yields obtained from less reactive alkene substrates. Possible mechanisms for the reaction are discussed. PMID:12358539

Lane, Benjamin S; Vogt, Matthew; DeRose, Victoria J; Burgess, Kevin

2002-10-01

46

Sodium bicarbonate absorption and anabolism by detatched root of young paddy rice, corn and wheat plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is aimed at investigating species-to-species difference in the capability of absorption and anabolism through the root and examining the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the capability. Roots detatched from young plants of paddy rice, corn and wheat are used as the samples. The respiratory rate and anabolic rate of the detatched roots are measured by using the 14C tracer. It is found that paddy rice whows the greatest initial anabolic rate, while the rates of corn and wheat are 14 - 30 % of that of paddy rice. The initial anabolic rate is almost independent of the concentration of sodium bicarbonate. The initial absorption rate is greatest in paddy rice, followed by corn (30 - 78 %) and wheat (16 - 21 %). It is also shown that paddy rice has the greatest capability both in anabolism and absorption. The anabolism and absorption capabilities of corn are 17 - 29 % and 31 - 80 % of those of paddy rice, respectively. The corresponding values of wheat are 16 - 38 % and 24 - 66 %. Sidium bicarbonate has little effect on the anabolism capability, while the absorption capability is affected above a high concentration of 50 mM. (Nogami, K.)

47

Effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on the cariogenic microbiota  

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Full Text Available The effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on salivary counting of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in 32 children ranging from 7 to 10 years of age, has been assessed. Whole stimulated saliva was collected before the prophylaxis, immediately after it and 30 days later, and the number of CFU/ml in the saliva was detected through the Caritest system. A statistically significant immediate decrease on salivary levels of both microorganisms was observed, 50% for mutans streptococci and 27% for lactobacilli. For mutans streptococci this decrease continued through the 30 days period; the same did not occur with lactobacilli, that returned to their baseline values.

LANZA Célia Regina Moreira

2000-01-01

48

Geochemistry of fly ash from desulphurisation process performed by sodium bicarbonate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of NEUTREC {sup registered} technology - desulphurisation by means of sodium bicarbonate - has been tested at the Trebovice coal-fired power plant (Ostrava, Czech Republic). This technology significantly influences the chemical composition of fly ash and the leachability of total dissolved substances (TDS), e.g., sulphates, fluorides and oxyanions (Se, Sb, Cr, As), which are monitored according to the Council of the European Union Decision 2003/33/EC. An increase of TDS in the water leachate from the fly ash obtained at 60% desulphurisation was influenced by sodium content, which is present in the form of Na{sup +} ions (85-90%). The percentages of sodium sulphate and sodium carbonate were between 5 and 10% of the total sodium content. In order to decrease the leachability of TDS, sodium, sulphates and oxyanion mixtures were prepared containing a sorbent (60% bentonite) and mixed with desulphurised and non-desulphurised fly ash in various ratios. The addition of CaO resulted in the formation of a new mineral phase, burkeite. None of the applied technologies tested for the processed fly ash resulted in the preparation of a water leachate which complied in all monitored parameters to the requirements of Council Decision 2003/33 EC for nonhazardous wastes. (author)

Raclavska, Helena; Matysek, Dalibor; Raclavsky, Konstantin; Juchelkova, Dagmar [VSB - Technical University Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic)

2010-02-15

49

Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC) started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction) of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in association with sodium bicarbonate salt, a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) substance. The yeast was able to survive at different concentrations of the salt (1%, 2% and 5%), and continued to grow for a week at the wound site, remaining viable at high population for 14 days on the fruit surface. The yeast alone reduced the severity of decay by 41.7% and sodium bicarbonate alone reduced severity of decay by 19.8%, whereas the application of both led to a delay in the development of symptoms from 2 to 10 days. Ingredients of the formulations were not aggressive to fruits since no lesions were produced in control experiments. PMID:24031511

Pimenta, R S; Silva, J F M; Coelho, C M; Morais, P B; Rosa, C A; Corrêa, A

2010-04-01

50

Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC) started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmenta [...] l conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction) of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in association with sodium bicarbonate salt, a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) substance. The yeast was able to survive at different concentrations of the salt (1%, 2% and 5%), and continued to grow for a week at the wound site, remaining viable at high population for 14 days on the fruit surface. The yeast alone reduced the severity of decay by 41.7% and sodium bicarbonate alone reduced severity of decay by 19.8%, whereas the application of both led to a delay in the development of symptoms from 2 to 10 days. Ingredients of the formulations were not aggressive to fruits since no lesions were produced in control experiments.

R. S., Pimenta; J. F. M., Silva; C. M., Coelho; P. B., Morais; C. A., Rosa; A., Corrêa Jr.

51

Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in association with sodium bicarbonate salt, a generally regarded as safe (GRAS substance. The yeast was able to survive at different concentrations of the salt (1%, 2% and 5%, and continued to grow for a week at the wound site, remaining viable at high population for 14 days on the fruit surface. The yeast alone reduced the severity of decay by 41.7% and sodium bicarbonate alone reduced severity of decay by 19.8%, whereas the application of both led to a delay in the development of symptoms from 2 to 10 days. Ingredients of the formulations were not aggressive to fruits since no lesions were produced in control experiments.

R. S. Pimenta

2010-06-01

52

Effect of Beta alanine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated-sprint performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate if combining beta alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation could lead to enhanced repeated-sprint performance in team-sport athletes, beyond what is possible with either supplement alone. Participants (n = 24) completed duplicate trials of a repeated-sprint test (3 sets; 6 × 20 m departing every 25 seconds, 4 minutes active recovery between sets) and were then allocated into 4 groups as follows: BA only (n = 6; 28 days BA, acute sodium chloride placebo); NaHCO3 only (n = 6; 28 days glucose placebo, acute NaHCO3); BA/NaHCO3 (n = 6; 28 days BA, acute NaHCO3); placebo only (n = 6; 28 days glucose placebo, acute sodium chloride placebo), then completed duplicate trials postsupplementation. Sodium bicarbonate alone resulted in moderate effect size (d = 0.40-0.71) and "likely" and "very likely" benefit for overall total sprint times (TST) and for each individual set and for first sprint (sets 2 and 3) and best sprint time (sets 2 and 3). Combining BA and NaHCO3 resulted in "possible" to "likely" benefits for overall TST and for sets 2 and 3. First sprint (set 3) and best sprint time (sets 2 and 3) also showed "likely" benefit after this trial. The BA and placebo groups showed no differences in performance after supplementation. In conclusion, these results indicate that supplementation with acute NaHCO3 improved repeated-sprint performance more than either a combination of NaHCO3 and BA or BA alone. PMID:23524361

Ducker, Kagan J; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen E

2013-12-01

53

Sodium bicarbonate in seminal plasma stimulates the motility of mammalian spermatozoa through direct activation of adenylate cyclase.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, a low molecular weight factor, which specifically stimulates sperm adenylate cyclase, was found in porcine seminal plasma (Okamura, N., and Sugita, Y. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 13056-13062). The purified factor was analyzed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, infrared spectroscopy, and elementary analysis and identified as sodium bicarbonate. The effects of sodium bicarbonate both on adenylate cyclase activity in porcine spermatozoa and on sperm motility have been studied. Sperm adenylate cyclase was found to be specifically activated by bicarbonate over the physiological concentration range. In contrast, the adenylate cyclase activity in other tissues was not affected. The same concentration range of bicarbonate which resulted in activation of adenylate cyclase also stimulated sperm motility. The motility and enzyme activity of spermatozoa in all species so far tested (human, bovine, rat, mouse, and dog) were found to be similarly sensitive to bicarbonate concentration. These results show that the bicarbonate-sensitive adenylate cyclase system regulates sperm motility and suggest that this system is common to all mammals. PMID:2991260

Okamura, N; Tajima, Y; Soejima, A; Masuda, H; Sugita, Y

1985-08-15

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Effect of Phytase on the Sodium Requirement of Starting Broilers 1. Sodium Bicarbonate as Primary Sodium Source  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent work has indicated that phytase enzymes may influence Sodium (Na metabolism in the chick but to date no work has conclusively demonstrated that the Na requirement of the chick for live performance is influenced by phytase supplementation. In this study male broilers were fed diets with Na levels ranging from 0.10-0.28% using sodium bicarbonate as the primary source of supplemental Na. Diets were supplemented with no phytase, 500 FTU/kg (1x or 2,000 FTU/kg (4x of phytase. When phytase was added the dietary Ca and Nonphytate P (NPP were adjusted in accordance with anticipated release of these minerals. For 1x phytase the Ca and NPP were reduced 0.10% each and for 4x phytase were reduced by 0.20% each. The combination of seven Na levels and three phytase treatments resulted in 21 dietary treatments, each of which was fed to six replicate pens of five male chicks housed in electrically heated battery brooders with wire floors. Experimental diets and tap water were provided for ad libitum consumption from day of hatch to 18 d. At 16 d of age excreta from each pen was collected and freeze dried to determine moisture content and the excreta analyzed to determine amounts of Ca, P and Na. There were no significant differences in Body Weight (BW, Feed Conversion (FCR, Feed Intake (FI, fecal moisture (FH2O, or mortality of broilers fed diets with different levels of phytase indicating that the dietary adjustment in NPP and Ca levels for the addition of the phytase did not adversely affect performance of the birds. The dietary Na level significantly affected BW, FCR, FI or FH2O. There were no significant interactions of dietary Na and level of phytase supplementation. Regression analysis showed an overall estimate of 0.180.01% Na for BW and 0.190.01% Na for FCR. There was little indication that the Na requirement was affected by phytase. The level of phytase and Na in the diet had significant effects on excreta levels of P, Ca and Na. The use of lower dietary levels of NPP and Ca in association with the addition of the phytase resulted in significant reduction in excreta levels of these minerals, but had no significant effect on levels of excreted Na. Increasing the dietary Na level significantly affected the levels of all three minerals in the excreta. Although the dietary Na level had significant effects on both excreta P and Ca, these followed no consistent trends with no significant difference in Ca or P excretion between chicks fed diets with the lowest and highest Na levels. There were significant interactions between dietary Na levels and levels of phytase supplementation for all three minerals in the excreta. However, these did not appear to follow any consistent pattern. While it is apparent that phytase influences the metabolism of Na within the body, the data from the present study suggests that this has little impact on the dietary need for Na.

P.W. Waldroup

2011-01-01

55

Bicarbonate Test  

Science.gov (United States)

... Bicarb; HCO 3 - Formal name: Bicarbonate Related tests: Electrolytes ; Sodium ; Potassium ; Chloride ; CMP ; BMP ; Blood Gases Total CO 2 or ... by itself. It is usually ordered along with sodium, potassium, and chloride as part of an electrolyte panel . The electrolyte panel is used to detect, ...

56

In vitro effects of bicarbonate and bicarbonate-lactate buffered peritoneal dialysis solutions on mesothelial and neutrophil function.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inclusion of bicarbonate in the formulation of peritoneal dialysis solutions may avoid the in vitro impairment of certain cell functions seen with acidic lactate-based fluids. The supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 inherent in such formulations may, however, not be biocompatible. This study compared the in vitro biocompatibility of a pH 5.2 lactate-based formulation with formulations containing either 40 mM lactate at pH 7.4, 38 mM HCO3- at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 240 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 60 mm Hg), and 25 mM HCO3- plus 15 mM lactate at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 160 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 40 mm Hg). Significant release of lactate dehydrogenase or decreases in ATP content by human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) and human peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) after a 30-min exposure to each test solution was only seen with the pH 5.2 lactate-based fluid. The ATP content of HPMC exposed to this fluid returned to control levels after 30 min of recovery in M199 control medium but showed a trend toward decreasing ATP content at 240 min. Similarly, interleukin (IL)-1 beta-induced IL-6 synthesis by HPMC was also only significantly reduced by the pH 5.2 lactate solution. PMN chemiluminescence was unaffected by 30-min exposure to all test solutions except for the pH 5.2 lactate formulation. Staphylococcus epidermidis phagocytosis was reduced to between 46 to 57% of control with all test solutions except the pH 5.2 lactate solution, which further suppressed the chemiluminescence response to 17% of control. These data suggest that short exposure to supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 does not impair HPMC or PMN viability and function. Furthermore, neutral pH lactate-containing solutions show equivalent biocompatibility to bicarbonate-based ones. PMID:8785390

Topley, N; Kaur, D; Petersen, M M; Jörres, A; Williams, J D; Faict, D; Holmes, C J

1996-02-01

57

Bicarbonate-form anion exchange: affinity, regeneration, and stoichiometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) is an effective process for removing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from natural waters, but its implementation has been limited due to production of waste sodium chloride solution (i.e., brine) from the regeneration process. Chloride is of concern because elevated concentrations can have adverse effects on engineered and natural systems. The goal of this research was to explore the efficacy of using anion exchange resin with bicarbonate as the mobile counter ion, which would produce a non-chloride regeneration solution. It was found that bicarbonate-form MIEX resin had a similar affinity as chloride-form MIEX resin for sulfate, nitrate, DOC, and ultraviolet-absorbing substances. Both bicarbonate-form and chloride-form MIEX resins showed the greatest removal efficiencies as fresh resin, and removal efficiency decreased with multiple regeneration cycles. Nevertheless, sodium bicarbonate solution was as effective as sodium chloride solution at regenerating MIEX resin. Regeneration of the bicarbonate-form MIEX resin was illustrated by sparging carbon dioxide gas in a water/resin slurry. This regeneration process would eliminate the need for the addition of salts such as sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate. The stoichiometry of the bicarbonate-form resin revealed that the bicarbonate was deprotonating within the resin matrix leading to a mixture of both carbonate and bicarbonate mobile counter ions. This work makes an important contribution to ion exchange applications for water treatment by evaluating the affinity, regeneration, and stoichiometry of bicarbonate-form anion exchange. PMID:21056451

Rokicki, Christopher A; Boyer, Treavor H

2011-01-01

58

Can acetate replace bicarbonate in oral rehydration solution for infantile diarrhoea?  

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In a double-blind trial two groups of 20 infants and young children suffering from diarrhoeal dehydration and acidosis were successfully treated with an acetate and a bicarbonate containing oral rehydration solution. The former was found to be as effective as the latter and was equally acceptable to the patient.

Patra, F. C.; Mahalanabis, D.; Jalan, K. N.; Sen, A.; Banerjee, P.

1982-01-01

59

Influence of bicarbonate on the sensitivity of renin release to sodium chloride  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Juxtaglomerular cells in vitro are sensitive to changes in osmolality, but it is unknown whether volume-regulatory changes in cellular ion fluxes are important for the renin secretory process. The sensitivity of renin release to increases in osmolality by NaCl was therefore tested on superfused rat glomeruli treated with bicarbonate/chloride exchange inhibitor (DNDS), NaCl/KCl cotransport inhibitor (bumetanide), or Na+/H+ antiport inhibitor (amiloride) in the presence or absence of bicarbonate. In addition, the sensitivity to increases in osmolality by addition of sucrose was tested in the presence or absence of bicarbonate. Renin release from time controls superfused with a bicarbonate-free Ringer was identical to release from glomeruli superfused with a bicarbonate Ringer. DNDS (0.11 or 1.1 mM) had no effect on renin release in a bicarbonate Ringer. 30 mM sucrose inhibited renin release independently of bicarbonate. 15 mM NaCl stimulated renin release when bicarbonate was absent, while it caused an inhibition in the presence of bicarbonate. When bicarbonate/chloride exchange was inhibited, addition of NaCl stimulated renin release even when bicarbonate was present. The effect of NaCl on renin release was not affected by amiloride (1 mM) or bumetanide (10 microM). Thus, volume regulatory mechanisms as known from other cells are not involved in the renin secretory response to small increases in NaCl concentration. Furthermore, the sensitivity of renin release to changes in NaCl concentrations is modulated by bicarbonate in a way that depends on a functioning anion-exchange mechanism. The results are compatible with the existence in the membrane of the secretory granule of a Cl-/HCO3- exchange mechanism which mediates exit of Cl-, and thereby attenuates granular swelling and exocytotic release.

SkØtt, O; Jensen, B L

1989-01-01

60

Effects of a chewable sodium bicarbonate oral composition on plaque and gingivitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of an effervescent sodium bicarbonate based oral composition on plaque and gingivitis. Subjects selected for this study presented at screening with moderate plaque and American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) Type I/II periodontal status. At baseline, subjects were allocated to one of two groups by simple randomization; placebo (n=16) and active (n=16). During the study two subjects withdrew due to non-compliance and one because of a death in the family. Data were collected at baseline, day 14, and day 28. The Plaque Index (PI) of Silness and Loe was used to quantify the amount of supragingival plaque surrounding six selected teeth (3,14,8,19,24,30), and the Gingival Index (GI) of Loe and Silness was used to assess bleeding tendencies and visual appearance on the same six teeth. A soft tissue oral assessment was completed at each visit. Subjects were asked to perform study treatment three times a day, after meals, and continue with normal oral hygiene procedures. Subjects were requested to complete a 28-day diary to assess compliance. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. There were no statistically significant differences between the placebo and the active product groups and no statistical significant interaction between product and location within the mouth or visit for either the plaque or gingival scores. Results reveal the product was safe to oral tissues and was well accepted by subjects. PMID:12167942

McCombs, G B; Green, M L; Root, J

2001-02-15

 
 
 
 
61

In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate  

Science.gov (United States)

Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments, static renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory demonstrated that CBNG-produced water reduces survival of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Age affected survival of fathead minnow, where fish 2 d posthatch (dph) were more sensitive than 6 dph fish, but pallid sturgeon survival was adversely affected at both 4 and 6 dph. This may have implications for acute assays that allow for the use of fish up to 14 dph. The survival of early lifestage fish is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO3 rise to more than 1500?mg/L (also expressed as >1245?mg HCO3 (-) /L). Treatment with the Higgin's Loop technology and dilution of untreated water increased survival in the laboratory. The mixing zones of the 3 outfalls studied ranged from approximately 800?m to 1200?m below the confluence. These experiments addressed the acute toxicity of effluent waters but did not address issues related to the volumes of water that may be added to the watershed.

Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; Skaar, Don

2014-01-01

62

Effect of lactate supplementation and sodium bicarbonate on 40-km cycling time trial performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of nutritional supplements to improve sporting performance and increase training adaptations is commonplace among athletes and is an expanding market in terms of product choice and availability. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 ergogenic aids with extracellular blood buffering potential, namely sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and a lactate supplement, during a 40-km cycling time trial. Seven recreationally active men (age, 22.3 ± 3.3 years; height, 182.5 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 79.2 ± 6.3 kg) completed five 40-km cycling time trials, including a familiarization trial in a randomized, blind, double placebo-controlled design. Subjects ingested (a) 300 mg·kg-1 body mass NaHCO3 (BICARB), (b) 45 mg·kg-1 body mass sodium chloride (PL-BICARB) as the placebo for the NaHCO3 trial, (c) 1115 mg lactate (LACTATE), or (d) plain flour as the placebo for the lactate trial (PL-LACTATE) 60 minutes before exercise. There was no significant difference in performance between the 4 conditions (p > 0.05). Although NaHCO3 ingestion induced significant changes in all the acid-base variables (all p 0.05). Subjects in the LACTATE condition did have a significantly higher heart rate (p 0.05) than the other 3 conditions. Neither NaHCO3 nor lactate supplementation seem to improve 40-km cycling time trial performance. However, the potential benefits following LACTATE regarding perceived exertion require further research. PMID:23660571

Northgraves, Matthew J; Peart, Daniel J; Jordan, Christian A; Vince, Rebecca V

2014-01-01

63

Sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy: A meta-analysis of published clinical trials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious but rare complication following contrast based procedures. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been postulated to prevent CIN by various mechanisms. However, the outcomes following sodium bicarbonate administration to prevent CIN have been inconsistent. Methods: A meta-analysis of published randomized clinical trials to determine if the administration of sodium bicarbonate is superior to sodium chloride among patients with chronic renal failure undergoing catheterization and interventional procedures in preventing CIN was performed. Results: Data were combined across seven published clinical trials consisting of 1734 patients. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the NaHCO3 and NaCl groups except patients in the bicarbonate group were heavier (P = 0.04). The odds ratio (OR) for the development of contrast nephropathy for NaHCO3 versus NaCl was 0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.69; P = 0.003). Heterogeneity and publication bias were detectable with P-values 0.01 and 0.0005 respectively. There was no difference between the NaHCO3 group and the NaCl group in the occurrence of death [OR 0.6; 95% CI (0.26-1.41); P = 0.24], congestive heart failure [OR 0.85; 95% CI (0.32-2.24); P = 0.74] and the requirement for renal replacement therapy [OR 0.56; 95% CI (0.22-1.41); P = 0.22]. Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrates that ban: This meta-analysis demonstrates that based on currently available randomized trials, the administration of NaHCO3 is superior to the administration of NaCl alone in the prevention of CIN among patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. However, further controlled clinical trials are needed due to significant study heterogeneity and publication bias.

64

The effect of sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide on the microbial flora of periodontal pockets. A preliminary report.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide on the microbial flora of 4 to 7 mm periodontal pockets. Four selected patients were instructed to brush assigned quadrants daily with a sodium bicarbonate-3% hydrogen peroxide paste utilizing a split-mouth design. The paste was pumped between the teeth and gingiva via sulcular brushing and a Perio Aid. The control sides were treated in the identical manner with fluoridated paste. Probing depths on each patient were taken on Days 1 and 21 and examined under dark-field microscopy. For each sample, morphology and motility of all cells were recorded. The data were analyzed by three factor repeated measures analysis of variance. No statistically significant differences were found between the control and medicament sites at the 0.005 level regarding changes in the microbial flora. Probing depths were reduced during the study. However, similar results were found on both medicament and control sites. It appeared that sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide have no unusual benefits in reducing the microbial flora of periodontal pockets. PMID:6292388

Cerra, M B; Killoy, W J

1982-10-01

65

Sodium Bicarbonate is Associated with an Increased Incidence of Contrast Nephropathy: A Retrospective Cohort Study of 7977 Patients at Mayo Clinic  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and objectives: The role of sodium bicarbonate in preventing contrast nephropathy needs to be evaluated in clinical settings. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We performed a retrospective cohort study at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, to assess the risk of contrast nephropathy associated with the use of sodium bicarbonate, N-acetylcysteine, and the combination of sodium bicarbonate with N-acetylcysteine from April 2004 to May 2005. Contrast nephropathy was defined as postexposure creatinine elevation of ?25% or >0.5 mg/dl within 7 d of contrast exposure. Results: A total of 11,516 contrast exposures in 7977 patients had creatinine values available for review before and after contrast exposure. More than 90% of exposures to agents prophylactic for contrast nephropathy were available for analysis. Sodium bicarbonate was used in 268 cases, N-acetylcysteine was used in 616 cases, and both agents were used in combination in 221 cases of contrast exposure. After adjustment for total volume of hydration, medications, age, gender, prior creatinine, contrast iodine load, prior exposure to contrast material, type of imaging study, heart failure, hypertension, renal failure, multiple myeloma, and diabetes mellitus, use of sodium bicarbonate alone was associated with an increased risk of contrast nephropathy compared with no treatment (odds ratio 3.10, 95% confidence interval 2.28 to 4.18; P < 0.001). N-acetylcysteine alone and in combination with sodium bicarbonate was not associated with any significant difference in the incidence of contrast nephropathy. Conclusions: The use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate was associated with increased incidence of contrast nephropathy. Use of sodium bicarbonate to prevent contrast nephropathy should be evaluated further rather than adopted into clinical practice. PMID:18057306

From, Aaron M.; Bartholmai, Brian J.; Williams, Amy W.; Cha, Stephen S.; Pflueger, Axel; McDonald, Furman S.

2008-01-01

66

Laying Performance and Egg Quality of Hens Supplemented with Sodium Bicarbonate During the Late Laying Period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine effects of dietary NaHCO3 supplementation on egg production and egg quality during the late laying period. Hisex Brown layers, 54 wks of age, were blocked according to the cage location and then assigned randomly to receive one of four diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4% NaHCO3 for 75 d. Each diet was replicated in 6 groups; each consisting of 2 cages containing 10 hens. Feed intake (FI and egg production (EP were recorded daily and egg weight (EW was measured bi-weekly. A sample of 12 eggs from each group were collected randomly every 25 d for specific gravity (SG, shape index (SI, shell stiffness (SS, shell thickness (ST, yolk color (YC, albumen index (AI, yolk index (YI and Haugh unit (HU. The mortality rate (MR and feed conversion ratio (FCR were lower, whereas FI, EP and EW were greater for hens fed the experimental diets than those for hens fed the control diet. Moreover, increasing NaHCO3 level linearly decreased MR and FCR, linearly increased EP and EW and quadratically increased FI. Specific gravity and YI for hens fed the experimental diets were lower than for fed the control diet. The diets did not affect SI, SS, ST, YC, AI and HU. However, SG and YI decreased linearly and AI increased linearly with increasing NaHCO3 level. In conclusion, increasing sodium bicarbonate level positively affected laying performance and altered inner egg quality, but did not improve shell quality, during the late laying period in hens.

M.A. Yoruk

2004-01-01

67

Effects of liquorice extract, probiotic, potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on productive performance of broiler chickens exposed to heat stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to compare the effect of licorice extract, probiotic, potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on productive performance of broilers exposed to heat stress. A total of 900 Fawbro broiler chicks were allocated at random into 6 treatments groups of 3 replicates each. Experimental treatments were as follows: Treatment 1: control group was subjected to heat stress; Treatment 2: control group was not subjected to heat stress; Treatment 3: Probiotic group were early exposed to 106 Colony Forming Unit (CFU of Lactobacilli at their first day of age, and then subjected to heat stress; Treatment 4: heat distressed birds and supplemented with 0.5 % potassium chloride in their drinking water; Treatment 5: heat distressed birds and supplemented with 0.5% sodium bicarbonate in their drinking water; and Treatment 6: heat distressed birds and supplemented with 450 mg / liter licorice extract in their drinking water. At the third week of age, birds in treatments 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were exposed to heat stress (38 – 43 ºC for 6 hours(1200 – 1800 h each day until the end of experiment (8th week of age. Results revealed that treated the birds with probiotic or licorice extract resulted in a significant improvement in mean body weight, feed conversion ratio, water consumption, cumulative body weight, cumulative weight gain, cumulative feed conversion ratio, livability, productive index, economic figure and dressing percentage with or without viscera as compared with control group which was subjected to heat stress, potassium chloride treatment and sodium bicarbonate treatment. Furthermore, licorice extract treatment surpasses probiotic treatment in respect to mean body weight, water consumption, final body weight, cumulative feed consumption, livability, and dressing percentage with or without giblet. In conclusion, licorice extract and probiotic can be used as an efficient tools in alleviate the deleterious effects of heat stress on productive performance of broiler chickens.

Hazim J. Al-Daraji

2013-06-01

68

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on rate of passage and degradation of soybean meal in postpartum dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of sodium bicarbonate on rate of passage and disappearance of soybean meal from the rumen were determined in a change-over experiment with eight cows. Experimental diets containing 50 or 60% roughage were fed over five 21-day periods with four cows per diet. Sodium bicarbonate at 1.0 and 2.5% (diet dry matter) were changed over in periods 2 and 4, whereas periods 1, 3, and 5 served as control. Rate of passage of soybean meal was measured with chromium-mordanted soybean meal and rate of disappearance by nylon bag technique. Effects of diet were similar for all responses. Response to the two percents of buffer was similar for dry matter intake, milk yield, milk fat, and protein. Percent buffer fed was associated positively with ruminal pH and with disappearance of nitrogen from nylon bags. The 0, 1, and 2.5% of buffer resulted in turnover rates of mordanted soybean meal of 8.22, 9.80, and 10.52%/h, but degradation of protein remained relatively constant at 36.0, 38.4, and 38.2%. The influence of rate of passage on ruminal degradability is discussed. PMID:6308076

Okeke, G C; Buchanan-Smith, J G; Grieve, D G

1983-05-01

69

Utilization of sodium bicarbonate for the neutralization of acid components in exhaust gases; Verwendung von Natriumbicarbonat zur Neutralisation saurer Bestandteile in Abgasen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SOLVAIR dry process using sodium bicarbonate as absorbent facilitates an uncomplicated and efficient purification of exhaust gases from different processes. The products from exhaust gas purification can be used either directly in a producing process or subsequently to a treatment process in the chemical process. The author of this contribution reports on the utilization of sodium bicarbonate in the neutralisation of pour components in exhaust gases such as hydrochloric acid, sulphur dioxide and nitrous dioxides. Further aspects of this contribution are the energy efficiency and the recycling of reaction products.

Bauer, Thomas [Solvay Chemicals GmbH, Rheinberg (Germany). Technisches Marketing

2013-03-01

70

Intraoral evaluation of mineralization of cosmetic defects by a toothpaste containing calcium, fluoride, and sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

New dual-phase fluoride toothpastes that contain soluble calcium, phosphate, and baking soda have recently been introduced into the market. These toothpastes are designed to fill in small surface defects in tooth enamel and thereby enhance tooth esthetics such as gloss. This two-part study was designed to assess these superficial mineralizing effects from using one of these products compared with an experimental calcium-containing, bicarbonate-free formulation and a conventional fluoride toothpaste using an intraoral model. Enamel specimens with 4 types of defects were mounted into an intraoral appliance and placed in the mouths of volunteers for 1 month. The four types of defects were whitening toothpaste abrasion, coarse abrasion, natural dimpling, and acid etching. Before and after intraoral exposure, scanning electron microscope photographs of the specimens were made. The surface microhardness of the acid-etched specimens also was determined. The volunteers brushed their specimens twice daily with one of three randomly assigned toothpastes. The toothpastes were a two-phase, calcium-containing, bicarbonate-based toothpaste; an experimental, two-phase, calcium-containing, bicarbonate-free toothpaste; and a conventional toothpaste. Only the calcium-containing toothpastes showed unequivocal signs of mineral deposition into surface defects, leading to smoothing of the enamel. All three products significantly increased the hardness of the etched enamel, presumably because of fluoride. However, only the two calcium-containing toothpastes gave significantly greater hardness increases than the conventional toothpaste; the specimens treated with a conventional toothpaste were indistinguishable from those treated with saliva. PMID:15645904

Litkowski, Leonard J; Quinlan, Kathleen B; Ross, David R; Ghassemi, Annahita; Winston, Anthony; Charig, Andrew; Flickinger, Mark; Vorwerk, Linda

2004-09-01

71

Degradation of hydroxyapatite in vivo and in vitro requires osteoclastic sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter NBCn1  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dissolution of the inorganic bone matrix releases not only calcium and phosphate ions, but also bicarbonate. Electroneutral sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter (NBCn1) is expressed in inactive osteoclasts, but its physiological role in bone resorption has remained unknown. We show here that NBCn1, encoded by the SLC4A7 gene, is directly involved in bone resorption. NBCn1 protein was specifically found at the bone-facing ruffled border areas, and metabolic acidosis increased NBCn1 expression in rats in vivo. In human hematopoietic stem cell cultures, NBCn1 mRNA expression was observed only after formation of resorbing osteoclasts. To further confirm the critical role of NBCn1 during bone resorption, human hematopoietic stem cells were transduced with SLC4A7 shRNA lentiviral particles. Downregulation of NBCn1 both on mRNA and protein level by lentiviral shRNAs significantly inhibited bone resorption and increased intracellular acidification in osteoclasts. The lentiviral particles did not impair osteoclast survival, or differentiation of the hematopoietic or mesenchymal precursor cells into osteoclasts or osteoblasts in vitro. Inhibition of NBCn1 activity may thus provide a new way to regulate osteoclast activity during pathological bone resorption.

Riihonen, Riikka; Nielsen, SØren

2010-01-01

72

Investigating the Significance of Bicarbonate with the Corrosion of High-Strength Steel in CO2-Saturated Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an electrochemical study on the corrosion behavior of API-X100 steel, heat-treated to have microstructures similar to those of the heat-affected zones (HAZs) of pipeline welding, in bicarbonate-CO2 saturated solutions. The corrosion reactions, onto the surface and through the passive films, are simulated by cyclic voltammetry. The interrelation between bicarbonate concentration and CO2 hydration is analyzed during the filming process at the open-circuit potentials. In dilute bicarbonate solutions, H2CO3 drives more dominantly the cathodic reduction and the passive films form slowly. In the concentrated solutions, bicarbonate catalyzes both the anodic and cathodic reactions, only initially, after which it drives a fast-forming thick passivation that inhibits the underlying dissolution and impedes the cathodic reduction. The significance of the substrate is as critical as that of passivation in controlling the course of the corrosion reactions in the dilute solutions. For fast-cooled (heat treatment) HAZs, its metallurgical significance becomes more comparable to that of slower-cooled HAZs as the bicarbonate concentration is higher.

Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram

2014-08-01

73

Assessing the survival of MRC5 and a549 cell lines upon exposure to pyruvic Acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate - biomed 2013.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lung cancer is among the most prevalent and deadly cancers in United States. In general, cancer cells are known to exhibit higher rates of glycolysis in comparison to normal cells. In attempting to exploit this unique cancer-dependent ATP generation phenomenon, it was our hypothesis that upon exposure to organic inhibitors of glycolysis, cancer cells would not survive normally and that their growth and viability would be vastly decreased; essential glycolytic ATP production will be exhausted to the point of collapsing energy utilization. Furthermore, we hypothesize that no negative effect would be seen with exposures to organic inhibitors for normal lung cells. The human lung fibroblast MRC-5 and the human A549 alveolar epithelial cell lines were used as in vitro models of normal lung and lung cancers respectively. Using standard methods, both cell lines were maintained and exposed to pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate reagents at concentration levels ranging from 31.3-2,000 µg/ml in 96 well plates in quadruplets and experiments repeated at least three times using MTT, and cell counting (T4 Cellometer) assays as well as phase-contrast photo-imaging for parallel morphological displays of any changes in the course of their vitality and metabolic activities. Our results indicate that exposure of both cell lines to these organics resulted in concentration dependent cell destruction/cell survival depending on the cell line exposed. Pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate showed statistically significant (p<0.05) differential negative effects on the A549 cell line in comparison to its unexposed control as well as to their effects on the MRC-5 cell line, presenting a potential promise for their use as cancer biotherapeutics. PMID:23686189

Farah, Ibrahim O; Lewis, Veshell L; Ayensu, Wellington K; Cameron, Joseph A

2013-01-01

74

Antimicrobial properties of hydrogen peroxide and sodium bicarbonate individually and in combination against selected oral, gram-negative, facultative bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The topical application of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), individually and in combination, has been used empirically in the treatment of periodontal diseases. In this study, we examined both minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of these disinfectants individually and in combination against selected facultative, Gram-negative oral bacteria in a microtiter dilution assay. The bacteria studied included Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Eikenella corrodens, and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. These bacteria exhibited MBC (one hr) values ranging from 75 mumol/L to greater than 10 mmol/L and MIC from less than 5 to 500 mumol/L for H2O2. The tested bacteria exhibited MIC values for NaHCO3 of from 23 to 182 mmol/L, and the MBC (one hr) exceeded 728 mmol/L for most of the strains examined. At sublethal (sub-MIC) concentrations, sodium bicarbonate antagonized the ability of H2O2 to inhibit bacterial growth in MIC assays, but sublethal concentrations of H2O2 had no effect on the MIC values of NaHCO3. Lethal concentrations of H2O2 and NaHCO3 exhibited synergistic antimicrobial activity in combination in one-hour bactericidal assays. Since the bactericidal properties of these antimicrobial agents are synergistic, we conclude that it may be rational to use them in combination to treat certain forms of periodontal disease. Also, lower and perhaps safer concentrations of H2O2 can be used in combination with NaHCO3 when oxidative antimicrobial chemotherapy is indicated. PMID:3016051

Miyasaki, K T; Genco, R J; Wilson, M E

1986-09-01

75

Effect of ion concentrations on uranium absorption from sodium carbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of various ion concentrations on uranium absorption from a sodium carbonate solution by a strong-base, anion resin was investigated in order to help assure an adequate uranium supply for future needs. The studies were conducted to improve the recovery of uranium from in situ leach solutions by ion exchange. The effects of carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate ions were examined. Relatively low (less than 5 g/l) concentrations of chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate were found to be detrimental to the absorption of uranium. High (greater than 10 g/l) carbonate concentrations also adversely affected the uranium absorption. In addition, the effect of initial resin form was investigated in tests of the chloride, carbonate, and bicarbonate forms; resin form was shown to have no effect on the absorption of uranium

76

Carbonic acid ionization and the stability of sodium bicarbonate and carbonate ion pairs to 200 °C - A potentiometric and spectrophotometric study  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbonic acid ionization and sodium bicarbonate and carbonate ion pair formation constants have been experimentally determined in dilute hydrothermal solutions to 200 °C. Two experimental approaches were applied, potentiometric acid-base titrations at 10-60 °C and spectrophotometric pH measurements using the pH indicators, 2-napthol and 4-nitrophenol, at 25-200 °C. At a given temperature, the first and second ionization constants of carbonic acid (K1, K2) and the ion pair formation constants for NaHCO(aq)(K) and NaCO3-(aq)(K) were simultaneously fitted to the data. Results of this study compare well with previously determined values of K1 and K2. The NaHCO(aq) and NaCO3-(aq) ion pair formation constants vary between 25 and 200 °C having values of logK=-0.18 to 0.58 and logK=1.01 to 2.21, respectively. These ion pairs are weak at low-temperatures but become increasingly important with increasing temperature under neutral to alkaline conditions in moderately dilute to concentrated NaCl solutions, with NaCO3-(aq) predominating over CO32-(aq) in ?0.1 M NaCl solution at temperatures above 100 °C. The results demonstrate that NaCl cannot be considered as an inert (non-complexing) electrolyte in aqueous carbon dioxide containing solutions at elevated temperatures.

Stefánsson, Andri; Bénézeth, Pascale; Schott, Jacques

2013-11-01

77

Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials  

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Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 ?g/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

2014-02-01

78

Preparation and application of potassium and sodium titanate for removal of plutonium from basic solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In PUREX process, after extraction and stripping of uranium and plutonium, the extractant, tributyl phosphate is usually washed with sodium carbonate solution before reuse for the removal of radiolytic/hydrolytic degradation products of TBP and small amounts of HNO3, uranium and plutonium goes into aqueous phase during carbonate washings. Partial neutralization of carbonate by the acid converts it to bicarbonate. Removal of plutonium from such sodium carbonate/bicarbonate streams facilitates their disposal. In the present work, studies were carried out to prepare inorganic ion-exchangers such as potassium and sodium titanates for their application as ion-exchange material. It is essential to prepare these materials in granular form to obtain good liquid flow property for ion exchange column operations, however, it is also important that the final product is having good surface area and porosity so that they may exhibit good ion exchange capacity

79

The radiation chemistry of aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation chemistry of cobalt-60 gamma-irradiated aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions has been studied. In aerated 4 x 10-4M sodium hydroxide solutions, the main products are hydroxyterephthalate (HTA) (G = 0.99 +- 0.01), carbonate (G = 1.31 +- 0.08), and peroxides (G = 2.84 +- 0.04). The HTA and carbonate species are both formed as a result of hydroxyl radical attack and account for approximately 90 per cent of hydroxyl radical reactions. Oxygen needs to be present for efficient conversion of the terephthalate-OH radical adduct to HTA and oxygenation increases G(HTA) above the aerated solution value. G(HTA) is unaffected by changes in terephthalate concentration between 1 x 10-4M and 1 x 10-2M in sodium hydroxide solutions at pH 10. Decreasing the solution pH does however affect G(HTA). In phosphate buffered solutions pH 6.85, G(HTA) is 0.93 +- 0.01 and lower values are obtained with further decrease in solution pH. The lowering of the G(HTA) value is attributed to recombination reactions between the terephthalate-OH radical products and reducing radical products. Experimental evidence supporting the recombination postulate was obtained from the measurement of a parallel decrease in the peroxide yield and the observation of a dose rate effect on G(HTA). Competition kinetic studies with the added solutes carbonate and bicarbonate gave the rate ratios k (OH + TA2-) : k(OH + CO32-) : k(OH + HCO3-) = 1 : 0.105 : 0.0036

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Hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio não previne a nefropatia de contraste: ensaio clínico multicêntrico Hydration with sodium bicarbonate does not prevent contrast nephropathy: a multicenter clinical trial  

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Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A exposição ao meio de contraste radiográfico pode causar comprometimento agudo da função renal. Há evidências limitadas e conflitantes de que a hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio previne a Nefropatia Induzida por Contraste (NIC em pacientes submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar se o bicarbonato de sódio é superior à hidratação com soro fisiológico para evitar a nefropatia em pacientes de risco submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. MÉTODOS: Trezentos e um pacientes submetidos a intervenção coronariana percutânea ou angiografia coronariana com creatinina sérica > 1,2 mg/dL ou Taxa de Filtração Glomerular (TFG BACKGROUND: Radiographic contrast media exposition can cause acute renal function impairment. There is limited and conflicting evidence that hydration with sodium bicarbonate prevents contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at determining whether sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline to prevent nephropathy in patients at risk undergoing cardiac catheterization. METHODS: Three hundred and one patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention with serum creatinine > 1.2mg/dL or glomerular filtration rate (GFR < 50ml/min were randomized to receive hydration with sodium bicarbonate starting 1 hour before the procedure and 6 hours after the procedure, or hydration with 0.9% saline. CIN was defined as an increase of 0.5mg/dL in creatinine in 48h RESULTS: Eighteen patients (5.9% developed contrast induced nephropathy: 9 patients in the bicarbonate group (6.1% and 9 patients in the saline group (6.0%, p = 0.97. The change in serum creatinine was similar in both groups, 0.01 ± 0.26 mg/dL in the bicarbonate group and 0.01 ± 0.35 mg/dL in the saline group, p = 0.9. No statistical difference was observed between the change in glomerular filtration rate (0.89 ± 9 ml/min vs. 2.29 ± 10 ml/min, p = 0.2 bicarbonate group and saline group, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hydration with sodium bicarbonate was not superior to saline to prevent contrast media induced nephropathy in patients at risk undergoing cardiac catheterization.

