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Sample records for sodium bicarbonate solution

  1. Sodium Bicarbonate—A Potent Ergogenic Aid?

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    Gideon V. Praveen Kumar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This report aims to look at the role of Sodium bicarbonate as a potent Ergogenic aid and its role in improving the performance of athletes. It includes the mechanism of action of sodium bicarbonate during high-intensity exercise. The report also shows the various types of athletes who can be benefited from sodium bicarbonate loading, evidences for improvement in performance, conflicting evidences, recommended dosages and side-effects for bicarbonate loading.

  2. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. II. Study, in an experimental model in rats, of gastric retention of a sodium bicarbonate solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belangero, V M; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of a 0.25 M sodium bicarbonate solution was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by a previous (6 hours) orogastric infusion of a 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one previously infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water, in the same volume that further solutions. Every animal was fed with 2 ml/100 g of its weight of these solutions. The test meal (bicarbonate solution) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric retentions were determined 6 hours after those first meals at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The results demonstrated that the gastric retentions of the bicarbonate solution were significantly lower in the acidotic group than that one of water group (at 20 minutes) and that one of the sodium chloride (at 10, 20 and 30 minutes). The data here presented suggest that metabolic acidosis accelerates the gastric emptying of a sodium bicarbonate solution. PMID:1339142

  3. Postharvest behaviour of two Sardinian apple varieties following immersion in heated sodium bicarbonate solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, T; Molinu, M G; Dore, A; Agabbio, M; D'Hallewin, G

    2010-01-01

    'Miali' and 'Caddina' are apple varieties of Sardinian germplasm, mainly produced under sustainable conditions. Fruit is rarely subjected to cold storage and postharvest losses are generally high. In order to prolong the marketing period and contain postharvest decay of these local varieties, we investigated on their storage behaviour and on the efficacy of combined alternative postharvest treatments. Pre-climateric fruit was harvested and immersed for 0 (control), 15, 30, 45 or 60 sec. in water at 20, 50, 55 or 60 degrees C with or without 2% (W/V) NaHCO3 (SBC). Then, fruit was stored for 4 months at 5 degrees C and 90% RH followed by a 6 day simulated marketing period (SMP) at 10 degrees C and 75% RH. Decay was monitored at the end of storage and after the SMP, while appearance and physiological disorders were evaluated after SMP. During storage 56 and 62% of the untreated 'Caddina' and 'Miali' apples rotted, respectively. During the SMP, an additional 3% of 'Caddina' and 5% of 'Miali' was lost. Among the treatments the best decay control, for both varieties, was attained when fruit was immersed in the SBC solution at 55 degrees C for 60 sec. Compared to control, decay was reduced by 91 and 95% for 'Caddina' and 'Miali', respectively. This combination induced some rind damage, mainly on 'Caddina' fruit. Superficial scald was evident on 'Caddina' and scored as medium while, cold storage induced a significant deposition of epicuticular wax in 'Miali' fruit, affecting significantly fruit appearance. A significant reduction of decay was also achieved when fruit was immersed at 60 degrees C for 30 or 45 sec., attaining for 'Caddina' a reduction of 82 and 88% of decay, respectively. Other combinations were lesser effective or produced rind damages and most decay was caused by Penicillium expansum. PMID:21534486

  4. Bicarbonate and bicarbonate/lactate peritoneal dialysis solutions for the treatment of infusion pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mactier, R A; Sprosen, T S; Gokal, R; Williams, P F; Lindbergh, M; Naik, R B; Wrege, U; Gröntoft, K C; Larsson, R; Berglund, J; Tranaeus, A P; Faict, D

    1998-04-01

    A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study was undertaken to determine the effects of novel bicarbonate (38 mM) and bicarbonate (25 mM)/lactate (15 mM) containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions on infusion pain in patients who experienced inflow pain with conventional lactate (40 mM) solution. Pain was assessed using a verbal rating scale and the validated McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Eighteen patients were recruited to the study. Both novel solutions resulted in highly statistically significant reductions in inflow pain compared to the control lactate solution, as assessed with both the verbal rating scale and the MPQ. For all pain variables assessed, the bicarbonate/lactate solution was more effective than the bicarbonate solution in alleviating pain. In conclusion, both solutions reduced the infusion pain experienced with control solution, but the bicarbonate/lactate solution appears to be the most effective. In contrast to the most widespread current treatment, which is the manual injection of sodium bicarbonate, the bicarbonate/lactate solution does not have the associated increased risk of peritonitis. PMID:9551418

  5. Elimination of Escherichia coli from Oysters using Sodium Bicarbonate

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    Matthura LABAIDEN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate is a disinfectant that can be used in food processing because it is safe for humans and is cost effective. In this study, sodium bicarbonate was used to eliminate E. coli from oysters (Crassostrea belcheri. The experiments were divided into 3 trials; in vitro disinfection of E. coli using sodium bicarbonate and the toxicity of sodium bicarbonate in oysters were determined in the first and second trials, and the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate in eliminating E. coli in naturally contaminated oysters was performed in the final trial. From the in vitro study, it was found that sodium bicarbonate at 10 and 100 mM could inhibit E. coli; however, the high dose of 100 mM is not suitable to use on oysters, since the 50 % lethal concentration of sodium bicarbonate for oysters was 63 mM. An application of sodium bicarbonate to eliminate E. coli in naturally contaminated oysters at 10 mM for 1 h could decrease the E. coli to 96 MPN/100 g, lower than the standard level (230 MPN/100 g after depuration. These results suggest that sodium bicarbonate could be potentially used to eliminate E. coli contamination in oysters.

  6. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Diabetic Hyperglycemic Emergencies

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    Diana Machado Ramírez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state are two of the major metabolic emergencies that may occur. These conditions are not always treated properly.Objective: to describe the metabolic hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetic patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit, and to assess the use of sodium bicarbonate. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted including 52 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the Enrique Cabrera Hospital from 2000 through 2007. The following variables were analyzed: type of diabetes mellitus, type of acute complication, use or not of sodium bicarbonate, blood gases, ionogram and progress of patients. Kitabchi criteria were used for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and its severity and for the diagnosis of the hyperglycemic state as well. Criteria proposed by an Expert Committee of the American Diabetes Association and a World Health Organization Expert Committee were adopted for the diagnosis of diabetes and its classification. Results: diabetic ketoacidosis was confirmed in 57,5 % of type 1 diabetic patients and in 42,5 % of those with type 2 diabetes. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was observed in 23,0 % of type 2 diabetics. There was not any death among patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who did not use sodium bicarbonate whereas 80,0 % of patients with hyperglycemic state who used it died. Conclusions: diabetic ketoacidosis was the most common complication. Mortality due to ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was high. Sodium bicarbonate was not properly used.

  7. Sodium bicarbonate-augmented stress thallium myocardial scintigraphy

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    Sarin, Badal; Chugh, Pradeep Kumar; Kaushal, Dinesh; Soni, Nakse Lal; Sawroop, Kishan; Mondal, Anupam; Bhatnagar, Aseem [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig. S. K. Mazumdar Road, 110054, Delhi (India)

    2004-04-01

    It is well known that sodium bicarbonate in pharmacological doses induces transient alkalosis, causing intracellular transport of serum potassium. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate whether, in humans, myocardial thallium-201 uptake can be augmented by pretreatment with a single bolus of sodium bicarbonate at a pharmacological dose, (b) to verify general safety aspects of the intervention and (c) to evaluate the clinical implications of augmentation of {sup 201}Tl uptake, if any. Routine exercise myocardial scintigraphy was performed twice in eight adult volunteers (five normal and three abnormal), once without intervention and the second time (within a week) following intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (88 mEq in 50 ml) as a slow bolus 1 h prior to the injection of {sup 201}Tl. Conventional myocardial thallium study was compared with sodium bicarbonate interventional myocardial scintigraphy with respect to myocardial uptake (counts per minute per mCi injected dose), washout patterns in normal and abnormal myocardial segments, and overall clinical interpretation based on planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) images. All patients remained asymptomatic after the intervention. A mean increase of 53% in myocardial uptake of thallium was noted in post-exercise acquisitions after the intervention, confirming uptake of the tracer via the potassium-hydrogen pump and its augmentation by transient alkalosis. The washout pattern remained unchanged. The visual quality of planar and SPET images improved significantly after the intervention. Out of the five abnormal myocardial segments identified in three cases, four showed significant filling-in after the intervention, causing the diagnosis to be upgraded from ''partial scar'' to ''ischaemia'', or from ''ischaemia'' to ''normal''. The overall scan impression changed in two out of three such cases. Sodium bicarbonate augmentation may have significant implications for stress-thallium scintigraphy and may be a new parameter for defining myocardial viability. (orig.)

  8. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    NingYan

    2013-01-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active t...

  9. Gram-scale solution-phase synthesis of selective sodium bicarbonate Co-transport Inhibitor S0859 : in vitro efficacy studies in breast cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ann MØller; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters (NBCs) mediate the transport of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes and are thus ubiquitous regulators of intracellular pH. NBC dysregulation is associated with a range of diseases; for instance, NBCn1 is strongly up-regulated in a model of ErbB2-dependent breast cancer, a malignant and widespread cancer with no targeted treatment options, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NBCn1 genetically link to breast cancer development and hypertension. The N-cyanosulfonamide S0859 has been shown to selectively inhibit NBCs, and its availability on the gram scale is therefore of significant interest to the scientific community. Herein we describe a short and efficient synthesis of S0859 with an overall yield of 45?% from commercially available starting materials. The inhibitory effect of S0859 on recovery of intracellular pH after an acid load was verified in human and murine cancer cell lines in Ringer solutions. However, S0859 binds very strongly to components in plasma, and accordingly, measurements on isolated murine tissues showed no effect of S0859 at concentrations up to 50 mu M.

  10. Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress

    OpenAIRE

    Kahle, Laura E.; Kelly, Patrick V.; Eliot, Kathrin A.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2013-01-01

    Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (i.e. 300 mg·kg?1) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind cross-over trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loadi...

  11. EFFECTS OF SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION ON SWIM PERFORMANCE IN YOUTH ATHLETES

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    Jozef Langfort

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w. on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s-1, p < 0.05. Resting blood concentration of HCO-3 increased following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p < 0.05. Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p < .05 as well as on post exercise plasma lactate concentration (11.27 vs. 13.06 mM, p < 0.05. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m

  12. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NingYan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs. Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

  13. Transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over NiPd nanoparticle catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability. PMID:24790945

  14. Quantification of Kinetic Rate Law Parameters of Uranium Release from Sodium Autunite as a Function of Aqueous Bicarbonate Concentrations

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    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-09-05

    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen carbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, hydrogen carbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous hydrogen carbonate solutions to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate solutions (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and temperatures of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release from sodium autunite exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH and increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions. Most notably at pH 7, the rate of uranium release exhibited 370 fold increases relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release. Results indicate the activation energies were unaffected by temperature and bicarbonate concentration variations, but were strongly dependent on pH conditions. As pH increased from 6 to 11, activation energy values were observed to decrease from 29.94 kJ mol-1 to 13.07 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energies suggest a surface controlled dissolution mechanism.

  15. A study of the catalytic role of a gold electrode in the electrochemical activation of four macrolide antibiotics in sodium bicarbonate solution

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    Milka L. Avramov Ivi?

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Using the cyclic voltammetry, it has been shown that hydrogen evolution at a gold electrode is necessary in the electrochemical activation of azithromycin dihydrate and erythromycin A. After four hours of the potential holding at –1.2 V vs. SCE, the pH of the electrolyte has been changed from 8.40 to 8.96; from 8.40 to 8.77 in the presence of erythromycin A, and from 8.40 to 9.18 in the presence of azithromycin, indicating the reaction of the hydrogen species with antibiotics. This effect has been confirmed by using the phenolphthalein indicator and by analysing colours of the solutions by UV-Vis, as well as by FTIR spectroscopy. Under the identical experimental conditions at the gold electrode, in contrast to azithromycin dihydrate and erythromycin A, roxithromycin and midecamycin electroactivity promotion has been obtained during the first forward sweep starting from the area of a double layer region.

  16. Some aspects of the electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate (600 ppm) has been investigated using potentiodynamic polarization. In the pre-passive region three well-defined peaks are observed associated to reduction peaks corresponding to Fe(II) and Fe(III) species. A transpassive anodic peak is also observed being attributed to Fe(VI) species showing, in sweep reversal experiments, an associated reduction peak and an increase in the peak associated to the reduction of Fe(III) species. The characterization of the transpassive peak will be subject of further publication. (author)

  17. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) remains a common complication of coronary angiography (CAG) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although a previous study reported pretreatment with sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride for prophylaxis of CIN, this has not been a universal finding and the long-term effects of sodium bicarbonate on CIN have not been studied before. We performed a prospective, single-center, randomized trial to investigate whether CIN can be avoided by sodium bicarbonate in patients with chronic renal failure. Eighty patients with chronic renal failure (defined as serum creatinine concentration (SCr), >1.1 mg per deciliter), who were undergoing CAG, were enrolled in this study. We assigned them to either sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate (Group B: n=35) or sodium chloride alone (Group C: n=45). In all patients, an infusion of sodium chloride of 1 ml/kg per hour was given between 12 hours before and after the procedure. In Group B, sodium bicarbonate infusion of 1 ml/kg per hour continued from 3 hours before procedure to 6 hours after procedure, changing from sodium chloride at 1 ml/kg per hour. SCr was measured at baseline, day 1, day 2 and 1 month after the procedure. CIN was defined as a 25% increase in SCr from baseline value, or an absolute increase of at least 0.5 mg/dl, which appears within 2 days after CAG. No differences in age, sex and contrast volume were observed between the two groups. SCr were observed between the two groups. SCr at baseline was not significantly different in the two groups (Group B: 1.41±0.32 versus Group C: 1.50±0.38 mg/dl). SCr at day 2 was significantly lower in Group B than Group C (1.44±0.38 versus 1.60±0.5 mg/dl, p<0.05) and 1 month (1.28±0.27 versus 1.49±0.55 mg/dl, p<0.05). CIN occurred in 9 patients (20%) in Group C but in only 2 (6%) in Group B (p=0.03). Sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride alone for prophylaxis of CIN and can help retain long-term renal function. (author)

  18. Comparison of Talc Powder, Starch and Sodium Bicarbonate to Postsurgical Adhesion Formation in Rat Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Zeinalynejad; Mohammad Arash Ramezani

    2004-01-01

    To find out Sodium bicarbonate comparatively with Talc and Starch in intraperitonealy adhesion formation an experimental study on rat model was designed. Forty eight female rats were selected divided randomly into four groups. After a laparotomy, in the first group, 0.7 mg Talc powder (sterilized with ethyl oxide) plus 3 cc normal saline; in the second group, 0.7 mg Sodium bicarbonate (sterilized with ethyl oxide) plus 3 cc normal saline; in the third group, 0.7 mg starches powder (sterilized...

  19. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system during haemodialysis with acetate or bicarbonate at different dialysate sodium concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Kra?mer, Bernhard K.; Ress, K. M.; Ulsho?fer, T. M.; Risler, T.

    1987-01-01

    The hormones of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system were measured during regular haemodialysis with acetate or bicarbonate at dialysate sodium concentrations of 135, 140, 145, and 150 mmol/l. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration were higher during acetate haemodialysis than during bicarbonate haemodialysis. At lower dialysate sodium concentrations, plasma renin activity (acetate dialysis and bicarbonate dialysis) and aldosterone concentration (only acetate dialysis) were h...

  20. Efficacy of sodium bicarbonate as anaesthetic for yellow seahorse, Hippocampus kuda (Bleeker, 1852)

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    Pawar, H.B.; Ingole, B.S.; Sreepada, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation anesthetic efficacy of sodium bicarbonate on yellow seahorse Hippocampus kuda was studied. Captive bred two years old (163.2±10.2 mm height and 12.22±1.94 g weight) yellow seahorses were exposed to 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6...

  1. Diphenhydramine Overdose with Intraventricular Conduction Delay Treated with Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate and IV Lipid Emulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, Amin; Rose, Emily; Levine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diphenhydramine toxicity commonly manifests with antimuscarinic features, including dry mucous membranes, tachycardia, urinary retention, mydriasis, tachycardia, and encephalopathy. Severe toxicity can include seizures and intraventricular conduction delay. We present here a case of a 23-year-old male presenting with recurrent seizures, hypotension and wide complex tachycardia who had worsening toxicity despite treatment with sodium bicarbonate. The patient was ultimately treated with intrave...

  2. Effect of excess sodium bicarbonate on the blood volume and erythrocyte deformability of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsalimi, S M; Julian, R J

    1993-09-01

    Broiler chickens were treated with 7.5% of sodium bicarbonate in their drinking water from 7 to 29 days of age to test the hypothesis that excess dietary sodium bicarbonate increases blood volume and decreases erythrocyte deformability thus contributing to the development of pulmonary hypertension-induced right ventricular failure and ascites. Sodium bicarbonate treatment resulted in 16% mortality from ascites compared to 2% mortality from sudden death syndrome in control broilers. Blood volume was increased significantly at post-treatment days 1 (16%) and 3 (11%) and was higher in treated broilers for the remainder of the experiment. Erythrocyte deformability was significantly decreased at post-treatment days 2 (16%) and 4 (33%). Erythrocyte number, haemoglobin and haematocrit were lower at post-treatment days 1 and 2. After this time, these values were higher than in control broilers. Serum Na+ concentration was significantly higher at post-treatment days 2 and 4. Right ventricle to total ventricular weight (an indication of pulmonary hypertension) was increased significantly at post-treatment days 1, 2, 21 and 22. These results indicate that reduction of erythrocyte deformability and increased blood volume may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypertension-induced right ventricular failure and ascites in sodium bicarbonate-treated birds. PMID:18671035

  3. Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration prevents contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis

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    Tamhane Umesh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrast-induced nephropathy is the leading cause of in-hospital acute renal failure. This side effect of contrast agents leads to increased morbidity, mortality, and health costs. Ensuring adequate hydration prior to contrast exposure is highly effective at preventing this complication, although the optimal hydration strategy to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy still remains an unresolved issue. Former meta-analyses and several recent studies have shown conflicting results regarding the protective effect of sodium bicarbonate. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of normal saline versus sodium bicarbonate for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. Methods The study searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts database, ISI Web of Science (until 15 December 2008, and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials that compared normal saline with sodium bicarbonate-based hydration regimen regarding contrast-induced nephropathy. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary odds ratios. Results A total of 17 trials including 2,633 subjects were pooled. Pre-procedural hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of contrast-induced nephropathy (odds ratios 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.80, P = 0.003. Number needed to treat to prevent one case of contrast-induced nephropathy was 16 (95% confidence interval 10–34. No significant differences in the rates of post-procedure hemodialysis (P = 0.20 or death (P = 0.53 was observed. Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration was found to be superior to normal saline in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in this updated meta-analysis.

  4. Isotonic sodium bicarbonate-triggered emodin release from borate stabilized emodin nanoparticles-loaded polymeric microgel films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaozhou

    2014-07-20

    Hydrosoluble emodin-borate (EmB) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated by a simple solvent exchange method to address emodin's poor water solubility. As the result, negative charges were introduced in the surface of EmB NPs. In addition, layer-by-layer assembled multilayer films containing cation-rich polymeric microgels (named PAHD) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) were employed as drug carrier. Anionic EmB can be loaded into the PAHD/CMC multilayer films. The influences of various experimental parameters on cargo capacity of the PAHD/CMC film were studied in detail. The loaded EmB can be released in the form of emodin molecule in presence of isotonic sodium bicarbonate (ISB) solution. Gratifyingly, EmB did not almost release in presence of water, PBS buffer solution, 0.9% normal saline, and 5% glucose solution. PMID:24755249

  5. CRACK2 - Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solution in cracks in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodersen, K

    2003-03-01

    The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description of the model. Hydroxyl ions are transported by diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. The cementitious material is simulated as calcium hydroxide mixed with inert material but with sodium hydroxide dissolved in the pore solution. Diffusive migration of cesium as radioactive isotope is also considered. Electrical interaction of the migrating ions is taken into account. Example calculations demonstrate effects of parameter variations on distribution of precipitated calcite in the crack and on the composition of the outflowing solution, which can be compared directly with experimental results. Leaching behavior of sodium can be used to tune the model to experimental observations. The calcite is mostly precipitated on top of the original crack surface and may under certain circumstances fill the crack. The produced thin layers of low porosity calcite act as a diffusion barrier limiting contact between cement and solution. Pore closure mechanisms in such layers are discussed. Implications for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal are shortly mentioned. The model is also relevant for conventional uses of concrete. (au)

  6. CRACK2 - Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solution in cracks in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description of the model. Hydroxyl ions are transported by diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. The cementitious material is simulated as calcium hydroxide mixed with inert material but with sodium hydroxide dissolved in the pore solution. Diffusive migration of cesium as radioactive isotope is also considered. Electrical interaction of the migrating ions is taken into account. Example calculations demonstrate effects of parameter variations on distribution of precipitated calcite in the crack and on the composition of the outflowing solution, which can be compared directly with experimental results. Leaching behavior of sodium can be used to tune the model to experimental observations. The calcite is mostly precipitated on top of the original crack surface and may under certain circumstances fill the crack. The produced thin layers of low porosity calcite act as a diffusion barrier limiting contact between cement and solution. Pore closure mechanisms in such layers are discussed. Implications for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal are shortly mentioned. The model is also relevant for conventional uses of concrete. (au)

  7. The role of perioperative sodium bicarbonate infusion affecting renal function after Cardiothoracic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KatjaReginaTurner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI is associated with poor outcomes including increased mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI is reported to be between 3-30% depending on the definition of AKI. We designed a multicenter randomized controlled trial to test our hypothesis that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate during cardiac surgery will attenuate the postoperative rise in creatinine indicating renal injury when compared to a perioperative infusion with normal saline. An interim analysis was performed after data was available on the first 120 participants. A similar number of patients in the two treatment groups developed acute kidney injury (AKI, defined as an increase in serum creatinine the first 48 hours after surgery of 0.3 mg/dl or more. Specifically 14 patients (24% who received sodium chloride (SC and 17 patients (27% who received sodium bicarbonate (SB were observed to develop AKI post surgery, resulting in a relative risk of AKI of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6-2.1, chi-square p-value=0.68 for patients receiving SB compared to those who received SC . The data safety monitoring board for the trial recommended closing the study early as there was only a 12% probability that the null hypothesis would be rejected. We therefore concluded that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate failed to attenuate the risk of CSA-AKI.

  8. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Ming-Hsiang; Yang Chia-Cheng; Shih Mu-Chin; Wu Ching-Lin; Chang Chen-Kang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants con...

  9. The role of perioperative sodium bicarbonate infusion affecting renal function after cardiothoracic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    KatjaReginaTurner; EdwardFisher; ErinnMHade; MichaelRocco; TimothyHoule

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is associated with poor outcomes including increased mortality, length of hospital stay and cost. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is reported to be between 3-30% depending on the definition of AKI. We designed a multicenter randomized controlled trial to test our hypothesis that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate during cardiac surgery will attenuate the postoperative rise in creatinine indicating renal injury whe...

  10. Effects of Cheap Antidotes; Sodium Bicarbonate and Magnesium Sulfate in Organophosphorous Poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organophosphorous (OP) compounds have been used as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Despite administration of well known antidotes (atropine and oximes), morbidity and mortality of OP poisoning were still high. Besides, oximes are very expensive and not available in most developing countries. It was thus aimed to study the effects of cheap available antidotes; sodium bicarbonate and magnesium sulfate in OP poisoning. In addition to the standard antidotal treatment, out of 117 patients (63M, 47F) aged 25.2 ± 9.5 years with moderate to severe acute OP pesticide poisoning 59 were given sodium bicarbonate 5 mEq/kg in 60 min. followed by 5-6 mEq/kg/day to obtain arterial blood pH of 7.45 to 7.55. Arterial blood pH increased significantly (p less than 0.01) to 7.48 ± 0.05 compared to the controls (7.32 ± 0.06). Morbidity based on hospitalization days reduced significantly (p less than 0.05) from 5.62 ± 3.4 in the controls to 3.1 ± 2.6 days in the sodium bicarbonate group. Total atropine dose was also significantly (p less than 0.05) lower in the test group. Mortality was lower, but not significantly due to the low numbers (5 and 2 of the controls and test group, respectively). Sodium bicarbonate appeared to be effective and could be added to the treatment regime of OP poisoning. Magnesium sulfate was administered four gram intravenously only for the first 24 hr of hospitalization day for the patients with moderate to severe OP poisoning in a pilot study. The results were promising and thus further investigations are continued.(author)

  11. Modulation of the cardiac sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter by the renin angiotensin aldosterone system: pathophysiological consequences

    OpenAIRE

    ErnestoAlejandroAiello

    2014-01-01

    The sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) is one of the major alkalinizing mechanisms in the cardiomyocytes. It has been demonstrated the existence of at least two functional isoforms, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 1 molecule of HCO3- (electroneutral isoform; NBCn1) and the other one that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 2 molecules of HCO3- (electrogenic isoform; NBCe1). Both isoforms are important to maintain intracellular pH (pHi) and sodium conc...

  12. CRACK2. Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solutions in cracks in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Knud Erik

    2003-01-01

    The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description ofthe model. Hydroxyl ions are transported by diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. Thecementitious material is simulated as calcium hydroxide mixed with inert material but with sodium hydroxide dissolved in the pore solution. Diffusive migration of cesium as radioactive isotope is also considered. Electrical interaction of the migratingions is taken into account. Example calculations demonstrate effects of parameter variations on distribution of precipitated calcite in the crack and on the composition of the outflowing solution, which can be compared directly with experimental results.Leaching behavior ofsodium can be used to tune the model to experimental observations. The calcite is mostly precipitated on top of the original crack surface and may under certain circumstances fill the crack. The produced thin layers of low porositycalcite act as a diffusion barrier limiting contact between cement and solution. Pore closure mechanisms in such layers are discussed. Implications for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal are shortly mentioned. The model is also relevant forconventional uses of concrete.

  13. Sodium bicarbonate absorption and anabolism by detatched root of young paddy rice, corn and wheat plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is aimed at investigating species-to-species difference in the capability of absorption and anabolism through the root and examining the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the capability. Roots detatched from young plants of paddy rice, corn and wheat are used as the samples. The respiratory rate and anabolic rate of the detatched roots are measured by using the 14C tracer. It is found that paddy rice whows the greatest initial anabolic rate, while the rates of corn and wheat are 14 - 30 % of that of paddy rice. The initial anabolic rate is almost independent of the concentration of sodium bicarbonate. The initial absorption rate is greatest in paddy rice, followed by corn (30 - 78 %) and wheat (16 - 21 %). It is also shown that paddy rice has the greatest capability both in anabolism and absorption. The anabolism and absorption capabilities of corn are 17 - 29 % and 31 - 80 % of those of paddy rice, respectively. The corresponding values of wheat are 16 - 38 % and 24 - 66 %. Sidium bicarbonate has little effect on the anabolism capability, while the absorption capability is affected above a high concentration of 50 mM. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Background Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test performance in trained young men. Method Thirteen men aged 23?±?1 year (height: 180?±?2 cm, weight: 78?±?3 kg; VO2max: 61.3?±?3.3 mlO2?·?kg?1?·?min?1; means?±?SEM) performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) on two separate occasions in randomized order with (SBC) and without (CON) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g?·?kg?1 body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Results Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P?=?0.04) in SBC than in CON (735?±?61 vs 646?±?46 m, respectively). Blood pH and bicarbonate were similar between trials at baseline, but higher (P?=?0.003) immediately prior to the Yo-Yo IR2 test in SBC than in CON (7.44?±?0.01 vs 7.32?±?0.01 and 33.7?±?3.2 vs 27.3?±?0.6 mmol?·?l?1, respectively). Blood lactate was 0.9?±?0.1 and 0.8?±?0.1 mmol?·?l?1 at baseline and increased to 11.3?±?1.4 and 9.4?±?0.8 mmol?·?l?1 at exhaustion in SBC and CON, respectively, being higher (P?=?0.03) in SBC. Additionally, peak blood lactate was higher (P?=?0.02) in SBC than in CON (11.7?±?1.2 vs 10.2?±?0.7 mmol?·?l?1). Blood glucose, plasma K+ and Na+ were not different between trials. Peak heart rate reached at exhaustion was 197?±?3 and 195?±?3 bpm in SBC and CON, respectively, with no difference between conditions. RPE was 7 % lower (P?=?0.003) in SBC than in CON after 440 m, but similar at exhaustion (19.3?±?0.2 and 19.5?±?0.2). Conclusion In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior intake of sodium bicarbonate in trained young men, with concomitant elevations in blood alkalosis and peak blood lactate levels, as well as lowered rating of perceived exertion.

  15. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ming-Hsiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants consumed NaHCO3 (0.3 g. kg-1 or NaCl (0.209 g. kg-1 before the trial. An additional supplementation of 0.1 g. kg-1 NaHCO3 or 0.07 g. kg-1 NaCl was ingested after the third game in the simulated match. The Loughborough Tennis Skill Test was performed before and after the simulated match. Post-match [HCO3-] and base excess were significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial than those in the placebo trial. Blood [lactate] was significantly increased in the placebo (pre: 1.22 ± 0.54; post: 2.17 ± 1.46 mM and bicarbonate (pre: 1.23 ± 0.41; post: 3.21 ± 1.89 mM trials. The match-induced change in blood [lactate] was significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial. Blood pH remained unchanged in the placebo trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.32; post: 7.37 ± 0.14 but was significantly increased in the bicarbonate trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.26; post: 7.45 ± 0.63, indicating a more alkaline environment. The service and forehand ground stroke consistency scores were declined significantly after the simulated match in the placebo trial, while they were maintained in the bicarbonate trial. The match-induced declines in the consistency scores were significantly larger in the placebo trial than those in the bicarbonate trial. This study suggested that NaHCO3 supplementation could prevent the decline in skilled tennis performance after a simulated match.

  16. Diphenhydramine Overdose with Intraventricular Conduction Delay Treated with Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate and IV Lipid Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Abdi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diphenhydramine toxicity commonly manifests with antimuscarinic features, including dry mucous membranes, tachycardia, urinary retention, mydriasis, tachycardia, and encephalopathy. Severe toxicity can include seizures and intraventricular conduction delay. We present here a case of a 23-year-old male presenting with recurrent seizures, hypotension and wide complex tachycardia who had worsening toxicity despite treatment with sodium bicarbonate. The patient was ultimately treated with intravenous lipid emulsion therapy that was temporally associated with improvement in the QRS duration. We also review the current literature that supports lipid use in refractory diphenhydramine toxicity. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.

  17. Diphenhydramine Overdose with Intraventricular Conduction Delay Treated with Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate and IV Lipid Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Amin; Rose, Emily; Levine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diphenhydramine toxicity commonly manifests with antimuscarinic features, including dry mucous membranes, tachycardia, urinary retention, mydriasis, tachycardia, and encephalopathy. Severe toxicity can include seizures and intraventricular conduction delay. We present here a case of a 23-year-old male presenting with recurrent seizures, hypotension and wide complex tachycardia who had worsening toxicity despite treatment with sodium bicarbonate. The patient was ultimately treated with intravenous lipid emulsion therapy that was temporally associated with improvement in the QRS duration. We also review the current literature that supports lipid use in refractory diphenhydramine toxicity. PMID:25493135

  18. Geochemistry of fly ash from desulphurisation process performed by sodium bicarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raclavska, Helena; Matysek, Dalibor; Raclavsky, Konstantin; Juchelkova, Dagmar [VSB - Technical University Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2010-02-15

    The application of NEUTREC {sup registered} technology - desulphurisation by means of sodium bicarbonate - has been tested at the Trebovice coal-fired power plant (Ostrava, Czech Republic). This technology significantly influences the chemical composition of fly ash and the leachability of total dissolved substances (TDS), e.g., sulphates, fluorides and oxyanions (Se, Sb, Cr, As), which are monitored according to the Council of the European Union Decision 2003/33/EC. An increase of TDS in the water leachate from the fly ash obtained at 60% desulphurisation was influenced by sodium content, which is present in the form of Na{sup +} ions (85-90%). The percentages of sodium sulphate and sodium carbonate were between 5 and 10% of the total sodium content. In order to decrease the leachability of TDS, sodium, sulphates and oxyanion mixtures were prepared containing a sorbent (60% bentonite) and mixed with desulphurised and non-desulphurised fly ash in various ratios. The addition of CaO resulted in the formation of a new mineral phase, burkeite. None of the applied technologies tested for the processed fly ash resulted in the preparation of a water leachate which complied in all monitored parameters to the requirements of Council Decision 2003/33 EC for nonhazardous wastes. (author)

  19. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm-3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of Co-60 gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the gamma-radiolysis, G(HCOO-) = 2.2, is due to the reaction COO- + HCO3- reversible HCOO- + CO3-. The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO- + CO3- is particularly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained gives k(COO- + HCO3-) = (2 +/- 0.4) x 10(3) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(COO- + CO3-) = (5 +/- 1) x 10(7) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(NH2 + HCO3-) < 10(4) dm3 mol-1 s-1, and k(NH2 + CO3-) = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(9) dm3 mol-1 s-1.

  20. Sodium bicarbonate infusion for prevention of acute kidney injury: no evidence for superior benefit, but risk for harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffl, Helmut

    2015-02-01

    The best "treatment" of acute kidney injury (AKI) is prevention. Patients who are at high risk of AKI should have an assessment of their volume status and receive appropriate volume expansion. The most effective type of intravenous fluid remains unclear. Innumerable studies have compared sodium bicarbonate and isotonic saline and have combined fluid hydration with pharmacological interventions, particularly N-acetyl-cysteine. However, abundant systematic reviews and meta-analyses have provided conflicting conclusions and have recognized a significant degree of heterogeneity between studies and publication bias. Most studies comparing intravenous sodium bicarbonate and saline were small. They often enrolled patients with a low risk for AKI, yielding low serious events (renal replacement therapy), and used different protocols for administration of fluids. Based on current literature, intravenous sodium bicarbonate does not seem to be more efficient than saline for the prevention of contrast-media-induced AKI, cardiac surgery-associated AKI, pigment nephropathy or septic AKI. However, some cohort studies or prospective randomized trials did track and report serious adverse events, such as higher rates of AKI or higher in-hospital mortality. At present, it should be concluded that the use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate administration to prevent AKI should be evaluated further in multicenter randomized double-blind trials rather than adopted into routine clinical practice. PMID:25164590

  1. The role of perioperative sodium bicarbonate infusion affecting renal function after cardiothoracic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Katja R; Fisher, Edward C; Hade, Erinn M; Houle, Timothy T; Rocco, Michael V

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is associated with poor outcomes including increased mortality, length of hospital stay (LOS) and cost. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is reported to be between 3 and 30% depending on the definition of AKI. We designed a multicenter randomized controlled trial to test our hypothesis that a perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate (SB) during cardiac surgery will attenuate the post-operative rise in creatinine indicating renal injury when compared to a perioperative infusion with normal saline. An interim analysis was performed after data was available on the first 120 participants. A similar number of patients in the two treatment groups developed AKI, defined as an increase in serum creatinine the first 48 h after surgery of 0.3 mg/dl or more. Specifically 14 patients (24%) who received sodium chloride (SC) and 17 patients (27%) who received SB were observed to develop AKI post-surgery, resulting in a relative risk of AKI of 1.1 (95% CI: 0.6-2.1, chi-square p-value = 0.68) for patients receiving SB compared to those who received SC. The data safety monitoring board for the trial recommended closing the study early as there was only a 12% probability that the null hypothesis would be rejected. We therefore concluded that a perioperative infusion of SB failed to attenuate the risk of CSA-AKI. PMID:24917818

  2. Investigation of the chemical pathway of gaseous nitrogen dioxide formation during flue gas desulfurization with dry sodium bicarbonate injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Antoinette Weil

    The chemical reaction pathway for the viable flue gas desulfurization process, dry sodium bicarbonate injection, was investigated to mitigate undesirable plume discoloration. Based on a foundation of past findings, a simplified three-step reaction pathway was hypothesized for the formation of the plume-discoloring constituent, NO2. As the first step, it was hypothesized that sodium sulfite formed by sodium bicarbonate reaction with flue gas SO 2. As the second step, it was hypothesized that sodium nitrate formed by sodium sulfite reaction with flue gas NO. And as the third step, it was hypothesized that NO2 and sodium sulfate formed by sodium nitrate reaction with SO2. The second and third hypothesized steps were experimentally investigated using an isothermal fixed bed reactor. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium sulfite was found to be un-reactive with NO and O2. Freshly prepared sodium sulfite, maintained unexposed to moist air, was shown to react with NO and O2 resulting in a mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate together with a significant temperature rise. This reaction was found to proceed only when oxygen was present in the flue gas. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium nitrate was shown to be un-reactive with SO2. But freshly formed sodium nitrate kept unexposed to humidity was found to be reactive with SO2 and O 2 resulting in the formation of NO2 and sodium sulfate polymorphic Form I. The NO2 formation by this reaction was shown to be temperature dependent with maximum formation at 175°C. Plume mitigation methods were studied based on the validated three-step reaction pathway. Mitigation of NO2 was exhibited by limiting oxygen concentration in the flue gas to a level below 5%. It was also shown that significant NO2 mitigation was achieved by operating below 110°C or above 250°C. An innovative NO2 mitigation method was patented as a result of the findings of this study. The patented process incorporated a process step of sodium sulfite injection to remove flue gas NO prior to sodium bicarbonate injection.

  3. Ergogenic effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on intermittent exercise performance preceded by intense arm cranking exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marriott, Matthaus; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have been suggested to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise, but it is unclear if these ergogenic substances affect performance under provoked metabolic acidification. To study the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on intense intermittent exercise performance and metabolic markers under exercise-induced acidification, intense arm-cranking exercise was performed prior to intense intermittent running after intake of placebo, caffeine and sodium bicarbonate. METHODS: Male team-sports athletes (n?=?12) ingested sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3; 0.4 g.kg(-1) b.w.), caffeine (CAF; 6 mg.kg(-1) b.w.) or placebo (PLA) on three different occasions. Thereafter, participants engaged in intense arm exercise prior to the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level-2 (Yo-Yo IR2). Heart rate, blood lactate and glucose as well as rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during the protocol. RESULTS: CAF and NaHCO3 elicited a 14 and 23% improvement (P?sodium bicarbonate administration improved Yo-Yo IR2 performance and lowered perceived exertion after intense arm cranking exercise, with greater overall effects of sodium bicarbonate intake.

  4. In vitro effects of bicarbonate and bicarbonate-lactate buffered peritoneal dialysis solutions on mesothelial and neutrophil function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topley, N; Kaur, D; Petersen, M M; Jörres, A; Williams, J D; Faict, D; Holmes, C J

    1996-02-01

    The inclusion of bicarbonate in the formulation of peritoneal dialysis solutions may avoid the in vitro impairment of certain cell functions seen with acidic lactate-based fluids. The supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 inherent in such formulations may, however, not be biocompatible. This study compared the in vitro biocompatibility of a pH 5.2 lactate-based formulation with formulations containing either 40 mM lactate at pH 7.4, 38 mM HCO3- at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 240 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 60 mm Hg), and 25 mM HCO3- plus 15 mM lactate at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 160 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 40 mm Hg). Significant release of lactate dehydrogenase or decreases in ATP content by human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) and human peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) after a 30-min exposure to each test solution was only seen with the pH 5.2 lactate-based fluid. The ATP content of HPMC exposed to this fluid returned to control levels after 30 min of recovery in M199 control medium but showed a trend toward decreasing ATP content at 240 min. Similarly, interleukin (IL)-1 beta-induced IL-6 synthesis by HPMC was also only significantly reduced by the pH 5.2 lactate solution. PMN chemiluminescence was unaffected by 30-min exposure to all test solutions except for the pH 5.2 lactate formulation. Staphylococcus epidermidis phagocytosis was reduced to between 46 to 57% of control with all test solutions except the pH 5.2 lactate solution, which further suppressed the chemiluminescence response to 17% of control. These data suggest that short exposure to supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 does not impair HPMC or PMN viability and function. Furthermore, neutral pH lactate-containing solutions show equivalent biocompatibility to bicarbonate-based ones. PMID:8785390

  5. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on the properties of metronidazole floating matrix tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Pablo Emilio; Hernández-León, Alejandra; Villafuerte-Robles, Leopoldo

    2008-02-01

    The effect of sodium bicarbonate (SB) on the swelling behavior and the sustained release of floating systems was studied with varied proportions of this excipient and metronidazole. Two polymers with different hydration characteristics, Methocel K4M and Carbopol 971P NF, were used to formulate the matrices. Under in vitro dissolution conditions, the addition of SB to metronidazole sustained-release tablets modifies the matrix hydration volume, increasing at the beginning, reaching a maximum, and then declining. Pure Carbopol matrices show a rapid hydration with a limited further effect of the SB and metronidazole loads. Methocel show a significant increase of the apparent hydration volume due to SB addition with no further notable change due to metronidazole load. Increasing the metronidazole load reduces the floating time of Carbopol matrices while no effect on Methocel matrices could be observed within 8 hours dissolution. Matrices show increasing release constant values (k) as the metronidazole load increases. Methocel matrices release the drug 10% to 15% faster than Carbopol matrices. SB increases the cumulative amount of drug released from Methocel but not that releasing from Carbopol. These results are attributed to the intrinsic polymer properties, the barrier effect of CO(2) bubbles, and the matrix volume expansion produced after addition of SB. PMID:18302036

  6. Optimization of sodium bicarbonate injection for acid scrubbing in hospital waste incineration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimization of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) injection for acid hydrochloric (HCl) scrubbing was conducted on a hospital waste incineration plant. The plant employs a rotary kiln system having burning capacity of 350 kg/h hospital waste (average calorific value of 17.4 MJ/kg) and is operated on a 24 hr/ day basis. Currently, NaHCO3 injection rate is 25 kg/h as recommended by manufacturer to meet the Department of Environment (DOE) standard emission limit of 200 mg/Nm3 HCl. Testing of HCl emission at various injection rates of 25, 20, 15 and 10 kg/ h results in HCl final concentration in the range of 0.58-7.13, 5.63-7.74, 0.07-2.99 and 3-28 mg/Nm3 respectively. The results showed that NaHCO3 injection rate as low as 10 kg/ h could still meet the HCl stipulated emission limit. Economic comparison between 25 and 10 kg/ h injection rates showed that total saving on NaHCO3 and disposal of fly ash was RM 22,000 per month (equivalent to saving RM 260,000 per year) when using 10 kg/ h injection rate. It was concluded from the study that optimum injection rate would not only save cost and reduce wastage but also reduce bag house loading rate and prolong the life span of filter bags. (author)

  7. Modulation of the cardiac sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter by the renin angiotensin aldosterone system: pathophysiological consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giusti, Verónica C.; Ciancio, María C.; Orlowski, Alejandro; Aiello, Ernesto A.

    2013-01-01

    The sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) is one of the major alkalinizing mechanisms in the cardiomyocytes. It has been demonstrated the existence of at least two functional isoforms, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 1 molecule of HCO?3 (electroneutral isoform; NBCn1) and the other one that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 2 molecules of HCO?3 (electrogenic isoform; NBCe1). Both isoforms are important to maintain intracellular pH (pHi) and sodium concentration ([Na+]i). In addition, NBCe1 generates an anionic repolarizing current that modulates the action potential duration (APD). The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the modulation of almost all physiological cardiac functions and is also involved in the development and progression of cardiac diseases. It was reported that angiotensin II (Ang II) exhibits an opposite effect on NBC isoforms: it activates NBCn1 and inhibits NBCe1. The activation of NBCn1 leads to an increase in pHi and [Na+]i, which indirectly, due to the stimulation of reverse mode of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), conduces to an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. On the other hand, the inhibition of NBCe1 generates an APD prolongation, potentially representing a risk of arrhythmias. In the last years, the potentially altered NBC function in pathological scenarios, as cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia-reperfusion, has raised increasing interest among investigators. This review attempts to draw the attention on the relevant regulation of NBC activity by RAAS, since it modulates pHi and [Na+]i, which are involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, the damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion and the generation of arrhythmic events, suggesting a potential role of NBC in cardiac diseases. PMID:24478712

  8. Sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy: A meta-analysis of published clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunadian, Vijayalakshmi, E-mail: kunadianvijay@aol.com [Cardiothoracic Centre, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust/Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Zaman, Azfar, E-mail: Azfar.Zaman@nuth.nhs.uk [Cardiothoracic Centre, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust/Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Spyridopoulos, Ioakim [Cardiothoracic Centre, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust/Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Institute of Human Genetics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Qiu, Weiliang [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Background: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious but rare complication following contrast based procedures. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) has been postulated to prevent CIN by various mechanisms. However, the outcomes following sodium bicarbonate administration to prevent CIN have been inconsistent. Methods: A meta-analysis of published randomized clinical trials to determine if the administration of sodium bicarbonate is superior to sodium chloride among patients with chronic renal failure undergoing catheterization and interventional procedures in preventing CIN was performed. Results: Data were combined across seven published clinical trials consisting of 1734 patients. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the NaHCO{sub 3} and NaCl groups except patients in the bicarbonate group were heavier (P = 0.04). The odds ratio (OR) for the development of contrast nephropathy for NaHCO{sub 3} versus NaCl was 0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.69; P = 0.003). Heterogeneity and publication bias were detectable with P-values 0.01 and 0.0005 respectively. There was no difference between the NaHCO{sub 3} group and the NaCl group in the occurrence of death [OR 0.6; 95% CI (0.26-1.41); P = 0.24], congestive heart failure [OR 0.85; 95% CI (0.32-2.24); P = 0.74] and the requirement for renal replacement therapy [OR 0.56; 95% CI (0.22-1.41); P = 0.22]. Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrates that based on currently available randomized trials, the administration of NaHCO{sub 3} is superior to the administration of NaCl alone in the prevention of CIN among patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. However, further controlled clinical trials are needed due to significant study heterogeneity and publication bias.

  9. Sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy: A meta-analysis of published clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious but rare complication following contrast based procedures. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been postulated to prevent CIN by various mechanisms. However, the outcomes following sodium bicarbonate administration to prevent CIN have been inconsistent. Methods: A meta-analysis of published randomized clinical trials to determine if the administration of sodium bicarbonate is superior to sodium chloride among patients with chronic renal failure undergoing catheterization and interventional procedures in preventing CIN was performed. Results: Data were combined across seven published clinical trials consisting of 1734 patients. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the NaHCO3 and NaCl groups except patients in the bicarbonate group were heavier (P = 0.04). The odds ratio (OR) for the development of contrast nephropathy for NaHCO3 versus NaCl was 0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.69; P = 0.003). Heterogeneity and publication bias were detectable with P-values 0.01 and 0.0005 respectively. There was no difference between the NaHCO3 group and the NaCl group in the occurrence of death [OR 0.6; 95% CI (0.26-1.41); P = 0.24], congestive heart failure [OR 0.85; 95% CI (0.32-2.24); P = 0.74] and the requirement for renal replacement therapy [OR 0.56; 95% CI (0.22-1.41); P = 0.22]. Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrates that ban: This meta-analysis demonstrates that based on currently available randomized trials, the administration of NaHCO3 is superior to the administration of NaCl alone in the prevention of CIN among patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. However, further controlled clinical trials are needed due to significant study heterogeneity and publication bias.

  10. Cromolyn Sodium Nasal Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromolyn comes as a solution to use with a special nasal applicator. It usually is inhaled three to six times a day to prevent allergy ... first time, read the instructions provided with the solution. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to ...

  11. The role of sodium bicarbonate in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. C. Plane

    Full Text Available It is proposed that a component of meteoric smoke, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, provides particularly effective condensation nuclei for noctilucent clouds. This assertion is based on three conditions being met. The first is that NaHCO3 is present at sufficient concentration (±104 cm-3 in the upper mesosphere between 80 and 90 km. It is demonstrated that there is strong evidence for this based on recent laboratory measurements coupled with atmospheric modelling. The second condition is that the thermodynamics of NaHCO3(H2On cluster formation allow spontaneous nucleation to occur under mesospheric conditions at temperatures below 140 K. The Gibbs free energy changes for forming clusters with n = 1 and 2 were computed from quantum calculations using hybrid density functional/Hartree-Fock (B3LYP theory and a large basis set with added polarization and diffuse functions. The results were then extrapolated to higher n using an established dependence of the free energy on cluster size and the free energy for the sublimation of H2O to bulk ice. A 1-dimensional model of sodium chemistry was then employed to show that spontaneous nucleation to form ice particles (n >100 should occur between 84 and 89 km in the high-latitude summer mesosphere. The third condition is that other metallic components of meteoric smoke are less effective condensation nuclei, so that the total number of potential nuclei is small relative to the amount of available H2O. Quantum calculations indicate that this is probably the case for major constituents such as Fe(OH2, FeO3 and MgCO3.

    Key words: Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; cloud physics and chemistry; middle atmosphere · composition and chemistry

  12. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    Efsa Panel On Food Contact Materials, Enzymes

    2014-01-01

    This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

  13. SALT-SENSITIVITY OF BLOOD PRESSURE IS ASSOCIATED WITH POLYMORPHISMS IN THE SODIUM-BICARBONATE CO-TRANSPORTER

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Robert M; Schoeffel, Cynthia D.; Gildea, John J.; Jones, John E.; McGrath, Helen E.; Gordon, Lindsay N.; Park, Min Jeong; Sobota, Rafal S.; Underwood, Patricia C; Williams, Jonathan; Sun, Bei; Raby, Benjamin; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Hopkins, Paul N; Adler, Gail K.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter gene (SLC4A5) are associated with hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that SNPs in SLC4A5 are associated with salt-sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) in 185 Caucasians consuming an isocaloric constant diet with a randomized order of 7 days low Na+ (10 mmol/d) and 7 days high Na+ (300 mmol/d) intake. Salt-sensitivity was defined as a ?7mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressur...

  14. Corrosion behavior of iron and carbon steel in bicarbonate solution and in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion behavior was studied for iron and carbon steel in bicarbonate solution and in ground water by corrosion potential measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Iron and carbon steel were passivated in the air-saturated carbonate media. In 0.1 M NaHCO3 saturated with N2, iron and carbon steel electrodes were in an active state, but their corrosion rates were not much different from air saturated cases. From the AC impedance spectroscopic result, it is suggested that the electrochemical dissolution of iron and carbon steel accompanies an adsorption reaction in the bicarbonate solutions. In ground water, the corrosion rates of iron and carbon steel were evaluated as 5.8 ? m/yr and 0.27 ? m/yr, respectively

  15. Influence of feeding and social behaviors and the use of sodium bicarbonate on ruminal pH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets

    OpenAIRE

    Gonza?lez, Luciano Adria?n

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present thesis was to study the effects of some behavioral factors, and the use of sodium bicarbonate, on the digestion processes affecting ruminal function of beef cattle fed concentrate and straw ad libitum. In the first experiment, four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of increasing levels of sodium bicarbonate (0, 1.25, 2.50 and 5 %, on concentrate DM basis) on intake, water consumption, ruminal fer...

  16. Degradation of hydroxyapatite in vivo and in vitro requires osteoclastic sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter NBCn1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riihonen, Riikka; Nielsen, SØren

    2010-01-01

    Dissolution of the inorganic bone matrix releases not only calcium and phosphate ions, but also bicarbonate. Electroneutral sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter (NBCn1) is expressed in inactive osteoclasts, but its physiological role in bone resorption has remained unknown. We show here that NBCn1, encoded by the SLC4A7 gene, is directly involved in bone resorption. NBCn1 protein was specifically found at the bone-facing ruffled border areas, and metabolic acidosis increased NBCn1 expression in rats in vivo. In human hematopoietic stem cell cultures, NBCn1 mRNA expression was observed only after formation of resorbing osteoclasts. To further confirm the critical role of NBCn1 during bone resorption, human hematopoietic stem cells were transduced with SLC4A7 shRNA lentiviral particles. Downregulation of NBCn1 both on mRNA and protein level by lentiviral shRNAs significantly inhibited bone resorption and increased intracellular acidification in osteoclasts. The lentiviral particles did not impair osteoclast survival, or differentiation of the hematopoietic or mesenchymal precursor cells into osteoclasts or osteoblasts in vitro. Inhibition of NBCn1 activity may thus provide a new way to regulate osteoclast activity during pathological bone resorption.

  17. Preparation and application of potassium and sodium titanate for removal of plutonium from basic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In PUREX process, after extraction and stripping of uranium and plutonium, the extractant, tributyl phosphate is usually washed with sodium carbonate solution before reuse for the removal of radiolytic/hydrolytic degradation products of TBP and small amounts of HNO3, uranium and plutonium goes into aqueous phase during carbonate washings. Partial neutralization of carbonate by the acid converts it to bicarbonate. Removal of plutonium from such sodium carbonate/bicarbonate streams facilitates their disposal. In the present work, studies were carried out to prepare inorganic ion-exchangers such as potassium and sodium titanates for their application as ion-exchange material. It is essential to prepare these materials in granular form to obtain good liquid flow property for ion exchange column operations, however, it is also important that the final product is having good surface area and porosity so that they may exhibit good ion exchange capacity

  18. Low Alloy X100 Pipeline Steel Corrosion and Passivation Behavior in Bicarbonate-Based Solutions of pH 6.7 to 8.9 with Groundwater Anions: An Electrochemical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadala, Ibrahim M.; Alfantazi, Akram

    2015-04-01

    This research investigates the fundamental corrosion and passivation processes occurring on API-X100 pipeline steels before, during, and after passive layer formation in bicarbonate-based simulated soil solutions of pH 6.7 to 8.9. Free corrosion potentials decrease exponentially with bicarbonate (and pH), owing to increased water and bicarbonate reduction in more alkaline conditions and the coupled iron oxidation reaction. Active corrosion rates at potentials slightly above open circuit potential increase with bicarbonate, until a concentration of 1.68 g L-1 sodium bicarbonate (plus dilute amounts of chlorides/sulfate) at which first signs of film formation appear. Thereon, increased bicarbonate concentration generally decreases current densities and resists ferrous-oxide product formations due to improved iron carbonate formation conditions precipitating more durable passive layers. Potentiodynamic polarization in the anodic regime reveals varying electrochemical processes involving interactions between hydroxide, carbonate, and oxide complexes with ferrous, with diverse pH and potential dependencies. The products of corrosion reactions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and/or X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  19. Low Alloy X100 Pipeline Steel Corrosion and Passivation Behavior in Bicarbonate-Based Solutions of pH 6.7 to 8.9 with Groundwater Anions: An Electrochemical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadala, Ibrahim M.; Alfantazi, Akram

    2015-07-01

    This research investigates the fundamental corrosion and passivation processes occurring on API-X100 pipeline steels before, during, and after passive layer formation in bicarbonate-based simulated soil solutions of pH 6.7 to 8.9. Free corrosion potentials decrease exponentially with bicarbonate (and pH), owing to increased water and bicarbonate reduction in more alkaline conditions and the coupled iron oxidation reaction. Active corrosion rates at potentials slightly above open circuit potential increase with bicarbonate, until a concentration of 1.68 g L-1 sodium bicarbonate (plus dilute amounts of chlorides/sulfate) at which first signs of film formation appear. Thereon, increased bicarbonate concentration generally decreases current densities and resists ferrous-oxide product formations due to improved iron carbonate formation conditions precipitating more durable passive layers. Potentiodynamic polarization in the anodic regime reveals varying electrochemical processes involving interactions between hydroxide, carbonate, and oxide complexes with ferrous, with diverse pH and potential dependencies. The products of corrosion reactions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and/or X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  20. The radiation chemistry of aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation chemistry of cobalt-60 gamma-irradiated aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions has been studied. In aerated 4 x 10-4M sodium hydroxide solutions, the main products are hydroxyterephthalate (HTA) (G = 0.99 +- 0.01), carbonate (G = 1.31 +- 0.08), and peroxides (G = 2.84 +- 0.04). The HTA and carbonate species are both formed as a result of hydroxyl radical attack and account for approximately 90 per cent of hydroxyl radical reactions. Oxygen needs to be present for efficient conversion of the terephthalate-OH radical adduct to HTA and oxygenation increases G(HTA) above the aerated solution value. G(HTA) is unaffected by changes in terephthalate concentration between 1 x 10-4M and 1 x 10-2M in sodium hydroxide solutions at pH 10. Decreasing the solution pH does however affect G(HTA). In phosphate buffered solutions pH 6.85, G(HTA) is 0.93 +- 0.01 and lower values are obtained with further decrease in solution pH. The lowering of the G(HTA) value is attributed to recombination reactions between the terephthalate-OH radical products and reducing radical products. Experimental evidence supporting the recombination postulate was obtained from the measurement of a parallel decrease in the peroxide yield and the observation of a dose rate effect on G(HTA). Competition kinetic studies with the added solutes carbonate and bicarbonate gave the rate ratios k (OH + TA2-) : k(OH + CO32-) : k(OH + HCO3-) = 1 : 0.105 : 0.0036

  1. Prevention of contrast induced nephropathy with sodium bicarbonate (the PROMEC study) / Prevenção de nefropatia por contraste com bicarbonato de sódio (o estudo PROMEC)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    John Fredy, Nieto-Ríos; Wílmar Arley Maya, Salazar; Oscar Mauricio Santos, Sánchez; Janeth Liliana Jaramillo, Ortega; Jorge Ignacio García, Caro; Julián Miguel Aristizabal, Aristizabal; Lina Maria Serna, Higuita; Álvaro García, García; Fabián Alberto Jaimes, Barragán.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A nefropatia induzida por contraste é uma complicação comum de procedimentos radiográficos. Medidas diferentes têm sido utilizadas para evitar estes problemas, mas a evidência é controversa. Novos estudos são necessários para esclarecer isso. Investigamos tanto a eficácia quanto a segur [...] ança de uma solução de bicarbonato de sódio em comparação com a solução de cloreto de sódio para evitar nefropatia por contraste em pacientes com ou em risco de desenvolver disfunção renal. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, randomizado clínico, conduzido em um único centro, entre 01 de maio de 2007 e 8 de fevereiro de 2008. Os pacientes internados em um centro terciário, agendados para passar por um procedimento radiográfico com uso de contraste não iônico., Havia 220 pacientes com níveis de creatinina sérica de pelo menos 1,2 mg/dL (106,1 mmol/L) e/ou diabéticos do tipo 2, que foram escolhidos aleatoriamente para receber uma infusão de cloreto de sódio (n = 113) ou bicarbonato de sódio (n = 107) antes e após a administração do meio de contraste. A intervenção foi: grupo "A" recebeu 1 ml/kg/hora de solução salina normal, começando 12 horas antes e continuando por 12 horas após o uso do contraste iohexol. Os pacientes do grupo "B" receberam 3 ml/kg de uma solução de bicarbonato de sódio (150 mEq/L), 1 hora antes do procedimento e, em seguida, o gotejamento foi reduzido a 1 ml/kg/hora por até 6 horas após o procedimento. Nosso principal indicador de desfecho foi a alteração na creatinina sérica. Resultados: O valor médio da creatinina após o procedimento foi de 1,26 mg/dL no grupo que recebeu a solução salina e 1,22 mg/dL no grupo do bicarbonato (diferença média: 0,036, IC 95%: -0,16 a 0,23, p = 0,865). O diagnóstico da nefropatia induzida por contraste, definida pelo aumento de creatinina no soro em 25% ou mais dentro de 2 dias após a administração de contraste radiográfico, foi realizado em doze pacientes (12%) no grupo do bicarbonato e oitavo pacientes (7,1%) no grupo da solução salina (RR: 1,68, IC 95%: 0,72-3,94). Conclusão: Nossa investigação mostrou que não houve diferença entre soro fisiológico normal (infusão prolongada) contra uma solução de bicarbonato para nefroproteção. Abstract in english Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common complication of radiographic procedures. Different measures have been used to avoid this damage, but the evidence is controversial. New investigations are required to clarify it. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sodium bicarbonate sol [...] ution compared with sodium chloride solution to prevent contrast induced nephropathy in patients with or at risk of renal dysfunction. Methods: A prospective, single-center, randomized clinical trial conducted from May 1, 2007 to February 8, 2008. Inpatients in a tertiary center, scheduled to undergo a procedure with the nonionic radiographic contrast agent iohexol. There were 220 patients with serum creatinine levels of at least 1.2 mg/dL (106.1 µmol/L) and/or type 2 diabetics, who were randomized to receive an infusion of sodium chloride (n = 113) or sodium bicarbonate (n = 107) before and after contrast dye administration. The intervention were "A" group received 1 ml/kg/hour of normal saline solution, starting 12 hours before and continuing 12 hours after iohexol contrast. "B" group received 3 ml/kg of sodium bicarbonate solution (150 mEq/L) one hour prior to procedure and then drip rate was decreased to 1 ml/kg/hour until 6 hours post procedure. Our main outcome measure was change in serum creatinine. Results: The mean creatinine value after the procedure was 1.26 mg/dL in the saline group and 1.22 mg/dL in the bicarbonate group (mean difference: 0.036; CI 95%: -0.16 to 0.23, p = 0.865). The diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy, defined by increase in serum creatinine on 25% or more within 2 days after administration of radiographic contrast, was done in twelve patients (12%) in the bicarbonate group and eighth patients (7.

  2. 21 CFR 522.1610 - Oleate sodium solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Oleate sodium solution. 522.1610 Section 522.1610...DRUGS § 522.1610 Oleate sodium solution. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of sodium...

  3. 46 CFR 153.1065 - Sodium chlorate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sodium chlorate solutions. 153.1065 Section 153...Cargo Procedures § 153.1065 Sodium chlorate solutions. (a) No person may load sodium chlorate solutions into a containment...

  4. Failure mechanisms of high strength steels in bicarbonate solutions under anodic polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High strength steels used in prestressing concrete structures are not exempt from the effects induced by corrosion on the normal concrete reinforcement. Carbonation of surrounding concrete or mortar is not unlikely for prestressing tendons and strands. Moreover, these steels undergo to brittle fracture as a consequence of stress corrosion cracking phenomena. To evaluate if concrete carbonation can promote this kind of failure, constant load tests in bicarbonate aqueous solutions under anodic polarization were carried out on high strength steel wires. Microscopic examination pointed out that the wires exhibited a brittle fracture mode, while its natural feature is ductile, as indicated by air testing. Failure mechanism was evaluated by a fracture mechanic approach. Cracks initiation was attributed to an anodic dissolution mechanism, while its propagation, interpreted by means of the surface mobility theory, was related to interaction between hydrogen atoms and magnetite at a crack tip

  5. Wet calcining of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and bicarbonate in a mixed solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, R. S.; Witkamp, G. J.

    2002-04-01

    Trona ore is used in large amounts for the production of soda ash. A key step in this process is the conversion of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate: Na 2CO 3·NaHCO 3·2H 2O) into soda (sodium carbonate anhydrate: Na 2CO 3). Currently, this conversion is done industrially by calcining of the raw ore in rotary calciners at ca. 120°C or higher (Natural Soda Ash—Occurrences, Processing, and Use, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991, p. 267). Trona can however be converted at lower temperatures by using a "wet calcining" technique. In this technique, trona is contacted with an organic or mixed organic-aqueous solvent at a conversion temperature that depends on the water activity of the used solvent. In pure ethylene glycol this temperature can be as low as 55°C. The conversion by "wet calcining" occurs very similar to that in the regular dry calcining process via a solid phase conversion. The anhydrate crystals form directly from the solid trona. This produces pseudomorphs (J. Chem. Eng. Data 8(3) (1963) 301), i.e. agglomerates of fine anhydrate crystals (1-10 ?m). At high temperatures, dense, finely pored agglomerates are formed, while the outer shape of the agglomerate retains the prism shape of the trona crystal. At low conversion temperatures, loosely packed or even unstable agglomerates are found.

  6. Effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on performance and perceptual responses in a laboratory-simulated BMX cycling qualification series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, Mikel; Requena, Bernardo; Sánchez-Muñoz, Cristóbal; González-Badillo, Juan José; García, Inmaculada; Oöpik, Vahur; Pääsuke, Mati

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3-) ingestion on performance and perceptual responses in a laboratory-simulated bicycle motocross (BMX) qualification series. Nine elite BMX riders volunteered to participate in this study. After familiarization, subjects undertook two trials involving repeated sprints (3 x Wingate tests [WTs] separated by 30 minutes of recovery; WT1, WT2, WT3). Ninety minutes before each trial, subjects ingested either NaHCO3- or placebo in a counterbalanced, randomly assigned, double-blind manner. Each trial was separated by 4 days. Performance variables of peak power, mean power, time to peak power, and fatigue index were calculated for each sprint. Ratings of perceived exertion were obtained after each sprint, and ratings of perceived readiness were obtained before each sprint. No significant differences were observed in performance variables between successive sprints or between trials. For the NaHCO3- trial, peak blood lactate during recovery was greater after WT2 (p BMX qualification series, possibly because of the short duration of each effort and the long recovery time used between the three WTs. On the contrary, NaHCO3- ingestion improved perceived readiness before each WT. PMID:18714219

  7. [Effect of treatments of hydrogen peroxide and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate on clay minerals of red earth sediments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong-Biao; Hong, Han-Lie; Yin, Ke; Wang, Chao-Wen; Gao, Wen-Peng; Han, Wen; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2013-04-01

    As classical procedures for pretreatment of soil sediments, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) treatment methods are very important in removing the organic matter and iron oxides acting as cementing agents in the soils. However, both of these methods have less been focused on the effect on the clay minerals when separating. Here, we report the comparable methods between H2O2 and DCB to reveal their effect on clay minerals in red earth sediments using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results suggested that mineral particles can be totally decentralized by either H2O2 or DCB method in the soils and high purity clay minerals can be obtained by separating quartz and other impurities from clay minerals effectively. However, the XRD data were distorted by the DCB treatment owning to the cation exchange between Na+ and interlayer cation. On the contrary, the authentic data can be obtained by H2O2 treatment. Therefore, the H2O2 treatment seems to be a more appropriate method to obtain authentic information of clay mineralogy when separating of clay minerals from red earth sediments. PMID:23841441

  8. Uso de bicarbonato de sódio na acidose metabólica do paciente gravemente enfermo Sodium bicarbonate in the critically lll patient with metabolic acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Novis Rocha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A acidose lática é um distúrbio do equilíbrio ácido-base muito frequente em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva e está associado a um mau prognóstico. Embora exista um acúmulo substancial de evidências de que níveis críticos de acidemia provocam inúmeros efeitos adversos sobre o funcionamento celular, a utilização de bicarbonato de sódio para o tratamento da acidose lática em pacientes gravemente enfermos permanece alvo de controvérsias. Neste artigo, pretendemos: 1 analisar as principais diferenças entre as acidoses hiperclorêmicas e as acidoses orgânicas, com ânion gap (AG elevado, visando embasar a discussão sobre os fundamentos da terapia com bicarbonato de sódio nas acidoses metabólicas; 2 avaliar os riscos associados à persistência de níveis críticos de acidemia, contrastando-os com os riscos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio; 3 analisar criticamente as evidências da literatura sobre o uso de bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento da acidose lática do paciente crítico, com ênfase em ensaios clínicos randomizados em seres humanos; 4 fornecer um fundamento para a utilização judiciosa de bicarbonato de sódio nesta situação.Lactic acidosis is an acid-base imbalance frequently found in critically ill patients. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite the substantial body of evidence that critical levels of acidemia have several adverse effects on cell function, the use of sodium bicarbonate to treat lactic acidosis in critically ill patients remains highly controversial. This article aimed at: 1 analyzing the main differences between hyperchloremic and organic acidoses, with high anion gap; 2 comparing the risks associated with critical levels of acidemia with those associated with the use of sodium bicarbonate; 3 critically analyzing the literature evidence about the use of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of lactic acidosis in critically ill patients, with an emphasis on randomized control trials in human beings; and 4 providing a rationale for the judicious use of sodium bicarbonate in that situation.

  9. Uso de bicarbonato de sódio na acidose metabólica do paciente gravemente enfermo / Sodium bicarbonate in the critically lll patient with metabolic acidosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo Novis, Rocha.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A acidose lática é um distúrbio do equilíbrio ácido-base muito frequente em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva e está associado a um mau prognóstico. Embora exista um acúmulo substancial de evidências de que níveis críticos de acidemia provocam inúmeros efeitos adversos sobre o fu [...] ncionamento celular, a utilização de bicarbonato de sódio para o tratamento da acidose lática em pacientes gravemente enfermos permanece alvo de controvérsias. Neste artigo, pretendemos: 1) analisar as principais diferenças entre as acidoses hiperclorêmicas e as acidoses orgânicas, com ânion gap (AG) elevado, visando embasar a discussão sobre os fundamentos da terapia com bicarbonato de sódio nas acidoses metabólicas; 2) avaliar os riscos associados à persistência de níveis críticos de acidemia, contrastando-os com os riscos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio; 3) analisar criticamente as evidências da literatura sobre o uso de bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento da acidose lática do paciente crítico, com ênfase em ensaios clínicos randomizados em seres humanos; 4) fornecer um fundamento para a utilização judiciosa de bicarbonato de sódio nesta situação. Abstract in english Lactic acidosis is an acid-base imbalance frequently found in critically ill patients. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite the substantial body of evidence that critical levels of acidemia have several adverse effects on cell function, the use of sodium bicarbonate to treat lactic acidos [...] is in critically ill patients remains highly controversial. This article aimed at: 1) analyzing the main differences between hyperchloremic and organic acidoses, with high anion gap; 2) comparing the risks associated with critical levels of acidemia with those associated with the use of sodium bicarbonate; 3) critically analyzing the literature evidence about the use of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of lactic acidosis in critically ill patients, with an emphasis on randomized control trials in human beings; and 4) providing a rationale for the judicious use of sodium bicarbonate in that situation.

  10. SALT-SENSITIVITY OF BLOOD PRESSURE IS ASSOCIATED WITH POLYMORPHISMS IN THE SODIUM-BICARBONATE CO-TRANSPORTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Robert M.; Schoeffel, Cynthia D.; Gildea, John J.; Jones, John E.; McGrath, Helen E.; Gordon, Lindsay N.; Park, Min Jeong; Sobota, Rafal S.; Underwood, Patricia C.; Williams, Jonathan; Sun, Bei; Raby, Benjamin; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Hopkins, Paul N.; Adler, Gail K.; Williams, Scott M.; Jose, Pedro A.; Felder, Robin A.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter gene (SLC4A5) are associated with hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that SNPs in SLC4A5 are associated with salt-sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) in 185 Caucasians consuming an isocaloric constant diet with a randomized order of 7 days low Na+ (10 mmol/d) and 7 days high Na+ (300 mmol/d) intake. Salt-sensitivity was defined as a ?7mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during a randomized transition between high and low Na+ diet. A total of 35 polymorphisms in 17 candidate genes were assayed, 25 of which were tested for association. Association analyses with salt-sensitivity revealed three variants that associated with salt-sensitivity, two in SLC4A5 (P <0.001), and one in GRK4 (P = 0.020). Of these, two SNPs in SLC4A5 (rs7571842 and rs10177833) demonstrated highly significant results and large effects sizes, using logistic regression. These two SNPs had P values of 1.0×10?4 and 3.1×10?4 with odds ratios of 0.221 and 0.221 in unadjusted regression models, respectively, with the G allele at both sites conferring protection. These SNPs remained significant after adjusting for BMI and age, (P = 8.9×10?5 and 2.6×10?4 and odds ratios 0.210 and 0.286, respectively). Further, the association of these SNPS with salt-sensitivity was replicated in a second hypertensive population. Meta-analysis demonstrated significant associations of both SNPs with salt-sensitivity [rs7571842 (P=1.2×10?5); rs1017783 (P=1.1×10?4)]. In conclusion, SLC4A5 variants are strongly associated with salt-sensitivity of BP in two separate Caucasian populations. PMID:22987918

  11. Regulation of the Cardiac Sodium/Bicarbonate Cotransporter by Angiotensin II: Potential Contribution to Structural, Ionic and Electrophysiological Myocardial Remodelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Ernesto Alejandro; Giusti, Verónica Celeste De

    2013-01-01

    The sodium/ bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) is, with the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE), an important alkalinizing mechanism that maintains cellular intracellular pH (pHi). In the heart exists at least three isoforms of NBC, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 1molecule of HCO3-(electroneutral isoform; nNBC) and two others that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 2 molecules of HCO3- (electrogenic isoforms; eNBC). In addition, the eNBC generates an anionic repolarizing current that modulate the cardiac action potential (CAP), adding to such isoforms the relevance to modulate the electrophysiological function of the heart. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is one of the main hormones that regulate cardiac physiology. The alkalinizing mechanisms (NHE and NBC) are stimulated by Ang II, increasing pHi and intracellular Na+ concentration, which indirectly, due to the stimulation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) operating in the reverse form, leads to an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Interestingly, it has been shown that Ang II exhibits an opposite effect on NBC isoforms: it activates the nNBC and inhibits the eNBC. This inhibition generates a CAP prolongation, which could directly increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The regulation of the intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations is crucial for the cardiac cellular physiology, but these ions are also involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and the damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion, suggesting a potential role of NBC in cardiac diseases. PMID:23116057

  12. Stress corrosion cracking tests on electron beam welded carbon steel specimens in carbonate-bicarbonate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stress corrosion cracking tests have been performed on tapered carbon steel test pieces containing electron beam welds with a view to defining susceptibility to such cracking in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution at 90 C and an appropriate electrode potential. The tests involved applying cyclic loads to the specimens and it is shown that the threshold stress for cracking reduces linearly with increase in the magnitude of the cyclic load component. Extrapolation of these trends to zero fluctuating stress indicates static load threshold stresses in the vicinity of the yield stress (i.e. about 300 N/mm2 for parent plate without a weld, 400 N/mm2 for specimens with welds on one side only and 600 N/mm2 for specimens having welds penetrating through the thickness of the specimen). The averages of the maximum crack velocities observed were least for parent plate material and greatest for weld metal, the former being essentially intergranular in morphology and the latter mostly transgranular, with heat affected zone material being intermediate between these extremes. (author)

  13. Volumetric properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Literature data for the volumetric properties of sodium chloride solutions to concentrations of 5.5 molal have been compiled and critically evaluated. A semi-empirical equation of the same type found to be effective in describing the thermal properties of NaCl solutions has been used to reproduce the volumetric data from O 0C to 300 0C and 1 bar to 1000 bar. Tables of values are given for the specific volume, expansivity, and compressibility. Equations also are given for calculating the pressure dependence of the free energy, enthalpy, and heat capacity. These equations can be combined with a treatment of thermal properties to form a complete equation of state for sodium chloride solutions

  14. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate / Atributos metabólicos, produtividade e estabilidade do leite em vacas Jersey alimentadas com dietas com citrato de sódio e bicarbonato de sódio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Tempel, Stumpf; Vivian, Fischer; Giovani Jacob, Kolling; Maira Balbinotti, Zanela; Maria Edi Rocha, Ribeiro; Alexandre Süsenbach de, Abreu.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a inclusão de citrato de sódio e de bicarbonato de sódio na dieta de vacas lactantes Jersey e seus efeitos sobre os atributos metabólicos, a produtividade e a estabilidade do leite. Foram avaliados o pH urinário, os níveis sanguíneos de glicose e ureia, o peso e [...] o escore de condição corporal, a produção e a estabilidade do leite (teste do álcool) e as propriedades físico?químicas do leite de 17 vacas, alimentadas com dietas com citrato de sódio (100 g por vaca por dia), bicarbonato de sódio (40 g por vaca por dia) ou sem aditivos. As avaliações foram feitas no 28º e 44º dias. O fornecimento de citrato ou de bicarbonato de sódio não influencia os atributos metabólicos, a produtividade, o peso e o escore de condição corporal das vacas, nem a composição ou a estabilidade do leite. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body con [...] dition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test), and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day), sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day) or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

  15. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  16. Hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio não previne a nefropatia de contraste: ensaio clínico multicêntrico / Hydration with sodium bicarbonate does not prevent contrast nephropathy: a multicenter clinical trial

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vitor O., Gomes; Ricardo, Lasevitch; Valter C., Lima; Fábio S., Brito Jr.; Juan Carlos, Perez-Alva; Bruno, Moulin; Airton, Arruda; Denise, Oliveira; Paulo, Caramori.

    1129-11-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A exposição ao meio de contraste radiográfico pode causar comprometimento agudo da função renal. Há evidências limitadas e conflitantes de que a hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio previne a Nefropatia Induzida por Contraste (NIC) em pacientes submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. OBJETIVO: [...] O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar se o bicarbonato de sódio é superior à hidratação com soro fisiológico para evitar a nefropatia em pacientes de risco submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. MÉTODOS: Trezentos e um pacientes submetidos a intervenção coronariana percutânea ou angiografia coronariana com creatinina sérica > 1,2 mg/dL ou Taxa de Filtração Glomerular (TFG) Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Radiographic contrast media exposition can cause acute renal function impairment. There is limited and conflicting evidence that hydration with sodium bicarbonate prevents contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. OBJECTIVE: The present study was [...] aimed at determining whether sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline to prevent nephropathy in patients at risk undergoing cardiac catheterization. METHODS: Three hundred and one patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention with serum creatinine > 1.2mg/dL or glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

  17. Substituição de monensina sódica por bicarbonato de sódio em dietas de novilhas confinadas / Evaluation of the replacement of Monensin with Sodium Bicarbonate in diets for confined bovines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.P., Oliveira; R.A., Reis; L.M.A., Bertipaglia; G.M.P., Melo; T.T., Berchielli; J.A., Oliveira; D.R., Casagrande; M.A.A., Balsalobre.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da substituição da monensina sódica pelo bicarbonato de sódio em dietas de novilhas em confinamento em relação ao desempenho animal, à conversão alimentar e ao parâmetro de fermentação ruminal. Foram utilizadas 56 novilhas mestiças, confinadas por 112 dias, submetidas a dieta [...] s com duas porcentagens de concentrado, 50% e 80% da matéria seca, com adição de monensina sódica ou bicarbonato de sódio, em fatorial 2x2. O volumoso utilizado para compor as dietas testadas foi composto de silagem de milho e cana-de-açúcar na proporção de 60:40, respectivamente. O nitrogênio amoniacal foi maior nos animais alimentos com dietas com alto grão. A monensina, na dieta 80:20, proporcionou maiores valores de nitrogênio amoniacal, uma e nove horas após o consumo da ração. O uso de bicarbonato promoveu os maiores valores de pH ruminal na dieta com 50% de concentrado, de seis a 18 horas após o consumo. Não houve efeito do aditivo sobre o desempenho animal. A alta inclusão de grãos na dieta propiciou aumento do desempenho animal e da eficiência alimentar. Conclui-se que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio em dietas para terminação de animais em confinamento é uma opção viável em substituição à monensina sódica para a manipulação da fermentação ruminal. Abstract in english The effects of replacing monensin with sodium bicarbonate in diets for confined heifers on weight gain (WG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed:gain ratio (FGR) and rumen fermentation parameters were evaluated. Fifity six heifers were utilized (Santa Gertrudis x Braunvieh). Diets were formulated with two [...] levels of concentrate (50% and 80% concentrate) with sodium monensin or sodium bicarbonate. The DMI was higest in heifers with an intake of 80% concentrate. There was not difference when the same concentrate levels were evaluated in relation to the DMI. The heifers at 80% concentrate showed highest WG. There was no significant difference in relation to WG between monensin and bicarbonate treatments and levels concentrate proportions. There were significant effects regarding FGR between treatments. The heifers on 80% concentrate showed lowest FGR. In the evaluation of N-NH3, the highest values were observed, on the whole, at 80:20 diets in relation to 50:50 diets. In the additive use, the monensin on 80:20 diets promoted the highest values of N-NH3 at 1 for 9 hours after feed intake. In the values of ruminal pH, the bicarbonate increased the values on 50:50 at 6 for18 hours after feed intake, in relation to the 80:20 diet. In this case, it was concluded that the use of sodium bicarbonate in diets for confined finishing heifers is a viable option for the replacement of monensin sodium.

  18. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000?mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3?), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000?mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300?mg/L HCO3?. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989?mg/L, 1120?mg/L, 1249?mg/L, and 1430?mg/L NaHCO3, or 699?mg/L, 844?mg/L, 831?mg/L, and 1038?mg/L HCO3?. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3? compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24?h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3?.

  19. Bicarbonate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the causes of a low bicarbonate level include: Addison’s disease Chronic diarrhea Diabetic ketoacidosis Metabolic acidosis Kidney disease ... This Site Conditions: Acidosis and Alkalosis , Lung Diseases , Addison's Disease , Cushing Syndrome , Conn Syndrome , Kidney Disease , Hypertension Elsewhere ...

  20. Pulse radiolysis of solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse radiolysis of solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh4) indicates that the absorption observed in organic amides with ?/sub max/ in the range 650-724 nm is not due to Na-, an electron adduct to BPh4-, a triplet excited state, or a proton-donating solvent cation. Experiments in aqueous solution are described in which the reactions of selected radicals with NaBPh4 are studied. One-electron oxidation of NaBPh4 by N3/sup .-/ radicals yields a species, assumed to be NaBPh4/sup ./, with absorption maxima at 335 and 800 nm. A similar spectrum is observed on pulse radiolysis of solutions of NaBPh4 in tetramethylurea (TMU), but the long-wavelength absorption is shifted to 725 nm. The formation of an oxidizing radical in irradiated TMU was confirmed by the observation of I2/sup .-/ on pulse radiolysis of solutions of KI in this solvent. Pulse radiolysis of solution of NaBPh4 and KI in TMU demonstrated that these solutes compete for the oxidizing intermediate

  1. A comparison of the pitting susceptibility and semiconducting properties of the passive films on carbon steel in chromate and bicarbonate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y. F.; Luo, J. L.

    2000-10-01

    The semiconducting properties and pitting susceptibility of the passive films formed on A516-70 carbon steel in chromate and bicarbonate solutions were studied by polarization measurements, electrochemical noise (EN) and Mott-Schottky analysis. A stable passivity is established in 0.01 M CrO 42- solution with a potential range of more than 1000 mV and the pitting potential of 900 mV (Ag/AgCl). Similar passive properties are obtained in bicarbonate solution only when the concentration of HCO 3- reaches 0.5 M. Upon the addition of Cl -, metastable pitting is initiated and indicated by the typical current transients, which have the shape of a quick current rise followed by a slow recovery. There is a higher pit-initiation rate and a smaller noise resistance in the bicarbonate solution than in the chromate solution. The strong frequency dependence of the capacitance behavior shows that the passive films formed in both solutions are n-type semiconductors with a highly disordered nature. There is a thicker space-charge layer, a lower donor density and a more positive flat-band potential for the passive film formed in the chromate solution. Electrochemical results show that the passive film that formed in the chromate solution is more stable than that formed in the bicarbonate solution.

  2. Mobilization of arsenic from subsurface sediments by effect of bicarbonate ions in groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawar, Hossain M; Akai, Junji; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    Arsenic leaching by bicarbonate ions has been investigated in this study. Subsurface sediment samples from Bangladesh were treated with different carbonate and bicarbonate ions and the results demonstrate that the arsenic leaching efficiency of the carbonate solutions decreased in the order of Na2CO3>NaHCO3>BaCO3>MnCO3. Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate ions extracted arsenic most efficiently; Na2CO3 leached maximum 118.12 microg/l of arsenic, and NaHCO3, 94.56 microg/l of arsenic from the Ganges delta sediments after six days of incubation. The arsenic concentrations extracted in the batch experiments correlated very well with the bicarbonate concentrations. The kinetics study of arsenic release indicates that arsenic-leaching rate increased with reaction time in bicarbonate solutions. Bicarbonate ions can extract arsenic from sediment samples in both oxic and anoxic conditions. A linear relationship found between arsenic contents in core samples and those in leachates suggests that dissolved arsenic concentration in groundwater is related to the amount of arsenic in aquifer sediments. In batch experiment, bicarbonate solutions effectively extracted arsenic from arsenic adsorbed iron oxyhydroxide, reflecting that bicarbonate solutions may mobilize arsenic from iron and manganese oxyhydroxide in sediments that are ubiquitous in subsurface core samples. Carbonate ion may form complexes on the surface sites of iron hydroxide and substitute arsenic from the surface of minerals and sediments resulting in release of arsenic to groundwater. Like in the batch experiment, arsenic and bicarbonate concentrations in groundwater of Bangladesh correlated very well. Therefore, bicarbonate leaching is presumed to be one important mechanism to mobilize arsenic in bicarbonate dominated reducing aquifer of Bangladesh and other parts of the world as well. PMID:14602108

  3. Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with N-acetylcysteine or sodium bicarbonate in patients with ST-segment-myocardial infarction : a prospective, randomized, open-labeled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thayssen, Per; Lassen, Jens Flensted

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious condition in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We compared the risk of acute CIN and the influence of preventive strategies in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 720 patients were randomized in the Prevention of Contrast-induced Nephropathy in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (CINSTEMI) trial. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive hydration with sodium chloride together with 1 of 4 prophylactic regimes (1) N-acetylcysteine (NAC), (2) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) infusion, (3) NAC in combination with NaHCO3, or (4) hydration with sodium chloride infusion alone. Patients in cardiogenic shock were excluded. Acute CIN was defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration >25% from the baseline value within a 3-day period. Overall, CIN occurred in 141 (21.9%) patients. The prevention treatment with NAC, NaHCO3, or the combined NAC and NaHCO3 did not reduce the rate of CIN significantly compared with hydration with intravenous sodium chloride infusion alone (20.1% versus 20.1% versus 20.8% versus 26.5%; P=NS). However, an increase in serum creatinine >25% from the baseline value to 30 day was significantly lower in patients treated with combined NAC and NaHCO3 (18.7% versus 19.1% versus 9.2% versus 21.3%; P=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with NAC or NaHCO3 did not reduce the rate of acute CIN significantly. Combined treatment with NAC and NaHCO3 may reduce the risk of renal dysfunction after 30 days. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01160627.

  4. Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy With N-Acetylcysteine or Sodium Bicarbonate in Patients With ST-Segment-Myocardial Infarction : A Prospective, Randomized, Open-Labeled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thayssen, Per; Lassen, Jens Flensted

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious condition in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We compared the risk of acute CIN and the influence of preventive strategies in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 720 patients were randomized in the Prevention of Contrast-induced Nephropathy in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (CINSTEMI) trial. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive hydration with sodium chloride together with 1 of 4 prophylactic regimes (1) N-acetylcysteine (NAC), (2) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) infusion, (3) NAC in combination with NaHCO3, or (4) hydration with sodium chloride infusion alone. Patients in cardiogenic shock were excluded. Acute CIN was defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration >25% from the baseline value within a 3-day period. Overall, CIN occurred in 141 (21.9%) patients. The prevention treatment with NAC, NaHCO3, or the combined NAC and NaHCO3 did not reduce the rate of CIN significantly compared with hydration with intravenous sodium chloride infusion alone (20.1% versus 20.1% versus 20.8% versus 26.5%; P=NS). However, an increase in serum creatinine >25% from the baseline value to 30 day was significantly lower in patients treated with combined NAC and NaHCO3 (18.7% versus 19.1% versus 9.2% versus 21.3%; P=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with NAC or NaHCO3 did not reduce the rate of acute CIN significantly. Combined treatment with NAC and NaHCO3 may reduce the risk of renal dysfunction after 30 days. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01160627.

  5. Carbon solubility and solute species in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a thorough understanding of carbon behaviour in sodium systems it is necessary to have some fundamental knowledge of the solution chemistry and thermodynamic of carbon in liquid sodium. Basic to this knowledge are, the saturated solubility of carbon and its change with temperature, the nature of the solute species, the chemical potential activity concentration relationship and any interaction with other solutes in sodium. This paper reviews the data available in the mentioned areas

  6. Better preservation of peritoneal morphologic features and defense in rats after long-term exposure to a bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekking, L H; Zareie, M; Driesprong, B A; Faict, D; Welten, A G; de Greeuw, I; Schadee-Eestermans, I L; Havenith, C E; van den Born, J; ter Wee, P M; Beelen, R H

    2001-12-01

    The long-term effects of a standard lactate-buffered dialysis fluid and a new, two-chamber, bicarbonate/lactate-buffered dialysis fluid (with fewer glucose degradation products and a neutral pH) were compared in an in vivo peritoneal exposure model. Rats were given daily injections, via an access port, of 10 ml of standard solution or bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution for 9 to 10 wk. The omentum, peritoneum, and mesothelial cell layer were screened for morphologic changes. In addition, the bacterial clearing capacity of the peritoneal cells was studied. Significantly more milky spots and blood vessels were observed in the omenta of animals treated with standard solution (P < 0.03 for both parameters). Electron-microscopic analysis demonstrated dramatic changes in the appearance of the vascular endothelial cells of the milky spots and a severely damaged or even absent mesothelium on the peritoneal membrane of the standard solution-treated animals. In contrast, the mesothelium was still present in the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, although the cells lost microvilli. Both peritoneal dialysis fluids significantly increased the density of mesothelial cells (per square millimeter) on the surface of the liver and the thickness of the submesothelial extracellular matrix of the peritoneum (both P < 0.04 for both fluids versus control). A significantly better ex vivo bacterial clearing capacity was observed with peritoneal cells from the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, compared with the standard solution group (P < 0.05 in both experiments). These results demonstrate that instillation of bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution into rats for 9 to 10 wk preserves both morphologic and immune parameters much more effectively, compared with standard solution. These findings may be of considerable clinical importance. PMID:11729248

  7. Prevenção de nefrotoxicidade por contraste com solução de bicarbonato: resultados preliminares e revisão da literatura Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by use of bicarbonate solution: preliminary results and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gonçalves da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A incidência da nefropatia por contraste tem aumentado simultaneamente ao aumento da sua utilização com fins diagnósticos e de intervenção terapêutica. A sua incidência na população geral é baixa, porém aumenta exponencialmente em pacientes com fatores de risco como diabetes e doença renal prévia. Várias estratégias têm sido utilizadas na tentativa de prevenir a nefropatia por contraste. Hidratação com solução fisiológica, contraste de baixa osmolalidade ou iso-osmolar e infusão de bicarbonato de sódio são consideradas como as mais eficazes. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar a literatura pertinente sobre prevenção de nefropatia do contraste e estudar, de forma inicial, a eficácia da hidratação a base de bicarbonato de sódio a 1,3% comparada à hidratação a base de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% na prevenção da nefrotoxicidade do contraste em pacientes de alto risco para o seu desenvolvimento. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a literatura por meio de busca sistemática no banco de dados PubMed usando as palavras-chave bicarbonato, nefrotoxicidade, contraste e insuficiência renal aguda e, adicionalmente, foram estudados 27 pacientes, portadores de diabetes mellitus e/ou doença renal crônica prévia e diagnosticados com algum tipo de câncer. RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes desenvolveu nefropatia do contraste, caracterizada como aumento de 0,5 mg/ dL e/ou de 25% na creatinina basal. CONCLUSÃO: A revisão de literatura sugere fortemente que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio é eficaz na prevenção de nefropatia por contraste. Em relação ao estudo randomizado e controlado o soro fisiológico e o bicarbonato de sódio apresentaram eficácia similar quanto à prevenção de nefrotoxicidade do contraste. No entanto, o pequeno número de pacientes não permite conclusões definitivas.INTRODUCTION: The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy has increased simultaneously with the increase in contrast medium use in diagnostic and interventional procedures. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in the general population is low, but increases exponentially in patients with risk factors, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Several strategies have been used in order to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. The most efficient strategies are saline hydration (0.9% or 0.45%, use of low-or iso-osmolality contrast medium, and sodium bicarbonate infusion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the pertinent literature and to assess the efficacy of hydration with 1.3% sodium bicarbonate compared with hydration with 0.9% saline solution in preventing contrastinduced nephropathy in high-risk patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed by using the following keywords: bicarbonate, nephropathy, contrast medium, and acute kidney failure. In addition, 27 patients with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, diagnosed with some kind of cancer were randomized for study. RESULTS: None of the patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy characterized as a 0.5 mg/ dL-increase and/or a relative 25%-increase in baseline creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review strongly suggested that sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. Regarding the randomized study, saline solution and bicarbonate solution had similar efficacy in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. However, the small number of patients does not allow definite conclusions.

  8. Prevenção de nefrotoxicidade por contraste com solução de bicarbonato: resultados preliminares e revisão da literatura / Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by use of bicarbonate solution: preliminary results and literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Gonçalves da, Silva; Nelson Gonçalves da, Silva; Fabiano, Lucchesi; Emmanuel A, Burdmann.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A incidência da nefropatia por contraste tem aumentado simultaneamente ao aumento da sua utilização com fins diagnósticos e de intervenção terapêutica. A sua incidência na população geral é baixa, porém aumenta exponencialmente em pacientes com fatores de risco como diabetes e doença ren [...] al prévia. Várias estratégias têm sido utilizadas na tentativa de prevenir a nefropatia por contraste. Hidratação com solução fisiológica, contraste de baixa osmolalidade ou iso-osmolar e infusão de bicarbonato de sódio são consideradas como as mais eficazes. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar a literatura pertinente sobre prevenção de nefropatia do contraste e estudar, de forma inicial, a eficácia da hidratação a base de bicarbonato de sódio a 1,3% comparada à hidratação a base de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% na prevenção da nefrotoxicidade do contraste em pacientes de alto risco para o seu desenvolvimento. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a literatura por meio de busca sistemática no banco de dados PubMed usando as palavras-chave bicarbonato, nefrotoxicidade, contraste e insuficiência renal aguda e, adicionalmente, foram estudados 27 pacientes, portadores de diabetes mellitus e/ou doença renal crônica prévia e diagnosticados com algum tipo de câncer. RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes desenvolveu nefropatia do contraste, caracterizada como aumento de 0,5 mg/ dL e/ou de 25% na creatinina basal. CONCLUSÃO: A revisão de literatura sugere fortemente que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio é eficaz na prevenção de nefropatia por contraste. Em relação ao estudo randomizado e controlado o soro fisiológico e o bicarbonato de sódio apresentaram eficácia similar quanto à prevenção de nefrotoxicidade do contraste. No entanto, o pequeno número de pacientes não permite conclusões definitivas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy has increased simultaneously with the increase in contrast medium use in diagnostic and interventional procedures. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in the general population is low, but increases exponentially in patients with [...] risk factors, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Several strategies have been used in order to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. The most efficient strategies are saline hydration (0.9% or 0.45%), use of low-or iso-osmolality contrast medium, and sodium bicarbonate infusion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the pertinent literature and to assess the efficacy of hydration with 1.3% sodium bicarbonate compared with hydration with 0.9% saline solution in preventing contrastinduced nephropathy in high-risk patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed by using the following keywords: bicarbonate, nephropathy, contrast medium, and acute kidney failure. In addition, 27 patients with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, diagnosed with some kind of cancer were randomized for study. RESULTS: None of the patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy characterized as a 0.5 mg/ dL-increase and/or a relative 25%-increase in baseline creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review strongly suggested that sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. Regarding the randomized study, saline solution and bicarbonate solution had similar efficacy in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. However, the small number of patients does not allow definite conclusions.

  9. The carbon source for effervescent sodium-bicarbonate groundwater in the Ballimore region, central New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the integrated use of stable isotopic (?13C) data for delineating the origin of carbon in groundwater systems. Groundwater in the Ballimore region is unusual: the main interests of this study are artesian boreholes that produce effervescent Na-HCO3 (soda) waters. Carbon-dioxide gas is present in concentrations of up to 1g/l, and CO2 partial pressures are one thousand times higher than atmospheric levels. Major-ion geochemical interpretation indicates that the evolution of the effervescent Na-HCO3-rich groundwater in the region relies on fresh water entering the deep cell of the local flow system from Late Jurassic depocentres that are filled with fresh water. This groundwater flows S-SE through the fracture network that constitutes the deep cell of the local groundwater system. As it travels along the flowpath it mixes with CO2(g): decreasing the groundwater pH and making it chemically aggressive. When this water comes into contact with Late Miocene (?), sodium-rich intrusive rocks along flow path, sodic silicates (probably nepheline) weather to form kaolinite, this reaction produces a Na:HCO3 ratio (in mmol/l) of unity. Stable isotopic data from rock samples and groundwater collected throughout the Ballimore region provide support for the interpreted major-ion chemical evolution of effervescent Na-HCO3-rich groundwater. Carbon isotope data helps constrain the source of otope data helps constrain the source of carbon in this system

  10. Electron transfer across anodic films formed on tin in carbonate-bicarbonate buffer solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impedance and steady-state data were recorded in order to study the kinetics of electron transfer between passive tin electrodes and an electrolytic solution containing the K3Fe(CN)6-K4Fe(CN)6 redox couple. Film thickness plays a key role in determining the type of electronic conduction of these oxide covered electrodes. Electron exchange with the oxide takes place with participation of the conduction band in the semiconducting film. A mechanism involving direct electron tunneling through the space charge barrier is the most suitable to interpret the experimental evidence

  11. Crystal growth of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solutions at constant PCO2 and 25°C: a test of a calcite dissolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Michael M.; Plummer, L. Neil; Busenberg, E.

    1981-01-01

    A highly reproducible seeded growth technique was used to study calcite crystallization from calcium bicarbonate solutions at 25°C and fixed carbon dioxide partial pressures between 0.03 and 0.3 atm. The results are not consistent with empirical crystallization models that have successfully described calcite growth at low PCO2 (crystallization rates and those calculated from the calcite dissolution rate law and mechanism proposed by Plummer et al. (1978).

  12. Aggregation of sodium alkylbenzenesulfonates in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magid, L.J.; Shaver, R.J.; Gulari, E.; Bedwell, B.; Alkhafaji, S.

    1981-01-01

    The surfactant 6 phenyl C/sub 12/SNa forms small spherical micelles in aqueous solution, having an aggregation number of 20 to 30 and a fractional charge of 0.45. These micelles are hydrated to the extent of approximately 18 moles H/sub 2/O per moles of surfactant. A second larger aggregate is also present in 6 phenyl C/sub 12/SNa solutions; its importance increases with solution age. Addition of NaCl causes both aggregates to apparently increase modestly in size. The surfactant 8 phenyl C/sub 16/SNa also contains both aggregates in its solutions; the larger one is relatively more important here. The larger aggregate does not correspond to dispersed bits of a liquid crystalline mesophase.

  13. 21 CFR 520.563 - Diatrizoate meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution. 520.563 Section 520.563 Food...meglumine and diatrizoate sodium oral solution. (a) Specifications. Diatrizoate meglumine oral solution is a water soluble radiopaque...

  14. Corrosion behaviour of Alloy 800 in high temperature aqueous solutions: Electrochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anodic behaviour and passivity breakdown of Alloy 800 in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and sodium bicarbonate were studied by electrochemical techniques in the temperature range from 60 C to 280 C. The pitting resistance and pitting morphology of the alloy in chloride plus sulphate and chloride plus bicarbonate mixtures, at 60 C and 280 C, were also examined. Increasing bicarbonate or sulphate additions to chloride solutions shift the characteristic pitting potential of Alloy 800 to higher values, both at low and high temperatures. Changes in pitting morphology were observed in sulphate containing solutions while the morphology of the attack found in bicarbonate containing solutions was similar to that in pure chloride solutions. Finally, no localized or substantial generalized corrosion was detected in pure sulphate or bicarbonate solutions at any temperature. (orig.)

  15. Sodium bicarbonate as prevention of metabolic acidosis in sheep submitted to experimental ruminal acidosis / Bicarbonato de sódio como preventivo da acidose metabólica em ovinos submetidos à acidose ruminal experimental

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciane M., Laskoski; Lívia S., Muraro; Marinho S., Santana Júnior; Mariana B., Carvalho; Silvio H., Freitas; Renata G.S., Dória; Marcelo D., Santos; Rosangela Locatelli, Dittrich.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito preventivo do bicarbonato de sódio sobre a acidose sistêmica em decorrência da acidose ruminal, a qual foi induzida pelo fornecimento de concentrado após jejum prolongado. Foram utilizados 14 ovinos, divididos em três grupos experimentais: grupo controle [...] (Cg), contendo quatro ovinos, submetidos a jejum sem desenvolvimento de acidose ruminal; grupo não tratado (NTg), contendo cinco ovinos submetidos a acidose ruminal sem tratamento preventivo; e grupo tratado (Tg), contendo cinco ovinos, submetidos a acidose ruminal e tratados preventivamente com bicarbonato de sódio. Foram realizadas avaliações do pH ruminal e hemogasometria arterial, durante 48 horas após o fornecimento do concentrado. Houve redução do pH ruminal em todos os grupos, sendo que o Cg apresentou a redução apenas às 24 horas. Notou-se redução do pH arterial, bicarbonato e excesso de base em todos os grupos, indicando acidose metabólica sistêmica; no entanto, o NTg apresentou o quadro mais grave. Conclui-se que o bicarbonato de sódio possui efeito preventivo da acidose metabólica sistêmica, reduzindo a sua gravidade em ovinos submetidos à acidose ruminal. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of sodium bicarbonate on systemic acidosis due to ruminal acidosis, which was induced by ingestion of concentrate after prolonged fasting. Fourteen sheep were divided into three experimental groups: control group (Cg), with four sheep, subm [...] itted to fasting without development of ruminal acidosis; no-treated group (NTg), with five sheep with rumen acidosis without preventive treatment; and treated group (Tg), with five sheep with rumen acidosis and preventively treated with sodium bicarbonate. Assessments of ruminal pH and arterial hemogasometry were performed for 48 hours after ingestion of the concentrate. There was a reduction in the ruminal pH in all groups, whereas the Cg showed a reduction only after 24 hours. A reduction in the arterial pH, bicarbonate and base excess in all groups was also noted, indicating systemic metabolic acidosis, but the NTg presented the greatest alteration. It is concluded that sodium bicarbonate prevents systemic metabolic acidosis, reducing its severity in sheep subjected to ruminal acidosis.

  16. BY THE MECHANOACTIVATION OF SOLUTION OF THE SODIUM SILICATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedosov Sergey Viktorovich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mixing of cement by the mechanoactivation of the sodium liquid glass solution resulted in increasing of the heat stability and the compressive and flexural strengths of cement stone and reducing of the water adsorption. These data point to compacting of cement stone structure.

  17. Ionization of methyl orange in aqueous sodium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Thermodynamic ionization constant of methyl orange in the temperature range (278.15 to 333.15 K). ? Influence of sodium chloride on the ionization of methyl orange. ? Pitzer interaction coefficients for methyl orange (sodium salt). ? Ionic strength dependence of the stoichiometric ionization constant. - Abstract: Ionization constants of sodium 4?-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4-sulphonate (methyl orange) were determined by means of spectrophotometric measurements in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions with molalities up to 2 mol·kg?1 at temperatures between 278.15 K and 333.15 K. The temperature dependence of the thermodynamic acidity constant shows a slight curvature in accordance with published data. The influence of sodium chloride on the methyl orange deprotonation was assessed by the measurement of stoichiometric acidity constants in this ionic medium. The Pitzer theory, widely used in the evaluation of the excess free energy of non-ideal electrolyte solutions, was applied to the computation of the activity coefficients of the chemical species involved in the equilibria and a good fit of those equations to the experimental data was observed, at all temperatures under consideration.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental measurements of the osmotic and activity coefficients, the enthalpy, and the heat capacity were used to derive a semiempirical equation for the thermodynamic properties of NaCl(aq) at constant pressure. This equation may be combined with results contained in the previous paper on the volumetric properties to yield a complete equation of state valid in the region 273 K-1. It is shown that this equation may be extrapolated to higher solute molalities at lower pressures. An estimation of uncertainties in various quantities is given. Tables of values for various thermodynamic properties are presented in the appendix

  19. In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate / Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Rico, Pires; Carlos, Rossa Junior; Antonio Carlos, Pizzolitto.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicar [...] bonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme). A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pela determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM). Os resultados mostraram que a solução teste inibiu o crescimento de microrganismos Gram-negativos e Gram-positivos da saliva dos voluntários, bem como das linhagens padrão na CIM de 1:20, enquanto que a CIM da diluição de clorexidina 0.12% contra as mesmas bactérias foi de 1:80. Desta forma, apesar de o enxaguatório bucal testado apresentar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro superior à do placebo, esta foi inferior à da Clorexidina. Abstract in english Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in compa [...] rison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis). Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.

  20. In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rico Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pela determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM. Os resultados mostraram que a solução teste inibiu o crescimento de microrganismos Gram-negativos e Gram-positivos da saliva dos voluntários, bem como das linhagens padrão na CIM de 1:20, enquanto que a CIM da diluição de clorexidina 0.12% contra as mesmas bactérias foi de 1:80. Desta forma, apesar de o enxaguatório bucal testado apresentar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro superior à do placebo, esta foi inferior à da Clorexidina.

  1. Substituted sodium phenylanthranylates as inhibitors of corrosion in chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of corrosion protoction of armco iron, zinc (Ts-O) aluminium (AB 000) and its alloys (.D16 and AMG6) with sodium phenylanthranylate derivatives in clloride buffer solutions (pH 7.4-8.08) are investigated. It has been ascertained that the introduction of sodium phenylantiranylate into phenyl radical in m- and p-position relative to the amino group of electron-seeking substitutes improves protective properties of an inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of phenylanthranylates and its dependence on electron structure enchances in zinc-aluminium-iron series and decreases in case of transition from pure aluminium to its alloys

  2. Lead sulphate leaching by sodium chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coni? Vesna T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioleaching treatment of complex multi-metallic Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au mineral concentrates leds to the formation, besides easily soluble zinc and cooper sulphates, of hardly soluble lead (II sulfate (PbSO4 sludge. To determine the leaching parameters of PbSO4 with NaCl in the bioleaching residue, lead sulphate solution was synthetically prepared. The effect of process parameters, namely NaCl concentration, solid:liquid phase ratio, processing time, temperature and Cl ions was examined. It was found that 100% Pb by leaching can be achieved with NaCl concentration of 250 g/dm3, time 20 min, temperature 353 K and solid:liquid phase ratio =1:20.

  3. Influence of feeding and social behaviors and the use of sodium bicarbonate on ruminal PH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets Influencia del comportamiento de alimentación y social, y del uso de bicarbonato sódico sobre el PH ruminal en el cebo intensivo de terneros /

    OpenAIRE

    Gonza?lez, Luciano Adria?n

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present thesis was to study the effects of some behavioral factors, and the use of sodium bicarbonate, on the digestion processes affecting ruminal function of beef cattle fed concentrate and straw ad libitum. In the first experiment, four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of increasing levels of sodium bicarbonate (0, 1.25, 2.50 and 5 %, on concentrate DM basis) on intake, water consumption, ruminal fer...

  4. Cryoscopic studies of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, potassium tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freezing temperature lowerings of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate were determined. These values and those taken from the literature for potassium tartrate were used in the determination of the osmotic and activity coefficients in the studied systems, via the numerical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation

  5. Measurements of the viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 liquid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adding UO2 produces an increase of viscosity of borax and sodium metaborate. For temperatures below 9200C the measurements with the borax-UO2 solution show a phase separation. Contrary to borax the sodium metaborate solutions indicate a well defined melting point. At temperatures slightly below the melting point a solid phase is formed. The tested sodium-borates-UO2 mixtures are in liquid form. (DG)

  6. Molybdenum recovery from sulfide ores by alkali sodium hypochlorite solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specified kinetic characteristics of hydrochemical oxidation of molybdenite by sodium hypochlorite are discussed. The methods of hypochlorite synthesis, Mo recovery from solutions after leaching are selected. It is shown that the most acceptable method of preparing hypochlorite should be considered the NaCl solution electrolysis. Mo recovery from solutions after leaching has been performed by sorption on V-P-1p anionite, eluated from resin by 10% solution of ammonia, commodity product has been extracted in a form of ammonium polymolybdate. A principle flowsheet of Mo recovery from sulfide ores is suggested. The flowsheet has been tested under laboratory conditions. It ensures a closed cycle of leaching solution circulation and meets the requirements of environment control

  7. Evaluation of sodium hypochlorite solutions used by endodontists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marques Ávila

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The success of endodontic therapy is conditioned by several variables, being the use of good quality chemical agents one ofthem. Objective: In this study, some characteristics of commonly used sodium hypochlorite irrigants were investigated, such as: concentration, pH, and storage conditions. Material and methods: For this purpose, a questionnaire comprising questions regarding the employed irrigant was sent to 100 endodontists. Besides that, a 100mL sample of the sodium hypochlorite irrigant used by them was collected. Free residual chlorine determination was laboratorially carried out through titration method. Additionally, pH was measured, through peagameter reading. Results: Only 1% of the professionals did know the pH value of the solutions used by them. Concerning to pH value, 36% of the solutions presented pH 9; 22%, pH 10; 16%, pH 13; 14%, pH 12; 11%, pH 11; and 1%, pH 8. 37% of the endodontists kept the solution flasks under refrigeration,and 67% kept them at environmental temperature. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the endodontists are using altered hypochlorite solutions because they fail to observe the necessary conditions for maintaining the solution’s chemical stability.

  8. Aggregation behavior of sodium fusidate in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, A; Meijide, F; Rodríguez Núñez, E; Vázquez Tato, J

    1994-06-01

    We analyzed the freezing point depression and pNa measurements for aqueous solutions of sodium fusidate. At concentrations lower than 0.011 mol kg(-1), sodium fusidate behaves as a strong 1:1 electrolyte. At higher concentrations, sodium fusidate self-aggregates. To analyze the results two hypotheses on the monomer concentration are presented and discussed. The first one accepts that the monomer concentration, C(A), is constant and equal to 0.023 mol kg(-1). This concentration corresponds to a break point in the plot of the freezing point depression vs total sodium fusidate concentration, C(A)t. The second hypothesis accepts that C(A) increases with C(A)t following a leveling-off curve. Measurements of hydrodynamic radii and comparison with similar systems, such as sodium taurocholate, strongly support the second hypothesis. The results indicate that at concentrations lower than 0.08 mol kg(-1) the aggregation number increases from 2 to 3. Above this concentration, both the aggregation number and the fraction of bound counterions remain constant, with average values of 3.13 +/- 0.10 and 0.31 +/- 0.05, respectively. Such results indicate that for trimers only one Na+ counterion is involved per aggregate. We propose that this counterion shields the repulsion between the two nearest carboxylate groups which, according to a disklike model in which the monomers are packed with that group alternatively oriented up and down, should hold together. Values for the formation equilibrium constant of aggregates are also calculated. Its dependence with the aggregation number allows the determination of the reversible transfer of a free surfactant ion together with the associated counterions from the bulk solution to the aggregate, the resulting value being w(0) = -4.2k(B)T. PMID:9120815

  9. Potentiometric monitoring of sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diogo M. F., Santos; César A. C., Sequeira.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Platina, paládio, ouro, cádmio, níquel e nióbio imersos em soluções alcalinas de borohidreto de sódio são caracterizados por respostas de eléctrodo que permitem monitorizar o conteúdo em borohidreto presente num dado meio aquoso. Descreve-se uma técnica de titulação potenciométrica relativamente sim [...] ples e precisa que pode ser aplicada para a análise de soluções de borohidreto. Abstract in english Platinum, palladium, gold, cadmium, nickel and niobium immersed in sodium borohydride alkaline solutions are characterised by electrode responses that allow monitoring the borohydride present in aqueous media. A simple and relatively precise potentiometric titration technique is described and applie [...] d for the analysis of borohydride solutions.

  10. Sodium tetraphenylborate solution stability: A long term study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1992-06-11

    Sodium tetraphenylborata (NaTPB) is a specialty chemical required for the In Tank Precipitation Process (ITP). It precipitates cesium, aiding in the decontamination of high level radioactive waste solutions. Long term stability of aqueous alkaline solutions of NATPB has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the relative stabilities of NATPB solutions exposed to varying temperatures and copper concentrations over an extended period of time. Additionally, vendor-supplied samples, incubated at 40{degree}C, were stored for more than a year without decomposing. Collected data demonstrates that in the absence of elevated copper concentrations, NATPB solutions will remain stable for periods of 1 to 2 years (at a minimum) at maximum expected operating conditions (<40{degree}C). Additionally, biuret, (H{sub 2}NCO){sub 2}NH, was tested as an additive to prevent copper-induced decomposition without success.

  11. Sodium tetraphenylborate solution stability: A long term study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    1992-06-11

    Sodium tetraphenylborata (NaTPB) is a specialty chemical required for the In Tank Precipitation Process (ITP). It precipitates cesium, aiding in the decontamination of high level radioactive waste solutions. Long term stability of aqueous alkaline solutions of NATPB has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the relative stabilities of NATPB solutions exposed to varying temperatures and copper concentrations over an extended period of time. Additionally, vendor-supplied samples, incubated at 40[degree]C, were stored for more than a year without decomposing. Collected data demonstrates that in the absence of elevated copper concentrations, NATPB solutions will remain stable for periods of 1 to 2 years (at a minimum) at maximum expected operating conditions (<40[degree]C). Additionally, biuret, (H[sub 2]NCO)[sub 2]NH, was tested as an additive to prevent copper-induced decomposition without success.

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 1404) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sodium bicarbonate. The Panel considers that sodium bicarbonate is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “blood pressure reduction”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effect refers to maintenance of normal blood pressure. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal blood pressure is a beneficial physiological effect. No references were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure.