Vitor O. Gomes

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio não previne a nefropatia de contraste: ensaio clínico multicêntrico Hydration with sodium bicarbonate does not prevent contrast nephropathy: a multicenter clinical trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A exposição ao meio de contraste radiográfico pode causar comprometimento agudo da função renal. Há evidências limitadas e conflitantes de que a hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio previne a Nefropatia Induzida por Contraste (NIC em pacientes submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar se o bicarbonato de sódio é superior à hidratação com soro fisiológico para evitar a nefropatia em pacientes de risco submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. MÉTODOS: Trezentos e um pacientes submetidos a intervenção coronariana percutânea ou angiografia coronariana com creatinina sérica > 1,2 mg/dL ou Taxa de Filtração Glomerular (TFG BACKGROUND: Radiographic contrast media exposition can cause acute renal function impairment. There is limited and conflicting evidence that hydration with sodium bicarbonate prevents contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at determining whether sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline to prevent nephropathy in patients at risk undergoing cardiac catheterization. METHODS: Three hundred and one patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention with serum creatinine > 1.2mg/dL or glomerular filtration rate (GFR < 50ml/min were randomized to receive hydration with sodium bicarbonate starting 1 hour before the procedure and 6 hours after the procedure, or hydration with 0.9% saline. CIN was defined as an increase of 0.5mg/dL in creatinine in 48h RESULTS: Eighteen patients (5.9% developed contrast induced nephropathy: 9 patients in the bicarbonate group (6.1% and 9 patients in the saline group (6.0%, p = 0.97. The change in serum creatinine was similar in both groups, 0.01 ± 0.26 mg/dL in the bicarbonate group and 0.01 ± 0.35 mg/dL in the saline group, p = 0.9. No statistical difference was observed between the change in glomerular filtration rate (0.89 ± 9 ml/min vs. 2.29 ± 10 ml/min, p = 0.2 bicarbonate group and saline group, respectively. CONCLUSION: Hydration with sodium bicarbonate was not superior to saline to prevent contrast media induced nephropathy in patients at risk undergoing cardiac catheterization.

Vitor O. Gomes

2012-01-01

82

Evaluation of BSK-H Complete Medium Supplemented with Rabbit Serum and Sodium Bicarbonate for the Growth of Borrelia anserina  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to compare the effect of 3 formulations Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK medium on the growth of Borrelia (B. anserina, the causative agent of avian borreliosis. Three different formulations of BSK medium (BSK-H, BSK-II and BSK-H complete medium were prepared. For the isolation of B. anserina, Argas ticks were inoculated in all the three (BSK-H, BSK-II and BSK-H complete formulations of BSK medium. All the samples were also observed for the impact of BSK medium on the growth (Generation time, Growth per hour, Specific growth rate of B. anserina. Phase contrast microscopy was performed for the observation of viable B. anserina cells, and additional confirmation of all the isolates was done by performing indirect immunofluorescence assay and PCR. BSK-H complete medium supplemented with 6% rabbit serum and sodium bicarbonate was found best when compared to two other formulations of BSK medium with respect to the isolation, generation time and growth rate of Borrelia spirochetes.

Bilal Aslam, Iftikhar Hussain*, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood and Ahrar Khan1

2013-04-01

83

Effect of hypertonic versus isotonic sodium bicarbonate on plasma potassium concentration in patients with end-stage renal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the potassium-lowering effect of hypertonic versus isotonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving chronic maintenance hemodialysis. Immediately prior to dialysis, we infused isotonic (1.4%, 150 mEq/l) NaHCO3 in H2O (1 mEq/kg body weight over 2 h) to 10 patients with ESRD. Blood was drawn in heparinized tubes, without the use of a tourniquet, from the angioaccess for Na, K, pH, PCO2, HCO3, and osmolality at baseline (x 3) and after 10, 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min of infusion. All patients were acidotic (HCO3 13-21 mEq/l, pH 7.25-7.38) prior to the study. In these patients, plasma HCO3 increased by an average of 3 mEq/l, and plasma K decreased by 0.35 mEq/l at 180 min. Plasma osmolality did not change. In 8 patients, a bolus of hypertonic (8.4%, 1,000 mEq/l) NaHCO3 (1 mEq/kg body weight over 5 min) tended to cause a transient increase in plasma HCO3, an increase in plasma osmolality, and minor changes in the K levels (an initial small and transient albeit significant decrease, followed by a tendency to increase). Finally, plasma K tended to increase in patients receiving infusions of either isotonic (n = 6) or hypertonic (n = 6) sodium chloride. Our data do not support the efficacy of the common practice of administering NaHCO3 for the emergency treatment of hyperkalemia in patients with ESRD receiving maintenance dialysis. PMID:1668124

Gutierrez, R; Schlessinger, F; Oster, J R; Rietberg, B; Perez, G O

1991-01-01

84

Assessment of Adequacy of Dialysis in Patients Undergoing Dialysis With Bicarbonate Solution  

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Full Text Available Background & Aim: Hemodialysis is a common replacement therapy for patients with ESRD, worldwide. Effective and adequate hemodialysis can improve quality of life and reduce complications of renal failure. Enhancing quality of dialysis results in reducing the complications and mortality rate in patients with chronic renal failure. The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of dialysis in patients undergoing dialysis with Bicarbonate solution in hemodialysis ward of a hospital in Sary.Methods & Materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 patients admitted in the hemodialysis ward with chronic renal failure diagnosis. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to gather data. The KT/V formula was used to assess the adequacy of hemodialysis. The URR common characteristic was also measured. Data were analyzed using statistical tests.Results: The mean age of patients was 54.76±12.55 years. The mean of KT/V and URR were 0.26±0.92 and 0.47±0.09, respectively. The kt/v ratio was lower than 1.2 in 85.2% of the patients; and the URR was lower than 65% in 97.8% of the patients.Conclusion: The hemodialysis adequacy was low in 85.2% of the patients in the hospital and the hemodialysis efficacy indicators were lower than the standard measures. Assessment to find the reasons of low efficacy of hemodialysis is recommended.

Ehteram Sadat Ilali

2011-12-01

85

Americium(3) oxidation in bicarbonate-carbonate medium by sodium perxenate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The action of Na4XeO6 on Am(3) in KHCO3, KHCO3+K2CO3 and K2CO3 solution is investigated by the spectrophotometric method. It is ascertained that in 1.5 mol/l solutions (in terms of HCO3-+CO32-) at the concentrations of perxenate comparable with Am concentrates, the latter fastly moves in Am(4)+Am(5)+Am(6) mixture. The mechanism of Am(3) oxidation with perxanate is proposed; it includes reactions of Am(3 with Xe(3) and, probably, with Xe(6). 9 refs

86

A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of the Anesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate Buffered 2% Lidocaine With 1?:?100,000 Epinephrine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks  

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The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a double-blind manner, inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks using a buffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine/sodium bicarbonate formulation and an unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine formulation at 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. An electric pulp tester was used in 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes to test for anesthesia of the first and second molars, premolars, and latera...

Whitcomb, Michael; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

2010-01-01

87

Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na supplementation did not affect either water intake or water evaporation. This study demonstrates that the development of predictive models for water intake that include environmental variables could be based on mechanistic models of evaporation. PMID:24485695

Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

2014-04-01

88

Effects of the inorganic salts sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, and magnesium sulfate upon the growth and motility of Treponema vincentii.  

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The use of inorganic salt solutions as chemotherapeutic agents in the control of periodontal disease has received considerable attention in the past few years. Although some research has been published on their clinical effectiveness, little is known about their therapeutic activity and bactericidal effects upon oral spirochetes. The present study investigated the effects of varied concentrations of NaCl, NaHCO3, and MgSO4 upon the in vitro growth and motility of Treponema vincentii. Growth determinations were performed using a turbidiometric analysis at 545 nm. Motility was qualitatively studied by direct examination of 200 treponemes in a wet mount specimen. Samples were taken at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours following inoculation with the treponemes. Concentrations of 0.5 M NaCl, NaHCO3, or MgSO4 totally inhibited the growth and motility of T. vincentii over a 96-hour period. Salt concentrations less than or equal to 0.10 M had little if any effect upon growth and motility. The data support the hypothesis that the bactericidal and antimotility effects of these salts are related more to their concentrations than to the presence of a specific inorganic ion. They also suggest that motility may be a valid indicator of bacterial viability. Before the clinical significance of the results can be ascertained, human studies are needed to establish sulcular salt concentrations which can be achieved with local irrigation and to determine how long bactericidal concentrations can be maintained. PMID:3007725

Wolinsky, L E; Lott, T

1986-03-01

89

A synergistic effect in controlling plum postharvest diseases occurs by applying UV-C light to sodium bicarbonate treated fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effectiveness of ultraviolet-C light (UV-C; 254 nm) alone at 0, 3, 6 and 12 kJm(-2), or combined with 0.0 or 0.5% (w7v) sodium bicarbonate (SBC), to control plum (Prunus domestica cv Stanley) postharvest decay caused by Penicillium expansum L. and Botrytis cinerea was investigated. First, fruit was sanitized and in one experiment plums were artificially wound-inoculated 24 h before treatments and afterwards kept at 25 degrees C with 90% RH for 7 days. In the second experiment, treatments were applied before fruit was spray-contaminated with conidia and then stored for 4 weeks at 5 degrees C and 90% RH (storage conditions). In both experiments, the highest degree of decay caused by the two pathogens was monitored when fruit stayed untreated (control), and a negligible reduction was achieved by treating with the sole salt or with a 3 kJm(-2) UV-C light. Compared to control (89 +/- 3% decay), the treatment of wound-inoculated fruit with 6 kJm(-2) provided a 35 and 38% reduction of P. expansum and B. cinerea decay, respectively. Meanwhile, 12 kJm(-2) provided an additional decrease of 25 and 27%, respectively. In both experiments, the best control of decay was attained when treatments with SBC and UV-C light were combined and the efficacy depended upon the sequence of application. Synergistic effects were found by applying the salt before UV-C light. When 6 or 12 kJm(-2) were employed following the 2% SBC treatment, no disease symptoms developed for either pathogens in both experiments. The same combination with 3 kJm(-2) resulted in a nearly 5 fold increase of efficacy compared to the sole light treatment. The combined treatments controlled the two pathogens to valuable levels and, since no quality losses were observed during storage, they could be considered as a suitable approach to contain postharvest losses of this fruit. PMID:25151834

D'Hallewin, G; Cubaiu, L; Ladu, G; Venditti, T

2013-01-01

90

Hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio não previne a nefropatia de contraste: ensaio clínico multicêntrico / Hydration with sodium bicarbonate does not prevent contrast nephropathy: a multicenter clinical trial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: A exposição ao meio de contraste radiográfico pode causar comprometimento agudo da função renal. Há evidências limitadas e conflitantes de que a hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio previne a Nefropatia Induzida por Contraste (NIC) em pacientes submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. OBJETIVO: [...] O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar se o bicarbonato de sódio é superior à hidratação com soro fisiológico para evitar a nefropatia em pacientes de risco submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. MÉTODOS: Trezentos e um pacientes submetidos a intervenção coronariana percutânea ou angiografia coronariana com creatinina sérica > 1,2 mg/dL ou Taxa de Filtração Glomerular (TFG) Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Radiographic contrast media exposition can cause acute renal function impairment. There is limited and conflicting evidence that hydration with sodium bicarbonate prevents contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. OBJECTIVE: The present study was [...] aimed at determining whether sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline to prevent nephropathy in patients at risk undergoing cardiac catheterization. METHODS: Three hundred and one patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention with serum creatinine > 1.2mg/dL or glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

Vitor O., Gomes; Ricardo, Lasevitch; Valter C., Lima; Fábio S., Brito Jr.; Juan Carlos, Perez-Alva; Bruno, Moulin; Airton, Arruda; Denise, Oliveira; Paulo, Caramori.

1129-11-01

91

Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate / Atributos metabólicos, produtividade e estabilidade do leite em vacas Jersey alimentadas com dietas com citrato de sódio e bicarbonato de sódio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a inclusão de citrato de sódio e de bicarbonato de sódio na dieta de vacas lactantes Jersey e seus efeitos sobre os atributos metabólicos, a produtividade e a estabilidade do leite. Foram avaliados o pH urinário, os níveis sanguíneos de glicose e ureia, o peso e [...] o escore de condição corporal, a produção e a estabilidade do leite (teste do álcool) e as propriedades físico?químicas do leite de 17 vacas, alimentadas com dietas com citrato de sódio (100 g por vaca por dia), bicarbonato de sódio (40 g por vaca por dia) ou sem aditivos. As avaliações foram feitas no 28º e 44º dias. O fornecimento de citrato ou de bicarbonato de sódio não influencia os atributos metabólicos, a produtividade, o peso e o escore de condição corporal das vacas, nem a composição ou a estabilidade do leite. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body con [...] dition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test), and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day), sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day) or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

Marcelo Tempel, Stumpf; Vivian, Fischer; Giovani Jacob, Kolling; Maira Balbinotti, Zanela; Maria Edi Rocha, Ribeiro; Alexandre Süsenbach de, Abreu.

92

Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate / Atributos metabólicos, produtividade e estabilidade do leite em vacas Jersey alimentadas com dietas com citrato de sódio e bicarbonato de sódio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a inclusão de citrato de sódio e de bicarbonato de sódio na dieta de vacas lactantes Jersey e seus efeitos sobre os atributos metabólicos, a produtividade e a estabilidade do leite. Foram avaliados o pH urinário, os níveis sanguíneos de glicose e ureia, o peso e [...] o escore de condição corporal, a produção e a estabilidade do leite (teste do álcool) e as propriedades físico?químicas do leite de 17 vacas, alimentadas com dietas com citrato de sódio (100 g por vaca por dia), bicarbonato de sódio (40 g por vaca por dia) ou sem aditivos. As avaliações foram feitas no 28º e 44º dias. O fornecimento de citrato ou de bicarbonato de sódio não influencia os atributos metabólicos, a produtividade, o peso e o escore de condição corporal das vacas, nem a composição ou a estabilidade do leite. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body con [...] dition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test), and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day), sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day) or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

Marcelo Tempel, Stumpf; Vivian, Fischer; Giovani Jacob, Kolling; Maira Balbinotti, Zanela; Maria Edi Rocha, Ribeiro; Alexandre Süsenbach de, Abreu.

2013-05-01

93

Effect of bicarbonate on efficacy of oral rehydration therapy: studies in an experimental model of secretory diarrhoea.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In situ perfusion of rat intestine was used to evaluate the effect of bicarbonate on the efficacy of a low sodium (35 mmol/l) glucose-electrolyte oral rehydration solution in normal and cholera toxin-treated rat small intestine. In normal intestine, absorption of water was greater (108 (8.1) microliters/min/g; p less than 0.01) and sodium secretion less (-4.3 (0.3) mumol/min/g; p less than 0.01) from the oral rehydration solution containing bicarbonate than from the solution in which bicarbon...

Elliott, E. J.; Watson, A. J.; Walker-smith, J. A.; Farthing, M. J.

1988-01-01

94

21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3 , CAS...1) By treating a solution of potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with carbon...

2010-04-01

95

Substituição de monensina sódica por bicarbonato de sódio em dietas de novilhas confinadas / Evaluation of the replacement of Monensin with Sodium Bicarbonate in diets for confined bovines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os efeitos da substituição da monensina sódica pelo bicarbonato de sódio em dietas de novilhas em confinamento em relação ao desempenho animal, à conversão alimentar e ao parâmetro de fermentação ruminal. Foram utilizadas 56 novilhas mestiças, confinadas por 112 dias, submetidas a dieta [...] s com duas porcentagens de concentrado, 50% e 80% da matéria seca, com adição de monensina sódica ou bicarbonato de sódio, em fatorial 2x2. O volumoso utilizado para compor as dietas testadas foi composto de silagem de milho e cana-de-açúcar na proporção de 60:40, respectivamente. O nitrogênio amoniacal foi maior nos animais alimentos com dietas com alto grão. A monensina, na dieta 80:20, proporcionou maiores valores de nitrogênio amoniacal, uma e nove horas após o consumo da ração. O uso de bicarbonato promoveu os maiores valores de pH ruminal na dieta com 50% de concentrado, de seis a 18 horas após o consumo. Não houve efeito do aditivo sobre o desempenho animal. A alta inclusão de grãos na dieta propiciou aumento do desempenho animal e da eficiência alimentar. Conclui-se que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio em dietas para terminação de animais em confinamento é uma opção viável em substituição à monensina sódica para a manipulação da fermentação ruminal. Abstract in english The effects of replacing monensin with sodium bicarbonate in diets for confined heifers on weight gain (WG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed:gain ratio (FGR) and rumen fermentation parameters were evaluated. Fifity six heifers were utilized (Santa Gertrudis x Braunvieh). Diets were formulated with two [...] levels of concentrate (50% and 80% concentrate) with sodium monensin or sodium bicarbonate. The DMI was higest in heifers with an intake of 80% concentrate. There was not difference when the same concentrate levels were evaluated in relation to the DMI. The heifers at 80% concentrate showed highest WG. There was no significant difference in relation to WG between monensin and bicarbonate treatments and levels concentrate proportions. There were significant effects regarding FGR between treatments. The heifers on 80% concentrate showed lowest FGR. In the evaluation of N-NH3, the highest values were observed, on the whole, at 80:20 diets in relation to 50:50 diets. In the additive use, the monensin on 80:20 diets promoted the highest values of N-NH3 at 1 for 9 hours after feed intake. In the values of ruminal pH, the bicarbonate increased the values on 50:50 at 6 for18 hours after feed intake, in relation to the 80:20 diet. In this case, it was concluded that the use of sodium bicarbonate in diets for confined finishing heifers is a viable option for the replacement of monensin sodium.

A.P., Oliveira; R.A., Reis; L.M.A., Bertipaglia; G.M.P., Melo; T.T., Berchielli; J.A., Oliveira; D.R., Casagrande; M.A.A., Balsalobre.

96

Substituição de monensina sódica por bicarbonato de sódio em dietas de novilhas confinadas / Evaluation of the replacement of Monensin with Sodium Bicarbonate in diets for confined bovines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os efeitos da substituição da monensina sódica pelo bicarbonato de sódio em dietas de novilhas em confinamento em relação ao desempenho animal, à conversão alimentar e ao parâmetro de fermentação ruminal. Foram utilizadas 56 novilhas mestiças, confinadas por 112 dias, submetidas a dieta [...] s com duas porcentagens de concentrado, 50% e 80% da matéria seca, com adição de monensina sódica ou bicarbonato de sódio, em fatorial 2x2. O volumoso utilizado para compor as dietas testadas foi composto de silagem de milho e cana-de-açúcar na proporção de 60:40, respectivamente. O nitrogênio amoniacal foi maior nos animais alimentos com dietas com alto grão. A monensina, na dieta 80:20, proporcionou maiores valores de nitrogênio amoniacal, uma e nove horas após o consumo da ração. O uso de bicarbonato promoveu os maiores valores de pH ruminal na dieta com 50% de concentrado, de seis a 18 horas após o consumo. Não houve efeito do aditivo sobre o desempenho animal. A alta inclusão de grãos na dieta propiciou aumento do desempenho animal e da eficiência alimentar. Conclui-se que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio em dietas para terminação de animais em confinamento é uma opção viável em substituição à monensina sódica para a manipulação da fermentação ruminal. Abstract in english The effects of replacing monensin with sodium bicarbonate in diets for confined heifers on weight gain (WG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed:gain ratio (FGR) and rumen fermentation parameters were evaluated. Fifity six heifers were utilized (Santa Gertrudis x Braunvieh). Diets were formulated with two [...] levels of concentrate (50% and 80% concentrate) with sodium monensin or sodium bicarbonate. The DMI was higest in heifers with an intake of 80% concentrate. There was not difference when the same concentrate levels were evaluated in relation to the DMI. The heifers at 80% concentrate showed highest WG. There was no significant difference in relation to WG between monensin and bicarbonate treatments and levels concentrate proportions. There were significant effects regarding FGR between treatments. The heifers on 80% concentrate showed lowest FGR. In the evaluation of N-NH3, the highest values were observed, on the whole, at 80:20 diets in relation to 50:50 diets. In the additive use, the monensin on 80:20 diets promoted the highest values of N-NH3 at 1 for 9 hours after feed intake. In the values of ruminal pH, the bicarbonate increased the values on 50:50 at 6 for18 hours after feed intake, in relation to the 80:20 diet. In this case, it was concluded that the use of sodium bicarbonate in diets for confined finishing heifers is a viable option for the replacement of monensin sodium.

A.P., Oliveira; R.A., Reis; L.M.A., Bertipaglia; G.M.P., Melo; T.T., Berchielli; J.A., Oliveira; D.R., Casagrande; M.A.A., Balsalobre.

1149-11-01

97

Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

1977-04-01

98

Coulometric determination of americium based on the Am(IV)/Am(III) couple in sodium-carbonate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed method of selective coulometric determination of americium based on the Am(IV)/Am(III) couple with the use of a mixed solution of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate at pH 10.0 as the electrolyte makes it possible to determine americium in the presence of curium, plutonium, and the rare-earth elements. The detection limit is 7 ?g and the maximum relative standard deviation is 0.03

99

Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000?mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3?), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000?mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300?mg/L HCO3?. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989?mg/L, 1120?mg/L, 1249?mg/L, and 1430?mg/L NaHCO3, or 699?mg/L, 844?mg/L, 831?mg/L, and 1038?mg/L HCO3?. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3? compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24?h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3?.

Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

2014-01-01

100

Toothbrushing with hydrogen peroxide-sodium bicarbonate compared to toothpowder and water in reducing periodontal pocket suppuration and darkfield bacterial counts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study attempted to isolate and test the therapeutic effectiveness of toothbrushing with hydrogen peroxide-sodium bicarbonate supplemented with scaling and systemic antibiotics. Forty-two subjects selected for pocket suppuration were divided into two groups. Group I was treated sequentially with brushing, scaling and systemic antibiotics. Group II was treated with brushing and scaling performed concurrently. Half of each group were control subjects using an inert toothpowder. Subjects were monitored by darkfield microscopy for spirochetes and motile rods. In Group I, toothbrushing alone showed approximately a 1/3 reduction in the number of suppuration sites, no difference between experimental and control subgroups and no significant changes in the darkfield counts. Scaling, whether subsequent to the toothbrushing (Group I) or concurrent with the toothbrushing (Group II), showed a statistically significant reduction (about 70%) in the number of suppuration sites in all subgroups. Darkfield counts after scaling were reduced significantly in some subgroups but not in others. The addition of systemic antibiotics in Group I resulted in an almost total elimination of suppuration sites and spirochetes in 15 subjects, but there were no significant differences between the test and control subgroups. In both Groups I and II, neither experimental peroxide-bicarbonate subgroup could be differentiated statistically from its toothpowder-water control at any time. PMID:6348245

West, T L; King, W J

1983-06-01

 
 
 
 
101

Better preservation of peritoneal morphologic features and defense in rats after long-term exposure to a bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-term effects of a standard lactate-buffered dialysis fluid and a new, two-chamber, bicarbonate/lactate-buffered dialysis fluid (with fewer glucose degradation products and a neutral pH) were compared in an in vivo peritoneal exposure model. Rats were given daily injections, via an access port, of 10 ml of standard solution or bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution for 9 to 10 wk. The omentum, peritoneum, and mesothelial cell layer were screened for morphologic changes. In addition, the bacterial clearing capacity of the peritoneal cells was studied. Significantly more milky spots and blood vessels were observed in the omenta of animals treated with standard solution (P < 0.03 for both parameters). Electron-microscopic analysis demonstrated dramatic changes in the appearance of the vascular endothelial cells of the milky spots and a severely damaged or even absent mesothelium on the peritoneal membrane of the standard solution-treated animals. In contrast, the mesothelium was still present in the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, although the cells lost microvilli. Both peritoneal dialysis fluids significantly increased the density of mesothelial cells (per square millimeter) on the surface of the liver and the thickness of the submesothelial extracellular matrix of the peritoneum (both P < 0.04 for both fluids versus control). A significantly better ex vivo bacterial clearing capacity was observed with peritoneal cells from the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, compared with the standard solution group (P < 0.05 in both experiments). These results demonstrate that instillation of bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution into rats for 9 to 10 wk preserves both morphologic and immune parameters much more effectively, compared with standard solution. These findings may be of considerable clinical importance. PMID:11729248

Hekking, L H; Zareie, M; Driesprong, B A; Faict, D; Welten, A G; de Greeuw, I; Schadee-Eestermans, I L; Havenith, C E; van den Born, J; ter Wee, P M; Beelen, R H

2001-12-01

102

Evaluation of the efficacy of oral rehydration solutions using human whole gut perfusion.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whole gut perfusion in humans was used to compare the effect on intestinal water and electrolyte transport of the World Health Organisation oral rehydration solution (solution II, composition in mmol/l: glucose 111, sodium 90, bicarbonate 30, potassium 20; 308 mOsm/kg); a hypertonic commercial oral rehydration solution (solution III, glucose 188, sodium 50, bicarbonate 20, potassium 20 mmol/l; 335 mOsm/kg); and three experimental bicarbonate free, hypotonic oral rehydration solutions: solutio...

Rolston, D. D.; Zinzuvadia, S. N.; Mathan, V. I.

1990-01-01

103

Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy With N-Acetylcysteine or Sodium Bicarbonate in Patients With ST-Segment-Myocardial Infarction : A Prospective, Randomized, Open-Labeled Trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious condition in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We compared the risk of acute CIN and the influence of preventive strategies in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 720 patients were randomized in the Prevention of Contrast-induced Nephropathy in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (CINSTEMI) trial. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive hydration with sodium chloride together with 1 of 4 prophylactic regimes (1) N-acetylcysteine (NAC), (2) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) infusion, (3) NAC in combination with NaHCO3, or (4) hydration with sodium chloride infusion alone. Patients in cardiogenic shock were excluded. Acute CIN was defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration >25% from the baseline value within a 3-day period. Overall, CIN occurred in 141 (21.9%) patients. The prevention treatment with NAC, NaHCO3, or the combined NAC and NaHCO3 did not reduce the rate of CIN significantly compared with hydration with intravenous sodium chloride infusion alone (20.1% versus 20.1% versus 20.8% versus 26.5%; P=NS). However, an increase in serum creatinine >25% from the baseline value to 30 day was significantly lower in patients treated with combined NAC and NaHCO3 (18.7% versus 19.1% versus 9.2% versus 21.3%; P=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with NAC or NaHCO3 did not reduce the rate of acute CIN significantly. Combined treatment with NAC and NaHCO3 may reduce the risk of renal dysfunction after 30 days. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01160627.

Thayssen, Per; Lassen, Jens Flensted

2014-01-01

104

Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with N-acetylcysteine or sodium bicarbonate in patients with ST-segment-myocardial infarction : a prospective, randomized, open-labeled trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious condition in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We compared the risk of acute CIN and the influence of preventive strategies in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 720 patients were randomized in the Prevention of Contrast-induced Nephropathy in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (CINSTEMI) trial. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive hydration with sodium chloride together with 1 of 4 prophylactic regimes (1) N-acetylcysteine (NAC), (2) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) infusion, (3) NAC in combination with NaHCO3, or (4) hydration with sodium chloride infusion alone. Patients in cardiogenic shock were excluded. Acute CIN was defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration >25% from the baseline value within a 3-day period. Overall, CIN occurred in 141 (21.9%) patients. The prevention treatment with NAC, NaHCO3, or the combined NAC and NaHCO3 did not reduce the rate of CIN significantly compared with hydration with intravenous sodium chloride infusion alone (20.1% versus 20.1% versus 20.8% versus 26.5%; P=NS). However, an increase in serum creatinine >25% from the baseline value to 30 day was significantly lower in patients treated with combined NAC and NaHCO3 (18.7% versus 19.1% versus 9.2% versus 21.3%; P=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with NAC or NaHCO3 did not reduce the rate of acute CIN significantly. Combined treatment with NAC and NaHCO3 may reduce the risk of renal dysfunction after 30 days. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01160627.

Thayssen, Per; Lassen, Jens Flensted

2014-01-01

105

Improved acidosis correction and recovery of mesothelial cell mass with neutral-pH bicarbonate dialysis solution among children undergoing automated peritoneal dialysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acid-base balance and peritoneal membrane longevity are of utmost relevance for pediatric patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). PD fluids with neutral pH and reduced glucose degradation product contents are considered more biocompatible, because they preserve peritoneal cell functions in vitro. To investigate the clinical effects of a novel PD fluid buffered with 34 mM pure bicarbonate at neutral pH, a randomized, prospective, crossover comparison with conventional, acidic, 35 mM lactate PD fluid was performed for two consecutive 12-wk periods with 28 children (age, 6 mo to 15 yr) undergoing automated PD (APD). Blood bicarbonate levels and arterial pH were significantly higher after 3 mo of bicarbonate PD (24.6 +/- 2.3 mM and 7.43 +/- 0.06, respectively), compared with lactate PD (22.8 +/- 3.9 mM and 7.38 +/- 0.05, respectively; P < 0.05). This effect was reversible among patients who returned from bicarbonate to lactate fluid. Low initial pH and young patient age independently predicted increased blood pH during bicarbonate APD. Peritoneal equilibration tests revealed subtle changes in solute transport, with a less steep creatinine equilibration curve during bicarbonate dialysis, suggesting reduced peritoneal vasodilation. The peritoneal release of carcinogen antigen-125 increased twofold during bicarbonate APD (29 +/- 15 versus 15 +/- 8 U/ml per 4 h, P < 0.01), which is consistent with recovery of the mesothelial cell layer. This effect was fully reversed when the patients returned to lactate fluid. Effluent carcinogen antigen-125 levels were inversely correlated with peritoneal glucose exposure during lactate but not bicarbonate APD, indicating improved in vivo mesothelial cell tolerance of high-dose glucose with the neutral-pH PD fluid with reduced glucose degradation product content. Among children undergoing APD, neutral-pH, bicarbonate-buffered PD fluid provides more effective correction of metabolic acidosis and better preservation of peritoneal cell mass than do conventional, acidic, lactate-based fluids. PMID:14514742

Haas, Susanne; Schmitt, Claus Peter; Arbeiter, Klaus; Bonzel, Klaus-Eugen; Fischbach, Michel; John, Ulrike; Pieper, Anne-Kathrin; Schaub, Thomas Patrick; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Mehls, Otto; Schaefer, Franz

2003-10-01

106

Process of attack of uraniferous ores by a solution of potassium carbonate and bicarbonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oxidizing attack process of uraniferous ores by an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate and dicarbonate in which is introduced a gas containing oxygen under pressure. This process allowing a high solubilization of uranium in a soluble salt form

107

Design requirements for uranium ion exchange from ammonium bicarbonate solutions in a fluidized system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A fluidized countercurrent ion-exchange system was developed, operated, and evaluated. The system consisted of integrated multiple-compartment absorption and elution columns in which the solution flows were continuous except for short periods when resin increments were withdrawn. The exchange of uranyl carbonate between a simulated in situ uranium leach liquor and a strong-base ion-exchange resin together with the subsequent elution with an ammonium chloride solution was studied. The effects of the number of sections, section height, amount of resin withdrawal, solution flow rate, and column diameter were investigated. The kinetic and equilibrium relationships for the absorption and elution steps were also examined. The experimental data indicate a strong interdependence between variables. Solution retention time appears to be a major limiting variable in the absorption process, while resin residence time is the determining factor in the elution process. The column was efficient over a range of conditions, but close control was needed for optimum operation. 30 figures

108

Pre-harvest treatments with fungicides and post-harvest dips in sodium bicarbonate to control postharvest decay in stone fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different commercial formulations of fungicides containing one or more active ingredients in controlling postharvest decay of Thyrinthos and Boccuccia apricots, Red top peaches and Caldesi nectarines. Field treatments consisted of two sprays with cupric compounds, at the end of leaf fall and before bud swelling, one with sulfur compound, at fruit about half final size stage, and one with one of the following commercial formulations at the label suggested rates, one week before harvest: Teldor (fenexamid 50%; Bayer Crop Protection), Folicur (Tebuconazole 4.35%; Bayer Crop Protection), Signum (boscalid 26.7%, pyraclostrobin 6.7%; Basf Crop Protection), Score (difenoconazole 23.23%, Syngenta Crop Protection) and Switch (cyprodinil 37.5%, fludioxonil 25%, Syngenta Crop Protection). After harvest the fruit were stored for 1 week at 6 degrees C and 90% RH followed by 1 week at 20 degrees C and 60% RH to simulate retail conditions, or placed directly at 20 degrees C. All formulations significantly reduced decay in all cultivars. Switch, Signum and Folicur were the most active, while Score was slightly less effective. Teldor activity was low, especially in Thyrintos apricots, where the percentage of rotten fruit was slightly lower than in control fruit. Brown rot was the most representative disease, but in apricots a high percentage of fruit was affected by blue mold and grey mold. Rhizopus rot generally developed as a secondary disease on fruit previously affected by other pathogens and was more frequent in control and Teldor treated fruit. Preharvest sprays with Signum 3 days before harvest reduced postharvest decay after 1 week storage at 20 degrees C in Glo haven peaches and Venus nectarine harvested at advanced stage of maturity. Combining pre-harvest sprays with Signum and a 2-min postharvest dip in 2% sodium bicarbonate at 20 degrees C further reduced decay. In Sothern regions of Italy, the use of synthetic fungicides only immediately before harvest in years when the weather conditions are not favorable to brown rot and other pathogens inducing postharvest decay, combined with a postharvest treatment with sodium bicarbonate could be a feasible integrated approach to reduce the risk of selection of resistant strains of fungi to synthetic fungicides while controlling effectively postharvest decay. PMID:23878974

D'Aquino, S; Barberis, A; Satta, D; De Pau, L; Schirra, M

2012-01-01

109

Prevenção de nefrotoxicidade por contraste com solução de bicarbonato: resultados preliminares e revisão da literatura / Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by use of bicarbonate solution: preliminary results and literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A incidência da nefropatia por contraste tem aumentado simultaneamente ao aumento da sua utilização com fins diagnósticos e de intervenção terapêutica. A sua incidência na população geral é baixa, porém aumenta exponencialmente em pacientes com fatores de risco como diabetes e doença ren [...] al prévia. Várias estratégias têm sido utilizadas na tentativa de prevenir a nefropatia por contraste. Hidratação com solução fisiológica, contraste de baixa osmolalidade ou iso-osmolar e infusão de bicarbonato de sódio são consideradas como as mais eficazes. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar a literatura pertinente sobre prevenção de nefropatia do contraste e estudar, de forma inicial, a eficácia da hidratação a base de bicarbonato de sódio a 1,3% comparada à hidratação a base de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% na prevenção da nefrotoxicidade do contraste em pacientes de alto risco para o seu desenvolvimento. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a literatura por meio de busca sistemática no banco de dados PubMed usando as palavras-chave bicarbonato, nefrotoxicidade, contraste e insuficiência renal aguda e, adicionalmente, foram estudados 27 pacientes, portadores de diabetes mellitus e/ou doença renal crônica prévia e diagnosticados com algum tipo de câncer. RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes desenvolveu nefropatia do contraste, caracterizada como aumento de 0,5 mg/ dL e/ou de 25% na creatinina basal. CONCLUSÃO: A revisão de literatura sugere fortemente que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio é eficaz na prevenção de nefropatia por contraste. Em relação ao estudo randomizado e controlado o soro fisiológico e o bicarbonato de sódio apresentaram eficácia similar quanto à prevenção de nefrotoxicidade do contraste. No entanto, o pequeno número de pacientes não permite conclusões definitivas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy has increased simultaneously with the increase in contrast medium use in diagnostic and interventional procedures. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in the general population is low, but increases exponentially in patients with [...] risk factors, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Several strategies have been used in order to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. The most efficient strategies are saline hydration (0.9% or 0.45%), use of low-or iso-osmolality contrast medium, and sodium bicarbonate infusion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the pertinent literature and to assess the efficacy of hydration with 1.3% sodium bicarbonate compared with hydration with 0.9% saline solution in preventing contrastinduced nephropathy in high-risk patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed by using the following keywords: bicarbonate, nephropathy, contrast medium, and acute kidney failure. In addition, 27 patients with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, diagnosed with some kind of cancer were randomized for study. RESULTS: None of the patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy characterized as a 0.5 mg/ dL-increase and/or a relative 25%-increase in baseline creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review strongly suggested that sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. Regarding the randomized study, saline solution and bicarbonate solution had similar efficacy in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. However, the small number of patients does not allow definite conclusions.

Ricardo Gonçalves da, Silva; Nelson Gonçalves da, Silva; Fabiano, Lucchesi; Emmanuel A, Burdmann.

2010-09-01

110

Prevenção de nefrotoxicidade por contraste com solução de bicarbonato: resultados preliminares e revisão da literatura Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by use of bicarbonate solution: preliminary results and literature review  

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Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A incidência da nefropatia por contraste tem aumentado simultaneamente ao aumento da sua utilização com fins diagnósticos e de intervenção terapêutica. A sua incidência na população geral é baixa, porém aumenta exponencialmente em pacientes com fatores de risco como diabetes e doença renal prévia. Várias estratégias têm sido utilizadas na tentativa de prevenir a nefropatia por contraste. Hidratação com solução fisiológica, contraste de baixa osmolalidade ou iso-osmolar e infusão de bicarbonato de sódio são consideradas como as mais eficazes. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar a literatura pertinente sobre prevenção de nefropatia do contraste e estudar, de forma inicial, a eficácia da hidratação a base de bicarbonato de sódio a 1,3% comparada à hidratação a base de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% na prevenção da nefrotoxicidade do contraste em pacientes de alto risco para o seu desenvolvimento. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a literatura por meio de busca sistemática no banco de dados PubMed usando as palavras-chave bicarbonato, nefrotoxicidade, contraste e insuficiência renal aguda e, adicionalmente, foram estudados 27 pacientes, portadores de diabetes mellitus e/ou doença renal crônica prévia e diagnosticados com algum tipo de câncer. RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes desenvolveu nefropatia do contraste, caracterizada como aumento de 0,5 mg/ dL e/ou de 25% na creatinina basal. CONCLUSÃO: A revisão de literatura sugere fortemente que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio é eficaz na prevenção de nefropatia por contraste. Em relação ao estudo randomizado e controlado o soro fisiológico e o bicarbonato de sódio apresentaram eficácia similar quanto à prevenção de nefrotoxicidade do contraste. No entanto, o pequeno número de pacientes não permite conclusões definitivas.INTRODUCTION: The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy has increased simultaneously with the increase in contrast medium use in diagnostic and interventional procedures. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in the general population is low, but increases exponentially in patients with risk factors, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Several strategies have been used in order to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. The most efficient strategies are saline hydration (0.9% or 0.45%, use of low-or iso-osmolality contrast medium, and sodium bicarbonate infusion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the pertinent literature and to assess the efficacy of hydration with 1.3% sodium bicarbonate compared with hydration with 0.9% saline solution in preventing contrastinduced nephropathy in high-risk patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed by using the following keywords: bicarbonate, nephropathy, contrast medium, and acute kidney failure. In addition, 27 patients with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, diagnosed with some kind of cancer were randomized for study. RESULTS: None of the patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy characterized as a 0.5 mg/ dL-increase and/or a relative 25%-increase in baseline creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review strongly suggested that sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. Regarding the randomized study, saline solution and bicarbonate solution had similar efficacy in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. However, the small number of patients does not allow definite conclusions.

Ricardo Gonçalves da Silva

2010-09-01

111

Sodium bicarbonate induces crystalline wax generation, activates host-resistance, and increases imazalil level in rind wounds of oranges, improving the control of green mold during storage.  

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Imazalil (IMZ) was quantified in the flavedo and albedo (Citrus fruits outer and inner tissue of the exocarp) of wounded and unwounded Valencia L. Olinda oranges following a 2 min immersion at 25 degrees C in 50, 100, or 250 microg mL(-1) of the fungicide mixture with or without 3% sodium bicarbonate (SBC). The addition of SBC significantly reduced the decay incidence throughout 30 d of storage at 10 degrees C with 95% RH and 6 d of simulated marketing period at 25 degrees C and 75% RH. In unwounded oranges, IMZ uptake was not changed by the coapplication of SBC, and the fungicide was predominantly recovered in the flavedo. To the contrary, in the albedo of wounded fruit, the residue level increased by about 6-fold when the fungicide was applied with SBC. When SBC was coapplied to wounded fruit, the phytoalexin scoparone was induced in the albedo and the accumulation was not affected by IMZ. When fruit was treated with SBC, scanning electron microscopy observations evidenced a production of crystalline wax patches with branched stripes and the magnitude was positively correlated to the salt concentration in the mixture. The generation as fast as 24 h post-treatment, and the different morphology of the new wax suggests a displacement of intracuticular waxes which can affect the fungicide sorption and diffusion coefficient into the rind. PMID:20486661

Dore, Antonio; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Venditti, Tullio; D'Hallewin, Guy

2010-06-23

112

The Density of Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide-Sodium Aluminate Solutions: Data Review and Model Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The density of Hanford tank waste supernatants affects the design and performance of waste treatment processes. The density of aluminate ion [Al(OH)4-] bearing sodium hydroxide solutions is important for describing the caustic leaching processes in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Flowsheet. The dissolved aluminate has a particularly large impact on the density of supernatants, but this ion is absent from most density estimation algorithms because of its rarity in most industrial processes. Fortunately, there is a large amount of published data on the density of aqueous sodium-hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions, which can be used to develop density models. This study reviewed the available data and determined the partial molar volume of sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate for mixtures of these salts in water by regression. This study determined that much of the published data suffered from a strong correlation between the sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate concentrations in solution. Nonetheless, there was sufficient un-correlated data to identify and quantify the affect of both hydroxide and aluminate concentration on solution density. The density was found to increase linearly with both hydroxide and aluminate concentrations over a wide composition range. The effect of temperature on the density of aqueous sodium hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions was found to be statistically significant but small in magnitude. (authors)

113

The carbon source for effervescent sodium-bicarbonate groundwater in the Ballimore region, central New South Wales  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the integrated use of stable isotopic (?13C) data for delineating the origin of carbon in groundwater systems. Groundwater in the Ballimore region is unusual: the main interests of this study are artesian boreholes that produce effervescent Na-HCO3 (soda) waters. Carbon-dioxide gas is present in concentrations of up to 1g/l, and CO2 partial pressures are one thousand times higher than atmospheric levels. Major-ion geochemical interpretation indicates that the evolution of the effervescent Na-HCO3-rich groundwater in the region relies on fresh water entering the deep cell of the local flow system from Late Jurassic depocentres that are filled with fresh water. This groundwater flows S-SE through the fracture network that constitutes the deep cell of the local groundwater system. As it travels along the flowpath it mixes with CO2(g): decreasing the groundwater pH and making it chemically aggressive. When this water comes into contact with Late Miocene (?), sodium-rich intrusive rocks along flow path, sodic silicates (probably nepheline) weather to form kaolinite, this reaction produces a Na:HCO3 ratio (in mmol/l) of unity. Stable isotopic data from rock samples and groundwater collected throughout the Ballimore region provide support for the interpreted major-ion chemical evolution of effervescent Na-HCO3-rich groundwater. Carbon isotope data helps constrain the source of carbon in this system

114

In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio  

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Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mut...