  13. Efeitos da correção da acidose metabólica com bicarbonato de sódio sobre o catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica The effects of the correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate on protein catabolism in chronic kidney failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise MAFRA

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A desnutrição protéico-energética constitui problema comum aos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica, influenciando diretamente na sua morbi-mortalidade. A acidose metabólica tem papel no catabolismo protéico, ativando a via proteolítica proteasoma-ubiquitina, dependente de adenosina trifosfato, e conjuntamente com glicocorticóides induz uma maior atividade na desidrogenase que degrada os aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada. Esta revisão teve como objetivo descrever o mecanismo pelo qual a acidose metabólica nos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica promove o catabolismo protéico, favorecendo assim a desnutrição, bem como avaliar os efeitos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio na correção da acidose e conseqüentemente redução do catabolismo protéico. Pesquisas mostram melhora da acidose pelo uso de bicarbonato de sódio e conseqüente redução do catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica, podendo ser esta uma conduta promissora na atenuação da desnutrição nestes pacientes.Protein-Energy Malnutrition is common among patients with chronic kidney failure, thus increasing morbidity and mortality. Several studies have shown that metabolic acidosis is a major cause of muscle protein breakdown, and recently it was attributed to ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Acidosis, plus glucocorticoids, also respond to increasing branched-chain amino acids oxidation. In this review, the impact of metabolic acidosis on protein and amino acid metabolism is examined in order to understand its effect on lean body mass and the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney failure. The study also observes whether or not sodium bicarbonate supplementation is beneficial to chronic kidney failure patients. In summary, there is a preliminary evidence suggesting that the correction of acidosis using sodium bicarbonate reduces protein degradation in chronic kidney failure patients, thus emerging as a potential therapy for reducing protein-energy malnutrition among them.

  14. Efeitos da correção da acidose metabólica com bicarbonato de sódio sobre o catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica / The effects of the correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate on protein catabolism in chronic kidney failure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denise, MAFRA; Roberto Carlos, BURINI.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A desnutrição protéico-energética constitui problema comum aos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica, influenciando diretamente na sua morbi-mortalidade. A acidose metabólica tem papel no catabolismo protéico, ativando a via proteolítica proteasoma-ubiquitina, dependente de adenosina trifosfato, [...] e conjuntamente com glicocorticóides induz uma maior atividade na desidrogenase que degrada os aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada. Esta revisão teve como objetivo descrever o mecanismo pelo qual a acidose metabólica nos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica promove o catabolismo protéico, favorecendo assim a desnutrição, bem como avaliar os efeitos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio na correção da acidose e conseqüentemente redução do catabolismo protéico. Pesquisas mostram melhora da acidose pelo uso de bicarbonato de sódio e conseqüente redução do catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica, podendo ser esta uma conduta promissora na atenuação da desnutrição nestes pacientes. Abstract in english Protein-Energy Malnutrition is common among patients with chronic kidney failure, thus increasing morbidity and mortality. Several studies have shown that metabolic acidosis is a major cause of muscle protein breakdown, and recently it was attributed to ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic [...] pathway. Acidosis, plus glucocorticoids, also respond to increasing branched-chain amino acids oxidation. In this review, the impact of metabolic acidosis on protein and amino acid metabolism is examined in order to understand its effect on lean body mass and the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney failure. The study also observes whether or not sodium bicarbonate supplementation is beneficial to chronic kidney failure patients. In summary, there is a preliminary evidence suggesting that the correction of acidosis using sodium bicarbonate reduces protein degradation in chronic kidney failure patients, thus emerging as a potential therapy for reducing protein-energy malnutrition among them.

  15. Photoionization of Sodium Salt Solutions in a Liquid Jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieves, G. A.; Petrik, Nikolay G.; Herring-Captain, J.; Olanrewaju, B.; Aleksandrov, A.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Orlando, Thomas M.

    2008-06-05

    A liquid microjet was employed to examine the gas/liquid interface of aqueous sodium halide (Na+X-, X=Cl, Br, I) salt solutions. Laser excitation at 193 nm produced and removed cations of the form H+(H2O)n and Na+(H2O)m from liquid jet surfaces containing either NaCl, NaBr or NaI. The protonated water cluster yield varied inversely with increasing salt concentration, while the solvated sodium ion cluster yield varied by anion type. The distribution of H+(H2O)n at low salt concentration is identical to that observed from low-energy electron irradiated amorphous ice and the production of these clusters can be accounted for using a localized ionization/Coulomb expulsion model. Production of Na+(H2O)m is not accounted for by this model but requires ionization of solvation shell waters and a contact ion/Coulomb expulsion mechanism. The reduced yields of Na+(H2O)m from high concentration (10-2 and 10-1 M) NaBr and NaI solutions indicate a propensity for Br- and I- at the solution surfaces and interfaces. This is supported by the observation of multiphoton induced production and desorption of Br+ and I+ from the 10-2 and 10-1 M solution surfaces.

  16. Liquid Crystals in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium Naphthenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth-Szabó, Géza; Czarnecki, Jan; Masliyah, Jacob

    2001-04-15

    The phase diagram of the sodium naphthenates (SN)/water system was determined between -5 and 95 degrees C. Oil, isotropic water solution, and birefringent gel phases were observed. The appearance of the oil phase was caused by the hydrolysis of SN. After the system was allowed to stand for 3 weeks, a lamellar liquid crystal (LLC) phase separated from the rest of the system at 25 degrees C. This phase was always observed together with other phases. This phase behavior is attributed to different partition coefficient values of the individual constituents of sodium naphthenates between the phases. The partition coefficient difference also caused the appearance of a clear LLC and a turbid gel phase. Under the influence of agitation, the LLC phase with isotropic water solution transformed to giant vesicles; however the equilibrium state of the LLC is of parallel stacked layer structure. Macroscopic dislocations of the liquid crystal were observed, and they were anchored to the interface of the isotropic solution and the liquid crystal phases. These dislocations are similar to screw-type dislocations. The solubilization curve of toluene by SN is analogous to that of hydrophobic materials by a hydrotrope. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11401369

  17. The dissolution of synthetic Na-boltwoodite in sodium carbonate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilton, Eugene S.; Liu, Chongxuan; Yantasee, Wassana; Wang, Zheming; Moore, Dean A.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Zachara, John M.

    2006-10-01

    Uranyl silicates such as uranophane and Na-boltwoodite appear to control the solubility of uranium in certain contaminated sediments at the US Department of Energy Hanford site [Liu, C., Zachara, J.M., Qafoku, O., McKinley, J.P., Heald, S.M., Wang, Z. 2004. Dissolution of uranyl microprecipitates in subsurface sediments at Hanford Site, USA. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta68, 4519-4537.]. Consequently, the solubility of synthetic Na-boltwoodite, Na(UO 2)(SiO 3OH) · 1.5H 2O, was determined over a wide range of bicarbonate concentrations, from circumneutral to alkaline pH, that are representative of porewater and groundwater compositions at the Hanford site and calcareous environments generally. Experiments were open to air. Results show that Na-boltwoodite dissolution was nearly congruent and its solubility and dissolution kinetics increased with increasing bicarbonate concentration and pH. A consistent set of solubility constants were determined from circumneutral pH (0 added bicarbonate) to alkaline pH (50 mM added bicarbonate). Average logKspo=5.86±0.24 or 5.85 ± 0.0.26; using the Pitzer ion-interaction model or Davies equation, respectively. These values are close to the one determined by [Nguyen, S.N., Silva, R.J., Weed, H.C., Andrews, Jr., J.E., 1992. Standard Gibbs free energies of formation at the temperature 303.15 K of four uranyl silicates: soddyite, uranophane, sodium boltwoodite, and sodium weeksite. J. Chem. Thermodynamics24, 359-376.] under very different conditions (pH 4.5, Ar atmosphere).

  18. Crevice Corrosion of 321 Stainless Steel in Sodium Chloride Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical techniques have been applied to study the crevice corrosion behaviour of stabilized 321 stainless steel in both 0.5, 1 and 2 M sodium chloride solutions at 25 and 80 degree . This type of stainless steel enjoys a good corrosion resistance especially in the heat affected zone (Haz) of welds. In this investigation the crevice corrosion of 321 stainless steel was studied in both bulk solution environments as well as in chloride solutions simulating those formed inside crevices. A metal-to-nonmetal crevice assembly, in which disc type specimens were faced to a PTFE crevice former, is used for bulk solution tests. Crevice-free specimens of solutions formed inside crevices (known as the critical crevice solutions, CCS). Cyclic potentiodynamic technique was used in evaluating the electrochemical corrosion performance of the alloy in bulk (0.5 and 1 M Nacl) environment. This revealed that both chloride ion concentration and temperature have a marked effect on the electrochemical parameters generally used for the evaluation of the crevice corrosion susceptibility. This included the corrosion potential. E corr. The passivity breakdown potential, Eb, and the protection potential, E p

  19. Effect of Strength and Microstructure on Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior and Mechanism of X80 Pipeline Steel in High pH Carbonate/Bicarbonate Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Du, Cuiwei; Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Shengrong; Zhao, Tianliang; Jia, Jinghuan

    2014-04-01

    The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviors and mechanisms of X80 pipeline steels with different strength and microstructure in high pH carbonate/bicarbonate solution were investigated by slow strain rate testing and electrochemical test. The results showed that the cracking mode of low strength X80 steel composed of bulky polygonal ferrite and granular bainite in high pH solution was intergranular (IGSCC), and the SCC mechanism was anodic dissolution (AD). While the mixed cracking mode of high strength X80 steel consisted of fine acicular ferrite and granular bainite was intergranular (IGSCC) in the early stage, and transgranular (TGSCC) in the later stage. The decrease of pH value of crack tip was probably the key reason for the occurrence of TGSCC. The SCC mechanism may be a mixed mode of AD and hydrogen embrittlement (HE), and the HE mechanism may play a significant role in the deep crack propagation at the later stage. The cracking modes and SCC mechanisms of the two X80 steels were associated with its microstructure and strength.

  20. Speciation and chemical activities in superheated sodium borate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system H2O-B2O3-Na2O has been studied experimentally at 277 degrees and 317 degrees C. The activities of water and boric acid have been determined at mole ratios Na/B from 0 to 1.5, and total dissolved solids 3 to 80 weight percent. The activity of boric acid has been fitted to within experimental error using a speciation model with eight complex species. This model is consistent with the model previously published by Mesmer et al. The electrolyte properties of the liquid are modelled using the Pitzer-Simonson Model of very concentrated electrolyte solutions. The calculated values of water activity agree with experiment, and the activity of NaOH and pOH have also been calculated. These data will allow prediction of the composition and chemical behavior of sodium borate liquids that may accumulate in the superheated crevices within a steam generator. A modified form of the model is provided for use with MULTEQ. The potassium borate system also was briefly studied at 317 degrees C, and is adequately described by a model with five complex species. The potassium borate liquid is more alkaline at K/B = 1 than a sodium borate liquid at the same mole ratio, but pOH in the two systems is the same at lower mole ratios

  1. The relevance of the CO2 partial pressure of sodium bicarbonate solutions for the mass cultivation of the microalga Spirulina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel de, Alava; Paulo Corrêa de, Mello; Klaus, Wagener.

    Full Text Available O meio de cultivo na base de bicarbonato de sódio usado para produzir a microalga Spirulina em massa e preparado seguinte ZARROUK¹ é meta-estável em contato com a atmosfera. Este fato causa uma grande perda de CO2. Com cálculos e experiências foi determinada a relação entre a pressão parcial de CO2 [...] de soluções de bicarbonato de sódio e o pH da solução. Com pH 10.2 existe um equilíbrio com a concentração de CO2 no ar e desta maneira não há perda de CO2. Abstract in english It is demonstrated by experiments and calculations that the medium used for growing the microalga Spirulina (prepared according to ZARROUK¹ with a resulting pH of 8.7) is highly meta-stable in contact with the atmosphere and is thus loosing considerable amounts of CO2. This economic problem can be a [...] voided by raising the pH of the culture medium to 10.2 where its partial pressure of CO2 corresponds to the partial pressure of CO2 in the atmosphere. The pH shift has practically no influence on the growth of the algae.

  2. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5 were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide in the presence of sodium benzoate/sodium sulphite inhibitive mixtures range 0.322mmpy to 1.1269mmpy across the three volumetric ratios considered. The 15ml5ml sodium benzoatesodium sulphite mixture had the best average corrosion rate of 0.5123mmpy.The corrosion rate followed reducing pattern after the first 200 hours of immersion. The average corrosion rate in the sodium benzoate / sodium sulphite mixture is less than the rate in sodium sulphite and the mixture is only effective after long time exposure.It is concluded that adding sodium benzoate to sodium sulphite in the volumetric ratio 155ml improves the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide environment.

  3. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA; Olusegun Olusoji SOREMEKUN; Olakunle Wasiu SUBAIR; Atinuke OLADOYE

    2008-01-01

    The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5) were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel i...

  4. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium acetates, chlorates, and perchlorates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Manzurola, Emanuel [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2007-08-15

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of sodium acetate, potassium acetate, sodium perchlorate, and potassium perchlorate were determined over the (278 to 318) K temperature range and compared with available in the literature data. The cases of saturated solutions of sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate are also considered. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the osmotic coefficients, and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in considered systems.

  5. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium acetates, chlorates, and perchlorates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of sodium acetate, potassium acetate, sodium perchlorate, and potassium perchlorate were determined over the (278 to 318) K temperature range and compared with available in the literature data. The cases of saturated solutions of sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate are also considered. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the osmotic coefficients, and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in considered systems

  6. Sodium silicate solutions from dissolution of glasswastes. Statistical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Carrasco, M.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It has studied the solubility process of four different waste glasses (with different particle sizes, 125 µm in alkaline solutions (NaOH and NaOH/Na?CO? and water as a reference and under different conditions of solubility (at room temperature, at 80°C and a mechano-chemical process. Have established the optimal conditions of solubility and generation of sodium silicates solutions, and these were: the smaller particle size (Se ha estudiado el proceso de solubilidad de cuatro diferentes residuos vítreos (con distintas granulometrías, 125 µm en disoluciones alcalinas de NaOH y NaOH/Na?CO? y agua como medio de referencia y bajo distintas condiciones de solubilidad (a temperatura ambiente, a 80°C y con un proceso mecano-químico. Se han establecido las condiciones óptimas de solubilidad y generación de disoluciones de silicato sódico, y estas son: menor tamaño de partícula del residuo vítreo (inferior a 45 µm, con la disolución de NaOH/Na?CO? y tratamiento térmico a 80°C durante 6 horas de agitación. El análisis estadístico realizado a los resultados obtenidos da importancia a las variables estudiadas y a las interacciones de las mismas. A través de ²?Si RMN MAS se ha confirmado la formación, tras los procesos de disolución, de un silicato monomérico, apto para su utilización como activador en la preparación de cementos y hormigones alcalinos.

  7. Sodium sulfate as an eluant for concentrated solution of pertechnetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushtaq, A. [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)], E-mail: mushtaqa@pinstech.org.pk; Haider, I. [Isotope Production Division, Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2008-08-15

    Fission molybdenum-99 based technetium-99m chromatography generators are the most widely employed generator systems in the field of diagnostic nuclear medicine. In the first week these generators provide high specific volume activity Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}, but in the second week the radioactive concentration of the eluate ({sup 99m}Tc) becomes {<=}17% of that at the beginning of the first week. Low specific volume activity limits the clinical procedures (e.g. {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA for lung ventilation scanning, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi for myocardial perfusion studies, {sup 99m}Tc-ECD for brain imaging and {sup 99m}Tc-red cells for testicles) that can be performed at the beginning of the second week. To overcome such limitations sodium sulfate was used as an eluant, which provides >80% of {sup 99m}Tc radioactivity in 2 ml solution, while 0.9% NaCl provides only 40-45% {sup 99m}Tc in first 2 ml solution.

  8. Use of hypertonic solutions of sodium chloride in hypergranulating wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Assis Quelemente, Ana Beatriz Pinto da Silva Morita, Angelo Teixeira Balbi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to verify the efficiency of hypertonic solution (NaCl/20% on the hypergranulation due to the constant hypergranulating wound beds treated in venous ulcers in the daily clinic practice, which delays and disables cells epithelization. Methodology: clinical case study, performed in an outpatient’s clinic of Médio Vale do Paraíba, from February to March 2008. MCT, 60 years old, female, white skin, systematic arterial hypertension controlled, with wounds on the middle part and region of distal third of the left leg. Dressings were made with prior sterilization sores of sodium chloride to 0.9%, which was applied compress of gauze soaked with hypertonic solution (NaCl 20% was applied on the region presenting hypergrantulation tissue and immediately occluded with dry gauze and fixed with crepe bandage and adhesive tapes. Results: on February 13, 2008, the first wound on the middle part of the left leg measured 3,5 x 2,3 inches (9x6 cm and 2,7 9 inches (7 cm of hypergranulation, and the second wound on the region of distal third of the left leg measured 5,5 x 5,1 inches (14x13 cm and 5,1 inches (13 cm of hypergranulation. After 22 days, the first wound measured 1,5 x 1,5 inches (4X4 cm and 1,5 inches (4 cm of hypergranulation and the second wound measured 4,3 x 3,9 inches (11X10 cm and 2,3 inches (6 cm of hypergranulation. Conclusion: the healing process presented a satisfactory evolution after applying hypertonic solution (NaCl/20% improving the characteristic of the wound bed and diminishing the area where hypergranulation was present.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of sodium ibuprofen at 293.15-318.15 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manin, N. G.; Perlovich, G. L.

    2015-04-01

    The enthalpies of solution and dilution of aqueous solutions of sodium ibuprofen (NaIBP) with concentrations of m thermodynamic properties of both the solutions and the solution components are calculated over the range of compound solubility. The variation in these characteristics as a function of concentration and temperature is analyzed.

  10. Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

  11. Relevance of Rheological Properties of Sodium Alginate in Solution to Calcium Alginate Gel Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Shao; Thacker, Ankur; Sperger, Diana M.; Boni, Riccardo L.; Buckner, Ira S.; Velankar, Sachin; Munson, Eric J.; Block, Lawrence H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium alginate solutions’ rheological parameters are meaningful relative to sodium alginate’s use in the formulation of calcium alginate gels. Calcium alginate gels were prepared from six different grades of sodium alginate (FMC Biopolymer), one of which was available in ten batches. Cylindrical gel samples were prepared from each of the gels and subjected to compression to fracture on an Instron Universal Testing Machine, equipped with a...

  12. Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women? / ¿Modifica el agua mineral bicarbonatada rica en sodio la sensibilidad a la insulina de las mujeres postmenopáusicas?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Schoppen; F. J., Sánchez-Muniz; A. M.ª, Pérez-Granados; J. A., Gómez-Gerique; B., Sarriá; S., Navas-Carretero; M.ª Pilar, Vaquero.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudiar los efectos de la ingesta de 0.5L de dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2), junto con una comida estándar, sobre los cambios en la insulina y la glucosa postprandial; y determinar si los posibles efectos varían en función de la resistencia a la insulina eva [...] luada a través del modelo homeostático (HOMA). Métodos: 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas sanas participaron en un estudio triple cruzado aleatorizado, en el que bebieron 2 aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2) y un agua mineral débil (LMW) junto con una comida estándar rica en grasa. Se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas y postprandiales a los 30, 60 y 120 min. Se determinó glucosa, insulina, colesterol y triglicéridos en suero. La resistencia a la insulina fue estimada a través del HOMA y la sensibilidad a la insulina se calculó mediante el índice de sensibilidad cuantitativa a la insulina (QUICKY). Resultados: Los niveles de glucosa no presentaron cambios. Los valores de HOMA y QUICKY presentaron una fuerte correlación inversa (r = -1,000; p Abstract in english Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2), with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Methods [...] : In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW) with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY). Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p

  13. Avaliação de procedimentos de extração dos óxidos de ferro pedogênicos com ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio Evaluation of pedogenic iron oxide extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Inda Junior

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 20 amostras hematíticas e goethíticas de horizontes B latossólicos, uma de B plíntico, uma de B incipiente e uma de saprolito, foram avaliados dois procedimentos de extração de óxidos de ferro pedogênicos (Fe d por ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio (DCB. O procedimento a 80 ºC (DCB80 extraiu aproximadamente 90 % do Fe d na primeira extração e praticamente a totalidade do mesmo na segunda extração, sendo mais efetivo que o procedimento a temperatura ambiente (DCB20, o qual teve sua eficiência reduzida com o aumento da substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita. A substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita determinada por DCB80 superestimou os valores determinados por DRX conforme aumentaram as extrações. Em amostras hematíticas, esta estimativa foi prejudicada pela presença de maghemita que dissolveu juntamente com a hematita.Pedogenic iron oxides (Fe d were quantified in 22 hematitic and goethitic soil samples (19 from oxic horizons; one from a plinthic horizon; one from a cambic horizon; one from saprolite by use of two extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB. Approximately ninety percent of the Fe d content was extracted at the first extraction by the DCB80 procedure. This procedure was more effective at extracting Fe d than the DCB20, whose efficiency decreased with increasing Al3+-substitution in goethite. Compared with the DRX analysis, Al3+-substitution in goethite determined by the DCB80 procedure was superestimated. Maghemite masked Al3+-substitution estimates in hematite from hematitic samples.

  14. Avaliação de procedimentos de extração dos óxidos de ferro pedogênicos com ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio / Evaluation of pedogenic iron oxide extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A. V., Inda Junior; N., Kämpf.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Em 20 amostras hematíticas e goethíticas de horizontes B latossólicos, uma de B plíntico, uma de B incipiente e uma de saprolito, foram avaliados dois procedimentos de extração de óxidos de ferro pedogênicos (Fe d) por ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio (DCB). O procedimento a 80 ºC (DCB80) extr [...] aiu aproximadamente 90 % do Fe d na primeira extração e praticamente a totalidade do mesmo na segunda extração, sendo mais efetivo que o procedimento a temperatura ambiente (DCB20), o qual teve sua eficiência reduzida com o aumento da substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita. A substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita determinada por DCB80 superestimou os valores determinados por DRX conforme aumentaram as extrações. Em amostras hematíticas, esta estimativa foi prejudicada pela presença de maghemita que dissolveu juntamente com a hematita. Abstract in english Pedogenic iron oxides (Fe d) were quantified in 22 hematitic and goethitic soil samples (19 from oxic horizons; one from a plinthic horizon; one from a cambic horizon; one from saprolite) by use of two extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB). Approximately ninety perce [...] nt of the Fe d content was extracted at the first extraction by the DCB80 procedure. This procedure was more effective at extracting Fe d than the DCB20, whose efficiency decreased with increasing Al3+-substitution in goethite. Compared with the DRX analysis, Al3+-substitution in goethite determined by the DCB80 procedure was superestimated. Maghemite masked Al3+-substitution estimates in hematite from hematitic samples.

  15. Preventive and curative activity of combined treatments of sodium carbonates and Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 to control postharvest green mold of citrus fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventive and curative activity of 2 min dips in 3% sodium carbonate (SC) or sodium bicarbonate (SBC) aqueous solutions heated to 40ºC, alone of followed by the application of 2 x 108 CFU/ml of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 (BA), in the control of postharvest green mold, caused by ...

  16. The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate

  17. Sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1/Slc4a7 inhibits NH4Cl-mediated inward current in Xenopus oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojung; Choi, Inyeong

    2011-08-01

    The electroneutral Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) contributes to intracellular pH maintenance and transepithelial HCO(3)(-) movement. In this study, we expressed NBCn1 in Xenopus oocytes and examined the effect of NBCn1 on oocyte NH(4)(+) transport by analysing changes in membrane potential, current and intracellular pH mediated by NH(4)Cl. In the presence of HCO(3)(-)/CO(2), applying NH(4)Cl (20 mm) produced intracellular acidification of oocytes. The acidification was faster in oocytes expressing NBCn1 than in control oocytes injected with water; however, NH(4)Cl-mediated membrane depolarization was smaller in oocytes expressing NBCn1. In HCO(3)(-)/CO(2)-free solution, NH(4)Cl produced a smaller inward current in NBCn1-expressing oocytes (56% inhibition by 20 mm NH(4)Cl, measured at --60 mV), while minimally affecting intracellular acidification. The inhibition of the current by NBCn1 was unaffected when BaCl(2) replaced KCl. Current-voltage relationships showed a positive and nearly linear relationship between NH(4)Cl-mediated current and voltage, which was markedly reduced by NBCn1. Large basal currents (before NH(4)Cl exposure) were produced in NBCn1-expressing oocytes owing to the previously characterized channel-like activity of NBCn1. Inhibiting this channel-like activity by Na(+) removal abolished the inhibitory effect of NBCn1 on NH(4)Cl-mediated currents. The currents were progressively reduced over 72-120 h after NBCn1 cRNA injection, during which the channel-like activity was high. These results indicate that NBCn1 stimulates NH(4)(+) transport by its Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) cotransport activity, while reducing NH(4)(+) conductance by its channel-like activity. PMID:21571816

  18. Effect of peroxodisulfate on uranium leaching with ammonium bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbek Nurpeisov; Yuliya Marchuk; Satybaldiyev, B.; Bolat Uralbekov; Mukhambetkali Burkitbayev

    2013-01-01

    In this study, uranium leaching from ore material using acid solution and bicarbonate in a presence peroxodisulfate ion was examined. For experiments two different tips of leaching methods were used: leaching in static and dynamic conditions. The determination of uranium concentrations in product solutions were analyzed by titrimetric (by ammonia vanadate solution) method. The maximum yield of uranium leached with ammonium bicarbonate in a presence of ammonium peroxodisulfate (5 g/L) was only...

  19. 21 CFR 520.2261a - Sulfamethazine sodium drinking water solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL...sodium solution. (b) Related tolerances in edible products. See § 556.670 of this...ambient temperature, and other factors. (2) Indications...

  20. Cardiac effects of sodium selenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviado, D M; Drimal, J; Watanabe, T; Lish, P M

    1975-01-01

    The classical idea that selenium is toxic to the heart at levels higher than available in a balanced diet is not supported by experimental work. In mice, treatment with sodium selenite increased the LD50 of ouabain and 2,4-dinitrophenol, and increased the tolerance to nitrogen inhalation. Although sodium selenite had no effect on the dog heart with circulation intact, there was a reduction in coronary vascular resistance in the heart-lung preparation. In the isolated ventricular segment perfused with blood, the administration of sodium selenite caused a positive inotropic effect which appeared even after blockade of beta-adrenergic receptors and in segments perfused with a Krebs-bicarbonate solution that was deficient in oxygen. These results cannot be explained merely as the correction of a selenium deficiency but rather as a positive influence of sodium selenite on the heart that has been acutely stressed by oxygen lack, ouabain, or 2,4-dinitrophenol. PMID:1182716

  1. Investigation of dissolution processes of rhenium sulfides in sodium hydroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic characteristics (rate constant, activation energy) for the reaction of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide dissolution with provision for change of their surface value were determined and the possible mechanism of rhenium sulfide dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of oxygen was suggested. It was shown, that change of Gibbs energy of sulfide formation correlates with change of Gibbs energy of their dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions

  2. Bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate solutions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heling, I; Rotstein, I; Dinur, T; Szwec-Levine, Y; Steinberg, D

    2001-04-01

    The antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) were evaluated and compared in vitro. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of NaOCl and NaDCC were tested for Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus salivarius, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus mutans. The cytotoxic effect was assessed by using human fibroblast tissue culture. Survival rate was assessed by a protein determination method. Results showed that the minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values of NaOCl and NaDCC for the tested bacteria were in a similar range. NaDCC in concentrations higher than 0.02%, and NaOCl in concentrations higher than 0.01% were lethal to fibroblasts. In conclusion it seems that both agents were very effective in killing bacteria, and their cytotoxicity to fibroblasts in tissue culture was similar. PMID:11485267

  3. Deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the oxidation of sodium (2-D2) propionate with permanganate in water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic parameters characterizing the oxidation of sodium (2-1H2) propionate and the oxidation of sodium (2-2H2) propionate with permanganate in water solutions have been determined. The results were compared with kinetic parameters derived from the investigation of the deuterium isotope effect on the activation parameters in the permanganate and manganate oxidation of sodium (2-2H2) propionate in water solutions of sodium hydroxide. (author) 3 refs.; 3 tabs

  4. Anion exchange sorption and polymerization of molybdenum (6) in sodium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anion-exchange sorption and polymerization of molybdenum in sodium chloride solutions have been studied. In the range of pH from 2 to 10 in the solutions containing up to 150 g/l sodium chloride, complex formation of molybdenum with chloride-ions is virtually absent, becoming more appreciable in more acidic solutions. It has been found that at pH from 2 to 6 and Mo concentration 10-5-10-3 M the sodium chloride solutions contain polymers which contain up to 4 molybdenum atoms (at pH=3). The presence of chloride ions decreases the rate of approaching sorption equilibrium and the equilibrium extent of sorption of MoO42- ion, which dominates at pH(>=)6

  5. The solubility of uranium(IV) hydrous oxide in sodium hydroxide solutions under reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility of hydrous UO2 in sodium hydroxide solutions containing sodium dithionite and/or Zn metal powder as reductants has been measured. The results provide no firm evidence for any amphoteric behavior of U(IV) but do set an upper limit of K -23 for the hypothetical reaction: U4+(aq) + 5H2OU(OH)5- + 5H+. The results provide no evidence for such a reaction. (author)

  6. The influence of low oxygen and contaminated sodium environments on the fatigue behavior of solution treated AISI 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of air and sodium environments on the fatigue properties of solution treated AISI 316 steel was studied by predictive methods and by conducting tests in air, in high temperature sodium, or following pre-exposure to sodium. The sodium environments studied included contaminated sodium or the products of sodium/water flames possibly typical of fast reactor fault conditions, and low oxygen sodium more appropriate to normal plant operation. Generally, fatigue properties were reduced by contaminated sodium or the products of sodium/water flames and improved by low oxygen sodium when compared with similar tests conducted in air. However, complex effects were observed with respect to crack initiation. The experimental results are discussed and generally follow trends predicted by physically based fatigue models. (author)

  7. Dissolution of sodium chlorate crystals in supersaturated solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malivuk, Dragana A.; Žeki?, Andrijana A.; Mitrovi?, Mi?o M.; Misailovi?, Branislava M.

    2013-08-01

    The results of the investigations regarding the growth and the dissolution behavior of small sodium chlorate crystals at temperatures near saturation temperature of (31.00±0.02)°C are presented. Above this temperature all the observed crystals dissolved, as was expected. At temperatures between 30.5°C and 31.0°C coexistence of growing, non-growing and dissolving crystals was occurred. At temperatures below 30.5°C dissolution of the crystals did not occur. A significant growth/dissolution rate dispersion existed at all temperatures. Possible reasons for simultaneous growth and dissolution are discussed.

  8. Diffusion of sodium alginate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mutual diffusion coefficients of sodium alginate in aqueous solutions. • Influence of the thermodynamic and kinetic factors on the variation of the mutual diffusion coefficients. • Estimation of the hydrodynamic radius of ion alginate. - Abstract: Taylor dispersion technique was used for measuring mutual diffusion coefficients of sodium alginate aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K, by using as carrier stream solution both pure water and solutions of this polyelectrolyte at a slightly different concentration. The limiting values found at infinitesimal ionic strength, D0, were determined by extrapolating to c ? 0. These studies were complemented by molecular mechanics calculations. From the experimental data, it was possible to estimate both the limiting conductivity and the tracer diffusion coefficient values for the alginate anion, and the hydrodynamic radius of the sodium alginate (NaC6H7O6), as well as to discuss the influence of the kinetic, thermodynamic and viscosity factors on the diffusion of sodium alginate in aqueous solutions at finite concentrations. Thus, the aim of our innovative research is to contribute to a better understanding of the structure and the thermodynamic behavior of these polymeric systems in solution and supplying the scientific and technological communities with data on these important parameters in solution transport processes

  9. Radiation protection by ascorbic acid in sodium alginate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliste, A.J.; Mastro, N.L. Del [Center of Radiation Technology, IPEN/CNEN/SP, University City, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajaliste@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    Alginates are gelling hydrocolloids extracted from brown seaweed used widely in the nourishing and pharmaceutical industries. As alginic acid gellification retard food entrance in the stomach alginate is an additive used in diets. The objective of this work was to study the protective action of the ascorbic acid in alginate solutions against the action of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation. One % (w/v) solutions of alginate had been used and concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 0 to 2.5% (w/v). The solutions were irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy. Viscosity/dose relationship and the p H of the solutions at 25 Centigrade were determined. Ascorbic acid behaved as an antioxidant against radiation oxidative shock in this model system of an irradiated viscous solution. Besides its radiation protective role on alginate solutions ascorbic acid promoted a viscosity increase in the range of concentrations employed. (Author)

  10. Radiation protection by ascorbic acid in sodium alginate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alginates are gelling hydrocolloids extracted from brown seaweed used widely in the nourishing and pharmaceutical industries. As alginic acid gellification retard food entrance in the stomach alginate is an additive used in diets. The objective of this work was to study the protective action of the ascorbic acid in alginate solutions against the action of 60 Co gamma radiation. One % (w/v) solutions of alginate had been used and concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 0 to 2.5% (w/v). The solutions were irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy. Viscosity/dose relationship and the p H of the solutions at 25 Centigrade were determined. Ascorbic acid behaved as an antioxidant against radiation oxidative shock in this model system of an irradiated viscous solution. Besides its radiation protective role on alginate solutions ascorbic acid promoted a viscosity increase in the range of concentrations employed. (Author)

  11. Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO3) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10-6M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO3 and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar1, Ile8)-Angiotensin II(10-6M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO3. Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO3. Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium

  12. Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Sodium Bicarbonate/Carbonate Buffer in an Open Aqueous Carbon Dioxide System and Corollary Electrochemical/Chemical Reactions Relative to System pH Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Thomas W.; Wilson, Mark E.; Glasscock, Brad; Holt, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) experienced a number of chemical changes driven by system absorption of CO2 which altered the coolant’s pH. The natural effects of the decrease in pH from approximately 9.2 to less than 8.4 had immediate consequences on system corrosion rates and corrosion product interactions with specified coolant constituents. The alkalinity of the system was increased through the development and implementation of a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer that would increase coolant pH to 9.0 – 10.0 and maintain pH above 9.0 in the presence of ISS cabin concentrations of CO2 up to twenty times higher than ground concentrations. This paper defines how a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer works in an open carbon dioxide system and summarizes the analyses performed on the buffer for safe and effective application in the on-orbit system. The importance of the relationship between the cabin environment and the IATCS is demonstrated as the dominant factor in understanding the system chemistry and pH trends before and after addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. The paper also documents the corollary electrochemical and chemical reactions the system has experienced and the rationale for remediation of these effects with the addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer.

  13. Hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio na prevenção de nefropatia induzida por contraste em pacientes diabéticos: subanálise de ensaio clínico multicêntrico / Sodium-bicarbonate to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in diabetic patients: a sub-analysis of a multicenter clinical trial

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vitor Osório, Gomes; Camila, Tabajara; Patrícia, Hickmann; Juan Carlos, Perez-Alva; Fábio, Brito Jr.; Breno, Almeida; Valter, Lima; Bruno, Machado; Airton, Arruda; José Eduardo T. de, Paula; Ricardo, Lasevitch; Paulo, Caramori.

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Nefropatia induzida por contraste (NIC) está associada a piores desfechos intra-hospitalar e a longo prazo. Estudos recentes sugerem que hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio possa ser útil na sua prevenção; no entanto, essa medida de prevenção de NIC não foi, ainda, avaliada em pacientes [...] diabéticos. MÉTODO: Subanálise de um estudo multicêntrico envolvendo 301 pacientes com creatinina sérica > 1,2 mg/dl ou depuração de creatinina endógena (DCE) Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with worse clinical outcomes both at short and long-term follow-up. Recent evidence indicates that intravenous hydration with sodium-bicarbonate may reduce the incidence of CIN. However, this strategy has not been reported in diabetic pati [...] ents. METHODS: Sub-analysis of a multicenter study involving 301 patients with serum creatinine > 1,2 mg/dL or creatinine clearance 0,5 mg/dL), and the average change in creatinine and creatinine clearance 48 hours after the procedure. A total of 87 diabetic patients were analyzed. RESULTS: There was no difference between groups regarding baseline characteristics, contrast volume used, baseline creatinine levels and creatinine clearance. Eight patients presented CIN: 4 (9.8%) in the bicarbonate group and 4 (8.9%) in the saline group (p = 0.9). The average change in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: Intravenous hydration with sodium-bicarbonate did not reduce the incidence of CIN in diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention as compared to hydration with normal saline.

  14. CHLORIDEDETERMINATION IN HIGH IONIC STRENGTH SOLUTION OF AMMONIUM ACETATE USING NEGATIVE ION ELECTRON SPRAY IONIZATION (HPLC/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A precise ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of chloride in high ionic strength ammonium acetate solutions (10-5 M-5 M) using sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate as eluent. Negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was used for q...

  15. Bactericidal and wound-healing properties of sodium hypochlorite solutions: the 1991 Lindberg Award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggers, J P; Sazy, J A; Stenberg, B D; Strock, L L; McCauley, R L; Herndon, D N; Robson, M C

    1991-01-01

    Toxic effects of sodium hypochlorite on wound healing elements have been confined to a restricted range of sodium hypochlorite concentrations. We investigated concentrations of sodium hypochlorite for antibacterial activity and tissue toxicity at varying time intervals. We attempted to find the efficacious therapeutic concentration that was both microbicidal and nontoxic. Gram-negative and gram-positive isolates (0.1/ml of 1 x 10(8)/ml) were introduced into various concentrations of buffered and unbuffered sodium hypochlorite solutions for determinations of bactericidal activity at 5-, 10-, 15-, and 30-minute intervals. Concentrations of sodium hypochlorite were 0.25%, 0.025%, and 0.0125%. In vitro assays with fibroblasts at the same concentrations were also performed to determine toxicity at the same time intervals. An in vivo incisional model was also used to determine the effects of sodium hypochlorite therapy on wound healing. Bactericidal effects were observed for concentrations as low as 0.025%. Tissue toxicity, both in vitro and in vivo, was observed at concentrations of 0.25% but not at a concentration of 0.025%. Although concentrations below this level were nontoxic, they were not bactericidal. Therefore a modified "Dakin's" solution at a concentration of 0.025% is therapeutically efficacious as a fluid dressing, since it preserves bactericidal properties and eliminates the detrimental potential on wound healing. PMID:1752875

  16. Efecto de levaduras antagónicas y bicarbonato de sodio sobre Penicillium expansum Link en dos variedades de manzana / Efect of antagonic yeasts and sodium bicarbonate on Penicillium expansum Link in two apple varieties

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L., Soto-Muñoz; R. A., Martínez-Peniche.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available El uso de fungicidas químicos para el control de Penicillium expansum Link en manzanas en poscosecha no es del todo aceptado, por lo que se trabaja con microorganismos antagónicos como las levaduras que al tener una efectividad limitada se combinan con sustancias de origen natural para elevar su efe [...] cto antagónico. Con este propósito, se usaron cepas de levaduras, en combinación con bicarbonato de sodio (BCS) para el control de P. expansum en manzanas (Malus domestica Borkh) 'Golden Delicious' y 'Red Delicious'. Se trataron con tres concentraciones de BCS (0, 2 y 4% p/v) y se inocularon con una concentración conocida de diez levaduras antagónicas, por separado, en heridas donde posteriormente se colocó una suspensión de esporas de P. expansum (1 x 10(4) UFC), midiéndose el diámetro de la lesión y la incidencia después de 10 días de incubación. 'Red Delicious' resultó menos sensible a P. expansum que 'Golden Delicious' (diámetro de lesión de 1.52 vs. 2.01 cm). Las levaduras con mayor poder antagónico sobre el hongo fueron 22-218, 8-121 y 26-224 (Torulaspora spp) que redujeron el desarrollo del hongo en 89, 81.8 y 84.3%, respectivamente a los 10 días de incubación. El BCS 4% no inhibió el crecimiento del hongo, pero a 2% potenció el efecto antagónico de las levaduras 23-61 y 3-5241 en 26.4 y 23.1%, respectivamente. La levadura 22-218 fue la más sobresaliente contra P. expansum en 'Golden Delicious' reduciendo 99.5% el diámetro de la lesión; mientras que las levaduras 22-224 y 8-121 lo fueron en 'Red Delicious' disminuyendo un 91.7 y 91.0%, respectivamente. Abstract in english As the use of chemical fungicides to control postharvest diseases of apple as Penicillium expansum Link is not entirely accepted, antagonist microorganisms as yeasts are employed. However, due to their limited effectiveness they are proposed to be combined with substances of natural origin. To evalu [...] ate the efficacy of different strains of antagonistic yeasts in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) to control P. expansum, 'Golden Delicious' and 'Red Delicious' apples were treated with three levels of SBC and inoculated with a given concentration of ten antagonistic yeasts separately in wounds where a spore suspension of P. expansum (1 x 10(4) UFC), was then placed. Lesion diameter and incidence were measured after ten days of incubation. 'Red Delicious' was less susceptible to P. expansum than 'Golden Delicious' (diameter lesion of 1.52 cm vs 2.01 cm). Yeasts with the highest antagonist capacity on P. expansum were 22-218, 8-121 y 26-224 (Torulaspora spp) reducing the development of fungus in 89, 81.8 y 84.3% respectively. SBC did not reduce the development of fungus, but at 2% it enhanced the antagonistic effect of yeasts 23-61 and 3-5241 in 26.4 y 23.1% respectively. Yeast 22-218 showed the major antagonism against P. expansum in 'Golden Delicious' diminishing the lesion diameter at 0.1 cm, while yeasts 22-224 and 8-121 did in 'Red Delicious' diminishing injury in 91.7 and 91% respectively.

  17. Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women? ¿Modifica el agua mineral bicarbonatada rica en sodio la sensibilidad a la insulina de las mujeres postmenopáusicas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schoppen

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2, with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Methods: In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY. Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p Objetivo: Estudiar los efectos de la ingesta de 0.5L de dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2, junto con una comida estándar, sobre los cambios en la insulina y la glucosa postprandial; y determinar si los posibles efectos varían en función de la resistencia a la insulina evaluada a través del modelo homeostático (HOMA. Métodos: 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas sanas participaron en un estudio triple cruzado aleatorizado, en el que bebieron 2 aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2 y un agua mineral débil (LMW junto con una comida estándar rica en grasa. Se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas y postprandiales a los 30, 60 y 120 min. Se determinó glucosa, insulina, colesterol y triglicéridos en suero. La resistencia a la insulina fue estimada a través del HOMA y la sensibilidad a la insulina se calculó mediante el índice de sensibilidad cuantitativa a la insulina (QUICKY. Resultados: Los niveles de glucosa no presentaron cambios. Los valores de HOMA y QUICKY presentaron una fuerte correlación inversa (r = -1,000; p < 0,0001. Las concentraciones de insulina mostraron un efecto significativo en el tiempo (p < 0,0001 y una interacción agua x tiempo significativa (p < 0,021. A los 120 min los niveles de insulina fueron significativamente inferiores con BMW1 respecto a LMW (p = 0,022. Las concentraciones postprandiales de insulina mostraron patrones significativamente distintos según el tipo de agua que se bebía dependiendo de los n-tiles del HOMA (p = 0,016. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren un aumento de la sensibilidad a la insulina tras el consumo de las dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio. Este efecto es más marcado en las mujeres que tienen unos valores de HOMA más altos. Este tipo de aguas deberían ser consideradas como parte de una dieta saludable con objeto de prevenir la resistencia a la insulina y las enfermedades cardiovasculares.

  18. Effect of bismuth subcitrate on amphibian gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion.

    OpenAIRE

    Shorrock, C. J.; Crampton, J. R.; Gibbons, L. C.; Rees, W. D.

    1989-01-01

    The ulcer healing and cytoprotective properties of colloidal bismuth (De-Nol) are well established although its mode of action is unclear. We have examined the action of bismuth subcitrate, the active ingredient of De-Nol, on gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion by isolated amphibian mucosa. Addition of bismuth subcitrate (10(-6) to 10(-4) M) to the luminal solution produced a dose dependent increase in bicarbonate secretion from both gastric and duodenal mucosae without a change in transmuco...

  19. Radiation-induced addition reaction of sodium hydrogensulfite to allyl alcohol in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addition reaction of sodium hydrogensulfite to allyl alcohol was initiated by ?-rays in an aqueous sodium sulfite buffered solution. The rate of disappearance of sodium hydrogensulfite, which is equal to that of allyl alcohol, is proportional to the concentration of hydrogensulfite ion and varies inversely with the concentration of allyl alcohol. Chain termination reaction was deduced as follows: *:radical HOCH2C*HCH2SO3-+CH2=CHCH2OH ? HOCH2CH2CH2SO3-+CH2=CHC*HOH The apparent rate constant of sodium hydrogensulfite consumption was calculated to be 1.28x10-5 exp(1.66x103/RT) mol/l. sec at a dose rate of 6.40x1015 eV/g.sec. (auth.)

  20. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  1. Volumetric and conductometric studies on the interactions of dipeptides with sodium acetate and sodium butyrate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Zhenning [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052 (China)], E-mail: yanzzn@zzu.edu.cn; Wang Xiaoge; Xing Ronghua [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052 (China); Wang Jianji [Department of Chemistry, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

    2009-12-15

    Densities and conductivity data for the sodium carboxylate (sodium acetate and sodium butyrate)-dipeptides {l_brace}(glycyl-L-glutamine and L-alanyl-L-glutamine) + water{r_brace} systems were determined at T = 298.15 K. The apparent molar volumes of the peptides and the molar conductivity ({lambda}) of sodium acetate and sodium butyrate have been calculated. These data have been utilized to deduce the standard partial molar volumes (V{sub 2,{phi}}{sup 0}), standard partial molar volumes of transfer for dipeptide from water to aqueous sodium carboxylate solutions ({delta}{sub t}V{sup o}), volumetric interaction coefficient, the limiting molar conductivity ({lambda}{sup o}), and Walden product ({lambda}{sup o}o{eta}). Both V{sub 2,{phi}}{sup 0} and {delta}{sub t}V{sup o} for the dipeptides increase with increasing concentration of sodium carboxylate. The interpretation is that this result arises from the dominant interactions of the sodium carboxylate with the charged group and polar groups of peptides. The decrease in {lambda}{sup o} of sodium carboxylate with increasing dipeptide concentration and nonconstant Walden product are attributed to the interactions of sodium carboxylate with peptide and friction resistance of the solvent medium.

  2. Volumetric and conductometric studies on the interactions of dipeptides with sodium acetate and sodium butyrate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densities and conductivity data for the sodium carboxylate (sodium acetate and sodium butyrate)-dipeptides {(glycyl-L-glutamine and L-alanyl-L-glutamine) + water} systems were determined at T = 298.15 K. The apparent molar volumes of the peptides and the molar conductivity (?) of sodium acetate and sodium butyrate have been calculated. These data have been utilized to deduce the standard partial molar volumes (V2,?0), standard partial molar volumes of transfer for dipeptide from water to aqueous sodium carboxylate solutions (?tVo), volumetric interaction coefficient, the limiting molar conductivity (?o), and Walden product (?o?). Both V2,?0 and ?tVo for the dipeptides increase with increasing concentration of sodium carboxylate. The interpretation is that this result arises from the dominant interactions of the sodium carboxylate with the charged group and polar groups of peptides. The decrease in ?o of sodium carboxylate with increasing dipeptide concentration and nonconstant Walden product are attributed to the interactions of sodium carboxylate with peptide and friction resistance of the solvent medium.

  3. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate:

    OpenAIRE

    Gaertner, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all principal sodium carbonate sources. The kinetics of the recrystallization as well as of the superimposed chemical reaction, the decomposition of the bicarbonate ion, have been measured, a thermodynam...

  4. Carbon dioxide capture capacity of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Miran; Han, Sang-Jun; Wee, Jung-Ho

    2013-01-15

    The present paper investigates the various features of NaOH aqueous solution when applied as an absorbent to capture carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emitted with relatively high concentration in the flue gas. The overall CO(2) absorption reaction was carried out according to consecutive reaction steps that are generated in the order of Na(2)CO(3) and NaHCO(3). The reaction rate and capture efficiency were strongly dependent on the NaOH concentration in the Na(2)CO(3) production range, but were constant in the NaHCO(3) production step, irrespective of the NaOH concentration. The amount of CO(2) absorbed in the solution was slightly less than the theoretical value, which was ascribed to the low trona production during the reaction and the consequent decrease in CO(2) absorption in the NaOH solution. The mass ratio of absorbed CO(2) that participated in the Na(2)CO(3), NaHCO(3), and trona production reactions was calculated to be 20:17:1, respectively. PMID:23183145

  5. Electrochemical Evaluation of Stainless Steels in Acidified Sodium Chloride Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, L. M.; MacDowell, L. G.; Vinje, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation in which several 300-series stainless steels (SS): AISI S30403 SS (UNS S30403), AISI 316L SS (UNS S31603), and AISI 317L SS (LINS S31703), as well as highly-alloyed: SS 254-SMO (UNS S32154), AL-6XN (N08367) and AL29-4C (UNS S44735), were evaluated using DC electrochemical techniques in three different electrolyte solutions. The solutions consisted of neutral 3.55% NaCl, 3.55% NaCl in 0.1N HCl, and 3.55% NaCl in 1.0N HCl. These solutions were chosen to simulate environments that are less, similar, and more aggressive, respectively, than the conditions at the Space Shuttle launch pads. The electrochemical test results were compared to atmospheric exposure data and evaluated for their ability to predict the long-term corrosion performance of the subject alloys. The electrochemical measurements for the six alloys indicated that the higher-alloyed SS 254-SMO, AL29-4C, and AL-6XN exhibited significantly higher resistance to localized corrosion than the 300-series SS. There was a correlation between the corrosion performance of the alloys during a two-year atmospheric exposure and the corrosion rates calculated from electrochemical (polarization resistance) measurements.

  6. The radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions of sodium 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 60Co ?-radiolysis of aqueous solutions of sodium 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonate has been studied in acidic, unbuffered, and alkaline conditions and with addition of N2O and 2-propanol. Mechanisms are proposed to account for the yields of H2O2 and hydroxylated anthraquinone sulfonates. In neutral solution, in the absence of O2, the OH and e- adducts undergo preferential cross termination. Reduction of the OH adduct leads to dehydration and regeneration of the quinone. (author)

  7. Colon cleansing before colonoscopy: Does oral sodium phosphate solution still make sense?

    OpenAIRE

    Rex, Douglas K; Vanner, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Oral sodium phosphate (NaP) solution has been withdrawn from the market in the United States but remains available for over-the-counter purchase for bowel preparation for colonoscopy in Canada. The present review summarizes recent data regarding the renal toxicity of oral NaP as well as its efficacy and tolerability relative to other preparations. Given the availability of effective alternatives to NaP solution, its use for colonoscopy preparation in Canada should be limited. Candidate patien...

  8. Molecular interaction studies of glycylglycine in aqueous sodium halide solutions at 303, 308 and 313k

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Palani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity have been measured for glycylglycine in aqueous sodium halide (NaF, NaCl, NaBr mixture (0.5m at 303, 308 and 313K. Using the experimental values, the adiabatic compressibility, hydration number, apparent molal compressibility, apparent molal volume, limiting apparent molal compressibility, limiting apparent molal volume and their constants (SK, SV, transfer volumes at infinite dilution and viscosity B-coefficient of Jones-Dole equation were calculated. These parameters have been interpreted the molecular interactions in terms of solute-co-solute and solute-solvent interaction present in the given solutions.

  9. Concentration of rhenium from dilute sodium chloride solutions

    OpenAIRE

    DRAGOLJUB M. LUKIC; JURIJ L. VUCINA; SLOBODAN K. MILONJIC

    2008-01-01

    The conditions for the desorption of rhenium from the anion exchange resin Dowex 1-x8 by HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH were determined. The solution (5.0´10-3 mol dm-3 Re in 0.15 mol dm-3 NaCl) was passed through a column containing 0.10 g of the resin. The total sorbed amount of rhenium was 0.20 g/g of the resin. It was then eluted by the corresponding eluent in the concentration range up to about 3.0 mol dm-3. The highest elution efficiency and the most favourable elution profile were found wit...

  10. Effect of peroxodisulfate on uranium leaching with ammonium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurbek Nurpeisov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, uranium leaching from ore material using acid solution and bicarbonate in a presence peroxodisulfate ion was examined. For experiments two different tips of leaching methods were used: leaching in static and dynamic conditions. The determination of uranium concentrations in product solutions were analyzed by titrimetric (by ammonia vanadate solution method. The maximum yield of uranium leached with ammonium bicarbonate in a presence of ammonium peroxodisulfate (5 g/L was only 33%, which is half the corresponding value obtained by sulfuric acid (65%.

  11. Concentration of rhenium from dilute sodium chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOLJUB M. LUKIC

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the desorption of rhenium from the anion exchange resin Dowex 1-x8 by HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH were determined. The solution (5.0´10-3 mol dm-3 Re in 0.15 mol dm-3 NaCl was passed through a column containing 0.10 g of the resin. The total sorbed amount of rhenium was 0.20 g/g of the resin. It was then eluted by the corresponding eluent in the concentration range up to about 3.0 mol dm-3. The highest elution efficiency and the most favourable elution profile were found with 3.0 mol dm-3 HNO3. Over 77 % of the sorbed rhenium was found in the first 5 ml of the eluate. Practically all the rhenium was recovered with 20 ml of the acid. Under the given experimental conditions, HCl and H2SO4 were less favourable while NaOH was not applicable, due to very low efficiency of rhenium elution.

  12. Indium sulfide precipitation from hydrochloric acid solutions of calcium and sodium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of precipitation duration, acid concentration, indium complexing with chloride ions on the process of indium sulfide chemical precipitation in hydrochloric acid solutions, precipitate composition and dispersity are studied. It is established that indium sulfide solubility increases in solutions with acid concentration exceeding 0.40-0.45 mol/l. Calcium and indium chloride addition to diluted hydrochloric solutions greatly increases the solubility of indium sulfide. The effect of calcium chloride on In2S3 solubility is higher than that of sodium chloride

  13. Kinetics of crystal growth of strontium tungstate from solutions in sodium tungstate melts by continuous cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization kinetics of strontium tungstate from unstirred saturated solutions in sodium tungstate melts was studied by continuous cooling from initial crystallisation temperatures T0 = 10000 to 800 0C to room temperature at cooling rates Rsub(T) = 0.670 to 3.3 0C min-1. The main crystal growth was diffusion rate-controlled; the final crystal growth was rate-controlled by the development rate of excess solute concentration. The estimated diffusion rate constant (ksub(D)) values increased with cooling rates and initial crystallisation temperatures. They are higher than the rate constants for diffusion-controlled growth of calcium tungstate from sodium tungstate melts, but very much smaller than those for strontium tungstate from lithium chloride melts. (author)

  14. Characterization at 25 °C of Sodium Hyaluronate in Aqueous Solutions Obtained by Transport Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mrá?ek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutual diffusion coefficients, D, were determined for aqueous solutions of sodium hyaluronate (NaHy at 25 °C and concentrations ranging from 0.00 to 1.00 g·dm?3 using the Taylor dispersion technique. From these experimental data, it was possible to estimate some parameters, such as the hydrodynamic radius Rh, and the diffusion coefficient at infinitesimal concentration, D0, of hyaluronate ion, permitting us to have a better understanding of the structure of these systems of sodium hyaluronate in aqueous solutions. The additional viscosity measurements were done and Huggins constant, kH, and limiting viscosity number, [?], were computed for interaction NaHy/water and NaHy/NaHy determination.

  15. Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

  16. An Impedance Investigation of the Mechanism of Pure Magnesium Corrosion in Sodium Sulfate Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Baril, Genevie?ve; Galicia, Gonzalo; Deslouis, Claude; Pe?be?re, Nadine; Tribollet, Bernard; Vivier, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of pure magnesium in sodium sulfate solutions was investigated using voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with a rotating disk electrode. The analysis of impedance data obtained at the corrosion potential was consistent with the hypothesis that Mg corrosion is controlled by the presence of a very thin oxide film, probably MgO, and that the dissolution occurs at film-free spots only. This hypothesis was substantiated both by the superposition of the EIS...

  17. Passivation of chalcopyrite during the leaching with sulphuric acid solution in presence of sodium nitrate

    OpenAIRE

    Soki? Miroslav D.; Matkovi? Vladislav Lj.; Markovi? Branislav R.; Štrbac Nada D.; Živkovi? Dragana T.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the process of the chalcopyrite leaching in sulphuric acid solution was investigated. Sodium nitrate was used as oxidant in the leaching process. Chemical reactions of leaching and their thermodynamic possibilities are predicted based on the calculated Gibbs energies and analysis of E?pH diagrams. The negative values of the Gibbs energy show that all chemical reactions are thermodynamically feasible at atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range 25-90°C. At high electrode po...

  18. Removal of Cesium from Aqueous Solutions by Sodium and Calcium Alginates

    OpenAIRE

    Maksim Y. Khotimchenko; Elena A. Podkorytova; Kovalev, Valeri V.; Elena V. Khozhaenko; Khotimchenko, Yuri S.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution with radioactive materials poses a serious threat to public health. Among radioisotopes, cesium is one of the most dangerous elements which can be found in waste disposals of nuclear plants and similar facilities. Pure sodium and calcium alginic salts were investigated as adsorbents for removal of cesium ions from aqueous solution. It was found that both polysaccharides form complexes with the metal ions. Batch equilibrium experiments were...