Juliana Rico Pires; Carlos Rossa Junior; Antonio Carlos Pizzolitto

2007-01-01

115

Bicarbonate exporting transporters in the ovine ruminal epithelium.  

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In order to stabilize the intraruminal pH, bicarbonate secretion by the ruminal epithelium seems to be an important prerequisite. The present study therefore focussed on the characterization of bicarbonate exporting systems in ruminal epithelial cells. Intracellular pH (pH(i)) was measured spectrofluorometrically in primary cultured ruminal epithelial cells loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye, 2,7-bis(carboxyethyl)-5(6')-carboxyfluorescein acetomethyl ester. Switching from CO2/HCO3- -buffered to HEPES-buffered solution caused a rapid intracellular alkalinization followed by a counter-regulation towards initial pH(i). The recovery of pH(i) was dependent upon extracellular chloride, but independent of extracellular sodium. Adding 500 microM H2DIDS significantly reduced the increase of pH(i). For further characterization of the bicarbonate exporting systems, we tested the ability to reverse the direction from HCO3- export to import in the absence of sodium and chloride. Under sodium and chloride-free conditions, counter-regulation after CO2-induced pH(i) decrease did not differ from pH(i) recovery in the presence of sodium and chloride. Existence of bicarbonate exporting systems in cultured ruminal epithelial cells and intact ruminal epithelium was verified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Using RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing, expression of mRNA encoding for AE2, DRA and PAT1 could be found. Bicarbonate exporting systems could therefore be detected both on the functional and structural level. PMID:15926041

Bilk, S; Huhn, K; Honscha, K U; Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G

2005-07-01

116

Use of saturated sodium chloride solution as a tissue fixative  

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Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the capability of saturated sodium chloride solution as a fixative agent instead of formalin which is regarded as a carcinogenic material. For this purpose 3 rabbits were used and their livers, kidneys and spleens were exposed and removed. Neutral buffered formalin solution, saturated sodium chloride solution and distilled water were used as fixatives for specimens obtained from the first, second and third rabbits respectively. Routine histological technique was performed to prepare a stained histological sections for light microscopic examination. The result showed that the tissue sections which were obtained by using sodium chloride have the same histological features and without any artifacts when they compared with the results obtained using formalin fixation method. We conclude that the saturated sodium chloride solution can be used as a fixative agent in some circumstances when no any fixative agent is available.

A. Al-Saraj

2010-01-01

117

Stability of Colistimethate Sodium in Aqueous Solution  

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Colistimethate sodium, increasingly used to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections, spontaneously hydrolyzes to form colistin A (polymyxin E1) and B (polymyxin E2/B) when mixed with water. High levels of these active breakdown products at the time of administration have been associated with nephrotoxicity and even death. In this study, reconstituted colistimethate sodium was shown to be stable (<1.0% colistin A/B formation) for up to 24 h when stored at 21, 0, ?20, and ?70°C.

Healan, A. M.; Gray, W.; Fuchs, E. J.; Griffiss, J. M.; Salata, R. A.; Blumer, J.

2012-01-01

118

21 CFR 173.325 - Acidified sodium chlorite solutions.  

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...levels sufficient to achieve a solution pH of 2.5 to 2.9. ...produced by mixing an aqueous solution of sodium chlorite with any...to 2.9 and diluting this solution with water to achieve an actual...cross-contamination during the harvesting, handling, heading,...

2010-04-01

119

Electrochemical Studies on Silicate and Bicarbonate Ions for Corrosion Inhibitors  

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Several types of carbon and high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels are being considered for use in the underground reinforcement of the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. In this study, potentiodynamic polarization under reducing conditions was used to determine the corrosion rates (CRs) and passivity behavior of AISI 4340 steel using different combinations of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), in both pure water (PW) and simulated seawater (SW, 3.5 pct NaCl). These experiments were carried out to examine the potential inhibiting properties of the silicate or bicarbonate ions on the surface of the steel. The addition of sodium silicate to solution reduced the observed CR at room temperature to 19 ?m/y at 0.005 M concentration and 7 ?m/y at 0.025 M concentration in PW. The addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the CR from 84 ?m/y (C = 0.1 M) to 455 ?m/y (C = 1 M). These same behaviors were also observed at higher temperatures.

Mohorich, Michael E.; Lamb, Joshua; Chandra, Dhanesh; Daemen, Jaak; Rebak, Raul B.

2010-10-01

120

Sodium deficient rats are unmotivated by sodium chloride solutions mixed with the sodium channel blocker amiloride.  

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Rats were made sodium deficient by furosemide injection and then offered 20 min of access to 0.05 M NaCl mixed with the sodium channel blocker amiloride. Compared with a sodium deficient control group that was also offered 0.05 M NaCl, these rats drank very little. A subsequent test conducted in the same manner with 20 min of access to 0.3 M NaCl mixed with amiloride produced similar results. It is concluded that amiloride blocks the neural information required for generating the attractive taste of NaCl to the sodium deficient rat. PMID:1667733

McCutcheon, N B

1991-10-01

 
 
 
 
121

Tetragonal Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Solubility in Sodium Chloride Solutions  

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The solubility of chicken egg white lysozyme, crystallized in the tetragonal form was measured in sodium chloride solutions from 1.6 to 30.7 C, using a miniature column solubility apparatus. Sodium chloride solution concentrations ranged from 1 to 7% (w/v). The solutions were buffered with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with the solubility being measured at pH values in 0.2 pH unit increments in the range pH 4.0 to 5.4, with data also included at pH 4.5. Lysozyme solubility was found to increase with increases in temperature and decreasing salt concentration. Solution pH has a varied and unpredictable effect on solubility.

Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

1998-01-01

122

Colostrum replacer feeding regimen, addition of sodium bicarbonate, and milk replacer: the combined effects on absorptive efficiency of immunoglobulin G in neonatal calves.  

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Eighty Holstein and Holstein cross dairy calves were blocked by birth date and randomly assigned to 1 of 8 treatments within each block to examine the effect of a colostrum replacer (CR) feeding regimen, supplementation of CR with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and provision of a milk replacer (MR) feeding on IgG absorption. Calves were offered a CR containing 184.5g/L of IgG in either 1 feeding at 0h (within 30 min of birth), with or without 30g of NaHCO3, with or without a feeding of MR at 6h of age, or 2 feedings of CR (123g of IgG at 0h with or without 20g of NaHCO3 and 61.5g of IgG at 6h with or without 10g of NaHCO3), with or without a MR feeding at 12h. Therefore, treatments were (1) 1 feeding of CR; (2) 2 feedings of CR; (3) 1 feeding of CR + 30g of NaHCO3; (4) 2 feedings of CR + 30g of NaHCO3; (5) 1 feeding of CR + MR feeding; (6) 2 feedings of CR + MR feeding; (7) 1 feeding of CR + 30g NaHCO3 + MR feeding; and (8) 2 feedings of CR + 30g NaHCO3 + MR feeding. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24h after birth and were analyzed for IgG via radial immunoassay. Results indicated that CR feeding schedule, MR feeding, and the interactions CR × Na, CR × MR, and CR × Na × MR were similar for 24-h serum IgG, apparent efficiency of absorption, or area under the curve. Serum IgG at 24h, apparent efficiency of absorption, and area under the curve were decreased with addition of NaHCO3 compared with calves not supplemented with NaHCO3. These data indicate that supplementation of CR with NaHCO3 is not beneficial to IgG absorption and feeding MR within 6h of CR feeding does not affect IgG absorption. PMID:24534514

Cabral, R G; Cabral, M A; Chapman, C E; Kent, E J; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

2014-04-01

123

Do Intravenous N-Acetylcysteine and Sodium Bicarbonate Prevent High Osmolal Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury? A Randomized Controlled Trial  

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Background N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), singly or combined, inconsistently prevent patients exposed to radiographic contrast media from developing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Objective We asked whether intravenous isotonic saline and either NaHCO3 in 5% dextrose or else a high dose of NAC in 5% dextrose prevent CI-AKI in outpatients exposed to high-osmolal iodinated contrast medium more than does saline alone. Methods This completed prospective, parallel, superiority, open-label, controlled, computer-randomized, single-center, Brazilian trial (NCT01612013) hydrated 500 adult outpatients (214 at high risk of developing CI-AKI) exposed to ioxitalamate during elective coronary angiography and ventriculography. From 1 hour before through 6 hours after exposure, 126 patients (group 1) received a high dose of NAC and saline, 125 (group 2) received NaHCO3 and saline, 124 (group 3) received both treatments, and 125 (group 4) received only saline. Results Groups were similar with respect to age, gender, weight, pre-existing renal dysfunction, hypertension, medication, and baseline serum creatinine and serum cystatin C, but diabetes mellitus was significantly less prevalent in group 1. CI-AKI incidence 72 hours after exposure to contrast medium was 51.4% (257/500), measured as serum creatinine > (baseline+0.3 mg/dL) and/or serum cystatin C > (1.1· baseline), and 7.6% (38/500), measured as both serum creatinine and serum cystatin C > (baseline+0.3 mg/dL) or > (1.25 · baseline). CI-AKI incidence measured less sensitively was similar among groups. Measured more sensitively, incidence in group 1 was significantly (p<0.05) lower than in groups 2 and 3 but not group 4; adjustment for confounding by infused volume equalized incidence in groups 1 and 3. Conclusion: We found no evidence that intravenous isotonic saline and either NaHCO3 or else a high dose of NAC prevent CI-AKI in outpatients exposed to high osmolal iodinated contrast medium more than does saline alone. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01612013. PMID:25254489

Inda-Filho, Antonio Jose; Caixeta, Adriano; Manggini, Marcia; Schor, Nestor

2014-01-01

124

Oral prostaglandin e1 in combination with sodium bicarbonate and normal saline in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy: a pilot study.  

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) as a renal protective medication for patients exposed to contrast agents, as well as to demonstrate the safety, efficacy, and low side-effect profile of PGE1. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was designed to compare combination of intravenous sodium bicarbonate, normal saline, and oral PGE1 200 ?g versus the combination and placebo for renal protection from contrast agents. All patients receiving nonionic contrast during their interventional procedure were eligible for enrollment. Creatinine levels were recorded before and after the administration of contrast and renal protective medications. Contrast-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) was defined as an increase of 0.5 mg/dL or greater in creatinine level, or an increase of 25% or more above baseline. Age, gender, total amount of contrast used, and incidence of renal failure requiring dialysis were recorded. We conducted the study on 41 patients. Of these, 20 patients received PGE1 and 21 received the placebo. The study group comprised 29 males and 12 females. Diabetes mellitus occurred in 41.5% of the cases (including 40% of PGE1 and 43% of placebo patients). Average contrast use was 77.2 mL (range, 15 to 200 mL). Mean age of the groups was 67.2 years. Average baseline creatinine level was 1.17. The differences between the groups were not statistically significant. CIN by definition occurred in one patient, who received the placebo. Incidence of new onset renal failure requiring dialysis was zero. Postcontrast change in creatinine level for the study was 0.11. There was a change in the creatinine level of 0.161 in the PGE1 group and 0.061 in the placebo group; an improvement of 0.10. PGE1 was not effective in significantly altering postcreatinine levels (p?=?0.176). None of the patients enrolled in the study suffered any side effects from taking the PGE1 tablet. Although preliminary, this study shows that the addition of PGE1 for the prevention of CIN is well-tolerated by patients and is a safe modality. Additional studies are required to evaluate efficacy. PMID:23204824

Franz, Randall W; Hinze, Scott S; Knapp, Eric D; Jenkins, James J

2011-12-01

125

Kinetics of sodium borohydride hydrolysis in aqueous-basic solutions  

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Liquid-phase catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) for hydrogen production necessitates long-term stability of base-stabilized NaBH4 solutions at higher temperatures. The present paper reports the kinetics of aqueous-basic solutions containing 20 wt% NaBH4 with 1-15 wt% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at 80 0C. The established kinetic model employs a modified isoconversional method assuming single-step kinetics. The estimation of kinetic parameters is performed by gPROMS (general PRocess...

Retnamma, Rajasree; Rangel, C. M.; Novais, Augusto Q.; Matthews, Michael A.

2013-01-01

126

[Serious risk related to oral use of sodium phosphate solution].  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium phosphate solutions are commonly used to cleanse the bowel in preparation for colonoscopy, for barium enema or surgical procedures and eventually for treatment of severe constipation. Though relatively safe, these drugs must be used with caution in patients with kidney disease, small intestinal disorders, or poor gut motility and are prohibited in renal insufficiency and bowel obstruction. Especially elderly patients are at increased risk for phosphate intoxication due to decreased glomerular filtration rate, concomitant medication use, and systemic and gastrointestinal diseases. Sodium phosphate solution could induce by at-risk patients serious electrolyte abnormalities (hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia) and acute kidney injury called acute phosphate nephropathy, which is potentially life-threatening condition with slowly progressive renal insufficiency. This article gives a report on two cases of severe adverse effects after administration of oral sodium phosphate solution: an elderly women who developed increase in serum phosphate with compensatory severe hypokalcemia with tetany; and an elderly man who developed acute phosphate nephropathy following colon preparation prior to colonoscopy and barium enema. Especially in elderly and in patients in whom sodium phosphate solution is contraindicated or should be used with caution, we recommend to use isosmotic macrogol (polyethylene glycol) solution for the bowel cleansing a for the treatment of constipation. PMID:24350942

Hoffmanová, I; And?l, M

2013-12-01

127

Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution  

Science.gov (United States)

The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water.

Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

2011-10-01

128

Lead sulphate leaching by sodium chloride solution  

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Full Text Available Bioleaching treatment of complex multi-metallic Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au mineral concentrates leds to the formation, besides easily soluble zinc and cooper sulphates, of hardly soluble lead (II sulfate (PbSO4 sludge. To determine the leaching parameters of PbSO4 with NaCl in the bioleaching residue, lead sulphate solution was synthetically prepared. The effect of process parameters, namely NaCl concentration, solid:liquid phase ratio, processing time, temperature and Cl ions was examined. It was found that 100% Pb by leaching can be achieved with NaCl concentration of 250 g/dm3, time 20 min, temperature 353 K and solid:liquid phase ratio =1:20.

Coni? Vesna T.

2013-01-01

129

Association of ions in solutions of lithium and sodium chlorides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The critical distances for the formation of ion pairs were calculated by an ab initio quantum-chemical method using the 6-31G** basis set. The results were in agreement with the Bjerrum theory. Ion pair formation in aqueous solutions of lithium and sodium chlorides was visualized, and the energies of ion pair formation calculated

130

Measurement of Cherenkov light from a solution of sodium chloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We measured Cherenkov light from a solution of sodium chloride with a concentration from 0 to 25% in weight. The light decreases from 100 to 92% linearly between the concentrations. The number of Cherenkov photons generated in the electrolyte is not determined by its reflective index only, which is in contrast to the situation in a dielectric medium. (orig.)

131

Ionization of methyl orange in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Thermodynamic ionization constant of methyl orange in the temperature range (278.15 to 333.15 K). ? Influence of sodium chloride on the ionization of methyl orange. ? Pitzer interaction coefficients for methyl orange (sodium salt). ? Ionic strength dependence of the stoichiometric ionization constant. - Abstract: Ionization constants of sodium 4?-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4-sulphonate (methyl orange) were determined by means of spectrophotometric measurements in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions with molalities up to 2 mol·kg?1 at temperatures between 278.15 K and 333.15 K. The temperature dependence of the thermodynamic acidity constant shows a slight curvature in accordance with published data. The influence of sodium chloride on the methyl orange deprotonation was assessed by the measurement of stoichiometric acidity constants in this ionic medium. The Pitzer theory, widely used in the evaluation of the excess free energy of non-ideal electrolyte solutions, was applied to the computation of the activity coefficients of the chemical species involved in the equilibria and a good fit of those equations to the experimental data was observed, at all temperatures under consideration.

132

In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pela determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM. Os resultados mostraram que a solução teste inibiu o crescimento de microrganismos Gram-negativos e Gram-positivos da saliva dos voluntários, bem como das linhagens padrão na CIM de 1:20, enquanto que a CIM da diluição de clorexidina 0.12% contra as mesmas bactérias foi de 1:80. Desta forma, apesar de o enxaguatório bucal testado apresentar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro superior à do placebo, esta foi inferior à da Clorexidina.

Juliana Rico Pires

2007-12-01

133

In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate / Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicar [...] bonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme). A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pela determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM). Os resultados mostraram que a solução teste inibiu o crescimento de microrganismos Gram-negativos e Gram-positivos da saliva dos voluntários, bem como das linhagens padrão na CIM de 1:20, enquanto que a CIM da diluição de clorexidina 0.12% contra as mesmas bactérias foi de 1:80. Desta forma, apesar de o enxaguatório bucal testado apresentar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro superior à do placebo, esta foi inferior à da Clorexidina. Abstract in english Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in compa [...] rison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis). Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.

Juliana Rico, Pires; Carlos, Rossa Junior; Antonio Carlos, Pizzolitto.

2007-12-01

134

In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate / Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicar [...] bonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme). A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pela determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM). Os resultados mostraram que a solução teste inibiu o crescimento de microrganismos Gram-negativos e Gram-positivos da saliva dos voluntários, bem como das linhagens padrão na CIM de 1:20, enquanto que a CIM da diluição de clorexidina 0.12% contra as mesmas bactérias foi de 1:80. Desta forma, apesar de o enxaguatório bucal testado apresentar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro superior à do placebo, esta foi inferior à da Clorexidina. Abstract in english Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in compa [...] rison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis). Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.

Juliana Rico, Pires; Carlos, Rossa Junior; Antonio Carlos, Pizzolitto.

135

Low Sodium Diet (Beyond the Basics)  

Science.gov (United States)

... sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate is baking soda. Fresh fruits and vegetables are generally low ... sherbet, pudding, ice cream, salt-free baked goods, sugar, honey, jam, jelly, marmalade, syrup Beverages – Coffee, tea, ...

136

Substituted sodium phenylanthranylates as inhibitors of corrosion in chloride solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of corrosion protoction of armco iron, zinc (Ts-O) aluminium (AB 000) and its alloys (.D16 and AMG6) with sodium phenylanthranylate derivatives in clloride buffer solutions (pH 7.4-8.08) are investigated. It has been ascertained that the introduction of sodium phenylantiranylate into phenyl radical in m- and p-position relative to the amino group of electron-seeking substitutes improves protective properties of an inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of phenylanthranylates and its dependence on electron structure enchances in zinc-aluminium-iron series and decreases in case of transition from pure aluminium to its alloys

137

An evaluation of the behaviour of high alumina cement mortars in dilute sulphuric acid, sodium sulphate and sodium chloride solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This investigation was aimed at evaluating the behaviour of high alumina cement (HAC) mortars in 1 per cent sulphuric acid, 5 per cent sodium sulphate and 3 per cent sodium chloride solutions at 5 degrees Celsius, 22 degrees Celsius and 40 degrees Celsius. The influence of conversion of HAC on the behaviour in aggressive solutions of mortars made with it was evaluated. The mortars in which the HAC was unconverted were much less pervious than the ones in which it was converted. Although ettringite was formed in the mortars that were exposed to the sulphate solution, little expansion resulted during one year of exposure. The mortars that were exposed to the chloride solution, showed no expansion. Both in the sodium sulphate solution and in the sodium chloride solution, sodium hydroxide was produced by reaction between the calcium aluminates and the sodium salts; this can eventually lead to deterioration

138

Mutual diffusion of sodium hyaluranate in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Binary diffusion coefficients for the systems containing sodium hyaluronate. • Influence of the aggregation on diffusion of the sodium hyaluronate in the aqueous media. • Estimation of the thermodynamic and mobility factors from mutual diffusion. -- Abstract: The Taylor dispersion technique has been used for measuring mutual diffusion coefficients of sodium hyaluronate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K, and concentrations ranging from (0.00 to 0.50) g · dm?3. The results are interpreted on the basis of Nernst, and Onsager and Fuoss theoretical equations. From the diffusion coefficient at infinitesimal concentration, the limiting ionic conductivity and the tracer diffusion coefficient of hyaluronate ion were estimated. These studies have been complemented by molecular mechanics calculations

139

Parahydrogen conversion by solutions of sodium in liquid ammonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Parahydrogen conversion by sodium in liquid ammonia has been investigated between 195 and 240 K with sodium concentrations from 7x10-4 m.p.m. to saturation. Measurements of solution stability and the absence of deuterium exchange show that conversion proceeds by a physical mechanism in the electrolyte, intermediate and metallic regions. No marked change in catalytic activity was observed at the nonmetal-metal transition since bimolecular rate constants at 213 K fell progressively with increasing sodium concentration. The results can be explained using the Wigner collisional model for paramagnetic parahydrogen conversion, allowing for repeated collisions arising from an attractive interaction between the hydrogen molecule and the solvated electron. (orig.)

140

Molybdenum recovery from sulfide ores by alkali sodium hypochlorite solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The specified kinetic characteristics of hydrochemical oxidation of molybdenite by sodium hypochlorite are discussed. The methods of hypochlorite synthesis, Mo recovery from solutions after leaching are selected. It is shown that the most acceptable method of preparing hypochlorite should be considered the NaCl solution electrolysis. Mo recovery from solutions after leaching has been performed by sorption on V-P-1p anionite, eluated from resin by 10% solution of ammonia, commodity product has been extracted in a form of ammonium polymolybdate. A principle flowsheet of Mo recovery from sulfide ores is suggested. The flowsheet has been tested under laboratory conditions. It ensures a closed cycle of leaching solution circulation and meets the requirements of environment control

 
 
 
 
141

Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

Pavlovi? Ljubica J.

2002-01-01

142

Cryoscopic studies of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, potassium tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freezing temperature lowerings of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate were determined. These values and those taken from the literature for potassium tartrate were used in the determination of the osmotic and activity coefficients in the studied systems, via the numerical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation

143

Cryoscopic studies of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, potassium tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Freezing temperature lowerings of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate were determined. These values and those taken from the literature for potassium tartrate were used in the determination of the osmotic and activity coefficients in the studied systems, via the numerical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation.

Apelblat, Alexander. E-mail: apelblat@bgumail.bgu.ac.il; Manzurola, Emanuel

2003-08-01

144

Measurements of the viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 liquid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adding UO2 produces an increase of viscosity of borax and sodium metaborate. For temperatures below 9200C the measurements with the borax-UO2 solution show a phase separation. Contrary to borax the sodium metaborate solutions indicate a well defined melting point. At temperatures slightly below the melting point a solid phase is formed. The tested sodium-borates-UO2 mixtures are in liquid form. (DG)

145

Photoionization of Sodium Salt Solutions in a Liquid Jet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A liquid microjet was employed to examine the gas/liquid interface of aqueous sodium halide (Na+X-, X=Cl, Br, I) salt solutions. Laser excitation at 193 nm produced and removed cations of the form H+(H2O)n and Na+(H2O)m from liquid jet surfaces containing either NaCl, NaBr or NaI. The protonated water cluster yield varied inversely with increasing salt concentration, while the solvated sodium ion cluster yield varied by anion type. The distribution of H+(H2O)n at low salt concentration is identical to that observed from low-energy electron irradiated amorphous ice and the production of these clusters can be accounted for using a localized ionization/Coulomb expulsion model. Production of Na+(H2O)m is not accounted for by this model but requires ionization of solvation shell waters and a contact ion/Coulomb expulsion mechanism. The reduced yields of Na+(H2O)m from high concentration (10-2 and 10-1 M) NaBr and NaI solutions indicate a propensity for Br- and I- at the solution surfaces and interfaces. This is supported by the observation of multiphoton induced production and desorption of Br+ and I+ from the 10-2 and 10-1 M solution surfaces

146

Efeitos da correção da acidose metabólica com bicarbonato de sódio sobre o catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica / The effects of the correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate on protein catabolism in chronic kidney failure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A desnutrição protéico-energética constitui problema comum aos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica, influenciando diretamente na sua morbi-mortalidade. A acidose metabólica tem papel no catabolismo protéico, ativando a via proteolítica proteasoma-ubiquitina, dependente de adenosina trifosfato, [...] e conjuntamente com glicocorticóides induz uma maior atividade na desidrogenase que degrada os aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada. Esta revisão teve como objetivo descrever o mecanismo pelo qual a acidose metabólica nos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica promove o catabolismo protéico, favorecendo assim a desnutrição, bem como avaliar os efeitos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio na correção da acidose e conseqüentemente redução do catabolismo protéico. Pesquisas mostram melhora da acidose pelo uso de bicarbonato de sódio e conseqüente redução do catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica, podendo ser esta uma conduta promissora na atenuação da desnutrição nestes pacientes. Abstract in english Protein-Energy Malnutrition is common among patients with chronic kidney failure, thus increasing morbidity and mortality. Several studies have shown that metabolic acidosis is a major cause of muscle protein breakdown, and recently it was attributed to ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic [...] pathway. Acidosis, plus glucocorticoids, also respond to increasing branched-chain amino acids oxidation. In this review, the impact of metabolic acidosis on protein and amino acid metabolism is examined in order to understand its effect on lean body mass and the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney failure. The study also observes whether or not sodium bicarbonate supplementation is beneficial to chronic kidney failure patients. In summary, there is a preliminary evidence suggesting that the correction of acidosis using sodium bicarbonate reduces protein degradation in chronic kidney failure patients, thus emerging as a potential therapy for reducing protein-energy malnutrition among them.

Denise, MAFRA; Roberto Carlos, BURINI.

147

Efeitos da correção da acidose metabólica com bicarbonato de sódio sobre o catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica The effects of the correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate on protein catabolism in chronic kidney failure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A desnutrição protéico-energética constitui problema comum aos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica, influenciando diretamente na sua morbi-mortalidade. A acidose metabólica tem papel no catabolismo protéico, ativando a via proteolítica proteasoma-ubiquitina, dependente de adenosina trifosfato, e conjuntamente com glicocorticóides induz uma maior atividade na desidrogenase que degrada os aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada. Esta revisão teve como objetivo descrever o mecanismo pelo qual a acidose metabólica nos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica promove o catabolismo protéico, favorecendo assim a desnutrição, bem como avaliar os efeitos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio na correção da acidose e conseqüentemente redução do catabolismo protéico. Pesquisas mostram melhora da acidose pelo uso de bicarbonato de sódio e conseqüente redução do catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica, podendo ser esta uma conduta promissora na atenuação da desnutrição nestes pacientes.Protein-Energy Malnutrition is common among patients with chronic kidney failure, thus increasing morbidity and mortality. Several studies have shown that metabolic acidosis is a major cause of muscle protein breakdown, and recently it was attributed to ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Acidosis, plus glucocorticoids, also respond to increasing branched-chain amino acids oxidation. In this review, the impact of metabolic acidosis on protein and amino acid metabolism is examined in order to understand its effect on lean body mass and the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney failure. The study also observes whether or not sodium bicarbonate supplementation is beneficial to chronic kidney failure patients. In summary, there is a preliminary evidence suggesting that the correction of acidosis using sodium bicarbonate reduces protein degradation in chronic kidney failure patients, thus emerging as a potential therapy for reducing protein-energy malnutrition among them.

Denise MAFRA

2001-04-01

148

Efeitos da correção da acidose metabólica com bicarbonato de sódio sobre o catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica / The effects of the correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate on protein catabolism in chronic kidney failure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A desnutrição protéico-energética constitui problema comum aos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica, influenciando diretamente na sua morbi-mortalidade. A acidose metabólica tem papel no catabolismo protéico, ativando a via proteolítica proteasoma-ubiquitina, dependente de adenosina trifosfato, [...] e conjuntamente com glicocorticóides induz uma maior atividade na desidrogenase que degrada os aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada. Esta revisão teve como objetivo descrever o mecanismo pelo qual a acidose metabólica nos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica promove o catabolismo protéico, favorecendo assim a desnutrição, bem como avaliar os efeitos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio na correção da acidose e conseqüentemente redução do catabolismo protéico. Pesquisas mostram melhora da acidose pelo uso de bicarbonato de sódio e conseqüente redução do catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica, podendo ser esta uma conduta promissora na atenuação da desnutrição nestes pacientes. Abstract in english Protein-Energy Malnutrition is common among patients with chronic kidney failure, thus increasing morbidity and mortality. Several studies have shown that metabolic acidosis is a major cause of muscle protein breakdown, and recently it was attributed to ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic [...] pathway. Acidosis, plus glucocorticoids, also respond to increasing branched-chain amino acids oxidation. In this review, the impact of metabolic acidosis on protein and amino acid metabolism is examined in order to understand its effect on lean body mass and the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney failure. The study also observes whether or not sodium bicarbonate supplementation is beneficial to chronic kidney failure patients. In summary, there is a preliminary evidence suggesting that the correction of acidosis using sodium bicarbonate reduces protein degradation in chronic kidney failure patients, thus emerging as a potential therapy for reducing protein-energy malnutrition among them.

Denise, MAFRA; Roberto Carlos, BURINI.

2001-04-01

149

Crevice Corrosion of 321 Stainless Steel in Sodium Chloride Solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrochemical techniques have been applied to study the crevice corrosion behaviour of stabilized 321 stainless steel in both 0.5, 1 and 2 M sodium chloride solutions at 25 and 80 degree . This type of stainless steel enjoys a good corrosion resistance especially in the heat affected zone (Haz) of welds. In this investigation the crevice corrosion of 321 stainless steel was studied in both bulk solution environments as well as in chloride solutions simulating those formed inside crevices. A metal-to-nonmetal crevice assembly, in which disc type specimens were faced to a PTFE crevice former, is used for bulk solution tests. Crevice-free specimens of solutions formed inside crevices (known as the critical crevice solutions, CCS). Cyclic potentiodynamic technique was used in evaluating the electrochemical corrosion performance of the alloy in bulk (0.5 and 1 M Nacl) environment. This revealed that both chloride ion concentration and temperature have a marked effect on the electrochemical parameters generally used for the evaluation of the crevice corrosion susceptibility. This included the corrosion potential. E corr. The passivity breakdown potential, Eb, and the protection potential, E p

150

Removal of lead from aqueous solutions with sodium caprate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lead was removed from aqueous solutions by precipitation using sodium caprate [CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 8}COONa]. For a feed concentration of 7 mM (1,450 ppm) lead and a mole ratio of caprate to lead of 2, the percentage removal of lead and the percentage loss of caprate were 99.5 {+-} 0.2 and 0.8 {+-} 0.3, respectively. The effects of pH and the concentrations of lead, calcium, chloride, and nitrate in the feed on the removal step were determined. At a mole ratio of caprate to lead of 2.0, the equilibrium concentrations of lead and caprate were independent of the feed concentration of lead. Decreasing the pH of the feed decreased the removal of lead but did not affect the loss of caprate. The presence of calcium, chloride, or nitrate in the feed did not affect the removal of lead. Sodium caprate was regenerated by adding HNO{sub 3} to the lead caprate precipitate to form capric acid from which sodium caprate was recovered by adding NaOH. Based on the amount of caprate used in the lead removal step, a percentage recovery of 98.9 {+-} 0.3 was achieved.

Husein, M.M.; Vera, J.H.; Weber, M.E. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1998-09-01

151

Potentiometric monitoring of sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Platina, paládio, ouro, cádmio, níquel e nióbio imersos em soluções alcalinas de borohidreto de sódio são caracterizados por respostas de eléctrodo que permitem monitorizar o conteúdo em borohidreto presente num dado meio aquoso. Descreve-se uma técnica de titulação potenciométrica relativamente sim [...] ples e precisa que pode ser aplicada para a análise de soluções de borohidreto. Abstract in english Platinum, palladium, gold, cadmium, nickel and niobium immersed in sodium borohydride alkaline solutions are characterised by electrode responses that allow monitoring the borohydride present in aqueous media. A simple and relatively precise potentiometric titration technique is described and applie [...] d for the analysis of borohydride solutions.

Diogo M. F., Santos; César A. C., Sequeira.

2008-12-01

152

Potentiometric monitoring of sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Platina, paládio, ouro, cádmio, níquel e nióbio imersos em soluções alcalinas de borohidreto de sódio são caracterizados por respostas de eléctrodo que permitem monitorizar o conteúdo em borohidreto presente num dado meio aquoso. Descreve-se uma técnica de titulação potenciométrica relativamente sim [...] ples e precisa que pode ser aplicada para a análise de soluções de borohidreto. Abstract in english Platinum, palladium, gold, cadmium, nickel and niobium immersed in sodium borohydride alkaline solutions are characterised by electrode responses that allow monitoring the borohydride present in aqueous media. A simple and relatively precise potentiometric titration technique is described and applie [...] d for the analysis of borohydride solutions.

Diogo M. F., Santos; César A. C., Sequeira.

153

Stress corrosion cracking of X80 pipeline steel exposed to high pH solutions with different concentrations of bicarbonate  

Science.gov (United States)

Susceptibilities to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of X80 pipeline steel in high pH solutions with various concentrations of HCO{3/-} at a passive potential of -0.2 V vs. SCE were investigated by slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test. The SCC mechanism and the effect of HCO{3/-} were discussed with the aid of electrochemical techniques. It is indicated that X80 steel shows enhanced susceptibility to SCC with the concentration of HCO{3/-} increasing from 0.15 to 1.00 mol/L, and the susceptibility can be evaluated in terms of current density at -0.2 V vs. SCE. The SCC behavior is controlled by the dissolution-based mechanism in these circumstances. Increasing the concentration of HCO{3/-} not only increases the risk of rupture of passive films but also promotes the anodic dissolution of crack tips. Besides, little susceptibility to SCC is found in dilute solution containing 0.05 mol/L HCO{3/-} for X80 steel. This can be attributed to the inhibited repassivation of passive films, manifesting as a more intensive dissolution in the non-crack tip areas than at the crack tips.

Fan, Lin; Du, Cui-wei; Liu, Zhi-yong; Li, Xiao-gang

2013-07-01

154

Kinetics of conversion of celestite to strontium carbonate in solutions containing carbonate, bicarbonate and ammonium ions and dissolved ammonia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Celestite concentrate (SrSO4 has been converted to SrCO3 in solutions containing CO32-, HCO3- and NH4+ ions and dissolved ammonia. The effects of stirring speed, CO32- ion concentration; temperature and particle size of SrSO4 on the reaction rate were investigated. It was found that the conversion of SrSO4 was increased by increasing the temperature and decreasing the particle size, while the reaction rate was decreased with increasing the CO32- ion concentration. However, there was no effect of the stirring speed on the reaction rate. The conversion reaction was under chemical reaction control and the Shrinking Core Model was suitable to explain the reaction kinetics. The activation energy for the conversion reaction was found to be 41.9 kJ mol-1. The amounts of the elements in the reaction solution were determined quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The characterization of the solid reactant and product was made using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry and X-ray powder diffraction analytical techniques.

Zoraga Mert

2014-01-01

155

Electrochemical behavior of lithium in lithium hydroxide solution with sodium nitrite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrochemical behavior of lithium in lithium hydroxide solution with sodium nitrite has been investigated in this paper. The results show that the hydrogen evolution rate decreases with increasing sodium nitrite concentration. Through potentiostatic polarization and scanning electron microscope (SEM), we found that the current efficiency keeps nearly unchanged with sodium nitrite introduction to the solutions. The porosity of the lithium surface film decreased due to the precipitation of LiOH promoted by sodium nitrite.

156

Visco-Elastic Properties of Sodium Hyaluronate Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium Hyaluronate (NaHA) is a member of the glycosaminoglycans and is present in the human organism as part of the synovial fluid and the vitreous body. HA is mainly commercialized as sodium or potassium salt. It can be extracted from cockscombs or can be produced by bacterial fermentation ensuring a low protein content. Because of its natural origin and toxicological harmlessness, NaHA is used to a great extent for pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. In medical applications, NaHA is already being used as a component of flushing and stabilizing fluids in the treatment of eye cataract and as a surrogate for natural synovial fluid. Another growing domain in the commercial utilization of NaHA is the field of skin care products like dermal fillers or moisturizers. In this spectrum, NaHA is used in dilute over semidilute up to concentrated (0solutions. In order to optimize NaHA samples for their specific utilization and to find new applications, it is of great interest to understand its viscoelastic behavior. We therefore present in this contribution the results of a comprehensive investigation of the viscous and elastic material functions of different NaHA samples. This includes, besides shear flow and oscillatory experiments, the performance of rheo-optical measurements in order to determine the elastic component in the range of low shear rates and low concentrations.

Kulicke, Werner-Michael; Meyer, Fabian; Bingöl, Ali Ö.; Lohmann, Derek

2008-07-01

157

Modified sodium diuranate process for the recovery of uranium from uranium hexafluoride transport cylinder wash solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Uranium hexafluoride (UF6) containment cylinders must be emptied and washed every five years in order to undergo recertification, according to ANSI standards. During the emptying of the UF6 from the cylinders, a thin residue, or heel, of UF6 is left behind. This heel must be removed in order for recertification to take place. To remove it, the inside of the containment cylinder is washed with acid and the resulting solution generally contains three or four kilograms of uranium. Thus, before the liquid solution can be disposed of, the uranium must be separated. A modified sodium diuranate (SDU) uranium recovery process was studied to support development of a commercial process. This process was sought to ensure complete uranium recovery, at high purity, in order that it might be reused in the nuclear fuel cycle. An experimental procedure was designed and carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of the commercial process in a laboratory setting. The experiments involved a small quantity of dried UO2F2 powder that was dosed with 3wt% FeF3 and was dissolved in water to simulate the cylinder wash solution. Each experiment series started with a measured amount of this powder mixture which was dissolved in enough water to make a solution containing about 120 gmU/liter. The experiments involved validating the modified SDU extraction process. A potassium diuranate (KDU) process was also attempted. Very little information exists regarding such a process, so the task was undertaken to evaluate its efficacy and determine whether a potassium process yields any significant differences or advantages as compared to a sodium process. However, the KDU process ultimately proved ineffective and was abandoned. Each of the experiments was organized into a series of procedures that started with the UO2F2 powder being dissolved in water, and proceeded through the steps needed to first convert the uranium to a diuranate precipitate, then to a carbonate complex solution, and finally to a uranyl peroxide (UO4) precipitate product. Evaluation of operating technique, uranium recovery efficiency, and final product purity were part of each experiment. Evaluation of a technique for removing fluoride from the diuranate precipitation byproduct filtrate using granular calcite was also included at the end of the uranium recovery testing. It was observed that precipitation of sodium diuranate (SDU) was very nearly complete at a pH of 11-12, using room temperature conditions. Uranium residuals in the filtrate ranged from 3.6 - 19.6 ppm, meaning almost complete precipitation as SDU. It was postulated and then verified that a tailing reaction occurs in the SDU precipitation, which necessitates a digestion period of about 2 hours to complete the precipitation. Further, it was shown, during this phase of the process, that a partial precipitation step at pH 5.5 did not adequately separate iron contamination due to an overlap of uranium and iron precipitations at that condition. Carbonate extraction of the SDU required an extended (3-4 hours) digestion at 40°C and pH 7-8 to complete, with sodium bicarbonate found to be the preferred extractant. The carbonate extraction was also proven to successfully separate the iron contamination from the uranium. Potassium-based chemistry did produce a potassium diuranate (KDU) analogue of SDU, but the subsequent carbonate extraction using either potassium bicarbonate or potassium carbonate proved to be too difficult and was incomplete. The potassium testing was terminated at this step. The uranyl peroxide precipitation was found to operate best at pH 3.5 - 4.0, at room temperature, and required an expected, extended digestion period of 8 -10 hours. The reaction was nearly complete at those conditions, with a filtrate residual ranging from 2.4 to 36.8 ppmU. The uranyl peroxide itself was very pure, with impurity averages at a very low 0.8 ppmNa and 0.004 ppmFe. ASTM maximum levels are 20 ppmNa and 150 ppmFe. Fluoride removal from the SDU precipitation filtrate required multiple passes of the solution through a calcite

Meredith, Austin Dean

158

Radiolysis of sodium p-cumenesulfonate in aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactions of hydrated electron eaq?, hydrogen atom (H) and CO2? (reducing species) as well as Cl2?, Br2?, N3?, OH, O?, SO4? radicals (oxidizing species) with sodium p-cumenesulfonate (SCS) in aqueous solution below minimum hydrotrope concentration have been studied by the method of steady-state and pulse radiolysis. The spectra of transient intermediates, leading to the final products, are presented. The rate constants for the reduction or oxidation reaction of the SCS are also given. The fate of the primary products of the SCS reaction produced during the pulse radiolysis under reductive or oxidative conditions is discussed. - Highlights: ? We determined the minimum hydrotrope concentration (MHC) for SCS. ? We analyzed the SCS reactions with oxidizing and reducing species. ? The rate constants for the oxidation and reduction of SCS were given

159

Synergistic effect of calcium and bicarbonate in enhancing arsenate release from ferrihydrite  

Science.gov (United States)

Many groundwater systems contain anomalously high arsenic concentrations, associated with less than expected retention of As by adsorption to iron (hydr)oxides. Although carbonates are ubiquitous in aquifers, their relationship to arsenate mobilization is not well characterized. This research examines arsenate release from poorly crystalline iron hydroxides in abiotic systems containing calcium and magnesium with bicarbonate under conditions of static and dynamic flow (pH 7.5-8). Aqueous arsenic levels remained low when arsenate-bearing ferrihydrite was equilibrated with artificial groundwater solution containing Ca, Mg, and HCO 3-. In batch titrations in which a solution of Ca and HCO 3- was added repeatedly, the ferrihydrite surface became saturated with adsorbed Ca and HCO 3-, and aqueous As levels increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude. In columns containing Ca or Mg and HCO 3-, As solubility initially mimicked titrations, but then rapidly increased by an additional order of magnitude (reaching 12 ?M As). Separately, calcium chloride and other simple salts did not induce As release, although sodium bicarbonate and lactate facilitated minor As release under flow. Results indicate that adsorption of calcium or magnesium with bicarbonate leads to As desorption from ferrihydrite, to a degree greater than expected from competitive effects alone, especially under dynamic flow. This desorption may be an important mechanism of As mobilization in As-impacted, circumneutral aquifers, especially those undergoing rapid mineralization of organic matter, which induces calcite dissolution and the production of dissolved calcium and bicarbonate.

Saalfield, Samantha L.; Bostick, Benjamin C.

2010-09-01

160

Sodium sulfate as an eluant for concentrated solution of pertechnetate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fission molybdenum-99 based technetium-99m chromatography generators are the most widely employed generator systems in the field of diagnostic nuclear medicine. In the first week these generators provide high specific volume activity Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}, but in the second week the radioactive concentration of the eluate ({sup 99m}Tc) becomes {<=}17% of that at the beginning of the first week. Low specific volume activity limits the clinical procedures (e.g. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA for lung ventilation scanning, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi for myocardial perfusion studies, {sup 99m}Tc-ECD for brain imaging and {sup 99m}Tc-red cells for testicles) that can be performed at the beginning of the second week. To overcome such limitations sodium sulfate was used as an eluant, which provides >80% of {sup 99m}Tc radioactivity in 2 ml solution, while 0.9% NaCl provides only 40-45% {sup 99m}Tc in first 2 ml solution.

Mushtaq, A. [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: mushtaqa@pinstech.org.pk; Haider, I. [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

2008-08-15

 
 
 
 
161

Sodium sulfate as an eluant for concentrated solution of pertechnetate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fission molybdenum-99 based technetium-99m chromatography generators are the most widely employed generator systems in the field of diagnostic nuclear medicine. In the first week these generators provide high specific volume activity Na99mTcO4, but in the second week the radioactive concentration of the eluate (99mTc) becomes ?17% of that at the beginning of the first week. Low specific volume activity limits the clinical procedures (e.g. 99mTc-DTPA for lung ventilation scanning, 99mTc-sestamibi for myocardial perfusion studies, 99mTc-ECD for brain imaging and 99mTc-red cells for testicles) that can be performed at the beginning of the second week. To overcome such limitations sodium sulfate was used as an eluant, which provides >80% of 99mTc radioactivity in 2 ml solution, while 0.9% NaCl provides only 40-45% 99mTc in first 2 ml solution

162

Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5) were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel i...

Amuda, Muhammed Olawale Hakeem; Soremekun, Olusegun Olusoji; Subair, Olakunle Wasiu; Oladoye, Atinuke

2008-01-01

163

The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium acetates, chlorates, and perchlorates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of sodium acetate, potassium acetate, sodium perchlorate, and potassium perchlorate were determined over the (278 to 318) K temperature range and compared with available in the literature data. The cases of saturated solutions of sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate are also considered. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the osmotic coefficients, and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in considered systems

164

The dissolution and crystallisation of amphoteric metal hydroxides from sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dissolution and recrystallisation of beryllium, zinc, cadmium and tin(II) hydroxides and chromium(III), iron(III), aluminium, scandium, yttrium, gallium and indium hydroxides, from sodium hydroxide solutions of concentrations C = 1 to 20 M at ambient temperatures, are surveyed. The different ionic equilibria in metal hydroxide-sodium hydroxide systems are examined: the phases crystallising from different sodium hydroxide solutions are tabulated and crystallisation mechanisms are analysed. (author)

165

Sodium bicarbonate secretion indicated by ultrastructural cytochemical localization of HCO3(-), Cl-, and Na+ ions on rat bile duct brush cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brush cells are widely distributed in the digestive and respiratory apparatus, but their function is still unknown. Because brush cells (BC) are found in organs secreting NaHCO3, it was hypothesized that these cells may secrete NaHCO3. To test this possibility, rat common bile duct epithelia were examined by ultrastructural cytochemical methods for localizing HCO3(-), Cl-, and Na+ ions. All three ion precipitates were few in or on BCs of rats without stimulation. Lead carbonate precipitates, which localized HCO3(-) ions by the lead nitrate-osmium method, increased markedly on the surface of the microvilli (MV) of BCs after secretin or meal stimulation, but similar precipitates were few on the luminal surface of principal cells (PCs). Silver chloride precipitates, which indicate the presence of Cl- ions by the silver-osmium method, increased in the apical cytoplasm and in MV of BCs after secretin or meal stimulation, but they were few in PCs. Sodium pyroantimonate precipitates, which localize Na+ ions by the potassium pyroantimonate-osmium method, increased on the surface of the MV, along the basolateral membrane, and in the apical cytoplasm of BCs after secretin or meal stimulation, but they were few in PCs. These results strongly suggest that BCs may be a significant source of NaHCO3 secretion. PMID:16378233

Ogata, Takuro

2005-12-01

166

Stability of Nafcillin Sodium Solutions in the Accufuser® Elastomeric Infusion Device  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to investigate the stabilities of two kinds of solutions of nafcillin sodium (2.5 mg/mL) in 0.9% sodium chloride solution (NS, normal saline) and in injectable 5% dextrose water (D5W) in the intravenous elastomeric infusion device (Accufuser®) based on recommended solutions and storage periods. The injectable nafcillin solutions (NS- and D5W-nafcillin) in the Accufuser® device we...

Min-A Kang; Ju-Seop Kang

2013-01-01

167

Componentry, constructive and process solutions of sodium vapour precipitation problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium vapour trap for periodic operation (SVT) is installed to present of sodium vapour emissions after response of safety valve on tanks with sodium and to provide protection from sodium vapour during planned argon blowing from tanks. It is recommended that SVT be placed directly above tanks with sodium. But the main problem of BN-600 and BN-800 componentry (grouping) is the lack of premises. So, the recommended placement is impossible. The principal scheme of SVT piping BN-800. Argon purification from sodium vapor is carried out by air refrigerating. Refrigerating degree is regulated by control valve on the air delivery pipe to SVT. There is montejus tank in the scheme of SVT piping for liquid sodium drainage that is condensed in SVT. Sodium drainage pipe is combined with argon delivery pipe (line E). There are two main problems with the present construction of SVT based on operation experience of BN-600: 1. The horizontal pipeline 'Ar+Na' before the SVT entrance is a dangerous section of this piping. Electric heating of this pipeline is always 'on'. Inspite of this, sodium vapour condenses before SVT. It means that the pipeline becomes progressively clogged up. 2. Two substances (argon with sodium vapour and liquid sodium) are moving towards each other in one pipeline (line E). This is the most probable place of clogging by sodium, especially branch-pipe in the connection point of line E with SVT. Sodium cruds turn into solid state in the process of argon deliverylid state in the process of argon delivery pipe clogging.In most cases solid scrubs melting temperature exceeds 400-500C depending on chemical composition of crud (for example caustic soda - 1200C). It means that it is almost impossible to heat the pipeline to restore its passability. The only measure in this case is the change of pipe section during BN stop. The first problem can be solved by: - Increasing the diameter (which was DN40 in the project of BN-600, and is DN80 in BN-800); - Increasing the temperature of electric heating; - Minimizing pipeline lengths; The second problem can only be solved by changing SVT design: The principal scheme of SVT piping that is optimal in the lack of premises. Argon delivery pipeline is separated from sodium drainage pipeline. Drainage clogging is less probable in such SVT design

168

Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women? / ¿Modifica el agua mineral bicarbonatada rica en sodio la sensibilidad a la insulina de las mujeres postmenopáusicas?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Estudiar los efectos de la ingesta de 0.5L de dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2), junto con una comida estándar, sobre los cambios en la insulina y la glucosa postprandial; y determinar si los posibles efectos varían en función de la resistencia a la insulina eva [...] luada a través del modelo homeostático (HOMA). Métodos: 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas sanas participaron en un estudio triple cruzado aleatorizado, en el que bebieron 2 aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2) y un agua mineral débil (LMW) junto con una comida estándar rica en grasa. Se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas y postprandiales a los 30, 60 y 120 min. Se determinó glucosa, insulina, colesterol y triglicéridos en suero. La resistencia a la insulina fue estimada a través del HOMA y la sensibilidad a la insulina se calculó mediante el índice de sensibilidad cuantitativa a la insulina (QUICKY). Resultados: Los niveles de glucosa no presentaron cambios. Los valores de HOMA y QUICKY presentaron una fuerte correlación inversa (r = -1,000; p Abstract in english Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2), with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Methods [...] : In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW) with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY). Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p

S., Schoppen; F. J., Sánchez-Muniz; A. M.ª, Pérez-Granados; J. A., Gómez-Gerique; B., Sarriá; S., Navas-Carretero; M.ª Pilar, Vaquero.

2007-10-01

169

Avaliação de procedimentos de extração dos óxidos de ferro pedogênicos com ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio / Evaluation of pedogenic iron oxide extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em 20 amostras hematíticas e goethíticas de horizontes B latossólicos, uma de B plíntico, uma de B incipiente e uma de saprolito, foram avaliados dois procedimentos de extração de óxidos de ferro pedogênicos (Fe d) por ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio (DCB). O procedimento a 80 ºC (DCB80) extr [...] aiu aproximadamente 90 % do Fe d na primeira extração e praticamente a totalidade do mesmo na segunda extração, sendo mais efetivo que o procedimento a temperatura ambiente (DCB20), o qual teve sua eficiência reduzida com o aumento da substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita. A substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita determinada por DCB80 superestimou os valores determinados por DRX conforme aumentaram as extrações. Em amostras hematíticas, esta estimativa foi prejudicada pela presença de maghemita que dissolveu juntamente com a hematita. Abstract in english Pedogenic iron oxides (Fe d) were quantified in 22 hematitic and goethitic soil samples (19 from oxic horizons; one from a plinthic horizon; one from a cambic horizon; one from saprolite) by use of two extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB). Approximately ninety perce [...] nt of the Fe d content was extracted at the first extraction by the DCB80 procedure. This procedure was more effective at extracting Fe d than the DCB20, whose efficiency decreased with increasing Al3+-substitution in goethite. Compared with the DRX analysis, Al3+-substitution in goethite determined by the DCB80 procedure was superestimated. Maghemite masked Al3+-substitution estimates in hematite from hematitic samples.

A. V., Inda Junior; N., Kämpf.

1139-11-01

170

Methods for the recovery of sulfur components from flue gas and recycle sodium sulfite by reduction-smelting and carbonating to strip hydrogen sulfide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved method for recovering sulfur from flue gas which contains sulfur dioxide formed from burning sulfur containing fuels is disclosed. The method first involves the reduction burning of auxilary fuel in the presence of sodium sulfite to convert it to smelt containing sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate. The smelt is dissolved, and the solution reacted with carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and water vapor forming sodium hydrosulfide. The sodium hydrosulfide is reacted with a high concentration of recycled sodium bicarbonate and stripped with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate and release the sulfides as hydrogen sulfide from the stripper. The hydrogen sulfide released is then converted to sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur. Pressurized carbon dioxide is used for pressure carbonation of recycled solution from the stripper to convert the sodium carbonate to the high concentration of recycled sodium bicarbonate used for stripping. The sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate from the stripper are reacted under pressure with sodium bisulfite in a decarbonator to form sodium sulfite and release carbon dioxide under pressure for use in the pressure carbonation. A portion of the sodium sulfite formed by decarbonation is then reduced in the smelter. The balance of the sodium sulfite is then used for absorption of the sulfur dioxide from the flue gas forming the sodium bisulfite used for decarbonation.

Farin, W.G.

1980-12-23

171

Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

You, D.; Lefefre, S.; Feron, D. [CEA-Saclay, Lab. d' Etude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vaillant, F. [EDF-Les Renardieres - DRD/EMA, Moret-sur-Loing (France)

2002-07-01

172

Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

173

Features of radiation gas discharge with liquid electrolyte cathode by using aqueous solutions of sodium chloride  

Science.gov (United States)

Experimentally investigated the spectral characteristics of the gas discharge between the liquid electrolyte cathode (aqueous solution of sodium chloride) and a metal anode at high currents (up to 20 A). Found splitting yellow doublet of sodium and the factors affecting the splitting.

Tazmeev, Kh K.; Arslanov, I. M.; Tazmeev, G. Kh

2013-12-01

174

Thermodynamics of sodium maleate and chloride adsorption at an aqueous solution-gas interface  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface tension of solutions of sodium chloride in water and sodium maleate in aqueous alkaline solutions in a wide concentration range at 298 and 303 K are measured. It is found that the dependences of surface tension of electrolyte solutions on concentration have extreme character. The obtained dependences are discussed from the standpoint of the effect of the nature of the solute and the processes of desolvation on the composition of surface layers and the surface activity of a solution. Total electrolyte adsorption isotherms are calculated using experimental surface tension and excess adsorption isotherms.

Fedorova, A. A.; Ulitin, M. V.

2012-09-01

175

Thermochemistry of Silicate Speciation in Aqueous Sodium Silicate Solutions: Ionization and Polymerization of Small Silicate Ion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermochemistry of simple silicate oligomers in aqueous sodium silicate solutions is rationalized by a model that qualitatively predicts equilibria among monomer, dimer, and trimer silicate structures. Unlike previous models, it incorporates the influ...

J. Yang, A. V. McCormick

1993-01-01

176

Interaction of ammonium perrhenate with sodium thiosulfate in sulfuric-acid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interaction of ammonium perrhenate with sodium thiosulfate in sulfuric-acid solution is studied in a wide range of component ratios. It is established that the medium mainly affects the rate of sodium thiosulfate decomposition to elemental sulphur and sulphur dioxide. Simultaneous increase of thiosulfate and rhenium concentrations in the initial solutions results in their less complete interaction. Composition of solid phases depends but slightly on the acid nature

177

Investigation of dissolution processes of rhenium sulfides in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetic characteristics (rate constant, activation energy) for the reaction of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide dissolution with provision for change of their surface value were determined and the possible mechanism of rhenium sulfide dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of oxygen was suggested. It was shown, that change of Gibbs energy of sulfide formation correlates with change of Gibbs energy of their dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions

178

Critical role of bicarbonate and bicarbonate transporters in cardiac function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bicarbonate is one of the major anions in mammalian tissues and extracellular fluids. Along with accompanying H(+), HCO3 (-) is generated from CO2 and H2O, either spontaneously or via the catalytic activity of carbonic anhydrase. It serves as a component of the major buffer system, thereby playing a critical role in pH homeostasis. Bicarbonate can also be utilized by a variety of ion transporters, often working in coupled systems, to transport other ions and organic substrates across cell membranes. The functions of HCO3 (-) and HCO3 (-)-transporters in epithelial tissues have been studied extensively, but their functions in heart are less well understood. Here we review studies of the identities and physiological functions of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchangers and Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporters of the SLC4A and SLC26A families in heart. We also present RNA Seq analysis of their cardiac mRNA expression levels. These studies indicate that slc4a3 (AE3) is the major Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger and plays a protective role in heart failure, and that Slc4a4 (NBCe1) is the major Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporter and affects action potential duration. In addition, previous studies show that HCO3 (-) has a positive inotropic effect in the perfused heart that is largely independent of effects on intracellular Ca(2+). The importance of HCO3 (-) in the regulation of contractility is supported by experiments showing that isolated cardiomyocytes exhibit sharply enhanced contractility, with no change in Ca(2+) transients, when switched from Hepes-buffered to HCO3 (-)- buffered solutions. These studies demonstrate that HCO3 (-) and HCO3 (-)-handling proteins play important roles in the regulation of cardiac function. PMID:25225601

Wang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Yamei; Vairamani, Kanimozhi; Shull, Gary E

2014-08-26

179

Sodium lactate for fluid resuscitation: the preferred solution for the coming decades?  

Science.gov (United States)

In a recent issue of Critical Care, 0.5 M sodium lactate infusion for 24 hours was reported to increase cardiac output in patients with acute heart failure. This effect was associated with a concomitant metabolic alkalosis and a negative water balance. Growing data strongly support the role of lactate as a preferential oxidizable substrate to supply energy metabolism leading to improved organ function (heart and brain especially) in ischemic conditions. Due to its sodium/chloride imbalance, this solution prevents hyperchloremic acidosis and limits fluid overload despite the obligatory high sodium load. Sodium lactate solution therefore shows many advantages and appears a very promising means for resuscitation of critically ill patients. Further studies are needed to establish the most appropriate dose and indications for sodium lactate infusion in order to prevent the occurrence of severe hypernatremia and metabolic alkalosis. PMID:25043707

Ichai, Carole; Orban, Jean-Christophe; Fontaine, Eric

2014-01-01

180

Studies on the mechanism of action of dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate in the human jejunum.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An intestinal perfusion technique has been used to investigate the mechanism of action of the laxative, dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate, in the human jejunum. Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate stimulated net secretion of water, sodium, chloride and potassium and inhibited net absorption of glucose and bicarbonate. These changes in water and solute transport were partially reversed by administration of indomethacin (4 mg/kg/day orally for three days), which suggests that they are mediated in part ...

Moriarty, K. J.; Kelly, M. J.; Beetham, R.; Clark, M. L.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

21 CFR 173.325 - Acidified sodium chlorite solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...antimicrobial agent in poultry processing water in accordance with current industry practice under the following...solution for application to poultry carcass parts; ...solution when applied to poultry meat, organs, or related...accordance with current industry practice in...

2010-04-01

182

Corrosion Cyclic Voltammetry of Two Types of Heat-Affected Zones (HAZs) of API-X100 Steel in Bicarbonate Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examined the electrochemical corrosion behavior and corrosion products of two types of heat-affected HAZs made from API-X100 steel. Cyclic voltammetry, with different scan rates and potential ranges at 10 cycles, was applied to analyze the interdependent corrosion reactions of cathodic reduction, anodic dissolution, passivation, and transpassivation. The HAZ cooled at 60 K/s, from a peak temperature of 1470 K (1197 °C) that was held for 15 seconds, exhibited better passivation and lower cathodic activity than the HAZ cooled at 10 K/s. Increasing bicarbonate concentration, from 0.05 and 0.2 to 0.6 M, increases the anodic activity and cathodic reduction, but accordingly protects the active surfaces and enhances passivation.

Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram

2014-08-01

183

Radiation-induced evolution of gas in neutral and alkaline aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate and sodium acetate simulating liquid radioactive wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gas release in neutral and alkaline aqueous solutions of sodium nitrate and sodium acetate, simulating liquid radioactive wastes, is studied. Yields of hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and nitrogen-containing gases are determined in dependence on the solution composition. Possible sources of these gases formation are discussed

184

Radiation protection by ascorbic acid in sodium alginate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alginates are gelling hydrocolloids extracted from brown seaweed used widely in the nourishing and pharmaceutical industries. As alginic acid gellification retard food entrance in the stomach alginate is an additive used in diets. The objective of this work was to study the protective action of the ascorbic acid in alginate solutions against the action of 60 Co gamma radiation. One % (w/v) solutions of alginate had been used and concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 0 to 2.5% (w/v). The solutions were irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy. Viscosity/dose relationship and the p H of the solutions at 25 Centigrade were determined. Ascorbic acid behaved as an antioxidant against radiation oxidative shock in this model system of an irradiated viscous solution. Besides its radiation protective role on alginate solutions ascorbic acid promoted a viscosity increase in the range of concentrations employed. (Author)

185

Radiation protection by ascorbic acid in sodium alginate solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alginates are gelling hydrocolloids extracted from brown seaweed used widely in the nourishing and pharmaceutical industries. As alginic acid gellification retard food entrance in the stomach alginate is an additive used in diets. The objective of this work was to study the protective action of the ascorbic acid in alginate solutions against the action of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation. One % (w/v) solutions of alginate had been used and concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 0 to 2.5% (w/v). The solutions were irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy. Viscosity/dose relationship and the p H of the solutions at 25 Centigrade were determined. Ascorbic acid behaved as an antioxidant against radiation oxidative shock in this model system of an irradiated viscous solution. Besides its radiation protective role on alginate solutions ascorbic acid promoted a viscosity increase in the range of concentrations employed. (Author)

Aliste, A.J.; Mastro, N.L. Del [Center of Radiation Technology, IPEN/CNEN/SP, University City, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajaliste@ipen.br

2004-07-01

186

Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO3) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO3 solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO3 solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO3 solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO3 solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO3, which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary pressure and tortuosity. The higher the temperature, the more significant the salinity driven fluid flow

187

Spectroscopic and redox properties of curium and californium ions in concentrated aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multimilligram quantities of trivalent curium-248 and californium-249 were investigated by absorption spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and bulk solution electrolysis in concentrated aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate solution. Actinide concentrations between 10-4 and 10-2M were studied in 2 M sodium carbonate and 5.5 M potassium carbonate solutions at pH values from 8 to 14. The solution absorption spectra of Cm(III) and Cf(III) in carbonate media are presented for the first time and compared to literature spectra of these species in noncomplexing aqueous solution. It was anticipated that carbonate complexation of the actinide ions could provide a sufficient negative shift in the formal potentials of the M(IV)/M(III) couples of Cm and Cf to permit the generation and stabilization of their tetravalent states in aqueous carbonate-bicarbonate medium. No conclusive evidence was found in the present work to indicate the existence of any higher oxidation states of curium or californium in carbonate solution. Some possible reasons for our inability to generate and detect oxidized species of curium and californium in this medium are discussed

188

Influence of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose-sodium laurylsulfate interaction on rheological properties of the solution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Interactions between the polymers and surfactants in solution have widely been investigated because of their scientific and technological importance. These interactions can be utilized to modify the physicochemical properties of system in many food products, pharmaceutical formulations, personal care products, paints, pesticides, etc. Interaction between nonionic polymer - hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and anionic surfactant - sodium laurylsulfate (SDS) in solution has been investigate...

Šaleti? Jelena V.; Sovilj Verica J.; Petrovi? Lidija B.

2004-01-01

189

Dependence of cesium sorption from sodium chloride solution on nature of compensative zeolite cation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigated is cesium sorption with the method of radioactive indicators under dynamic conditions out of solutions of sodium chloride on crionite, clinoptilolite and zeolite NaX. It is shown that the biggest amount of cesium is sorbed on zeolites where the exchange cation is placed different from the competitive cation in the solution. On erionite and clinoptilolite, in this case

190

21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Ammonium bicarbonate (NH4 HCO3 , CAS Reg...reacting gaseous carbon dioxide with aqueous ammonia. Crystals of ammonium bicarbonate are precipitated from...

2010-04-01

191

¹H NMR diffusion studies of water self-diffusion in supercooled aqueous sodium chloride solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The physical properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions have been studied theoretically, but so far no experimental diffusion data have been obtained under supercooled conditions. Here the results of (1)H NMR translational diffusion measurements of water in sodium chloride solutions in the temperature range 230 to 300 K and sodium chloride concentrations up to 4.2 mol/kg are presented. It was found that the diffusion data were well-described by the Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher relationship with concentration-dependent parameters D0, B, and T0. The results indicate that under supercooled conditions the influence of sodium chloride on water diffusion is much smaller than predicted by molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:24725279

Garbacz, Piotr; Price, William S

2014-05-01

192

Relevance of rheological properties of sodium alginate in solution to calcium alginate gel properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium alginate solutions' rheological parameters are meaningful relative to sodium alginate's use in the formulation of calcium alginate gels. Calcium alginate gels were prepared from six different grades of sodium alginate (FMC Biopolymer), one of which was available in ten batches. Cylindrical gel samples were prepared from each of the gels and subjected to compression to fracture on an Instron Universal Testing Machine, equipped with a 1-kN load cell, at a cross-head speed of 120 mm/min. Among the grades with similar % G, (grades 1, 3, and 4), there is a significant correlation between deformation work (L(E)) and apparent viscosity (?(app)). However, the results for the partial correlation analysis for all six grades of sodium alginate show that L(E) is significantly correlated with % G, but not with the rheological properties of the sodium alginate solutions. Studies of the ten batches of one grade of sodium alginate show that ?(app) of their solutions did not correlate with L(E) while tan ? was significantly, but minimally, correlated to L(E). These results suggest that other factors--polydispersity and the randomness of guluronic acid sequencing--are likely to influence the mechanical properties of the resultant gels. In summary, the rheological properties of solutions for different grades of sodium alginate are not indicative of the resultant gel properties. Inter-batch differences in the rheological behavior for one specific grade of sodium alginate were insufficient to predict the corresponding calcium alginate gel's mechanical properties. PMID:21437788

Fu, Shao; Thacker, Ankur; Sperger, Diana M; Boni, Riccardo L; Buckner, Ira S; Velankar, Sachin; Munson, Eric J; Block, Lawrence H

2011-06-01

193

A kinetic model of amino-acid polymer growth in sodium and potassium aqueous solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

A kinetic model was proposed and computing calculations of formation of short polymer chains (oligomers) from monomers (amino acids) in aqueous solutions with sodium and potassium ions for which energies of monomer addition to the chain were carried out. It is shown that formation of longer chains of monomers in potassium medium, in comparison with sodium medium, is caused by a smaller value of the energy of addition.

Lubov, M. N.; Eliseev, I. E.; Trushin, Yu. V.; Dubina, M. V.; Natochin, Yu. V.

2013-11-01

194

Hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio na prevenção de nefropatia induzida por contraste em pacientes diabéticos: subanálise de ensaio clínico multicêntrico / Sodium-bicarbonate to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in diabetic patients: a sub-analysis of a multicenter clinical trial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Nefropatia induzida por contraste (NIC) está associada a piores desfechos intra-hospitalar e a longo prazo. Estudos recentes sugerem que hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio possa ser útil na sua prevenção; no entanto, essa medida de prevenção de NIC não foi, ainda, avaliada em pacientes [...] diabéticos. MÉTODO: Subanálise de um estudo multicêntrico envolvendo 301 pacientes com creatinina sérica > 1,2 mg/dl ou depuração de creatinina endógena (DCE) Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with worse clinical outcomes both at short and long-term follow-up. Recent evidence indicates that intravenous hydration with sodium-bicarbonate may reduce the incidence of CIN. However, this strategy has not been reported in diabetic pati [...] ents. METHODS: Sub-analysis of a multicenter study involving 301 patients with serum creatinine > 1,2 mg/dL or creatinine clearance 0,5 mg/dL), and the average change in creatinine and creatinine clearance 48 hours after the procedure. A total of 87 diabetic patients were analyzed. RESULTS: There was no difference between groups regarding baseline characteristics, contrast volume used, baseline creatinine levels and creatinine clearance. Eight patients presented CIN: 4 (9.8%) in the bicarbonate group and 4 (8.9%) in the saline group (p = 0.9). The average change in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: Intravenous hydration with sodium-bicarbonate did not reduce the incidence of CIN in diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention as compared to hydration with normal saline.

Vitor Osório, Gomes; Camila, Tabajara; Patrícia, Hickmann; Juan Carlos, Perez-Alva; Fábio, Brito Jr.; Breno, Almeida; Valter, Lima; Bruno, Machado; Airton, Arruda; José Eduardo T. de, Paula; Ricardo, Lasevitch; Paulo, Caramori.

195

Chloride and bicarbonate transport in rat resistance arteries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. The role of chloride and bicarbonate in the control of intracellular pH (pHi) was assessed in segments of rat mesenteric resistance arteries (internal diameter about 200 microns) by measurements of chloride efflux with 36Cl-, of pHi with the pH-sensitive dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5 (and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) and of membrane potential with intracellular electrodes. 2. The main questions addressed were whether the previously demonstrated sodium-coupled uptake of bicarbonate in these arteries was also coupled to chloride efflux, and whether sodium-independent Cl(-)-HCO3- exchange was present and played a role in regulation of pHi. 3. The 36Cl- efflux was unaffected by acidification induced by an NH4Cl pre-pulse in the presence as well as in the absence of bicarbonate. This was also true in sodium-free media and in vessels depolarized by high potassium. 4. The membrane potential was unaffected by the acidification associated with wash-out of NH4Cl, and the net acid extrusion during recovery of pHifrom the acidification was not affected significantly by depolarization. 5. In the absence of bicarbonate, omission of extracellular chloride caused no change in pHi, but reduced 36Cl- efflux. By contrast, in the presence of bicarbonate, omission of chloride caused an increase in pHi but no change in 36Cl- efflux. Furthermore, the anion transport inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) inhibited the increase in pHi seen in the presence of bicarbonate and reduced the 36Cl- efflux in the presence of bicarbonate. 6. The presence of bicarbonate had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of pHi or the rate of increase of intracellular acid equivalents after an NH4Cl induced alkalinization; also the buffering power was not significantly different in the absence and presence of bicarbonate. Moreover these parameters were not significantly affected by DIDS, although DIDS as previously demonstrated reduced the rate of recovery of pHi from acidification. 7. The membrane potential was not significantly affected by the alkalinization associated with addition of NH4Cl and the rate of recovery of pHi from the alkalinization was not affected by depolarization. 8. The effects of NH4Cl and PCO2 on 36Cl- efflux were complex and could not easily be explained by the changes in pHi.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Aalkjær, Christian; Hughes, A

1991-01-01

196

Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women? ¿Modifica el agua mineral bicarbonatada rica en sodio la sensibilidad a la insulina de las mujeres postmenopáusicas?  

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Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2, with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Methods: In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY. Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p Objetivo: Estudiar los efectos de la ingesta de 0.5L de dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2, junto con una comida estándar, sobre los cambios en la insulina y la glucosa postprandial; y determinar si los posibles efectos varían en función de la resistencia a la insulina evaluada a través del modelo homeostático (HOMA. Métodos: 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas sanas participaron en un estudio triple cruzado aleatorizado, en el que bebieron 2 aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2 y un agua mineral débil (LMW junto con una comida estándar rica en grasa. Se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas y postprandiales a los 30, 60 y 120 min. Se determinó glucosa, insulina, colesterol y triglicéridos en suero. La resistencia a la insulina fue estimada a través del HOMA y la sensibilidad a la insulina se calculó mediante el índice de sensibilidad cuantitativa a la insulina (QUICKY. Resultados: Los niveles de glucosa no presentaron cambios. Los valores de HOMA y QUICKY presentaron una fuerte correlación inversa (r = -1,000; p < 0,0001. Las concentraciones de insulina mostraron un efecto significativo en el tiempo (p < 0,0001 y una interacción agua x tiempo significativa (p < 0,021. A los 120 min los niveles de insulina fueron significativamente inferiores con BMW1 respecto a LMW (p = 0,022. Las concentraciones postprandiales de insulina mostraron patrones significativamente distintos según el tipo de agua que se bebía dependiendo de los n-tiles del HOMA (p = 0,016. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren un aumento de la sensibilidad a la insulina tras el consumo de las dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio. Este efecto es más marcado en las mujeres que tienen unos valores de HOMA más altos. Este tipo de aguas deberían ser consideradas como parte de una dieta saludable con objeto de prevenir la resistencia a la insulina y las enfermedades cardiovasculares.

S. Schoppen

2007-10-01

197

Use of hypertonic solutions of sodium chloride in hypergranulating wounds  

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Objective: to verify the efficiency of hypertonic solution (NaCl/20%) on the hypergranulation due to the constant hypergranulating wound beds treated in venous ulcers in the daily clinic practice, which delays and disables cells epithelization. Methodology: clinical case study, performed in an outpatient’s clinic of Médio Vale do Paraíba, from February to March 2008. MCT, 60 years old, female, white skin, systematic arterial hypertension controlled, with wounds on the middle part and regi...

Bruno Assis Quelemente, Ana Beatriz Pinto Da Silva Morita

2009-01-01

198

Carbon dioxide capture capacity of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper investigates the various features of NaOH aqueous solution when applied as an absorbent to capture carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emitted with relatively high concentration in the flue gas. The overall CO(2) absorption reaction was carried out according to consecutive reaction steps that are generated in the order of Na(2)CO(3) and NaHCO(3). The reaction rate and capture efficiency were strongly dependent on the NaOH concentration in the Na(2)CO(3) production range, but were constant in the NaHCO(3) production step, irrespective of the NaOH concentration. The amount of CO(2) absorbed in the solution was slightly less than the theoretical value, which was ascribed to the low trona production during the reaction and the consequent decrease in CO(2) absorption in the NaOH solution. The mass ratio of absorbed CO(2) that participated in the Na(2)CO(3), NaHCO(3), and trona production reactions was calculated to be 20:17:1, respectively. PMID:23183145

Yoo, Miran; Han, Sang-Jun; Wee, Jung-Ho

2013-01-15

199

Antiadhesive effect of mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose after blow-out fracture repair.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment of blow-out fractures is aimed at the prevention of permanent diplopia and cosmetically unacceptable enophthalmos. Porous polyethylene sheets are one of the most common alloplastic implants for blow-out fracture repair. Because adhesion between the porous polyethylene and the orbital soft tissue can result in restrictions of ocular motility, prevention of postoperative adhesion is important in the reconstruction of blow-out fractures. The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of the mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (HACMC) on postoperative adhesion in blow-out fracture repair in an animal model.Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were used. An 8-mm defect was made in the maxillary sinuses including the bone and mucosa. A 10-mm porous polyethylene sheet (Medpor; Porex Surgical Inc., Newnan, GA) was inserted in to the defect. The rabbits were divided into a control group and a HACMC group. In the HACMC group, HACMC solution was instilled onto the surface of the implant and then the implant was inserted. The implants were harvested at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery (3 implants each period). Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, and CD31 (platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1) stains were performed for evaluation of inflammation, fibrosis, and vascularization.Inflammation appeared less severe in the HACMC group, but the difference between the 2 groups was not statistically significant. The degree of fibrosis was more severe in the control group. There were significant differences in the degree of fibrosis between the 2 groups 4 and 8 weeks after surgery (P = 0.046). The amount of vascularization was similar in both groups.The HACMC solution seemed to be effective for reducing postoperative adhesion in reconstruction of blow-out fractures in a rabbit model. Our results suggest that the application of HACMC solution could be an effective adjunct for the repair of trap-door fractures or revision of blow-out fractures. PMID:23172432

Lee, Jong Mi; Baek, Sehyun

2012-11-01

200

Helium diffusion in aqueous sodium chloride solution at high pressures  

Science.gov (United States)

A molecular dynamic investigation of self-diffusion coefficients of helium and water in aqueous NaCl solution is performed. To understand the nonlinear behavior of the self-diffusion coefficients, a number of structural characteristics (radial distribution functions, hydrogen bond network topology) are calculated. The electrolyte concentration range is discussed in which a local increase in helium self-diffusion coefficient is observed. It is shown that this behavior is caused by a breakdown of the network of hydrogen bonds due to competition between ion positions in the states of solvent-separated and contact pairs.

Ivlev, D. V.; Kiselev, M. G.

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Removal of thorium from aqueous solutions by sodium clinoptilolite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adsorptive behavior of natural clinoptilolite was assessed for removal of thorium from aqueous solutions. Natural zeolite was characterized by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The zeolite sample composed mainly of clinoptilolite. Na-exchanged form of zeolite was prepared and its sorption capacity for removal of thorium from aqueous solutions was examined. The effects of relevant parameters, including initial concentration, contact time, solid to liquid ratio, temperature and initial pH on the removal efficiency were investigated in batch studies. The pH strongly influenced thorium adsorption capacity and maximal capacity was obtained at pH 4.0. Kinetics and isotherm of adsorption were also studied. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetic data. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided excellent kinetic data fitting (R2 > 0.999) with rate constant of 1.25, 1.37 and 1.44 g mmol-1 min-1 respectively for 25, 40 and 55 deg C. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms for thorium uptake and the Langmuir model agrees very well with experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters were determined and are discussed. (author)

202

The radiolysis at room temperature and 118degC of aqueous solutions containing sodium nitrate and either sodium formate or 2-propanol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deoxygenated sodium nitrate solutions (-2M) containing sodium formate (-2M, G(NO2-) increased approximately 25% over the temperature range. Calculations suggest part of this increase in G(NO2-) may arise from an increase in the overall solvated electron yield. With 0.5M sodium formate solutions containing 2.5 X 10-2M sodium nitrate, G(NO2-) rose from 3.6 at room temperature to approximately 14 at 118degC, suggesting the occurrence of a chain reaction at higher formate concentrations. G(H2O2) and G(H2) were not functions of temperature for all the above solutions. The pH dependence of G(NO2-) was determined at room temperature for sodium nitrate solutions containing either sodium formate or 2-propanol. The G(NO2-) as a function of pH could only be modelled satisfactorily with rate constants from the literature in the sodium formate case. It is concluded that the solvated electron yield in irradiated acqueous solutions at elevated temperatures cannot be confidently deduced from measurements made with nitrate as an electron scavenger in the presence of formate ions or alcohols

203

CHLORIDEDETERMINATION IN HIGH IONIC STRENGTH SOLUTION OF AMMONIUM ACETATE USING NEGATIVE ION ELECTRON SPRAY IONIZATION (HPLC/MS)  

Science.gov (United States)

A precise ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of chloride in high ionic strength ammonium acetate solutions (10-5 M-5 M) using sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate as eluent. Negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was used for q...

204

Effect of peroxodisulfate on uranium leaching with ammonium bicarbonate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, uranium leaching from ore material using acid solution and bicarbonate in a presence peroxodisulfate ion was examined. For experiments two different tips of leaching methods were used: leaching in static and dynamic conditions. The determination of uranium concentrations in product solutions were analyzed by titrimetric (by ammonia vanadate solution method. The maximum yield of uranium leached with ammonium bicarbonate in a presence of ammonium peroxodisulfate (5 g/L was only 33%, which is half the corresponding value obtained by sulfuric acid (65%.

Nurbek Nurpeisov

2013-05-01

205

Examination of conditions for cadmium sulfide precipitation by sodium thiosulfate from aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conditions for the preparation of metal sulfides by their precipitation from aqueous solutions containing sodium thiosulfate and a water-soluble metal salt have been examined using cadmium sulfide as an example. The constants of thiosulfate hydrolytic decomposition were estimated and the values were considered for their compliance with the experimental data found at 25 deg C for cadmium sulfide preparation

206

RESEARCH OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRIC PULSE DISCHARGE IN CHLORIDE SODIUM SOLUTIONS ???????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electro physical and energetic properties of electric pulse discharge in various concentration solutions of chloride sodium as the results of the researches are provided in this article. The possibility of applying the Yutkin effect in technological processes of food industry has been reviewed

Nagdalyan A. A.

2013-02-01

207

Stability of Nafcillin Sodium Solutions in the Accufuser® Elastomeric Infusion Device  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the stabilities of two kinds of solutions of nafcillin sodium (2.5 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride solution (NS, normal saline and in injectable 5% dextrose water (D5W in the intravenous elastomeric infusion device (Accufuser® based on recommended solutions and storage periods. The injectable nafcillin solutions (NS- and D5W-nafcillin in the Accufuser® device were stored and evaluated at controlled temperatures (room temperature, RT, 5? ± 2? and cold temperature, CT, 4? ± 2? during 6 weeks. Effects of the periods of storage (from 0 to 6 weeks and the temperatures of storage (RT and CT on the physicochemical appearances and concentrations of active compounds were determined. The visual clarity, pH, and concentrations of nafcillin sodium were determined by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ultraviolet (UV detection. The results showed that in NS and D5W solutions, the amount of nafcillin slightly changed and remained 92.66% and 97.30% of their initial amounts at CT during 6 weeks, respectively. On the other hand, in NS and D5W solutions at RT, the amount significantly decreased with time and reached 27.66% and 31.97% of their initial amounts during 4 weeks, respectively. Slight decrement of pH was observed in CT storage while significant change was observed in the RT storage. Moreover, in CT, no significant changes in physical appearances and colors of the solutions were observed during the study. However, the solutions changed into yellowish color and some particles were detected in both kinds of nafcillin solutions (NS and D5W after 1.5 weeks in RT conditions. To sum up, under CT two kinds of nafcillin sodium solutions (NS and D5W were stable with time in Accufuser® without any significant physical changes and retained almost all of the initial concentrations up to 6 weeks. However, the solutions were not stable in RT storage. We suggest that nafcillin sodium solutions in an Accufuser® should be preferentially diluted in NS and D5W while storing in CT condition.

Min-A Kang

2013-01-01

208

Stability Test of Ampicillin Sodium Solutions in the Accufuser® Elastomeric Infusion Device Using HPLC: UV Method  

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Full Text Available The stabilities of two kinds of solutions (30 mg/mL of Ampicillin sodium in 0.9% NaCl in water (NS, normal saline and in sterile water (SW in the intravenous elastomeric infusion device (Accufuser® were evaluated based on recommended solutions and storage periods. The injectable NS- and SW-Ampicillin solutions in the Accufuser® device were stored and evaluated at controlled temperature (room temperature, 25? ± 2? and cold temperature, 4? ± 2? during 7 days. Effects of the periods of storage (from 0 to 7 days and the temperatures of storage (RT and CT on the physico-chemical appearances and concentrations of active compounds were determined. The visual clarity, pH, and concentrations of Ampicillin were determined by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ultraviolet (UV detection. The results showed that the amount of Ampicillin in studied solutions gradually decreased with time. The Ampicillin in NS, which was stored in CT, was relatively stable, retaining 94% of its original amount up to 7 days. The solution that showed least stability was Ampicillin in SW, which was stored in RT, retaining 80% of its original amount. Generally, solutions that were stored in CT were more stable than the solutions that were stored in RT. No significant changes in physical appearance or color of the solutions were observed during the study. Particles were not detected in any solution samples. In summary, two kinds of solutions of Ampicillin sodium, in NS and SW, showed different chemical stabilities with time in intravenous infusion device without any significant physical changes and retained about 94% vs 89% and 83% vs 80% of initial concentrations after 7 days in CT and RT, respectively. We suggest that 30 mg/mL of Ampicillin sodium in NS solution in an Accufuser® infusion device which is stored in CT can be applicable for 7 days in clinical situations.