  19. Oxidation of activated carbon with aqueous solution of sodium dichloroisocyanurate: effect on ammonia adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Sabio, Miguel; Gonçalves, Maraisa; Rodríguez Reinoso, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    An activated carbon has been oxidized with 1–10 wt% aqueous solutions of sodium dichlororisocyanurate (DCI) to introduce oxygen and chlorine surface groups by chemisorption; the formation of chlorine surface groups is important when the concentration of DCI is high, the modification of the microporosity being small. The range of stability of the groups is wide, from groups decomposing at high temperature to HCl to those groups decomposing simultaneously to HCl and CO at low temperature. The...

  20. Deuterium kinetic isotope effect for oxidation of perdeuterated sodium butyrate with manganate in 3 M sodium hydrochloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuterium kinetic effect, D-KIE, for oxidation of perdeuterided sodium butyrate, CD3(CD2)2COONa, with manganate in the aqueous solution of 3M NaOH has been determined in the temperature range 323-373 K. The temperature dependent kH/kD ratios are in the range from 17.59 at 323 K to 11,25 at 373 K. The activation energy difference, ?Q0 = Q0DD - Q0=HH ?H0DD - ?H0HH = 9.20 kJ mol-1, and the Arrhenius preexponential factors ratio A0DD/A0HH is equal to 1.76, corresponding to ?S0DD - ?S0HH = 4.70 k J-1 as deduced from the Arrhenius and Eyring diagrams. This is the main evidence of tunnelling in the transfer of methylene hydrogens of butyrate to the negatively charged oxygens of manganate in very basic solutions. The k0HH/k0DD ratios, corrected for the ionic strength, have been reproduced by multiplying the (k0HH/k0DD)KIE value, caused by zero point energy differences, by the Bell tunnel correction QtHH.QtDD. The half width of the energy barrier, as approximated by an inverted parabola, was found to be equal to 5x10-11 m. The physico-chemical origin of the energy barrier for the oxidation of n-chain aliphatic carboxylates with MnO42- ions in strongly alkalinsup>2- ions in strongly alkaline solutions has been discussed. The mechanisms of the permanganate versus manganate oxidation i. e., in acidic versus alkaline media are compared. (author)

  1. Concentration- and pH-dependence of highly alkaline sodium silicate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Jonas; Nilsson, Erik; Jarvol, Patrik; Nayeri, Moheb; Palmqvist, Anders; Bergenholtz, Johan; Matic, Aleksandar

    2011-04-01

    In this study two routes for the gelation of water glass have been investigated; the destabilization by a change in pH and by an increase in concentration through evaporation. Both methods produce optically transparent, highly viscous, homogeneous solutions. The structure and dynamics of the solutions along the two routes have been investigated with dynamic light scattering, (29)Si-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, viscosity measurements and infrared spectroscopy. We find that the two routes are fundamentally different. Increasing the concentration of the sodium silicate system leaves the silica speciation apparently unchanged. Lowering the pH leads to condensation reactions, thus a change in the silica speciation. PMID:21272893

  2. Density, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 solutions at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements have been performed of the density, of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient and of the viscosity of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO2 dissolved in each. The viscosity measurements have been performed for the solution of sodium tetraborate with UO2 and CeO2, and with CeO2 only as well. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The density measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 8250C to 13000C, the viscosity measurements in the temperature range 700-12500C with a modified Haake viscosity balance. The balance was previously calibrated at ambient temperature with a standard calibration liquid and at high temperatures, with data for pure borax available from the literature. (orig.)

  3. The elimination of selenium(IV) from aqueous solution by precipitation with sodium sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffroy, N., E-mail: nicolas.geoffroy@mail.mcgill.ca [McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Demopoulos, G.P., E-mail: george.demopoulos@mcgill.ca [McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    In this study, the removal/precipitation of selenium with sodium sulfide from initially weakly acidic sulfate solutions containing 300 mg/L of selenium(IV) at 23 {sup o}C was studied. The results showed that, below a pH of approximately 7.0, the precipitation reaction was complete at a sulfide to selenium ratio above 1.8 and less than 11 with less than 0.005 mg/L of soluble selenium remaining in solution. When the pH rose between 7.0 and 9.5 the precipitation of selenium was incomplete. Above pH 9.5 the solution turned dark red but no precipitation was apparent. The precipitation reaction started as soon as the sodium sulfide was added in the selenium-bearing solution and was completed in less than 10 min. The orange 'selenium sulfide' precipitates, characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis, were crystalline in the form of aggregated dense particles with their sulfur/selenium molar ratio varying from 1.7 to 2.3. The precipitate was deduced to be a Se-S solid solution consisting of ring molecules of the following Se{sub n}S{sub 8-n} formula, where n = 2.5-3. Long term leachability tests (>2 month equilibration) under ambient conditions at pH 7 showed the produced precipitate to be essentially insoluble (<0.005 mg/L).

  4. Identification of a second substrate-binding site in solute-sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Lee, Ashley S E; Bracher, Susanne; Jung, Heinrich; Paz, Aviv; Kumar, Jay P; Abramson, Jeff; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the sodium/galactose transporter (vSGLT), a solute-sodium symporter (SSS) from Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shares a common structural fold with LeuT of the neurotransmitter-sodium symporter family. Structural alignments between LeuT and vSGLT reveal that the crystallographically identified galactose-binding site in vSGLT is located in a more extracellular location relative to the central substrate-binding site (S1) in LeuT. Our computational analyses suggest the existence of an additional galactose-binding site in vSGLT that aligns to the S1 site of LeuT. Radiolabeled galactose saturation binding experiments indicate that, like LeuT, vSGLT can simultaneously bind two substrate molecules under equilibrium conditions. Mutating key residues in the individual substrate-binding sites reduced the molar substrate-to-protein binding stoichiometry to ~1. In addition, the related and more experimentally tractable SSS member PutP (the Na(+)/proline transporter) also exhibits a binding stoichiometry of 2. Targeting residues in the proposed sites with mutations results in the reduction of the binding stoichiometry and is accompanied by severely impaired translocation of proline. Our data suggest that substrate transport by SSS members requires both substrate-binding sites, thereby implying that SSSs and neurotransmitter-sodium symporters share common mechanistic elements in substrate transport. PMID:25398883

  5. Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of plutonium (6) by persulfate ions in sodium carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectrographic method was used to study the kinetics of oxidation of plutonium (4) by persulphate ions in solutions of sodium carbonate. It was established that plutonium oxidation took place simultaneously along two parallel routes: 1 - by free radicals SO4- and 2 - intramolecularly in the persulphate complex of plutonium (4). The contribution of each of these routes to the total rate of oxidation of plutonium (4) depended on the initial concentrations of the reactants and the temperature. The rate of oxidation of plutonium (4) by the first route was determined by the slowest stage, i.e. decomposition of the persulphate ions, whose activation energy was 32 kcal/mol. The rate constant of intramolecular oxidation of Pu (4) in the persulphate complex was independent of the concentration of sodium carbonate. The activation energy of the intramolecular oxidation reaction was 23 kcal/mol

  6. Modelling of niobium sorption on clay minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervanne, Heini; Hakanen, Martti; Lehto, Jukka [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Laboratory of Radiochemistry

    2014-11-01

    The sorption behaviour of niobium on kaolinite and illite minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions was evaluated with use of the mass distribution coefficient, Rd, obtained in batch sorption experiments. Very high distribution coefficient values, about 100 m{sup 3}/kg, were obtained for both minerals in the neutral pH range between 6 and 8. Values were somewhat lower at pH 5. In NaClO{sub 4} solution, the sorption of niobium starts to decrease at pH higher than 8. This is in agreement with the increase, with pH, in the proportion of anionic niobate species, which are presumed to be low or non-sorbing. A similar decrease was not observed in Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} solution, probably owing to the influence of Ca on niobium solution speciation and surface species. The surface complexation model was applied to model the Rd values. The model fitted well for the NaClO{sub 4} solution but only at pH below 9 for the Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} solution. The discrepancy between the strong sorption of niobium in calcium-bearing solution at high pH and the calculated speciation is due in part to the non-inclusion of calcium niobate solution species and Ca-Nb compounds in the present NEA and other similar thermodynamic databases.

  7. Modelling of niobium sorption on clay minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption behaviour of niobium on kaolinite and illite minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions was evaluated with use of the mass distribution coefficient, Rd, obtained in batch sorption experiments. Very high distribution coefficient values, about 100 m3/kg, were obtained for both minerals in the neutral pH range between 6 and 8. Values were somewhat lower at pH 5. In NaClO4 solution, the sorption of niobium starts to decrease at pH higher than 8. This is in agreement with the increase, with pH, in the proportion of anionic niobate species, which are presumed to be low or non-sorbing. A similar decrease was not observed in Ca(ClO4)2 solution, probably owing to the influence of Ca on niobium solution speciation and surface species. The surface complexation model was applied to model the Rd values. The model fitted well for the NaClO4 solution but only at pH below 9 for the Ca(ClO4)2 solution. The discrepancy between the strong sorption of niobium in calcium-bearing solution at high pH and the calculated speciation is due in part to the non-inclusion of calcium niobate solution species and Ca-Nb compounds in the present NEA and other similar thermodynamic databases.

  8. A study of the catalytic role of a gold electrode in the electrochemical activation of four macrolide antibiotics in sodium bicarbonate solution

    OpenAIRE

    Avramov Ivic?, Milka L.; Petrovic?, Slobodan D.; Z?ivkovic?, Predrag M.; Z?, Dus?an Mijin; Drljevic?, Katica M.

    2010-01-01

    Using the cyclic voltammetry, it has been shown that hydrogen evolution at a gold electrode is necessary in the electrochemical activation of azithromycin dihydrate and erythromycin A. After four hours of the potential holding at –1.2 V vs. SCE, the pH of the electrolyte has been changed from 8.40 to 8.96; from 8.40 to 8.77 in the presence of erythromycin A, and from 8.40 to 9.18 in the presence of azithromycin, indicating the reaction of the hydrogen species with antibiotics. This effect h...

  9. Adubação de soqueira de cana-de-açúcarcom soluções de carbonato/bicarbonato de amônio em mistura com sais de potássio e de fósforo / Sugarcane ratoon fertilization with ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate solutions mixed with potassium and phosphorus salts

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fábio Alvares de, Oliveira; Alberto Carlos de Campos, Bernardi; Valdomiro Corrêa de, Bittencourt; Quirino Augusto de Camargo, Carmello.

    Full Text Available Comparam-se as eficiências de soluções de aquamônia e de carbonato/bicarbonato de amônio contendo sais de K e de P quanto à produção de material seco da parte aérea e ao aproveitamento do N aplicado como fertilizante por cana-de-açúcar. Soqueiras de cana-de-açúcar da variedade "RB72454" foram transp [...] lantadas para vasos de 100 dm³ de terra e cultivadas por noventa dias. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 inteiramente casualizado, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram no fornecimento de fontes de N em combinações ou não com KCl e NH4H2PO4. Os nutrientes P e K não incluídos em cada tratamento foram aplicados em outro ponto, à mesma distância e profundidade das soqueiras que as soluções de tratamento, para assegurar a igualdade das quantidades de N, P e K aplicadas a todas as parcelas. Avaliaram-se a produção de material seco da parte aérea, a extração total de N e a recuperação do N do fertilizante. Considerou-se, para este último parâmetro, a extração do N do solo pelas soqueiras de unidades que receberam somente sais de K e de P. As soluções com carbonato/bicarbonato de amônio resultaram em maiores produções de material seco da parte aérea que as de aquamônia, porém, não diferiram quanto à extração total de N e ao N recuperado do fertilizante. A adição de KCl e NH4H2PO4 às soluções de N não interferiram na extração e na eficiência de recuperação do N aplicado, para as relações N:K e N:P:K avaliadas. Abstract in english The efficiencies of aqua ammonia and ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate solutions mixed with K and P salts were compared to shoot dry matter yield and the profit of N applied from fertilizers by sugarcane. Sugarcane ratoons, cultivar "RB72454", were transplanted to 100 dm³ soil pots and were grown for n [...] inety days. The experimental design adopted was a 2 x 3 completely randomized factorial, with 4 replications. Treatments consisted of supplying N sources mixed or not with KCl and NH4H2PO4. P and K nutrients not included in each treatment were applied at another point, but at the same distance and depth from ratoons than the treatment solutions, to assure the equality of the rates of N, P and K applied to all treatments. Shoot dry matter yield, total N uptake and N recover from the fertilizer solutions were evaluated. This last parameter, was considered as soil N uptake by ratoons of plots, which received only K and P salts. The ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate solutions lead to greater shoot dry matter yield than the aqua ammonia, but they did not differ in respect of the total N uptake and N recover from the fertilizers solutions. The KCl and NH4H2PO4 inclusion to N solutions did not affect the total N uptake and N recover efficiency, to the evaluated N:K and N:P:K ratios.

  10. The stable nonequilibrium state of bicarbonate aqueous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeikov, V. L.; Vilenskaya, N. D.; Ha, Do Minh; Malyshenko, S. I.; Buravleva, E. V.; Yablonskaya, O. I.; Timofeev, K. N.

    2012-09-01

    Data obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and chemiluminescence analysis indicate that in aqueous solutions of bicarbonates, superoxide radical and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced. The stationary level of the superoxide radical is found to increase when a solution is illuminated. Reactions involving ROS are shown to be accompanied by the generation of electron excitation energy, keeping bicarbonate solutions in a stable nonequilibrium state. The system can emit part of this energy. Variations in emitting activity are found to correlate with variations in the cosmophysical factors. The emitting activity of solutions is found to vary in the presence of low and ultralow concentrations of hydrated fullerenes. It is noted that the phenomenon of spontaneous charge separation in aqueous systems (G. H. Pollack) could play a role in maintaining a stable nonequilibrium state in bicarbonate systems where the reactions with ROS participation are catalyzed by forms of carbonate. It is concluded that the abovementioned properties of bicarbonate aqueous systems most likely keep living matter whose structural basis is formed by these systems in a stable excited state, thereby making it highly sensitive to the action of external factors with low and ultralow intensities.

  11. The use of a modified Dakin's solution (sodium hypochlorite) in the treatment of Vibrio vulnificus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, S M; Heggers, J P

    1999-01-01

    We report the first clinical use of a modified Dakin's solution (0.025% sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl]) to halt the progress of severe cutaneous Vibrio vulnificus infection in a critically ill patient. The regimen used arose from an initial in vitro study designed to examine the sensitivity of Vibrio species to topical antimicrobial agents. Twenty-eight wound isolates were tested against the following eight topical preparations: silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene), nitrofurazone, mupirocin ointment (Bactroban), polymyxin B/bacitracin, mafenide acetate (Sulfamylon), nystatin/Silvadene, nystatin/polymyxin B/bacitracin, and 0.025% NaOCl solution. The results showed that V vulnificus, along with the other 18 Vibrio species tested, was most sensitive to the modified NaOCl solution. PMID:10347673

  12. Lyotropic mesophases formed by solutions of sodium strearate in glycerol and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingbing; Joshi, Leela; Satyendra Kumar, Satyendra; Yaravoy, Yury; Teanoosh, Moaddel

    2004-03-01

    Solutions of sodium stearate in concentrations ranging from 1 to 20 wt %, in glycerol and glycerol + water exhibit two phases between room temperature and 100 °C for all mixtures. In the high temperature phase, the solutions flow easily while they form a gel phase with unique elastic properties in the low temperature phase. Small angle neutron and x-ray scattering measurements performed on partially deutrated samples reveal structural details of these solutions. The high temperature phase is found to be an isotropic dispersion of micellar aggregates, the lower temperature phase possesses more complex structure. These results augmented with results from differential scanning calorimetry, NMR proton relaxation and other techniques will be presented. Supported by Unilever Research, USA.

  13. Process of transformation of radioactive waste of metal sodium into soda solution by reaction with an alcohol followed by hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviews of the literature and of the laboratory tests are followed by a presentation of the results obtained during experiments carried out on a model with some ten grams of sodium contaminated by radioactive materials and on an industrial pre-pilot with several kilograms of non-contaminated sodium. Sodium is converted into alcoholate through the action of ethylcarbitol (CH3CH2OCH2CH2OCH2OH) on liquid sodium in suspension in xylene at 110 deg C. Once the reaction is complete, xylene is distillated and the alcoholate is in solution in an axcess of alcohol. Hydrolysis by water gives out the initial alcohol which is then extracted from the aqueous phase by toluene. All these operations are carried out in inert atmosphere (nitrogen). Sodium is thus converted into a sodium hydroxide aqueous solution with emission of hydrogen, the intermediate products (alcohol, xylene, toluene) being recyled. The process is reliable and recycling of organic products is favourable economically. The advantage of the method is to concentrate nearly all the radioactivity of the contaminated sodium in the aqueous phase, thus avoiding the dispersion of activity especially with the gaseous effluents. Finally, data are given allowing to consider the realization of a pilot with a weekly capacity of 100 kg of sodium, in semi-continuous operation

  14. Uso de bicarbonato e lactato-L para correção da acidose metabólica sistêmica em bovinos com acidose láctica ruminal aguda / Use of bicarbonate and lactate L for correction of systemic metabolic acidosis in cattle with acute rumen lactic acidosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.L.R., Leal; C.A., Maruta; E.L., Ortolani.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados seis novilhos, providos de cânula ruminal, em delineamento experimental cross-over, para comparar a eficiência de soluções de bicarbonato de sódio e lactato-L de sódio na correção da acidose metabólica sistêmica (AMS), causada pela acidose láctica ruminal (ALR). Vinte horas após, qu [...] ando apresentavam intensa AMS, os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente e tratados com cinco litros de 150mMol/l de bicarbonato de sódio ou de lactato-L de sódio, infundidas por via intravenosa, nas quatro horas seguintes. Amostras de sangue, para hemogasometria, foram coletadas no decorrer da infusão a zero, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 e 8 horas. Ambos os tratamentos elevaram o pH sangüíneo já na primeira hora pós-infusão, corrigindo adequadamente a AMS. O tratamento com lactato-L de sódio aumentou as concentrações de bicarbonato, TCO2 e EAB sangüíneos já na segunda hora pós-infusão; com o bicarbonato essa elevação ocorreu a partir da terceira hora. Não houve diferenças entre tratamentos para pH sangüíneo, bicarbonato, TCO2 e excesso de base. Vinte e quatro horas após o tratamento todos os novilhos apresentaram plena recuperação. O lactato-L pode substituir o bicarbonato na correção da AMS em novilhos com ALR. Abstract in english The efficiency of sodium bicarbonate or l-lactate for correcting systemic metabolic acidosis (SMA) caused by rumen lactic acidosis (RLA) was evaluated using six rumen-cannulated steers in a cross-over experimental design. RLA was induced by administration of sucrose, intraruminally. Twenty hours lat [...] er when the animals developed an intense SMA, the steers were randomly distributed and treated intravenously either with 5l of 15 mMol/l sodium bicarbonate or L-lactate solution, infused throughout 4h. Blood samples were colleted throughout the infusion at zero, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8h, for blood gas analysis. After 1hour, both sodium bicarbonate and L-lactate solutions increased blood pH and corrected adequately the SMA. Blood bicarbonate, TCO2 and base excess concentrations were also increased at the 2nd hour with L-lactate and at the 3rd hour with bicarbonate. No differences between treatments were observed for blood pH, bicarbonate, TCO2 and base excess concentrations. Treated steers after twenty-four hours showed an effective clinical recovery. L-lactate can adequately replace bicarbonate in the correction of SMA in steers with RLA.

  15. Uso de bicarbonato e lactato-L para correção da acidose metabólica sistêmica em bovinos com acidose láctica ruminal aguda Use of bicarbonate and lactate L for correction of systemic metabolic acidosis in cattle with acute rumen lactic acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.R. Leal

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados seis novilhos, providos de cânula ruminal, em delineamento experimental cross-over, para comparar a eficiência de soluções de bicarbonato de sódio e lactato-L de sódio na correção da acidose metabólica sistêmica (AMS, causada pela acidose láctica ruminal (ALR. Vinte horas após, quando apresentavam intensa AMS, os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente e tratados com cinco litros de 150mMol/l de bicarbonato de sódio ou de lactato-L de sódio, infundidas por via intravenosa, nas quatro horas seguintes. Amostras de sangue, para hemogasometria, foram coletadas no decorrer da infusão a zero, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 e 8 horas. Ambos os tratamentos elevaram o pH sangüíneo já na primeira hora pós-infusão, corrigindo adequadamente a AMS. O tratamento com lactato-L de sódio aumentou as concentrações de bicarbonato, TCO2 e EAB sangüíneos já na segunda hora pós-infusão; com o bicarbonato essa elevação ocorreu a partir da terceira hora. Não houve diferenças entre tratamentos para pH sangüíneo, bicarbonato, TCO2 e excesso de base. Vinte e quatro horas após o tratamento todos os novilhos apresentaram plena recuperação. O lactato-L pode substituir o bicarbonato na correção da AMS em novilhos com ALR.The efficiency of sodium bicarbonate or l-lactate for correcting systemic metabolic acidosis (SMA caused by rumen lactic acidosis (RLA was evaluated using six rumen-cannulated steers in a cross-over experimental design. RLA was induced by administration of sucrose, intraruminally. Twenty hours later when the animals developed an intense SMA, the steers were randomly distributed and treated intravenously either with 5l of 15 mMol/l sodium bicarbonate or L-lactate solution, infused throughout 4h. Blood samples were colleted throughout the infusion at zero, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8h, for blood gas analysis. After 1hour, both sodium bicarbonate and L-lactate solutions increased blood pH and corrected adequately the SMA. Blood bicarbonate, TCO2 and base excess concentrations were also increased at the 2nd hour with L-lactate and at the 3rd hour with bicarbonate. No differences between treatments were observed for blood pH, bicarbonate, TCO2 and base excess concentrations. Treated steers after twenty-four hours showed an effective clinical recovery. L-lactate can adequately replace bicarbonate in the correction of SMA in steers with RLA.

  16. Interaction of ammonium perhenate with sodium thiosulfate in hydrochloric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of the interaction in the system ammonium perrhenate-sodium thiosulfate-hydrochloric acid-water using the chemical and X-ray phase analyses in a wide range of component ratios has shown that in the system two main process occur: formation of rhenium sulphide and separation of elemental sulphur. The degree of rhenium precipitation mainly depends on the ratio of components and to a less degree - on the mass of precipitate and the presence of high concentrations of ammonium chloride in the initial solutions. Rhenium sulphide and elemental sulphur interact in the moment of separation

  17. Removal of radioactive Cs from nonwoven cloth with less waste solution using aqueous sodium metasilicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remediation of nonwoven cloth contaminated with radioactive material such as 137Cs is important for the reuse of protective garments. Here, we report the effectiveness of aqueous sodium metasilicate prepared with a microbubble crushing process (SMC) in the removal of radioactive 137Cs from nonwoven cloth. The 137Cs removal ratio obtained using SMC was found to be 78%, and multiple washings at low SMC concentrations were effective. In addition, the volume of the waste solution could be reduced by neutralizing the SMC and using gelation to remove the radioactive material. (author)

  18. Metabolic Acidosis as a Complication of Bicarbonate Haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad Ahmad Sinval, Bassam Bernieh, Ahdulrahman Osman Mohamad, Mohamed Adnan Abbadi,Mossadeque Ahmed, Ahmad Abdelwahab AItabakh

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve episodes ofsevere metabolic acidosis were observed among 10 maintenance dialysis patientsusing Bicarbonate Haemodialysis (HDB. Patients were stable at the start of haemodialysis (HOand became sick during or following the procedure. The main clinical features observed wereabdominal pain and vomiting, hypotension or shock, and CNS manifestations. Laboratoryinvestigations revealed severe metabolic acidosis in all and hyperkalemia in 4 patients. On fouroccasions, dialysate fluid sample analysis revealed purely acidic dialysate being delivered to thepatients. Patients were treated by sodium bicarbonate, redia lysis on another machine and vasopressorswhen severely hypotensive. One patient died and the rest improved. This potentially lethalcomplication needs to be considered early in all patients who become sick during or followingHOB.

  19. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  20. On the refractive index of sodium iodide solutions for index matching in PIV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Kunlun; Katz, Joseph [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Refractive index matching has become a popular technique for facilitating applications of modern optical diagnostic techniques, such as particle image velocimetry, in complex systems. By matching the refractive index of solid boundaries with that of the liquid, unobstructed optical paths can be achieved for illumination and image acquisition. In this research note, we extend previously provided data for the refractive index of aqueous solutions of sodium iodide (NaI) for concentrations reaching the temperature-dependent solubility limit. Results are fitted onto a quadratic empirical expression relating the concentration to the refractive index. Temperature effects are also measured. The present range of indices, 1.333-1.51, covers that of typical transparent solids, from silicone elastomers to several recently introduced materials that could be manufactured using rapid prototyping. We also review briefly previous measurements of the refractive index, viscosity, and density of NaI solutions, as well as prior research that has utilized this fluid. (orig.)

  1. Inhibitory effect of some carbazides on corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouda, A.S. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Madkour, L.H. [Tanta Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elshafei, A.A. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elasklany, A.H. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-06-01

    The dissolution of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide and sym.diphenylcarbazide as corrosion inhibitors has been studied using thermometric, weight-loss and polarization methods. The three methods gave consistent results. The higher inhibition efficiency of these compounds in acidic than in alkaline madia may be due to the less negative potential of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution, favouring adsorption of the additive. The adsorption of these compounds were found to obey Frumkin adsorption isotherm. Cathodic polarization measurements showed that these compounds are cathodic inhibitors and their adsorption in the double layer does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The results are analysed in terms of both molecular and cationic adsorption. (orig.)

  2. Interactions of hydrazine, ferrous sulfamate, sodium nitrite, and nitric acid in nuclear fuel processing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrazine and ferrous sulfamate are used as reductants in a variety of nuclear fuel processing solutions. An oxidant, normally sodium nitrite, must frequently be added to these nitric acid solutions before additional processing can proceed. The interactions of these four chemicals have been studied under a wide variety of conditions using a 2/sup P/ factorial experimental design. It was determined that the desired oxidations of Fe2+, NH2NH+3, and NH2SO3H to Fe3+ and N2 occur at ambient temperatures with nitric acid concentrations less than or equal to 3M without complicating side reactions. The rate of oxidation of Fe2+ by nitrous acid proceeds at about the same rate as the scavenging of nitrous acid by sulfamic acid. At nitric acid concentrations >3M and at elevated temperatures, hydrolysis of sulfamic acid to NH4HSO4 and decomposition of both hydrazine and nitrous acid become important side reactions

  3. On the refractive index of sodium iodide solutions for index matching in PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refractive index matching has become a popular technique for facilitating applications of modern optical diagnostic techniques, such as particle image velocimetry, in complex systems. By matching the refractive index of solid boundaries with that of the liquid, unobstructed optical paths can be achieved for illumination and image acquisition. In this research note, we extend previously provided data for the refractive index of aqueous solutions of sodium iodide (NaI) for concentrations reaching the temperature-dependent solubility limit. Results are fitted onto a quadratic empirical expression relating the concentration to the refractive index. Temperature effects are also measured. The present range of indices, 1.333-1.51, covers that of typical transparent solids, from silicone elastomers to several recently introduced materials that could be manufactured using rapid prototyping. We also review briefly previous measurements of the refractive index, viscosity, and density of NaI solutions, as well as prior research that has utilized this fluid. (orig.)

  4. Effects of Metal Ions on Viscosity of Aqueous Sodium Carboxylmethylcellulose Solution and Development of Dropping Ball Method on Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Set, Seng; Ford, David; Kita, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    This research revealed that metal ions with different charges could significantly affect the viscosity of aqueous sodium carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC) solution. On the basis of an Ostwald viscometer, an improvised apparatus using a dropping ball for examining the viscosity of liquids/solutions has been developed. The results indicate that the…

  5. Evaluation of poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) as a draw solute for forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Gimun; Jung, Bokyung; Han, Sungsoo; Hong, Seungkwan

    2015-09-01

    Poly (aspartic acid sodium salt) (PAspNa) was evaluated for its potential as a novel draw solute in forward osmosis (FO). The inherent advantages of PAspNa, such as good water solubility, high osmotic pressure, and nontoxicity, were first examined through a series of physicochemical analyses and atomic-scale molecular dynamics simulations. Then, lab-scale FO tests were performed to evaluate its suitability in practical processes. Compared to other conventional inorganic solutes, PAspNa showed comparable water flux but significantly lower reverse solute flux, demonstrating its suitability as a draw solute. Moreover, fouling experiments using synthetic wastewater as a feed solution demonstrated that PAspNa reversely flowed to the feed side reduced inorganic scaling on the membrane active layer. The recyclability of PAspNa was studied using both nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) processes, and the results exhibited its ease of recovery. This research reported the feasibility and applicability of FO-NF or FO-MD processes using PAspNa for wastewater reclamation and brackish water desalination. PMID:26005789

  6. Analysis of Physicochemical Properties of Aqueous Sodium Glycinate (SG Solutions at Low Concentrations from 0.1-2.0 M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Shaikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium glycinate, a type of amino acid salt, is one of the potential solvent for carbon dioxide removal from various gas streams. In this study, physicochemical properties such as density, viscosity and refractive index of aqueous sodium glycinate at low concentrations were measured from 303.15 to 333.15 K. It was found that, the densities, viscosities and refractive indices of low concentrated sodium glycinate decrease with an increase in temperature, whereas with increasing the concentration in the solution, all three properties increase. The experimental data were correlated with respect to temperature and concentration by establishing the proper correlations.

  7. Acrylamide copolymerization with the lithium, sodium, and potassium salts of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of cation nature in lithium, sodium and potassium salts of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid on kinetic regularities of their copolymerization with acrylamide in water and water-salt solutions at pH 9 and 50 deg C in the presence of initiating system of potassium peroxosulfate - sodium hydrosulfite has been studied. It is shown that the content of inorganic links increases in the series K+ + + and with increase in conversion during copolymerization

  8. L-arginine in low concentration improves rat intestinal water and sodium absorption from oral rehydration solutions.

    OpenAIRE

    Wapnir, R A; Wingertzahn, M A; TEICHBERG, S

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The nitric oxide (NO) precursor L-arginine has been shown to produce variable effects on intestinal absorptive function, including ion transport. AIMS: To determine whether there is an optimal concentration of L-arginine, promoting proabsorptive effects from oral rehydration solutions (ORS) with 90 or 60 mM sodium. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In vivo perfusion of rat jejunum with determination of net water absorption, unidirectional fluid exchanges, sodium and calcium transport, and glu...

  9. 2-Butyne-1,4-diol as a novel corrosion inhibitor for API X65 steel pipeline in carbonate/bicarbonate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Corrosion of API 5L X65 is effectively reduced by the addition of the inhibitor. ? The techniques include weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS and AFM. ? 2-Butyne-1,4-diol acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. ? The adsorption of 2-butyne-1,4-diol obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. - Abstract: The inhibition effects of 2-butyne-1,4-diol on the corrosion susceptibility of grade API 5L X65 steel pipeline in 2 M Na2CO3/1 M NaHCO3 solution were studied by electrochemical techniques and weight loss measurements. The results indicated that this inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor, with a maximum percentage inhibition efficiency of approximately 92% in the presence of 5 mM inhibitor. Atomic force microscopy revealed that a protective film was formed on the surface of the inhibited sample. The adsorption of the inhibitor was found to conform to the Langmuir isotherm with the standard adsorption free energy of ?21.08 kJ mol?1.

  10. Bicarbonate/lactate- and bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids improve ex vivo peritoneal macrophage TNFalpha secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, R K; Holmes, C J; Moseley, A; Jenkins, J P; Williams, J D; Coles, G A; Faict, D; Topley, N

    1998-08-01

    Peritoneal macrophage (PMO) function was examined ex vivo after their in vivo exposure to either acidic, lactate-buffered solutions (PD4; 40 mM lactate, pH 5.2), bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution (TBL; 25 mM/15 mM bicarbonate/lactate, pH 7.3), or bicarbonate-buffered solution (TB; 38 mM bicarbonate, pH 7.3), containing either 1.36 or 3.86% glucose. Initial experiments demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) release (assessed by TNF-direct immunoassay [DIA]) from PMO isolated from the peritoneal cavities of patients exposed to conventional fluid (PD4 1.36% glucose) was lowest after 30 min of intraperitoneal dwell (3591+/-1200 versus 28,946+/-9359 for 240-min dwell [pg/ml], n=5, P < 0.05). Five patients were exposed on 3 successive days to PD4, TBL, and TB for 30-min acute dwells containing 1.36% glucose in the first week and 3.86% glucose during the second. PMO TNFalpha release was assessed after ex vitro exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure of PMO to TBL or TB (1.36% glucose) resulted in a significant increase in the generation of TNFalpha (pg/2 X 10(6) PMO) compared with PD4. TBL: 68,659+/-35,633, TB: 53,682+/-26,536 versus PD4 17,107+/-8996 (LPS 1.0 ng/ml, n=5 patients, P=0.043 versus PD4 for both). PMO that were recovered from PD4 and TB dwells (3.86% glucose) showed no significant difference in TNFalpha secretion (21,661+/-6934 and 23,923+/-9147, respectively). In contrast, exposure to TBL resulted in a significant increase (41,846+/-11,471) compared with PD4 (LPS 1.0 ng/ml, n=5 patients, P=0.043). These data demonstrate enhanced PMO function after in vivo exposure to bicarbonate- and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solutions. This response was sustained in TBL alone at the highest glucose concentrations. These results suggest that the newer solutions, and particularly bicarbonate/lactate, might improve host defense status in peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:9697673

  11. Clinical application of sodium hyaluronate,levarterenol and indicarmine solution in endoscopic submucosal dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei GAO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess the clinical value of sodium hyaluronate,levarterenol and indicarmine solution used in endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD.Methods Sixteen patients were involved in present study who were diagnosed as precancerous lesion or submucosal tumor in digestive tract by chromoendoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography from Nov,2010 to Feb,2011 at General Hospital of Shenyang Command.The injected solution was mixed with 0.2% indicarmine 10ml,levarterenol 10mg,sodium hyaluronate 20mg,and 0.9% normal saline 200ml.The liquid pad was formed under the submucosal layer by the injection of the mixture.Hybrid knife was employed to perform the injection,cutting and coagulation with no interruption during the procedure of ESD.Satisfactory degree was assessed,and the total solution volume,success rate,bleeding rate,perforation rate,operation duration,and length of stay in hospital were recorded.The recurrence and healing condition were observed at following-up.Results The length of lesion was 0.8~4.5cm with mean of 2.2cm.The operation duration was 45~240 min with an mean time of 95.4 min.The mean dosage of the mixed solution for submucosal injection was 102.4ml.Success rate of endoscopic submucosal dissection was 87.5%.The satisfactory degree was high.Intractable bleeding occurred in 2 cases with lateral spreading tumor(LST during the procedure,but it was controlled after high temperature coagulation without producing perforation.The dissection surface was covered by aluminum phosphate gel in all cases,and metal clips were applied in some cases for closure.The mean length of stay in hospital after ESD was 3.8 days.Conclusions The mixture of sodium hyaluronate,levarterenol,indicarmine and normal saline,when used for submucosal injection in ESD,is safe and satisfactory.

  12. Effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation behaviour of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that magnesium biodegrades rapidly and non-uniformly during 27 h of immersion in four simulated body fluid solutions containing different concentrations of bicarbonate. The biodegradation rate first decreases and then increases with time. A small amount of bicarbonate in simulated body fluid has an inhibition effect on the Mg dissolution, while an overdose of bicarbonate addition activates the magnesium surface in the simulated body fluid. The interesting phenomena can be interpreted by a surface film model involving precipitation of calcium carbonate and further ionization of bicarbonate in the simulated body fluids, incorporation of calcium, carbonate and phosphate compounds in the surface film, and development of chloride-induced pitting corrosion damage on the magnesium with time

  13. Utilização de Resíduos Gerados por Indústria do Setor Sucroalcoleiro, Pela RAUDI Indústria e Comércio LTDA, na Produção de Bicarbonato de Sódio. = Use of Residues Generated for the Sugar-Alcohol Industry Sector, by The RAUDI Industry and Commerce Limited, in the Sodium Bicarbonate Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico F. da Silva

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A consciência ecológica está intimamente ligada à preservação do meio ambiente. A importância da preservação dos recursos naturais passou a ser preocupação mundial e nenhum país pode eximir-se de sua responsabilidade. Essa necessidade de proteção do ambiente é antiga e surgiu quando o homem passou a valorizar a natureza, mas não de maneira tão acentuada como nos dias de hoje. Esse trabalho tem como objetivo, passar ao leitor como é possível a utilização de resíduos na obtenção de novos produtos ecologicamente corretos, como o uso de resíduos poluentes de uma usina de álcool transformando-os em matéria prima no processo de fabricação do bicarbonato de sódio. = The ecological conscience is intimately linked to the preservation of the environment. The importance of the preservation of the natural resources became a world-wide concern and no country can be exempted of its responsibility. This necessity of protection of the environment is not a new thing and appeared when man started to value nature, but not in an accentuated way as nowadays. This work has as objective, to inform the reader as to the use of residues in the attainment of new ecologically correct products possible, as the use of pollutant residues of an alcohol plant transforming them into substance in the process of manufacturing sodium bicarbonate.

  14. Study on applicability of liquid emulsion membrane for removal of uranium from acidic sodium sulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid Emulsion Membrane (LEM) is a very prominent technique to extract heavy metals from aqueous solutions using emulsion of a suitable solvent and a strip solution. Sodium sulfate solution is one of the effluents, coming out from the phosphoric acid based Rare Material Recovery plants. The effluent contains uranium in the range of 0 to 50 ppm. For treating this effluent and to recover uranium present in it, LEM has been tried using D2EHPA as carrier and phosphoric acid (42% P2O5) as strip solution. Kinetics of the process has been studied. Different sets of experiments have been performed for initial optimization of equilibrium and process parameters like carrier concentration, surfactant concentration, emulsification RPM, emulsification time, pertraction RPM, pertraction time, phase ratio and treatment ratio. Study shows more than 90% of uranium can be extracted with aqueous to organic ratio 10:1. Major work carried out is experimental. Reduction in surfactant quantity and carrier concentration has been significant outcome of the work. The emulsion is stable even at below 2% SPAN-80 surfactant. 2% surfactant gives best results in terms of extraction and stripping.10% of D2EHPA in Heavy Normal Paraffin (HNP) gives good results. 10 minutes time is required for pertraction to give more than 95% of extraction using 10% D2EHPA. Other optimum parameters which give best results are listed

  15. Effect of different ions on the anodic behaviour of alloy 800 chloride solutions at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anodic behaviour and passivity breakdown of alloy 800 in sodium bicarbonate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions were studied in the temperature range from 100 degrees C to 280 degrees C by means of electrochemical techniques. The effect of phosphate or bicarbonate additions on the pitting susceptibility and pitting morphology of the alloy in chloride solutions was also examined. Experiments were performed in the following solutions: 0.1M NaHCO3, at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C, 280 degrees C; 0.06M NaH2PO4 + 0.04M Na2HPO4, at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C and 280 degrees C, and 0.1M NaCl with different additions of bicarbonate ion (0.02M, 0.05M and 0.1M) and phosphate ion (0.01M, 0.05M and 0.1M) at 100 degrees C and 280 degrees C. The anodic polarization curves of alloy 800 in deaerated 0.1M NaHCO3 and 0.06M NaH2PO4 + 0.04M Na2HPO4 solutions exhibited a similar shape at all the tested temperatures. No localized or generalized corrosion was detected on the metallic surface after polarization. The results obtained in chloride plus bicarbonate and chloride plus phosphate mixtures showed that the pitting potential of alloy 800 in chloride solutions was increased by the presence of bicarbonate or phosphate ions. In those solutions where the inhibitor concentration in the mixture is equal or higher than the chloride concentration , the behaviour of the alloy is similar to the one observed in the absence of chlorides. Changes in pitting morphology were found in phosphate containing solutions, while the pits found in bicarbonate containing solutions were similar to those formed in pure chloride solutions. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  16. IGA of alloy 600 in high-temperature solutions of sodium hydroxide contaminated with carbonate. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy 600 was tested in sodium hydroxide contaminated with sodium carbonate at 3000C and 3150C to examine its resistance to intergranular attack (IGA) under controlled cathodic and anodic potentials. Specimens of alloy 600 were studied as C-rings under constant deflection, wires under constant load and wires without any applied tensile stress. The material was mainly used in its mill annealed condition, although some specimens were studied as solution annealed and solution annealed plus sensitized. Unlike the last two metallurgical states, the mill annealed alloy 600 material was rather sensitive to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in a range of anodic potentials

  17. Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a cellulose tetramer reveal a number of preferred cellulose-Na contacts and bridging positions. Large scale MD simulations on a model cellulose fibril find that Na+ perturbs the hydroxymethyl rotational state population and consequently disrupts the "native" hydrogen bonding network.

  18. Thermodynamic study of the n-octane-1-pentanol-sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermodynamic properties, PVTx (T S, P S, ? S) (?P/?T) VX, and C V VTx, of three microemulsions (water + n-octane + sodium dodecylsulfate + 1-pentanol) with composition of solution-1: 0.0777 (H2O):0.6997 (n-C8H18):0.0777 (SDS):0.1449 (1-C5H11OH) mass fraction; solution-2: 0.6220 (H2O):0.1555 (n-C8H18):0.0777 (SDS):0.1448 (1-C5H11OH) mass fraction; and solution-3: 0.2720 (H2O):0.5054 (n-C8H18):0.0777 (SDS):0.1449 (1-C5H11OH) mass fraction were measured. Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) was used as an ionic surfactant, 1-pentanol used as stabilizer (cosurfactant), and n-octane as oil component in aqueous solution. A high-temperature, high-pressure, adiabatic, and nearly constant-volume calorimeter supplemented by quasi-static thermogram technique was used for the measurements. Measurements were made at eight densities (isochores) between 475.87 and 919.03 kg m-3. The range of temperature was from 275 to 536 K and pressure range was up to 138 bar. Uncertainty of the pressure, density, derivative (?P/?T) VX, and heat capacity measurements are estimated to be 0.25%, 0.02%, 0.12-1.5%, and 2.5%, respectively. Temperatures at liquid-gas phase transition curve, T S(?), for each measured densities (isochores) were determensities (isochores) were determined using a quasi-static thermogram technique. The uncertainty of the phase transition temperature measurements is about ±0.02 K. The effect of temperature, density, and concentration on the heat capacity of the microemulsions is discussed. Along the isochore of 438.40 kg m-3 at temperatures above 525.44 K for the first solution the precipitation of the solid phase (SDS) was found

  19. Electrochemical screening of organic and inorganic inhibitors for the corrosion of ASTM A-470 steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion of ASTM A-470 turbine disk steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (10 mol/kg) containing sodium silicate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium chromate, aniline and some of its derivatives, tannic acid, L-(-)-phenylalanine (aminopropionic acid) and octadecylamine as potential inhibitors has been studied using the potentiodynamic, AC impedance, and Tafel extrapolation techniques. All tests were performed at 115 + or - 2 C. The anodic and cathodic polarization data show that aniline and its derivatives, L-(-)-phenylalanine, NaH2PO4, Na2SiO3, and Na2CrO4 inhibit the anodic process, whereas tannic acid inhibits the cathodic reaction. Octadecylamine was found to inhibit both the anodic and cathodic processes. The mechanisms of inhibition for some of these compounds have been inferred from the wide band width frequency dispersions of the interfacial impedance

  20. Structure breaking and electron localization in liquid cryolite-sodium solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous nonmetal-metal transition, which occurs on dissolving metals in molten salts, may be shifted to higher metal concentration in solutions involving polyvalent metal ions by the possibility that these metals go into lower oxidation states. We evaluate a microscopic model for these processes in the specific case of solutions of sodium metal in molten cryolite (AlF3·3NaF). The structure of the ionic melt is understood and calculable at the microscopic level in terms of a dominant sixfold-coordinated trivalent state of the Al ion (the (AlF6)3-complex) with some admixture of a fourfold-coordinated trivalent state (the (AlF4)- complex). The sodium metal is assumed to enter the ionic liquid in the form of monovalent ions and electrons. Our calculations demonstrate how these added components break up the structure of the ionic melt to yield localization by the formation of Al ions in reduced valence states, and provide order-of-magnitude estimates for the free energy changes involved in these processes. Specifically, we find that with increasing metal concentration the equilibrium between (AlF6)3- and (AlF4)- shifts in favour of the latter, while Al3+ ions are released in the melt and bind the available electrons to form Al2+ and Al+ ions. The latter eventually become the most stable ones and also destabilize the (AlF4)- complex. This scenario is consistent with available macroscopic observations. We also briefly discuss how the treatment could be extended to examine other events that may arise with increasing metal content, such as the formation of dimers or small metal clusters. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  1. tlpA gene expression is required for arginine and bicarbonate chemotaxis in Helicobacter pylori

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oscar A, Cerda; Felipe, Núñez-Villena; Sarita E, Soto; José Manuel, Ugalde; Remigio, López-Solís; Héctor, Toledo.

    Full Text Available About half of the human population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastritis, peptic ulcer and progression to gastric cancer. Chemotaxis and flagellar motility are required for colonization and persistence of H. pylori in the gastric mucus layer. It is not completely clear [...] which chemical gradients are used by H. pylori to maintain its position. TlpA, a chemotaxis receptor for arginine/ bicarbonate, has been identified. This study aimed to find out whether tlpA gene expression is required for the chemotactic response to arginine/bicarbonate. Wild-type motile H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 43504, a strain having an interrupted tlpA gene, were used. Also, a tlpA-knockout mutant of H. pylori 700392 (H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat) was produced by homologous recombination. Expression of tlpA was assessed by a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Chemotaxis was measured as a Relative Chemotaxis Response (RCR) by a modified capillary assay. H. pylori 700392 presented chemotaxis to arginine and sodium bicarbonate. H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat showed neither tlpA gene expression nor chemotaxis towards arginine and bicarbonate. Besides confirming that TlpA is a chemotactic receptor for arginine/bicarbonate in H. pylori, this study showed that tlpA gene expression is required for arginine/bicarbonate chemotaxis.

  2. tlpA gene expression is required for arginine and bicarbonate chemotaxis in Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A Cerda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About half of the human population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastritis, peptic ulcer and progression to gastric cancer. Chemotaxis and flagellar motility are required for colonization and persistence of H. pylori in the gastric mucus layer. It is not completely clear which chemical gradients are used by H. pylori to maintain its position. TlpA, a chemotaxis receptor for arginine/ bicarbonate, has been identified. This study aimed to find out whether tlpA gene expression is required for the chemotactic response to arginine/bicarbonate. Wild-type motile H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 43504, a strain having an interrupted tlpA gene, were used. Also, a tlpA-knockout mutant of H. pylori 700392 (H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat was produced by homologous recombination. Expression of tlpA was assessed by a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR assay. Chemotaxis was measured as a Relative Chemotaxis Response (RCR by a modified capillary assay. H. pylori 700392 presented chemotaxis to arginine and sodium bicarbonate. H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat showed neither tlpA gene expression nor chemotaxis towards arginine and bicarbonate. Besides confirming that TlpA is a chemotactic receptor for arginine/bicarbonate in H. pylori, this study showed that tlpA gene expression is required for arginine/bicarbonate chemotaxis.

  3. Efeito alcalinizante de soluções eletrolíticas intravenosas com concentrações elevadas de lactato de sódio infundidas em bezerros sadios / Alkalinizing effect of intravenous electrolyte solutions with high sodium lactate concentrations infused in healthy calves

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J.R.C., Junqueira; M.R.S., Balarin; K.K.M.C., Flaiban; D.S., Barbosa; J.A.N., Lisboa.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar o potencial alcalinizante de soluções eletrolíticas com concentrações elevadas de lactato de sódio em bezerros sadios, foram idealizadas seis soluções contendo 28, 56 e 84mEq/L de lactato (L28, L56 e L84) ou de bicarbonato (B28, B56 e B84), com concentrações de sódio, de [...] potássio e de cálcio semelhantes às da solução de Ringer com lactato (SRL). As soluções contendo bicarbonato de sódio foram utilizadas como padrão para comparação. Seis bezerros receberam, por via intravenosa, todas as seis soluções, uma a cada vez, com intervalo de quatro a cinco dias entre as infusões, em volume correspondente a 10% do peso corporal, durante cinco horas (20mL/kg/h). Amostras de sangue venoso e de urina foram coletadas antes de iniciar a infusão, na metade do volume, ao término e duas horas e meia após o término da infusão. Determinaram-se concentração de proteína plasmática total, pH sanguíneo e urinário, pCO2, HCO3 -, BE, concentração plasmática e urinária de lactato L e concentrações séricas e urinárias de Na+, K+, Cl- e creatinina. A solução L28, idêntica à SRL, provocou discreto incremento da reserva alcalina e, consequentemente, produziu efeito alcalinizante insuficiente para a correção de estados de acidose metabólica. A solução L84, além de provar-se segura, provocou o maior aumento da reserva alcalina, equivalente à B84, e, assim, produziu efeito capaz de corrigir o grau moderado de acidose metabólica. Abstract in english The alkalinizing effects of electrolyte solutions with high concentration of sodium lactate were evaluated in healthy calves. Six solutions were formulated containing 28, 56 and 84mEq/L of lactate (L28, L56 and L84) or bicarbonate (B28, B56 and B84), and sodium, potassium and calcium concentrations [...] similar to the lactated Ringer's solution (LRS). The solutions containing sodium bicarbonate were used as a standard for comparison. Six calves received all six solutions intravenously, one at a time, with an interval of four to five days between the infusions, in a volume corresponding to 10% of body weight, during five hours (20mL/kg/h). Venous blood and urine samples were taken prior to the beginning of the infusion, at a half volume, at the end and two and a half hours after the end of the infusion. Total plasma protein concentration, urinary and blood pH, blood pCO2, HCO3 - and BE, plasma and urine L lactate concentration and serum and urine Na+, K+, Cl- and creatinine concentrations were measured. The L28 solution, equal to LRS, caused a slight increase in the alkaline reserve, producing an alkalinizing effect insufficient for correction of metabolic acidosis states. The L84 solution was safe and produced the greater increase in the alkaline reserve, equivalent to B84 solution, and suitable for correcting a moderate degree of metabolic acidosis.

  4. Precipitation of UO2 in sodium carbonate solutions by electrolytic hydrogen and catalyzed by Ni-Raney - Bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes abstracts and short versions of a set of documents (studies, patents) dealing with the precipitation of uranium (notably in its oxide form, UO2) in solutions of sodium carbonate. The main objective is to identify the interest of a chemical reduction by electrolytic hydrogen. The author makes a distinction between the most relevant documents and those relatively relevant ones

  5. Fracture of nickel-titanium superelastic alloy in sodium hypochlorite solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fracture of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy for endodontic instruments such as files was investigated with a sustained tensile-loading test in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution of various concentrations. It was found that the time to fracture was reduced when the applied stress exceeded the critical stress for martensite transformation. When the applied stress was higher than the critical stress, the 0.3 mm diameter wires of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy sometimes fractured within 60 min. From the results of observations of the fracture surface using a scanning electron microscope, it was revealed that the fracture of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy is significantly influenced by corrosion when the applied stress was higher than the critical stress for martensite transformation. The results of the present study suggest that one of the causes of the fracture of Ni-Ti files during clinical use is corrosion under the applied stress above the critical stress for martensite transformation in NaOCl solution

  6. Fracture of nickel-titanium superelastic alloy in sodium hypochlorite solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Ken' ichi; Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Yabuta, Eiji; Asaoka, Kenzo; Sakai, Jun' ichi

    2004-03-25

    Fracture of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy for endodontic instruments such as files was investigated with a sustained tensile-loading test in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution of various concentrations. It was found that the time to fracture was reduced when the applied stress exceeded the critical stress for martensite transformation. When the applied stress was higher than the critical stress, the 0.3 mm diameter wires of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy sometimes fractured within 60 min. From the results of observations of the fracture surface using a scanning electron microscope, it was revealed that the fracture of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy is significantly influenced by corrosion when the applied stress was higher than the critical stress for martensite transformation. The results of the present study suggest that one of the causes of the fracture of Ni-Ti files during clinical use is corrosion under the applied stress above the critical stress for martensite transformation in NaOCl solution.

  7. Passivity and passivity breakdown of a zinc electrode in aerated neutral sodium nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The passivation and pitting corrosion behaviour of a zinc electrode in aerated neutral sodium nitrate solutions was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry techniques, complemented by ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) examinations of the electrode surface. Measurements were conducted under different experimental conditions. The potentiodynamic anodic polarization curves do not exhibit active dissolution region due to spontaneous passivation. The passivity is due to the presence of thin film of ZnO on the anode surface. The passive region is followed by pitting corrosion as a result of breakdown of the passive film. SEM images confirmed the existence of pits on the electrode surface. The breakdown potential decreases with an increase in NO3- concentration and temperature, but increases with increasing potential scan rate. Addition of SO42- ions to the nitrate solution accelerates pitting corrosion, while addition of WO42- and MoO42- ions inhibits pitting corrosion. The chronopotentiometry measurements show that the incubation time for pitting initiation decreases with increasing NO3- concentration, temperature and applied anodic current density. Addition of SO42- ions decreases the rate of passive film growth and the incubation time, while the reverse ch the incubation time, while the reverse changes produced by addition of either WO42- or MoO42- ions

  8. Intratesticular hypertonic sodium chloride solution treatment as a method of chemical castration in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Olmiro Andrade; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Nóbrega, Janduí E; Mondadori, Rafael G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q

    2014-10-15

    Castration of male calves is necessary for trading to facilitate handling and prevent reproduction. However, some methods of castration are traumatic and lead to economic losses because of infection and myiasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of intratesticular injection (ITI) of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; 20%) solution in male calf castration during the first weeks of life. Forty male calves were allocated to one of the following experimental groups: negative control-surgically castrated immediately after birth; positive control -intact males; G1-ITI from 1- to 5-day old; G2-ITI from 15- to 20-day old; and G3-ITI from 25- to 30-day old. Intratesticular injection induced coagulative necrosis of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules leading to extensive fibrosis. Testosterone secretion and testicular development were severely impaired in 12-month-old animals from G1 and G2 groups (P<0.05), in which no testicular structure and sperm cells were observed during breeding soundness evaluation. Rectal and scrotal temperatures were not affected by different procedures. In conclusion, ITI of hypertonic NaCl solution induces sterility and completely suppresses testosterone secretion when performed during the first 20 days of life. PMID:25149022

  9. Some magnetic resonance properties of solutions of sodium in liquid ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilute solutions of sodium in liquid ammonia are studied by the mean of dynamic polarization techniques, and with the aid of Becker Lindquist and Alder model. Paramagnetic shifts are computed as a function of the 'average spin density', for each of the nuclear spin system. The nuclear contributions to the Overhauser shift are computed in the same way. A theoretical study of the main relaxation processes is carried out for each of the nuclear spin system and for the electronic spin system. The dynamic polarization experiments consist in classical measurement of the Overhauser enhancement for nitrogen, and in direct measurements of nitrogen Knight shift and nuclear contributions to the Overhauser shift by the mean of double irradiation techniques. The results show that, in dilute solutions, the relaxation of nitrogen arises from quadrupole interaction and from hyperfine interaction with unpaired electrons. Both interactions are of the same order of magnitude. Overhauser shift measurements show that the spin density is negative at the proton site, in agreement with Hughes results. (author)

  10. Direct AFM force measurements between air bubbles in aqueous monodisperse sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Christine; Tabor, Rico F; Grieser, Franz; Dagastine, Raymond R

    2015-08-01

    Structural forces play an important role in the rheology, processing and stability of colloidal systems and complex fluids, with polyelectrolytes representing a key class of structuring colloids. Here, we explore the interactions between soft colloids, in the form of air bubbles, in solutions of monodisperse sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) as a model polyelectrolyte. It is found that by self-consistently modelling the force oscillations due to structuring of the polymer chains along with deformation of the bubbles, it is possible to precisely predict the interaction potential between approaching bubbles. In line with polyelectrolyte scaling theory, two distinct regimes of behaviour are seen, corresponding to dilute and semi-dilute polymer solutions. It is also seen that by blending monodisperse systems to give a bidisperse sample, the interaction forces between soft colloids can be controlled with a high degree of precision. At increasing bubble collision velocity, it is revealed that hydrodynamic flow overwhelms oscillatory structural interactions, showing the important disparity between equilibrium behaviour and dynamic interactions. PMID:25881266

  11. Comparison of 2% chlorhexidine and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite irrigating solutions on postoperative pain: A randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bashetty Kusum; Hegde Jayshree

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To compare the levels of postoperative pain after cleaning and shaping of root canals using two different root canal irrigants for debridement. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis and non-vital teeth exhibiting acute apical periodontitis requiring root canal treatment were included. At random, canals were cleaned and shaped with the following protocols. 2% chlorhexidine solution in group I and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution i...

  12. The antioxidant properties of oligo sodium alginates prepared by radiation-induced degradation in aqueous and hydrogen peroxide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the radiation-induced degradation of sodium alginates (NaAlg), having different guluronic acids (G) and mannuronic acid (M) ratios, (G/M), in aqueous and hydrogen peroxide solutions were investigated first; after that, the antioxidative properties of the oligo sodium alginates prepared were identified. Radiation degradation yield values, G(S), were determined for each irradiation condition and compared with those of the dry-state-irradiated NaAlg. The results showed that the oligo sodium alginates with M¯n from 1000 to 3750 Da could be easily prepared by ?-irradiation of NaAlg solution in the presence of small amount of hydrogen peroxide at low doses (below 5.0 kGy) and by controlling the G/M. The antioxidant properties of the fractions with various molecular weight and G/M were evaluated by determining the scavenging ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH·), and 50% inhibition concentrations of LF120 NaAlg, which was irradiated in aqueous solution and H2O2 solution at a dose of 2.5 kGy and having number average molecular weights of 10.2 and 3.75 kDa were found to be 10.0 and 2.5 mg/ml, respectively. The results demonstrated that its molecular weight was an important factor in controlling the antioxidant properties of NaAlg, and due to the sharp decrease in molecular weight in the case of aqueous media irradiation the effect of G/M of initial polymer became unimportant whereaitial polymer became unimportant whereas the dry-state-irradiated NaAlgs behaved conversely. - Highlights: ? The radiation-induced degradation of sodium alginates having different guluronic acids and mannuronic acid ratios. ? Degradation of NaAlg in aqueous solution in the presence or absence of hydrogen peroxide. ? Antioxidant properties of oligo sodium alginates.

  13. Efeito de bicarbonato de sódio, feno e bagaço "in natura" sobre a digestibilidade e o desempenho de zebuínos em crescimento alimentados com bagaço de cana auto-hidrolisado / Effect of sodium bicarbonate, grass hay und untreated bagasse on the performance of growing zebu cattle fed steam treated sugarcane bagasse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D.P.D., Lanna; C., Boin.

    Full Text Available O bagaço de cana-de-açúcar "in natura" (BIN) associado ou não ao bicarbonato de sódio foi testado como substituto do feno de gramínea como fonte de fibra longa para rações de ruminantes balanceadas com altas proporções de bagaço auto-hidrolisado (BAH). A ração básica (I) continha 54% BAH; 10% milho [...] grão; 25% farelo de algodão; 8% feno de gramínea; 0,9% calcáreo; 0,5% uréia; e 1,5% premix mineral, base seca. As rações II e III continham BIN e BIN mais bicarbonato de sódio (1,1%, base seca) respectivamente em substituição ao feno de gramínea da ração I. Foram usados bovinos Nelore machos não castrados e fêmeas (18 de cada sexo) em crescimento com médias iniciais de peso vivo e idade de 199 kg e 11 meses. O delineamento estatístico usado foi um fatorial com 3 rações e dois sexos, com dois animais por parcela. O período de adaptação foi de 15 dias e o experimental de 87 dias. Os dados para GPV (kg/dia); ingestão de MS (% PV); conversão alimentar (kg MS/Kg GPV); e pH fecal foram de: 0,909; 2,79; 7,41; e 6,46 para a ração I; 0,867; 2,65; 7,24; e 6,57 para a ração II; e 1,019; 2,88; 7,03 e 6,73 para a ração III. A ração III foi superior rações I e II para ganho de peso (P Abstract in english Crude sugarcane bagasse (BIN) with and without the addition of sodium bicarbonate was evaluated as a substitute for grass hay as source of long fiber in ruminant diets balanced with high proportions of steam pressure treated sugarcane bagasse (BAH, 17kgf/cm² for 6 minutes). The basal ration (I) had [...] 54% BAH; 10% corn grain; 25% cottonseed meal; 8% grass hay, 0.9% limestone; 0.5% urea; and 1.5% mineral premix, dry basis. In rations II and III, grass hay was replaced by BIN and BIN plus sodium bicarbonate (1.1%, dry basis) respectively. Nelore bull and heifer calves (18 animals each sex) with 199kg average weight and 11 months average age were used in a factorial design (3 rations and 2 sexes), with two animals per plot. The adaptation and experimental periods were 15 and 87 days respectively. The results for LWG (kg/day), DM intake (% LW), DM conversion (kg DM/kg LWG), and fecal pH were: 0.909; 2.79; 7.41 and 6.46 for ration I; 0.867; 2.65; 7.24; and 6.57 for ration II; and 1.019; 2.88; 7.03 and 6.75 for ration III respectively. Ration III was superior to rations I and II for LWG (P

  14. Interaction of sodium monoborate and boric acid with some mono- and disaccharides in aqueous solutions (from data on isomolar solutions method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interaction of sodium monoborate Na[B(OH)4] and boric acid with D-glucose, D-fructose, D-saccharose and D-lactose in aqueous solution depending on the solution total concentration is studied through the method of isomolar solutions with application of conductometry and polarimetry. It is shown by the D-glucose and D-fructose examples that the method of isomolar solutions leads to results compatible with the data obtained by other methods and it may be applied to other saccharides

  15. Controle da pinta-preta em tomateiro e da mancha-zonada em pepino por meio de bicarbonato de sódio e óleo vegetal / Control of early blight on tomato and net spot on cucumber through application of sodium bicarbonate and vegetal oil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Roberto Ramírez-Otárola, Sarmiento; Katia C. K., Moretto; Manuel G. C., Churata-Masca.

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois ensaios, em condições de campo, na UNESP/ FCAV, Jaboticabal (SP). O primeiro (maio a outubro de 1993) teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de pulverizações semanais de bicarbonato de sódio (10 g/l), óleo vegetal 'Natur'l óleo (10 ml/l) e iprodione (0,75 g/l), aplicados isola [...] damente ou em combinação dois a dois, no controle da pinta-preta (Alternaria solani) em tomateiro, cultivar Jumbo AG-592. No segundo ensaio (março a junho de 1993), o objetivo foi determinar a eficiência de pulverizações semanais em diferentes doses de bicarbonato de sódio (5, 10 e 15 g/l) comparadas ao benomil (0,5 g/l), no controle da mancha-zonada (Leandria momordicae) em pepino híbrido 'Premier'. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições para ambos os experimentos. Foram utilizadas parcelas de 40 plantas distribuídas em 4 fileiras de 5,0 e 2,5 m de comprimento para os experimentos com pepino e tomate, respectivamente. As avaliações da severidade da doença foram feitas a cada quatorze dias (as cinco primeiras) e a cada sete dias (as duas últimas) e foram iniciadas 39 dias após o transplante do tomate. Para o pepino, foram realizadas cinco avaliações, iniciadas 28 dias após o transplante e repetidas a cada quatorze dias. Foram determinadas as curvas de progresso das doenças e a produtividade dentro de cada tratamento para cada cultura. Pela observação dos valores dos coeficientes de determinação das diferentes curvas epidemiológicas, concluiu-se que a quinta folha e a transformação logística se mostraram mais adequadas para o estudo epidemiológico da pinta-preta do tomateiro, enquanto a quarta folha e a transformação logística se mostraram mais adequadas para o estudo epidemiológico da mancha-zonada. Constatou-se o efeito positivo do iprodione no controle de pinta-preta, isolado ou quando misturado ao bicarbonato de sódio ou ao óleo vegetal, não havendo diferença estatística significativa entre iprodione e bicarbonato de sódio. Para a mancha-zonada o tratamento com benomil diminuiu a taxa de desenvolvimento da doença, enquanto que o bicarbonato de sódio não teve efeito. Os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho sugerem que o bicarbonato de sódio e óleo vegetal são substâncias que apresentam potencial para o controle da pinta-preta e mancha-zonada, necessitando porém, de novos estudos. Abstract in english Two experiments were carried out under field conditions at UNESP/FCAV, Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil. In the first experiment (from May to October, 1993) the efficiency of weekly sprays of sodium bicarbonate (1%), vegetal oil (1%) and iprodione (0.075%), alone or in combination, were studied [...] for the control of tomato early blight (Alternaria solani), using tomato cv. Jumbo AG-592. In the second experiment (March to June, 1993) the efficiency of weekly sprays of different doses of sodium bicarbonate (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) were compared with benomyl (0.05%), on the control of cucumber net spot (Leandria momordicae), using cucumber cv. Premier. The experiments followed a randomised block design with four replications and forty plants distributed in four rows of 5.0 and 2.5 m long used respectively for cucumber and tomato. Disease severity on tomate was rated at 14 day intervals (the first five) and at 7 day intervals (the last two), beginning 39 days after transplanting. Disease severity for cucumber net spot was rated five times, at 14 day intervals, beginning 28 days after transplanting. Disease progress curves for each treatment for each culture were determined. Fruit yield for each culture was also evaluated. Results showed that evaluation of disease severity in the fifth leaf and logistic transformation were most suitable for the study of tomato early blight epidemics. For cucumber net spot, evaluation in the fourth leaf and logistic transformation were the most suitable, as shown by the determination coefficient values. Both iprodione and sodium bicarbonate provided efficient early blight cont

  16. Controle da pinta-preta em tomateiro e da mancha-zonada em pepino por meio de bicarbonato de sódio e óleo vegetal Control of early blight on tomato and net spot on cucumber through application of sodium bicarbonate and vegetal oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Roberto Ramírez-Otárola Sarmiento

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois ensaios, em condições de campo, na UNESP/ FCAV, Jaboticabal (SP. O primeiro (maio a outubro de 1993 teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de pulverizações semanais de bicarbonato de sódio (10 g/l, óleo vegetal 'Natur'l óleo (10 ml/l e iprodione (0,75 g/l, aplicados isoladamente ou em combinação dois a dois, no controle da pinta-preta (Alternaria solani em tomateiro, cultivar Jumbo AG-592. No segundo ensaio (março a junho de 1993, o objetivo foi determinar a eficiência de pulverizações semanais em diferentes doses de bicarbonato de sódio (5, 10 e 15 g/l comparadas ao benomil (0,5 g/l, no controle da mancha-zonada (Leandria momordicae em pepino híbrido 'Premier'. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições para ambos os experimentos. Foram utilizadas parcelas de 40 plantas distribuídas em 4 fileiras de 5,0 e 2,5 m de comprimento para os experimentos com pepino e tomate, respectivamente. As avaliações da severidade da doença foram feitas a cada quatorze dias (as cinco primeiras e a cada sete dias (as duas últimas e foram iniciadas 39 dias após o transplante do tomate. Para o pepino, foram realizadas cinco avaliações, iniciadas 28 dias após o transplante e repetidas a cada quatorze dias. Foram determinadas as curvas de progresso das doenças e a produtividade dentro de cada tratamento para cada cultura. Pela observação dos valores dos coeficientes de determinação das diferentes curvas epidemiológicas, concluiu-se que a quinta folha e a transformação logística se mostraram mais adequadas para o estudo epidemiológico da pinta-preta do tomateiro, enquanto a quarta folha e a transformação logística se mostraram mais adequadas para o estudo epidemiológico da mancha-zonada. Constatou-se o efeito positivo do iprodione no controle de pinta-preta, isolado ou quando misturado ao bicarbonato de sódio ou ao óleo vegetal, não havendo diferença estatística significativa entre iprodione e bicarbonato de sódio. Para a mancha-zonada o tratamento com benomil diminuiu a taxa de desenvolvimento da doença, enquanto que o bicarbonato de sódio não teve efeito. Os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho sugerem que o bicarbonato de sódio e óleo vegetal são substâncias que apresentam potencial para o controle da pinta-preta e mancha-zonada, necessitando porém, de novos estudos.Two experiments were carried out under field conditions at UNESP/FCAV, Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil. In the first experiment (from May to October, 1993 the efficiency of weekly sprays of sodium bicarbonate (1%, vegetal oil (1% and iprodione (0.075%, alone or in combination, were studied for the control of tomato early blight (Alternaria solani, using tomato cv. Jumbo AG-592. In the second experiment (March to June, 1993 the efficiency of weekly sprays of different doses of sodium bicarbonate (0.5, 1 and 1.5% were compared with benomyl (0.05%, on the control of cucumber net spot (Leandria momordicae, using cucumber cv. Premier. The experiments followed a randomised block design with four replications and forty plants distributed in four rows of 5.0 and 2.5 m long used respectively for cucumber and tomato. Disease severity on tomate was rated at 14 day intervals (the first five and at 7 day intervals (the last two, beginning 39 days after transplanting. Disease severity for cucumber net spot was rated five times, at 14 day intervals, beginning 28 days after transplanting. Disease progress curves for each treatment for each culture were determined. Fruit yield for each culture was also evaluated. Results showed that evaluation of disease severity in the fifth leaf and logistic transformation were most suitable for the study of tomato early blight epidemics. For cucumber net spot, evaluation in the fourth leaf and logistic transformation were the most suitable, as shown by the determination coefficient values. Both iprodione and sodium bicarbonate provided efficient early blight control, with no statistical differences between them. For cu

  17. Evidence for a Detrimental Effect of Bicarbonate Therapy in Hypoxic Lactic Acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Helmut; Leach, William; Arieff, Allen I.

    1985-02-01

    Lactic acidosis, a clinical syndrome caused by the accumulation of lactic acid, is characterized by lactate concentration in blood greater than 5 mM. Therapy usually consists of intravenous sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), but resultant mortality is greater than 60 percent. The metabolic and systemic effects of NaHCO3 therapy of hypoxic lactic acidosis in dogs were studied and compared to the effects of sodium chloride or no therapy. Sodium bicarbonate elevated blood lactate concentrations to a greater extent than did either sodium chloride or no treatment. Despite the infusion of NaHCO3, both arterial pH and bicarbonate concentration decreased by a similar amount in all three groups of dogs. Additional detrimental effects of NaHCO3 were observed on the cardiovascular system, including decreases in cardiac output and blood pressure that were not observed with either sodium chloride or no treatment. Thus there is evidence for a harmful effect of NaHCO3 in the treatment of hypoxic lactic acidosis.

  18. Analysis of the chemical stability of the 1% sodium hypochlorite solution taking in consideration the place of storage and the amount of present solution in the bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele BORIN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This study had as objective to analyze theloss of the chlorine text of the 1% sodium hypochlorite solution stored in coolant and ambient temperature and in bottles of plastic amber and cloudy white plastic, leading in consideration the amount of existing solution in the bottles. Material and methods: 24 liters of solution had been used, which had been divided in two groups: group 1 (6 bottles of plastic amber and 6 white plastic bottles filled with 1.000 mL of the 1% sodium hypochlorite solution and group 2 (6 bottles of plastic amber and 6 white plastic bottles filled with 800 mL of solution.In the second group had been removed 50 mL of solution of each bottle on each week, while the bottles of group 1 had always remained full. The analysis of the chlorine text was carried through in the beginning and in the final period of 10 weeks through the method of titulometria of oxi-reduction or iodometria. Results and conclusion:For the analysis statistics it was used analysis of the variance (Anovafollowed by the test of Tukey, to the level of significance of 5%, where it can be verified that the amount of present solution in the interior of the bottles contributed for the instability of the solution, whatever the place and the bottle of storage, and the full bottles had kept the chlorinetext of the solutions higher.

  19. Application of solution-mineral equilibrium chemistry to solution mining of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tests described were undertaken to determine the extent to leach solution-rock interactions with uranium-bearing ore obtained from the Mariano Lake mine. Leach solutions of an acidic (H/sub 2/O/sub 4/-sulfuric acid) and basic (NaHCO/sub 3/-sodium bicarbonate) nature were tested, in addition to a leach solution containing potassium chloride and sulfuric acid (KCl/H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The latter solution was chosen in an attempt to equilibrate the aqueous phase with the rock-forming silicate minerals and minimize adverse effects such as clay formation, porosity loss, and lixiviant loss. 29 refs

  20. Effects of sodium hypochlorite (Dakin's solution) on cells of the wound module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozol, R A; Gillies, C; Elgebaly, S A

    1988-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of sodium hypochlorite, or Dakin's solution (DS), on the function and viability of cells of the wound module (neutrophils, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells). For functional studies, the influence of DS on the in vitro migration of neutrophils was evaluated. Our data indicate that DS (2.5 x 10(-2)% to 2.5 x 10(-4)%) results in greater than 90% inhibition of the migration of both stimulated and nonstimulated neutrophils. Electron microscopy and trypan blue evaluation of neutrophils exposed to DS at these concentrations revealed normal structural features, which indicates that the observed reduction in neutrophil migration is not a result of cell death. In contrast to neutrophils, cultured fibroblasts and endothelial cells exposed to DS (2.5 x 10(-2)% or 2.5 x 10(-3)%) for 30 minutes show marked cell injury characterized by convoluted nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolization, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and swollen mitochondria on electron microscopy. These data suggest that DS, even at very dilute concentrations, is toxic to cells of the wound module. We therefore recommend abandonment of the use of DS in open wounds. PMID:3348732

  1. Copper(II) oxide solubility behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility behavior of copper(II) oxide (CuO) in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 292 and 535 K. Copper solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. The measured solubility is examined via a Cu(II) ion hydrolysis/complexing model and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis/complexing reactions are obtained from a least- squares analysis of the data. Altogether, thermochemical properties are established for five anionic complexes: Cu(OH)3-, Cu(OH)4=, Cu(OH)2(HPO4)=, Cu(OH)3(H2PO4)=, and Cu(OH)2(PO4)?. Precise thermochemical parameters are also derived for the Cu(OH)+ hydroxocomplex based on CuO solubility behavior previously observed in pure water (*) at elevated temperatures. The relative ease of Cu(II) ion hydrolysis is such that Cu(OH)3- species become the preferred hydroxocomplex for pH ? 9.4. 20 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  2. A comparison study between sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate with respect to the thermodynamic properties, micellization, and interaction with poly(ethylene glycol) in aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rsadeghi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahabi, Somayyeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Apparent molar volume against molality: o, {center_dot}, and {Delta}, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 293.15 K; x, {Delta}, and lozenge, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 313.15 K. Research Highlights: > C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na(SDSn) was seen to interact with PEG more weakly than C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na(SDS). > The constraints on molecular mobility of SDS micelles are larger than those of SDSn. > Entropy change on micellization for SDSn is larger than those for SDS. > Micelle formation of SDS is less endothermic and more spontaneous than that of SDSn. > Micelles of SDS have smaller aggregation number than that of SDSn. - Abstract: The density, sound velocity, and conductivity measurements were performed on aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na) or sodium dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na) in the absence and presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at different temperatures. Changes in the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities upon micellization were derived using a pseudophase-transition approach and the infinite dilution apparent molar properties of the monomer and micellar form of C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na and C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na were determined. Variations of the critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of both surfactants in the solutions investigated with temperature were obtained from which thermodynamic parameters of micellization were estimated. It was found that at low temperature the micelle formation process is endothermic and therefore, this process must be entropically driven. However, upon increasing the temperature, the enthalpic factor becomes more significant and, at temperatures higher than 303.15 K the micellization is enthalpy driven. The interactions between C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na/C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na and PEG were studied and it was found that sodium alkyl sulfonates were seen to interact more weakly than their sulfate analogues.

  3. Comparison of liquid metal solution model predictions with compatibility data of niobium with liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasin, V.P., E-mail: vkrasin@rambler.ru; Soyustova, S.I.

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • The activity coefficient of niobium in ternary melt can be obtained by means of integrating the Gibbs–Duhem equation. • Effect of oxygen on niobium saturation concentration in sodium is more pronounced at low temperatures. • At the initial stage of the process of interaction niobium with sodium containing oxygen, a decisive role is played by the mechanism, based on the significant increase of solubility of niobium in sodium. - Abstract: Theoretical correlations based on the coordination cluster model have been used to obtain the solubility of niobium in liquid sodium as a function of oxygen content. It is shown that the derived equations are useful to provide understanding of a relationship between thermodynamic properties and local ordering in the Na–Nb–O melt. The effect of oxygen in sodium on the compatibility niobium with liquid sodium is discussed in terms of two processes: (1) oxygen level increases the solubility of niobium in liquid sodium, and (2) oxygen enhanced dissolution by liquid sodium has been explained by taking into account the formation of ternary oxide of the alkali metal and niobium.

  4. Raman spectrometric studies of actinide(V) and -(VI) complexes in aqueous sodium carbonate solution and of solid sodium actinide(V) carbonate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman spectra of all the actinide(V) (except protactinium (Pa)) and actinide(VI) complexes in 2 M(sodium carbonate Na2CO3) solutions have been obtained. A resonance Raman effect was observed for neptunium(Np)(VI), plutonium(Pu)(VI), and americium(Am)(VI) and found to be related to the position of the charge-transfer bands observed in the corresponding electronic spectra and to the formal potential of actinide(VI)/actinide(V) couples in carbonate solution. No resonance effect was observed in the Raman spectrum of uranium (U(VI)). The symmetric stretching frequency (nu1) of the MO22+ group was shifted in carbonate solutions as compared to acidic noncomplexing solutions and decreased regularly with an increase in the atomic number of the actinide considered. In contrast, the nu1 frequencies of the MO2+ group for actinide(V) species in carbonate solutions did not vary as the atomic number of the actinide increased. In comparison to the v1 frequencies in acidic solutions, in carbonate solution a small negative shift was observed for nu1 of Np(V) and a positive shift was obtained for nu1 of Am(V). The Raman spectra of Na3MO2(CO3)2 solid compounds were obtained for M = Np, Pu, and Am. The nu1 frequencies of the MO2+ ions decreased linearly with increasing atomic number of the acti with increasing atomic number of the actinide and were higher than the corresponding values for aqueous MO2+ ions. The differences in behavior observed between actinide(V) and -(VI) species in noncompexing media and in carbonate media may be related to possible hydrogen bonding between the oxygen of the actinide(V) oxycation and water molecules. 12 figures, 3 tables

  5. Inhibition of cobalt active dissolution by benzotriazole in slightly alkaline bicarbonate aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallant, Danick [Departement de Chimie, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Departement de Biologie, Chimie et Geographie, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Quebec (Canada); E-mail: danick.gallant.1@ulaval.ca; Pezolet, Michel [Departement de Chimie, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: michel.pezolet@chm.ulaval.ca; Simard, Stephan [Departement de Chimie, Universite Laval, Quebec (Canada); Departement de Biologie, Chimie et Geographie, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Quebec (Canada); E-mail: stephan_simard@uqar.qc.ca

    2007-04-20

    The efficiency of benzotriazole as inhibiting agent for the corrosion of cobalt was probed at pH ranging from 8.3 to 10.2 in a sodium bicarbonate solution, chosen to simulate mild natural environments. From electrochemical, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry experiments, we have demonstrated that benzotriazole markedly affects the electrodissolution reactions, which become modeled by the formation of a [Co(II)(BTA){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O] {sub n} film according to two different mechanisms. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has shown that the polarization of a cobalt electrode at cathodic potentials with respect to its potential of zero charge allows a mechanism of specific adsorption of the neutral form of benzotriazole to take place through a suspected metal-to-molecule electron transfer and which follows Frumkin's adsorption isotherms. At the onset of the anodic dissolution, some experimental evidence suggests that these adsorbed neutral benzotriazole molecules deprotonate to yield a very thin [Co(II)(BTA){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O] {sub n} polymer-like and water-insoluble protective film, responsible for the inhibition of active dissolution processes occurring at slightly more anodic potentials. In the anodic dissolution region, deprotonated benzotriazole species present in the bulk solution favors the formation of a multilayered [Co(II)(BTA){sub 2}.H{sub 2}O] {sub n} film, which also contributes to the inhibition of any further cobalt dissolution usually observed at higher electrode potentials.

  6. Investigation into kinetics of accumulation and death of nitrite ions in concentrated sodium nitrate solutions following photoradiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of NO2- ions accumulation in the 4 M aqueous acetate sodiu.m nitrate solution and its dependence on the presence of NO2-ion acceptors and OH radicals at the photolysis, radiolysis and photoradiational action are studied. In the presence of reagents combining NO2- ions in statu nascendi the value of G/NO2-/ increases two-fold at the radiolysis, While at the photolysis of aqueous sodium nitrate the magnitude of PSI/NO2-/ it does not change. The rate constant of NO2- ion annihilation after UV-illumination exceeds nearly twice that observed at the ?-irradiation. Possible differences in the reverse reactions at the radiation chemical and photochemical reduction of nitrate into nitrate in the cincentrated nitrite solutions are discussed

  7. Synthesis, Optical and Thermal studies on novel nonlinear optical L–Histidine Sodium Thiosulphate crystal by solution growth technique

    OpenAIRE

    M. Radha Ramanan; R. RADHAKRISHNAN; Krishnan, S; V. Chithambaram

    2013-01-01

    A semi organic non-linear optical single crystal of L–Histidine Sodium Thiosulphate has been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were identified using single crystal X-ray analysis. The functional groups present in the crystal were identified using FTIR analysis. Optical absorption studies have confirmed that the grown crystal possesses less absorption in the entire visible region and UV cut-off is...

  8. Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of Aerosolized Sodium Hypochlorite, Chlorine Dioxide, and Electrochemically Activated Solutions Evaluated Using a Novel Standardized Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Thorn, R. M. S.; Robinson, G. M.; Reynolds, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop a standardized experimental assay to enable differential antimicrobial comparisons of test biocidal aerosols. This study represents the first chlorine-matched comparative assessment of the antimicrobial activities of aerosolized sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and electrochemically activated solution (ECAS) to determine their relative abilities to decontaminate various surface-associated health care-relevant microbial challenges. Standard micro...

  9. Optical Properties of Sodium Chloride Solution Within the Spectral Range from 300 to 2500 nm at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingcan; Liu, Linhua; Zhao, Junming; Tan, Jianyu

    2015-05-01

    The optical properties of sodium chloride (NaCl) solution were experimentally determined by double optical pathlength transmission method in the spectral range from 300 to 2500 nm at the NaCl concentration range from 0 to 360 g/L. The results show that the refractive index of NaCl solution increases with NaCl concentrations and correlates nonlinearly with the concentration of NaCl solution. The absorption index of NaCl solution increases with NaCl concentrations in the visible spectral range of 300-700 nm, but varies little in the near-infrared spectral range of 700-2500 nm at room temperature. For the sake of applications, the fitted formulae of the refractive index and absorption index of NaCl solution as a function of wavelength and NaCl concentration are presented. PMID:25909772

  10. Photocatalytic degradation of betamethasone sodium phosphate in aqueous solution using ZnO nanopowder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giahi, M.; Taghavi, H.; Habibi, S.

    2012-12-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of betamethasone sodium phosphate has been investigated in aqueous phase by using ultraviolet (UV) light and ZnO nanopowder. The effect of catalyst loading, irradiation time, pH, addition of oxidizers, effect of alcohol and anion presence on the reaction rate was ascertained and optimum conditions for maximum degradation were determined. The photocatalytic degradation of betamethasone sodium phosphate was strongly influenced by these parameters. The optimum amount of the photocatalyst used is 0.44 g/L. The efficiency of betamethasone sodium phosphate increases with the photo-degradation increase of the irradiation time.

  11. Comparison of 2% chlorhexidine and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite irrigating solutions on postoperative pain: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashetty Kusum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the levels of postoperative pain after cleaning and shaping of root canals using two different root canal irrigants for debridement. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis and non-vital teeth exhibiting acute apical periodontitis requiring root canal treatment were included. At random, canals were cleaned and shaped with the following protocols. 2% chlorhexidine solution in group I and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution in group II were used as an irrigants. Access cavities were closed with a sterile cotton pellet and cavit. The patients recorded degree of pain at various time intervals after cleaning and shaping on a visual analogue scale for 1 week. Results: The mean pain score for group I was between 0.65 and 3.35 and for group II was between 0.95 and 4.50. There was significant difference in the pain level between the two groups only at 6 th hour postoperatively (P<0.05 and the pain was more in sodium hypochlorite group. Conclusions: More pain was present in teeth irrigated using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite when compared to that in teeth irrigated using 2% chlorhexidine solution. Significant difference in pain level was present only at 6th hour postoperatively, and at all other periods (24 th hour, 4 th and 7 th days there was no significant difference in pain level between the two groups.

  12. Bicarbonate-dependence of responses to ethylenediamine in the guinea-pig isolated ileum: involvement of ethylenediamine-monocarbamate.

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, D. I.; Ong, J.

    1987-01-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric-acid (GABA)-mimetic responses were induced by ethylenediamine (EDA) in the isolated ileum of the guinea-pig maintained in bicarbonate buffered Krebs-Henseleit (KBC) solution, pH 7.4, 37 degrees C, the responses consisting of a contraction followed by a relaxation. There were no such responses to EDA in bicarbonate-free phosphate buffered (KPO) or HEPES buffered (KHO) Krebs solution, gassed with 100% O2, pH 7.4, 37 degrees C, yet the ileum responded to GABA in bicarbonate-fr...

  13. Effect of a Surfactant on the Antimicrobial Activity of Sodium Hypochlorite Solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Rodolfo, Bolfoni; Marcelo dos Santos, Ferla; Otávio da Silva, Sposito; Luciano, Giardino; Rogério de Castilho, Jacinto; Fernanda Geraldes, Pappen.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl), associado a um tensoativo. Setenta dentes humanos monorradiculares extraídos foram inoculados com Enterococcus faecalis e incubados durante 21 dias (37 °C). Os grupos foram distribuídos de acordo [...] com a solução irrigadora utilizada no preparo do canal: hipoclorito de sódio a 5%, 2,5% e 1%; Hypoclean(r) a 5%, 2,5% e 1% - uma solução contendo um surfactante (cetrimida) associado com NaOCl. Três amostras microbiológicas foram coletadas de cada dente: S1 - antes de instrumentação; S2 - imediatamente após a instrumentação; e S3 - após um período de sete dias. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Tukey com 5% de nível de significância. Os resultados mostraram que imediatamente após o preparo do canal radicular (S2), o E. faecalis foi eliminado em todos os grupos experimentais. No entanto, após 7 dias (S3), apenas os grupos em que se utilizou Hypoclean permaneceram livres de contaminação, incluindo Hypoclean 1%, enquanto que os canais radiculares irrigados apenas com hipoclorito de sódio 1% apresentaram a mais elevada percentagem de crescimento bacteriano. Em conclusão, a adição de surfactante aumentou a atividade antimicrobiana de 1% de NaOCl a níveis semelhantes aos do NaOCl 5% . Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with a surfactant. Seventy single-rooted extracted human teeth were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days (37 °C). The groups were distributed according [...] to the irrigation solution used during root canal preparation: 5%, 2.5% and 1% NaOCl; 5%, 2.5% and 1% Hypoclean(r), a solution containing a surfactant (cetrimide) associated with NaOCl. Three microbiological samples were collected from each tooth: S1 - before instrumentation; S2 - immediately after instrumentation; and S3 - after a seven-day period. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test with 5% significance level. The results showed that immediately after root canal preparation (S2), E. faecalis was eliminated in all the experimental groups. However, after 7 days (S3), only the groups in which Hypoclean was used, remained contamination-free, including Hypoclean associated with 1% NaOCl, while the root canals irrigated with 1% NaOCl only, presented the highest percentage of bacterial growth. In conclusion, the addition of surfactant increased the antimicrobial activity of 1% NaOCl to levels similar to 5% NaOCl.

  14. Solvation of sodium octanoate micelles in concentrated urea solution studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, André Farias; Bernardino, Kalil; de Oliveira, Osmair Vital; Freitas, Luiz Carlos Gomide

    2011-12-15

    The effects of urea on self-assembling remains a challenging topic on surface chemistry, and computational modeling may have a role on the unraveling of the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. Bearing that in mind, we performed a set of molecular dynamics simulations to assess the effects of urea on the self-assembling properties of sodium octanoate, an anionic surfactant, as compared to the aggregation of the same surfactant in pure water as the solvent. The concentration of free monomers increased 3-fold in the presence of urea, in agreement with the accepted view that urea should increase monomer solubility. Regarding the size distribution of micellar aggregates, the urea solution favored smaller micelles and a narrower distribution. Preferential solvation by either water or urea changed along the surfactant molecules, from urea-rich shells around apolar atoms at the end of the hydrophobic tails to nearly no urea at the polar headgroups. This solvation profile is consistent with two different hypotheses from the literature: on one hand, urea molecules interact directly with apolar atoms from the hydrophobic tails, acting as a surfactant, and on the other hand the presence of urea molecules increases the hydration of polar sites. Another important observation regards the solvent structure, which exhibits a complex composition profile around both water and urea molecules. Although the solvent structure was appreciably different in each case, the free energy calculations for the dissociation of a pair of octanoate molecules pointed to a purely enthalpic free energy loss in urea solution, a finding that does not lend support to the third hypothesis that is often claimed as accounting for the urea effects, namely, that urea disrupts water structure and that this structural change decreases the hydrophobic effect due to an entropy change. The presence of urea had no significant effect on the molecular structure of the surfactant molecules, although it caused chain dynamics to become slower. The overall picture arising from the molecular-scale data extracted from our computational models is somewhat different from the traditional views about the structural and dynamical features of self-assembled surfactant systems, pointing out the need for more studies on other self-organized systems using a realistic model system as a way to achieve a more detailed picture. PMID:22026457

  15. Modular structure of sodium-coupled bicarbonate transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Boron, Walter F.; Chen, Liming; Parker, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian genomes contain 10 SLC4 genes that, between them, encode three Cl–HCO3 exchangers, five Na+-coupled HCO3 transporters (NCBTs), one reported borate transporter, and what is reported to be a fourth Cl–HCO3 exchanger. The NCBTs are expressed throughout the body and play important roles in maintaining intracellular and whole-body pH, as well as contributing to transepithelial transport processes. The importance of NCBTs is underscored by the genetic assoc...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACTED LIGNIN OF BAMBOO (NEOSINOCALAMUS AFFINIS) PRETREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE/UREA SOLUTION AT LOW TEMPERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Fei Li; Yong-Ming Fan; Feng Xu; Run-Cang Sun

    2010-01-01

    Ball-milled bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis) was first treated under ultrasound at 20 oC in 95% ethanol solution for 0 to 50 min, dissolved in sodium hydroxide/urea solution (7% NaOH/12% urea) at –12 oC, and then extracted with ethanol and dioxane to isolate lignin. The structure of the isolated lignin was characterized with a set of wet chemical and spectroscopic methods, including UV, FT-IR, 13C NMR, and HSQC spectroscopies. The results showed that the lignin extracted from bamboo consiste...

  17. Solubility of unirradiated UO2 fuel in aqueous solutions. Comparison between experimental and calculated (EQ3/6) data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solubility behaviour of unirradiated UO2 pellets was studied under oxic (air-saturated) and anoxic (N2) conditions in deionized water, in sodium bicarbonate solutions with varying bicarbonate content (60 - 600 ppm), in Allard groundwater simulating granitic fresh groundwater conditions, and in bentonite water simulating the effects of bentonite on granitic fresh groundwater (25 deg C). The release of uranium was measured during static batch dissolution experiments of long duration (2-6 years). A comparison was made with the theoretical solubility data calculated with the geochemical code EQ3/6 in order to evaluate solubility (steady state) limiting factors. (orig.) (26 refs., 32 figs., 13 tabs.)

  18. Shelf-life of a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution as determined by arrhenius equation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Aparecida, Nicoletti; Evandro Luiz, Siqueira; Antonio Carlos, Bombana; Gabriella Guimarães de, Oliveira.

    Full Text Available Testes acelerados de estabilidade são indicados para avaliar, em um curto período de tempo, o grau de degradação química que poderá afetar uma substância química, isoladamente ou quando inserida em uma fórmula, sob condições normais de armazenamento. Este método está fundamentado na intensificação d [...] as condições de estresse para acelerar a velocidade de degradação química. Baseando-se na equação da reta obtida e na ordem de reação determinada (a 50 e 70 ºC) e usando a equação de Arrhenius, a velocidade de reação foi calculada para a condição de temperatura de 20ºC (condições normais de armazenamento). Este modelo de teste acelerado de estabilidade torna possível a predição da estabilidade química de qualquer substância, em qualquer tempo, desde que o método de quantificação da substância química esteja disponível. Como exemplo da aplicabilidade da equação de Arrhenius em teste acelerado de estabilidade, uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5% foi analisada por ser quimicamente instável. A quantificação do cloro residual livre foi determinada através de titulação iodométrica. A partir dos dados obtidos decorrentes das amostras submetidas às temperaturas de 50 e 70 ºC e com o emprego da equação de Arrhenius, o tempo de prateleira obtido foi de 166 dias em temperatura de 20 ºC, considerando como limite inferior a concentração de 20 mg/mL de cloro residual livre. Este modelo, entretanto, possibilita o cálculo de tempo de prateleira em qualquer outra temperatura de interesse. Abstract in english Accelerated stability tests are indicated to assess, within a short time, the degree of chemical degradation that may affect an active substance, either alone or in a formula, under normal storage conditions. This method is based on increased stress conditions to accelerate the rate of chemical degr [...] adation. Based on the equation of the straight line obtained as a function of the reaction order (at 50 and 70 ºC) and using Arrhenius equation, the speed of the reaction was calculated for the temperature of 20 ºC (normal storage conditions). This model of accelerated stability test makes it possible to predict the chemical stability of any active substance at any given moment, as long as the method to quantify the chemical substance is available. As an example of the applicability of Arrhenius equation in accelerated stability tests, a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was analyzed due to its chemical instability. Iodometric titration was used to quantify free residual chlorine in the solutions. Based on data obtained keeping this solution at 50 and 70 ºC, using Arrhenius equation and considering 2.0% of free residual chlorine as the minimum acceptable threshold, the shelf-life was equal to 166 days at 20 ºC. This model, however, makes it possible to calculate shelf-life at any other given temperature.

  19. Comparison of the Kinetic Rate Law Parameters for the Dissolution of Natural and Synthetic Autunite in the Presence of Aqueous Bicarbonate Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Idarraga, Melina; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-08-02

    Bicarbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, bicarbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous bicarbonate concentration to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and a temperature range of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH. Increasing aqueous bicarbonate concentrations afforded comparable increases in the rate of release of uranium. Most notably under low pH conditions the aqueous bicarbonate resulted in up to 370 fold increases in the rate of uranium release in relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of aqueous bicarbonate on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release.

  20. Bicarbonate-Regulated Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuttke MS

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC represents a novel form of mammalian adenylyl cyclase structurally, molecularly, and biochemically distinct from the G protein-regulated, transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs. sAC possesses no transmembrane domains and is insensitive to classic modulators of tmACs, such as heterotrimeric G proteins and P site ligands. Thus, sAC defines an independently regulated cAMP signaling system within mammalian cells. sAC is directly stimulated by bicarbonate ion both in vivo in heterologously expressing cells and in vitro using purified protein. sAC appears to be the predominant form of adenylyl cyclase (AC in mammalian sperm, and its direct activation by bicarbonate provides a mechanism for generating the cAMP required to complete the bicarbonate-induced processes necessary for fertilization, including hyperactivated motility, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction. Immunolocalization studies reveal sAC is also abundantly expressed in other tissues which respond to bicarbonate or carbon dioxide levels suggesting it may function as a general bicarbonate/CO(2 sensor throughout the body.

  1. Rheological properties of pullulan-sodium alginate based solutions during film formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qian; Tong, Qunyi; Zhou, Yujia; Deng, Fangming

    2015-10-01

    During film formation, the rheological properties of pullulan, sodium alginate, and blends, dried at 50°C were studied using an oscillatory rheometer. According to the drying curves, the drying process of pullulan, alginate, and blend films was divided into three stages. At the first drying stage, four samples exhibited typical liquid-like viscoelastic behavior. As the drying proceeded (polysaccharide concentration up to 75%), pure pullulan chains formed an entangled network, whereas coupling of alginate molecules gave a weak gel. At this drying stage, complex viscosity data for 75% alginate and blends were fitted with the power law equation. The effects of drying on the mechanical properties of pullulan-sodium alginate based samples were analyzed using the generalized Maxwell model, and their relaxation spectra were determined. The rheological properties during drying obtained from this study is essential for understanding film-forming mechanism and predicting the properties of pullulan-sodium alginate based edible films. PMID:26076600

  2. Application of thermodynamic models to study micellar properties of sodium perfluoroalkyl carboxylates in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (CnFONa) with n = 6, 9, 10 have been studied by conductivity measurements at different temperatures. The Krafft point was determined for C9FONa and C10FONa at the highest concentration studied by measuring the temperature dependence of the specific conductivity. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and the ionization degree of the micelle (?) were estimated from conductivity vs. molality plots at different temperatures. Using these data and previous results on temperature dependence of cmc and ? of sodium perfluoroheptanoate and perfluorooctanoate, different models were applied to obtain the thermodynamic properties of micellization. The results are discussed in terms of alkyl chain length

  3. Safety problems of sodium/water steam generators and solutions found in the Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience gained in the BN-350 plant is of fundamental importance with a view to sodium/water operation and separation in the steam generator by means of a simple wall. It was found that damage due to water ingress in the sodium loop can be prevented. Partitioned steam generators with a suitable protective system have certain advantages which enable localisation of the defect and also, if necessary, continued operation of the intact channels, independent of the extent of the original leak. (orig.)

  4. Effect of fluoride sodium mouthwash solutions on cpTI: evaluation of physicochemical properties

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Bighetti, Toniollo; Rodrigo, Galo; Ana Paula, Macedo; Renata Cristina Silveira, Rodrigues; Ricardo Faria, Ribeiro; Maria da Gloria Chiarello de, Mattos.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do fluoreto, o qual está presente em diferentes produtos de higiene oral, necessita de maiores investigações, pois pouco se sabe sobre seus efeitos na superfície do titânio, o qual possui amplo uso na implantodontia. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a superfície do titânio comercialmente pur [...] o (cpTi) após exposição a diferentes concentrações de fluoreto de sódio (NaF). A hipótese testada neste estudo foi que diferentes concentrações de NaF aplicadas em diferentes intervalos de tempo seriam capazes de afetar diferentemente a superfície do titânio. Os tratamentos realizados foram: GA (controle): imersão em água destilada; GB: imersão diária por 3 min em NaF a 0,05%; GC: imersão diária por 3 min em NaF a 0,2%; GD: imersão quinzenal por 3 min em NaF a 0,05%; e GE: imersão quinzenal por 3 min em NaF a 0,2%. O tempo do experimento foi de 60 dias. A análise da rugosidade foi efetuada inicialmente e a cada 15 dias. Após 60 dias foi realizada análise de corrosão e polarização anódica. As amostras foram analisadas em MEV. Os dados de rugosidade foram analisados por ANOVA e não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre grupos e entre tempos. Os dados de corrosão (i corr) foram analisados pelo teste de Mann-Whitney e foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre GA e GC, GC e GB, GC e GD, GC e GE. A MEV evidenciou que a superfície do titânio exposto ao NaF apresentou corrosão variando de acordo com a concentração. Com base nos dados encontrados conclui-se que o uso de solução NaF a 0,05% em cpTi é seguro, enquanto a solução NaF 0,2% para uso diário deve ser cuidadosamente avaliada. Abstract in english The effects of fluoride, which is present in different oral hygiene products, deserve more investigation because little is known about their impact on the surface of titanium, which is largely used in Implantology. This study evaluated the surface of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) after exposure [...] to different concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF). The hypothesis tested in this study was that different concentrations of NaF applied at different time intervals can affect the titanium surface in different ways. The treatments resulted in the following groups: GA (control): immersion in distilled water; GB: immersion in 0.05% NaF for 3 min daily; GC: immersion in 0.2% NaF for 3 min daily; GD: immersion in 0.05% NaF for 3 min every 2 weeks; and GE: immersion in 0.2% NaF for 3 min every 2 weeks. The experiment lasted 60 days. Roughness was measured initially and every 15 days subsequently up to 60 days. After 60 days, corrosion analysis and anodic polarization were done. The samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The roughness data were analyzed by ANOVA and there was no significant difference among groups and among time intervals. The corrosion data (i corr) were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test, and significant differences were found between GA and GC, GB and GC, GC and GD, GC and GE. SEM micrographs showed that the titanium surface exposed to NaF presented corrosion that varied with the different concentrations. This study suggests that the use of 0.05% NaF solution on cpTi is safe, whereas the 0.2% NaF solution should be carefully evaluated with regard to its daily use.

  5. The Corrosion Behavior of Nickel and Inconel 600 in Sodium Hydroxide and Hydrochloric Acid Solution at 280 .deg. C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behavior of nickel and Inconel 600 has been investigated by the weight change measurement method at pH ranges 3?13 of the solution. The specimens were exposed to aqueous solutions in a static autoclave at 280 .deg. C for 210 hours. The pH of the solutions was adjusted by hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide and the dissolved oxygen concentration was fixed as 10 ppb by using pure nitrogen gas. Weight loss of Inconel 600 was much less than that of nickel over the tested pH ranges. At pH 9.5, nickel and Inconel 600 showed the minimum weight loss phenomenon and the values of weight loss were 1.5mg/dm2 and 0.9mg/dm2, respectively. Microscopic examination showed that nickel surface was attacked uniformly, whereas Inconel 600 surface was not greatly

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACTED LIGNIN OF BAMBOO (NEOSINOCALAMUS AFFINIS PRETREATED WITH SODIUM HYDROXIDE/UREA SOLUTION AT LOW TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fei Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ball-milled bamboo (Neosinocalamus affinis was first treated under ultrasound at 20 oC in 95% ethanol solution for 0 to 50 min, dissolved in sodium hydroxide/urea solution (7% NaOH/12% urea at –12 oC, and then extracted with ethanol and dioxane to isolate lignin. The structure of the isolated lignin was characterized with a set of wet chemical and spectroscopic methods, including UV, FT-IR, 13C NMR, and HSQC spectroscopies. The results showed that the lignin extracted from bamboo consisted of p-hydroxyphenyl (H, guaiacyl (G, and syringyl (S type lignins with minor cinnamate units. The predominate lignin inter-units were ?-O-4´ ether linkages, followed by phenylcoumaran and a lower proportion of resinol and spirodienone. It was also found that the ester groups of lignin were cleaved during the pretreatment process with cold alkaline solution.

  7. Effect of Bicarbonate on the Mineralization of Methyldiethanolamine by using UV/H2O2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabtanti Harimurti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bicarbonate affects the degradation efficiency of effluents containing aqueous methyldiethanolamine (MDEA solution leaving the CO2 absorption/regeneration unit of natural gas processing units. In the present study the effect of bicarbonate at three different pH conditions of (acidic, neutral and alkaline simulated MDEA solution were conducted, by the addition of six different concentration of NaHCO3 (0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.125 and 0.15 M. The presence of bicarbonate increased the mineralization of MDEA when the reaction was conducted at neutral initial pH conditions, where as the MDEA mineralization was reduced when the reaction was conducted at alkaline pH condition.

  8. Preparation of Organized Mesoporous Silica from Sodium Metasilicate Solutions in Alkaline Medium using Nonionic Surfactants.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zukalová, Markéta; Rathouský, Ji?í; Zukal, Arnošt

    2003-01-01

    Ro?. 68, ?. 10 (2003), s. 2019-2031. ISSN 0010-0765 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : mesoporous SiO2 * sodium metasilicate * nonionic surfactants Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2003

  9. Effect of nonideal solution behavior on desalination of a sodium chloride (NaCl) solution and comparison to seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Mistry, Karan Hemant; John H. Lienhard

    2012-01-01

    Proper evaluation of the Gibbs free energy and other properties of seawater and other aqueous solutions is essential in the analysis of desalination systems. Standard seawater has been studied extensively and property data are readily accessible. However, many aqueous solutions requiring desalination have significantly different composition from seawater and seawater data is generally not accurate for these solutions. Experimental data for a given aqueous solution may be ...

  10. Volumetric and isentropic compressibility behaviour of aqueous solutions of (polyvinylpyrrolidone + sodium citrate) at T = (283.15 to 308.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparent specific volumes and isentropic compressibilities have been determined for polyvinylpyrrolidone in aqueous solutions of sodium citrate by density and sound velocity measurements at T = (283.15 to 308.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The results show a positive transfer volume of PVP from an aqueous solution to an aqueous sodium citrate solution. For low concentrations of PVP, the apparent specific volumes of PVP in water increased along with an increase in the polymer mass fraction, while in aqueous sodium citrate solutions decreased along with an increase in the polymer mass fraction. For high concentrations of PVP, the apparent specific volumes of PVP in water and in aqueous sodium citrate solutions were independent of the polymer mass fraction. The apparent specific isentropic compressibility of PVP is negative at T = (283.15 and 288.15) K, which imply that the water molecules around the PVP molecules are less compressible than the water molecules in the bulk solutions. The positive values of apparent specific isentropic compressibility at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K imply that the water molecules around the PVP molecules are more compressible than the water molecules in the bulk solutions. Finally, it was found that the apparent specific isentropic compressibility of PVP increases as the concentration of sodium citrate increases

  11. Effect of abietic acid addition on anodic dissolution of zinc- cadmium- and thallium amalgams in sodium sulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of inversion voltametry with a stationary mercury drop electrode has been applied to investigate the effect of abietic acid (AA) on anodic oxidation of cadmium, zinc, thallium from their amalgams as well as from mixed cadmium-thallium and zinc-thallium amalgams against the background of 0.5 M sodium sulfate at 298 K. Constants of peak of analgam anodic oxidation in the background solution and with additions of different AA concentrations are calculated. It is established that AA has the inhibiting effect on the processes of oxidation of cadmium- and zinc amalgams and does not produce the inhibiting effect on the oxidation of thallium amalgam

  12. In vitro bioactivity of soda lime borate glasses with substituted SrO in sodium phosphate solution

    OpenAIRE

    Marzouk, Mohamed A.; Elbatal, Hatem A.

    2014-01-01

    Borate glasses with the basic composition 0.6B2O3·0.2Na2O·0.2CaO and SrO progressively substituting CaO were prepared and characterized for their bone-bonding ability. The obtained glasses were thermally treated and converted to their glass-ceramic derivatives. In this study, FTIR spectral analyses were done for the prepared glasses and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in a sodium phosphate solution for extended times. The appearance of two IR bands within the spectral range 550?...

  13. Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

  14. Penetration of protective gloves as a route of intake for tritiated water and 125I-labelled sodium iodine solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements have been made of the rate at which tritiated water and 125I-labelled sodium iodide solution penetrate various types of protective gloves, both isotopes being in common use in this form in universities and similar establishments. Diffusion coefficients relating to the glove materials are also determined. The health physics aspects are discussed and it is concluded that intakes by workers through intact gloves are not likely to be of major significance and can easily be minimised by the correct use and choice of glove. (author)

  15. Bicarbonate Attenuates Irinotecan-Induced Cytotoxicity through Regulation of Both Extracellular and Intracellular pHs in Intestine Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruo Miyazaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The anti-cancer therapy of irinotecan (CPT-11 is often limited due to severe late-onset diarrhea. Because the higher toxic form of CPT-11/its active metabolite (SN-38 is produced at acidification, the usefulness of oral sodium bicarbonate treatment against the CPT-11/SN-38-induced intestinal injuries and diarrhea has been confirmed. However, the roles of bicarbonate have been suggested to affect not only intestinal pH environment but also intracellular pH and CPT-11/SN-38 dynamics. The present study proposed to clarify the hypothesis in CPT-11/SN-38-exposed colon cell line in various pH conditions adjusted by bicarbonate. HT29 cell pre-exposed to ~1.0 ?M SN-38 lactone or carboxylate forms was incubated at different pH adjusted by either bicarbonate or HCl/NaOH. The degrees of SN-38-induced cell injury depended on the higher proportion of the toxic form (lactone of SN-38 rather than mere pH condition of medium. Apoptosis and cell injury induced by SN-38 were significantly inhibited by bicarbonate in a dose-dependent manner. Intercellular pH acidification induced by SN-38 was significantly prevented by 30 mM bicarbonate. Cell cytotoxicity of SN-38 depended on not only extracellular but also intracellular pH that converts the SN-38 form, while the intracellular acidification was prevented by bicarbonate. The multiple regulations of bicarbonate on both exracellular and intracellular pH would be essential mechanism against intestinal cell injury by CPT-11/SN-38.

  16. Measurements of density and of thermal expansion coefficient of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements have been performed of the density and volumetric thermal expansion coefficient of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO2 dissolved in each. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 8500C to 13250C. The data for the pure borax and for the sodium metaborate agree reasonably well with the data from the literature, giving confidence that the measurements are correct and the new data for the salts with UO2 are reliable. (orig.)

  17. Emergence of Conilon Coffee Seedlings Originating from Seeds Treated with a Sodium Hypochlorite Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Fialho Rubim; Henrique Duarte Vieira; Eduardo Fontes Araújo; Anna Christina Sanazário de Oliveira; Alexandre Pio Viana

    2014-01-01

    The coffee seeds are problematic for the physiologycal quality, featuring low speed of seedling emergence. In this sense, this work was developed with the objective of evaluating the effect of sodium hypochlorite in the removal of the parchment and in the emergence and seedlings development of conilon coffee in nursery conditions. Coffee seeds of the variety Victoria were used, which were harvested in the cherry stage and pulped by hand. Seeds were dried in an oven with...

  18. Synthesis and solution properties of branched poly(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonate.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gromadzki, Daniel; Tereshchenko, A.; Makuška, R.

    Coimbra : Polyelectrolytes 2008, 2008. s. 200-200. [International Symposium on Polyelectrolytes 2008 /7./. 16.06.2008-19.06.2008, Coimbra] Grant ostatní: Europan Commission - Marie Curie Research Training Network SOCON MRTN-CT-2004-512331 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyelectrolytes * branched poly(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonate) * self condensing vinyl polymerization (SCVP) Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  19. Ruthenium (4) chloride complex interaction with formic acid and sodium formate in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the methods of IR and electron spectroscopy and by measuring molar electric conductivity and magnetic susceptibility (NH4)2RuCl6 interaction with sodium formate and formic acid is studied. It is established that depending on conditions (heating, addition of concentrated HCl, concentration of formic acid) formation of carbonyl-chloride, carbonylformate-chloride or formate-chloride complexes of ruthenium (3) or ruthenium (2) takes place

  20. Sodium phthalamates as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? N-Alkyl-sodium phthalamates as corrosion inhibitors for industry in acidic medium. ? Compounds behaved as mixed type inhibitors and followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm. ? Efficiencies were proportional to aliphatic chain length and inhibitor concentration. ? Iron complexes and chelates with phthalamates contributed to carbon steel protection. - Abstract: Three compounds of N-alkyl-sodium phthalamates were synthesized and tested as corrosion inhibitors for carbon steel in 0.5 M aqueous hydrochloric acid. Tests showed that inhibitor efficiencies were related to aliphatic chain length and dependent on concentration. N-1-n-tetradecyl-sodium phthalamate displayed moderate efficiency against uniform corrosion, 42-86% at 25 deg. C and 25-60% at 40 oC. Tests indicated that compounds behave as mixed type inhibitors where molecular adsorption on steel followed Langmuir isotherm, whereas thermodynamic suggested that a physisorption process occurred. XPS analysis confirmed film formation on surface, where Fe+2 complexes and Fe+2 chelates with phthalamates prevented steel from further corrosion.

  1. Efeito do bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento de vinhaça em AnSBBR operado a 55 e 35ºC Effect of the sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of vinasse in AnSBBR operated at 55 and 35ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena Ribas Döll

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do bicarbonato de sódio (NaHCO3 no desempenho do reator anaeróbio batelada sequencial com biomassa imobilizada tratando vinhaça a 55 e a 35ºC. O reator foi preenchido com espuma de poliuretano e agitado a 300 rpm. A adaptação a 55ºC estendeu-se por 50 dias, tendo o reator sido alimentado com vinhaça (DQO de 0,3 a 1,0 g/L. Para a operação a 35ºC, procedeu-se inicialmente ao enriquecimento da população metanogênica, durante 21 dias, com substrato à base de etanol (2,5 gDQO/L. Posteriormente, cargas orgânicas volumétricas (COV de 0,85 a 5,70 gDQO/L.d foram aplicadas no reator a 55ºC, com suplementação de 1,2 a 0,4 gHCO3-/gDQO. A 35ºC, o reator foi submetido a COV de 2,85 a 36,0 gDQO/L.d com 0,4 a 0,2 gHCO3-/gDQO. A remoção de DQO variou de 43 a 78% a 55ºC e de 75 a 85% a 35ºC. A suplementação de alcalinidade mostrou-se essencial para a estabilidade do processo, sendo requerida em menor quantidade a 35ºC.The influence of the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating vinasse at 55 and 35ºC was evaluated. The reactor was filled with polyurethane foam and agitated at 300 rpm. The acclimatization period at 55ºC lasted 50 days, and the reactor was fed with vinasse (COD from 0.3 to 1.0 g/L. A previous enrichment of methanogenic population was provided for the reactor operated at 35ºC, feeding it with an ethanol based substrate (2.5 gCOD/L during 21 days. Further on, organic loading rates (OLR ranging from 0.85 to 5.70 gCOD/L.d were applied to the reactor at 55ºC, supplemented with 1.2 to 0.4 gHCO3-/gCOD. At 35ºC the reactor was subjected to OLR ranging from 2.85 to 36.0 gCOD/L.d with 0.4 to 0.2 gHCO3-/gCOD. COD removal ranged from 43 to 78% at 55ºC and from 75 to 85% at 35ºC. Alkalinity supplementation was found to be essential for process stability, but the amount required was lower at 35ºC.