Min A Kang

2012-10-01

209

A novel method of non-violent dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new technique of non-violent and fast dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt (MgSO4.7H2O) at room temperature (RT) has been developed. The dissolution process is mildly exothermic but could be carried out even in a glass beaker in air under swift stirring condition. The reaction products consist of mixed salts of MgSO4 and Na2SO4 as well as Mg(OH)2 which are only mildly alkaline and hence are non-corrosive and non-hazardous unlike NaOH. A 50 mL solution having Epsom salt concentration of 2 M was found to give the optimal composition for disposal of 1 g of sodium. Supersaturated (>2.7 M), as well as dilute (<1.1 M) solutions, however, cause violent reactions and hence should be avoided. Repeated sodium dissolution in Epsom solution produced a solid waste of 4.7 g per g of sodium dissolved which is comparable with the waste (4 g) produced in 8 M NaOH solution. A 1.4 M Epsom solution sprayed with a high-pressure jet cleaner at RT in air easily removed the sodium blocked inside a metal pipe made of mild steel. The above jet also dissolved peacefully residual sodium collected on the metal tray after a sodium fire experiment. No sodium fire or explosion was observed during this campaign. The Epsom solution spray effectively neutralized the minor quantity of sodium aerosol produced during this campaign. This novel technique would hence be quite useful for draining sodium hence be quite useful for draining sodium from fast breeder reactor components and bulk processing of sodium as well as for sodium fire fighting

210

Concentration of rhenium from dilute sodium chloride solutions  

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Full Text Available The conditions for the desorption of rhenium from the anion exchange resin Dowex 1-x8 by HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH were determined. The solution (5.0´10-3 mol dm-3 Re in 0.15 mol dm-3 NaCl was passed through a column containing 0.10 g of the resin. The total sorbed amount of rhenium was 0.20 g/g of the resin. It was then eluted by the corresponding eluent in the concentration range up to about 3.0 mol dm-3. The highest elution efficiency and the most favourable elution profile were found with 3.0 mol dm-3 HNO3. Over 77 % of the sorbed rhenium was found in the first 5 ml of the eluate. Practically all the rhenium was recovered with 20 ml of the acid. Under the given experimental conditions, HCl and H2SO4 were less favourable while NaOH was not applicable, due to very low efficiency of rhenium elution.

DRAGOLJUB M. LUKIC

2008-03-01

211

Volumetric and conductometric studies on the interactions of dipeptides with sodium acetate and sodium butyrate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Densities and conductivity data for the sodium carboxylate (sodium acetate and sodium butyrate)-dipeptides {l_brace}(glycyl-L-glutamine and L-alanyl-L-glutamine) + water{r_brace} systems were determined at T = 298.15 K. The apparent molar volumes of the peptides and the molar conductivity ({lambda}) of sodium acetate and sodium butyrate have been calculated. These data have been utilized to deduce the standard partial molar volumes (V{sub 2,{phi}}{sup 0}), standard partial molar volumes of transfer for dipeptide from water to aqueous sodium carboxylate solutions ({delta}{sub t}V{sup o}), volumetric interaction coefficient, the limiting molar conductivity ({lambda}{sup o}), and Walden product ({lambda}{sup o}o{eta}). Both V{sub 2,{phi}}{sup 0} and {delta}{sub t}V{sup o} for the dipeptides increase with increasing concentration of sodium carboxylate. The interpretation is that this result arises from the dominant interactions of the sodium carboxylate with the charged group and polar groups of peptides. The decrease in {lambda}{sup o} of sodium carboxylate with increasing dipeptide concentration and nonconstant Walden product are attributed to the interactions of sodium carboxylate with peptide and friction resistance of the solvent medium.

Yan Zhenning [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052 (China)], E-mail: yanzzn@zzu.edu.cn; Wang Xiaoge; Xing Ronghua [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052 (China); Wang Jianji [Department of Chemistry, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

2009-12-15

212

Volumetric and conductometric studies on the interactions of dipeptides with sodium acetate and sodium butyrate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Densities and conductivity data for the sodium carboxylate (sodium acetate and sodium butyrate)-dipeptides {(glycyl-L-glutamine and L-alanyl-L-glutamine) + water} systems were determined at T = 298.15 K. The apparent molar volumes of the peptides and the molar conductivity (?) of sodium acetate and sodium butyrate have been calculated. These data have been utilized to deduce the standard partial molar volumes (V2,?0), standard partial molar volumes of transfer for dipeptide from water to aqueous sodium carboxylate solutions (?tVo), volumetric interaction coefficient, the limiting molar conductivity (?o), and Walden product (?o?). Both V2,?0 and ?tVo for the dipeptides increase with increasing concentration of sodium carboxylate. The interpretation is that this result arises from the dominant interactions of the sodium carboxylate with the charged group and polar groups of peptides. The decrease in ?o of sodium carboxylate with increasing dipeptide concentration and nonconstant Walden product are attributed to the interactions of sodium carboxylate with peptide and friction resistance of the solvent medium.

213

Production of I-125 radioisotope in sodium iodide solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application: The Radioisotope Iodine-125 has rather long half-life, and high dose range of Gamma radiation. It will be used in two cases,in our radioisotope production department: 1-To label Radioimmunoassay Kits (RIA): T3, T4 and TSH for INVITRO investigation of Thyroid glands, in our Nuclear Medical Center in IRAN. We just started to set up Hot cell facilities and in cell equipment to supply Iodine-125 for our Radioimmunoassay Group.In this section. The above Iodine-125 will be used for labelling of their Radioimmunoassay products for Thyroid functions and also for screening of newborns for Thyroid deficiency. 2-We have also just start, the make and supply particular granules of Iodine-125 by Silver coated Iodine-125 directly and also indirectly, on the Palladium, coated Silver Wire to be used in Brachytherapy applications. Production: After filling Target with 15 g of natural Xe gas by excellent technology and closed in leak-tight allowing reactor irradiation. The target is irradiated in a nuclear reactor for 3 weeks optimally at a thermal neutron flux around ?= 1*1014 n.cm-2.s-1.After transferring irradiated target to hot cell, The aluminium capsule is opened by putting it into the punching apparatus and pushing the needle into the bottom of the aluminium capsule by turning the handle counter-clockwise. When the needle punches the aluminium. The Xe gas is released into the chimney and the I-125 radioisotope is adsorbed on the inside wall of the aluminium capsule. After this the opened aluminium capsule is pulled off from the needle by turning the handle clockwise. The opened capsule is ready to distillation. Preparation of the distillation oven and equipment: on the first occasion the oven should be heated two-times up to 550 oC for two hours each to eliminate potential contamination. After it the radioactive aluminium capsule is put into the oven and vacuum is started. This is followed by switching on the heating. The distillation is followed through 120 minutes at a temperature of 550 oC. Solutions of the required radioactive concentration are dispensed to portions into ampoules. If sterile product is required ampoules should be autoclaved for 30 minutes at a temperature of 120 oC. (author)

214

Extended Stability of Intravenous 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solution After Prolonged Heating or Cooling  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the stability and sterility of an intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride solution that had been cooled or heated for an extended period of time. Methods: Fifteen sterile 1 L bags of 0.9% sodium chloride solution were randomly selected for this experiment. Five bags were refrigerated at an average temperature of 5.2°C, 5 bags were heated at an average temperature of 39.2°C, and 5 bags were stored at an average room temperature of 21.8°C to serve as controls. All samples were protected from light and stored for a period of 199 days prior to being assayed and analyzed for microbial and fungal growth. Results: There was no clinically significant difference in the mean sodium values between the refrigerated samples, the heated samples, and the control group. There were no signs of microbial or fungal growth for the duration of the study. Conclusion: A sterile intravenous solution of 0.9% sodium chloride that was heated or cooled remained stable and showed no signs of microbial or fungal growth for a period of 199 days. This finding will allow hospitals and emergency medical technicians to significantly extend the expiration date assigned to these fluids and therefore obviate the need to change out these fluids every 28 days as recommended by the manufacturer. PMID:24715747

Puertos, Enrique

2014-01-01

215

Native small airways secrete bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the discovery of Cl(-) impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl(-) transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3(-) transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3(-) secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidity in CF. We used a novel, mini-Ussing chamber system to investigate the properties of HCO3(-) transport in native porcine small airways (? 1 mm ?). We assayed HCO3(-) transport across small airway epithelia as reflected by the transepithelial voltage, conductance, and equivalent short-circuit current with bilateral 25-mM HCO3(-) plus 125-mM NaGlu Ringer's solution in the presence of luminal amiloride (10 ?M). Under these conditions, because no major transportable anions other than HCO3(-) were present, we took the equivalent short-circuit current to be a direct measure of active HCO3(-) secretion. Applying selective agonists and inhibitors, we show constitutive HCO3(-) secretion in small airways, which can be stimulated significantly by ?-adrenergic- (cAMP) and purinergic (Ca(2+)) -mediated agonists, independently. These results indicate that two separate components for HCO3(-) secretion, likely via CFTR- and calcium-activated chloride channel-dependent processes, are physiologically regulated for likely roles in mucus clearance and antimicrobial innate defenses of small airways. PMID:24224935

Shamsuddin, A K M; Quinton, Paul M

2014-04-01

216

Thermogravimetric analysis of phase transitions in cement compositions mixed by sodium silicate solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the capability to modify cement by mechanical activation of sodium silicate water solution. Admixtures or blends of binding agents were employed for modifying concrete properties. The liquid glass is applied to protect from chemically or physically unfavorable environmental impacts, such as acidic medium and high temperature. The sodium silicate is a high-capacity setting accelerator. The increasing of the liquid glass proportion in the mix leads to the degradation of the cement paste plasticity and for this reason it is necessary to reduce the amount of liquid glass in the cement paste. The activation of dilute water solution of sodium silicate into rotary pulsating apparatus directly before tempering of the cement paste is an effective way to decrease mass fraction of liquid glass in the cement paste. The results of the combined influence of liquid glass and mechanical activation on physicochemical processes taking place in cement stone are represented in this research. Thermogravimetric analysis was used in order to study cement blends. Thermogravimetric analysis of modified cement stone assays was performed by thermo analyzer SETARAM TGA 92-24. The results of the analysis of phase transition taking place under high-temperature heating of cement stone modified by the mechanical activation of the water solution of the sodium silicate were introduced. Thermograms of cement stone assays were obtained at different hardening age. The comparison of these thermograms allows us to come to a conclusion on the formation and the retention during long time of a more dense structure of the composite matrix mixed by the mechanical activation of sodium silicate water solution. The relation between the concrete composition and its strength properties was stated. Perhaps, the capability of modified concrete to keep calcium ions in sparingly soluble hydrosilicates leads to the increase in its durability and corrosion resistance.

Fedosov Sergey Viktorovich

2014-01-01

217

Anodic behavior of hafnium in water-alcohol solutions of sodium chloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanism of hafnium anodic solution in the systems: sodium chloride-isopropanol-glycerin-water is clarified. The corrosiveness of the studied electrolytes relative to hafnium is evaluated. It is shown that the solution mechanism changes with increase in the potential: after reaching the 0.4-0.5 V potential the process diffusion control changes for kinetic one. The hafnium anodic solution also changes with increase of temperature in the electrolyte wherein the treatment is conducted. In this case the change in the composition and properties of the change in the composition and properties of the oxide film on the metal constitute surface the basis of the mechanism change

218

Investigation of bivalent lanthanide stabilization in solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate and polyether 18-crown-6  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and polyether 18-crown-6 on solution stability of SM2+, Tm2+ Nd2+ and Dy2+ in certain solvents has been studied. It is shown that the use of NaTPB for stabilization of Dy2+ and Nd2+ is impossible due to instability of the reagent to oxidation potentials below - 2.3 V. The use of 18-crown-6 permitted to prepare more stable Sm2+ solutions in water and Tm2+ solutions in acetonitrile, than in pure solvents. The values of oxidation rate constants and certain spectroscopic data for bivalent lanthanides in the media studied are presented

219

Thermometric quantitative selective analysis of sodium methoxide in methanol industrial solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O metóxido de sódio é usado como reagente ou como catalisador em muitos processos industriais como, por exemplo, na síntese de fármacos e de biodiesel. O presente trabalho apresenta um novo e seletivo método analítico quantitativo termométrico para a determinação de metóxido de sódio em soluções de [...] metanol na presença de íons hidróxido. Para fins de comparação com o método Karl-Fischer, os dois procedimentos foram aplicados a quatro diferentes soluções de metóxido de sódio em metanol, inclusive em presença de hidróxido de sódio, e os resultados foram comparados estatisticamente mostrando total concordância. Abstract in english Sodium methoxide is used as a reagent or a catalyst in many industrial processes such as, for example, pharmaceuticals and biodiesel syntheses. This work presents a new and selective quantitative analytical thermometric method for sodium methoxide determination in methanol solutions in the presence [...] of hydroxide ions. For comparative purposes with the Karl-Fischer procedure, these two methods were applied to four different solutions of sodium methoxide in methanol, including in presence of sodium hydroxide, and the results were compared statistically showing total agreement.

Flavio A., Bastos; Sabir, Khan; Eduardo H., Simões; Carlos A., Teixeira; Matthieu, Tubino.

1380-13-01

220

The reactions of sodium with urania, plutonia and their solid solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

The thermodynamic conditions for the reactions of sodium with urania, plutonia and solid solutions of urania-plutonia have been determined using an electrochemical method. The thermodynamic oxygen potentials for the phase fields containing liquid sodium, the oxide and the compound Na 3MO 4 ( M = U, Pu or U 1-X Pu X) have been measured in an EMF cell with a thoria-yttria electrolyte. Measurements were made in the temperature range 825-1000K and for all these systems studied the values of the equilibrium oxygen potential were similar. Some measurements of oxygen potential were also made for the reaction of sodium with urania-plutonia containing cations which simulate the presence of dissolved fission products. The values for the oxygen potential were higher initially than those obtained for the systems without the addition of cations. However, there was a tendency for the EMF values to drift with time towards those for the pure mixed oxide. The derivation of the valency of the plutonium cations for plutonia and urania-plutonia solid solutions from the equilibrium oxygen potentials is also discussed in terms of the phase relationships and thermodynamic properties of the Pu-O and U-PuO systems. These threshold values of the oxygen potentials are also compared to those determined from a study of the products and the kinetics of the reactions of sodium with pellets of urania-plutonia.

Mignanelli, M. A.; Potter, P. E.

1985-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

Effects of sodium tetraborate and boric acid on nonisothermal mannitol crystallization in frozen solutions and freeze-dried solids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the effects of sodium tetraborate (borax) and boric acid on the crystallization of mannitol in frozen aqueous solutions and freeze-dried solids. Thermal analysis of frozen solutions showed that sodium tetraborate inhibits mannitol crystallization at sodium tetraborate/mannitol molar concentration ratios of approximately 0.05, which is much lower than the other co-solutes studied (boric acid, sucrose, sodium phosphate buffer). Inhibition of the mannitol crystallization in frozen solutions resulted in highly amorphous mannitol in the freeze-dried solids. Mannitol remained in an amorphous state in some of the combination freeze-dried solids, even at elevated temperatures. Changes in the thermal transition temperatures (glass transition temperature of maximally freeze-concentrated solute ( T'g) and glass transition temperature of freeze-dried solid (Tg)) suggested reduced mannitol molecular mobility with increases in the sodium tetraborate ratio. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis of the bovine serum albumin secondary structure showed apparent protein structure-stabilizing effects of the amorphous mannitol and sodium tetraborate combination during the freeze-drying process. The mannitol and sodium tetraborate combination also protected lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from inactivation during freeze-drying. We conclude that the complex formation and the accompanying reduction in molecular mobility make sodium tetraborate an effective mannitol crystallization inhibitor in frozen solutions and freeze-dried solids. PMID:15010133

Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Ocheda, Shemaine O; Aoyagi, Nobuo; Kojima, Shigeo

2004-04-01

222

A novel method of non-violent dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt  

Science.gov (United States)

A new technique of non-violent and fast dissolution of sodium metal in a concentrated aqueous solution of Epsom salt (MgSO 4.7H 2O) at room temperature (RT) has been developed. The dissolution process is mildly exothermic but could be carried out even in a glass beaker in air under swift stirring condition. The reaction products consist of mixed salts of MgSO 4 and Na 2SO 4 as well as Mg(OH) 2 which are only mildly alkaline and hence are non-corrosive and non-hazardous unlike NaOH. A 50 mL solution having Epsom salt concentration of 2 M was found to give the optimal composition for disposal of 1 g of sodium. Supersaturated (>2.7 M), as well as dilute (sprayed with a high-pressure jet cleaner at RT in air easily removed the sodium blocked inside a metal pipe made of mild steel. The above jet also dissolved peacefully residual sodium collected on the metal tray after a sodium fire experiment. No sodium fire or explosion was observed during this campaign. The Epsom solution spray effectively neutralized the minor quantity of sodium aerosol produced during this campaign. This novel technique would hence be quite useful for draining sodium from fast breeder reactor components and bulk processing of sodium as well as for sodium fire fighting.

Lakshmanan, A. R.; Prasad, M. V. R.; Ponraju, D.; Krishnan, H.

2004-10-01

223

Kinetics of crystal growth of strontium tungstate from solutions in sodium tungstate melts by continuous cooling  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The crystallization kinetics of strontium tungstate from unstirred saturated solutions in sodium tungstate melts was studied by continuous cooling from initial crystallisation temperatures T0 = 10000 to 800 0C to room temperature at cooling rates Rsub(T) = 0.670 to 3.3 0C min-1. The main crystal growth was diffusion rate-controlled; the final crystal growth was rate-controlled by the development rate of excess solute concentration. The estimated diffusion rate constant (ksub(D)) values increased with cooling rates and initial crystallisation temperatures. They are higher than the rate constants for diffusion-controlled growth of calcium tungstate from sodium tungstate melts, but very much smaller than those for strontium tungstate from lithium chloride melts. (author)

224

Preparation of polycristalline films of lithium and sodium niobates from solutions of metal alcoholates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A formation process of polycrystalline lithium and sodium niobate films prepared during hydrolytic decomposition of alcohol solutions of two alcoholates has been investigated by the method of scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that this method is quite useful for the preparation of solid (without cracks and microdefects) polycrystalline oxide films. To prepare films of > 500 A thickness it is recommended to apply layer-by-layer coating with each layer annealina at the crystallization temperature of the given oxide phase

225

Reactions of sodium and potassium carbonates with urania-thoria solid solutions (Preprint No. AL.09)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactions of sodium and potassium carbonates with (Usub(0.7)Thsub(0.3)Osub(2)) solid solution were investigated at about 900degC. The reaction products formed are identified to be mixture of two phases: (i) compounds of Na-U-O and K-U-O systems respectively and (ii) a fluorite phase MO2 where M is U and Th indicating reaction with U3O8 formed from (U,Th)O2. (author). 1 tab

226

Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

1973-01-01

227

Rhenium and VR-20 alloy electrochemical dissolving in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of experimental investigation of rhenium and W-Re (VR-20) alloy electrochemical dissolving both at variable (50 Hz) and constant current in sodium hydroxide solutions are presented. A possibility is shown of complete elimination of electrode polarization at electrochemical reprocessing of wastes of tungsten-rhenium alloys using variable current. It is established that one can work in dissolved electrolytes at constant current only at low densities of current

228

The hydration of interstitial Portland cement phases in sodium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of sulfoaluminate compounds was investigated by isothermal calorimetry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Tricalcium aluminate/gypsum mixtures with a molar ratio of 1:1 sulfate-to-aluminate were hydrated at constant temperatures from 30 to 90°C; in de-ionized water, in 200mM and in 500mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Hydration in de-ionized water produced ettringite and monosulfate as the dominant crystalline phases, regardless of temperature. Complex assemblages of phases formed in 200mM and 500mM sodium hydroxide including ettringite, monosulfate and U-phase, at all temperatures. Hydration of monosulfate and gypsum was also carried out at constant temperatures from 30° to 80°C using de-ionized water and 0.2M, 0.5M, and 1.0M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Ettringite was found to be the dominant crystalline phase over the entire temperature range and at all sodium hydroxide concentrations. A sodium-substituted monosulfate phase was formed as a hydration product in the 1.0M sodium hydroxide solution regardless of temperature. Sulfoaluminate compounds formed by tricalcium aluminate hydration in magnesium sulfate solution were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydration was carried out in 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions and isothermally at temperatures from 30 to 80°C. Monosulfate, ettringite, gypsum and a hydrogarnet phase (Ca3Al2O6·6H2O) were all observed as hydration products. Monosulfate and hydrogarnet were the only phases observed for hydration in 0.5 and 1.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Ettringite was the dominant crystalline phase after hydration in 3.0M solution, regardless of temperature. To investigate the rate of hydration, reactions at 60°C in 3.0M magnesium sulfate solution were quenched after 26 minutes, 73 minutes, 2.5 hours and 12 hours to establish the evolution of hydrated phases. Depending on hydration times ettringite, monosulfate, gypsum, hydrogarnet and residual tricalcium aluminate were observed. No crystalline magnesium-rich phases were detected by XRD. The products formed by hydration of tetracalcium aluminoferrite (Ca 2AlFeO5) and magnesium sulfate solutions were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD and SEM analyses. Hydration reactions were carried out isothermally at temperatures from 25 to 80°C in 0.25M, 0.5M, 1.0M, 2.0M, and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Gypsum was the initial hydration product in all magnesium sulfate concentrations and was the only crystalline hydration product in 2.0M and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Monosulfate was the dominant crystalline phase produced over the entire temperature range when hydration was carried out in magnesium sulfate concentrations between 0.25M and 1.0M. No crystalline phases incorporating iron were observed regardless of magnesium sulfate concentration or temperature. Hydration in 1.0M MgSO 4 solution was more extensively investigated at 50°C. SEM observations indicated gypsum formed initially, consisting of fine particles (calcium/iron-rich gel and a magnesium/aluminum/sulfate-rich phase. The calcium/iron-rich gel is the only iron-rich phase observed in the hydrated phase assemblage.

Clark, Boyd Arthur

229

Deuterium kinetic isotope effect for oxidation of perdeuterated sodium butyrate with manganate in 3 M sodium hydrochloride solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deuterium kinetic effect, D-KIE, for oxidation of perdeuterided sodium butyrate, CD3(CD2)2COONa, with manganate in the aqueous solution of 3M NaOH has been determined in the temperature range 323-373 K. The temperature dependent kH/kD ratios are in the range from 17.59 at 323 K to 11,25 at 373 K. The activation energy difference, ?Q0 = Q0DD - Q0=HH ?H0DD - ?H0HH = 9.20 kJ mol-1, and the Arrhenius preexponential factors ratio A0DD/A0HH is equal to 1.76, corresponding to ?S0DD - ?S0HH = 4.70 k J-1 as deduced from the Arrhenius and Eyring diagrams. This is the main evidence of tunnelling in the transfer of methylene hydrogens of butyrate to the negatively charged oxygens of manganate in very basic solutions. The k0HH/k0DD ratios, corrected for the ionic strength, have been reproduced by multiplying the (k0HH/k0DD)KIE value, caused by zero point energy differences, by the Bell tunnel correction QtHH.QtDD. The half width of the energy barrier, as approximated by an inverted parabola, was found to be equal to 5x10-11 m. The physico-chemical origin of the energy barrier for the oxidation of n-chain aliphatic carboxylates with MnO42- ions in strongly alkalinsup>2- ions in strongly alkaline solutions has been discussed. The mechanisms of the permanganate versus manganate oxidation i. e., in acidic versus alkaline media are compared. (author)

230

Bicarbonate transport in health and disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bicarbonate (HCO3 (-) ) has a central place in human physiology as the waste product of mitochondrial energy production and for its role in pH buffering throughout the body. Because bicarbonate is impermeable to membranes, bicarbonate transport proteins are necessary to enable control of bicarbonate levels across membranes. In humans, 14 bicarbonate transport proteins, members of the SLC4 and SLC26 families, function by differing transport mechanisms. In addition, some anion channels and ZIP metal transporters contribute to bicarbonate movement across membranes. Defective bicarbonate transport leads to diseases, including systemic acidosis, brain dysfunction, kidney stones, and hypertension. Altered expression levels of bicarbonate transporters in patients with breast, colon, and lung cancer suggest an important role of these transporters in cancer. © 2014 IUBMB Life, 66(9):596-615, 2014. PMID:25270914

Alka, Kumari; Casey, Joseph R

2014-09-01

231

Investigation into interaction of mixture of zinc and neodymium nitrates with sodium tungstates in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methods of residual concentrations, pH-potentiometry, and conductometry have been used for studying interaction between the mixture of zinc and neodymium nitrates with sodium tungstate in aqueous solutions. It has been established that independent of the ratio between the components the reaction product is a mixture of simultaneously precipitated zinc and neodymium orthotungstates. Thermal treatment of such mixtures at 650-700 deg C for 40 h and subsequent hardening yields solid solution of the structure ?-Eu2(WO4)3 within the concentration range 85-100 mol % of Nd2(WO4)3

232

The evaporation of the water-sodium chlorides solution droplets on the heated substrate  

Science.gov (United States)

This work presents an experimental study of the evaporation of a sessile water- sodium chlorides solution drop to open atmosphere on the solid substrate (anodized aluminum) under the varying heat flux. The main parameters defining drop profile were obtained: contact diameter, contact angle, height of the drop. The specific evaporation rate was calculated. The influence of the initial concentration of the evaporated solution to a value of the specific evaporation rate has been found out. The specific evaporation rate decreases with increasing of the concentration.

Orlova, Evgenija; Kuznetsov, Geniy; Feoktistov, Dmitriy

2014-08-01

233

The elimination of selenium(IV) from aqueous solution by precipitation with sodium sulfide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the removal/precipitation of selenium with sodium sulfide from initially weakly acidic sulfate solutions containing 300 mg/L of selenium(IV) at 23 {sup o}C was studied. The results showed that, below a pH of approximately 7.0, the precipitation reaction was complete at a sulfide to selenium ratio above 1.8 and less than 11 with less than 0.005 mg/L of soluble selenium remaining in solution. When the pH rose between 7.0 and 9.5 the precipitation of selenium was incomplete. Above pH 9.5 the solution turned dark red but no precipitation was apparent. The precipitation reaction started as soon as the sodium sulfide was added in the selenium-bearing solution and was completed in less than 10 min. The orange 'selenium sulfide' precipitates, characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis, were crystalline in the form of aggregated dense particles with their sulfur/selenium molar ratio varying from 1.7 to 2.3. The precipitate was deduced to be a Se-S solid solution consisting of ring molecules of the following Se{sub n}S{sub 8-n} formula, where n = 2.5-3. Long term leachability tests (>2 month equilibration) under ambient conditions at pH 7 showed the produced precipitate to be essentially insoluble (<0.005 mg/L).

Geoffroy, N., E-mail: nicolas.geoffroy@mail.mcgill.ca [McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Demopoulos, G.P., E-mail: george.demopoulos@mcgill.ca [McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada)

2011-01-15

234

Corrosion fatigue crack growth behavior of nickel base alloys in sodium thiosulfate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of heat treatment, loading frequency and applied potential on corrosion fatigue crack growth (FCG) rates in either alloy 690 or alloy 600 in sodium thiosulfate solution were investigated. Corrosion fatigue tests were performed in 0.1 M sodium thiosulfate solution at 25 C at an R ratio of 0.1, with a loading frequency of 0.1 and 1 Hz, and under various applied potentials. The experimental results indicated that the FCG rate, at 1 Hz, in alloy 690 was nearly independent of heat treatment and anodic applied potential; meanwhile, that in alloy 600 varied with the heat treatment and applied potential. Under cathodic applied potential and at a low ?K regime, the FCG rates in alloy 690 were slightly higher than those at open circuit potential. The environmental contribution to the FCG rate in alloy 690 was observed at 0.1 Hz, while a much more pronounced effect was observed for sensitized alloy 600 at the same loading frequency. Fractographical examinations of all the fractured surfaces showed that the fatigue cracks propagated in the transgranular mode in alloy 690 regardless of whether solution annealed or thermally treated, in air and in the solution at different applied potentials and frequencies. However, an intergranular mode of cracking was observed for the sensitized alloy 600 in 0.1 M thiosulfate solution at +500 mV and at 0.1 Hz, which had a markedly higher crack propagation rate. (orig.)

235

Studies on sodium dodecylsulfate in aqueous and in aqueous amino acid solutions: Volumetric and viscometric approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: The apparent molar volumes, ?v of glycine in water are positive and increase with increasing temperature. The positive values of ?v indicate that the solute–solvent interaction decreases as temperature increases (T = ?, 293.15; ?, 298.15; ?, 303.15; ? 308.15; ? 313.15 K). -- Highlights: • We investigate the interaction of SDS in water and aqueous glycine solution. • The data were analyzed by Masson, Laplace and Jones–Dole equations respectively. • The nature of solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions has been probed. • SDS acts as structure maker in aqueous glycine solution. -- Abstract: Physicochemical properties like density, ultrasound velocity and viscosity of aqueous solutions of glycine and SDS (sodium dodecylsulfate) in 0.1 m aqueous glycine solution as a function of concentration at different temperatures ranging from 293.15 K to 313.15 K have been determined. These data have been used to calculate apparent molar volume, isentropic compressibility and viscosity B-coefficient values of the studied solutions. The viscosity coefficients A and B have been determined from the Jones–Dole equation. The limiting apparent molar volumes (?v0) and experimental slopes (Sv) derived from the Masson equations have been interpreted in terms of solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions. From the volumetric and viscometric data, the structural effect of SDS in glycine solution has been discussed. The change in free energy, enthalpy and entropy of activation were calculated using the Nightingale and Benck, and Eyring equations. Glycine in aqueous solution exhibits structure-breaking behaviour. The results were explained in terms of structure making and structure breaking properties

236

2-Butyne-1,4-diol as a novel corrosion inhibitor for API X65 steel pipeline in carbonate/bicarbonate solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion of API 5L X65 is effectively reduced by the addition of the inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The techniques include weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS and AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-Butyne-1,4-diol acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of 2-butyne-1,4-diol obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. - Abstract: The inhibition effects of 2-butyne-1,4-diol on the corrosion susceptibility of grade API 5L X65 steel pipeline in 2 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/1 M NaHCO{sub 3} solution were studied by electrochemical techniques and weight loss measurements. The results indicated that this inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor, with a maximum percentage inhibition efficiency of approximately 92% in the presence of 5 mM inhibitor. Atomic force microscopy revealed that a protective film was formed on the surface of the inhibited sample. The adsorption of the inhibitor was found to conform to the Langmuir isotherm with the standard adsorption free energy of -21.08 kJ mol{sup -1}.

Sadeghi Meresht, E. [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, 1411713114, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahrabi Farahani, T., E-mail: tshahrabi34@modares.ac.ir [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, 1411713114, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neshati, J. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, RIPI, 1485733111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-01-15

237

2-Butyne-1,4-diol as a novel corrosion inhibitor for API X65 steel pipeline in carbonate/bicarbonate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Corrosion of API 5L X65 is effectively reduced by the addition of the inhibitor. ? The techniques include weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS and AFM. ? 2-Butyne-1,4-diol acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. ? The adsorption of 2-butyne-1,4-diol obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. - Abstract: The inhibition effects of 2-butyne-1,4-diol on the corrosion susceptibility of grade API 5L X65 steel pipeline in 2 M Na2CO3/1 M NaHCO3 solution were studied by electrochemical techniques and weight loss measurements. The results indicated that this inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor, with a maximum percentage inhibition efficiency of approximately 92% in the presence of 5 mM inhibitor. Atomic force microscopy revealed that a protective film was formed on the surface of the inhibited sample. The adsorption of the inhibitor was found to conform to the Langmuir isotherm with the standard adsorption free energy of ?21.08 kJ mol?1.

238

Phase Stability of Chromium(III) Oxide Hydroxide in Alkaline Sodium Phosphate Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Grimaldiite ({alpha}-CrOOH) is shown to transform to a sodium-chromium(III)-hydroxyphosphate compound (SCHP) in alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via CrOOH(s) + 4Na{sup +} + 2HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-} = Na{sub 4}Cr(OH)(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s) + H{sub 2}O. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that SCHP possesses an orthorhombic lattice having the same space group symmetry (Ibam, No.72) as sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate. A structurally-consistent designation for SCHP is Na{sub 3}Cr(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} NaOH; the molar volume of SCHP is estimated to be 1552 cm{sup 3}. The thermodynamic equilibrium for the above reaction was defined in the system Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.0 and 2.4. On the basis of observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard molar entropy (S{sup o}), heat capacity (C{sub p}{sup o}) and free energy of formation ({Delta}G{sub f}{sup o}) for SCHP were calculated to be 690 J/(mol-K), 622 J/(mol-K) and -3509.97 kJ/mol, respectively.

S.E. Ziemniak; E.P. Opalka

2003-07-08

239

Modelling of niobium sorption on clay minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sorption behaviour of niobium on kaolinite and illite minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions was evaluated with use of the mass distribution coefficient, Rd, obtained in batch sorption experiments. Very high distribution coefficient values, about 100 m3/kg, were obtained for both minerals in the neutral pH range between 6 and 8. Values were somewhat lower at pH 5. In NaClO4 solution, the sorption of niobium starts to decrease at pH higher than 8. This is in agreement with the increase, with pH, in the proportion of anionic niobate species, which are presumed to be low or non-sorbing. A similar decrease was not observed in Ca(ClO4)2 solution, probably owing to the influence of Ca on niobium solution speciation and surface species. The surface complexation model was applied to model the Rd values. The model fitted well for the NaClO4 solution but only at pH below 9 for the Ca(ClO4)2 solution. The discrepancy between the strong sorption of niobium in calcium-bearing solution at high pH and the calculated speciation is due in part to the non-inclusion of calcium niobate solution species and Ca-Nb compounds in the present NEA and other similar thermodynamic databases.

240

In situ generation of hydrogen from water by aluminum corrosion in solutions of sodium aluminate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new process to obtain hydrogen from water using aluminum in sodium aluminate solutions is described and compared with results obtained in aqueous sodium hydroxide. This process consumes only water and aluminum, which are raw materials much cheaper than other compounds used for in situ hydrogen generation, such as hydrocarbons and chemical hydrides, respectively. As a consequence, our process could be an economically feasible alternative for hydrogen to supply fuel cells. Results showed an improvement of the maximum rates and yields of hydrogen production when NaAlO{sub 2} was used instead of NaOH in aqueous solutions. Yields of 100% have been reached using NaAlO{sub 2} concentrations higher than 0.65 M and first order kinetics at concentrations below 0.75 M has been confirmed. Two different heterogeneous kinetic models are verified for NaAlO{sub 2} aqueous solutions. The activation energy (E{sub a}) of the process with NaAlO{sub 2} is 71 kJ mol{sup -1}, confirming a control by a chemical step. A mechanism unifying the behavior of Al corrosion in NaOH and NaAlO{sub 2} solutions is presented. The application of this process could reduce costs in power sources based on fuel cells that nowadays use hydrides as raw material for hydrogen production. (author)

Soler, Lluis; Candela, Angelica Maria; Munoz, Maria; Casado, Juan [Centre Grup de Tecniques de Separacio en Quimica (GTS), Unitat de Quimica Analitica, Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB s/n, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Macanas, Jorge [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS-INPT-UPS, Universite de Toulouse, Toulouse (France)

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Density, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 solutions at high temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements have been performed of the density, of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient and of the viscosity of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO2 dissolved in each. The viscosity measurements have been performed for the solution of sodium tetraborate with UO2 and CeO2, and with CeO2 only as well. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The density measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 8250C to 13000C, the viscosity measurements in the temperature range 700-12500C with a modified Haake viscosity balance. The balance was previously calibrated at ambient temperature with a standard calibration liquid and at high temperatures, with data for pure borax available from the literature. (orig.)

242

Density, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO 2 and of sodium metaborate-UO 2 solutions at high temperatures  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements have been performed of the density, of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient and of the viscosity of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO 2 dissolved in each. The viscosity measurements have been performed for the solution of sodium tetraborate with UO 2 and CeO 2, and with CeO 2 only as well. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The density measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 825°C to 1300°C, the viscosity measurements in the temperature range 700-1250°C with a modified Haake viscosity balance. The balance was previously calibrated at ambient temperature with a standard calibration liquid and at high temperatures with data for pure borax available from the literature.

Donne, M. Dalle; Dorner, S.; Roth, A.

1983-10-01

243

Bonelike apatite coating on organic polymers: novel nucleation process using sodium silicate solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

A bonelike apatite layer was formed on organic polymers when sodium silicate was used as a catalyst for the apatite nucleation, and modified simulated body fluid was used as a medium for the apatite growth. The apatite-forming ability was the highest when the SiO2 concentration and SiO2/Na2O mole ratio of the sodium silicate solution were above 2.0 M and 1.0-1.5, respectively. It is assumed that particular silicate oligomers with structures such as dimer, linear trimer and cyclic tetramer contribute to the apatite nucleation the most. The apatite layer was formed not only on limited surfaces but also on the whole surfaces of fine PET fibers constituting a fabric. This method is expected to enable the bonelike apatite coating on various kinds of materials with complex shapes. PMID:10353645

Miyaji, F; Kim, H M; Handa, S; Kokubo, T; Nakamura, T

1999-05-01

244

Hydrothermal synthesis of maricite via iron oxide decomposition in sodium phosphate solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Aqueous sodium phosphate solutions having Na:P atom ratios between 1.6 and 2.0 are shown to transform iron oxide (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Fe(OH){sub 2}) into either of two sodium-iron-phosphate minerals: maricite (NaFePO{sub 4}) or a member of the alluaudite group. Microchemical, infrared and Moessbauer spectroscopic analyses indicate that the latter compound has the approximate (single-phase) composition NaFePO{sub 4} x 4 NaFe(OH)PO{sub 4}. Maricite formation was promoted by the imposition of dissolved hydrogen gas, which likely stabilizes a layer of hydrous iron(II) oxide on the magnetite surface. (orig.)

Ziemniak, S.E. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States); Tunison, H.M. [Knolls Atomic Power Lab., Schenectady, NY (United States)

2003-02-01

245

Determination of potassium and sodium ions with diaphragm glow discharge plasma in aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work, a new apparatus of diaphragm glow discharge emission spectroscopy was described for the determination of potassium and sodium ions in aqueous solution. The discharge was formed in a pin hole on a dielectric diaphragm interposed between two submerged graphite electrodes. Effects of pH and applied voltage on the determination have been examined. It was found that decreasing the solution pH and increasing the applied voltage were favorable for the determination performance. Limits of detection for Na and K were 0.002 and 0.05 mg L?1 under the optimum conditions, respectively. It demonstrates that the diaphragm glow discharge emission spectroscopy is a promising technique in measurements of metal ions in aqueous solution, because no optical interferences from the electrodes were found.

246

Partition equilibrium of iodine in aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions containing boric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The partition equilibrium of iodine in the aqueous mixtures of sodium hydroxide and boric acid was investigated and was compared with the case of the aqueous solution without boric acid. It was found that the reactions of iodine species with boric acid and its derivatives were negligible and the only effect of the addition of boric acid on the partition of iodine species in the solution came out through the shift of hydrogen ion concentration. The hydrogen ion concentration can be evaluated by taking into consideration the dissociation of boric acid and the formation of polymeric borate ion besides a series of reactions of iodine species in the solutions. The observed equilibrium concentrations of various iodine species agreed well with those calculated from the concentration of the total iodine and the calculated hydrogen ion concentration. (author)

247

Radioactive waste treatment of sodium carbonate solution from U and Th extraction process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of pH on the adsorption of uranium on activated charcoal from aqueous solutions was studied. The maximal sorption was observed at pH 4.8 of equilibrium solution. This sorption property of activated charcoal for uranium was applied to study on the reduction of the radioactive isotopes from waste of sodium carbonate waste in the monazite processing plant. The dependence of radionuclides adsorption from the radioactive waste to the amount of activated charcoal was examined under optimized pH condition. The resulted waste solution after treated with adequate activated charcoal could reach the requirement of radioactive waste disposal, i.e. gross ? <3.7 Bq/L and gross ? <37 Bq/L. A Sequential Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry and Gross ?, ? Counter were used for the analysis of elemental concentration and activities of gross ? and ?, respectively

248

The use of a modified Dakin's solution (sodium hypochlorite) in the treatment of Vibrio vulnificus infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the first clinical use of a modified Dakin's solution (0.025% sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl]) to halt the progress of severe cutaneous Vibrio vulnificus infection in a critically ill patient. The regimen used arose from an initial in vitro study designed to examine the sensitivity of Vibrio species to topical antimicrobial agents. Twenty-eight wound isolates were tested against the following eight topical preparations: silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene), nitrofurazone, mupirocin ointment (Bactroban), polymyxin B/bacitracin, mafenide acetate (Sulfamylon), nystatin/Silvadene, nystatin/polymyxin B/bacitracin, and 0.025% NaOCl solution. The results showed that V vulnificus, along with the other 18 Vibrio species tested, was most sensitive to the modified NaOCl solution. PMID:10347673

Milner, S M; Heggers, J P

1999-01-01

249

Lyotropic mesophases formed by solutions of sodium strearate in glycerol and water  

Science.gov (United States)

Solutions of sodium stearate in concentrations ranging from 1 to 20 wt %, in glycerol and glycerol + water exhibit two phases between room temperature and 100 °C for all mixtures. In the high temperature phase, the solutions flow easily while they form a gel phase with unique elastic properties in the low temperature phase. Small angle neutron and x-ray scattering measurements performed on partially deutrated samples reveal structural details of these solutions. The high temperature phase is found to be an isotropic dispersion of micellar aggregates, the lower temperature phase possesses more complex structure. These results augmented with results from differential scanning calorimetry, NMR proton relaxation and other techniques will be presented. Supported by Unilever Research, USA.