  2. Efeito do bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento de vinhaça em AnSBBR operado a 55 e 35ºC / Effect of the sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of vinasse in AnSBBR operated at 55 and 35ºC

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Magdalena Ribas, Döll; Eugenio, Foresti.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do bicarbonato de sódio (NaHCO3) no desempenho do reator anaeróbio batelada sequencial com biomassa imobilizada tratando vinhaça a 55 e a 35ºC. O reator foi preenchido com espuma de poliuretano e agitado a 300 rpm. A adaptação a 55ºC estendeu-se por 50 dias, tendo o reator si [...] do alimentado com vinhaça (DQO de 0,3 a 1,0 g/L). Para a operação a 35ºC, procedeu-se inicialmente ao enriquecimento da população metanogênica, durante 21 dias, com substrato à base de etanol (2,5 gDQO/L). Posteriormente, cargas orgânicas volumétricas (COV) de 0,85 a 5,70 gDQO/L.d foram aplicadas no reator a 55ºC, com suplementação de 1,2 a 0,4 gHCO3-/gDQO. A 35ºC, o reator foi submetido a COV de 2,85 a 36,0 gDQO/L.d com 0,4 a 0,2 gHCO3-/gDQO. A remoção de DQO variou de 43 a 78% a 55ºC e de 75 a 85% a 35ºC. A suplementação de alcalinidade mostrou-se essencial para a estabilidade do processo, sendo requerida em menor quantidade a 35ºC. Abstract in english The influence of the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating vinasse at 55 and 35ºC was evaluated. The reactor was filled with polyurethane foam and agitated at 300 rpm. The acclimatization period at 55ºC lasted 50 days, and the reacto [...] r was fed with vinasse (COD from 0.3 to 1.0 g/L). A previous enrichment of methanogenic population was provided for the reactor operated at 35ºC, feeding it with an ethanol based substrate (2.5 gCOD/L) during 21 days. Further on, organic loading rates (OLR) ranging from 0.85 to 5.70 gCOD/L.d were applied to the reactor at 55ºC, supplemented with 1.2 to 0.4 gHCO3-/gCOD. At 35ºC the reactor was subjected to OLR ranging from 2.85 to 36.0 gCOD/L.d with 0.4 to 0.2 gHCO3-/gCOD. COD removal ranged from 43 to 78% at 55ºC and from 75 to 85% at 35ºC. Alkalinity supplementation was found to be essential for process stability, but the amount required was lower at 35ºC.

  3. In vitro bioactivity of soda lime borate glasses with substituted SrO in sodium phosphate solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Marzouk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Borate glasses with the basic composition 0.6B2O3·0.2Na2O·0.2CaO and SrO progressively substituting CaO were prepared and characterized for their bone-bonding ability. The obtained glasses were thermally treated and converted to their glass-ceramic derivatives. In this study, FTIR spectral analyses were done for the prepared glasses and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in a sodium phosphate solution for extended times. The appearance of two IR bands within the spectral range 550–680 cm-1 after immersion confirms the formation of hydroxyapatite. X-ray diffraction studies and scanning electron microscope analysis supported the obtained infrared spectroscopy results. The solubility test (measurements of the weight loss in aqueous sodium phosphate solution was conducted for measuring the dissolution of both glassy and crystalline derivatives to find out the role of SrO. The corrosion behaviour of the glasses and glass-ceramics indicate the increase of weight loss with the increase of SrO content. Different suggested proposals were introduced to explain this abnormal behaviour.

  4. Comparison of two cathartic preparations, peg-electrolytes solution and sodium phosphate salts, as means for large bowel preparation for colonoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Antonakopoulos, I. Kyrlagkitsis, V. Xourgias, D.G. Karamanolis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The ideal bowel preparation for colonoscopy must combine the characteristics of effectiveness with the least side effects. We compared the relatively novel cathartic preparation of sodium phosphate salts (Fleet Phospho-sodaR with the widely used PEG-electrolytes solution (Klean-prepR. Fiftytwo consecutive patients referred for colonoscopy were randomised to receive either sodium phospate salts or PEG electrolytes. The evaluation of the two preparations was based on two separate questionnaires, one completed by the endoscopist who ignored the kind of bowel preparation used and the other by the patient. Bowel preparation with sodium phospate salts was more effective in bowel cleansing and better tolerated than PEG-electrolytes solution in terms of difficulty in intake and swallowing, fatigue, the presence of colicky abdominal pain, flatulence, vomiting and perianal irritation (p<0,05. Key words: cathartic preparation, PEG-electrolytes, sodium phosphate salts

  5. Localized corrosion of alloys C-276 and 625 in aerated sodium chloride solutions at 25 to 200 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two molybdenum-bearing nickel alloys, Alloy C-276 and Alloy 625, were previously identified for consideration as candidate container materials for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program. Because of the paucity of data for the localized corrosion behaviour of these passive alloys under conditions that may be experienced in a disposal vault, this project was undertaken to study the crevice and pitting corrosion of Alloys C-276 and 625 in chloride solutions at elevated temperatures. Electrochemical and immersion tests have been conducted in neutral sodium chloride solutions (0.1 wt% to saturated) at 25 to 200 degrees C, in an attempt to identify the conditions under which localized corrosion occurs and to relate the actual corrosion behaviour to that expected on the basis of electrochemical studies. Cyclic polarization studies showed that the passivation breakdown potentials move rapidly to more active values with increasing temperatures. Above 100 degrees C the resistance to localized corrosion is greatly reduced. The results of the immersion tests are presented in the form of T versus (C1-) diagrams. These susceptibility diagrams suggest that there is a limiting crevice-corrosion temperature for each alloy in aerated, neutral sodium chloride solutions. Below this temperature corrosion does not occur, regardless of the chloride concentration. The values of the limiting crevice-corrosion temperatures were in the range 100 to 125 degrees C for Alloy C-276 and 100 to 115 degrees C for Alloy 625. Such values suggest that saturation of the chloride solutions by surface boiling could occur without the initiation of localized corrosion. These electrochemical results indicate that a large safety margin for susceptibility to localized corrosion might be found below 100 degrees C

  6. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; HillingsØ, Jens

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophageal bicarbonate secretion and thus contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of the drug in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In nine healthy volunteers, oesophageal "steady state" perfusion of a 10 cm open segment of distal oesophagus was performed twice in random order. The volunteers were pretreated with either 60 mg/day omeprazole for three days and 80 mg intravenous omeprazole before perfusion or 600 mg/day ranitidine for three days and 50 mg/h intravenously during the perfusion. Saliva and samples of aspirate from the perfused oesophagus and stomach were collected and bicarbonate concentrations were measured. RESULTS: The median rates (95% confidence intervals) of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203) mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and gastric bicarbonate contaminating the oesophagus accounted for 14% and 3%, respectively, of total oesophageal bicarbonate output. CONCLUSIONS: Bicarbonate secretory capacity of the human oesophagus is less than previously assumed, and the clinical relevance of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate for mucosal defence may be overestimated. As omeprazole and ranitidine did not affect bicarbonate secretion differently there was no evidence that omeprazole acts on bicarbonate secretory cells in the oesophageal mucosa.

  7. A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook Jae Yoo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident.

  8. A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

  9. Study of gaseous iodine absorption in water and aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were done in an agitated vessel containing the solution at its bottom; gaseous iodine was flowing above the liquid surface. Study of absorption rate versus gaseous iodine concentration, product concentrations in solution, gaseous flow rate, stirring rate of the solution and temperature shows three regimes: in water, the rate controlling phenomenon is the liquid side diffusion; in concentrated soda solutions (>0.25M/l), gaseous phase diffusion is rate controlling. In dilute soda solutions, product diffusion rates in the two phases and chemical reaction kinetics both determine absorption rate

  10. 3-Ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for 6061-Alloy in Sodium Hydroxide Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Reena Kumari, P. D.; Jagannath Nayak; Nityananda Shetty, A.

    2011-01-01

    The inhibition action of 3-ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (EAMT) on the corrosion of 6061-Al alloy in different concentrations of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution has been investigated at different temperatures, using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic techniques. The surface morphology of the metal surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the presence of EAMT in sodium hydroxide soluti...

  11. Differential Responses of Two Lactuca sativa Varieties to Bicarbonate-Induced Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chebbi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron chlorosis induced by bicarbonate is very common in calcareous soils, where bicarbonate (HCO3- ions are present at high concentrations. In this study, morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of two Lactuca sativa varieties (Romaine and Vista to bicarbonate induced iron deficiency were investigated. The culture was conducted on nutrient solution containing 5 µM Fe and 10 mM NaHCO3, in a growth chamber with controlled conditions. After 14 days of bicarbonate treatment, the two varieties seedling showed a slight yellowing of young leaves associated with a significant decline of plant biomass, leaf number and area. Furthermore, the concentrations of the nutrient elements (potassium, magnesium, iron and calcium in leaves and roots of two lettuce varieties were modified. In roots of bicarbonate treated plants, the Fe-chelate reductase activity was increased as compared to control in both varieties. PEPC activity was enhanced only in Vista variety. Moreover, Fe deficiency induced a small change in the photosynthetic parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence, especially in Romaine variety. These changes are accompanied by decreases in ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco activity. These findings indicated that Vista variety could survive at low iron supply.

  12. Effects of hypertonic sodium chloride solution on the electrophysiologic alterations caused by bupivacaine in the dog heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalabrini A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various hypertonic solutions on the intraventricular conduction, ventricular repolarization and the arrhythmias caused by the intravenous (iv injection of bupivacaine (6.5 mg/kg were studied in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized mongrel dogs. Hypertonic solutions, given iv 5 min before bupivacaine, were 7.5% (w/v NaCl, 5.4% (w/v LiCl, 50% (w/v glucose (2,400 mOsm/l, 5 ml/kg, or 20% (w/v mannitol (1,200 mOsm/l, 10 ml/kg. Bupivacaine induced severe arrhythmias and ventricular conduction and repolarization disturbances, as reflected by significant increases in QRS complex duration, HV interval, IV interval and monophasic action potential duration, as well as severe hemodynamic impairment. Significant prevention against ventricular electrophysiologic and hemodynamic disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias was observed with 7.5% NaCl (percent increase in QRS complex duration: 164.4 ± 21.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 74.7 ± 14.1% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in HV interval: 131.4 ± 16.1% in the non-pretreated group vs 58.2 ± 7.5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in monophasic action potential duration: 22.7 ± 6.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 9.8 ± 6.3% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent decrease in cardiac index: -46 ± 6% in the non-pretreated group vs -28 ± 5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05. The other three hypertonic solutions were ineffective. These findings suggest an involvement of sodium ions in the mechanism of hypertonic protection.

  13. Interactions of glutamine dipeptides with sodium dodecyl sulfate in aqueous solution measured by volume, conductivity, and fluorescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Ion-ion and ion-polar group interactions are dominant interactions. ? The SDS addition and temperature increase cause a dehydration effect on dipeptides. ? The addition of dipeptide in water decreases the ccmc of SDS. ? Enthalpy-entropy compensation takes place during micellization. ? Micelle aggregation number was decreased by addition of glutamine dipeptides. - Abstract: Densities, conductivities, and fluorescence spectra of {sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) + glutamine dipeptide + water} mixtures were measured as a function of temperature. The density data have been utilized to calculate apparent molar volumes, standard partial molar volumes (V2,?o), standard partial molar volumes of transfer from water to aqueous SDS solutions (?tVo), the hydration number, partial molar expansibility (E?o), and Hepler's constant of glutamine dipeptides. The critical micellar concentration (ccmc) and the degree of counterion dissociation of SDS micelles obtained from electrical conductivity data have been estimated at various concentrations of glutamine dipeptide. Thermodynamic parameters of micellization of SDS in aqueous dipeptide solutions have been determined from ccmc values and an enthalpy-entropy compensation effect was observed for the ternary systems. The pyrene fluorescence spectra were used to study the change of micropolarity produced by the interactrity produced by the interaction of SDS with glutamine dipeptide, and the aggregation behavior of SDS. The results have been interpreted in terms of solute-solvent interactions and structural changes in the mixed solutions.

  14. Sodium Sulfate Separation from Aqueous Alkaline Solutions via Crystalline Urea-Functionalized Capsules: Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custelcean, Radu [ORNL; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V [ORNL; Rajbanshi, Arbin [ORNL; Wan, Shun [ORNL; Moyer, Bruce A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of sodium sulfate with a tripodal tris-urea receptor (L1) from aqueous alkaline solutions have been measured in the 15 55 C temperature range, with the goal of identifying the optimal conditions for efficient and quick sulfate removal from nuclear wastes. The use of radiolabeled Na235SO4 provided a practical way to monitor the sulfate concentration in solution by liquid scintillation counting. Our results are consistent with a two-step crystallization mechanism, involving relatively quick dissolution of crystalline L1 followed by the rate-limiting crystallization of the Na2SO4(L1)2(H2O)4 capsules. We found that temperature exerted relatively little influence over the equilibrium sulfate concentration, which ranged between 0.004 and 0.011 M. This corresponds to 77 91% removal of sulfate from a solution containing 0.0475 M initial sulfate concentration, as found in a typical Hanford waste tank. The apparent pseudo-first-order rate constant for sulfate removal increased 20-fold from 15 to 55 C, corresponding to an activation energy of 14.1 kcal/mol. At the highest measured temperature of 55 C, 63% and 75% of sulfate was removed from solution within 8 h and 24 h, respectively.

  15. O efeito protetor do bicarbonato de sodio na nefropatia induzida por contraste radiologico em ratos / Protective effect of sodium bicarbonate on radiological contrast medium-induced nephropathy in rats / Efecto protector del bicarbonato de sodio en nefropatia inducida por contraste radiologico en ratones

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria de Fatima Fernandes, Vattimo; Juliana Guareschi dos, Santos.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrastes radiológicos iodados - CI são causa de lesão renal aguda - LRA. Avaliar o efeito renoprotetor do bicarbonato de sódio (Bic) sobre a função renal (clearance de creatinina, Jaffé, Clcr-ml/min/100g) e o perfil oxidativo (excreção de peróxidos, PU e de malondealdeído urinários, FOX-2 e TBARs, [...] nmol/mgCr ) em ratos com CI. Ratos machos adultos Wistar, 250-300g, tratados 1x/dia, por 5 dias, foram divididos nos grupos: Salina (solução salina 0,9%, 3ml/kg/dia, intraperitoneal-i.p.); CI (ioxitalamato de meglumina e sódio, 3ml/kg, i.p); Bic+Salina (Bic 3ml/kg, i.p, 1 hora antes e 1 hora depois da Salina); Bic+CI (Bic 3ml/kg, i.p, 1 hora antes e 1 hora depois do CI). CI induziu LRA e o Bic confirmou seu efeito renoprotetor antioxidante (Clcr/TBARs/PU Salina: 0,59±0,03/0,11±0,02/1,29±0,24 vs Bic+Salina 0,58±0,03/0,13±0,02/1,32±0,64 vs CI 0,22±0,02A/0,19±0,02A/4,77±0, 24A vs Bic+CI 0,51±0,04B/0,13±0,3B/1,80± 0,04B, A/B p Abstract in spanish Contrastes radiológicos iodados - CI son causa de lesión renal aguda - LRA. Evaluar el efecto renoprotector del bicarbonato de sodio (Bic) en la función renal (clearance de creatinina, Jaffé, Clcr-ml/min/100g) y el perfil oxidativo (excreción de peróxidos, PU y de malondealdehido urinarios, FOX-2 e [...] TBARs, nmol/mgCr) en ratones con CI. Ratones machos adultos Wistar, 250-300g, tratados 1x/día durante 5 días, fueron divididos en grupos: Salina (solución salina 0,9%, 3ml/kg/día, intraperitoneal-i.p.); CI (ioxitalamato de meglumina y sodio, 3ml/kg, i.p); Bic+Salina (Bic 3ml/kg, i.p, 1 hora antes y 1 hora después de la Salina); Bic+CI (Bic 3ml/kg, i.p, 1 hora antes y 1 hora después del CI). CI indujo LRA y el Bic confirmó su efecto renoprotector antioxidante (Clcr/TBARs/PU Salina: 0,59±0,03/0,11±0,02/1,29±0,24 vs Bic+Salina 0,58±0,03/0,13±0,02/1,32±0,64 vs CI 0,22±0,02A/0,19±0,02A/ 4,77±0,24A vs Bic+CI 0,51±0,04B /0,13±0,3B/1,80±0,04B,A/B p Abstract in english Radiological iodinated contrasts (IC) agents cause acute kidney injury (AKI). To evaluate the renoprotective effect of sodium bicarbonate (Bic) on renal function (creatinine clearance {Clcr}, Jaffé, and Clcr mL·min-1?100 g-1) and the oxidative profile (peroxide excretion, urinary peroxides, urinary [...] malondialdehyde, FOX-2 expression, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance {TBARS; nmol/mg Cr}) in rats treated with an IC agent. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250 - 300 g were treated once daily for 5 days with one of the following treatments: saline (0.9%, 3 mL·kg-1?day-1intraperitoneally {i.p.}), IC agent (sodium and meglumine ioxitalamate, 3 mL/kg, i.p.), Bic + Saline (3-mL/kg Bic, i.p., 1 h before and after saline treatment), and Bic + IC (3-mL/kg Bic, i.p., 1 h before and after the IC treatment). The IC agent induced AKI, and the antioxidant renoprotective effect of Bic was confirmed (Clcr/TBARS/urinary peroxide: saline group, 0.59 ± 0.03/0.11 ± 0.02/1.29 ± 0.24; Bic + Saline group, 0.58 ± 0.03/0.13 ± 0.02/1.32 ± 0.64; IC group, 0.22 ± 0.02/0.19 ± 0.02/4.77 ± 0.24; Bic + CI group, 0.51 ± 0.04/0.13 ± 0.3/1.80 ± 0.04; p

  16. Formulation and in vivo evaluation of sodium alendronate spray-dried microparticles intended for lung delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Letícia; Fattal, Elias; Tasso, Leandro; Freitas, Gabrielle C; Carregaro, Adriano B; Guterres, Sílvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Tsapis, Nicolas

    2011-06-30

    Spray-dried powders for lung delivery of sodium alendronate (SA) were prepared from hydroalcoholic solutions. Formulations display geometric particle size below to 12 ?m and spherical shape associated to a hollow structure. The addition of leucine and ammonium bicarbonate leads to porous particles with rough surfaces. The tapped density ranges from 0.016 to 0.062 g/cm(3), decreasing with the increase of the leucine concentration. For all formulations, the calculated aerodynamic diameters are lower than 5 ?m. The in vitro aerodynamic evaluation shows that all powders present a high emitted fraction of 100%, a fine particle fraction ranging from 34.4% to 62.0% and an alveolar fraction ranging from to 23.7% to 42.6%. An optimized sample was evaluated regarding sodium alendronate acute pulmonary toxicity and lung bioavailability. The bronchoalveolar lavage study shows that the intratracheal administration of sodium alendronate dry powder and sodium alendronate aqueous solution do not induce significant increases of lung toxicity indicators as compared with the positive control. Moreover, the intratracheal administration of sodium alendronate dry powder results in a 6.23 ± 0.83% bioavailability, a 3.5-fold increase as compared to oral bioavailability. Finally, these results suggest that sodium alendronate pulmonary delivery could be a new and promising administration route. PMID:21396412

  17. Bicarbonate ingestion has no ergogenic effect on consecutive all out sprint tests in BMX elite cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, Mikel; Peinado, Ana B; Calderón, Francisco J; Sampedro, Javier; Castillo, Manuel J; Benito, Pedro J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on consecutive "all out" sprint tests, analyzing the acid-base status and its influence on performance and perceived effort. Ten elite bicycle motocross (BMX) riders (20.7 ± 1.4 years, training experience 8-12 years) participated in this study which consisted of two trials. Each trial consisted of three consecutive Wingate tests (WTs) separated by 15 min recovery. Ninety minutes prior to exercise subjects ingested either NaHCO(3) (-) (0.3 g kg(-1) body weight) or placebo. Blood samples were collected for the assessment of blood acid-base status: bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3) (-)]), pH, base excess (BE) and blood lactate concentration ([La(-)]). Performance variables of peak power (PP), mean power (MP), time to peak power and fatigue index were calculated for each sprint. Significant differences (p BMX cyclists. PMID:21465247

  18. Ionic liquid electrolytes with various sodium solutes for rechargeable Na/NaFePO4 batteries operated at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongittharom, Nithinai; Wang, Chueh-Han; Wang, Yi-Chen; Yang, Cheng-Hsien; Chang, Jeng-Kuei

    2014-10-22

    NaFePO4 with an olivine structure is synthesized via chemical delithiation of LiFePO4 followed by electrochemical sodiation of FePO4. Butylmethylpyrrolidinium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BMP-TFSI) ionic liquid (IL) with various sodium solutes, namely NaBF4, NaClO4, NaPF6, and NaN(CN)2, is used as an electrolyte for rechargeable Na/NaFePO4 cells. The IL electrolytes show high thermal stability (>350 °C) and nonflammability, and are thus ideal for high-safety applications. The highest conductivity and the lowest viscosity of the electrolyte are obtained with NaBF4. At an elevated temperature (above 50 °C), the IL electrolyte is more suitable than a conventional organic electrolyte for the sodium cell. At 75 °C, the measured capacity of NaFePO4 in a NaBF4-incorporated IL electrolyte is as high as 152 mAh g(-1) (at 0.05 C), which is near the theoretical value (154 mAh g(-1)). Moreover, 60% of this capacity can be retained when the charge-discharge rate is increased to 1 C. PMID:25295391

  19. INITIAL GROWTHING OF PARICÁ (Schizolobium amazonicum UNDER NUTRIENT OMISSION AND SODIUM IN NUTRITIVE SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Lara Lanza de Sá e Melo Marques

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the production of dry matter in leaves, stems and roots, to identify the effect of nutritional deficiencies, and to describe visual symptoms of macro and micronutrients deficiencies in Shizolobium amazonicum Herb. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse experiment in 13 treatments. The deficiencies due to macro and micronutrients markedly decreased the production of dry matter. The Schizolobium amazonicum showed different responses to treatments. In the first few weeks, the seeds were able to supply P in the necessary amount but, due to fast growth rates, N was the limiting factor at this stage. Nitrogen and Fe were the most limiting and Mg, S, and Cu, were the least limiting to growth. Sodium was also less limiting to growth.

  20. Evaluation of the dark pigment formation when mixing the sodium hypochlorite solution in different concentrations, with chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Duarte IRALA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the dark pigment formation when mixing sodium hypochlorite solution in different concentrations, with chlorhexidine gluconate. Material and methods: 1 mL of sodium hypochlorite solution was mixed at concentrations of 0.5%, 1 to 1.5%, 2.5 to 3%, 4.5 to 5% with 1 mL of chlorhexidine at 0.2% in Petri dishes. After 5 minutes, the reading of the dishes was done. Results and conclusion: Through the results obtained, it can be observed that in all mixtures there was the formation of a dark pigment.

  1. Experimental investigation of aluminum complexing with sodium ion and of gallium and iron (III) speciation in natural solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to acquire thermodynamic data on the aqueous complexes forming between sodium and aluminum, gallium and hydroxide, and iron (III) and hydroxide. These data will provide for a better understanding of the transport and distribution of these elements in surface and hydrothermal fluids. Stability constants of the sodium-aluminate complex (Na Al(OH)4 deg.) were obtained from boehmite solubility measurements at temperatures from 125 to 350 deg. C in alkaline solutions containing from 0.1 to 1 mol/L sodium. Complementary potentiometric measurements were performed with a sodium selective electrode, between 75 and 200 deg C (the potentiometric study was carried out by Gleb Pokrovski). Analyses of these data within the framework of the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) model allowed determination of the HKF parameters for Na Al(OH)4 deg. and calculation of its thermodynamic properties to 800 deg. C and 5 kb. The results of this work show that Na Al(OH)4 deg. complex formation increases significantly the solubility of aluminum-bearing minerals and consequently aluminum mobility in hydrothermal fluids. Gallium speciation in surface and hydrothermal fluids is dominated by the negatively charged species, Ga(OH)4-. The thermodynamic properties of this species were determined from of OEGaOOH solubility measurements as a function of pH and temperature from 25 to 250 deg. C. In general, the variation of gallium aqueous speciation with pH is similar to that of aluminum other than at temperatures less than 200 deg. C over the pH range 3 - 6. This difference can account for the independent behavior of gallium versus aluminum in numerous low temperature natural systems. The thermodynamic properties of Fe(OH)3 deg. which dominates the speciation of Fe(III) in surface waters and Fe(OH)4- were determined from hematite solubility measurements as a function of pH, oxygen pressure and temperature from 110 to 300 deg. C. The available thermodynamic data on other aqueous iron (II) and iron (III) hydroxide complexes and solid iron (III) oxides and hydroxides were re-examined. A coherent set of thermodynamic data for the minerals and aqueous species in the system Fe(III)-O-H was generated in this study. These resulting data allows accurate calculation of the solubility of iron (III) oxides and hydroxides as a function of pH, specific surface area, and aging time (for amorphous hydroxide). (author)

  2. Synthesis, Optical and Thermal studies on novel nonlinear optical L–Histidine Sodium Thiosulphate crystal by solution growth technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radha Ramanan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A semi organic non-linear optical single crystal of L–Histidine Sodium Thiosulphate has been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were identified using single crystal X-ray analysis. The functional groups present in the crystal were identified using FTIR analysis. Optical absorption studies have confirmed that the grown crystal possesses less absorption in the entire visible region and UV cut-off is found to be at 230 nm. Thermal stability of the grown crystal was identified from TG-DTA analysis. The mechanical properties of the grown crystals have been studied using Vickers micro hardness tester for different loads. The presence of second harmonic generation (SHG for the grown crystal was confirmed by Kurtz powder technique.

  3. Complexing of Eu2+, Yb2+, and Es2+ with sodium tetraphenyl borate in aqueous-ethanol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bivalent lanthanides and actinides complexing with sodium tetraphenyl borate (NaTPB) in aqueous-ethanol solutions is studied by method of cocrystallization with Sr(Sm)SO4. On the basis of the investigation of Eu2+ and Yb2+ ion-exchange behaviour it is shown,that at NaTPB presence Ln2+ and An2+ form cation and neutral complexes. Complexing constants ?1 and ?2 are determined: 6.5 and 25.7 - for Yb2+, 1.7 and 52.7 - for Eu2+, 6.2 and 106.4 - for Es2+. From the regularity of complexing constants changing conclusion is made, that Es2+ hydrated ion size is less, than Yb2+ and Eu2+ ones

  4. AFM study of the early corrosion of a high strength steel in a diluted sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high strength steels employed as reinforcement in pre-stressed concrete structures are drawn wire steels of eutectoid composition with a pearlitic microstructure. This work is focused on the study, by atomic force microscopy, of the early stages of the corrosion of such steels as a consequence of their exposition to a sodium chloride solution. The obtained images show the pearlitic microstructure of the steel, with a preferential attack of the ferrite phase and the cementite acting as a cathode. The corrosion rate was determined by calculating the amount of material lost from a roughness analysis. The obtained results are in good agreement with the predictions of Galvelel's theory, according to which the corrosion rate slows down as the pit depth increases

  5. Fatigue behavior of alloy 600 in sodium chloride solution at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatigue crack growth (FCG) rates of mill annealed Alloy 600 in NaCI solution were studied by a fracture mechanics test method. Compact tension (CT) specimens were tested under load control with a sinusoidal wave form, in accordance with ASTM specification E647-83, to investigate the effects of environment, load frequency (f), load ratio (R=Pmin/Pmax). The FCG rates of Alloy 600, R=0.1, f=1Hz, were quite similar in air, distilled water, and NaCI (0.6 M, 0.1 M, and 0.001 M) solution at room temperature. Environmental enhancement effect on the FCG rate of Alloy 600 was not significant in NaCI solution. Variations of the load frequency (0.03Hz-3Hz) did not influence the FCG rates of Alloy 600 significantly in air and 0.1 M NaCI solution. The FCG rates of Alloy 600 in air and 0.1 M NaCI solution increased with increasing the load ratio. Compared with the corrosion effects, test results showed that the mechanical effects dominated on the FCG rates of Alloy 600 in chloride solution at room temperature. The SEM fractographs showed that significant striations and transgranular fracture modes were observed on tested specimens. (author)

  6. A method of calculating quartz solubilities in aqueous sodium chloride solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    The aqueous silica species that form when quartz dissolves in water or saline solutions are hydrated. Therefore, the amount of quartz that will dissolve at a given temperature is influenced by the prevailing activity of water. Using a standard state in which there are 1,000 g of water (55.51 moles) per 1,000 cm3 of solution allows activity of water in a NaCl solution at high temperature to be closely approximated by the effective density of water, pe, in that solution, i.e. the product of the density of the NaCl solution times the weight fraction of water in the solution, corrected for the amount of water strongly bound to aqueous silica and Na+ as water of hydration. Generally, the hydration of water correction is negligible. The solubility of quartz in pure water is well known over a large temperature-pressure range. An empirical formula expresses that solubility in terms of temperature and density of water and thus takes care of activity coefficient and pressure-effect terms. Solubilities of quartz in NaCl solutions can be calculated by using that equation and substituting pe, for the density of pure water. Calculated and experimentally determined quartz solubilities in NaCl solutions show excellent agreement when the experiments were carried out in non-reactive platinum, gold, or gold plus titanium containers. Reactive metal containers generally yield dissolved silica concentrations higher than calculated, probably because of the formation of metal chlorides plus NaOH and H2. In the absence of NaOH there appears to be no detectable silica complexing in NaCl solutions, and the variation in quartz solubility with NaCl concentration at constant temperature can be accounted for entirely by variations in the activity of water. The average hydration number per molecule of dissolved SiO2 in liquid water and NaCl solutions decreases from about 2.4 at 200??C to about 2.1 at 350??C. This suggests that H4SiO4 may be the dominant aqueous silica species at 350??C, but other polymeric forms become important at lower temperatures. ?? 1983.

  7. Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 ? m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 ? m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 ?V K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 ?V K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

  8. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate as a corrosion inhibitor of cold rolled steel in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Relationship between corrosion current density (icorr), inhibition efficiency (?p) and temperature with and without DDTC. (solid symbols: icorr, open symbols: ?p.) Highlights: ? DDTC can acts as a cathodic type inhibitor for CRS in HCl solution. ? The activation energy, Ea, increases with increasing the concentration of DDTC. ? The driving force for adsorption of DDTC on CRS is the increase in entropy. ? DDTC adsorbs on CRS surface probably by chemisorption and physisorption. ? Variation of DDTC results in different effect for time on inhibition efficiency. - Abstract: Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) as a corrosion inhibitor for cold rolled steel (CRS) in 0.5 M HCl solution was investigated by Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). All the data indicate that DDTC can inhibit the corrosion of CRS in HCl solution. Polarization data show that DDTC mainly acts as a good inhibitor though it can accelerate the anodic reaction somewhat. Adsorption of DDTC is found to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that both physisorption and chemisorption probably occur in the adsorption process. SEM and FTIR results further validate that DDTC can adsorb on CRS surface.

  9. Effect of sodium phosphate salts on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) 6000 at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precise density, sound velocity, water activity, and phase diagram measurements have been carried out on polyethylene oxide (PEO) in aqueous solutions of sodium di-hydrogen phosphate, di-sodium hydrogen phosphate, and tri-sodium phosphate over a range of temperatures at atmospheric pressure. The experimental density and sound velocity data are used to calculate the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility as a function of temperature and concentration. It was found that both of the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility of PEO in aqueous solutions increase by increasing temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes. The results show that the slope of constant water activity lines increased with increasing the temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes and the vapour pressure depression for an aqueous (PEO + sodium phosphate) system is more than the sum of those for the corresponding binary solutions. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and type of anion of salt on the salting-out effect of polyethylene oxide by sodium phosphate salts has been studied

  10. Epidural top-up solutions for emergency caesarean section: a comparison of preparation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, D N; Borra, P J; Yentis, S M

    2000-04-01

    We compared the preparation times of three solutions commonly used for epidural top-up for emergency Caesarean section. Twenty-two anaesthetists were asked to prepare fresh solutions in random order as quickly as possible: 0.5% bupivacaine 20 ml (B); 2% lidocaine 20 ml with 1:200,000 epinephrine (LE); and 0.5% bupivacaine 10 ml and 2% lidocaine 10 ml with 1:200,000 epinephrine and 8.4% sodium bicarbonate 2 ml (BLEB). Preparation times for B were approximately half of those for LE, which in turn were approximately half of those for BLEB (P = 0.0001). If local anaesthetic solutions with additives such as epinephrine or bicarbonate are prepared just before emergency Caesarean section, any possible reduction in onset time that they might afford may be offset by the additional preparation time required. PMID:10823102

  11. Adsorption properties of Cs by inorganic adsorbents in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption of Cs with five types of inorganic adsorbents (CST (Crystalline SilicoTitanate) powder, CST grain, synthetic mordenite powder, synthetic mordenite grain, and natural mordenite)) was carried out by batch methods in the aqueous solution of NaCl at room temperature, respectively. The concentration of Cs after the batch experiments decreased compared with the initial concentration of Cs when the ratio of the solution volume (ml) to the amount of the adsorbent (g) was 100 ml/g, and it was confirmed that the adsorbents used in the present study adsorbed Cs+ ion in the presence of Na+ and Cl- ions. (author)

  12. Solubility measurement of a metastable achiral crystal of sodium chlorate in solution growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinomi, Hiromasa; Horio, Atsushi; Harada, Shunta; Ujihara, Toru; Miura, Hitoshi; Kimura, Yuki; Tsukamoto, Katsuo

    2014-05-01

    The solubility of the metastable achiral monoclinic phase in NaClO3 crystallization from an aqueous solution, which appears prior to the nucleation of chiral crystals, was successfully measured in the range from 10 °C to 23 °C. Antisolvent crystallization method was used to obtain metastable crystals for the measurement. The solubility was determined to be about 1.6 times higher than that of the chiral stable cubic phase by observing growth or dissolution of the crystal in aqueous solution at the temperature and concentration of which is predetermined.

  13. Potentiodynamic investigation of electrochemical reduction of powder tellurium and silver telluride in sodium hydrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cathode polarization of Te and Ag2Te powders in NaO4 solutions of various concentration and at different temperatures is studied. It is shown that in case of cathode polarization in alkaline medium the powder Te and Ag2Te are reduced with transition into Te22- solution, oxide films being reduced in the first place on the surface of dispersed particles. Te and Ag2Te reduction occurs with participation of hydroxyl-ions. The reaction rate linearly grows with the increase of both: alkali concentration and temperature

  14. Thermodynamics of calcium tungstate with sodium carbonate solution interaction at 200-300 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparent (concentration) equilibrium constants, coefficients of Na2WO4 and Na2CO3 activity in mixed solutions and thermodynamic equilibrium constants in the 225-300 deg C temperature range are experimentally determined. The temperature dependences of equilibrium constants lg Kc and entropy of reaction ?G0 are determined

  15. Sodium Balance in Maintenance Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seoung Woo

    2012-01-01

    Sodium is the principal solute in the extracellular compartment and the major component of serum osmolality. In normal persons in the steady state, sodium homeostasis is achieved by a balance between the dietary intake and the urinary output of sodium, whereas in intermittent hemodialysis patients, sodium balance depends on dietary intake and sodium removal during hemodialysis. Thus, the main goal of hemodialysis is to remove precisely the amount of sodium that has accumulated during the inte...

  16. 1H NMR and IR study of temperature-induced phase transition of negatively charged poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide-co-sodium methacrylate) copolymers in aqueous solutions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starovoytova, Larisa; Sp?vá?ek, Ji?í; Trchová, Miroslava

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 43, ?. 12 (2007), s. 5001-5009. ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ?R GP203/07/P378 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : thermosensitive polyelectrolytes * poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide-co-sodium methacrylate) copolymers * aqueous solutions Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.248, year: 2007

  17. Mono Azo Dyes Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors for Dissolution of Aluminium in Sodium Hydroxide Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-juaid, Salih S.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of some mono azo dyes compounds on the dissolution of aluminium in 0.01 M NaOH solutions was studied using weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The percentage inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing concentration of inhibitor and with decreasing temperature. The inhibition mechanism was discussed on the basis of the formation of complex compound adsorbed on the metal surface. The adsorption process follows Frumkin isotherm. The effect of temper...

  18. Sodium chloride enhanced oligomerization of l-glutamic acid in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kong-Jiang; Yao, Nan; Li, Chen

    2005-08-01

    The presence of NaCl was found to significantly enhance the formation of longer peptides in N,N?-carbonyldiimidazole induced oligomerization of l-glutamic acid in homogeneous aqueous solution. The enhancement was detected in the presence of as low as 0.01-M NaCl and the highest yield of longer oligomers was achieved in the presence of 1-M NaCl. The possible prebiotic relevance is discussed

  19. Storage of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide as Ocean Bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, G. H.; Caldeira, K.

    2006-12-01

    Fossil fuels will likely remain the world's primary energy source for the foreseeable future. Practical and safe means of lowering the associated CO2 emissions are therefore needed to avoid potentially catastrophic climate and environmental impacts. The ocean should not be ignored in assessing both CO2 effects and mitigation options. Accelerated weathering of limestone (AWL) is a candidate technology that could significantly contribute to lowering CO2 emissions as well as to chemically mitigating the effects of ocean acidification. Our research has shown that contacting flue gas (from fossil fuel combustion) with seawater and limestone presents a simple, low-tech way of spontaneously reacting CO2 out of waste gas streams to form a bicarbonate-rich solution via the reaction: CO2 + CaCO3 + H2O Ca2+ + 2HCO3-. (An analogous seawater process is already commercially used in some locations to remove flue gas SOx.) Our modeling studies show that disposing of the resulting calcium bicarbonate-rich solution in the ocean would provide effective, long-term carbon sequestration. It would also add carbonate alkalinity, thus countering the effects of CO2-caused ocean acidification on corals, shellfish, and other calcifying marine organisms. AWL reactors could be optimized for carbon storage or for mitigation of ocean acidification. Experiments have shown that seawater can tolerate >18x saturation before calcium carbonate precipitation is chemically initiated. It is therefore unlikely that once AWL effluent is in the ocean that degassing of some residual CO2 would lead to a reversal of the above reaction and subsequent carbonate precipitation. It is proposed that the cost, safety, impacts, and effectiveness of AWL be further evaluated as a means of mitigating CO2 from point sources, and of reducing the loss of marine calcification.

  20. Localized corrosion of nickel-based steam generator tubing alloys in sodium sulfate solutions containing thiosulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitting of steam generator tubing alloys 600, 800 and 690 was studied using chloride-free solutions containing aggressive thiosulfate ions, simulating events that may occur during plant outages when reduced sulfur in sludge piles reacts with incoming oxygen. All three alloys showed pitting at 60oC and potentials that would be easily attained in practice. The most aggressive condition is a molar ratio (sulfate to thiosulfate) of 40, irrespective of the ionic strength of the solution, reflecting the mutual electromigration of the anions into the pit cavity. The strong-acid anion (sulfate) is required to sustain acidification in the pit, while the thiosulfate is reduced to activating adsorbed sulfur on the pit surface. Extremely diluted solutions, in the micromolar range, continue to cause pitting. The conditions for intergranular corrosion are less specific, reflecting the lower corrosion resistance of the grain-boundary material in that case. Studies of oxygen reduction on alloy surfaces pre-exposed to hot water prior to low-temperature exposure have been carried out, and show that whilst the kinetics are quite slow, with increased Cr alloying being beneficial, they are adequate to sustain pitting in practice. (author)

  1. Standard practice for exposure of metals and alloys by alternate immersion in neutral 3.5% Sodium Chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for making alternate immersion stress corrosion tests in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) (). It is primarily for tests of aluminum alloys (Test Method G 47) and ferrous alloys, but may be used for other metals exhibiting susceptibility to chloride ions. It sets forth the environmental conditions of the test and the means for controlling them. Note 1 Alternate immersion stress corrosion exposures are sometimes made in substitute ocean water (without heavy metals) prepared in accordance with Specification D 1141. The general requirements of this present practice are also applicable to such exposures except that the reagents used, the solution concentration, and the solution pH should be as specified in Specification D 1141. 1.2 This practice can be used for both stressed and unstressed corrosion specimens. Historically, it has been used for stress-corrosion cracking testing, but is often used for other forms of corrosion, such as uniform, pitting, intergranular, and galvanic. ...

  2. Dispersion effect of sodium hexametaphosphate on the photocatalytic efficiency of a solution-combusted ZnO nanopowder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung; Choi, Gil Rak; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Jae Chun; Kim, Sun-Jae

    2012-11-01

    ZnO nanopowder was synthesized by using a unique method combusting a mixed water solution that contained an oxidant and a fuel. Zn(OH)2 powder was used as an oxidant (source material). Three kinds of fuels, glycine, carbohydrazide and urea, were respectively used to synthesize the ZnO nanopowder. Sodium hexametaphosphate was used as a dispersant to avoid aggregation of the ZnO nanoparticles in the solution. The zeta potential and the ion mobility of the dispersed ZnO nanoparticles were measured to evaluate the dispersion properties. The ZnO nanopowder synthesized with glycine showed highest zeta potential and ion mobility. A photocatalytic reaction was performed to evaluate the photocatalytic efficiency. The dispersion of the ZnO nanoparticles in waste water enhanced the Cu++ ion removal from the waste water. The Cu++ ions were completely removed in 15 h with dispersion. Without dispersion, however, they were not completely removed, not even in 35 h. This means that the dispersant changed even the extreme performance limit of the photocatalyst.

  3. Effects of hypertonic sodium chloride solution on the electrophysiologic alterations caused by bupivacaine in the dog heart

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Scalabrini; F., Corregiari; M. Rocha e, Silva.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various hypertonic solutions on the intraventricular conduction, ventricular repolarization and the arrhythmias caused by the intravenous (iv) injection of bupivacaine (6.5 mg/kg) were studied in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized mongrel dogs. Hypertonic solutions, given iv 5 min befo [...] re bupivacaine, were 7.5% (w/v) NaCl, 5.4% (w/v) LiCl, 50% (w/v) glucose (2,400 mOsm/l, 5 ml/kg), or 20% (w/v) mannitol (1,200 mOsm/l, 10 ml/kg). Bupivacaine induced severe arrhythmias and ventricular conduction and repolarization disturbances, as reflected by significant increases in QRS complex duration, HV interval, IV interval and monophasic action potential duration, as well as severe hemodynamic impairment. Significant prevention against ventricular electrophysiologic and hemodynamic disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias was observed with 7.5% NaCl (percent increase in QRS complex duration: 164.4 ± 21.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 74.7 ± 14.1% in the pretreated group, P

  4. Strong enhancement of trace mercury removal from aqueous solution with sodium thiosulfate by in situ formed Mn-(hydr)oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xixin; Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Yaan; Ma, Jun

    2014-11-15

    The effect of sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) on trace mercury removal from aqueous solution by in situ MnOx was investigated. Removal efficiency was studied at different molar ratios of Na2S2O3/Mn (0, 0.264, 0.593 and 1.582) and under changes in Mn dosage, reaction time and pH conditions. Additionally, the ionic strength and the mercury removal amount were examined to evaluate the efficiency of trace mercury removal. The results indicated that the presence of thiosulfate clearly improved removal of mercury from solution, and that increases in the ionic strength enhanced removal in a certain range of thiosulfate concentration. At neutral conditions, the mercury removal amount reached to maximum of 64 ?g/mg. It is proposed that the ability of thiosulfate to reduce some MnOx to Mn(2+) as well as transfer the uncharged mercury species to a negatively charged species [Formula: see text] improved trace mercury removal. The mechanism analysis revealed that ternary complexes or large aggregations may be formed because of surface complexation or electrostatic attraction. PMID:25086412

  5. Dispersion effect of sodium hexametaphosphate on the photocatalytic efficiency of a solution-combusted ZnO nanopowder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZnO nanopowder was synthesized by using a unique method combusting a mixed water solution that contained an oxidant and a fuel. Zn(OH)2 powder was used as an oxidant (source material). Three kinds of fuels, glycine, carbohydrazide and urea, were respectively used to synthesize the ZnO nanopowder. Sodium hexametaphosphate was used as a dispersant to avoid aggregation of the ZnO nanoparticles in the solution. The zeta potential and the ion mobility of the dispersed ZnO nanoparticles were measured to evaluate the dispersion properties. The ZnO nanopowder synthesized with glycine showed highest zeta potential and ion mobility. A photocatalytic reaction was performed to evaluate the photocatalytic efficiency. The dispersion of the ZnO nanoparticles in waste water enhanced the Cu++ ion removal from the waste water. The Cu++ ions were completely removed in 15 h with dispersion. Without dispersion, however, they were not completely removed, not even in 35 h. This means that the dispersant changed even the extreme performance limit of the photocatalyst.

  6. Dispersion effect of sodium hexametaphosphate on the photocatalytic efficiency of a solution-combusted ZnO nanopowder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung; Choi, Gil Rak; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Jae Chun [Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Jae [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    ZnO nanopowder was synthesized by using a unique method combusting a mixed water solution that contained an oxidant and a fuel. Zn(OH){sub 2} powder was used as an oxidant (source material). Three kinds of fuels, glycine, carbohydrazide and urea, were respectively used to synthesize the ZnO nanopowder. Sodium hexametaphosphate was used as a dispersant to avoid aggregation of the ZnO nanoparticles in the solution. The zeta potential and the ion mobility of the dispersed ZnO nanoparticles were measured to evaluate the dispersion properties. The ZnO nanopowder synthesized with glycine showed highest zeta potential and ion mobility. A photocatalytic reaction was performed to evaluate the photocatalytic efficiency. The dispersion of the ZnO nanoparticles in waste water enhanced the Cu{sup ++} ion removal from the waste water. The Cu{sup ++} ions were completely removed in 15 h with dispersion. Without dispersion, however, they were not completely removed, not even in 35 h. This means that the dispersant changed even the extreme performance limit of the photocatalyst.

  7. Conductivity measures coupled with treatment with ion-exchange resin for the assessment of sodium concentration in physiological fluids: analyses on artificial solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In humans, sodium is essential for the regulation of blood volume and pressure. During hemodialysis, sodium measurement is important to preserve the patient from hypo- or hyper-natremia Usually, sodium measurement is performed through laboratory equipment which is typically expensive, and requires manual intervention. We propose a new method, based on conductivity measurement after treatment of dialysate solution through ion-exchange resin. To test this method, we performed in vitro experiments. We prepared 40 ml sodium chloride (NaCl) samples at 280, 140, 70, 35, 17.5, 8.75, 4.375 mEq/l, and some mixed samples, i.e., with added potassium chloride (KCl) at different concentrations (4.375–17.5 mEq/l), to simulate the confounding factors in a conductivity-based sodium measurement. We measured the conductivity of all samples. Afterwards, each sample was treated for 1 min with 1 g of Dowex G-26 resin, and conductivity measured again. On average, the difference ? in the conductivity between mixed samples and corresponding pure NaCl samples (at the same NaCl concentration) was 20.9%. With treatment with the resin, it was 9.9%, only. We conclude that ion-exchange resin treatment coupled with conductivity measures may be a possible simple approach for continuous and automatic sodium measurement during hemodialysis

  8. Sodium-dependent bile salt transporters of the SCL10A Transporter Family: More than solute transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, M. Sawkat; Stieger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Summary The SLC10A transporter gene family consists of seven members and substrates transported by three members (SLC10A1, SLC10A2 and SLC10A6) are Na+-dependent. SLC10A1 (sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide or NTCP) and SLC10A2 (apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter or ASBT) transport bile salts and play an important role in maintaining enterohepatic circulation of bile salts. Solutes other than bile salts are also transported by NTCP. However, ASBT has not been shown to be a transporter for non-bile salt substrates. While the transport function of NTCP can potentially be used as liver function test, interpretation of such a test may be complicated by altered expression of NTCP in diseases and presence of drugs that may inhibit NTCP function. Transport of bile salts by NTCP and ASBT is inhibited by a number of drugs and it appears that ASBT is more permissive to drug inhibition than NTCP. The clinical significance of this inhibition in drug disposition and drug-drug interaction remains to be determined. Both NCTP and ASBT undergo post-translational regulations that involve phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, translocation to and retrieval from the plasma membrane and degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. These posttranslational regulations are mediated via signaling pathways involving cAMP, calcium, nitric oxide, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C (PKC) and protein phosphatases. There appears to be species difference in the substrate specificity and the regulation of plasma membrane localization of human and rodent NTCP. These differences should be taken into account when extrapolating rodent data for human clinical relevance and developing novel therapies. NTCP has recently been shown to play an important role in HBV and HDV infection by serving as a receptor for entry of these viruses into hepatocytes. PMID:24196564

  9. Sodium-dependent bile salt transporters of the SLC10A transporter family: more than solute transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, M Sawkat; Stieger, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The SLC10A transporter gene family consists of seven members and substrates transported by three members (SLC10A1, SLC10A2 and SLC10A6) are Na(+)-dependent. SLC10A1 (sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide [NTCP]) and SLC10A2 (apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter [ASBT]) transport bile salts and play an important role in maintaining enterohepatic circulation of bile salts. Solutes other than bile salts are also transported by NTCP. However, ASBT has not been shown to be a transporter for non-bile salt substrates. While the transport function of NTCP can potentially be used as liver function test, interpretation of such a test may be complicated by altered expression of NTCP in diseases and presence of drugs that may inhibit NTCP function. Transport of bile salts by NTCP and ASBT is inhibited by a number of drugs and it appears that ASBT is more permissive to drug inhibition than NTCP. The clinical significance of this inhibition in drug disposition and drug-drug interaction remains to be determined. Both NCTP and ASBT undergo post-translational regulations that involve phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, translocation to and retrieval from the plasma membrane and degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. These posttranslational regulations are mediated via signaling pathways involving cAMP, calcium, nitric oxide, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C (PKC) and protein phosphatases. There appears to be species difference in the substrate specificity and the regulation of plasma membrane localization of human and rodent NTCP. These differences should be taken into account when extrapolating rodent data for human clinical relevance and developing novel therapies. NTCP has recently been shown to play an important role in HBV and HDV infection by serving as a receptor for entry of these viruses into hepatocytes. PMID:24196564

  10. Water structure and its influence on the flotation of carbonate and bicarbonate salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, O; Celik, M S; Nickolov, Z S; Miller, J D

    2007-10-15

    Interfacial water structure is a most important parameter that influences the collector adsorption by salt minerals such as borax, potash and trona. According to previous studies, salts can be classified as water structure makers and water structure breakers. Water structure making and breaking properties of salt minerals in their saturated brine solutions are essential to explain their flotation behavior. In this work, water structure making-breaking studies in solutions of carbonate and bicarbonate salts (Na(2)CO(3), K(2)CO(3), NaHCO(3) and NH(4)HCO(3)) in 4 wt% D(2)O in H(2)O mixtures have been performed by FTIR analysis of the OD stretching band. This method reveals a microscopic picture of the water structure making/breaking character of the salts in terms of the hydrogen bonding between the water molecules in solution. The results from the vibrational spectroscopic studies demonstrate that carbonate salts (Na(2)CO(3) and K(2)CO(3)) act as strong structure makers, whereas bicarbonate salts (NaHCO(3) and NH(4)HCO(3)) act as weak structure makers. In addition, the changes in the OD band parameters of carbonate and bicarbonate salt solutions are in agreement with the viscosity characteristics of their solutions. PMID:17618642

  11. Thermodynamic and transport properties of l-serine and l-threonine in aqueous sodium acetate and magnesium acetate solutions at T=298.15K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparent molar volumes, V2,?, apparent molar adiabatic compressibilities, ?S,2,?, and relative viscosities, ?r, of l-serine and l-threonine in different concentrations of aqueous sodium acetate and magnesium acetate solutions at T=298.15K have been obtained from the measurements of densities, speed of sound, and flow time, respectively. These data are used to derive the partial molar volumes, V2o, partial molar adiabatic compressibilities, ?S,2o (at infinite dilution), and viscosity B-coefficients. The corresponding quantities of transfer (?tV0, ?t?S,2o, and ?tB), have been obtained. The activation free energy, ??2o?, for viscous flow has been calculated for l-serine and l-threonine in aqueous solutions. The hydration numbers, nH, side chain contributions, and interaction coefficients have also been calculated. The values of V2o, ?S,2o, viscosity B-coefficient, and ??2o? for viscous flow increase with the concentration of sodium acetate and magnesium acetate solutions. The influence of magnesium acetate on the transfer properties is greater than sodium acetate in aqueous solutions. A comparison of ?tV0, ??S,2o, and ?tB values for l-serine and l-threon-serine and l-threonine with the reported data for dl-?-alanine and dl-?-amino-n-butyric acid in aqueous sodium acetate and magnesium acetate solutions shows that the values are greater for l-serine and l-threonine at the same concentration of sodium acetate and magnesium acetate

  12. Different sodium salts cause different solute accumulation in the halophyte Prosopis strombulifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, A; Bertazza, G; Palacio, G; Luna, V

    2013-01-01

    The success of Prosopis strombulifera in growing under high NaCl concentrations involves a carefully controlled balance among different processes, including compartmentation of Cl(-) and Na(+) in leaf vacuoles, exclusion of Na(+) in roots, osmotic adjustment and low transpiration. In contrast, Na(2) SO(4) causes growth inhibition and toxicity. We propose that protection of the cytoplasm can be achieved through production of high endogenous levels of specific compatible solutes. To test our hypothesis, we examined endogenous levels of compatible solutes in roots and leaves of 29-, 40- and 48-day-old P. strombulifera plants grown in media containing various concentrations of NaCl, Na(2) SO(4) or in mixtures of both, with osmotic potentials of -1.0,-1.9 and -2.6?MPa, as correlated with changes in hydric parameters. At 24?h after the last pulse plants grown in high NaCl concentrations had higher relative water content and relatively higher osmotic potential than plants grown in Na(2) SO(4) (at 49?days). These plants also had increased synthesis of proline, pinitol and mannitol in the cytoplasm, accompanied by normal carbon metabolism. When the sulphate anion is present in the medium, the capacities for ion compartmentalisation and osmotic adjustment are reduced, resulting in water imbalance and symptoms of toxicity due to altered carbon metabolism, e.g. synthesis of sorbitol instead of mannitol, reduced sucrose production and protein content. This inhibition was partially mitigated when both anions were present together in the solution, demonstrating a detrimental effect of the sulphate ion on plant growth. PMID:22747518

  13. Mono Azo Dyes Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors for Dissolution of Aluminium in Sodium Hydroxide Solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Salih S., Al-Juaid.

    Full Text Available The effect of some mono azo dyes compounds on the dissolution of aluminium in 0.01 M NaOH solutions was studied using weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The percentage inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing concentration of inhibitor and with decreasing tempe [...] rature. The inhibition mechanism was discussed on the basis of the formation of complex compound adsorbed on the metal surface. The adsorption process follows Frumkin isotherm. The effect of temperature on the rate of corrosion in the absence and presence of these compounds was also studied. Some activated thermodynamic parameters were computed.

  14. Mono Azo Dyes Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors for Dissolution of Aluminium in Sodium Hydroxide Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih S. Al-Juaid

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of some mono azo dyes compounds on the dissolution of aluminium in 0.01 M NaOH solutions was studied using weight loss and galvanostatic polarization techniques. The percentage inhibition efficiency was found to increase with increasing concentration of inhibitor and with decreasing temperature. The inhibition mechanism was discussed on the basis of the formation of complex compound adsorbed on the metal surface. The adsorption process follows Frumkin isotherm. The effect of temperature on the rate of corrosion in the absence and presence of these compounds was also studied. Some activated thermodynamic parameters were computed.