Wang, Qingbing; Joshi, Leela; Satyendra Kumar, Satyendra; Yaravoy, Yury; Teanoosh, Moaddel

2004-03-01

250

Electrolytic preparation of vanadium(5) oxide from oxovanadium(4) sulfate solution in the presence of sodium ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Influence of anodic current density, pH value and reagents concentration on the character of anodic processes, current efficiency and properties of deposits during electrolytic deposition of vanadium(5) oxide from aqueous solutions of oxovanadium(4) sulfate in the presence of sodium ions was studied. It was ascertained that in the presence of sodium ions some deposits are formed on the anode, which differ qualitatively from the ones prepared from solutions without additions. According to data of X-ray phase analysis the sediments after annealing at 500 deg C for 5-7 h were sodium-vanadium bronze of NaxV2O5 composition, featuring elevated electrochemical activity

251

Corrosion behavior of Zr, Ti, Ta and Nb in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion behaviors of metal applicable as nuclear energy and bio-material were investigated in sodium hydroxide solutions. Tested materials were zirconium, titanium, tantalum and niobium. They were immersed in 0.1 to 6.1 mol/dm3 sodium hydroxide solutions for 48 h, and then weight loss measurement, XRD and XPS analyses were conducted. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were obtained in some solutions. The corrosion rates were greater in the order of Nb > Ta > Ti > Zr. Polarization curves showed that Ti, Ta and Zr passivated, however, Nb corroded. XRD patterns showed that Nb dissolved as niobate compounds. XPS spectra showed that Zr and Ti formed oxide films such as ZrO2 and TiO2 on their surface. SEM photographs indicated that uniform corrosion occurred for tested materials. There existed the differences of the stable species among the thermodynamic, corrosion test and surface analysis data. It is expected for expanding the thermodynamics data of these materials in the alkali region. (author)

252

Sodium mefenamate as a solution for the formulation and dissolution problems of mefenamic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium salt formation of mefenamic acid (MA) was studied as a way to solve the formulation and dissolution problems of MA. For this purpose, sodium salt of mefenamic acid (Na-MA) was prepared by reacting MA powder with equimolar sodium hydroxide in an aqueous phase, and consequently, Na-MA solution was obtained. The resultant solution was lyophilized and Na-MA powder was collected. The salt formation was confirmed by the results of fourier transformation-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies on Na-MA powder in comparison to MA powder. Na-MA powder was assessed for direct compressibility, in comparison to MA powder, when formulated as a mixture with minimum amount of Avicel((R)) pH 101 and then compressed into tablets using a hydraulic tablet press. Na-MA tablets exhibited satisfactory hardness and friability, and did not show capping or lamination. On the other hand, some MA tablets showed capping or lamination upon compression and all the tested MA tablets for friability capped. Na-MA tablets were also studied for drug dissolution, in comparison to MA tablets, in water, a pH 7.4 phosphate buffer, and a pH 7.4 phosphate buffer after soaking in 0.1 m HCl. Under these different dissolution conditions, Na-MA tablets showed much higher dissolution rate and extent than MA tablets. The results of the study suggested that Na-MA can be considered as a solution form for the formulation and dissolution problems of MA. PMID:17666833

Bani-Jaber, Ahmad; Hamdan, Imad; Al-Khalidi, Bashar

2007-08-01

253

Interaction of ammonium perhenate with sodium thiosulfate in hydrochloric acid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of the interaction in the system ammonium perrhenate-sodium thiosulfate-hydrochloric acid-water using the chemical and X-ray phase analyses in a wide range of component ratios has shown that in the system two main process occur: formation of rhenium sulphide and separation of elemental sulphur. The degree of rhenium precipitation mainly depends on the ratio of components and to a less degree - on the mass of precipitate and the presence of high concentrations of ammonium chloride in the initial solutions. Rhenium sulphide and elemental sulphur interact in the moment of separation

254

Anodic behaviour of zirconium in water-ethylene glycol solutions of sodium chloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of ethylene glycol concentration and solution temperature of water-alcohol 1 M sodium chloride on zirconium anodic dissolution has been studied by electrochemical methods (potentiodynamics and chronoamperometry using a rotating disk electrode). It has been ascertained that in the range of potentials 0.2-0.4 V oxide film is formed on the surface. At E = 0.6-1.0 V the passive state is upset, which is accompanied by a sharp increase in the current density. At potentials exceeding 1.0 V the process considered is limited by diffusion of anodic dissolution products

255

Kinetic model for the 60Co-? ray initiated inverse emulsion polymerization of sodium acrylate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conversion-time curves have been measured and treated quantitatively for the 60Co-? ray initiated inverse emulsion polymerization of aqueous sodium acrylate solutions on the basis of a monomer-droplet-nucleation mechanism. A method has been proposed to estimate the average number of polymerizing radicals in a droplet, n-bar, that characterizes the polymerization kinetics. For the system studied under the experimental conditions, the value of n-bar was derived as several hundreds, which is much larger than that for conventional emulsion polymerization. (author)

256

Kinetics of radiation-induced inverse emulsion polymerization of sodium acrylate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kinetics of inverse emulsion polymerization of sodium acrylate solution has been studied at 23-39 deg C with Cobalt-60 Gamma initiation dilatometrically. The conversion-time curves are generally S-shaped. For maximum rate of polymerization, the kinetic expression has been determined for the conditions investigated. The overall activation energy for polvmerization rate(Ea) is (16.7 kJ/mol) (23-39 deg C). The effects of dose rate, monomer concentration and emulsifier concentration on molecular weights of polymers have been examined. Discussions on nucleation mechanism and kinetics have been taken

257

Electrolyte and glucose contents of ripe and unripe coconut liquid as source of oral rehydration solution  

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Summary: Electrolyte and glucose contents of 20 ripe and 20 unripe coconuts were analysed along with a commercially prepared oral rehydration solution using flame photometry for sodium, potassium and back titration method for bicarbonate estimation while glucose oxidase method was carried out for glucose estimation. The unripe coconut liquid had mean+ SEM of sodium (mmol/L) 40.08 + 3.21, potassium (mmol/l) 24.06 + 0.89, bicarbonate (mmol/l) 1.48 + 0.20 and glucose (mmol/l) 26.30 + 0.21 while ...

Edomwande, P.; Adegoke, A. O.; Bamigbowu, E. O.; George-opuda, M. I.

2012-01-01

258

Micellization of sodium laurylethoxysulfate (SLES) and short chain imidazolium ionic liquids in aqueous solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study the interactions between an anionic surfactant sodium laurylethoxysulfate (SLES) and three short chain imidazolium (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) based ionic liquids (bmim-octyl SO4, bmim-methyl SO4 and bmim-BF4) in aqueous solution have been investigated. Generally when a surfactant is dissolved in a hydrophilic ionic liquid aqueous solution the critical micelle concentration (cmc) obtained is attributed to the surfactant because the ionic liquid (IL) is considered to be only a cosolvent. However, some short hydrophilic ionic liquids posses surface activity in aqueous solution and behave like a surfactant. In that case mixed aggregates between surfactant and ionic liquid can be formed. The three SLES/IL systems here studied have been treated as typical binary surfactant mixtures in aqueous solution. Surface tension measurements have revealed that mixed aggregates and monolayers of surfactant and ionic liquid instead of single surfactant are responsible for the surface active properties of these aqueous solutions. From the Regular Solution Theory, negative interaction parameters (?) for mixed aggregates and monolayers have been found for all SLES/IL mole ratios indicating synergism between the anionic surfactant and the ionic liquids. PMID:24776662

Comelles, Francesc; Ribosa, Isabel; González, Juan José; Garcia, M Teresa

2014-07-01

259

Removal of Cesium from Aqueous Solutions by Sodium and Calcium Alginates  

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Full Text Available Environmental pollution with radioactive materials poses a serious threat to public health. Among radioisotopes, cesium is one of the most dangerous elements which can be found in waste disposals of nuclear plants and similar facilities. Pure sodium and calcium alginic salts were investigated as adsorbents for removal of cesium ions from aqueous solution. It was found that both polysaccharides form complexes with the metal ions. Batch equilibrium experiments were carried out to study the effect of contact time, initial concentration of the metal and pH of the media on the adsorption of cesium by alginate compounds. The equilibrium time was found to be 60 min for adsorption of cesium with various initial metal concentrations. Kinetic studies showed that reactions between alginates and cesium are corresponding to the pseudo-second order model. Langmuir model was found best fit within the whole range of pH values studied. The maximum adsorption capacity of calcium alginate and sodium alginate was found to be 63.69 and 80.64 mg g-1, respectively at pH 6.0. From these results it is clear that sodium alginate possesses more pronounced cesium binding capacity than calcium alginate.

Maksim Y. Khotimchenko

2014-01-01

260

Bicarbonate/lactate- and bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids improve ex vivo peritoneal macrophage TNFalpha secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peritoneal macrophage (PMO) function was examined ex vivo after their in vivo exposure to either acidic, lactate-buffered solutions (PD4; 40 mM lactate, pH 5.2), bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution (TBL; 25 mM/15 mM bicarbonate/lactate, pH 7.3), or bicarbonate-buffered solution (TB; 38 mM bicarbonate, pH 7.3), containing either 1.36 or 3.86% glucose. Initial experiments demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) release (assessed by TNF-direct immunoassay [DIA]) from PMO isolated from the peritoneal cavities of patients exposed to conventional fluid (PD4 1.36% glucose) was lowest after 30 min of intraperitoneal dwell (3591+/-1200 versus 28,946+/-9359 for 240-min dwell [pg/ml], n=5, P < 0.05). Five patients were exposed on 3 successive days to PD4, TBL, and TB for 30-min acute dwells containing 1.36% glucose in the first week and 3.86% glucose during the second. PMO TNFalpha release was assessed after ex vitro exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure of PMO to TBL or TB (1.36% glucose) resulted in a significant increase in the generation of TNFalpha (pg/2 X 10(6) PMO) compared with PD4. TBL: 68,659+/-35,633, TB: 53,682+/-26,536 versus PD4 17,107+/-8996 (LPS 1.0 ng/ml, n=5 patients, P=0.043 versus PD4 for both). PMO that were recovered from PD4 and TB dwells (3.86% glucose) showed no significant difference in TNFalpha secretion (21,661+/-6934 and 23,923+/-9147, respectively). In contrast, exposure to TBL resulted in a significant increase (41,846+/-11,471) compared with PD4 (LPS 1.0 ng/ml, n=5 patients, P=0.043). These data demonstrate enhanced PMO function after in vivo exposure to bicarbonate- and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solutions. This response was sustained in TBL alone at the highest glucose concentrations. These results suggest that the newer solutions, and particularly bicarbonate/lactate, might improve host defense status in peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:9697673

MacKenzie, R K; Holmes, C J; Moseley, A; Jenkins, J P; Williams, J D; Coles, G A; Faict, D; Topley, N

1998-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

Process of transformation of radioactive waste of metal sodium into soda solution by reaction with an alcohol followed by hydrolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reviews of the literature and of the laboratory tests are followed by a presentation of the results obtained during experiments carried out on a model with some ten grams of sodium contaminated by radioactive materials and on an industrial pre-pilot with several kilograms of non-contaminated sodium. Sodium is converted into alcoholate through the action of ethylcarbitol (CH3CH2OCH2CH2OCH2OH) on liquid sodium in suspension in xylene at 110 deg C. Once the reaction is complete, xylene is distillated and the alcoholate is in solution in an axcess of alcohol. Hydrolysis by water gives out the initial alcohol which is then extracted from the aqueous phase by toluene. All these operations are carried out in inert atmosphere (nitrogen). Sodium is thus converted into a sodium hydroxide aqueous solution with emission of hydrogen, the intermediate products (alcohol, xylene, toluene) being recyled. The process is reliable and recycling of organic products is favourable economically. The advantage of the method is to concentrate nearly all the radioactivity of the contaminated sodium in the aqueous phase, thus avoiding the dispersion of activity especially with the gaseous effluents. Finally, data are given allowing to consider the realization of a pilot with a weekly capacity of 100 kg of sodium, in semi-continuous operation

262

Generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution using C/PbO2 and Pb/PbO2 electrodes  

Science.gov (United States)

Two modified electrodes (Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2) were prepared by electrodepositing a lead oxide layer on lead and carbon substrates. These modified electrodes were used as anodes for the generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution. Different operating conditions and factors affecting the treatment process of NaOCl generation, including current density, pH values, conductive electrolytes, and electrolysis time, were studied and optimized. By comparison the C/PbO2 electrode shows a higher efficiency than the Pb/PbO2 electrode for the generation of NaOCl.

Ghalwa, Nasser Abu; Tamos, Hassan; ElAskalni, Mohamed; El Agha, Abed Rhman

2012-06-01

263

Preparation of Sodium Ionic Conductor Based on Sol-Gel Method Using Aqueous Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

A well-crystallized sodium super ionic conductor (NASICON: Na1+ xZr2Si xP3- xO12, 0?x?3) was synthesized by a sol-gel method from aqueous solutions of inorganic materials with an Na excess stoichiometric composition at a relatively low temperature of 850° C. A trace of monoclinic ZrO2 was observed, however, with increasing calcination temperatures up to 1000° C. It was found that the process of making sol from solutions was the most important step to reduce secondary phases such as ZrO2. NASICON thickfilms were also fabricated on a quartz substrate by a spin-coating method using a paste made from fine xerogel powder and isoamyl alcohol.

Shimizu, Youichi; Michishita, Satoko; Murata, Takahiro

1995-07-01

264

On the refractive index of sodium iodide solutions for index matching in PIV  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Refractive index matching has become a popular technique for facilitating applications of modern optical diagnostic techniques, such as particle image velocimetry, in complex systems. By matching the refractive index of solid boundaries with that of the liquid, unobstructed optical paths can be achieved for illumination and image acquisition. In this research note, we extend previously provided data for the refractive index of aqueous solutions of sodium iodide (NaI) for concentrations reaching the temperature-dependent solubility limit. Results are fitted onto a quadratic empirical expression relating the concentration to the refractive index. Temperature effects are also measured. The present range of indices, 1.333-1.51, covers that of typical transparent solids, from silicone elastomers to several recently introduced materials that could be manufactured using rapid prototyping. We also review briefly previous measurements of the refractive index, viscosity, and density of NaI solutions, as well as prior research that has utilized this fluid. (orig.)

265

Inhibitory effect of some carbazides on corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissolution of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide and sym.diphenylcarbazide as corrosion inhibitors has been studied using thermometric, weight-loss and polarization methods. The three methods gave consistent results. The higher inhibition efficiency of these compounds in acidic than in alkaline madia may be due to the less negative potential of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution, favouring adsorption of the additive. The adsorption of these compounds were found to obey Frumkin adsorption isotherm. Cathodic polarization measurements showed that these compounds are cathodic inhibitors and their adsorption in the double layer does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The results are analysed in terms of both molecular and cationic adsorption. (orig.)

Fouda, A.S. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Madkour, L.H. [Tanta Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elshafei, A.A. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elasklany, A.H. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-06-01

266

Corrosion Behavior of Magnesium Alloy AP65 in 3.5% Sodium Chloride Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnesium alloy AP65 was prepared by melting and casting. The corrosion behavior of the as-cast and solid solution (T4)-treated AP65 alloys in 3.5% sodium chloride solution was investigated by corrosion morphology observation, immersion test, and electrochemical measurements. The results show that the second phase Mg17Al12 surrounded by a lead-enriched area distributes discontinuously along the grain boundaries in the as-cast AP65 alloy. The lead-enriched areas with high activity are susceptible to be attacked during immersion test and can act as places for preferential anodic dissolution. The corrosion resistance of the as-cast AP65 alloy can be improved after T4 treatment and the T4-treated alloy suffers general corrosion.

Wang, Nai-guang; Wang, Ri-chu; Peng, Chao-qun; Feng, Yan

2012-07-01

267

Uso de bicarbonato e lactato-L para correção da acidose metabólica sistêmica em bovinos com acidose láctica ruminal aguda / Use of bicarbonate and lactate L for correction of systemic metabolic acidosis in cattle with acute rumen lactic acidosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram utilizados seis novilhos, providos de cânula ruminal, em delineamento experimental cross-over, para comparar a eficiência de soluções de bicarbonato de sódio e lactato-L de sódio na correção da acidose metabólica sistêmica (AMS), causada pela acidose láctica ruminal (ALR). Vinte horas após, qu [...] ando apresentavam intensa AMS, os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente e tratados com cinco litros de 150mMol/l de bicarbonato de sódio ou de lactato-L de sódio, infundidas por via intravenosa, nas quatro horas seguintes. Amostras de sangue, para hemogasometria, foram coletadas no decorrer da infusão a zero, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 e 8 horas. Ambos os tratamentos elevaram o pH sangüíneo já na primeira hora pós-infusão, corrigindo adequadamente a AMS. O tratamento com lactato-L de sódio aumentou as concentrações de bicarbonato, TCO2 e EAB sangüíneos já na segunda hora pós-infusão; com o bicarbonato essa elevação ocorreu a partir da terceira hora. Não houve diferenças entre tratamentos para pH sangüíneo, bicarbonato, TCO2 e excesso de base. Vinte e quatro horas após o tratamento todos os novilhos apresentaram plena recuperação. O lactato-L pode substituir o bicarbonato na correção da AMS em novilhos com ALR. Abstract in english The efficiency of sodium bicarbonate or l-lactate for correcting systemic metabolic acidosis (SMA) caused by rumen lactic acidosis (RLA) was evaluated using six rumen-cannulated steers in a cross-over experimental design. RLA was induced by administration of sucrose, intraruminally. Twenty hours lat [...] er when the animals developed an intense SMA, the steers were randomly distributed and treated intravenously either with 5l of 15 mMol/l sodium bicarbonate or L-lactate solution, infused throughout 4h. Blood samples were colleted throughout the infusion at zero, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8h, for blood gas analysis. After 1hour, both sodium bicarbonate and L-lactate solutions increased blood pH and corrected adequately the SMA. Blood bicarbonate, TCO2 and base excess concentrations were also increased at the 2nd hour with L-lactate and at the 3rd hour with bicarbonate. No differences between treatments were observed for blood pH, bicarbonate, TCO2 and base excess concentrations. Treated steers after twenty-four hours showed an effective clinical recovery. L-lactate can adequately replace bicarbonate in the correction of SMA in steers with RLA.

M.L.R., Leal; C.A., Maruta; E.L., Ortolani.

2007-08-01

268

Spectrometric studies of sodium perchlorate contact ion-pair formation in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is concluded that concentration-dependent variations in the perchlorate ion analytical line, nu1(A1), are caused by the presence of contact ion pairs and, to a lesser extent, solvent-separated ion pairs of NaClO4. Spectroscopic studies indicate a linear dependence between contact association and sodium molality. The estimated thermodynamic association constant is 0.022m-1, which compares to 1.22 for the thermodynamic exchange equilibrium constant for ClO4- ion displacing one water molecule from sodium. Na+ ions have little preference for ClO4- over water, and only at high concentrations, where water content is low, will extensive contact association take place. The interaction is also weak. These conclusions are supported by the smaller splitting of the perchlorate nu2(E) band relative to aprotic organic solutions, small NMR chemical shifts, and little increase of viscosity-corrected relaxation rates with increasing concentrations. Evidence that perchlorate ion forms weak hydrogen bonds with water is found in Raman, IR, and NMR spectroscopy. Two such hydrogen bonds to perchlorate oxygen atoms being replaced by a sodium ion partially account for the smaller splitting of the nu2 band observed in spectra of protic solvents compared to splitting in spectra of aprotic solvents, and for weaker splitting of the perchlorate nu2 band in the Raman spectrum than for solutions not containing molar hydroxide levels. They also account for the very small 35ClO4- chemical shift and viscosity-corrected relaxation rates for 35ClO4- chemical shifts. These effects support the concept of stronger perchlorate-water hydrogen bonds when hydroxide ion is present than when it is not. 25 figures, 13 tables

269

Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Oxalic Acid and Sodium Chloride Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nickel based Alloy 22 (NO6022) is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solution and to compare its behavior to sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solutions increased rapidly as the temperature and the acid concentration increased. Extrapolation studies show that even at a concentration of 10{sup -4}M oxalic acid, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 would be higher in oxalic acid than in 1 M NaCl solution. Alloy 22 was not susceptible to localized corrosion in oxalic acid solutions. Cyclic polarization tests in 1 M NaCl showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion at 90 C but was not susceptible at 60 C.

Day, S D; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

2003-06-24

270

Molecular dynamics studies on the thermodynamics of supercooled sodium chloride aqueous solution at different concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we compare recent results obtained by means of molecular dynamics computer simulations on the thermodynamics of TIP4P bulk water and on solutions of sodium chloride in TIP4P water. The concentrations studied are c = 0.67, 1.36 and 2.10 mol kg{sup -1}. The results are checked against change of water-salt potential and size effects. The systems are studied in a wide range of temperatures, going from ambient temperature to the supercooled region. Analysis of simulated state points, performed on the isochores and on the isotherm plane, allowed the determination of the limit of mechanical stability and of the temperature of maximum density lines. While the presence of ions in the system does not affect the limit of mechanical stability with respect to the bulk, it causes the temperature of the maximum density line to shift to lower pressure and temperature upon increasing concentration. The occurrence of minima in the trend of potential energy as a function of density and the inflections in the low temperature isotherms suggest the presence of liquid-liquid coexistence for bulk water and for the sodium chloride solutions at all concentrations studied.

Corradini, D; Gallo, P; Rovere, M, E-mail: gallop@fis.uniroma3.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy)

2010-07-21

271

Molecular dynamics studies on the thermodynamics of supercooled sodium chloride aqueous solution at different concentrations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we compare recent results obtained by means of molecular dynamics computer simulations on the thermodynamics of TIP4P bulk water and on solutions of sodium chloride in TIP4P water. The concentrations studied are c = 0.67, 1.36 and 2.10 mol kg-1. The results are checked against change of water-salt potential and size effects. The systems are studied in a wide range of temperatures, going from ambient temperature to the supercooled region. Analysis of simulated state points, performed on the isochores and on the isotherm plane, allowed the determination of the limit of mechanical stability and of the temperature of maximum density lines. While the presence of ions in the system does not affect the limit of mechanical stability with respect to the bulk, it causes the temperature of the maximum density line to shift to lower pressure and temperature upon increasing concentration. The occurrence of minima in the trend of potential energy as a function of density and the inflections in the low temperature isotherms suggest the presence of liquid-liquid coexistence for bulk water and for the sodium chloride solutions at all concentrations studied.

272

Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin), Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets / Efeitos do Coccídeostático lonóforo (Monensina ou Salinomicina), Bicarbonato de Sódio ou Potássio, ou Ambos, e Dissalicitato-Metileno de Bacitracina em Dietas para Frangos de Corte  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Pintos Peterson x Arbor Acres foram criados em camas usadas até 45 ou 46 dias de vida em três testes de aviário. Inoculações de coccídea foram dadas pela água na idade de 14 dias. O bicarbonato de sódio (BCS; 0.20%) ou bicarbonato de potássio (BCP; 0.14%) foi adicionado à dieta dos frangos contendo [...] monensina (MON; 110 mg/kg) ou salinomicina (SAL; 66 mg/kg) no Experimento 1. No Experimento 2, usando SAL (55 mg/kg), três tratamentos de dieta de bicarbonato (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; ou SBC + PBC 0.10% cada) foram testados com ou sem BMD R (55 mg/kg). Dietas que diferem em níveis de SAL, BMD R e SBC foram avaliados no Experimento 3. Interação benéfica foi encontrada entre ionóforos e bicarbonatos para a mortalidade (menor no caso de BCS ou BCP e MON) no Experimento 1. Para efeitos principais, no Experimento 1 BCP com MON ou SAL melhorou o peso corporal, a taxa de conversão de alimento e a mortalidade. SAL melhorou o peso, a taxa de conversão de alimento e a mortalidade comparado com MON. No Experimento 2, BCP com SAL melhorou o peso, arranhões devidos a lesão coccídea, taxa de conversão de alimento e mortalidade através de dois níveis de BMD R. O BCP e BCS foram ambos eficazes no Experimento 1, mas BCP foi aproximadamente 0 a 40% tão efetivo quanto o BCS, dependendo do parâmetro no Experimento 2. A metade de níveis de BCS mais BCP geralmente apresentava resultados intermediários entre o controle e o BCS. BCS com MON ou SAL diminuíram a mortalidade, os arranhões devidos a lesão coccídea e taxas de conversão de alimento (Experimentos 1 e 2), e aumentou o peso corporal (Experimento 2). No Experimento 3, BMD R em todos os alimentos melhorou o peso corporal e a conversão de alimento contra o alimento inicial apenas, e BCS com SAL e BMD R melhoraram todos os parâmetros de desempenho. Abstract in english Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20%) or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14%) was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg [...] /kg) or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg) in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg), three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each) were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg). Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON) in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2), and increased body weight (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.

DM, Hooge; KR, Cummings; JL, McNaughton.

2000-04-01

273

Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin), Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets / Efeitos do Coccídeostático lonóforo (Monensina ou Salinomicina), Bicarbonato de Sódio ou Potássio, ou Ambos, e Dissalicitato-Metileno de Bacitracina em Dietas para Frangos de Corte  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Pintos Peterson x Arbor Acres foram criados em camas usadas até 45 ou 46 dias de vida em três testes de aviário. Inoculações de coccídea foram dadas pela água na idade de 14 dias. O bicarbonato de sódio (BCS; 0.20%) ou bicarbonato de potássio (BCP; 0.14%) foi adicionado à dieta dos frangos contendo [...] monensina (MON; 110 mg/kg) ou salinomicina (SAL; 66 mg/kg) no Experimento 1. No Experimento 2, usando SAL (55 mg/kg), três tratamentos de dieta de bicarbonato (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; ou SBC + PBC 0.10% cada) foram testados com ou sem BMD R (55 mg/kg). Dietas que diferem em níveis de SAL, BMD R e SBC foram avaliados no Experimento 3. Interação benéfica foi encontrada entre ionóforos e bicarbonatos para a mortalidade (menor no caso de BCS ou BCP e MON) no Experimento 1. Para efeitos principais, no Experimento 1 BCP com MON ou SAL melhorou o peso corporal, a taxa de conversão de alimento e a mortalidade. SAL melhorou o peso, a taxa de conversão de alimento e a mortalidade comparado com MON. No Experimento 2, BCP com SAL melhorou o peso, arranhões devidos a lesão coccídea, taxa de conversão de alimento e mortalidade através de dois níveis de BMD R. O BCP e BCS foram ambos eficazes no Experimento 1, mas BCP foi aproximadamente 0 a 40% tão efetivo quanto o BCS, dependendo do parâmetro no Experimento 2. A metade de níveis de BCS mais BCP geralmente apresentava resultados intermediários entre o controle e o BCS. BCS com MON ou SAL diminuíram a mortalidade, os arranhões devidos a lesão coccídea e taxas de conversão de alimento (Experimentos 1 e 2), e aumentou o peso corporal (Experimento 2). No Experimento 3, BMD R em todos os alimentos melhorou o peso corporal e a conversão de alimento contra o alimento inicial apenas, e BCS com SAL e BMD R melhoraram todos os parâmetros de desempenho. Abstract in english Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20%) or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14%) was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg [...] /kg) or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg) in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg), three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each) were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg). Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON) in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2), and increased body weight (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.

DM, Hooge; KR, Cummings; JL, McNaughton.

274

Determination of technological parameters for activation of resistant raw materials in solution of alkali and sodium hypochlorite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the process, studied the factors affecting the degree of opening of hard mineral. The optimal regimes of activation of arsenopyrite in alkaline solutions, salt with the addition of pyrolusite and sodium hypochlorite. The optimum concentration of the reactants in aqueous solution, providing maximum possible transferring the sulfur to soluble compounds and the binding of arsenic in the state of difficultly.

Sestager Aknazarov

2012-03-01

275

Vibrational Spectroscopy of Sodium Halide and Hydrogen Halide Aqueous Solutions: Application to Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

Heterogeneous reactions on the surfaces of atmospheric aerosols play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. These reactions are capable of converting alkyl and hydrogen halides (common constituents of marine boundary aerosols) into active halogen compounds. Fundamental questions still remain concerning surface species and reaction mechanisms pertaining to marine boundary aerosols. The first step in beginning to understand these heterogeneous reactions is to determine how ions in solution affect the structure of water at the interface. Vibrational sum frequency generation spectroscopy is used to examine the air-liquid interface of sodium halide and hydrogen halide (i.e. strong acid) solutions. In addition, comparison of the bulk water structure to that of the interface is accomplished using Raman spectroscopy. The hydrogen-bonding environment at the surface of NaCl is found to be similar to that of the air-water interface. In contrast, the interfacial water structure of NaBr, HCl, and HBr solutions is significantly altered from that of neat water. In the bulk, NaCl, NaBr, HCl, and HBr solutions disturb the hydrogen-bonding network of neat water. A comparison between the corresponding salts and acids show that the salts produce greater disorder (i.e. less coupling of the water symmetric stretching modes) in the bulk water structure.

Levering, L. M.; Liu, D.; Allen, H. C.

2003-12-01

276

Spectroscopic observations on photofading and fluorescence changes of eosin Y solutions in the presence of sodium azide  

Science.gov (United States)

Eosin Y solutions exposed to illumination with visible light showed a decreased absorption at 513 nm with increasing irradiation time. In the presence of the singlet oxygen quencher sodium azide, photofading at 513 nm was somewhat lower and a new and small absorption band at 420 nm was observed. Eosin Y fluorescence at 538 nm also decreased with illumination, while a new emission peak appeared at 478 nm. The presence of sodium azide largely increased the photoinduced emission at 478 nm.

Stockert, Juan Carlos; Villanueva, Angeles; Cañete, Magdalena; Juarranz, Angeles

1994-06-01

277

Yields determination of radiation-induced peroxidation of sodium linoleate in aqueous micellar solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Peroxidation of unconjugated polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acids such as linoleic acid (C 18:2) in aqueous micellar solution proceeds through a free-radical chain mechanism and is accompanied by the formation of conjugated dienes such as hydroperoxides. In the course of an investigation of radiation-initiated oxidation of aqueous sodium linoleate, we have measured three peroxidation indexes, namely conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) by means of absorption spectroscopy, high pressure liquid chromatography and spectrofluorimetry respectively. The yields values have been determined from the irradiation dose-dependence of the three peroxidation markers as a function of sodium linoleate concentration. There are linear correlations between the amounts of conjugated dienes, hydroperoxides and TBARS. The obtained results indicate the strong effect of oxygen and linoleate concentrations on the yields of products formation. The dilution curves which display large increase in chain propagation length with increasing linoleate concentration are discussed in terms of micellar size effect

278

The geochemical evolution of aqueous sodium in the Black Creek Aquifer, Horry and Georgetown counties, South Carolina  

Science.gov (United States)

The Black Creek aquifer contains dilute seawater near the North Carolina State line, probably the result of incomplete flushing of ancient seawater. Data do not indicate that the dilute seawater has migrated toward areas of fresh ground-water withdrawals. The concentration of chloride in ground-water samples ranges from 5 to 720 milligrams per liter and that of sodium from 160 to 690 milligrams per liter. Ion-exchange reactions (sodium for calcium and fluoride for hydroxyl) occur with the calcium carbonate dissolution reaction which produces calcium, bicarbonate, and hydroxyl ions. The reaction sequence and stoichiometry result in an aqueous solution in which the sum of bicarbonate and chloride equivalents per liter is equal to the equivalents per liter of sodium. Calcium ions are exchanged for sodium ions derived from sodium-rich clays upgradient of the dilute seawater. The cation-exchange reaction equilibrates at a sodium concentration of 280 milligrams per liter. Amounts of sodium greater than 280 milligrams per liter are contributed from dilute seawater. The cation-exchange reaction approaches an equilibrium which represents a mass-action limit in terms of the ratio of sodium to calcium in solution versus the ratio of exchangeable sodium to calcium on clay surfaces. Where the limit of calcium carbonate solubility is approached and dissolution ceases, some precipitation of calcite probably takes place. The dissolution of calcite exposes fossil shark teeth which release fluoride ions to the ground water through anion exchange with aqueous hydroxyl ions.

Zack, Allen L.; Roberts, Ivan

1988-01-01

279

Thermodynamic study of the n-octane-1-pentanol-sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermodynamic properties, PVTx (T S, P S, ? S) (?P/?T) VX, and C V VTx, of three microemulsions (water + n-octane + sodium dodecylsulfate + 1-pentanol) with composition of solution-1: 0.0777 (H2O):0.6997 (n-C8H18):0.0777 (SDS):0.1449 (1-C5H11OH) mass fraction; solution-2: 0.6220 (H2O):0.1555 (n-C8H18):0.0777 (SDS):0.1448 (1-C5H11OH) mass fraction; and solution-3: 0.2720 (H2O):0.5054 (n-C8H18):0.0777 (SDS):0.1449 (1-C5H11OH) mass fraction were measured. Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) was used as an ionic surfactant, 1-pentanol used as stabilizer (cosurfactant), and n-octane as oil component in aqueous solution. A high-temperature, high-pressure, adiabatic, and nearly constant-volume calorimeter supplemented by quasi-static thermogram technique was used for the measurements. Measurements were made at eight densities (isochores) between 475.87 and 919.03 kg m-3. The range of temperature was from 275 to 536 K and pressure range was up to 138 bar. Uncertainty of the pressure, density, derivative (?P/?T) VX, and heat capacity measurements are estimated to be 0.25%, 0.02%, 0.12-1.5%, and 2.5%, respectively. Temperatures at liquid-gas phase transition curve, T S(?), for each measured densities (isochores) were determensities (isochores) were determined using a quasi-static thermogram technique. The uncertainty of the phase transition temperature measurements is about ±0.02 K. The effect of temperature, density, and concentration on the heat capacity of the microemulsions is discussed. Along the isochore of 438.40 kg m-3 at temperatures above 525.44 K for the first solution the precipitation of the solid phase (SDS) was found

280

Polyion-counterion interactions in sodium carboxymethylcellulose-ethylene glycol-water ternary solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyion-counterion interactions in sodium carboxymethylcellulose-ethylene glycol-water ternary system have been investigated with special reference to their variations with the polyelectrolyte concentration, the medium relative permittivity and the temperature using electrical conductance measurements. The experimental data have been analyzed on the basis of a model for semidilute polyelectrolyte conductivity which takes into account the scaling arguments proposed by Dobrynin et al. Concentration-dependent moderate counterion condensation (24-33%) was observed. Counterion condensation is found to be spontaneous which depends upon the EG-content of the medium and the temperature. A major proportion of the current is transported by the carboxymethylcellulose polyions. The results further demonstrated that the monomer units experience more frictional resistance in solution as the EG-content increases or as the temperature decreases. PMID:23399187

Sharma, Ramesh; Das, Chanchal; Dahal, Sanjay; Das, Bijan

2013-02-15

 
 
 
 
281

The study of LaNi5-type intermetallic compound behaviour in sodium borohydride alkaline solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Behaviour of intermetallic LaNi4.5T0.5 compounds (IMC) (T=Mn, Cr, Co, Al, Fe, Cu) in alkaline solutions of sodium borohydride (0.1; 1.0; 4.0 mol/l of NaOH) is investigated within 293-318 K temperature interval. IMC (T=Mn, Al) hydrogenation reaction occurrence with the production of LaNi4.5T0.5H4.5 composition hydride phases is ascertained. Kinetics of the catalytic hydrolysis of NaBH4 in the above mentioned alkaline solutions in the presence of IMC is studied using the gas volumetric method. For all the IMC studied this reaction has a zero order by NaBH4 and the first one by the IMC. It is ascertained that a partial substitution of T for nickel in LaNi5 produces a notable effect on the NaBH4 hydrolysis rate. An anomalous increase of NaBH4 hydrolysis rate with the growth of solution alkalinity in the presence of IMC is detected. 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

282

Influence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose on the aggregation behavior of aqueous 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) on the aggregation phenomena of a surface active ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C16MeImCl) was studied in aqueous solutions using electrical conductivity and surface tension measurements. The counterion condensation behavior of NaCMC (aq) and the premicellar ion-association behavior of C16MeImCl (aq) were also investigated. Two characteristic concentrations, namely the critical aggregation concentration and polymer saturation concentration, before free C16MeImCl micelles appear in C16MeImCl-NaCMC solutions have been identified. Effects of temperature, NaCMC concentration, and the charge density parameter of NaCMC on the self-aggregation of the C16MeImCl have been discussed to elucidate C16MeImCl-NaCMC interactions. The thermodynamic parameters for micellization of C16MeImCl were estimated both in absence and in the presence of NaCMC. The observed enthalpy-entropy compensation effect in C16MeImCl and C16MeImCl-NaCMC systems provided important insight as to how micellization processes are governed by the bulk structural property of the solution with respect to that of the water. PMID:25256477

Das, Bijan; Ray, Dhiman; De, Ranjit

2014-11-26

283

Effect of different ions on the anodic behaviour of alloy 800 chloride solutions at high temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anodic behaviour and passivity breakdown of alloy 800 in sodium bicarbonate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions were studied in the temperature range from 100 degrees C to 280 degrees C by means of electrochemical techniques. The effect of phosphate or bicarbonate additions on the pitting susceptibility and pitting morphology of the alloy in chloride solutions was also examined. Experiments were performed in the following solutions: 0.1M NaHCO3, at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C, 280 degrees C; 0.06M NaH2PO4 + 0.04M Na2HPO4, at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C and 280 degrees C, and 0.1M NaCl with different additions of bicarbonate ion (0.02M, 0.05M and 0.1M) and phosphate ion (0.01M, 0.05M and 0.1M) at 100 degrees C and 280 degrees C. The anodic polarization curves of alloy 800 in deaerated 0.1M NaHCO3 and 0.06M NaH2PO4 + 0.04M Na2HPO4 solutions exhibited a similar shape at all the tested temperatures. No localized or generalized corrosion was detected on the metallic surface after polarization. The results obtained in chloride plus bicarbonate and chloride plus phosphate mixtures showed that the pitting potential of alloy 800 in chloride solutions was increased by the presence of bicarbonate or phosphate ions. In those solutions where the inhibitor concentration in the mixture is equal or higher than the chloride concentration , the behaviour of the alloy is similar to the one observed in the absence of chlorides. Changes in pitting morphology were found in phosphate containing solutions, while the pits found in bicarbonate containing solutions were similar to those formed in pure chloride solutions. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

284

Adsorption of U(VI) ions from low concentration uranium solution by thermally activated sodium feldspar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermally activated sodium feldspar (TASF), a novel material, was prepared by calcinating the micron sodium feldspar (SF) at 450 deg C for 45 min. The TASF and the SF were characterized using X-ray diffraction and mercury injection porosimetry, and the TASF was found to have larger specific surface area and larger porosity than SF. The effects of the initial pH, temperature, contact time and initial U(VI) ions concentration on the adsorption of U(VI) ions from the low concentration uranium solution by TASF were investigated. The maximum adsorption efficiency of TASF for 0.5 mg/L uranium solution amounted to 95.49 % when the initial pH was 5.0, the temperature, 318 K, and and the contact time, 600 min. The relationship between the adsorption capacity qe and equilibrium concentration Ce can well be described by Freundlich equation. Adsorption isotherm and the analysis by FT-IR coupled with SEM revealed that U(VI) ions were adsorbed onto the surface of TASF in multimolecular or cluster states, and that the intraparticle diffusion occurred in spontaneous process. The basic thermodynamic parameters including free energy change, entropy change and enthalpy change were calculated to comprehend the intrinsic features and spontaneous nature of the adsorption process. The FT-IR spectroscopic characterization for the TASF indicated that many groups were involved in the adsorption process of U(VI) ions, and the -OH group played a more important role. The experimental results suggested that TASF had great adsorption efficiency and strong potentiality of enrichment and recovery for the low concentration U(VI). (author)

285

UVA mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles in pharmaceutical-grade heparin sodium solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

A photochemical-based method in which UVA light (?=366 nm) is used for synthesizing gold nanoparticles is presented by irradiating gold (III) chloride hydrate (HAuCl4) in the presence of pharmaceutical-grade heparin sodium (PGHEP) as a reducing and stabilizing agent in aqueous solution. Different HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratios were exposed to UVA for up to seven hours. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and pH measurements. The synthesized AuNPs present spherical as well as anisotropic shapes, such as oval, triangular, hexagonal sheets, rods, and some other faceted forms, with dimensions ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm. All obtained products show good temporal stability in solution. Surface plasmons differ when varying HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratio. The obtained samples exhibit two absorption peaks, one in the region between 500-600 nm, and another one in the near-IR between 900-1200 nm; both peaks shift to longer wavelengths and increase their absorption intensity as the HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratio increase. TEM images show the change in nanoparticles yield as well as the shape and sizes change depending on HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratio variation. Ph measurements suggest that acidic media promote anisotropic nanoparticle formation. Raman spectroscopy was used to find out which heparin sodium main groups attached to the nanoparticles surface, and in what amount. In summary, it is found that when modifying the reactants concentrations and keeping the UV exposition time as the only fixed parameter, different nanoparticles with distinctive characteristics can be attained.

Rodríguez-Torres, M. Del P.; Diaz-Torres, L. A.; Olmos-López, M.; Salas, P.; Gutiérrez, Clara

2013-09-01

286

Ultrasonic degradation of metal complexes with organic substances present in mineralized water, brines, and sodium chloride solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of ultrasound over a frequency range from 18 kHz to 2 MHz to the degradation of metal complexes (M=Cd, Cu, Pb) with organic compounds present in water, brines, and sodium chloride solutions was studied to prepare samples for atomic absorption analysis. It was found that ultrasound over a frequency range from 18 to 100 or 200 kHz can be used for the degradation of complexes in sodium chloride solutions and brines or seawater, respectively. In this case, the best results were obtained over the frequency range 80-100 or 80-200 kHz, respectively

287

Numerical Investigations of Vadose Zone Transport of Saturated Sodium Thiosulfate Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Compared with water, hypersaline liquid wastes ([NaNO3] > 10 N) from the reduction-oxidation (REDOX) process at the Hanford site have elevated viscosity (? > 1.2 cP), density (? > 1.4 gm/cm3), and surface tension (? > 100 dyn/cm). Such liquids have infiltrated into the vadose zone at Hanford from leaking underground storage tanks. The migration behavior of saturated or hypersaline salt solutions through unsaturated soils is largely unknown. Laboratory tests with tank-waste simulants suggest that the elevated density, viscosity, and surface tension properties of these liquids can influence the wetting front behavior, altering its shape and migration rate. Conditions under which these mechanisms are active in the field and the extent to which they contribute to transport through the vadose zone are largely unknown, making it impossible to accurately predict the post-leak distribution of these fluids in the field. To investigate the effects of fluid properties on subsurface migration of hypersaline saline solutions, numerical simulations were conducted of a field-scale, tank-leak experiment. The field experiments consisted of five 4000-L injections, at a depth of 5 m, of saturated sodium thiosulfate brine (used as a surrogate for REDOX type wastes) over a 5-week period, followed by three 4000-L injections of Columbia River water. Pre-test modeling of river water injections at this Hanford field site predicted significant lateral spreading of the moisture plume and were confirmed by geophysical logging. A series of three-dimensional, multifluid (i.e., aqueous and gas phases) numerical simulations were conducted that systematically considered the effects of elevated density, viscosity, and surface tension, and reduced vapor pressure on vadose-zone transport. Hydrologic properties were determined from cores collected at the field site and calibrated using river-water injection experiments. Isothermal conditions were assumed for the simulations, however, the effects of saline concentration on water vapor migration were considered. Simulated distributions of water, thiosulfate and chloride ions (injected as sodium chloride at 0.5% concentration as a tracer with the sodium thiosulfate) are compared against field distributions of water, determined by neutron probe, and ion concentrations, determined from the analysis of soil cores.

White, M. D.; Ward, A. L.

2001-12-01

288

Electrochemical screening of organic and inorganic inhibitors for the corrosion of ASTM A-470 steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion of ASTM A-470 turbine disk steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (10 mol/kg) containing sodium silicate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium chromate, aniline and some of its derivatives, tannic acid, L-(-)-phenylalanine (aminopropionic acid) and octadecylamine as potential inhibitors has been studied using the potentiodynamic, AC impedance, and Tafel extrapolation techniques. All tests were performed at 115 + or - 2 C. The anodic and cathodic polarization data show that aniline and its derivatives, L-(-)-phenylalanine, NaH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, Na/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/, and Na/sub 2/CrO/sub 4/ inhibit the anodic process, whereas tannic acid inhibits the cathodic reaction. Octadecylamine was found to inhibit both the anodic and cathodic processes. The mechanisms of inhibition for some of these compounds have been inferred from the wide band width frequency dispersions of the interfacial impedance.

Moccari, A.; MacDonald, D.D.

1985-05-01

289

Electrochemical screening of organic and inorganic inhibitors for the corrosion of ASTM A-470 steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion of ASTM A-470 turbine disk steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (10 mol/kg) containing sodium silicate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium chromate, aniline and some of its derivatives, tannic acid, L-(-)-phenylalanine (aminopropionic acid) and octadecylamine as potential inhibitors has been studied using the potentiodynamic, AC impedance, and Tafel extrapolation techniques. All tests were performed at 115 + or - 2 C. The anodic and cathodic polarization data show that aniline and its derivatives, L-(-)-phenylalanine, NaH2PO4, Na2SiO3, and Na2CrO4 inhibit the anodic process, whereas tannic acid inhibits the cathodic reaction. Octadecylamine was found to inhibit both the anodic and cathodic processes. The mechanisms of inhibition for some of these compounds have been inferred from the wide band width frequency dispersions of the interfacial impedance

290

tlpA gene expression is required for arginine and bicarbonate chemotaxis in Helicobacter pylori  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english About half of the human population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastritis, peptic ulcer and progression to gastric cancer. Chemotaxis and flagellar motility are required for colonization and persistence of H. pylori in the gastric mucus layer. It is not completely clear [...] which chemical gradients are used by H. pylori to maintain its position. TlpA, a chemotaxis receptor for arginine/ bicarbonate, has been identified. This study aimed to find out whether tlpA gene expression is required for the chemotactic response to arginine/bicarbonate. Wild-type motile H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 43504, a strain having an interrupted tlpA gene, were used. Also, a tlpA-knockout mutant of H. pylori 700392 (H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat) was produced by homologous recombination. Expression of tlpA was assessed by a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Chemotaxis was measured as a Relative Chemotaxis Response (RCR) by a modified capillary assay. H. pylori 700392 presented chemotaxis to arginine and sodium bicarbonate. H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat showed neither tlpA gene expression nor chemotaxis towards arginine and bicarbonate. Besides confirming that TlpA is a chemotactic receptor for arginine/bicarbonate in H. pylori, this study showed that tlpA gene expression is required for arginine/bicarbonate chemotaxis.

Oscar A, Cerda; Felipe, Núñez-Villena; Sarita E, Soto; José Manuel, Ugalde; Remigio, López-Solís; Héctor, Toledo.

291

Some magnetic resonance properties of solutions of sodium in liquid ammonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dilute solutions of sodium in liquid ammonia are studied by the mean of dynamic polarization techniques, and with the aid of Becker Lindquist and Alder model. Paramagnetic shifts are computed as a function of the 'average spin density', for each of the nuclear spin system. The nuclear contributions to the Overhauser shift are computed in the same way. A theoretical study of the main relaxation processes is carried out for each of the nuclear spin system and for the electronic spin system. The dynamic polarization experiments consist in classical measurement of the Overhauser enhancement for nitrogen, and in direct measurements of nitrogen Knight shift and nuclear contributions to the Overhauser shift by the mean of double irradiation techniques. The results show that, in dilute solutions, the relaxation of nitrogen arises from quadrupole interaction and from hyperfine interaction with unpaired electrons. Both interactions are of the same order of magnitude. Overhauser shift measurements show that the spin density is negative at the proton site, in agreement with Hughes results. (author)

292

Dispersion stability of functionalized graphene in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The colloidal stability of functionalized graphene sheets (FGSs) in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions of different concentrations was studied by optical microscopy and ultraviolet-visible light absorption after first dispersing the FGSs ultrasonically. In up to ?10 ?M SDS solutions, FGSs reaggregated within a few minutes, forming ramified structures in the absence of SDS and increasingly compact structures as the amount of SDS increased. Above ?10 ?M, the rate of reaggregation decreased with increasing SDS concentration; above ?40 ?M, the suspensions were colloidally stable for over a year. The concentration of ?40 ?M SDS lies 2 orders of magnitude below the critical surface aggregation concentration of ?1.8 mM SDS on FGSs but above the concentration (?18 ?M) at which SDS begins to form a monolayer on FGSs. Neither surface micelle nor dense monolayer coverage is therefore required to obtain stable aqueous FGS dispersions. We support our experimental results by calculating the van der Waals and electrostatic interaction energies between FGSs as a function of SDS concentration and show that the experimentally observed transition from an unstable to a stable dispersion correlates with a transition from negative to positive interaction energies between FGSs in the aggregated state. Furthermore, our calculations support experimental evidence that aggregates tend to develop a compact structure over time. PMID:24188504

Hsieh, Andrew G; Korkut, Sibel; Punckt, Christian; Aksay, Ilhan A

2013-12-01

293

Passivity and passivity breakdown of a zinc electrode in aerated neutral sodium nitrate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The passivation and pitting corrosion behaviour of a zinc electrode in aerated neutral sodium nitrate solutions was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry techniques, complemented by ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) examinations of the electrode surface. Measurements were conducted under different experimental conditions. The potentiodynamic anodic polarization curves do not exhibit active dissolution region due to spontaneous passivation. The passivity is due to the presence of thin film of ZnO on the anode surface. The passive region is followed by pitting corrosion as a result of breakdown of the passive film. SEM images confirmed the existence of pits on the electrode surface. The breakdown potential decreases with an increase in NO3- concentration and temperature, but increases with increasing potential scan rate. Addition of SO42- ions to the nitrate solution accelerates pitting corrosion, while addition of WO42- and MoO42- ions inhibits pitting corrosion. The chronopotentiometry measurements show that the incubation time for pitting initiation decreases with increasing NO3- concentration, temperature and applied anodic current density. Addition of SO42- ions decreases the rate of passive film growth and the incubation time, while the reverse changes produced by addition of either WO42- or MoO42- ions

294

Recovery of nickel from aqueous solutions by complexation-ultrafiltration process with sodium polyacrylate and polyethylenimine.  

Science.gov (United States)

The recovery of nickel from aqueous dilute solutions by complexation-ultrafiltration process with sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) and polyethylenimine (PEI) was studied. Experiments were performed as a function of aqueous pH, polymer/Ni(2+) ratio and background electrolyte concentration. At optimum experimental conditions, the nickel removal rate reaches 99.5% using PAAS and 93.0% using PEI as the complexation agent. The nickel removal rate was found to decrease as the adding salt NaCl concentration increases for both complexation agents. A series of experiments implied that the mechanism could be the compressing electric double layer other than the competitive complexation. Diafiltration technique was further performed to regenerate complexation agents and recover nickel. The nickel removal rates were found to be close to those obtained with the original PEI and PAAS. Finally, Langmuir-type binding isotherm equation was employed to evaluate the extent of nickel bound to PAAS and PEI. The overall results from the two-step process of complexation-UF and decomplexation-UF separation showed that it could be a promising method for nickel removal and recovery from aqueous solutions. PMID:23177250

Shao, Jiahui; Qin, Shu; Davidson, Joshua; Li, Wenxi; He, Yiliang; Zhou, H Susan

2013-01-15

295

Multiparametric Flow System for the Automated Determination of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium in Large-Volume Parenteral Solutions and Concentrated Hemodialysis Solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A multiparametric flow system based on multicommutation and binary sampling has been designed for the automated determination of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in large-volume parenteral solutions and hemodialysis concentrated solutions. The goal was to obtain a computer-controlled system capable of determining the four metals without extensive modifications. The system involved the use of five solenoid valves under software control, allowing the establishment of the appropriate fl...

Mariela Pistón; Isabel Dol; Knochen, Mois Amp S.

2006-01-01

296

Precipitation of UO2 in sodium carbonate solutions by electrolytic hydrogen and catalyzed by Ni-Raney - Bibliography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report proposes abstracts and short versions of a set of documents (studies, patents) dealing with the precipitation of uranium (notably in its oxide form, UO2) in solutions of sodium carbonate. The main objective is to identify the interest of a chemical reduction by electrolytic hydrogen. The author makes a distinction between the most relevant documents and those relatively relevant ones

297

Randomized controlled trial of sodium phosphate tablets vs polyethylene glycol solution for colonoscopy bowel cleansing  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM: To compare efficacy, patient compliance, acceptability, satisfaction, safety, and adenoma detection rate of sodium phosphate tablets (NaP, CLICOLONTM) to a standard 4 L polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution for bowel cleansing for adults undergoing colonoscopy. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized, prospective, investigator-blind study, the relatively young (19-60 years) healthy outpatients without comorbidity were randomly assigned to one of two arms. All colonoscopy were scheduled in the morning. The NaP group was asked to take 4 tablets, 5 times the evening before and 4 tablets, 3 times early on the morning of the colonoscopy. The PEG group was asked to ingest 2 L of solution the evening before and 2 L early in the morning of the procedure. Adequacy of bowel preparation was scored using the Boston bowel preparation scale. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the NaP group (n = 158) and PEG group (n = 162) in bowel cleansing quality (adequate preparation 93.0% vs 92.6%, P = 0.877), patient compliance (P = 0.228), overall adverse events (63.3% vs 69.1%, P = 0.269), or adenoma detection rate (34.8% vs 35.2%, P = 0.944). Patient acceptability, satisfaction, and patient rating of taste were higher in the NaP group than in the PEG group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: NaP tablets, compared with PEG solution, produced equivalent colon cleansing, did not cause more side effects, and had better patient acceptability and satisfaction in the relatively young (age < 60 years) healthy individuals without comorbidity. An oral tablet formulation could make bowel preparation less burdensome, resulting in greater patient participation in screening programs.

Jung, Yoon Suk; Lee, Chang Kyun; Kim, Hyo Jong; Eun, Chang Soo; Han, Dong Soo; Park, Dong Il

2014-01-01

298

Novel process of simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO2 by sodium humate solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel simultaneous flue gas desulfurization and denitrification (FGDD) process using sodium humate (HA-Na) solution was proposed. This study relates to the SO2/NO2 absorption efficiency and products of simultaneous removing SO2 and NO2 in a bubbling reactor, especially the effect of recycled water on the SO2/NO2 absorption. Under alkaline conditions, the sulfate content in S-containing compound decreases with the increase of NO2 concentration, whereas there is a contrary result under acidic conditions. Whether the absorption liquid is alkaline or acidic, the presence of NO2 improves the SO2 absorption into HA-Na solution, because NO2 may promote the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate. It seems that the presence of SO2 is unfavorable for the NO2 absorption, but the NO2 absorption efficiency can be improved with the cycle number rising due to the increasing amount of sulfite. Although all the ion concentrations of Na+,SO4(2-),SO3(2-), and NO3- have a gradual increase as the cycle number rises, the ion concentrations of SO4(2-) and Na+ are far more than that of the other ions, which results in a slight decrease of the SO2 absorption efficiency. However, the initial pH of HA-Na solution prepared by recycled water decreases from 10 to 8.1 with the cycle number increasing from 1 to 10, whereas the final pH (the pH after absorption reaction is finished) remains almost constant (3.3). The SO2 absorption efficiency is above 98% and the NO2 absorption efficiency may reach above 95% in the optimal condition in this process. The chief byproduct is a compound fertilizer consisting of humic acid (HA), sulfate, and nitrate. PMID:20704283

Hu, Guoxin; Sun, Zhiguo; Gao, Hanyang

2010-09-01

299

Efeito de bicarbonato de sódio, feno e bagaço "in natura" sobre a digestibilidade e o desempenho de zebuínos em crescimento alimentados com bagaço de cana auto-hidrolisado / Effect of sodium bicarbonate, grass hay und untreated bagasse on the performance of growing zebu cattle fed steam treated sugarcane bagasse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O bagaço de cana-de-açúcar "in natura" (BIN) associado ou não ao bicarbonato de sódio foi testado como substituto do feno de gramínea como fonte de fibra longa para rações de ruminantes balanceadas com altas proporções de bagaço auto-hidrolisado (BAH). A ração básica (I) continha 54% BAH; 10% milho [...] grão; 25% farelo de algodão; 8% feno de gramínea; 0,9% calcáreo; 0,5% uréia; e 1,5% premix mineral, base seca. As rações II e III continham BIN e BIN mais bicarbonato de sódio (1,1%, base seca) respectivamente em substituição ao feno de gramínea da ração I. Foram usados bovinos Nelore machos não castrados e fêmeas (18 de cada sexo) em crescimento com médias iniciais de peso vivo e idade de 199 kg e 11 meses. O delineamento estatístico usado foi um fatorial com 3 rações e dois sexos, com dois animais por parcela. O período de adaptação foi de 15 dias e o experimental de 87 dias. Os dados para GPV (kg/dia); ingestão de MS (% PV); conversão alimentar (kg MS/Kg GPV); e pH fecal foram de: 0,909; 2,79; 7,41; e 6,46 para a ração I; 0,867; 2,65; 7,24; e 6,57 para a ração II; e 1,019; 2,88; 7,03 e 6,73 para a ração III. A ração III foi superior rações I e II para ganho de peso (P Abstract in english Crude sugarcane bagasse (BIN) with and without the addition of sodium bicarbonate was evaluated as a substitute for grass hay as source of long fiber in ruminant diets balanced with high proportions of steam pressure treated sugarcane bagasse (BAH, 17kgf/cm² for 6 minutes). The basal ration (I) had [...] 54% BAH; 10% corn grain; 25% cottonseed meal; 8% grass hay, 0.9% limestone; 0.5% urea; and 1.5% mineral premix, dry basis. In rations II and III, grass hay was replaced by BIN and BIN plus sodium bicarbonate (1.1%, dry basis) respectively. Nelore bull and heifer calves (18 animals each sex) with 199kg average weight and 11 months average age were used in a factorial design (3 rations and 2 sexes), with two animals per plot. The adaptation and experimental periods were 15 and 87 days respectively. The results for LWG (kg/day), DM intake (% LW), DM conversion (kg DM/kg LWG), and fecal pH were: 0.909; 2.79; 7.41 and 6.46 for ration I; 0.867; 2.65; 7.24; and 6.57 for ration II; and 1.019; 2.88; 7.03 and 6.75 for ration III respectively. Ration III was superior to rations I and II for LWG (P

D.P.D., Lanna; C., Boin.

300

Analysis of the chemical stability of the 1% sodium hypochlorite solution taking in consideration the place of storage and the amount of present solution in the bottle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study had as objective to analyze theloss of the chlorine text of the 1% sodium hypochlorite solution stored in coolant and ambient temperature and in bottles of plastic amber and cloudy white plastic, leading in consideration the amount of existing solution in the bottles. Material and methods: 24 liters of solution had been used, which had been divided in two groups: group 1 (6 bottles of plastic amber and 6 white plastic bottles filled with 1.000 mL of the 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and group 2 (6 bottles of plastic amber and 6 white plastic bottles filled with 800 mL of solution.In the second group had been removed 50 mL of solution of each bottle on each week, while the bottles of group 1 had always remained full. The analysis of the chlorine text was carried through in the beginning and in the final period of 10 weeks through the method of titulometria of oxi-reduction or iodometria. Results and conclusion:For the analysis statistics it was used analysis of the variance (Anovafollowed by the test of Tukey, to the level of significance of 5%, where it can be verified that the amount of present solution in the interior of the bottles contributed for the instability of the solution, whatever the place and the bottle of storage, and the full bottles had kept the chlorinetext of the solutions higher.

Graziele BORIN

2008-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Search for the ideal oral rehydration solution: studies in a model of secretory diarrhoea.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In situ perfusion of whole rat small intestine was used to compare the efficacy of five oral rehydration solutions in promoting water and sodium absorption in normal intestine and secreting intestine after exposure to cholera toxin. Solutions varied in their sodium (35-90 mmol/l) and glucose (111-200 mmol/l) concentrations, molar ratio of glucose:sodium (1.2-5.8), and osmolality (281-331 mOsmol/kg), and contained either bicarbonate (18-30 mmol/l) or citrate (10 mmol/l). In normal intestine al...

Elliott, E. J.; Watson, A. J.; Walker-smith, J. A.; Farthing, M. J.

1991-01-01

302

Cations extraction of sandy-clay soils from cavado valley, portugal, using sodium salts solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cases of contamination by metals in the water wells of the Cavado Valley in north-west Portugal can be attributed to the heavy leaching of clay soils due to an excess of nitrogen resulting from the intensive use of fertilisers in agricultural areas. This work focuses on the natural weathering characteristics of soils, particularly the clay material, through the study of samples collected near the River Cavado. Samples taken from various sites, after physico-chemical characterisation, were subjected to clay dissolution tests, using sodium salts of different ionic forces, to detect the relationship between certain physico-chemical parameters of water, such as pH, nitrate, chloride and sulphate content, in the dissolution of clay and the subsequent extraction of such cations as Al, Fe and K. In acidic sandy clay soils, the mineralogical composition of which was characterised by a predominance of quartz, micas, kaolinite and K-feldspars, decreases of the clay material/water pH ratio increases dissolution of the micaceous and K-feldspars phases. The presence of nitrates in the aqueous solution apparently advanced the extraction of all three cations Al, Fe and K. The specific surface area of the clay material showed a significant correlation with the main kinetic parameters of cation extraction.

Silva João Eudes da

2002-01-01

303

Adsorption characteristic of 137Cs from aqueous solution using PAN-based sodium titanosilicate composite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An organic-inorganic ion exchanger namely sodium titanosilicate-polyacrylonitrile (STS-PAN) composite was synthesized and used for the adsorption of 137Cs from a typical aqueous solution. The physicochemical behavior of the ion exchanger was specified with different techniques including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), specific surface analysis (BET), thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), scanning election microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and CHN elemental analysis. The thermal and gamma irradiation stability of the synthesized ion exchanger was investigated. It was observed that the ion exchanger is stable up to 275 deg C and against gamma irradiation up to 200 KGy. The effects of pH, contact time, ambient temperature, and presence of various cations on adsorption rate of STS-PAN were also studied and the optimum conditions obtained. In addition, thermodynamic parameters were evaluated during the adsorption. The values of the enthalpy and the Gibbs free energy suggest an endothermic and spontaneous process. Adsorption isotherm in batch experiment showed that the sorption data were successfully fitted with Langmuir model. Finally the adsorption dynamic capacity of the synthesized composite in a columnar experiment as well as its elution was evaluated. The complete breakthrough curve was generated at a feed rate of 15 bed volume per hour and sorbent capacities were obtained at 5 and 100% breakthrough. (author)

304

Kinetics and mechanism of sphalerite leaching by sodium nitrate in sulphuric acid solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interest for application of hydrometallurgical processes in a processing of complex sulphide ores and concentrates has increased in recent years. Their application provides better metal recoveries and reduced emission of gaseous and toxic ageneses in the environment. The kinetics and mechanism of sphalerite leaching from complex sulphide concentrate with sulphuric acid and sodium nitrate solution at standard conditions was presented in this paper. The influences of temperature and time on the leaching degree of zinc were investigated and kinetic analysis of the process was accomplished. With temperature increasing from 60 to 90°C, the zinc leaching increased from 25.23% to 71.66% after 2 hours, i.e. from 59.40% to 99.83% after 4 hours. The selected kinetic model indicated that the diffusion through the product layer was the rate-controlling step during the sphalerite leaching. The activation energy was determined to be 55 kJ/mol in the temperature range 60-90°C. XRD, light microscopy and SEM/EDX analyses of the complex concentrate and leach residue confirmed formation of elemental sulphur and diffusion-controlled leaching mechanism.

Soki? M.

2012-01-01

305

Passivation of chalcopyrite during the leaching with sulphuric acid solution in presence of sodium nitrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, the process of the chalcopyrite leaching in sulphuric acid solution was investigated. Sodium nitrate was used as oxidant in the leaching process. Chemical reactions of leaching and their thermodynamic possibilities are predicted based on the calculated Gibbs energies and analysis of E?pH diagrams. The negative values of the Gibbs energy show that all chemical reactions are thermodynamically feasible at atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range 25-90°C. At high electrode potential and low pH values, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions exist in water solutions. The increase of temperature reduces the probability of Fe3+ ion existence in the system. The chalcopyrite concentrate, enriched in the “Rudnik” flotation plant, with 27.08% Cu, 25.12% Fe, 4.15% Zn and 2.28% Pb was used in the work. XRD and DTA analysis of the concentrate reveals that the sample contains mainly the chalcopyrite with small amount of sphalerite. For the description of the reaction of leaching process the leach residuals, obtained at different conditions, were chosen for XRD, TG/DTA and SEM/EDX analyses. The elemental sulphur and chalcopyrite phases identified in leach residuals confirm our prediction that the elemental sulphur is formed during the leaching process. Accordingly, elemental sulphur is the main product of the reaction, while a minor amount of sulphide sulphur is oxidized to sulphate during the leaching. The sulphur formed during the reaction was precipitated at the particle surfaces, and slowed down the leaching rate in the final stage of leaching process. In the initial stage, the reaction rate was controlled by the surface reaction. The mechanism, latter has been changed into a diffusion controlled one.

Soki? Miroslav D.

2010-01-01

306

Bicarbonate utilization by leaf protoplasts from Potamogeton  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leaves from the submerged angiosperm P. lucens are able to assimilate bicarbonate. These leaves behave polarly: during bicarbonate utilization protons (H+) are excreted by the cells of the lower epidermis, while hydroxyl (OH-) ions are excreted by the upper epidermal cells. It has been proposed that acidification of the apoplast is a prerequisite for bicarbonate utilization. To test this hypothesis 14C fixation by protoplasts was determined at different pH values. Also experiments, using the isotopic disequilibrium technique were performed. They showed that at pH values > 8, bicarbonate is a major carbon source for photosynthesis in protoplasts, despite the absence of cell walls and polarity. At pH values around 6, the rate of 14C-fixation in protoplasts equals that of intact leaves. At pH values > 8, however, intact leaves show a higher rate. From this, and other experiments, the authors conclude that at least 2 processes contribute to bicarbonate utilization in P. lucens leaves: active transport (H+-HCO3- symport?) and acidification of the apoplast resulting in the conversion of bicarbonate into CO2. Polarity may increase the efficiency of both

307

U(VI) ion adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics from aqueous solution onto raw sodium feldspar and acid-activated sodium feldspar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The raw sodium feldspar (RSF) is activated with the concentrated sulfuric acid solution and the acid activated sodium feldspar (AASF) is obtained. The results obtained from the mercury intrusion method show that the acidification can increase the porosity and the specific surface area. The effects of the initial pH, contact time and ambient temperature on the adsorption of U(VI) ions are investigated in a batch process. The adsorption efficiency amounts to the highest at pH 6 and the adsorption equilibrium is reached in 600 min. The pseudo-second-order model is found to be more suitable for the adsorption process than the pseudo-first-order model and intra-particle model, indicating that the chemical adsorption is the predominant step for the adsorption process. Langmuir model is found to describe the adsorption process better than Freundlich model. This proves that the main form of U(VI) ions attached to RSF and AASF is the monolayer coverage. The thermodynamic parameters prove that the adsorption process is a spontaneous endothermic one. It was also found that acid activated treatment can help increase the adsorption rate and capacity. The results show that RSF and AASF can be used as a novel low cost adsorbent for removal of U(VI) ions from the low concentration aqueous solution. (author)

308

Lactate and bicarbonate uptake in the sweat duct of cystic fibrosis and normal subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sweat of single sweat glands of healthy individuals and cystic fibrosis patients was analyzed for differences in bicarbonate, lactate, and pH. These values were monitored as a function of sweat rate simultaneously with 1) the electrical potential difference at the duct orifice (with respect to the interstitial fluid) and 2) the concentrations of sodium, potassium, and chloride in surface sweat. Sweat in both groups contained about equal concentrations of lactate and bicarbonate at similar sweat rates. Similarly, the pH of sweat secreted at similar rates in the two populations was not significantly different. Acidification of sweat increased with decreasing sweat rate. In both populations, lactate and bicarbonate may be absorbed passively in the distal sweat duct in their nonionic form and, thus, not influenced by the increased electrical potential difference in the cystic fibrosis sweat duct. The uptake of these ions may involve active proton secretion by sweat duct cells. PMID:3797136

Bijman, J; Quinton, P M

1987-01-01

309

Screening Evaluation of Sodium Nonatitanate for Strontium and Actinide Removal from Alkaline Salt Solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes results from screening tests evaluating strontium and actinide removal characteristics of a sodium titanate material developed by Clearfield and coworkers at Texas A and M University and offered commercially by Honeywell. Sodium nonatitanate may exhibit improved actinide removal kinetics and filtration characteristics compared to MST and thus merit testing.

Hobbs, D.T.

2001-02-13

310

The stability and solubility of cadmium(II)-8-oxyquinoline complexes in water and micellar solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complexing of 8-quinoline (HOx) with cadmium ion in water and 0.01 M solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (293 K, ??0.01) is studied by the method of pH-metric titration. Values of formation constants of complexes lg?1=6.17±0.32 (CdOx+) and lg?2=14.60±0.14 (CdOx2) in aqueous solution and values of apparent stability constants lg?1=8.64 (CdOx+) and lg?2=17.59 (CdOx2) in solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate were obtained by mathematic simulation of the most likely equilibriums. Solubility of cadmium dioxy quinolate in water in the range pH 3-6 and micellar medium of sodium dodecyl sulfate is defined through the method of saturated solutions. Solubility product pLp=21.3±0.9 (H2O, 293 K) was calculated by simulation of CdOx2 solubility having regard to all reactions of acidic-basic interaction and complexing

311

Transplastomic integration of a cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporter into tobacco chloroplasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improving global yields of agricultural crops is a complex challenge with evidence indicating benefits in productivity are achieved by enhancing photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Towards improving rates of CO2 capture within leaf chloroplasts, this study shows the versatility of plastome transformation for expressing the Synechococcus PCC7002 BicA bicarbonate transporter within tobacco plastids. Fractionation of chloroplast membranes from transplastomic tob(BicA) lines showed that ~75% of the BicA localized to the thylakoid membranes and ~25% to the chloroplast envelope. BicA levels were highest in young emerging tob(BicA) leaves (0.12 ?mol m(-2), ?7mg m(-2)) accounting for ~0.1% (w/w) of the leaf protein. In these leaves, the molar amount of BicA was 16-fold lower than the abundant thylakoid photosystem II D1 protein (~1.9 ?mol m(-2)) which was comparable to the 9:1 molar ratio of D1:BicA measured in air-grown Synechococcus PCC7002 cells. The BicA produced had no discernible effect on chloroplast ultrastructure, photosynthetic CO2-assimilation rates, carbon isotope discrimination, or growth of the tob(BicA) plants, implying that the bicarbonate transporter had little or no activity. These findings demonstrate the utility of plastome transformation for targeting bicarbonate transporter proteins into the chloroplast membranes without impeding growth or plastid ultrastructure. This study establishes the span of experimental measurements required to verify heterologous bicarbonate transporter function and location in chloroplasts and underscores the need for more detailed understanding of BicA structure and function to identify solutions for enabling its activation and operation in leaf chloroplasts. PMID:24965541

Pengelly, J J L; Förster, B; von Caemmerer, S; Badger, M R; Price, G D; Whitney, S M

2014-07-01

312

An assessment of serum sodium within 48 h after percutaneous nephrolithotomy with half-strength saline solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the postoperative serum sodium changes after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) with half-strength saline irrigation. PCNL operations from June to August 2008 were included. PCNL was performed according to the standard prone position with fluoroscopic guidance. Patients received 0.3% saline-3.3% dextrose by intravenous infusion in the first 24 h after operation. Serum sodium was measured before the operation and at 6, 24 and 48 h after the operation. 96 patients were included. Serum sodium slightly decreased from preoperative 140.3 ± 2.8 mEq/l to 140.1 ± 3.6, 139.1 ± 3.4 (p < 0.01) and 139.3 ± 2.7 (p < 0.05) at 6, 24 and 48 h after the operation, respectively. Half-strength saline irrigation does not result in considerable change in the postoperative serum sodium in simple PCNL operations. The use of intravenous solutions with hypotonic sodium is discouraged in PCNL patients with the possibility of high volume absorption of hypotonic irrigation fluid. PMID:20922364

Sichani, Mehrdad Mohammadi; Kashi, Amir H; Al-Mousawi, Shabir; Tabibi, Ali

2010-12-01

313

Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water – surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at very low concentrations. Sodium chloride increased the surface tension linearly as a function of the concentration. Surface tensions of both binary solutions agreed well with the previous measurements. Succinic acid was found to lower the surface tension even if sodium chloride is present, indicating that succinic acid as a surface active compound tends to concentrate to the surface. An equation based on thermodynamical relations was fitted to the data. As a result, a surface tension parameterization of ternary solution was obtained over the whole concentration range. The parameterization can safely be used at temperatures from 10 to 30°C. These kinds of parameterizations are important for example in atmospheric nucleation models. To investigate the influence of surface tension on cloud droplet activation, the surface tension parameterization was included in an adiabatic air parcel model. Usually in cloud models the surface tension of pure water is used. Simulations were done for characteristic marine aerosol size distributions consisting of the considered ternary mixture. We found that by using the surface tension of pure water, the amount of activated particles is underestimated up to 8% if particles contain succinic acid and overestimated it up to 8% if particles contain only sodium chloride. The surface tension effect was found to increase with increasing updraft velocity.

H. Lihavainen

2008-04-01

314

A comparison study between sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate with respect to the thermodynamic properties, micellization, and interaction with poly(ethylene glycol) in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Apparent molar volume against molality: o, ·, and ?, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 293.15 K; x, ?, and lozenge, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 313.15 K. Research highlights: ? C12H25SO3Na(SDSn) was seen to interact with PEG more weakly than C12H25SO4Na(SDS). ? The constraints on molecular mobility of SDS micelles are larger than those of SDSn. ? Entropy change on micellization for SDSn is larger than those for SDS. ? Micelle formation of SDS is less endothermic and more spontaneous than that of SDSn. ? Micelles of SDS have smaller aggregation number than that of SDSn. - Abstract: The density, sound velocity, and conductivity measurements were performed on aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (C12H25SO4Na) or sodium dodecyl sulfonate (C12H25SO3Na) in the absence and presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at different temperatures. Changes in the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities upon micellization were derived using a pseudophase-transition approach and the infinite dilution apparent molar properties of the monomer and micellar form of C12H25SO4Na and C12H25SO3Na were determined. Variations of the critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of both surfactants in the solutioth surfactants in the solutions investigated with temperature were obtained from which thermodynamic parameters of micellization were estimated. It was found that at low temperature the micelle formation process is endothermic and therefore, this process must be entropically driven. However, upon increasing the temperature, the enthalpic factor becomes more significant and, at temperatures higher than 303.15 K the micellization is enthalpy driven. The interactions between C12H25SO4Na/C12H25SO3Na and PEG were studied and it was found that sodium alkyl sulfonates were seen to interact more weakly than their sulfate analogues.

315

Review of prehospital sodium bicarbonate use for cyclic antidepressant overdose  

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Methods: A three year retrospective observational review of records was performed using the San Diego County Quality Assurance Network database for prehospital providers. All adult patients who were treated with NaHCO3 by paramedics for a CA overdose were included. Demographic data, presenting cardiovascular and neurological symptoms, paramedic treatments, and any changes in status were reviewed.

Calkins, T.; Chan, T.; Clark, R.; Stepanski, B.; Vilke, G.

2003-01-01

316

Investigation into kinetics of accumulation and death of nitrite ions in concentrated sodium nitrate solutions following photoradiation effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kinetics of NO2- ions accumulation in the 4 M aqueous acetate sodiu.m nitrate solution and its dependence on the presence of NO2-ion acceptors and OH radicals at the photolysis, radiolysis and photoradiational action are studied. In the presence of reagents combining NO2- ions in statu nascendi the value of G/NO2-/ increases two-fold at the radiolysis, While at the photolysis of aqueous sodium nitrate the magnitude of PSI/NO2-/ it does not change. The rate constant of NO2- ion annihilation after UV-illumination exceeds nearly twice that observed at the ?-irradiation. Possible differences in the reverse reactions at the radiation chemical and photochemical reduction of nitrate into nitrate in the cincentrated nitrite solutions are discussed

317

Photocatalytic degradation of betamethasone sodium phosphate in aqueous solution using ZnO nanopowder  

Science.gov (United States)

The photocatalytic degradation of betamethasone sodium phosphate has been investigated in aqueous phase by using ultraviolet (UV) light and ZnO nanopowder. The effect of catalyst loading, irradiation time, pH, addition of oxidizers, effect of alcohol and anion presence on the reaction rate was ascertained and optimum conditions for maximum degradation were determined. The photocatalytic degradation of betamethasone sodium phosphate was strongly influenced by these parameters. The optimum amount of the photocatalyst used is 0.44 g/L. The efficiency of betamethasone sodium phosphate increases with the photo-degradation increase of the irradiation time.

Giahi, M.; Taghavi, H.; Habibi, S.

2012-12-01

318

Adsorption of polyelectrolyte/surfactant mixtures at the air-solution interface: poly(ethyleneimine)/sodium dodecyl sulfate.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neutron reflectivity and surface tension have been used to characterize the adsorption of the polyelectrolyte/ionic surfactant mixture of poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at the air-water interface. The surface tension behavior and adsorption patterns show a strong dependence upon the solution pH. However, the SDS adsorption at the interface is unexpectedly most pronounced when the pH is high (when the polymer is essentially a neutral polymer) and when the polymer ar...

Penfold, J.; Tucker, I.; Thomas, Rk; Zhang, J.

2005-01-01

319

Solution self-assembly of the sophorolipid biosurfactant and its mixture with anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The self-assembly in aqueous solution of the acidic (AS) and lactonic (LS) forms of the sophorolipid biosurfactant, their mixtures, and their mixtures with anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, LAS, has been studied using predominantly small-angle neutron scattering, SANS, at relatively low surfactant concentrations of <30 mM. The more hydrophobic lactonic sophorolipid forms small unilamellar vesicles at low surfactant concentrations, in the concentration range of 0.2 to 3 mM, ...

Penfold, J.; Chen, M.; Thomas, Rk; Dong, C.; Smyth, Tj; Perfumo, A.; Marchant, R.; Banat, Im; Stevenson, P.; Parry, A.; Tucker, I.; Grillo, I.

2011-01-01

320

Corrosion resistance of ?-solid solution and hardening ?'-phase of nickel alloys in sodium sulfate and chloride melts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion testings of model alloys, corresponding by chemical composition to simple and complex-alloyed ?- and ?'-phases of nickel heat-resistant alloys are conducted in sodium sulfate and chloride melts. It is ascertained that heat resistant nickel alloys containing over 50 % of hardening ?'-phase, are subject to disastrous sulfide corrosion (SC). Resistance against SC alloys containing below 50 % of ?'-phase is determined by the resistance of ?-solid solution. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

 
 
 
 
321

Thermochemistry of sodium iodide solutions in aqueous mixtures of ethylene glycol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enthalpies of sodium iodide dissolution in water-ethyleneglycol mixtures at 298.15 R were determined. Enthalpies in case of infinite dilution and enthalpies of transfer from water into a mixed solvent were calculated

322

Study of interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium copper, lead nitrates solutions with sodium oxalate solution with the aim of HTSC synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the aim of developing a new technique for HTSC oxides synthesis on the base of combined sedimentation of hydroxy salts and their heat treatment is studied interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium, copper and lead nitrates with alkali solution of sodium oxalate. Conditions for total sedimentation of all five metals from the solution are found. The phase composition of interaction products is determined. It is established that they are high-dispersed homogeneous mixture of three phases of variable composition: twin hydroxalate of copper-bismuth, lead hydroxalate and twin oxalate of strontium-calcium. After heat treatment of the phases are obtained the HTSC oxides

323

Oral salt supplements to compensate for jejunostomy losses: comparison of sodium chloride capsules, glucose electrolyte solution, and glucose polymer electrolyte solution.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Six patients with jejunostomies and residual jejunal lengths of 105 to 250 cm took the same food and water each day for eight study days. In random order, three methods of salt replacement were tested, each over 48 hours, against a period without added salt. During the three test periods the patients took 120 mmol of sodium chloride daily, as salt in gelatine capsules, as an isotonic glucose electrolyte (280 mOsmol/kg; 30 kcal) solution, and as a glucose polymer (Maxijul) solution (280 mOsmol...

Nightingale, J. M.; Lennard-jones, J. E.; Walker, E. R.; Farthing, M. J.

1992-01-01

324

Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water; surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at very low concentrations. Sodium chloride increased the surface tension linearly as a function of the concentration. Surface tensions of both binary solutions agreed well with the previous measurements. Succinic acid was found to lower the surface tension even if sodium chloride is present, indicating that succinic acid, as a surface active compound, tends to concentrate to the surface. An equation based on thermodynamical relations was fitted to the data and extrapolated to the whole concentration range by using estimated surface tensions for pure compounds. As a result, we obtained an estimate of surface tensions beyond solubility limits in addition to a fit to the experimental data. The parameterization can safely be used at temperatures from 10 to 30°C. These kinds of parameterizations are important for example in atmospheric nucleation models. To investigate the influence of surface tension on cloud droplet activation, the surface tension parameterization was included in an adiabatic air parcel model. Usually in cloud models the surface tension of pure water is used. Simulations were done for characteristic marine aerosol size distributions consisting of the considered ternary mixture. We found that by using the surface tension of pure water, the amount of activated particles is underestimated up to 8% if particles contain succinic acid and overestimated it up to 8% if particles contain only sodium chloride. The surface tension effect was found to increase with increasing updraft velocity.

J. Vanhanen

2008-08-01

325

A Low-Field NMR Study on the Water Condition of Tripe Swelling in Sodium Carbonate-Solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a low-field NMR study was performed to obtain the information on the water condition of tripe swelling in sodium carbonate-solution (Na2CO3-solution. The study researched the water state during different soaking times, concluded that the crispy cooked tripe is closely related with transverse relaxation time (T2 rather than water content. In addition, the water mobility was also found to be affected by soaking time. The study demonstrated that NMR T2 relaxometry was a potential tool to explore the water state, mobility and the way the different water components shift.

Ying Han

2013-06-01

326

A Low-Field NMR Study on the Water Condition of Tripe Swelling in Sodium Carbonate-Solution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, a low-field NMR study was performed to obtain the information on the water condition of tripe swelling in sodium carbonate-solution (Na2CO3-solution). The study researched the water state during different soaking times, concluded that the crispy cooked tripe is closely related with transverse relaxation time (T2) rather than water content. In addition, the water mobility was also found to be affected by soaking time. The study demonstrated that NMR T2 relaxometry was a potentia...

Ying Han; Yingchun Zhu,; Lizhen Ma; Caihong Liu; Yiqing Yang

2013-01-01

327

Fluorescence lifetime and intensity of terbium-doped dipicolinic acid in water, HCl, and sodium acetate buffer solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lifetimes of the individual fluorescing lines from the terbium-doped dipicolinic acid (DPA) complex have been measured and reported, for the first time to our knowledge. These lifetimes have been measured as a function of terbium and dipicolinic acid concentration, solvent pH, and solvent composition for water, HCl, and sodium acetate buffer solutions. Fluorescence lifetimes over the range from 0.75 to 1.07 ms were measured. The maximum fluorescence was obtained for distilled water solutions. PMID:19183568

Makoui, Anali; Killinger, Dennis K

2009-02-01

328

Shelf-life of a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution as determined by arrhenius equation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Testes acelerados de estabilidade são indicados para avaliar, em um curto período de tempo, o grau de degradação química que poderá afetar uma substância química, isoladamente ou quando inserida em uma fórmula, sob condições normais de armazenamento. Este método está fundamentado na intensificação d [...] as condições de estresse para acelerar a velocidade de degradação química. Baseando-se na equação da reta obtida e na ordem de reação determinada (a 50 e 70 ºC) e usando a equação de Arrhenius, a velocidade de reação foi calculada para a condição de temperatura de 20ºC (condições normais de armazenamento). Este modelo de teste acelerado de estabilidade torna possível a predição da estabilidade química de qualquer substância, em qualquer tempo, desde que o método de quantificação da substância química esteja disponível. Como exemplo da aplicabilidade da equação de Arrhenius em teste acelerado de estabilidade, uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5% foi analisada por ser quimicamente instável. A quantificação do cloro residual livre foi determinada através de titulação iodométrica. A partir dos dados obtidos decorrentes das amostras submetidas às temperaturas de 50 e 70 ºC e com o emprego da equação de Arrhenius, o tempo de prateleira obtido foi de 166 dias em temperatura de 20 ºC, considerando como limite inferior a concentração de 20 mg/mL de cloro residual livre. Este modelo, entretanto, possibilita o cálculo de tempo de prateleira em qualquer outra temperatura de interesse. Abstract in english Accelerated stability tests are indicated to assess, within a short time, the degree of chemical degradation that may affect an active substance, either alone or in a formula, under normal storage conditions. This method is based on increased stress conditions to accelerate the rate of chemical degr [...] adation. Based on the equation of the straight line obtained as a function of the reaction order (at 50 and 70 ºC) and using Arrhenius equation, the speed of the reaction was calculated for the temperature of 20 ºC (normal storage conditions). This model of accelerated stability test makes it possible to predict the chemical stability of any active substance at any given moment, as long as the method to quantify the chemical substance is available. As an example of the applicability of Arrhenius equation in accelerated stability tests, a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was analyzed due to its chemical instability. Iodometric titration was used to quantify free residual chlorine in the solutions. Based on data obtained keeping this solution at 50 and 70 ºC, using Arrhenius equation and considering 2.0% of free residual chlorine as the minimum acceptable threshold, the shelf-life was equal to 166 days at 20 ºC. This model, however, makes it possible to calculate shelf-life at any other given temperature.