  15. Inefficacy of osmotic backwash induced by sodium chloride salt solution in controlling SWRO membrane fouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, A. Mohammed; Al-Jeshi, Subhi; Saeed, Mohamed O.; Alreweli, Ali

    2014-12-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of osmotic backwash induced by high salt (NaCl) concentration solution on feed side of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes, online and offline, in controlling membrane fouling and therefore minimizing/eliminating the need for chemical cleaning. SWRO membranes were deliberately fouled by feeding seawater from an open intake located on the Arabian Gulf Coast without dosing chemicals. The fouled membranes were subjected to offline cleaning with the salt solution of up to 25 % concentration. Despite the partial removal of foulants from the membrane surface, SWRO membrane performance could not be restored, indicating the ineffectiveness of osmotic backwash in aiding offline salt cleaning. Similarly, online osmotic backwash was found to be not only ineffective in removing foulants from membrane surfaces but actually increased the fouling rate, as indicated by faster fouling rates compared to other cases. Although the driving force required for the osmotic backwash existed, the generated back flow proved to be insufficient to detach foulants from membrane surfaces. During the study period, the average SWRO membrane flux was maintained between 19 and 23 LMH, whereas the average generated back flow flux by high salt concentration solution was only 11 LMH, which was not adequate to remove foulants from membrane surfaces. Moreover, it seems that the membrane configuration as well as inherent microstructure of SWRO membrane places certain constraints on the osmotic backwash process and renders osmotic backwash ineffective in tackling SWRO membrane fouling. Hence, chemical cleaning is essential to restore SWRO membrane performance whenever fouling occurs, and the use of highly concentrated salt solution does not have any significant benefit. Membrane autopsy revealed only an insignificant accumulation of biofouling layer despite the absence of disinfection. However, it was shown that culturable biofilm bacteria species isolated from membranes tolerated exposure to high salt concentrations at pH range of 7-8. In addition, the overall findings of the study indicate that SWRO membranes can be operated in Gulf seawater at a recovery of 30 % without using any chemicals, such as coagulant, disinfectant and antiscalant, for an acceptable period of time without performing membrane cleaning. This is highly likely, if media filters are used in the pretreatment and SWRO membranes are operated at normal flux and recovery ratio.

  16. Aluminum speciation and equilibria in aqueous solution: II. The solubility of gibbsite in acidic sodium chloride solutions from 30 to 70°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Donald A.; Wesolowski, David J.

    1992-03-01

    The solubility of gibbsite in aqueous solutions was measured at ten ionic strengths made up of NaCl, HCl, and AlCl 3 at 30, 50, and 70°C with the initial acidity controlled by addition of HCl. The aluminum concentration was determined by ion chromatography, while the final equilibrium pH was measured at temperature. The equilibrium quotients for the reaction Al(OH) 3 + 3H + ai Al 3+ + 3H 2O were modeled using both an empirical equation including the Debye-Hückel term and the Pitzer ion interaction treatment which incorporated the relevant single electrolyte and mixing interaction parameters currently available in the literature. In the latter treatment only four independent variables, including ?A a, ?A acl, and two terms describing the equilibrium constant at infinite dilution, were needed to fit the data well within the projected experimental error. In general, these new equilibrium quotients differ markedly from results of all but the most recently published solubility studies. The thermodynamic parameters at infinite dilution are compared with those calculated from the individual components of the reaction available in the literature. These calculations lead to recommended thermodynamic values for the Gibbs energy of reaction at 25°C of -44.2 ± 0.3 kJ mol-1, a ?G f0(Al 3+, aq) of -487.7 ± 1.5 kJ mol-1, and a ?H f0(Al 3+, aq) of -540.9 kJ mol-1. No evidence for aluminum chloride complexation was found by comparing solubility experiments in the presence of varying concentrations of sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate and sodium chloride at 50°C and ca. 5 molal ionic strength.

  17. Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of 316LN SS in Acidified Sodium Chloride Solution at Applied Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonguzhali, A.; Pujar, M. G.; Mallika, C.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    2015-05-01

    The influence of acidified 1 M NaCl solution by addition of 2 ml/L of HCl on the cyclic plastic deformation of AISI Type 316LN SS containing 0.07 wt.% and 0.22 wt.% N was investigated as a function of the applied potentials. The corrosion fatigue (CF) behavior of stainless steel (SS) was explained vis-a-vis the dislocation behavior, the propensity to form microcracks, and the evolution of the current transients based on the studies carried out at both room-temperature and boiling conditions. CF experiments were conducted using round tensile specimens at a stress ratio of 0.5 and a frequency of 0.1 Hz. Two different kinds of damage mechanisms were observed (I) the damage mechanism in the stable-passive state was correlated with the localization of the anodic dissolution due to a depassivation-repassivation process, whereas (II) the cyclic stress induced pitting corrosion in the metastable pitting state, which resulted in formation of microcracks. The study of the microcracking process and its evolution is a key to the physical mechanism by which the fatigue life of stainless steels would be affected in an aqueous corrosive solution under the applied potential.

  18. Inhibitive effect of some thiadiazole derivatives on C-steel corrosion in neutral sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical techniques were used to investigate the effect of concentration of three new thiadiazole derivatives (I-III) on the corrosion behavior of C-steel in 0.5 M NaCl solution through the analysis of electrochemical measurements including open circuit potential (OCP), Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Polarization curves showed that the compounds studied act as anodic type inhibitors, where the inhibition efficiency increases with increase in inhibitor concentration and decreases with rise in temperature. An adherent layer of inhibitor molecules on the surface is proposed to account for their inhibitive action in which the organic molecules adsorb on the active anodic sites following Langmuir isotherm. The thermodynamic parameters of adsorption and corrosion processes were determined and discussed. The results also indicated that pitting potential at higher anodic polarization of C-steel in 0.5 M NaCl solution becomes more positive the higher the concentration of the additive, suggesting that these inhibitors acts as retarding catalyst for pitting corrosion. EIS data confirm well the electrochemical dc results and the results are all in good agreement with the calculated quantum chemical HOMO and LUMO energies of the tested molecules, as well as with surface examination via scanning electron microscope.

  19. Corrosion Fatigue Behavior of 316LN SS in Acidified Sodium Chloride Solution at Applied Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonguzhali, A.; Pujar, M. G.; Mallika, C.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    2015-01-01

    The influence of acidified 1 M NaCl solution by addition of 2 ml/L of HCl on the cyclic plastic deformation of AISI Type 316LN SS containing 0.07 wt.% and 0.22 wt.% N was investigated as a function of the applied potentials. The corrosion fatigue (CF) behavior of stainless steel (SS) was explained vis-a-vis the dislocation behavior, the propensity to form microcracks, and the evolution of the current transients based on the studies carried out at both room-temperature and boiling conditions. CF experiments were conducted using round tensile specimens at a stress ratio of 0.5 and a frequency of 0.1 Hz. Two different kinds of damage mechanisms were observed (I) the damage mechanism in the stable-passive state was correlated with the localization of the anodic dissolution due to a depassivation-repassivation process, whereas (II) the cyclic stress induced pitting corrosion in the metastable pitting state, which resulted in formation of microcracks. The study of the microcracking process and its evolution is a key to the physical mechanism by which the fatigue life of stainless steels would be affected in an aqueous corrosive solution under the applied potential.

  20. SiO2-supported ferromagnetic catalysts for hydrogen generation from alkaline NaBH4 (sodium borohydride) solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferromagnetic elements Fe, Ni and Co were immobilized on the porous SiO2 to catalyze the hydrogen generation from aqueous alkaline NaBH4 (sodium borohydride). The porous SiO2 was prepared by silica-surfactant self-assembly and the ferromagnetic catalyst was prepared by chemical reduction. The ferromagnetic catalysts were characterized using TG/DTA (Thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis), BET, XRD (X-ray powder diffraction), ESEM/EDS (environmental scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy), XPS (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and VSM (vibration sample magnetometer) measurements. The surface area of porous SiO2 was affected by the molecular weight of surfactant. The relative catalytic activities in the generation of hydrogen from alkaline NaBH4 solution follow the order Co/SiO2 > Ni/SiO2 > Fe/SiO2. The rates of hydrogen generation using Co/SiO2, Ni/SiO2 and Fe/SiO2 catalysts in 20 ml of 5 wt.% NaBH4 solution at 313 K were 8701, 307 and 130 ml min?1 g?1-metal, respectively. It is found that the degree of metal-oxidation and crystal structure affected the catalytic activity. The hydrogen generation of NaBH4 in alkaline solution increased with increasing cobalt loading, of which the activation energy was 59 ± 2 kJ mol?1. - Highlights: ? Ferromagnetism/SiO2 was synthesized for hydrogen generation. ? The catalytic activities follow the order Co/SiO2 > Ni/SiO2 > Fe/SiO2. ? The ferromagnetic catalysts are stable and cheaper than ruthenium-coated catalysts

  1. Electrodeposition of nano-structured nickel-21% tungsten alloy and evaluation of oxygen reduction reaction in a 1% sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nano-structured nickel-21 at.% tungsten alloys were electrodeposited onto the copper substrates from unstirred sulfate-citrate-chloride-bromide-sodium tungstate electrolyte at 60 deg. C. The maximum particle sizes of the deposits, as estimated from the atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively were 125, 75, and 100 nm. The Tafel plot for oxygen reduction reaction in oxygenated unstirred 1% sodium hydroxide solution showed a Tafel slope of 130 mV/decade. There were minor variations in the limiting current density with a change in the particle size

  2. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. III. Study of gastric retention of a sodium citrate solution using an experimental model of metabolic acidosis in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracat, E C; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of sodium citrate solution 0.25 mEq/ml was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by orogastric infusion of 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water. The 3 solutions content was 2 ml/100 g weight of the animal. Six hours after the infusion, there was a moderate metabolic acidosis in the group with ammonium citrate. This 6 hour interval marked the beginning of the gastric emptying study. The test meal (sodium citrate 0.25 mEq/ml) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric emptying of sodium citrate was studied at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the infusion, and the results showed no differences between the 3 groups. The data suggest that the duodenal receptors to pH were more effective do determine the pattern of gastric response than the acidosis. PMID:1339143

  3. Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steels in Neutral and Acidified Sodium Chloride Solutions by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, L. M.; Kolady, M. R.; Vinje, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the corrosion performance of three alloys by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and to compare the results with those obtained during a two-year atmospheric exposure study.' Three alloys: AL6XN (UNS N08367), 254SM0 (UNS S32154), and 304L (UNS S30403) were included in the study. 304L was included as a control. The alloys were tested in three electrolyte solutions which consisted of neutral 3.55% NaC1, 3.55% NaC1 in 0.lN HC1, and 3.55% NaC1 in 1.ON HC1. These conditions were expected to be less severe, similar, and more severe respectively than the conditions at NASA's Kennedy Space Center launch pads.

  4. Atomistic models of ion and solute transport by the sodium-dependent secondary active transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdravkovic, Igor; Zhao, Chunfeng; Lev, Bogdan; Cuervo, Javier Eduardo; Noskov, Sergei Yu

    2012-02-01

    The recent determination of high-resolution crystal structures of several transporters offers unprecedented insights into the structural mechanisms behind secondary transport. These proteins utilize the facilitated diffusion of the ions down their electrochemical gradients to transport the substrate against its concentration gradient. The structural studies revealed striking similarities in the structural organization of ion and solute binding sites and a well-conserved inverted-repeat topology between proteins from several gene families. In this paper we will overview recent atomistic simulations applied to study the mechanisms of selective binding of ion and substrate in LeuT, Glt, vSGLT and hSERT as well as its consequences for the transporter conformational dynamics. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane protein structure and function. PMID:22138368

  5. Investigation of the corrosion of pure magnesium in aerated sodium sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behavior of magnesium in aerated Na2SO4 solutions was investigated by current-voltage curves and electrochemical impedance measurement. Dissolved magnesium was quantitatively determined by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The electrochemical results show the occurrence of two concentration ranges. At low concentrations (0.001M-0.01M), low current densities and high resistance values were observed whereas at high concentrations (0.05M-0.5M) high currents and low resistances were measured. In parallel, atomic absorption spectrophotometry revealed that the number of electrons transferred depends on the Na2SO4 concentration. The assumption of the formation of labile or stable magnesium hydroxide allows us to explain the results obtained. (author)

  6. Selective removal of cesium from sodium nitrate solutions by potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded chabazites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate(II)s (KNiFC) were incorporated in the porous matrix of chabazite by successive impregnation with Ni(NO3)2 and K4Fe(CN)6. The loading percentage of KNiFC crystals on chabazite increased with repeated times of impregnation. The ion-exchange equilibrium of Cs+ in KNiFC-loaded chabazite (CFC) was attained within 2 days. Relatively large distribution coefficients of Cs+, Kd,Cs, above 104 cm3/g were obtained, irrespective of coexisting NaNO3 concentration. There is a large difference between the Kd value of 137Cs and those of other nuclides; the separation factor of Cs/Sr (?Cs/Sr = Kd,Cs/Kd,Sr) was estimated to be above 104. The breakthrough curve for Cs+ through the column packed with CFC exhibited a symmetrical S-shaped profile, and this exchanger proved to be effective for the selective removal of radiocesium from waste solutions containing highly concentrated NaNO3

  7. Clarification of sodium silicate solutions derived from diatomites, to improve their industrial expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    solutions of soluble silicates synthesized have been clarified in Costa Rica from diatomite in almost 50% of their initial coloration. Clarification and removal of iron oxides have been achieved in a higher order of 50% m/m expressed as Fe2 O3. Activated carbon treatment has clarified the scope of [31-57]%, but not significantly decreases the iron content. The application of NaClO to 3% m/m clarifies the scope of [28-51]%, and reduced iron by 48% m/m. The land alone has been shown that is not very effective filter to clarify, [0-14]%, but is effective for the stripping of iron by 68% m/m. Other procedures are effective in clarifying the scope of [42-51]% and reduced the amount of iron in the field of [48-66]%. The synthesis of soluble glasses is possible to clarify for conditioning with commercial purposes diverse, treatment methodologies and analytical control, simple and economical. (author)

  8. Mechanism and rate of iodine vapor absorption into sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption rates of I2 vapor into aqueous NaOH solutions were measured using a flow-type agitated vessel with a constant contact surface area. Observed absorption rates were interpreted by the absorption mechanism considering that the following three reactions, (a) I2 + OH- reversible HIO + I-, (b) 3HIO ? IO3- + 2I- + 3H+ and (c) I2 + I- reversible I3-, take place together with the dissociation of both NaOH and H2O. All reactions mentioned above except reaction (b) can be treated as instantaneous reversible reactions. Rate of reaction (b) is so slow that this reaction is regarded to occur in the liquid bulk phase, and consequently the effect of this reaction on the absorption rate becomes gradually significant with increase in residence time of the liquid phase. There are, however, two different patterns of change of the enhancement factor due to reaction (b). Firstly, the enhancement factor increases with the progress of IO3- formation under the conditions of high NaOH concentration and low I2 vapor concentration. Under the opposite conditions, on the other hand, the enhancement factor decreases to a value lower than that estimated when reaction (b) is neglected. This decrease results because reaction (a) is restrained by a considerable decrease in the concentration of OH-, which iconcentration of OH-, which in turn is caused by an increase in the concentration of H+ produced by reaction (b). (author)

  9. Kinetic ordering of atoms in sodium chlorate-bromate solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic ordering of anions in Na((ClO3)1-x(BrO3)x) solid solutions with anomalous birefringence was studied by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures of the two samples (x=0.10 and 0.255) cut out from the {100} growth sectors were refined in the ideal space group P213 and in two of its subgroups--monoclinic P21 and triclinic P1 with R=0.030-0.038. The final choice of monoclinic symmetry was confirmed by the analysis of the diffraction pattern and Cl/Br distribution over the halogen crystallographic sites. The Cl/Br ordering reflects the geometrical difference of these sites with respect to the growth front orientation. The observed optical indicatrix was successfully reproduced in the point-dipole approximation. According to our data and the data of Crundwell et al. (Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B 53 (1997) 189), the degree of ordering increases in the middle of the isomorphous series along with the birefringence. The obtained results confirm the hypothesis of growth dissymmetrization

  10. The development of BCB-sealed galvanic cells. Case study: aluminum-platinum cells activated with sodium hypochlorite electrolyte solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlutowski, J.; Biver, C. J.; Wang, W.; Knighton, S.; Bumgarner, J.; Langebrake, L.; Moreno, W.; Cardenas-Valencia, A. M.

    2007-08-01

    Energy on demand is an important concept in remote sensor development. The fabrication process for silicon-wafer-based, totally enclosed galvanic cells is presented herein. Benzocyclyobutene (BCB), a photo-patternable material, is used as the adhesive layer between the silicon wafers on which metal electrodes are patterned to form the cells' electrolyte cavity. As a case study, and since aluminum is an anode material with thermodynamic high energy density, this metal is evaporated onto a wafer and used as an anode. A sputtered platinum film collects the charge and provides a catalytic surface in the cell cathode. The metal film patterning process and wafer-to-wafer bonding with BCB is detailed. The difficulties encountered, and design modifications to overcome these, are presented. Cells of the mentioned design were activated with sodium hypochlorite solution electrolyte. Typical potential outputs for the cells, as a function of operational time, are also presented. With a 5 k? load, a potential of 1.4 V was maintained for over 240 min, until depletion of the electrolyte occurred. Average cell energy outputs under electrical loads between 100 ? and 5 k? were in the range of 4-10 J with columbic densities ranging from 45 to 83 Ah L-1.

  11. Electrochemical study of the stress corrosion of type 316 steel and Sanicro 71 in sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a programme of work to elucidate the behaviour of boiler tubing under conditions in A.G.R. power stations, the stress corrosion behaviour of Type 316 and Sanicro 71 steels has been examined in sodium hydroxide solutions. The stress corrosion cracking was very dependent on electrode potential. Sanicro 71 cracked in a narrow range of potentials between 100 and 300 mV with respect to a cathodically polarized platinum electrode, the range being consistent with that found by previous workers for Inconel 600. Type 316 steel cracked over a much wider range, at least between -50 and 300 mV; crack propagation was particularly rapid at negative potentials. A rough correlation existed between potentials at which anodic activity was observed in potentiodynamic polarization curves and potentials where the materials were susceptible to stress corrosion. This supports an anodic mechanism of crack growth. However, absorbed hydrogen may play some role in cracking at negative potentials, but there was no evidence to suggest that hydrogen would cause cracking in the absence of a corrosion process. (author)

  12. Study of corrosion processes on Al-AA 6061 crevices immersed in high purity water and sodium citrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental approach has been developed to study the corrosion behavior of artificial crevices manufactured with high purity aluminum and AA 6061 alloy, immersed in dematerialised water and sodium citrate solution (96,5 ?S/cm). Alkaline attack was found on the surrounding of iron rich particles in the external zone of the crevice, as a result of localized oxygen reduction reaction on these sites. This attack was not observed in the zone inside the crevice. Study of the phase Mg2Si by EDS allowed establishing that there is not preferential dissolution inside the crevice. The formation of a stable and non-soluble complex between Al and citrate anion inhibited the production of Al(OH)3 precipitate, which was observed on the surface of specimens immersed in pure water. Investigations of the aluminum oxide evolution on AA 6061 surfaces in water showed that it was composed by two layers: an internal one made of Bohemite and an external one in direct contact with the water, with a Bayerite structure. The surface analysis was accomplished using XR, OM and SEM techniques. (author)

  13. Vapor pressure, speciation, and chemical activities in highly concentrated sodium borate solutions at 277 and 317 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system H2O - B2O3 - Na2O has been studied experimentally at 277 and 317 degrees C. The activities of water and boric acid have been determined at mole ratios Na/B from 0 to 1.5, and total dissolved solids 3 to 8 weight percent. The activity of boric acid has been fitted to within experimental error using a speciation model with eight complex species. This model is consistent with the model previously published by Mesmer et al. The electrolyte properties of the liquid are modeled using the Pitzer-Simonson model of very concentrated electrolyte solutions. The calculated values of water activity agree with experiment, and the activity of NaOH and pOH have also been calculated. The potassium borate system also was briefly studied at 317 degrees C, and is adequately described by a model with five complex species. The potassium borate liquid is more alkaline at K/B = 1 than a sodium borate liquid at the same mole ratio, but pOH in the two systems is the same at lower mole ratios

  14. Determination of mercury by continuous flow cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry using micromolar concentration of sodium tetrahydroborate as reductant solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Tong, Jian; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Belzile, Nelson

    2002-11-01

    Systematic experiments were conducted to evaluate and compare the analytical figures of merit of two reducing agents (SnCl2 and NaBH4) in a continuous flow cold vapor atomic fluorescence mercury analyzer. It was found that sodium tetrahydroborate can efficiently reduce Hg2+ in various environmental samples at a concentration as low as 10 microM (ca. 3.8 x 10(-5)% w/v). Most commonly encountered transition metals (Fe2+, Fe3+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ and Cr3+) did not interfere with total Hg determination. No interference from hydride-forming elements (Se4+, Sb3+ and As3+) was observed. Interference caused by Mn2+ and Ag+ could be readily removed by dilution and by using appropriate modification of the reaction matrix. A higher concentration of NaBH4 (0.1 M) is stable for I month when stored in the NaOH matrix (0.2 M) and at low temperature (4 degrees C). A working solution of NaBH4 can be freshly prepared by dilution. With NaBH4, the whole continuous flow system is kept clean much more easily as no precipitate is formed, which in turn considerably reduces memory effects, simplifies analytical operation and reduces the chemical cost six-fold. PMID:12475049

  15. Silver nanoparticles synthesis in aqueous solutions using sulfite as reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been carried out in aqueous solutions in a stirred semibatch reactor through the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) by sulfite ions (SO32?), which were added at a tightly controlled rate up to a final sulfite/silver molar ratio of 0.45. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as the stabilizer at concentrations below its critical micelle concentration. The effects of temperature, sulfite addition rate, and SDS concentration have been assessed. Ag+ turned to Ag0 in 5 min or less only when the synthesis was performed at 97 °C and not below. The sulfite addition rates studied were 0.5, 7.5, 15, and 90 ?mol/min. The size, shape, polydispersity, and stability of the nanoparticles were determined by the sulfite addition rate and SDS concentration. At low SDS concentration (4 mM), stable, spherical shape, small size nanoparticles were formed only at the two intermediate sulfite addition rates. At the highest sulfite addition rate, 9 nm mean size spherical nanoparticles having a low ±5 nm polydispersity were produced at a high SDS concentration of 10 mM. With the low SDS concentration, larger truncated and spherical shape nanoparticles were obtained. UV–Vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the nanoparticles.

  16. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MOXIFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE AND DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE IN BULK AND IN OPHTHALMIC SOLUTION BY RP- HPLC

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D. M, DHUMAL; A. A, SHIRKHEDKAR; P. P, NERKAR; S. J, SURANA.

    Full Text Available A new simple, precise, accurate and selective RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Moxifloxacin Hydrochloride (MOX) and Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate (DSP) in Ophthalmic Solution. The method was carried out on a Qualisil RP C-8 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) colum [...] n with a mobile phase consisting of Methanol: Water (75:25 v/v) pH adjusted to 3.0 with ortho-phosphoric acid of aqueous phase and flow rate of 1.0 mL min¹. Detection was carried out at 240 nm. The retention time for MOX and DSP was found to be 2.22, and 7.26 min, respectively. The MOX and DSP followed linearity in the concentration range of 10 - 60 µg mL-1 and 2- 12 µg mL-1 with r²= 0.99, respectively. The amounts of both these drugs estimated by proposed method were found to be in good agreement with label claim. The developed method was validated for sensitivity, accuracy, precision, ruggedness and robustness. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.30 µg mL-1 and 0.91 µg mL-1 for MOX and 0.10 µg mL-1 and 0.30 µg mL-1 for DSP. The proposed method can be used for routine analysis of both these drugs simultaneously in their combined dosage form.

  17. Silver nanoparticles synthesis in aqueous solutions using sulfite as reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Miranda, A.; Lopez-Valdivieso, A., E-mail: alopez@uaslp.mx [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Instituto de Metalurgia (Mexico); Viramontes-Gamboa, G. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Facultad de Ciencia Fisico-Matematicas (Mexico)

    2012-09-15

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been carried out in aqueous solutions in a stirred semibatch reactor through the reduction of silver ions (Ag{sup +}) by sulfite ions (SO{sub 3}{sup 2-}), which were added at a tightly controlled rate up to a final sulfite/silver molar ratio of 0.45. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as the stabilizer at concentrations below its critical micelle concentration. The effects of temperature, sulfite addition rate, and SDS concentration have been assessed. Ag{sup +} turned to Ag{sup 0} in 5 min or less only when the synthesis was performed at 97 Degree-Sign C and not below. The sulfite addition rates studied were 0.5, 7.5, 15, and 90 {mu}mol/min. The size, shape, polydispersity, and stability of the nanoparticles were determined by the sulfite addition rate and SDS concentration. At low SDS concentration (4 mM), stable, spherical shape, small size nanoparticles were formed only at the two intermediate sulfite addition rates. At the highest sulfite addition rate, 9 nm mean size spherical nanoparticles having a low {+-}5 nm polydispersity were produced at a high SDS concentration of 10 mM. With the low SDS concentration, larger truncated and spherical shape nanoparticles were obtained. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the nanoparticles.

  18. Development of Better-Quality Assay Method for the Citric Acid and Sodium Citrate in Ophthalmic/Oral Solutions and Their Application to Deformulation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Kumar Hotha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There were several techniques determined for the analysis of citrate and citric acid mixtures in the pharmaceutical dosage forms. Titration methods, photometric and ion chromatographic methods were used for their determination. These methods will restrict too many factors where the accurate quantification of citrate and citric acid is extremely challenging. Citric acid is the natural flavor used as a preservative for many pharmaceutical applications. Deformulation techniques used for the manufacturing of generic drugs require authentic data for their regulatory submissions. Simple accurate and reproducible validated method developed for the determination of citric acid and sodium citrate by titration followed by HPLC analysis. Free citric acid was determined by the titration method and total citric acid was determined by HPLC analysis. After subtracting the free citric acid from total citric acid content, citric acid present in the sodium citrate content was determined. Sodium citrate content was determined by applying sodium correction factor to the subtracted value of the citric acid. The results met all the validation parameters and the method was successfully measured the amount of citric acid and sodium citrate in the marketed ophthalmic/oral solutions.

  19. Production of I-125 radioisotope in sodium iodide solution and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: APPLICATION: The Radioisotope Iodine-125 has rather long half-life, and high dose range of Gamma radiation. It will be used in two cases,in our radioisotope production departmen: 1-To label Radioimmunoassay Kits (RIA): T3, T4 and TSH for INVITRO investigation of Thyroid glands, in our Nuclear Medical Center in IRAN. We just started to set up Hot cell facilities and in cell equipment to supply Iodine-125 for our Radioimmunoassay Group.In this section. The above Iodine-125 will be used for labelling of their Radioimmunoassay products for Thyroid functions and also for screening of newborns for Thyroid deficiency. 2-We have also just start, the make and supply particular granules of Iodine-125 by Silver coated Iodine-125 directly and also indirectly, on the Palladium, coated Silver Wire to be used in Brachytherapy applications. PRODUCTION: After filling Target with 15g of natural Xe gas by excellent technology and closed in leak-tight allowing reactor irradiation. The target is irradiated in a nuclear reactor for 3 weeks optimally at a thermal neutron flux around ?= 1*1014 n.cm-2.s-1.After transferring irradiated target to hot cell, The aluminium capsule is opened by putting it into the punching apparatus and pushing the needle into the bottom of the aluminium capsule by turning the handle counter-clockwise. When the needle punches the aluminium. The Xe gas is released into the chimney and the I-125 radioisotope is adsorbed on the inside wall of the aluminium capsule. After this the opened aluminium capsule is pulled off from the needle by turning the handle clockwise. The opened capsule is ready to distillation. Preparation of the distillation oven and equipment: on the first occasion the oven should be heated two-times up to 550 oC for two hours each to eliminate potential contamination. After it the radioactive aluminium capsule is put into the oven and vacuum is started. This is followed by switching on the heating. The distillation is followed through 120 minutes at a temperature of 550 oC. Solutions of the required radioactive concentration are dispensed to portions into ampoules. If sterile product is required ampoules should be autoclaved for 30 minutes at a temperature of 120 oC

  20. Electrochemical studies of sodium meta-vanadate as corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel 1020 in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S saturated DEA solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghasadeghi, Alireza [Corrosion Department of Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, P.O.Box 18745-4163, NIOC Pazhouheshgah Blvd., Khairabad, Qom Road, Tehran (Iran)

    2004-07-01

    Several types of corrosion inhibitors are recently used in amine systems for natural gas refining in the world because of the corrosive nature of amine solutions containing acid gases. This article introduces corrosion inhibitor basis that are used mostly as active reagents in corrosion inhibitor packages. Accordingly, sodium meta-vanadate is studied as corrosion inhibitor of carbon steel 1020 in 30-vol% DEA and industrial lean and rich amines solutions saturated with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S at 65 deg. C. Electrochemical Tafel polarization test method was conducted to investigate the inhibitive behavior of sodium meta-vanadate in the mentioned solutions that are near industrial conditions. Tafel slopes and corrosion potentials show that the inhibitive mechanism of sodium meta-vanadate is anodic and effective dosage of the inhibitor is within 0.03 to 0.05 wt% in 30-vol% DEA, industrial lean and rich amines solutions saturated with CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S at 65 deg. C. Surface observations indicate that the corrosion on the carbon steel coupons was general and using this optimum concentration with an inhibitive performance of at least 80% did not occur localized or pitting corrosion. (author)

  1. Standard test method for evaluating stress-corrosion cracking of stainless alloys with different nickel content in boiling acidified sodium chloride solution

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in an acidified boiling sodium chloride solution. This test method is performed in 25% (by mass ) sodium chloride acidified to pH 1.5 with phosphoric acid. This test method is concerned primarily with the test solution and glassware, although a specific style of U-bend test specimen is suggested. 1.2 This test method is designed to provide better correlation with chemical process industry experience for stainless steels than the more severe boiling magnesium chloride test of Practice G36. Some stainless steels which have provided satisfactory service in many environments readily crack in Practice G36, but have not cracked during interlaboratory testing using this sodium chloride test method. 1.3 This boiling sodium chloride test method was used in an interlaboratory test program to evaluate wrought stainless steels, including duplex (ferrite-austenite) stainless and an alloy with up to about 33% nickel. It may also b...

  2. -Saturated Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an electrochemical study on the corrosion behavior of API-X100 steel, heat-treated to have microstructures similar to those of the heat-affected zones (HAZs) of pipeline welding, in bicarbonate-CO2 saturated solutions. The corrosion reactions, onto the surface and through the passive films, are simulated by cyclic voltammetry. The interrelation between bicarbonate concentration and CO2 hydration is analyzed during the filming process at the open-circuit potentials. In dilute bicarbonate solutions, H2CO3 drives more dominantly the cathodic reduction and the passive films form slowly. In the concentrated solutions, bicarbonate catalyzes both the anodic and cathodic reactions, only initially, after which it drives a fast-forming thick passivation that inhibits the underlying dissolution and impedes the cathodic reduction. The significance of the substrate is as critical as that of passivation in controlling the course of the corrosion reactions in the dilute solutions. For fast-cooled (heat treatment) HAZs, its metallurgical significance becomes more comparable to that of slower-cooled HAZs as the bicarbonate concentration is higher.

  3. Comparative study of the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine gel, chlorhexidine solution and sodium hypochlorite as endodontic irrigants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Caio C. R., Ferraz; Brenda P. F. A., Gomes; Alexandre A., Zaia; Fabrício B., Teixeira; Francisco J., Souza-Filho.

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro a atividade antimicrobiana do gluconato de clorexidina gel, como irrigante endodôntico, comparando-o ao hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl) e ao gluconato de clorexidina líquido. A atividade antimicrobiana das substâncias testadas foi avaliada pelo teste de difu [...] são em ágar. As zonas de inibição de crescimento bacteriano produzidas pela clorexidina gel a 0,2%; 1% e 2% foram observados frente a 5 espécies de bactérias anaeróbias facultativas e 4 espécies de anaeróbios estritos, Gram-negativos e produtores de pigmento negro; e comparados com os resultados obtidos pelo NaOCl e pela clorexidina líquida. As maiores zonas de inibição foram produzidas quando as bactérias testadas ficaram em contato com a clorexidina a 2% em gel (11,79 mm), apresentando diferença estatisticamente significante (p0,05) comparando as zonas produzidas por concentrações equivalentes de clorexidina líquida ou gel. Os resultados indicaram que a clorexidina em gel tem grande potencial para ser usada como substância química auxiliar quanto às suas propriedades antimicrobianas. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to assess the in vitro the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate gel as an endodontic auxiliary chemical substance compared to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine gluconate solution. The antimicrobial efficacy of the tested substances was evaluated [...] using the agar diffusion test. The growth inhibition zones produced by 0.2%, 1% and 2% chlorhexidine gel were evaluated against 5 facultative anaerobic bacteria and 4 pigmented Gram-negative anaerobes, and compared to the results obtained by NaOCl and chlorhexidine solution. The largest growth inhibition zones were produced when the test bacteria were in contact with 2% chlorhexidine gluconate gel (11.79 mm), being significantly different (p0.05) between the growth inhibition zones obtained with equal concentrations of chlorhexidine solution and gel. The results of this study indicate that, as far as its antimicrobial properties are concerned, chlorhexidine gel has a great potential to be used as an endodontic auxiliary chemical substance.

  4. Caffeine, but not bicarbonate, improves 6 min maximal performance in elite rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter MØller; Petersen, Mads H

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the ergogenic effects in a 6 min maximal performance test (PT) on 12 elite rowers: 6 open-weight (mean ± SD; 25 ± 1 years, and 92 ± 3 kg) and 6 light-weight (25 ± 3 years, and 73 ± 6 kg), following supplementation with caffeine (CAF), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and the combination of both, in a double-blind randomized placebo (PLA) controlled design. PT was executed on 4 occasions, on separate days within a week, and in a non-fasted state, with standardized training being performed the day before PT. Protocols were as follows: (i) CAF, 3 mg/kg, 45 min prior to PT?+?calcium as SB-PLA; (ii) SB, 0.3 g/kg, 75 min prior to PT?+?dextrose as CAF-PLA; (iii) CAF?+?SB; and (iv) PLA; CAF-PLA?+?SB-PLA. The total distance in the CAF (1878 ± 97 m) and CAF?+?SB (1877 ± 97 m) was longer than in the PLA (1865 ± 104 m; P 0.05). No difference between interventions was observed for readiness and stomach comfort before PT and perceived exertion during PT. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion does improve performance in elite rowing. In contrast sodium bicarbonate does not appear to be ergogenic, but it does not abolish the ergogenic effect of caffeine.

  5. Application of solution-mineral equilibrium chemistry to solution mining of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern methods of uranium solution mining are typically accompanied by gains and losses of mass through reagent consumption by rock-forming minerals, with subsequent formation of clay minerals, gypsum, carbonates, and iron oxyhydroxides. A systematic approach to alleviate such problems involves the application of leach solutions that are in equilibrium with the host-rock minerals but in disequilibrium with the ore-forming minerals. This partial equilibrium can be approximated by solution-composition adjustments within the systems K2O-Al2O3SiO2-H2O and Na2O3-Al2O3SiO2-H2O. Uranium ore containing 0.15 percent U3O8 from the Gulf Mineral Resources Corporation's Mariano Lake mine, the Smith Lake district of the Grants mineral belt, was collected for investigation. Presented are a theoretical evaluation of leachate data and an experimental treatment of the ore, which contained mainly K-feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, and quartz (with lesser amounts of micas, clay minerals, and organic carbonaceous material). Small-scale (less than or equal to 1 kg) column-leaching experiments were conducted to model the results of conventional leaching operations and to provide leachate solutions that could be compared with solutions calculated to be in equilibrium with the matrix minerals. Leach solutions employed include: 1) sulfuric acid, 2) sodiuployed include: 1) sulfuric acid, 2) sodium bicarbonate, and 3) sulfuric acid with 1.0 molal potassium chloride. The uranium concentrations in the sodium-bicarbonate leach solution and the acid-leach solution were about a gram per liter at the termination of the tests. However, the permeability of the ore in the acid leach was greatly reduced, owing to the formation of clay minerals. Uranium solubility in the leach column stabilized with the potassium-chloride solution was calculated from leachate compositions to be limited by the solubility of carnotite

  6. Inhibition and biocide actions of sodium dodecyl sulfate-Zn2+ system for the corrosion of carbon steel in chloride solution

    OpenAIRE

    Noreen Antony,; Benita Sherine, H.; Susai Rajendran

    2010-01-01

    The inhibition efficiency of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in aqueous solution containing 120 ppm of Cl? in the presence and absence of Zn2+ has been evaluated by weight loss method. The formulation consisting of 300 ppm of SDS and 75 ppm of Zn2+ gives 93 % inhibition efficiency. A synergistic effect exists between SDS and Zn2+. As the immersion period increases, the inhibition efficiency of SDS-Zn2+ decreases. Polarization study reveals that this...

  7. Validation of a Stability-Indicating Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Quantitative Determination of Vitamin K3 (Menadione Sodium Bisulfite) in Injectable Solution Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanem, Mashhour M.; Abu-Lafi, Saleh A.; Hallak, Hussein O.

    2013-01-01

    A simple, specific, accurate, and stability-indicating method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of menadione sodium bisulfite in the injectable solution formulation. The method is based on zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) coupled with a photodiode array detector. The desired separation was achieved on the ZIC-HILIC column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) at 25°C temperature. The optimized mobile phase consisted of an isocratic solvent ...

  8. Pooled safety analysis of diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% (w/w) in the treatment of osteoarthritis in patients aged 75 years or older

    OpenAIRE

    Roth SH; Fuller P

    2012-01-01

    Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Phoenix, AZ, 2Medical Affairs, Mallinckrodt Inc, Hazelwood, MOBackground: This study aimed to determine the safety of diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% (w/w) in 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo) for the treatment of knee or hand osteoarthritis in persons aged 75 years or older.Methods: A pooled analysis of safety data from seven multicenter, randomized, blinded, Phase III clinical trials (4–12 weeks' durat...

  9. A prospective study of bowel preparation for colonoscopy with polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution versus sodium phosphate in Lynch syndrome: a randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    van Vugt van Pinxteren, Maria W. J.; van Kouwen, Mariëtte C. A.; van Oijen, Martijn G. H.; Achterberg, Theo van; Nagengast, Fokko M

    2012-01-01

    Lynch gene carriers undergo regular surveillance colonoscopies. Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte solution (PEG) is routinely prescribed for bowel cleansing, but often poorly tolerated by patients. Sodium phosphate (NaP) may be an alternative. Prospective and random comparison of bowel preparation with PEG and NaP on colon cleansing and patients’ acceptance. Patients, who previously underwent a colonoscopy, were invited to participate and randomly assigned to either PEG or NaP. They were aske...

  10. PH effect on the photodecomposition of sodium hypochlorite solution; Jiaensosan natoriumu suiyoeki no hikari bunkai ni oyobosu pH no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamano, A. [Sasebo College of Technology, Nagasaki (Japan); Ikeda, A. [Ube Industrial Co. Ltd., Yamaguchi (Japan)

    1995-04-30

    A study on the photodecomposition of sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl) has been carried out by Allmond under the conditions of dilute acidic solution. This study is carried out under different conditions from that mentioned above. In this study, the photodecomposition of sodium hypochlorite solution (NaOCl with concentration of 1.6 mol/dm{sup 3}) sold on market is conducted and the effects of PH on disproportionation reaction and oxygen gas evolution are investigated. The main results obtained by the study are as follows. In the decomposition of the NaOCl solution, both of the disproportionation reaction and the oxygen gas evolution are accelerated by the light irradiation and both of them is effected by the PH. In the case of alkaline solution of the PH 13 to 7, the main reaction is the disproportionation reaction and the photodecomposition proceeds following zeroth-order kinetics. The reaction rate does not depend on the concentration and the temperature but depends on the irradiation strength. And in the case of acidic solution with PH lower 7, the reaction rates of the disproportionation reaction and oxygen gas evolution increase respectively but do not proceed following the zeroth-order kinetics. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Oxidation and dissolution of UO2 in bicarbonate media: Implications for the spent nuclear fuel oxidative dissolution mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to study the UO2 oxidation by O2 and dissolution in bicarbonate media and to extrapolate the results obtained to improve the knowledge of the oxidative dissolution of spent nuclear fuel. The results obtained show that in the studied range the oxygen consumption rate is independent on the bicarbonate concentration while the UO2 dissolution rate does depend on. Besides, at 10-4 mol dm-3 bicarbonate concentration, the oxygen consumption rate is almost two orders of magnitude higher than the UO2 dissolution rate. These results suggest that at low bicarbonate concentration (-2 mol dm-3) the alteration of the spent nuclear fuel cannot be directly derived from the measured uranium concentrations in solution. On the other hand, the study at low bicarbonate concentrations of the evolution of the UO2 surface at nanometric scale by means of the SFM technique shows that the difference between oxidation and dissolution rates is not due to the precipitation of a secondary solid phase on UO2

  12. Detection of coexisting protein conformations in capillary zone electrophoresis subsequent to transient contact with sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutz, Hanno; Wallner, Michael; Malissa, Hans; Bordin, Guy; Rodriguez, Adela R

    2005-03-01

    Non-native conformations of proteins were generated by temporary contact with aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and separated from the native state with capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in alkaline borate buffer deficient of SDS. Nine proteins at concentrations of 2.0 or 3.0 mg.L(-1) were compared in terms of their susceptibility to SDS. For superoxide dismutase and ferritin the tendency of unfolding was modest with 75% in the non-native state even at 2.0 mmol.L(-1) SDS. The influence of varying SDS concentrations on the conformational state of Mb was tested. Increasing the SDS concentration, circular dichroism revealed a reduction in alpha-helix, an increase in random coil, and an introduction of beta-sheet, which is absent in native structure. Modifications in the secondary structure were in agreement with distinct changes in the shape of the non-native Mb peak in CZE and make a gradual unfolding/refolding process with several coexisting molten globules instead of two-state transition of conformations most plausible for Mb. CZE was found to contribute to a further understanding of holo-Mb transformation towards a population of non-native conformations (i) by means of calculated peak area ratios of native to non-native states, which showed sigmoid transition, (ii) by detecting the release of the prosthetic heme group, and (iii) by changes in the effective electrophoretic mobility of the Mb-SDS peaks. Reconstituted holo-Mb forms differed in the Soret band around 410 nm, indicating diversity in the conformation of the heme pocket. PMID:15719362

  13. Carbon-13 isotope fractionation and carbon-13 kinetic isotope effect in the oxidation of perdeuterated sodium butyrate with manganate in 3M sodium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon -13 kinetic isotope effect in the oxidation of single methylene 13C-2H bond of perdeuterated sodium butyrate, CD3(CD2)COONa, has been determined by measuring the isotope composition of cumulative carbon dioxide derived from carbonates and oxalates obtained at partial oxidation's od perdeuterated butyrate with manganate, MnO42-, in 3M NaOH. The experimental 13C KI E have been reproduced by applying two quantum mechanical correlations to the absolute rates of chemical reaction; the first correction caused by the difference of zero point energy of (13C-2H/12C-2H) isotopic bonds and the quantum mechanical correlation for tunneling of 12C and 13C. The reaction energy barrier was approximated by the Bell inverted parabola. The good agreement between experimental and theoretical results was achieved already in the first approximation by taking the half width of the energy barrier equal 5x10-11 m. (author)

  14. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; HillingsØ, Jens

    1996-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, surprisingly resulted in higher rates of proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion than previously reported using an H2 receptor antagonist for gastric acid inhibition. Gastroduodenal perfusions were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate whether this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n = 17) and after pretreatment with high dose omeprazole (n = 17) and ranitidine (n = 9), respectively, by use of a technique permitting simultaneous measurements. Concentrations of bicarbonate were measured in the respective effluents by the method of back titration. Both omeprazole and ranitidine completely inhibited gastric acid secretion (pH 6.9 v 6.8; p > 0.05). Omeprazole caused higher rates of basal (mean (SEM)) (597 (48) v 351 (39) mumol/h; p 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion compared with control experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p = 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means of acid inhibition. These results show that the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion apparently independent of its gastric acid inhibitory effect. The mechanism of action remains speculative.

  15. Studies of the antenna effect in polymer molecules. Pt. 22; Photochemical dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in aqueous solutions of poly(sodium styrenesulfonate-co-2-vinylnaphthalene)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sustar, E. (Dept. of Chemistry, Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)); Nowakowska, M. (Dept. of Chemistry, Toronto Univ., ON (Canada)); Guillet, J.E. (Dept. of Chemistry, Toronto Univ., ON (Canada))

    1992-02-28

    The photodechlorination of three commercial mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), solubilized in aqueous solutions of poly(sodium styrenesulfonate-co-2-vinylnaphthalene) (PSSS-VN), was studied using solar-simulated radiation. Gas chromatographic analysis showed that, following irradiation, Aroclor 1254, Aroclor 1248 and Aroclor 1242 were progessively dechlorinated to tri-, di- and monochlorobiphenyls. Photodechlorination of Aroclor 1254 was found to be more efficient when solubilized in aqueous solutions of PSSS-VN than solubilized in hexane. The reaction was determined to be photosensitized by the naphthalene antenna units present in the copolymer. (orig.)

  16. FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT & EVALUATION OF EFFERVESCENT TABLET OF ALENDRONATE SODIUM WITH VITAMIN D3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar B Thoke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Alendronate sodium is a bisphosphonates which has antiresorptive effect which is implicated in the prophylaxis and treatment of osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to formulate effervescent tablet of Alendronate sodium with Vitamin D3 against osteoporosis thereby improving patient compliance.                                                                                                                          As per revised definition proposed to US FDA, Effervescent tablet is a tablet intended to be dissolved or dispersed in water before administration.         Effervescent tablets were formulated using citric acid and sodium bicarbonate as effervescent composition by wet granulation. The drug-excipient compatibility study done by DSC & FTIR analysis and it reveals absence of interaction between the drug and excipients. The flowability study of precompression blend shows good flow properties. Formulation was evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, solution time, pH of solution & content uniformity. All the evaluation parameters were within the limit and complies specifications as per U.S.P. & B.P. From the Stability analysis may be inferred that there was no degradation and change in the formulation.                                                                                                                                                  The Effervescent tablet of Sodium Alendronate and Vitamin D3 is a new pharmaceutical formulation to be taken orally and offering a considerable advantage: avoidance of gastro-intestinal disorders, to the limits of the possible. As compared to the pure drug and marketed tablet, this formulation displayed significantly effective in the oral osteoporosis treatment in post menopausal women.

  17. Bicarbonate transporters in corals point towards a key step in the evolution of cnidarian calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoccola, Didier; Ganot, Philippe; Bertucci, Anthony; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Techer, Nathalie; Voolstra, Christian R; Aranda, Manuel; Tambutté, Eric; Allemand, Denis; Casey, Joseph R; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The bicarbonate ion (HCO3(-)) is involved in two major physiological processes in corals, biomineralization and photosynthesis, yet no molecular data on bicarbonate transporters are available. Here, we characterized plasma membrane-type HCO3(-) transporters in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Eight solute carrier (SLC) genes were found in the genome: five homologs of mammalian-type SLC4 family members, and three of mammalian-type SLC26 family members. Using relative expression analysis and immunostaining, we analyzed the cellular distribution of these transporters and conducted phylogenetic analyses to determine the extent of conservation among cnidarian model organisms. Our data suggest that the SLC4? isoform is specific to scleractinian corals and responsible for supplying HCO3(-) to the site of calcification. Taken together, SLC4? appears to be one of the key genes for skeleton building in corals, which bears profound implications for our understanding of coral biomineralization and the evolution of scleractinian corals within cnidarians. PMID:26040894

  18. Bicarbonate transporters in corals point towards a key step in the evolution of cnidarian calcification

    KAUST Repository

    Zoccola, Didier

    2015-06-04

    The bicarbonate ion (HCO3?) is involved in two major physiological processes in corals, biomineralization and photosynthesis, yet no molecular data on bicarbonate transporters are available. Here, we characterized plasma membrane-type HCO3? transporters in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Eight solute carrier (SLC) genes were found in the genome: five homologs of mammalian-type SLC4 family members, and three of mammalian-type SLC26 family members. Using relative expression analysis and immunostaining, we analyzed the cellular distribution of these transporters and conducted phylogenetic analyses to determine the extent of conservation among cnidarian model organisms. Our data suggest that the SLC4? isoform is specific to scleractinian corals and responsible for supplying HCO3? to the site of calcification. Taken together, SLC4? appears to be one of the key genes for skeleton building in corals, which bears profound implications for our understanding of coral biomineralization and the evolution of scleractinian corals within cnidarians.

  19. [Inhibition of growth of E. coli cells by anolites of sodium and potassium chloride after processing solutions in a diaphragmatic electrolyzer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikov, A I

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between the inhibitory effect of sodium chloride and potassium anolites, obtained in a diaphragm electrolyser, and the physicochemical parameters of solutions was compared with that between the inhibitory effect and physicochemical properties of hypochlorites obtained after treating the solutions in an electrolyser having no diaphragm was compared. The biological activity of solutions containing molecular chlorine, hypochlorous acid, and hypochlorite ions was determined by their effect on the growth of E. coli cells. After a 5-min incubation of cells with each of the oxidizers, the bacterial growth stopped and was not restored during one day. The conclusion is made that the oxidizers irreversibly disturb the barrier properties of cell membranes and, in some cases, destroy cells. In model solutions, as well as in solutions treated after heating on a water bath or after the addition of sodium thiosulfate, a delay in the start of E. coli growth occurs. After the lag-phase, the repair of cells sets on, and after a day the optical density of cells increases and approaches the control. PMID:10079921

  20. Mg-Zr alloy behavior in basic solutions and immobilization in Portland cement and Na-geo-polymer with sodium fluoride inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dismantling of uranium natural graphite gas nuclear reactor generates a large volume of fuel cladding. The fuel cladding materials are based on Mg-Zr alloy for UNGG. The dismantling strategy could be to encapsulate these wastes into an ordinary Portland cement (OPC) or Na-geo-polymer (alumino-silicate material) in a form suitable for storage. Corrosion behavior of Mg-Zr in OPC interstitial solution and activating solution of Na-geo-polymer has been studied in the presence and absence of sodium fluoride as corrosion inhibitor. Electrochemical methods have been used to determine the corrosion densities. Results show that the corrosion densities of Mg-Zr alloy in OPC solution are one order of magnitude more important than in activating solution of Na-geo-polymer and sodium fluoride addition decreases corrosion densities in OPC interstitial solution. Hydrogen evolution of encapsulated Mg-Zr alloy has also been measured in both OPC and Na-geo-polymer and results show that Na-geo-polymer matrix appears to be an attractive binder in term of corrosion performance. (authors)

  1. Comparison of the Antibacterial Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite and Aloe Vera Solutions as Root Canal Irrigants in Human Extracted Teeth Contaminated with Enterococcus Faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahebi S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The main purpose of a root canal treatment is to eliminate the bacteria and their products from the pulp space. Sodium hypochlorite has excellent antibacterial properties, but also some negative features. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to compare the antimicrobial effect of Aloe Vera so-lution with sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis in the root canals of human extracted teeth. Materials and Method: Sixty human extracted single rooted teeth were selected for this in vitro study. The teeth recruited in this study had no cracks, internal resorption, external resorption and calcification. Enterococcus faecalis was injected in the root canals of all teeth. The teeth were then divided into three groups randomly. Each group consisted of 20 teeth that were all rinsed with one of the following solutions: sodium hypochlorite 2.5%, Aloe vera and normal saline. Subsequent to rinsing, root canals of all teeth were sampled. The samples were cultured and growth of the bacteria was assessed after 48 hours. The number of colonies of the bacteria was then counted. Results: The difference between the inhibitory effect of Aloe vera and normal saline on E.faecalis was not significant according to independent t-test (p= 0.966. The inhibitory effect of sodium hypochlorite on E.faecalis was much greater than that of Aloe vera and normal saline (p< 0.001. Conclusion: Aloe vera solution is not recommended as a root canal irrigator, but future studies are suggested to investigate the antibacterial effect of Aloe vera with longer duration of exposure and as an intra canal medicament.

  2. The solubility of UO22+ in dilute sodium chloride solutions and in high-ionic strength sodium sulfate and chlorine brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is a major component of high-level nuclear waste. In an oxidizing environment, UO22+ would be expected to be the dominant dissolved species in solution. In addition to dilute solutions, because high-level nuclear waste may be stored in repositories containing salt, it is important to characterize the aqueous chemistry of UO22+ and the solubility-controlling U(VI) solids in high-ionic strength brines as a function of pH. We have studied the solubility of UO22+ by precipitation of solid phase in 0.001 molal NaCl, 5.2 molal NaCl, and saturated Na2SO4 at pH values ranging from 5 to 12. The solution concentrations were measured by alpha particle liquid scintillation counting. The precipitated solids were characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

  3. An empirical equation with tables of smoothed solubilities of methane in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions up to 25 weight percent, 360 degrees C, and 138 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, John L.

    1978-01-01

    The total pressure for the system H2O-CH 4 is given by p(total) = P(H2O,t) + exp10[log x(CH 4) - a - b x(CH4)], where P(H2O,t) is the vapor pressure of H2O liquid at the temperature t (?C) and x(CH 4) is the molal concentration of methane in the solution. The terms a and b are functions of temperature only. Where the total pressure and temperature are known, the concentration of methane, x(CH4), is found by iteration. The concentration of methane in a sodium chloride brine, y(CH4), is estimated using the function log y(CH4) = log x(CH4) - A I, where A is the salting out constant and I is the ionic strength. For sodium chloride solutions, the ionic strength is equal to the molality of the salt. The equations are valid to 360?C, 138 MPa, and 25 weight percent sodium chloride.

  4. Removal of Reactive Black 5 (RB5 Dye from Aquatic Solution by Using of Adsorption onto Synthesized SodiumAlginate Magnetic Beads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H vahedi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Objectives: Industrial wastewater included the dyes one of the important sources of environmental pollution, that founded in loom wastewater which are harmful for human health and environment. Therefore, the purpose of this research was investigated removal of RB5 dye from aquatic solution by using of adsorption onto synthesized magnetic sodium alginate beads."nMaterial and Methods: At first, synthesized magnetic sodium alginate beads. Then, acquired beads optimum dosage equal to 18 g/100CC, with constant other parameters. The effect of pH, contact time and initial RB5 dye concentration was studied at the constant of beads (18 g/100CC."nResults: Results showed that removal efficiency was decreased by increasing of initial RB5 dye concentration. Also the results showed the removal efficiency was increased by increasing of adsorbent dose and contact time. The results showed data were explained acceptably by Langmuir isotherms and pseudo-second-order kinetics models respectively."nConclusion: The results showed that removal of RB5 dye from aqueous solution by using of magnetic sodium alginate beads can be done cheaper and effective.

  5. An Automated System for Monitoring and Regulating the pH of Bicarbonate Buffers

    OpenAIRE

    Garbacz, Grzegorz; Ko?odziej, Bartosz; Koziolek, Mirko; Weitschies, Werner; Klein, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The bicarbonate buffer is considered as the most biorelevant buffer system for the simulation of intestinal conditions. However, its use in dissolution testing of solid oral dosage forms is very limited. The reason for this is the thermodynamic instability of the solution containing hydrogen carbonate ions and carbonic acid. The spontaneous loss of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the solution results in an uncontrolled increase of the pH. In order to maintain the pH on the desired level, either a C...

  6. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  7. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL DEPAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of point from aircraft wheels. he evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Shop ...

  8. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis in Infancy: A Bicarbonate Wasting State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Soriano, J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Studied were three unrelated infants with distal renal tubular acidosis (a condition characterized by an inability to acidify the urine to minimal pH levels resulting in the loss of bicarbonates). (DB)

  9. Bicarbonate of soda paint stripping process validation and material characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    The Aircraft Production Division at San Antonio Air Logistics Center has conducted extensive investigation into the replacement of hazardous chemicals in aircraft component cleaning, degreasing, and depainting. One of the most viable solutions is process substitution utilizing abrasive techniques. SA-ALC has incorporated the use of Bicarbonate of Soda Blasting as one such substitution. Previous utilization of methylene chloride based chemical strippers and carbon removal agents has been replaced by a walk-in blast booth in which we remove carbon from engine nozzles and various gas turbine engine parts, depaint cowlings, and perform various other functions on a variety of parts. Prior to implementation of this new process, validation of the process was performed, and materials and waste stream characterization studies were conducted. These characterization studies examined the effects of the blasting process on the integrity of the thin-skinned aluminum substrates, the effects of the process on both air emissions and effluent disposal, and the effects on the personnel exposed to the process.