Maria Aparecida, Nicoletti; Evandro Luiz, Siqueira; Antonio Carlos, Bombana; Gabriella Guimarães de, Oliveira.

329

Luminescent spectral characteristics of eosin in solutions of human serum albumin when denatured by treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Science.gov (United States)

From analysis of the fluorescence spectra of eosin molecules in a solution with human serum albumin (HSA), we have obtained information about the dynamics of protein conformational rearrangements during denaturing of the protein when treated with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for different pH values of the solution. We hypothesize that HSA denaturing in the presence of SDS occurs in two stages: the first stage is loosening of the protein globules, and the second stage is complete unfolding of the protein molecules. We have shown that denaturating of the protein in the presence of SDS passes through both stages for a solution pH below the isoelectric point of the albumin, while the denaturing stops in the first stage for a solution pH above the isoelectric point of the albumin.

Vlasova, I. M.; Zemlyanskii, A. Yu.; Saletskii, A. M.

2006-09-01

330

Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux Enhancement with Tri Sodium Phosphate and Boric Acid Solution in the Tube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a nuclear power plant, the cooling water is used to remove the decay heat and the safety system such as safety injection system (SIS) and cavity flooding system (CFS) has the cooling water including boric acid. During severe accident, tri sodium phosphate (TSP, Na3PO4·12H2O) is utilized to maintain pH in water within reactor containment. In this study, the purpose is to investigate the critical heat flux (CHF) characteristic of boric acid and TSP solution. In previous studies, Lee et al. and Jeong et al. have reported that boric acid and TSP solution can enhance CHF on a tube. This study examines CHF enhancement on a tube with mixture solution of boric acid and TSP as well as boric acid and TSP solution

331

Comparison of the Kinetic Rate Law Parameters for the Dissolution of Natural and Synthetic Autunite in the Presence of Aqueous Bicarbonate Ions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bicarbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, bicarbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous bicarbonate concentration to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and a temperature range of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH. Increasing aqueous bicarbonate concentrations afforded comparable increases in the rate of release of uranium. Most notably under low pH conditions the aqueous bicarbonate resulted in up to 370 fold increases in the rate of uranium release in relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of aqueous bicarbonate on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release.

Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Idarraga, Melina; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

2013-08-02

332

Synergistic sphere-to-rod micelle transition in mixed solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate and cocoamidopropyl betaine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Static and dynamic light scattering experiments show that the mixed micelles of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cocoamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) undergo a sphere-to-rod transition at unexpectedly low total surfactant concentrations, about 10 mM. The lowest transition concentration is observed at molar fraction 0.8 of CAPB in the surfactant mixture. The transition brings about a sharp increase in the viscosity of the respective surfactant solutions due to the growth of rodlike micelles. Parallel experiments with mixed solutions of CAPB and sodium laureth sulfate (sodium dodecyl-trioxyethylene sulfate, SDP3S) showed that the sphere-to-rod transition in SDP3S/CAPB mixtures occurs at higher surfactant concentrations, above 40 mM. The observed difference in the transition concentrations for SDS and SDP3S can be explained by the bulkier SDP3S headgroup. The latter should lead to larger mean area per molecule in the micelles containing SDP3S and, hence, to smaller spontaneous radius of curvature of the micelles (i.e., less favored transition from spherical to rodlike micelles). The static light scattering data are used to determine the mean aggregation number and the effective size of the spherical mixed SDS/CAPB micelles. From the dependence of the aggregation number on the surfactant concentration, the mean energy for transfer of a surfactant molecule from a spherical into a rodlike micelle is estimated. PMID:15773076

Christov, N C; Denkov, N D; Kralchevsky, P A; Ananthapadmanabhan, K P; Lips, A

2004-02-01

333

Effect of lithium on the properties of a liquid crystal formed by sodium dodecylsulphate and decanol in aqueous solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the molecular interactions that rule the physicochemical properties of molecular assemblies is of particular interest when trying to explain the behavior of much more complicated systems, such as the cell membranes. This work was devoted to study a discotic nematic lyotropic liquid crystal, formed by sodium dodecylsulphate (3% SDS-d25) and decanol (20% DeOH-?-d2), dissolved in aqueous solutions (0.1% D2O) of Na2SO4 or Li2SO4. The average size of the aggregates was estimated using fluorescence quenching experiments, and their dynamics were studied by measuring the 2H-NMR quadrupole splitting (??Q) and the longitudinal relaxation times (T1) of the deuterated species. To provide an atomic insight into these assemblies, molecular dynamics simulations of the systems were carried out with atomic detail. As a previous step in this study, a reparameterization of the standard GROMOS 87 force field was required to perform the equilibrated simulations and to prevent instabilities emerging during the simulations. Finally, an excellent agreement between simulation and experimental data was obtained. In addition, variations in the long range electrostatic interactions at the aggregate/solution interface, the orientation and the reorientational relaxation time of the water dipole, the translational diffusion coefficient of sodium ions, and the amphiphile-counterion coordination associated with the presence of Li+ in the solution were other key aspects investigated to explain the variation in the quadrupole splittings (??Q) in the presence of lithium in solution.

Bahamonde-Padilla, V. E.; Espinoza, Javier; Weiss-López, B. E.; Cascales, J. J. López; Montecinos, R.; Araya-Maturana, R.

2013-07-01

334

Effect of fluoride sodium mouthwash solutions on cpTI: evaluation of physicochemical properties  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os efeitos do fluoreto, o qual está presente em diferentes produtos de higiene oral, necessita de maiores investigações, pois pouco se sabe sobre seus efeitos na superfície do titânio, o qual possui amplo uso na implantodontia. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a superfície do titânio comercialmente pur [...] o (cpTi) após exposição a diferentes concentrações de fluoreto de sódio (NaF). A hipótese testada neste estudo foi que diferentes concentrações de NaF aplicadas em diferentes intervalos de tempo seriam capazes de afetar diferentemente a superfície do titânio. Os tratamentos realizados foram: GA (controle): imersão em água destilada; GB: imersão diária por 3 min em NaF a 0,05%; GC: imersão diária por 3 min em NaF a 0,2%; GD: imersão quinzenal por 3 min em NaF a 0,05%; e GE: imersão quinzenal por 3 min em NaF a 0,2%. O tempo do experimento foi de 60 dias. A análise da rugosidade foi efetuada inicialmente e a cada 15 dias. Após 60 dias foi realizada análise de corrosão e polarização anódica. As amostras foram analisadas em MEV. Os dados de rugosidade foram analisados por ANOVA e não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre grupos e entre tempos. Os dados de corrosão (i corr) foram analisados pelo teste de Mann-Whitney e foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre GA e GC, GC e GB, GC e GD, GC e GE. A MEV evidenciou que a superfície do titânio exposto ao NaF apresentou corrosão variando de acordo com a concentração. Com base nos dados encontrados conclui-se que o uso de solução NaF a 0,05% em cpTi é seguro, enquanto a solução NaF 0,2% para uso diário deve ser cuidadosamente avaliada. Abstract in english The effects of fluoride, which is present in different oral hygiene products, deserve more investigation because little is known about their impact on the surface of titanium, which is largely used in Implantology. This study evaluated the surface of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) after exposure [...] to different concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF). The hypothesis tested in this study was that different concentrations of NaF applied at different time intervals can affect the titanium surface in different ways. The treatments resulted in the following groups: GA (control): immersion in distilled water; GB: immersion in 0.05% NaF for 3 min daily; GC: immersion in 0.2% NaF for 3 min daily; GD: immersion in 0.05% NaF for 3 min every 2 weeks; and GE: immersion in 0.2% NaF for 3 min every 2 weeks. The experiment lasted 60 days. Roughness was measured initially and every 15 days subsequently up to 60 days. After 60 days, corrosion analysis and anodic polarization were done. The samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The roughness data were analyzed by ANOVA and there was no significant difference among groups and among time intervals. The corrosion data (i corr) were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test, and significant differences were found between GA and GC, GB and GC, GC and GD, GC and GE. SEM micrographs showed that the titanium surface exposed to NaF presented corrosion that varied with the different concentrations. This study suggests that the use of 0.05% NaF solution on cpTi is safe, whereas the 0.2% NaF solution should be carefully evaluated with regard to its daily use.

Marcelo Bighetti, Toniollo; Rodrigo, Galo; Ana Paula, Macedo; Renata Cristina Silveira, Rodrigues; Ricardo Faria, Ribeiro; Maria da Gloria Chiarello de, Mattos.

2012-10-01

335

Controle da pinta-preta em tomateiro e da mancha-zonada em pepino por meio de bicarbonato de sódio e óleo vegetal / Control of early blight on tomato and net spot on cucumber through application of sodium bicarbonate and vegetal oil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram realizados dois ensaios, em condições de campo, na UNESP/ FCAV, Jaboticabal (SP). O primeiro (maio a outubro de 1993) teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de pulverizações semanais de bicarbonato de sódio (10 g/l), óleo vegetal 'Natur'l óleo (10 ml/l) e iprodione (0,75 g/l), aplicados isola [...] damente ou em combinação dois a dois, no controle da pinta-preta (Alternaria solani) em tomateiro, cultivar Jumbo AG-592. No segundo ensaio (março a junho de 1993), o objetivo foi determinar a eficiência de pulverizações semanais em diferentes doses de bicarbonato de sódio (5, 10 e 15 g/l) comparadas ao benomil (0,5 g/l), no controle da mancha-zonada (Leandria momordicae) em pepino híbrido 'Premier'. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições para ambos os experimentos. Foram utilizadas parcelas de 40 plantas distribuídas em 4 fileiras de 5,0 e 2,5 m de comprimento para os experimentos com pepino e tomate, respectivamente. As avaliações da severidade da doença foram feitas a cada quatorze dias (as cinco primeiras) e a cada sete dias (as duas últimas) e foram iniciadas 39 dias após o transplante do tomate. Para o pepino, foram realizadas cinco avaliações, iniciadas 28 dias após o transplante e repetidas a cada quatorze dias. Foram determinadas as curvas de progresso das doenças e a produtividade dentro de cada tratamento para cada cultura. Pela observação dos valores dos coeficientes de determinação das diferentes curvas epidemiológicas, concluiu-se que a quinta folha e a transformação logística se mostraram mais adequadas para o estudo epidemiológico da pinta-preta do tomateiro, enquanto a quarta folha e a transformação logística se mostraram mais adequadas para o estudo epidemiológico da mancha-zonada. Constatou-se o efeito positivo do iprodione no controle de pinta-preta, isolado ou quando misturado ao bicarbonato de sódio ou ao óleo vegetal, não havendo diferença estatística significativa entre iprodione e bicarbonato de sódio. Para a mancha-zonada o tratamento com benomil diminuiu a taxa de desenvolvimento da doença, enquanto que o bicarbonato de sódio não teve efeito. Os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho sugerem que o bicarbonato de sódio e óleo vegetal são substâncias que apresentam potencial para o controle da pinta-preta e mancha-zonada, necessitando porém, de novos estudos. Abstract in english Two experiments were carried out under field conditions at UNESP/FCAV, Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil. In the first experiment (from May to October, 1993) the efficiency of weekly sprays of sodium bicarbonate (1%), vegetal oil (1%) and iprodione (0.075%), alone or in combination, were studied [...] for the control of tomato early blight (Alternaria solani), using tomato cv. Jumbo AG-592. In the second experiment (March to June, 1993) the efficiency of weekly sprays of different doses of sodium bicarbonate (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) were compared with benomyl (0.05%), on the control of cucumber net spot (Leandria momordicae), using cucumber cv. Premier. The experiments followed a randomised block design with four replications and forty plants distributed in four rows of 5.0 and 2.5 m long used respectively for cucumber and tomato. Disease severity on tomate was rated at 14 day intervals (the first five) and at 7 day intervals (the last two), beginning 39 days after transplanting. Disease severity for cucumber net spot was rated five times, at 14 day intervals, beginning 28 days after transplanting. Disease progress curves for each treatment for each culture were determined. Fruit yield for each culture was also evaluated. Results showed that evaluation of disease severity in the fifth leaf and logistic transformation were most suitable for the study of tomato early blight epidemics. For cucumber net spot, evaluation in the fourth leaf and logistic transformation were the most suitable, as shown by the determination coefficient values. Both iprodione

Juan Roberto Ramírez-Otárola, Sarmiento; Katia C. K., Moretto; Manuel G. C., Churata-Masca.

336

Corrosion of materials by solutions of nonmetals in liquid lithium and sodium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interactions of the liquid alkali metals lithium and sodium containing dissolved nonmetals with niobium and stainless steel at 873 K are described. Oxygen is shown to form ternary metal oxides in liquid sodium but not in liquid lithium. Carbide formation is observed in both alkali metals, and diffusion coefficients have been calculated for stainless steel carburized in liquid lithium. Ternary nitride formation is observed on stainless steel and binary and ternary nitrides have been identified on niobium exposed to liquid lithium. Both niobium and stainless steel undergo penetration by liquid lithium. (author)

337

Safety problems of sodium/water steam generators and solutions found in the Soviet Union  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experience gained in the BN-350 plant is of fundamental importance with a view to sodium/water operation and separation in the steam generator by means of a simple wall. It was found that damage due to water ingress in the sodium loop can be prevented. Partitioned steam generators with a suitable protective system have certain advantages which enable localisation of the defect and also, if necessary, continued operation of the intact channels, independent of the extent of the original leak. (orig.)

338

The antioxidant properties of oligo sodium alginates prepared by radiation-induced degradation in aqueous and hydrogen peroxide solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the radiation-induced degradation of sodium alginates (NaAlg), having different guluronic acids (G) and mannuronic acid (M) ratios, (G/M), in aqueous and hydrogen peroxide solutions were investigated first; after that, the antioxidative properties of the oligo sodium alginates prepared were identified. Radiation degradation yield values, G(S), were determined for each irradiation condition and compared with those of the dry-state-irradiated NaAlg. The results showed that the oligo sodium alginates with M from 1000 to 3750 Da could be easily prepared by ?-irradiation of NaAlg solution in the presence of small amount of hydrogen peroxide at low doses (below 5.0 kGy) and by controlling the G/M. The antioxidant properties of the fractions with various molecular weight and G/M were evaluated by determining the scavenging ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPHrad ), and 50% inhibition concentrations of LF120 NaAlg, which was irradiated in aqueous solution and H2O2 solution at a dose of 2.5 kGy and having number average molecular weights of 10.2 and 3.75 kDa were found to be 10.0 and 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. The results demonstrated that its molecular weight was an important factor in controlling the antioxidant properties of NaAlg, and due to the sharp decrease in molecular weight in the case of aqueous media irradiation the effect of G/M of initial polymer became unimportant whereas the dry-state-irradiated NaAlgs behaved conversely.

?en, Murat; Atik, Hanife

2012-07-01

339

Effect of Polyvnylpyrrolidone (PVP) in Binary Solution on the Performance of Polyethersulfone Hollow Fibre Membrane for Sodium Chloride Separation  

Science.gov (United States)

In membrane preparation, phase inversion is a versatile technique that allow polymer to be transformed from liquid to a solid state in a controlled manner. The preparation and process involves many factors and parameters specifically in fabricating hollow fibre membrane. In this study, dope solution factor in the process of fabricating hollow fibre membrane were explored. The effects of polymer concentration and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as additive in the dope solution on the morphology and separation performance were found able to produced high porous membranes, well interconnected pores and surface properties. Employing polyethersulfone (PES) as polymer, hollow fibre membranes were fabricated using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent and using water as the external coagulant. Finally the fabricated ultrafiltration membranes were characterized and evaluated based on solute transport concentration (sodium chloride) and pure water permeation properties.

Bolong, N.; Ismail, A. F.; Salim, M. R.

2010-03-01

340

Structural, dynamic, and transport properties of concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solutions under an external static electric field.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the absence of an external electric field, it has already been known that ion clusters are formed instantaneously in moderately concentrated ionic solutions. In this work, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the changes of structural, dynamic, and transport properties in a sodium chloride solution under an external electric field from the ion cluster perspective. Our MD simulation results indicate that, with a strong external electric field E (?0.1 V/nm) applied, ion clusters become smaller and less net charged, and the structures and dynamics as well as transport properties of the ion solution become anisotropic. The influence of the cluster structure and shell structure to transport properties was analyzed and the Einstein relation was found invalid in this system. PMID:24730727

Ren, Gan; Shi, Rui; Wang, Yanting

2014-04-24

 
 
 
 
341

The thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption of hydrogen, sodium, and potassium chlorides at the aqueous solution-gas interface  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermodynamic models of the adsorption of ions at the interphase boundary between a solution of a 1,1-electrolyte and a gas are suggested. The experimental surface tension isotherms and the isotherms of excess adsorption of hydrogen, sodium, and potassium chlorides from aqueous solutions were used to show that the formation of the surface layer followed both the mechanism of coadsorption of the anion and cation and the mechanism of predominant adsorption of one of the ions. The calculated total adsorption isotherms were used to obtain the dependences of the heats and entropies of adsorption on the amount of the ion adsorbed. The results are discussed in terms of the solvation and desolvation of electrolyte ions in bulk solution and at liquid-vapor interfaces.

Fedorova, A. A.; Ulitin, M. V.

2009-01-01

342

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACTED LIGNIN OF BAMBOO (NEOSINOCALAMUS AFFINIS PRETREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE/UREA SOLUTION AT LOW TEMPERATURE  

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Full Text Available Ball-milled bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis was first treated under ultrasound at 20 oC in 95% ethanol solution for 0 to 50 min, dissolved in sodium hydroxide/urea solution (7% NaOH/12% urea at –12 oC, and then extracted with ethanol and dioxane to isolate lignin. The structure of the isolated lignin was characterized with a set of wet chemical and spectroscopic methods, including UV, FT-IR, 13C NMR, and HSQC spectroscopies. The results showed that the lignin extracted from bamboo consisted of p-hydroxyphenyl (H, guaiacyl (G, and syringyl (S type lignins with minor cinnamate units. The predominate lignin inter-units were ?-O-4´ ether linkages, followed by phenylcoumaran and a lower proportion of resinol and spirodienone. It was also found that the ester groups of lignin were cleaved during the pretreatment process with cold alkaline solution.

Ming-Fei Li

2010-06-01

343

Bicarbonate ingestion has no ergogenic effect on consecutive all out sprint tests in BMX elite cyclists.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on consecutive "all out" sprint tests, analyzing the acid-base status and its influence on performance and perceived effort. Ten elite bicycle motocross (BMX) riders (20.7 ± 1.4 years, training experience 8-12 years) participated in this study which consisted of two trials. Each trial consisted of three consecutive Wingate tests (WTs) separated by 15 min recovery. Ninety minutes prior to exercise subjects ingested either NaHCO(3) (-) (0.3 g kg(-1) body weight) or placebo. Blood samples were collected for the assessment of blood acid-base status: bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3) (-)]), pH, base excess (BE) and blood lactate concentration ([La(-)]). Performance variables of peak power (PP), mean power (MP), time to peak power and fatigue index were calculated for each sprint. Significant differences (p acid-base variables [pH before WT1: 7.47 ± 0.05 vs. 7.41 ± 0.03; [HCO(3) (-)] before WT1: 29.08 ± 2.27 vs. 22.85 ± 0.24 mmol L(-1) (bicarbonate vs. placebo conditions, respectively)], but there were not significant differences in performance variables between trials [PP WT1: 1,610 ± 373 vs. 1,599 ± 370 W; PP WT2: 1,548 ± 460 vs. 1,570 ± 428 W; PP WT3: 1,463 ± 361 vs. 1,519 ± 364 W. MP WT1: 809 ± 113 vs. 812 ± 108 W; MP WT2: 799 ± 135 vs. 799 ± 124 W; MP WT3: 762 ± 165 vs. 782 ± 118 W (bicarbonate vs. placebo conditions, respectively)]. Rating of perceived effort (RPE) was not influenced nor ratings of perceived readiness. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion modified significantly the blood acid-base balance, although the induced alkalosis did not improve the Wingate test performance, RPE and perceived readiness across three consecutive WTs in elite BMX cyclists. PMID:21465247

Zabala, Mikel; Peinado, Ana B; Calderón, Francisco J; Sampedro, Javier; Castillo, Manuel J; Benito, Pedro J

2011-12-01

344

Solution combustion synthesis and characterization of lead-free piezoelectric sodium niobate (NaNbO{sub 3}) powders  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: > This work reports the preparation of lead-free piezoelectric sodium niobate (NaNbO{sub 3}) by using solution combustion methods. Crystalline NaNbO{sub 3} powder was directly synthesized via the solution combustion process using NaNO{sub 3}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} and glycine. The fuel-to-oxidizer molar ratio was found to affect the combustion reaction and character of the powder obtained. This method is a simple, rapid, cost- and time-saving way of synthesizing stoichiometric, homogeneous and fine NaNbO{sub 3} powder with a low calcination temperature. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline sodium niobate (NaNbO{sub 3}) powder was synthesized by the solution combustion synthesis of sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} using glycine as the fuel. The chemical reaction, nucleation mechanisms and influence of the fuel-to-oxidizer ratio to phase formation were studied. The precursor and product powders were characterized, using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), the X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. As-prepared powder possesses an orthorhombic crystal structure with an X-ray diffraction pattern that could be matched with the perovskite, NaNbO{sub 3} JCPDS no. 82-0606. Perovskite NaNbO{sub 3} phase, with a mean crystalline size (calculated by X-ray line broadening) ranging from 44.51 {+-} 11.99 nm (ratio of 0.7) to 26.11 {+-} 13.69 nm (ratio of 2.0) was obtained. The SEM image shows polyhedral-shaped powder with a mean particle size of 137 {+-} 52 nm and 226 {+-} 46 nm for as-prepared and calcined powder, respectively.

Chaiyo, Nopsiri [Electroceramic Research Laboratory, College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); ThEP Center, CHE, 328 Si Ayutthaya Rd., Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Muanghlua, Rangson; Niemcharoen, Surasak [Department of Electronics, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Boonchom, Banjong [King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chumphon Campus, 17/1 M. 6 Pha Thiew District, Chumphon 86160 (Thailand); Vittayakorn, Naratip, E-mail: naratipcmu@yahoo.com [Electroceramic Research Laboratory, College of KMITL Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); ThEP Center, CHE, 328 Si Ayutthaya Rd., Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

2011-02-03

345

Solution combustion synthesis and characterization of lead-free piezoelectric sodium niobate (NaNbO3) powders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? This work reports the preparation of lead-free piezoelectric sodium niobate (NaNbO3) by using solution combustion methods. Crystalline NaNbO3 powder was directly synthesized via the solution combustion process using NaNO3, Nb2O5 and glycine. The fuel-to-oxidizer molar ratio was found to affect the combustion reaction and character of the powder obtained. This method is a simple, rapid, cost- and time-saving way of synthesizing stoichiometric, homogeneous and fine NaNbO3 powder with a low calcination temperature. - Abstract: Nano-crystalline sodium niobate (NaNbO3) powder was synthesized by the solution combustion synthesis of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and Nb2O5 using glycine as the fuel. The chemical reaction, nucleation mechanisms and influence of the fuel-to-oxidizer ratio to phase formation were studied. The precursor and product powders were characterized, using thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), the X-ray diffraction technique (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. As-prepared powder possesses an orthorhombic crystal structure with an X-ray diffraction pattern that could be matched with the perovskite, NaNbO3 JCPDS no. 82-0606. Perovskite NaNbO3 phase, with a mean crystalline size (calculated by X-ray line broadening) rancalculated by X-ray line broadening) ranging from 44.51 ± 11.99 nm (ratio of 0.7) to 26.11 ± 13.69 nm (ratio of 2.0) was obtained. The SEM image shows polyhedral-shaped powder with a mean particle size of 137 ± 52 nm and 226 ± 46 nm for as-prepared and calcined powder, respectively.

346

Penetration of protective gloves as a route of intake for tritiated water and 125I-labelled sodium iodine solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements have been made of the rate at which tritiated water and 125I-labelled sodium iodide solution penetrate various types of protective gloves, both isotopes being in common use in this form in universities and similar establishments. Diffusion coefficients relating to the glove materials are also determined. The health physics aspects are discussed and it is concluded that intakes by workers through intact gloves are not likely to be of major significance and can easily be minimised by the correct use and choice of glove. (author)

347

Effect of abietic acid addition on anodic dissolution of zinc- cadmium- and thallium amalgams in sodium sulfate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of inversion voltametry with a stationary mercury drop electrode has been applied to investigate the effect of abietic acid (AA) on anodic oxidation of cadmium, zinc, thallium from their amalgams as well as from mixed cadmium-thallium and zinc-thallium amalgams against the background of 0.5 M sodium sulfate at 298 K. Constants of peak of analgam anodic oxidation in the background solution and with additions of different AA concentrations are calculated. It is established that AA has the inhibiting effect on the processes of oxidation of cadmium- and zinc amalgams and does not produce the inhibiting effect on the oxidation of thallium amalgam

348

The effect of sodium hypochlorite solutions on in vitro seedling growth and shoot regeneration of flax (Linum usitatissimum)  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concentration (40, 60, and 80%) and temperature (0, 10, 20, and 30°C) of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions on seed germination, in vitro viability and growth of flax seedlings and regeneration capacity of hypocotyl explants. Results showed that seed germination, seedling growth and shoot regeneration were negatively affected by increasing concentration and temperature of disinfectant. The best results in seedling growth and shoot regeneration were obtained when 40% disinfectant concentration at 10°C was used.

Yildiz, Mustafa; Er, Celâl

2002-04-01

349

Infrared optical constants of crystalline sodium chloride dihydrate: application to study the crystallization of aqueous sodium chloride solution droplets at low temperatures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complex refractive indices of sodium chloride dihydrate, NaCl·2H(2)O, have been retrieved in the 6000-800 cm(-1) wavenumber regime from the infrared extinction spectra of crystallized aqueous NaCl solution droplets. The data set is valid in the temperature range from 235 to 216 K and was inferred from crystallization experiments with airborne particles performed in the large coolable aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The retrieval concept was based on the Kramers-Kronig relationship for a complex function of the optical constants n and k whose imaginary part is proportional to the optical depth of a small particle absorption spectrum in the Rayleigh approximation. The appropriate proportionality factor was inferred from a fitting algorithm applied to the extinction spectra of about 1 ?m sized particles, which, apart from absorption, also featured a pronounced scattering contribution. NaCl·2H(2)O is the thermodynamically stable crystalline solid in the sodium chloride-water system below the peritectic at 273.3 K; above 273.3 K, the anhydrous NaCl is more stable. In contrast to anhydrous NaCl crystals, the dihydrate particles reveal prominent absorption signatures at mid-infrared wavelengths due to the hydration water molecules. Formation of NaCl·2H(2)O was only detected at temperatures clearly below the peritectic and was first evidenced in a crystallization experiment conducted at 235 K. We have employed the retrieved refractive indices of NaCl·2H(2)O to quantify the temperature dependent partitioning between anhydrous and dihydrate NaCl particles upon crystallization of aqueous NaCl solution droplets. It was found that the temperature range from 235 to 216 K represents the transition regime where the composition of the crystallized particle ensemble changes from almost only NaCl to almost only NaCl·2H(2)O particles. Compared to the findings on the NaCl/NaCl·2H(2)O partitioning from a recent study conducted with micron-sized NaCl particles deposited onto a surface, the transition regime from NaCl to NaCl·2H(2)O is shifted by about 13 K to lower temperatures in our study. This is obviously related to the different experimental conditions of the two studies. The partitioning between the two solid phases of NaCl is essential for predicting the deliquescence and ice nucleation behavior of a crystalline aerosol population which is subjected to an increasing relative humidity. PMID:22856335

Wagner, Robert; Möhler, Ottmar; Schnaiter, Martin

2012-08-23

350

Study on the behavior of corrosion of inconel 600 alloy in high-temperature sodium phosphate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In PWR nuclear power plants, secondary system water was initially treated by use of sodium phosphate. However, wall thinning phenomenon occurred in Inconel 600 alloy-made heat transfer tubes at the tube supporting parts of steam generators. Troubles of this kind also occurred in the United States; however, most of them occurred just above the tube sheet where sludge is likely to deposit. The authors investigated the relationship between thermo-hydraulic phenomenon and corrosion occurring area and from the results of various kinds of experiments and analyses, confirmed that corrosion occurred in dryness and humidity alternating zones. On the other hand, we investigated the relationship between the chemical properties of sodium phosphate solution (pH value, electrode potential at elevated temperatures, and so forth) and corrosion and made clear the corrosion mechanism of Inconel 600 alloy. On the basis of the results of these studies, these power plants have changed over the sodium phosphate treatment to volatile treatment in order to prevent such troubles. In this paper, we report on the results of experiments conducted in order to make clear the mechanism of the wall thinning phenomenon of Inconel 600 alloy. (auth.)

351

Cobalt(2) nitrate reactions with decameta-, pyro-and ortho-vanadates of sodium in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of sampling sodium vanadates with variable concentration has been used for studying interaction of deca-, meta-, pyro-, and orthovanadates of sodium with cobalt nitrate in aqueous solutions. The methods of potentiometry, solubility, X-ray diffraction, spectroscopy in visible and infrared regions, and thermography have been used for identification of the interaction products. It has been established that the composition of the interaction products depends on the nature of vanadate-ions and the ratio between the initial components. Interaction of cobalt nitrate with sodium decavanadate yields Na4CoV10O28x23H2O and Co2V4O12x8H2O; with metavanadate Co2V4O12x8H2O and Co4(OH)4V4O12x7H2O; with pyrovanadate Co2V4O12x8H2O, [Co3(OH)4]2V4O12x2H2O, and Nasub(6x-8)[Co(OH)sub(x)]sub(6)Vsub(4)Osub(12)xaq, where x changes from 1.33 to 1.60; and with orthovanadate [Co3(OH)4]2V4O12x2H2O and Na[Co(OH)sub(1.5)]sub(6)Vsub(2)Osub(7)

352

Study of lanthanum chloride interaction with sodium triphosphate in aqueous solution at 0 deg C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the solubility method interaction of components in the system Na5P3O10-LaCl3-H2O is studied at 0 deg C. The regions of existence of low-soluble triphosphates La5(P3O10)3x16H2O (1), NaLa3(P3O10)2x12H2O (2) are established, the readily soluble salt NaLaP3O10x5H2O (3) is synthesized. Thermal decomposition of the isolated compounds is accompanied by hydrolytic destruction of P3O105- anion with subsequent condensation of phosphate groups and finishes at a high temperature (950 deg C) with formation of thermally stable phases: orthophosphate LaPO4, polyphosphate La(PO3)3, and for double sodium-containing triphosphates (2) and (3) - with transformation of sodium polyphosphate NaPO3 into the melt as well

353

Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (h{sub xy}, h{sub xxy}, and h{sub xyy}) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients h{sub xy} between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

Liu Min, E-mail: panpanliumin@163.co [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Wang Lili [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Zhu Lanying [College of Life Science and Bioengineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China); Li Hui; Sun Dezhi; Di Youying; Li Linwei [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liao Cheng University, Liaocheng, Shandong 252059 (China)

2010-07-15

354

Ruthenium (4) chloride complex interaction with formic acid and sodium formate in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the methods of IR and electron spectroscopy and by measuring molar electric conductivity and magnetic susceptibility (NH4)2RuCl6 interaction with sodium formate and formic acid is studied. It is established that depending on conditions (heating, addition of concentrated HCl, concentration of formic acid) formation of carbonyl-chloride, carbonylformate-chloride or formate-chloride complexes of ruthenium (3) or ruthenium (2) takes place

355

Sodium phthalamates as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? N-Alkyl-sodium phthalamates as corrosion inhibitors for industry in acidic medium. ? Compounds behaved as mixed type inhibitors and followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. ? Efficiencies were proportional to aliphatic chain length and inhibitor concentration. ? Iron complexes and chelates with phthalamates contributed to carbon steel protection. - Abstract: Three compounds of N-alkyl-sodium phthalamates were synthesized and tested as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 0.5 M aqueous hydrochloric acid. Tests showed that inhibitor efficiencies were related to aliphatic chain length and dependent on concentration. N-1-n-tetradecyl-sodium phthalamate displayed moderate efficiency against uniform corrosion, 42-86% at 25 deg. C and 25-60% at 40 oC. Tests indicated that compounds behave as mixed type inhibitors where molecular adsorption on steel followed Langmuir isotherm, whereas thermodynamic suggested that a physisorption process occurred. XPS analysis confirmed film formation on surface, where Fe+2 complexes and Fe+2 chelates with phthalamates prevented steel from further corrosion.

356

Differential Responses of Two Lactuca sativa Varieties to Bicarbonate-Induced Iron Deficiency  

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Full Text Available Iron chlorosis induced by bicarbonate is very common in calcareous soils, where bicarbonate (HCO3- ions are present at high concentrations. In this study, morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of two Lactuca sativa varieties (Romaine and Vista to bicarbonate induced iron deficiency were investigated. The culture was conducted on nutrient solution containing 5 µM Fe and 10 mM NaHCO3, in a growth chamber with controlled conditions. After 14 days of bicarbonate treatment, the two varieties seedling showed a slight yellowing of young leaves associated with a significant decline of plant biomass, leaf number and area. Furthermore, the concentrations of the nutrient elements (potassium, magnesium, iron and calcium in leaves and roots of two lettuce varieties were modified. In roots of bicarbonate treated plants, the Fe-chelate reductase activity was increased as compared to control in both varieties. PEPC activity was enhanced only in Vista variety. Moreover, Fe deficiency induced a small change in the photosynthetic parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence, especially in Romaine variety. These changes are accompanied by decreases in ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco activity. These findings indicated that Vista variety could survive at low iron supply.

Mohamed Chebbi

2013-11-01

357

Efeito do bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento de vinhaça em AnSBBR operado a 55 e 35ºC / Effect of the sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of vinasse in AnSBBR operated at 55 and 35ºC  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a influência do bicarbonato de sódio (NaHCO3) no desempenho do reator anaeróbio batelada sequencial com biomassa imobilizada tratando vinhaça a 55 e a 35ºC. O reator foi preenchido com espuma de poliuretano e agitado a 300 rpm. A adaptação a 55ºC estendeu-se por 50 dias, tendo o reator si [...] do alimentado com vinhaça (DQO de 0,3 a 1,0 g/L). Para a operação a 35ºC, procedeu-se inicialmente ao enriquecimento da população metanogênica, durante 21 dias, com substrato à base de etanol (2,5 gDQO/L). Posteriormente, cargas orgânicas volumétricas (COV) de 0,85 a 5,70 gDQO/L.d foram aplicadas no reator a 55ºC, com suplementação de 1,2 a 0,4 gHCO3-/gDQO. A 35ºC, o reator foi submetido a COV de 2,85 a 36,0 gDQO/L.d com 0,4 a 0,2 gHCO3-/gDQO. A remoção de DQO variou de 43 a 78% a 55ºC e de 75 a 85% a 35ºC. A suplementação de alcalinidade mostrou-se essencial para a estabilidade do processo, sendo requerida em menor quantidade a 35ºC. Abstract in english The influence of the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating vinasse at 55 and 35ºC was evaluated. The reactor was filled with polyurethane foam and agitated at 300 rpm. The acclimatization period at 55ºC lasted 50 days, and the reacto [...] r was fed with vinasse (COD from 0.3 to 1.0 g/L). A previous enrichment of methanogenic population was provided for the reactor operated at 35ºC, feeding it with an ethanol based substrate (2.5 gCOD/L) during 21 days. Further on, organic loading rates (OLR) ranging from 0.85 to 5.70 gCOD/L.d were applied to the reactor at 55ºC, supplemented with 1.2 to 0.4 gHCO3-/gCOD. At 35ºC the reactor was subjected to OLR ranging from 2.85 to 36.0 gCOD/L.d with 0.4 to 0.2 gHCO3-/gCOD. COD removal ranged from 43 to 78% at 55ºC and from 75 to 85% at 35ºC. Alkalinity supplementation was found to be essential for process stability, but the amount required was lower at 35ºC.

Maria Magdalena Ribas, Döll; Eugenio, Foresti.

358

Efeito do bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento de vinhaça em AnSBBR operado a 55 e 35ºC / Effect of the sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of vinasse in AnSBBR operated at 55 and 35ºC  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se a influência do bicarbonato de sódio (NaHCO3) no desempenho do reator anaeróbio batelada sequencial com biomassa imobilizada tratando vinhaça a 55 e a 35ºC. O reator foi preenchido com espuma de poliuretano e agitado a 300 rpm. A adaptação a 55ºC estendeu-se por 50 dias, tendo o reator si [...] do alimentado com vinhaça (DQO de 0,3 a 1,0 g/L). Para a operação a 35ºC, procedeu-se inicialmente ao enriquecimento da população metanogênica, durante 21 dias, com substrato à base de etanol (2,5 gDQO/L). Posteriormente, cargas orgânicas volumétricas (COV) de 0,85 a 5,70 gDQO/L.d foram aplicadas no reator a 55ºC, com suplementação de 1,2 a 0,4 gHCO3-/gDQO. A 35ºC, o reator foi submetido a COV de 2,85 a 36,0 gDQO/L.d com 0,4 a 0,2 gHCO3-/gDQO. A remoção de DQO variou de 43 a 78% a 55ºC e de 75 a 85% a 35ºC. A suplementação de alcalinidade mostrou-se essencial para a estabilidade do processo, sendo requerida em menor quantidade a 35ºC. Abstract in english The influence of the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating vinasse at 55 and 35ºC was evaluated. The reactor was filled with polyurethane foam and agitated at 300 rpm. The acclimatization period at 55ºC lasted 50 days, and the reacto [...] r was fed with vinasse (COD from 0.3 to 1.0 g/L). A previous enrichment of methanogenic population was provided for the reactor operated at 35ºC, feeding it with an ethanol based substrate (2.5 gCOD/L) during 21 days. Further on, organic loading rates (OLR) ranging from 0.85 to 5.70 gCOD/L.d were applied to the reactor at 55ºC, supplemented with 1.2 to 0.4 gHCO3-/gCOD. At 35ºC the reactor was subjected to OLR ranging from 2.85 to 36.0 gCOD/L.d with 0.4 to 0.2 gHCO3-/gCOD. COD removal ranged from 43 to 78% at 55ºC and from 75 to 85% at 35ºC. Alkalinity supplementation was found to be essential for process stability, but the amount required was lower at 35ºC.

Maria Magdalena Ribas, Döll; Eugenio, Foresti.

2010-09-01

359

Biofiltration with bicarbonate as dialysate buffer.  

Science.gov (United States)

The biofiltration with bicarbonate as dialysate buffer (BiBF) was used in 10 patients on RDT: the patients were treated for 10 months on standard BF and for 10 months on BiBF. The amount of fluid infused varied between 3 and 5 liters and Na-bicarbonate (100 mEq/h) was infused during BF. The dialytic protocol was 3 hours every other day. Cardiovascular stability, waste molecules and acid-base balance were investigated. No differences in vascular stability and no significant changes in the waste-molecules concentrations were found. Both protocols correct the metabolic acidosis; however, in standard BF 50% of patients showed acute hypocapnia at the end of dialysis. PMID:3030938

Rizzelli, S; Alfonso, L; Corlianò, C; Patruno, P; Sozzo, E; Mastrangelo, F

1986-12-01

360

A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident.

Wook Jae Yoo

2014-10-01

 
 
 
 
361

A fiber-optic sensor using an aqueous solution of sodium chloride to measure temperature and water level simultaneously.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

2014-01-01

362

Measurements of density and of thermal expansion coefficient of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements have been performed of the density and volumetric thermal expansion coefficient of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO2 dissolved in each. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 8500C to 13250C. The data for the pure borax and for the sodium metaborate agree reasonably well with the data from the literature, giving confidence that the measurements are correct and the new data for the salts with UO2 are reliable. (orig.)

363

Size of sodium dodecyl sulphate micelles in aqueous NaCl solutions as studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

The changes in size and shape of the micelles formed by 0.28 M sodium dodecyl sulphate in aqueous solution are studied as a function of added sodium chloride concentration at 303 K, by using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (LS). As in a previous work, the trapping of ortho-positronium ( o-Ps) from the aqueous to the organic micellar subphase results in the appearance of two o-Ps states with distinct lifetimes. The LS spectra are analysed on the basis of a time-dependent trapping rate coefficient, which involves two parameters characteristic of the micellar system: the mean core radius, R core, and the mean aggregation number, N ag. On selecting a set of N ag values at various NaCl concentrations from two previous independent experimental works, the LS data provide R core values. A good agreement is observed between the latter values and those expected either from the theoretical geometrical considerations or from the previous experimental data on the mean micelle diffusion coefficient. The agreement is obtained only based on the assumption that Ps exists in the solution in a bubble state and not as a quasi-free particle.

Bockstahl, Frédéric; Pachoud, Eric; Duplâtre, Gilles; Billard, Isabelle

2000-06-01

364

In vitro bioactivity of soda lime borate glasses with substituted SrO in sodium phosphate solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Borate glasses with the basic composition 0.6B2O3·0.2Na2O·0.2CaO and SrO progressively substituting CaO were prepared and characterized for their bone-bonding ability. The obtained glasses were thermally treated and converted to their glass-ceramic derivatives. In this study, FTIR spectral analyses were done for the prepared glasses and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in a sodium phosphate solution for extended times. The appearance of two IR bands within the spectral range 550–680 cm-1 after immersion confirms the formation of hydroxyapatite. X-ray diffraction studies and scanning electron microscope analysis supported the obtained infrared spectroscopy results. The solubility test (measurements of the weight loss in aqueous sodium phosphate solution was conducted for measuring the dissolution of both glassy and crystalline derivatives to find out the role of SrO. The corrosion behaviour of the glasses and glass-ceramics indicate the increase of weight loss with the increase of SrO content. Different suggested proposals were introduced to explain this abnormal behaviour.

Mohamed A. Marzouk

2014-09-01

365

The thermodynamic properties of solutions of sodium chloride, water, and 1-propanol  

Science.gov (United States)

The temperature-concentration dependences of the activity coefficient of NaCl in aqueous solutions of 1-propanol at 298 and 318 K, solution ionic strength up to 3 m, and alcohol contents of 10-40 wt % were determined by the method of electromotive forces with ion-selective electrodes. The results were used to estimate interaction parameters in the Pitzer model. The Darken method was used to calculate the integral Gibbs energy of solutions.

Mamontov, M. N.; Konstantinova, N. M.; Veryaeva, E. S.; Uspenskaya, I. A.

2010-07-01

366