  10. Bicarbonate enhances expression of the endocarditis and biofilm associated pilus locus, ebpR-ebpABC, in Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson L Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously identified ebpR, encoding a potential member of the AtxA/Mga transcriptional regulator family, and showed that it is important for transcriptional activation of the Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis and biofilm associated pilus operon, ebpABC. Although ebpR is not absolutely essential for ebpABC expression (100-fold reduction, its deletion led to phenotypes similar to those of an ebpABC mutant such as absence of pili at the cell surface and, consequently, reduced biofilm formation. A non-piliated ebpABC mutant has been shown to be attenuated in a rat model of endocarditis and in a murine urinary tract infection model, indicating an important participation of the ebpR-ebpABC locus in virulence. However, there is no report relating to the environmental conditions that affect expression of the ebpR-ebpABC locus. Results In this study, we examined the effect of CO2/HCO3-, pH, and the Fsr system on the ebpR-ebpABC locus expression. The presence of 5% CO2/0.1 M HCO3- increased ebpR-ebpABC expression, while the Fsr system was confirmed to be a weak repressor of this locus. The mechanism by which the Fsr system repressed the ebpR-ebpABC locus expression appears independent of the effects of CO2- bicarbonate. Furthermore, by using an ebpA::lacZ fusion as a reporter, we showed that addition of 0.1 M sodium bicarbonate to TSBG (buffered at pH 7.5, but not the presence of 5% CO2, induced ebpA expression in TSBG broth. In addition, using microarray analysis, we found 73 genes affected by the presence of sodium bicarbonate (abs(fold > 2, P ebpA mRNA levels under the conditions tested. Conclusions This study reports that the ebp locus expression is enhanced by the presence of bicarbonate with a consequential increase in the number of cells producing pili. Although the molecular basis of the bicarbonate effect remains unclear, the pathway is independent of the Fsr system. In conclusion, E. faecalis joins the growing family of pathogens that regulates virulence gene expression in response to bicarbonate and/or CO2.

  11. Sodium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... due to sodium loss from conditions such as Addison's disease , diarrhea , diuretic administration, or kidney disease . In some ... urinary sodium levels may indicate diuretic use or Addison's disease. Sodium levels are often evaluated in relation to ...

  12. Temperature changes of thermodynamic characteristics of solution and solvation of sodium iodide ions in n-propanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the enthalpy in the process of sodium iodide dissolution in n-propanol at 233-303 K are determined experimentally. By means of their extrapolation to infinite dilution, using the Debye-Huckel theory, the values ?Hpc deg have been calculated. On the basis of the data and previously obtained values ?Hpc deg (NaI) in n-propanol temperature dependences of all thermodynamic characteristics of dissolution and solvation of sodium iodide in the range 233-328 K are described. Coefficients of the polynomials obtained are presented

  13. Thermal Decomposition of Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate and Textural Features of Its Calcines.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Poho?elý, Michael; Šyc, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 52, ?. 31 (2013), s. 10619-10626. ISSN 0888-5885 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7C11009 Grant ostatní: RFCS(XE) RFCR-CT-2010-00009 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : thermal decomposition * sodium hydrogen carbonate * sodium bicarbonate Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2013

  14. Indigenous technology development and standardization of the process for obtaining ready to use sterile sodium pertechnetate-Tc-99m solution from Geltech generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The indigenous design and technology development for processing large scale zirconium molybdate-Mo-99 (ZrMo-99) Geltech generator was successfully commissioned in Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), India, in 2006. The generator production facility comprises of four shielded plant facilities equipped with tongs and special process gadgets amenable for remote operations for radiochemical processing of ZrMo-99 gel. Over 2800 Geltech generators have been processed and supplied to user hospitals during the period 2006-2013. Geltech generator supplied by BRIT was initially not sterile. Simple elution of 99mTc is performed by a sterile evacuated vial with sterile and pyrogen free 0.9% NaCl solution to obtain sodium (99mTc) pertechnetate solution. A special type online 0.22 ?m membrane filter has been identified and adapted in Geltech generator. The online filtration of 99mTc from Geltech generator; thus, provided sterile 99mTc sodium pertechnetate solution. Generators assembled with modified filter assembly were supplied to local hospital in Mumbai (Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) and S.G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital) and excellent performances were reported by users. (author)

  15. Inhibition and biocide actions of sodium dodecyl sulfate-Zn2+ system for the corrosion of carbon steel in chloride solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Noreen, Antony; H. Benita, Sherine; Susai, Rajendran.

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in aqueous solution containing 120 ppm of Cl? in the presence and absence of Zn2+ has been evaluated by weight loss method. The formulation consisting of 300 ppm of SDS and 75 ppm of Zn2+ gives 93 % in [...] hibition efficiency. A synergistic effect exists between SDS and Zn2+. As the immersion period increases, the inhibition efficiency of SDS-Zn2+ decreases. Polarization study reveals that this formulation controls both the anodic and cathodic reactions. AC impedance spectra reveal that a protective film is formed on the metal surface.

  16. Application of granular oxides of titanium, tin, silicon, zirconium, iron and aluminium for the extraction of metals impurities from saturated sodium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to application of granular oxides of titanium, tin, silicon, zirconium, iron and aluminium for the extraction of metals impurities from saturated sodium chloride solutions. The application of synthesized granular sorbents TiO2, Si2, SnO2, ZrO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 for deep purification of common salt from impurities of heavy metals is studied. By means of radionuclides 181W, 99Mo and 48V it is defined that impurities are completely adsorbed by the surface of hydroxides at ph 5-8.5 in dynamic mode and at different flow rates.

  17. Conserved Tyrosine in the First Transmembrane Segment of Solute:Sodium Symporters Is Involved in Na+-coupled Substrate Co-transport*

    OpenAIRE

    Mazier, Sonia; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Solute:sodium symporters (SSSs) transport vital molecules across the plasma membrane of all living organisms. vSGLT, the Na+/galactose transporter of Vibrio parahemeolyticus, is the only SSS for which high resolution structural information is available, revealing a LeuT-like fold and a Na+-binding site analogous to the Na2 site of LeuT. Whereas the core transmembrane segments (TMs) of SSSs share high structural similarity with other transporters of LeuT-like fold, TM1 does not correspond to a...

  18. Simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by sodium hydroxide solution in a packed bed and studying the effect of operating parameters on absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In this study. simulation of carbon dioxide absorption by Sodium Hydroxide solution in a packed bed has been investigated. At first, mass and energy balances were applied around a differential height of the bed. So, the governing equations were obtained. Surface renewal theory by Danckwerts was used to represent the mass transfer operation Finally, by changing the operating parameters like solvent temperature, inlet gas composition pressure and height of the bed, the effect of these parameters on the absorption and the composition of carbon dioxide in exit stream have been investigated. (authors)

  19. Inhibition and biocide actions of sodium dodecyl sulfate-Zn2+ system for the corrosion of carbon steel in chloride solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noreen Antony

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in aqueous solution containing 120 ppm of Cl? in the presence and absence of Zn2+ has been evaluated by weight loss method. The formulation consisting of 300 ppm of SDS and 75 ppm of Zn2+ gives 93 % inhibition efficiency. A synergistic effect exists between SDS and Zn2+. As the immersion period increases, the inhibition efficiency of SDS-Zn2+ decreases. Polarization study reveals that this formulation controls both the anodic and cathodic reactions. AC impedance spectra reveal that a protective film is formed on the metal surface.

  20. High resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of bile salts: individual proton assignments for sodium cholate in aqueous solution at 400 MHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 400 MHz 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of sodium cholate in dilute aqueous solution has been successfully resolved using a combination of decoupling, partial relaxation, and decoupled partial relaxation techniques. The individual carbon resonances in the 13C-NMR spectrum of sodium cholate have also have assigned. Assignments of individual methylene protons were made by consideration of the molecular structure of sodium cholate and the expected couplings and 1H-nuclear Overhauser enhancement experiments. Verification of the assignments of the methine protons was made by application of single frequency 1H-decoupled 13C-NMR. Variation of pH* from 6.0 to 11.0 did not alter the individual chemical shifts except for those between 2.12 delta and 2.30 delta, originating from the protons on the C23 position adjacent to the ionizable carboxyl group. The chemical shifts of the proton resonances were independent of concentration below 5 mM. Above 10 mM (micellar region), the proton chemical shifts were altered slightly and some band broadening occurred. These data are consistent with the formation of small micellar aggregates (up to N . 4) of cholate molecules

  1. Evaluation of corneal optical properties in subjects wearing hydrogel etafilcon A contact lenses and the effect of administering mannitol-enriched sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombardo M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Marco Lombardo,1,2 Marianna Rosati,1 Marco Pileri,3 Domenico Schiano-Lomoriello,1 Sebastiano Serrao11Fondazione G.B. Bietti IRCCS, 2Vision Engineering Italy Srl, 3Azienda Ospedaliera San Giovanni-Addolorata, Rome, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily administration of mannitol-enriched sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution on the corneal optical properties of subjects wearing low Dk hydrogel (etafilcon A contact lenses (CLs.Methods: Forty-five subjects wearing etafilcon A CLs daily for more than 6 months were recruited into this pilot study. Fifteen of the subjects administered a 10% mannitol-enriched 0.05% sodium hyaluronate solution (study group once daily and 30 subjects did not administer any ophthalmic solution (control group. The subjects were examined at baseline and one month after recruitment. Changes in central corneal thickness (CCT and corneal light backscatter were evaluated by Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam HR. Changes in corneal total high-order aberration, corneal spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil were evaluated using the OPD scan II.Results: At one month, corneal light backscatter decreased significantly in the study group (?18.30 arbitrary units; P<0.05 and this was highly correlated with a decrease in CCT (R=0.81; P=0.04. The decrease in corneal total high-order aberration, spherical aberration, and coma was significantly higher in the study group than in the control group (P<0.05. No changes in corneal light backscatter or CCT were found in the control group during follow-up.Conclusion: Once-daily administration of a mannitol-enriched lubricant ophthalmic solution was effective for improving the corneal optical quality and reducing corneal swelling in subjects wearing low Dk hydrogel (etafilcon A CLs during one month follow-up.Keywords: corneal optical quality, corneal high-order aberrations, Scheimpflug imaging, corneal backscattering, contact lens, hypertonic lubricant solution

  2. Investigating and Modeling the Thermo-dynamic Impact of Electrolyte Solutions of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Prevention of the Formation of Methane Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manteghian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Devising methods to prevent hydrate formation is of the important issues in natural gas industry. Since a great deal of money is annually spent on using hydrate inhibitors, identification of new inhibitors with higher degrees of efficacy is economically justifiable. Bearing in mind the significant role of hydrate inhibitors in prevention of natural gas pipelines’ getting blocked, the present study attempts to investigate two compounds of NaCl and Na2SO4 as inhibitors of hydrate methane’s formation so as to respond to “what is the inhibitive thermo-dynamic impact of electrolyte compounds of NaCl and Na2SO4 on the formation of methane hydrate?” To do so, this study not only measures the equilibrium temperature and pressure of methane hydrate formation in the presence of electrolyte solutions of NaCl and Na2SO4 and compares the results obtained with the state lacking such inhibitors, but it also assesses the regression and mathematical modeling are utilized within a basic virtual environment in order to propose a model for prediction of thermo-dynamic equilibrium temperature and pressure of methane hydrate formation.

  3. Radiolytic reduction of poly (para-sodium styrene sulphonate) of different degrees of polymerization in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse radiolysis technique has been utilized for studying the reactions of eaq and H atoms with poly (para-sodium styrene sulphonate) (PSSS) of two molecular weights 106 and 70,000. Rate constants for the reaction of eaq was found to be 5x107 dm3mol-1s-1 and 2.2x108 dm3mol-1s-1 for PSSS of molecular weight 106 and 70,000, respectively

  4. Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy with Sodium Phosphate Solution versus Polyethylene Glycol-Based Lavage: A Multicenter Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kruis, W; Mickisch, O.; B. Küppers; Berg, P.; Frick, B.; G. Heiland; D. Hüppe; B. Schenck; H. Horstkotte; Winkler, A.; Schanz, S. (Steffen)

    2008-01-01

    Background: Adequate bowel preparation is essential for accurate colonoscopy. Both oral sodium phosphate (NaP) and polyethylene glycol-based lavage (PEG-ELS) are used predominantly as bowel cleansing modalities. NaP has gained popularity due to low drinking volume and lower costs. The purpose of this randomized multicenter observer blinded study was to compare three groups of cleansing (NaP, NaP + sennosides, PEG-ELS + sennosides) in reference to tolerability, acceptance, and cleanliness. Pa...

  5. The salting-out effect and phase separation in aqueous solutions of tri-sodium citrate and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to obtain further evidence about the salting-out effect produced by the addition of tri-sodium citrate to aqueous solutions of water miscible ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4mim][Br]) by evaluating the effect of tri-sodium citrate on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of this ionic liquid. Experimental measurements of density and sound velocity at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 308.15) K, the refractive index at 308.15 K and the liquid-liquid phase diagram at different temperatures ranging from (288.15 to 338.15) K for aqueous solutions containing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C4mim][Br]) and tri-sodium citrate (Na3Cit) are taken. The apparent molar volume of transfer of [C4mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na3Cit have positive values and it increases by increasing salt molality. Although at high IL molality, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility shows similar behaviour with that of the apparent molar volume. However at low concentrations of IL, the apparent molar isentropic compressibility of transfer of [C4mim][Br] from water to aqueous solutions of Na3Cit have negative values. The effects of temperature and the addition of Na3Cit and [C4mim][Br] on the liquid-liquid phase diagram of the investigated system have been studied. It was found that an increase in temperaturt was found that an increase in temperature caused the expansion of the one-phase region. The presence of Na3Cit triggers a salting-out effect, leading to significant upward shifts of the liquid-liquid de-mixing temperatures of the system. The effect of temperature on the phase-forming ability in the system investigated has been studied based on a salting-out coefficient obtained from fitting the binodal values to a Setschenow-type equation for each temperature. Based on cloud point values, the energetics of the clouding process have been estimated and it was found that both of entropy and enthalpy are the driving forces for biphasic formation.

  6. Microrheology of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) solutions with different polymer concentrations and molecular weights studied by diffusing wave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Quan; Cheng, Chen-Yu; Chiang, Chia-Chun; Wei, Ming-Tzo; Huang, Yi-Chiao; Lavastre, Olivier; Guillaume, Husson; Guillaume, Darsy; Chiou, Arthur

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we report the viscoelastic properties of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS) solution with different concentrations (in the range of 10-4 M to 10-3 M) and with different molecular weights (70 kDa vs. 200 kDa) investigated via Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS). The viscoelastic properties of the sample solutions are characterized in terms of the elastic modulus G' and the viscous modulus G" as a function of frequency (f), and also in terms of the polymer disentanglement time (?) the effect of polymer concentration and molecular weight on these parameters are presented. Our experimental results indicate that (1) both the viscous modulus G" and the disentanglement time (?) increase with molecular concentration, whereas the elastic modulus G' is relatively insensitive to molecular concentration, and (2) for the same concentration, all the 3 parameters (i.e., the elastic modulus G', the viscous modulus G", and disentanglement time ?) increase as the molecular weight increases.

  7. Distribution of carrier-free 90Y(III) between solutions of sodium nitrate, nitric acid and dioctyl phosphate (HDOP) in cyclohexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier-free 90Y isotope was used to study the distribution between the aqueous solution of nitric acid and sodium nitrate and HDOP in cyclohexane. The distribution coefficients (D) were measured as a function of the acidity and the nitrate concentration in the aqueous phase. The acid dependence was studied in a HNO3 concentration range of 1-14M. The curve lgD vs.lg(HNO3 molarity) in the range of 1-4 gives a slope of 3. The anion effect of nitrate ions shows a complexing influence on the yttrium ions changing its distribution between the two phases. The results can be useful in hydrometallurgical processes in which the solutions are highly acidic and contain a large amount of the dissolved materials as nitrate salts. (author)

  8. 3-Ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for 6061-Alloy in Sodium Hydroxide Solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    P.D. Reena, Kumari; Jagannath, Nayak; A. Nityananda, Shetty.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition action of 3-ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (EAMT) on the corrosion of 6061-Al alloy in different concentrations of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution has been investigated at different temperatures, using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic [...] techniques. The surface morphology of the metal surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that the presence of EAMT in sodium hydroxide solution decreases the corrosion rates and the corrosion current densities (icorr), and increases the charge transfer resistance (Rp). It was found that the inhibitor efficiency depends on the concentration of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive media and temperature. The inhibition was assumed to occur through adsorption of the inhibitor molecule on the metal surface. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EAMT acts as a mixed inhibitor. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption processes were determined from the experimental data. The results obtained from both the techniques are in good agreement.

  9. Effect of sodium caproate on the volumetric and viscometric properties of glycine, DL-?-alanine, and DL-?-amino-n-butyric acid in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparent molar volumes (Vm,2) and relative viscosities (?r) at T=(298.15 and 308.15) K have been obtained for glycine, DL-?-alanine, and DL-?-amino-butyric acid in aqueous sodium caproate solutions from measurements of density and the flow time. The standard partial molar volumes (V0m,2), standard volumes of transfer (?tV0), the viscosity B-coefficients, and the activation thermodynamic quantities (??20? and ?S20?) of viscous flow have been calculated for the amino acids. It is shown that the standard partial molar volumes, viscosity B-coefficients, and activation free energies for viscous flow increase with increasing number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain of the amino acids. An increase in V0m,2 and ?tV0 with increasing electrolyte concentrations have been explained due to the interactions of sodium caproate with the charged center of zwitterions for the amino acids. A comparison of the V0m,2 values for glycine, DL-?-alanine, and DL-?-aminon-n-butyric acid in different aqueous salts solutions showed that carboxylate ions have stronger interactions with amino acid than chloride, thiocyanate, and nitrate ions. Results of viscosity are discussed in terms of changes in solvent structure

  10. 3-Ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole as Corrosion Inhibitor for 6061-Alloy in Sodium Hydroxide Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Reena Kumari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition action of 3-ethyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole (EAMT on the corrosion of 6061-Al alloy in different concentrations of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution has been investigated at different temperatures, using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic techniques. The surface morphology of the metal surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The experimental results showed that the presence of EAMT in sodium hydroxide solution decreases the corrosion rates and the corrosion current densities (icorr, and increases the charge transfer resistance (Rp. It was found that the inhibitor efficiency depends on the concentration of the inhibitor, concentration of the corrosive media and temperature. The inhibition was assumed to occur through adsorption of the inhibitor molecule on the metal surface. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the metal surface is found to obey Langmuir adsorption isotherm. EAMT acts as a mixed inhibitor. Thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption processes were determined from the experimental data. The results obtained from both the techniques are in good agreement.

  11. Effects of bicarbonate and sulfate ions on the pitting corrosion behavior of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy for disposal of high-level radioactive waste in China is to enclose the spent nuclear fuel in sealed metal canisters which are embedded in bentonite clay hundreds meters down in the bed-rock. The choice of container material depends largely on the redox conditions and the aqueous environment of the repository. One of the choices for the fabrication of waste canisters is copper, because it is thermodynamically stable under the saline, anoxic conditions over the large majority of the container lifetime. However, in the early aerobic phase of the geological disposal the corrosion of copper could take place, and the corrosion behavior of copper would be influenced by the complex chemical conditions of groundwater markedly. Pitting corrosion of copper often take place in power plants or air-conditioning condensate water. The corrosion environment usually contains bicarbonate, sulfate and chloride ions. In the early stage of geological disposal, if the aerobic water with bicarbonate, sulfate and chloride ions immersion repository, the pitting corrosion of copper may occur. The content of bicarbonate and sulfate ion in the water chemistry environment, as well as the synergy between them, could affect the behavior of pitting seriously. The content of bicarbonate and chloride ion in the water chemistry environment, as well as the synergy between them, could affect the behavior of pitting seriously. The researchers generally agreed that chloride ions would promote the occurrence of pitting corrosion of copper, and bicarbonate ions will lead to surface passivation and inhibition of pitting. However, there is no systematic work in this area. In our work, the cycle polarization behavior and surface morphology of pitting has been investigated in HCO3- and Cl- mixed solution, respectively by electrochemical cyclic polarization test and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the circular polarization curves of copper could be divided into four types. The corrosion products after pitting are mainly CuCl, CuO2, CuCl2·3Cu (OH)2 and CuCO3Cu (OH)2; The pitting on the surface of copper occurs only in the environment with both Cl- and HCO-3; In the area of active dissolve pitting, the pitting susceptibility increased with the increase of concentration of Cl-. The pitting susceptibility increased then decreased with the increase of the concentration of HCO3-; In the area of passive film rupture pitting area, pitting susceptibility increased with the increase of concentration of Cl- or with the decrease of the concentration of HCO3-. (authors)

  12. pH Stability of Injectable Fentanyl, Bupivacaine, or Clonidine Solution or a Ternary Mixture in 0.9% Sodium Chloride in Two Types of Polypropylene Syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappinen, Annalisa; Kokki, Hannu; Naaranlahti, Toivo

    2002-01-01

    The pH stability of injectable fentanyl, bupivacaine, or clonidine solution or a ternary mixture in 0.9% sodium chloride, all of which were stored in polypropylene syringes, was determined. Two different types of polypropylene syringes were tested: one (Omnifix, B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) had a synthetic latex-free polyisoprene piston and the other (Terumo, Leuven, Belgium) did not contain natural rubber or synthetic rubber. Forty-eight Omnifix 50-mL syringes and 120 Terumo 20-mL syringes were tested. The syringes were filled with a fentanyl citrate solution 35 microgram/mL (stored in 12 Omnifix and 30 Terumo syringes), a bupivacaine hydrochloride solution 1mg/mL (12 Omnifix and 30 Terumo syringes), a clonidine hydrochloride solution 9 micrograms/mL (12 Omnifix and 30 Terumo syringes), or a ternary mixture in 0.9% sodium chloride (12 Omnifix and 30 Terumo syringes). The syringes were stored for 30 days at 4 deg C, 21 deg C, and 35 deg C. Duplicate samples were prepared, observed for precipitation and color change, and measured for pH immediately after preparation and at 1, 2, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 23, and 30 days of storage. There was no color change or precipitation in any sample during 30 days of storage at any of the temperatures studied. There was no change in the pH of the fentanyl, bupivacaine, or clonidine soltuions or in the ternary mixtrue stored in Terumo syringes for 30 days of storage at 4 deg C, 21 deg C, and 35 deg C. Omnifix syringes performed differently with different drug solutions. No siginicant change in the pH of the fentanyl bupivacaine, or clonidine solutions or of the ternary mixture stored in the Omnifix syringes was observed during 30 days of storage at 4 deg C, 21 deg C, and 35 deg C, except for the clonidine solutions stored at 21 deg C and 35 deg C. PMID:23979473

  13. Reactive transport modeling of carbon dioxide sequestration via bicarbonate brine injection in the Rose Run sandstone formation: A comparison with traditional CCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P.; Kendall, T.; Seeker, R.; Constantz, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    One by-product of the Calera process to make building materials from CO2 is a bicarbonate solution that contains a variable fraction of the CO2 captured from flue gas. Injection of this fluid into the subsurface has advantages over CO2 injection in terms of technical risks, environmental issues, cost, safety, and public acceptance. With bicarbonate injection, there is no need of a cap-rock, as the solution is non-volatile, and will not be buoyant because it is of comparable density to the host fluids. Although a bicarbonate fluid has less CO2 mass per unit volume than supercritical CO2 (in our example, 34 times less), a large injection zone footprint is not a strong disadvantage because detailed site characterization, in particular of cap-rock integrity, is less critical. Moreover, the amount of CO2 that needs trapping is reduced by an amount equal to the carbon in the mineralized cement by-product. Bicarbonate injection can be carried out in relatively shallow aquifers, which reduces the pumping energy needed for emplacement. In terms of desirable long-term CO2 trapping mechanisms, bicarbonate injection greatly accelerates solubility and mineral trapping into hours and days as compared to decades or more for liquid CO2 injection. Thus, bicarbonate injection is a practical demonstration of fluid mixing at field scale. To assess the potential for geological storage of CO2 in American Electric Power’s (AEP) Mountaineer site, 1D reactive transport models have been constructed to compare bicarbonate with CO2 injection and upscale the mixing problem from batch experiments to the field. For CO2 injection, CO2 forms a completely dried-out zone near the borehole, which may result in halite efflorescence and may be a concern for well-bore injectivity. Simulations predict that after 10,000 years, the CO2 partial pressure remains above 200 bars, and the solution pH remains below 5 within a one kilometer radius of the wellbore. Consequently, the dissolved CO2 is about 1 molal and mineral trapping is minimal. The predicted porosity change is insignificant. For bicarbonate injection, the pH rises to about 9, and decreases to about 8 at 10,000 years. CO2 partial pressure remains at less than 1 bar. The predicted porosity increase is about 0.5% at 10,000 years. Bicarbonate remains the dominant carbon species and carbonate mineral precipitation is less than 0.1% by volume.

  14. Bidirectional diffusion of ammonium and sodium cations in forward osmosis: role of membrane active layer surface chemistry and charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinglin; Boo, Chanhee; Ma, Jun; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-12-16

    Systematic fundamental understanding of mass transport in osmosis-driven membrane processes is important for further development of this emerging technology. In this work, we investigate the role of membrane surface chemistry and charge on bidirectional solute diffusion in forward osmosis (FO). In particular, bidirectional diffusion of ammonium (NH4(+)) and sodium (Na(+)) is examined using FO membranes with different materials and surface charge characteristics. Using an ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) draw solution, we observe dramatically enhanced cation fluxes with sodium chloride feed solution compared to that with deionized water feed solution for thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane. However, the bidirectional diffusion of cations does not change, regardless of the type of feed solution, for cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane. We relate this phenomenon to the membrane fixed surface charge by employing different feed solution pH to foster different protonation conditions for the carboxyl groups on the TFC membrane surface. Membrane surface modification is also carried out with the TFC membrane using ethylenediamine to alter carboxyl groups into amine groups. The modified TFC membrane, with less negatively charged groups, exhibits a significant decrease in the bidirectional diffusion of cations under the same conditions employed with the pristine TFC membrane. Based on our experimental observations, we propose Donnan dialysis as a mechanism responsible for enhanced bidirectional diffusion of cations in TFC membranes. PMID:25418020

  15. Thermodynamic solution properties of pefloxacin mesylate and its interactions with organized assemblies of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Free energy of adsorption is more negative than free energy of micellization. • Micellization becomes more spontaneous at high temperature. • There is strong interaction between PFM and SDS. - Abstract: This manuscript reports the physicochemical behavior of antibiotic amphiphilic drug pefloxacin mesylate (PFM) and its interaction with anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The data of surface tension and electrical conductivity are helpful to detect the CMC as well as to calculate surface parameters, i.e. surface pressure, ?, surface excess concentration, ?, area per molecule of drug and standard Gibbs free energy of adsorption, ?Gads and thermodynamic parameters like standard free energy of micellization, ?Gm, standard enthalpy of micellization, ?Hm and standard entropy of micellization, ?Sm. The interaction of this drug with anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by electrical conductivity and UV/visible spectroscopy. This enabled us to compute the values of partition coefficient (Kx), free energy of partition, ?Gp, binding constant, Kb, free energy of binding, ?Gb, number of drug molecules per micelle, n, and thermodynamic parameters of drug–surfactant interaction

  16. Thermodynamic solution properties of pefloxacin mesylate and its interactions with organized assemblies of anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Muhammad [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Rashid, Muhammad Abid [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Mansha, Asim [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, Mohammad, E-mail: m_sidiq12@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2013-12-10

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Free energy of adsorption is more negative than free energy of micellization. • Micellization becomes more spontaneous at high temperature. • There is strong interaction between PFM and SDS. - Abstract: This manuscript reports the physicochemical behavior of antibiotic amphiphilic drug pefloxacin mesylate (PFM) and its interaction with anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The data of surface tension and electrical conductivity are helpful to detect the CMC as well as to calculate surface parameters, i.e. surface pressure, ?, surface excess concentration, ?, area per molecule of drug and standard Gibbs free energy of adsorption, ?G{sub ads} and thermodynamic parameters like standard free energy of micellization, ?G{sub m}, standard enthalpy of micellization, ?H{sub m} and standard entropy of micellization, ?S{sub m}. The interaction of this drug with anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by electrical conductivity and UV/visible spectroscopy. This enabled us to compute the values of partition coefficient (K{sub x}), free energy of partition, ?G{sub p}, binding constant, K{sub b}, free energy of binding, ?G{sub b}, number of drug molecules per micelle, n, and thermodynamic parameters of drug–surfactant interaction.

  17. Evaluating interaction forces between BSA and rabbit anti-BSA in sulphathiazole sodium, tylosin and levofloxacin solution by AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions play crucial roles in numerous biological processes. However, it is still challenging to evaluate the protein-protein interactions, such as antigen and antibody, in the presence of drug molecules in physiological liquid. In this study, the interaction between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and rabbit anti-BSA was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the presence of various antimicrobial drugs (sulphathiazole sodium, tylosin and levofloxacin) under physiological condition. The results show that increasing the concentration of tylosin decreased the single-molecule-specific force between BSA and rabbit anti-BSA. As for sulphathiazole sodium, it dramatically decreased the specific force at a certain critical concentration, but increased the nonspecific force as its concentration increasing. In addition, the presence of levofloxacin did not greatly influence either the specific or nonspecific force. Collectively, these results suggest that these three drugs may adopt different mechanisms to affect the interaction force between BSA and rabbit anti-BSA. These findings may enhance our understanding of antigen/antibody binding processes in the presence of drug molecules, and hence indicate that AFM could be helpful in the design and screening of drugs-modulating protein-protein interaction processes. PMID:22053876

  18. Effect of Mucin and Bicarbonate Ion on Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy for Airway Stents

    OpenAIRE

    Yongseok Jang; Daniel Owuor; Waterman, Jenora T.; Leon White; Boyce Collins; Jagannathan Sankar; Gilbert, Thomas W.; Yeoheung Yun

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradable ability of magnesium alloys is an attractive feature for tracheal stents since they can be absorbed by the body through gradual degradation after healing of the airway structure, which can reduce the risk of inflammation caused by long-term implantation and prevent the repetitive surgery for removal of existing stent. In this study, the effects of bicarbonate ion (HCO3?) and mucin in Gamble’s solution on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated,...

  19. Structural and phase transition changes of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solution in alcohols probed by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Edy Giri Rachman; Patriati, Arum

    2015-04-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on 0.3M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solutions have been performed in the presence of n-alcohols, from ethanol to decanol at different alcohol concentrations, 2-10 wt%. The ellipsoid micellar structure which occurred in the 0.3M SDS in aqueous solution with the size range of 30-50 Å has different behavior at various hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. At low concentration and short chain-length of alcohols, such as ethanol, propanol, and butanol, the size of micelles reduced and had a spherical-like structure. The opposite effect occurred as medium to long chain alcohols, such as hexanol, octanol and decanol was added into the 0.3M SDS micellar solutions. The micelles structure changed to be more elongated in major axis and then crossed the critical phase transition from micellar solution into liquid crystal phase as lamellar structure emerged by further addition of alcohols. The inter-lamellar distances were also depending on the hydrocarbon chain length and concentration of alcohols. In the meantime, the persistent micellar structures occurred in addition of medium chain of n-alcohol, pentanol at all concentrations.

  20. Fast and highly-efficient removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution by poly(styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid)-sodium-modified magnetic colloidal nanocrystal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Bei; Lv, Shao-Nan; Cheng, Chang-Jing; Ni, Guo-Li; Xie, Xiao-Wa; Huang, Wei; Zhao, Zhi-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic colloidal nanocrystal clusters (MCNCs) modified with different amounts of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium (PSSMA) have been prepared through simple one-step solvothermal method for removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solution. The prepared MCNCs are characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption technique and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Moreover, effects of the solution pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, ionic strength and initial dye concentration on MB adsorption onto the MCNCs are systematically investigated. The PSSMA-modified MCNCs show fast and highly-efficient MB removal capacity, which dramatically depends on the immobilization amounts of PSSMA, solution pH and adsorbent dosage. Their adsorption kinetics and isotherms exhibit that the kinetics and equilibrium adsorptions can be well-described by pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir model, respectively. These magnetic nanocomposites, with high separation efficiency, low production cost and recyclable property, are promising as functional adsorbents for efficient removal of cationic organic pollutants from aqueous solution.

  1. Sodium Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium phosphate is used in adults 18 years of age or older to empty the colon (large intestine, bowel) ... view of the walls of the colon. Sodium phosphate is in a class of medications called saline ...

  2. Marinade with alkaline solutions for the improvement of pork quality / Marinados com soluções alcalinas para a melhoria da qualidade da carne suína

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Viviane Maria Oliveira dos, Santos; Fabiana Ribeiro, Caldara; Leonardo de Oliveira, Seno; Gelson Luis Dias, Feijó; Ibiara Correia de Lima Almeida, Paz; Rodrigo Garófallo, Garcia; Irenilza de Alencar, Nääs; Ângela Dulce Cavenaghi, Altemio.

    1655-16-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de marinadas com soluções alcalinas sobre características da carne de porco submetida a quedas do pH post-mortem, em músculo de porco. O pH das carcaças foi medido em abatedouro comercial (n = 526), aos 45 min pós-abate (pH45) e, em seguida, as carcaç [...] as foram divididas em grupos com pH455,7. Dez amostras do músculo longissimus dorsi de cada grupo foram coletadas e distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 2x4, com duas condições (pH455,7) e quatro soluções de marinação: TC, controle sem marinação; TM1, bicarbonato de sódio e cloreto de sódio; TM2, tripolifosfato de sódio e cloreto de sódio; TM3, bicarbonato de sódio, tripolifosfato de sódio e cloreto de sódio. Não houve interação entre o pH45 da carne e os tratamentos marinados. As carnes com pH45 Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of alkaline solution marinades on the characteristics of pork subjected to post-mortem pH decrease in pig muscle. The pH of carcasses was measured in a commercial slaughterhouse (n = 526), 45 min after slaughtering (pH45) and, then, the carcasse [...] s were divided into the groups with pH455.7. Ten samples of the longissimus dorsi muscles of each group were collected and distributed in an entirely randomized design, in a 2x4 factorial arrangement, with two conditions (pH455.7), and four marinade solutions: TC, no marinade; TM1, sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride; TM2, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium chloride; TM3, sodium bicarbonate, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium chloride. There was no interaction between pH45 of the meat and the marinade treatments. Meat with pH45

  3. Effect of equiosmolar solutions of hypertonic sodium lactate versus mannitol in craniectomy patients with moderate traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad R. Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain relaxation and prevention from cerebral edema are essential in craniectomy. Osmotherapy with 20% mannitol are generally used to withdraw fluid from the brain parenchyma, however may cause hemodynamic fluctuation, due to increase diuresis. On the other hand 0.5 M hypertonic sodium lactate (HSL appeared as an alternative of osmotherapy. This study  aimed to observe the effect of hypertonic sodium lactate (HSL on brain relaxation, blood glucose level and hemodynamic variables in craniectomy due to moderate brain injury.Methods: A randomized controlled study of 42 cases with moderate brain injury, aged 18 - 65 years, ASA 1 - 3, between September-November 2012, was carried out. The patients were divided into group M (n = 21 that received 2.5 mL/kg 20% mannitol and group HSL that received 2.5 mL/kg 0.5M HSL. Mean arterial pressures (MAP, central venous pressures (CVP and urine output were measured after induction, and at 15, 30, 45, 60 min after infusion. Brain relaxation was assessed at a four-point scale after opening the duramater. Blood glucose levels were measured before induction and at 60 min after the infusion. Appropriate statistical tests were used for comparison. Unpaired t-test was used to compare hemodynamic and blood glucose level, and chi-square was used to compare brain relaxation. Results: MAP at 60 minute was significantly higher in HSL group than M group (81.66 ± 7.85 vs 74.33 ± 6.18 mmHg; p = 0.002. There was no difference in brain relaxation (p = 0.988. A significant increase in blood glucose level was observed in group HSL (17.95 ± 11.46 mg/dL; p = 0.001. Conclusion: Half-molar HSL was as effective as 20% mannitol in producing brain relaxation, with better hemodynamic stability and gave significant increase in blood glucose level.Keywords: brain relaxation, hemodynamic, hypertonic sodium lactate, mannitol, traumatic brain injury

  4. Undisplayed Bicarbonate ion Concentration in Arterial Blood Gas Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sathe, Aditya Balakrishna; Bhalkar, Manjiri Shashank

    2013-01-01

    Blood bicarbonate ion concentration (BcHCO3-) is a vital parameter in the management of acid base disorders. In an arterial blood gas (ABG) analyzer, the BcHCO3- is calculated from the values of pH and pCO2.

  5. Peptic ulcer pathophysiology: acid, bicarbonate, and mucosal function.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØjgaard, L; Mertz Nielsen, A

    1996-01-01

    The previously accepted role of gastric acid hypersecretion in peptic ulcer disease has been modified by studies showing no correlation between acid output and clinical outcome of ulcer disease, or between ulcer recurrence rate after vagotomy and preoperative acid secretion. At the same time, studies have been unable to demonstrate increased acidity in the duodenal bulb in patients with duodenal ulcer, and consequently more emphasis has been given to the mucosal protecting mechanisms. The existence of an active gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion creates a pH gradient from the luminal acid to near neutrality at the surface of the epithelial cells, thereby acting as an important mucosal defence mechanism. The regulation of bicarbonate secretion is a complex process related to motility and neural activity. Stimulation is by acid, PGE2, NO, VIP, cAMP, and mucosal protective agents. Bicarbonate secretion is inhibited by atropine, muscarinic antagonists, alpha-adrenoceptor agonists, indomethacin, bile acids, tobacco smoking, and probably also by infection by Helicobacter pylori. Apart from mucus and bicarbonate, the mucosal defence is supported by a hydrophobic epithelial lining, rapid cell removal and repair regulated by epidermal growth factor. Sufficient mucosal blood flow, including a normal acid/base balance, is important for subepithelial protection. In today's model of ulcer pathogenesis, gastric acid and H. pylori work in concert as aggressive factors, with the open question being: why does only a fraction of the infected population develop an ulcer?

  6. Alloy 22 Localized Corrosion Susceptibility In Aqueous Solutions Of Chloride And Nitrate Salts Of Sodium And Potassium At 110 - 150?C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, S; Hailey, P D; Lian, T; Staggs, K J; Gdowski, G E

    2006-01-17

    Alloy 22 (a nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy) is being investigated for use as the outer barrier of waste containers for a high-level nuclear waste repository in the thick unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Experiments were conducted to assess crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 in de-aerated aqueous solutions of chloride and nitrate salts of potassium and sodium in the temperature range 110-150 C (some limited testing was also conducted at 90 C). Electrochemical tests were run in neutral salt solutions without acid addition and others were run in salt solutions with an initial hydrogen ion concentration of 10{sup -4} molal. The Alloy 22 specimens were weld prism specimens and de-aeration was performed with nitrogen gas. No evidence of crevice corrosion was observed in the range 125-150 C. In the 120 to 160 C temperature range, the anionic concentration of stable aqueous solutions is dominated by nitrate relative to chloride. At nominally 120 C, the minimum nitrate to chloride ratio is about 4.5, and it increases to about 22 at nominally 155 C. The absence of localized corrosion susceptibility in these solutions is attributed to the known inhibiting effect of the nitrate anion. At 110 C, aqueous solutions can have dissolved chloride in excess of nitrate. Localized corrosion was observed at nitrate to chloride ratios up to 1.0, the highest ratio tested. The extent of localized corrosion was confined to the crevice region of the samples, and was limited for nitrate to chloride ratios greater than or equal to 0.3. Aqueous solution chemistry studies indicate that nitrate to chloride ratios of less than 0.5 are possible for temperatures up to nominally 116 C. However, the exact upper temperature limit is unknown and no electrochemical testing was done at these temperatures. Limited comparison between 8 m Cl aqueous solutions of Na + K on the one hand and Ca on the other indicated similar electrochemical E{sub crit} values and similar morphology of attack, again limited to the crevice region. However, the 24 hr E{sub corr} value was higher for the Ca based solution; this is probably due to the higher acidity of this solution (Ca{sup 2+} is slightly hydrolyzing). Intermediate-term corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) measurements indicate that moderately acidic conditions are required to achieve elevated E{sub corr} values.

  7. The effect of pure iron in a nanocrystalline grain size on the corrosion inhibitor behavior of sodium benzoate in near-neutral aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of grain size reduction on the electrochemical and corrosion behavior of iron with different grain sizes (32-750 nm) produced by direct and pulsed current electrodeposition were characterized using Tafel polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The grain size of deposits was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The tests were carried out in an aqueous electrolyte containing 30 mg L-1 NaCl + 70 mg L-1 Na2SO4. Results obtained suggested that the inhibition effect and corrosion protection of sodium benzoate inhibitor in near-neutral aqueous solutions increased as the grain size decreased from microcrystalline to nanocrystalline. The improvement on the inhibition effect is attributed to the increase of the surface energy.

  8. Extraction of lanthanides ions (III) from aqueous solution by sodium salt of the N(4-amino-benzoate)-propyl-silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The silica gel 60 of specific superficial area 486 m2.g-1 was modified chemically with the ligand 4-amino benzoate of sodium in water-ethanol environment (l:L). The adsorptions of metallic ions were from water solutions at approximately 2 x 10-3 M of chloride of Pr(III), Nd(III), Eu(III) and Ho(III). In these experiments we could see that the system gets the equilibrium of adsorption rapidly and that the pH of the environment has a great influence on the process of adsorption, being that the number of metal mols adsorpted in the matrix varied between 10,00 and 17,00 x 10-5 mols. g-1 with a pH of approximately 5 for all the lanthanides, where the adsorption curves reach equilibrium. (author)

  9. Matrix effect of sodium compounds on the determination of metal ions in aqueous solutions by underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goueguel, Christian; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K; Carson, Cantwell

    2015-07-01

    A significant portion of the carbon sequestration research being performed in the United States involves the risk assessment of injecting large quantities of carbon dioxide into deep saline aquifers. Leakage of CO2 has the potential to affect the quality of groundwater supplies in case contaminants migrate through underlying conduits. New remote sensing and near-surface monitoring technologies are needed to ensure that injection, abandoned, and monitoring wells are structurally sound, and that CO2 remains within the geologic storage reservoir. In this paper, we propose underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (underwater LIBS) as an analytical method for monitoring naturally occurring elements that can act as tracers to detect a CO2 leak from storage sites. Laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to measure Sr2+, Ca2+, K+, and Li+ in bulk solutions to ascertain the analytical performance of underwater LIBS. We compared the effect of NaCl, Na2CO3, and Na2SO4 on the analytes calibration curves to determine underwater LIBS' ability to analyze samples of sodium compounds. In all cases, the calibration curves showed a good linearity within 2 orders of magnitude. The limit of detections (LODs) obtained for K+ (30±1??ppb) and Li+ (60±2??ppb) were in ppb range, while higher LODs were observed for Ca2+ (0.94±0.14??ppm) and Sr2+ (2.89±0.11??ppm). Evaluation of the calibration curves for the analytes in mixed solutions showed dependence of the lines' intensity with the sodium compounds. The intensities increased respectively in the presence of dissolved NaCl and Na2SO4, whereas the intensities slightly decreased in the presence of Na2CO3. Finally, the capabilities of underwater LIBS to detect certain elements in the ppb or in the low ppm range make it particularly appealing for in situ monitoring of a CO2 leak. PMID:26193154

  10. Fluidized-Bed Coating with Sodium Sulfate and PVA-TiO2, 2. Influence of Coating Solution Viscosity, Stickiness, pH, and Droplet Diameter on Agglomeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, Poul

    2009-01-01

    In the first part of this study [Hede, P. D.; Bach, P.; Jensen, A. D. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2009, 49, 1914], agglomeration regime maps were developed for two types of coatings: sodium sulfate and PVA-TiO2. It was observed here how the agglomeration tendency is always lower for the salt coating process than for the polymer coating process, under similar process conditions. This is investigated further in this second part and concluded to be due to differences in coating solution stickiness, rather than differences in bulk viscosities. Furthermore, results show that it is possible to optimize the PVA-TiO2 coating formulation and process to achieve a low tendency of agglomeration, similar to that of the salt coating process. The best results for the PVA-TiO2 solution are obtained by substituting the PVA-TiO2 in equal amounts with Neodol 23-6.5 and further reducing the pH value in the coating solution to pH 4.

  11. Solubility of PdI/sub 2/ in nitrate and perchlorate solutions. [For use in spent fuels processing; solvents are water, nitric acid, calcium nitrate, and sodium perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, D.E.; Mailen, J.C.; Bigelow, H.R.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reports the solubilities of PdI/sub 2/ as measured in nitric acid by a tracer technique and in water, calcium nitrate, and sodium perchlorate solutions by a specific ion electrode technique. The tracer technique measures all the soluble iodine species, whereas the specific ion electrode measures only simple iodide ions (I/sup -/). When compared on the basis of ionic strength, the values obtained in the nitrate solutions by the two methods were in reasonable agreement. The solubilities in perchlorate solution were much higher than in nitrate, possibly because of ionic equilibria involving Pd/sup 4 +/, but this was not resolved in this work. The activity product constant, K/sub ap(PdI/sub 2/)/ = (2.5 +- 0.4) x 10/sup -23/ (25/sup 0/C), was calculated from PdI/sub 2/ solubility in water. With this value and the standard electrode potentials from the literature, the free energy of formation for PdI/sub 2/ was calculated to be --13.6 kcal/mol.

  12. Poly-l-lactide/sodium alginate/chitosan microsphere hybrid scaffolds made with braiding manufacture and adhesion technique: Solution to the incongruence between porosity and compressive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Horng; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Wen, Shih-Peng; Lou, Ching-Wen

    2015-07-01

    Bone scaffolds require a three-dimensional structure, high porosity, interconnected pores, adequate mechanical strengths, and non-toxicity. A high porosity is incongruent with mechanical strengths. Therefore, this study combines a braiding method and microsphere solution to create bone scaffolds with a high porosity and sufficient mechanical strengths. First, poly-l-lactide (PLLA) plied yarns are braided into 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, and 25-layer hollow braids, and then thermally treated at 165°C for various durations. Next, sodium alginate (SA) microspheres, cross-linked with CaCl2 solution with various concentrations, are combined with PLLA porous braided bone scaffolds to form PLLA/SA/CS microsphere hybrid scaffolds, which are then observed for surface observation, and tested for porosity, water contact angle, compressive strength, MTT assay, bioactivity, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, cell attachment, and statistical analyses. The test results show that the layer amount of the bone scaffold is proportional to the compressive strength. With the same number of layers, the compressive strength is inversely proportional to the concentration of the CaCl2 solution. The results of surface observation, porosity, and water contact angle tests show that PLLA/SA/CS microsphere hybrid scaffolds possess a high porosity and good hydrophilicity; as a result, the braiding manufacture and the bonding technique effectively solve the confliction between porosity and mechanical strength. The concentration of CaCl2 does not pertain to cell activity and ALP results, exemplified by good cell attachment on bone scaffolds for each specification. PMID:25953547

  13. Quantified pH imaging with hyperpolarized 13C?bicarbonate : Quantified pH Imaging with Hyperpolarized Bicarbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, David Johannes; Janich, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Because pH plays a crucial role in several diseases, it is desirable to measure pH in vivo noninvasively and in a spatially localized manner. Spatial maps of pH were quantified in vitro, with a focus on method?based errors, and applied in vivo. In vitro and in vivo 13C mapping were performed for various flip angles for bicarbonate (BiC) and CO2 with spectral?spatial excitation and spiral readout in healthy Lewis rats in five slices. Acute subcutaneous sterile inflammation was induced with Concanavalin A in the right leg of Buffalo rats. pH and proton images were measured 2 h after induction. After optimizing the signal to noise ratio of the hyperpolarized 13C?bicarbonate, error estimation of the spectral?spatial excited spectrum reveals that the method covers the biologically relevant pH range of 6 to 8 with low pH error (<0.2). Quantification of pH maps shows negligible impact of the residual bicarbonate signal. pH maps reflect the induction of acute metabolic alkalosis. Inflamed, infected regions exhibit lower pH. Hyperpolarized 13C?bicarbonate pH mapping was shown to be sensitive in the biologically relevant pH range. The mapping of pH was applied to healthy in vivo organs and interpreted within inflammation and acute metabolic alkalosis models. Magn Reson Med 73:2274–2282, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Antioxidant activity by DPPH assay of potential solutions to be applied on bleached teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Eugenio José; Oldoni, Tatiane Luiza Cadorin; Alencar, Severino Matias de; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, using the DPPH assay, the antioxidant activity of several substances that could be proposed to immediately revert the problems caused by bleaching procedures. The percentage of antioxidant activity (AA%) of 10% ascorbic acid solution (AAcidS), 10% ascorbic acid gel (AAcidG), 10% sodium ascorbate solution (SodAsS), 10% sodium ascorbate gel (SodAsG), 10% sodium bicarbonate (Bicarb), Neutralize(®) (NE), Desensibilize(®) (DES), catalase C-40 at 10 mg/mL (CAT), 10% alcohol solution of alpha-tocopherol (VitE), Listerine(®) (LIS), 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX), Croton Lechleri (CL), 10 % aqueous solution of Uncaria Tomentosa (UT), artificial saliva (ArtS) and 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF) was assessed in triplicate by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical assay. All substances exhibited antioxidant activity, except for CL. AAcidS, AAcidG and VitE exhibited the highest AA% (p<0.05). On the contrary, CHX, NE, LIS and NaF showed the lowest AA% (p<0.05). In conclusion, AAcidS, AAcidG, SodAsS, SodAsG and VitE presented the highest antioxidant activity among substances tested in this study. The DPPH assay provides an easy and rapid way to evaluate potential antioxidants. PMID:22460310

  15. A method for the separation of sodium and iron from plutonium and other impurities in concentrated plutonium solution and their subsequent measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium and iron are separated from plutonium and other impurities by solvent extraction. Sodium is determined by flame photometry and iron by spectrophotometric measurement of the orthophenanthroline complex. (author)

  16. Volumetric Mass Transfer Coefficient of SO2 Gas Absorption into Aqueous Sodium Sulphite Solution in Plate Column

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar Ghani Majeed

    2013-01-01

    The volumetric mass transfer coefficient (KG.a) for SO2 removal from gas mixture into aqueous Na2SO3 solution was studied in a plate column at constant temperature ( 25 , and liquid holdup. The KG.a values were evaluated over ranges of operating independent variables: gas flow rate (QG), SO2 concentration in inlet gas (CSO2, in), and concentration of aqueous Na2SO3 solution (CNa2SO3). The experimental results showed that KG.a decreased with i...

  17. The discrimination of the oxidation states of neptunium in sodium hydroxide solutions by means of chromatography on alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of discriminating the oxidation states of Np in a NaOH solution by means of chromatography on alumina is proposed. In a NaOH solution of 0.5 - 1.7 M (1 M = 1 mol dm-3), the separation of Np (VI) from Np (VII) can be made effectively by means of chromatography on alumina. Only a little Np (VI) is adsorbed on alumina the Np (VII) adsorbed to some extent, and the Np (V), strongly, under the same conditions. By applying this chromatographic method, the method of preparing Np (VI) and Np (VII) of a tracer quantity in 1 M NaOH is established. (author)

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009, bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393, sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985, sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008 which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber in packaging containing whole fresh fruits. The powder mixture is placed in a nonwoven polyethylene sachet separated from the food by a pad. In the presence of moisture, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate first decomposes into sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide which decomposes into water and oxygen. Sodium carbonate reacts with carbon dioxide to form sodium bicarbonate. Because the sachet is not placed in direct contact with the food or food exudates, only hydrogen peroxide which decomposes to water and oxygen may be released with no other potential migration of volatile compounds. Based on the conclusion drawn in the EU Risk Assessment Report that hydrogen peroxide is not classified as a mutagen and the results from a subchronic toxicity study with hydrogen peroxide, the Panel concluded that hydrogen peroxide does not raise a safety concern under the intended conditions of use. Therefore the CEF Panel concluded that sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride and sodium carbonate do not raise a safety concern for the consumer when used as combined oxygen generator and carbon dioxide absorber, for packaging of whole fruits. The substances should be used in sachets which prevent the release of the powder mixture into the food. Sachets should not be in direct contact with food or food exudates.

  19. NMR study of the solution conformation of rat atrial natriuretic factor 7-23 in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conformation of the cyclic portion (7-23) of naturally occurring rat atrial natriuretic factor, ANF(1-28), has been examined in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles using high-resolution NMR techniques. Evidence is presented which shows that ANF(7-23) has several regions of definable structure in SDS micelles which were not observed in earlier studies in bulk solvents. The 1H NMR resonances of ANF(7-23) in SDS micelles were assigned using sequential assignment techniques, and the conformational properties were analyzed primarily from proton-proton distances obtained from the quantitative analysis of two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser effect spectra. Three-dimensional structures consistent with the NMR data were generated by using distance geometry and constrained minimization/dynamics. Several similar but not identical structures were found which adequately satisfied the NMR constraints. Although none of the structures adopted a standard secondary structure, the conformations of three different sections of the peptide, 8-13, 14-17, and 18-21, were nearly identical in all of the predicted structures when individually superimposed

  20. Effect of Mucin and Bicarbonate Ion on Corrosion Behavior of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy for Airway Stents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongseok Jang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradable ability of magnesium alloys is an attractive feature for tracheal stents since they can be absorbed by the body through gradual degradation after healing of the airway structure, which can reduce the risk of inflammation caused by long-term implantation and prevent the repetitive surgery for removal of existing stent. In this study, the effects of bicarbonate ion (HCO3? and mucin in Gamble’s solution on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated, using immersion and electrochemical tests to systematically identify the biodegradation kinetics of magnesium alloy under in vitro environment, mimicking the epithelial mucus surfaces in a trachea for development of biodegradable airway stents. Analysis of corrosion products after immersion test was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS was used to identify the effects of bicarbonate ions and mucin on the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloys with the temporal change of corrosion resistance. The results show that the increase of the bicarbonate ions in Gamble’s solution accelerates the dissolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy, while the addition of mucin retards the corrosion. The experimental data in this work is intended to be used as foundational knowledge to predict the corrosion behavior of AZ31 magnesium alloy in the airway environment while providing degradation information for future in vivo studies.

  1. Study of the electrochemical oxidation and reduction of C.I. Reactive Orange 4 in sodium sulphate alkaline solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, A I; Molina, J; Bonastre, J; Cases, F

    2009-12-15

    Synthetic solutions of hydrolysed C.I. Reactive Orange 4, a monoazo textile dye commercially named Procion Orange MX-2R (PMX2R) and colour index number C.I. 18260, was exposed to electrochemical treatment under galvanostatic conditions and Na2SO4 as electrolyte. The influence of the electrochemical process as well as the applied current density was evaluated. Ti/SnO2-Sb-Pt and stainless steel electrodes were used as anode and cathode, respectively, and the intermediates generated on the cathode during electrochemical reduction were investigated. Aliquots of the solutions treated were analysed by UV-visible and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy confirming the presence of aromatic structures in solution when an electro-reduction was carried out. Electro-oxidation degraded both the azo group and aromatic structures. HPLC measures revealed that all processes followed pseudo-first order kinetics and decolourisation rates showed a considerable dependency on the applied current density. CV experiments and XPS analyses were carried out to study the behaviour of both PMX2R and intermediates and to analyse the state of the cathode after the electrochemical reduction, respectively. It was observed the presence of a main intermediate in solution after an electrochemical reduction whose chemical structure is similar to 2-amino-1,5-naphthalenedisulphonic acid. Moreover, the analysis of the cathode surface after electrochemical reduction reveals the presence of a coating layer with organic nature. PMID:19647934

  2. Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy with Sodium Phosphate Solution versus Polyethylene Glycol-Based Lavage: A Multicenter Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kruis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate bowel preparation is essential for accurate colonoscopy. Both oral sodium phosphate (NaP and polyethylene glycol-based lavage (PEG-ELS are used predominantly as bowel cleansing modalities. NaP has gained popularity due to low drinking volume and lower costs. The purpose of this randomized multicenter observer blinded study was to compare three groups of cleansing (NaP, NaP + sennosides, PEG-ELS + sennosides in reference to tolerability, acceptance, and cleanliness. Patient and Methods: 355 outpatients between 18 and 75 years were randomized into three groups (A, B, C receiving NaP = A, NaP, and sennosides = B or PEG-ELS and sennosides = C. Gastroenterologists performing colonoscopies were blinded to the type of preparation. All patients documented tolerance and adverse events. Vital signs, premedication, completeness, discomfort, and complications were recorded. A quality score (0–4 of cleanliness was generated. Results: The three groups were similar with regard to age, sex, BMI, indication for colonoscopy, and comorbidity. Drinking volumes (L (A = 4.33 + 1.2, B = 4.56 + 1.18, C = 4.93 + 1.71 were in favor of NaP (P = .005. Discomfort from ingested fluid was recorded in A = 39.8% (versus C: P = .015, B = 46.6% (versus C: P = .147, and C = 54.6%. Differences in tolerability and acceptance between the three groups were statistically not significant. No differences in adverse events and the cleanliness effects occurred in the three groups (P = .113. The cleanliness quality scores 0–2 were calculated in A: 77.7%, B: 86.7%, and C: 85.2%. Conclusions: These data fail to demonstrate significant differences in tolerability, acceptance, and preparation quality between the three types of bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Cleansing with NaP was not superior to PEG-ELS.

  3. Surface Analysis of Inhibitor Film Formed by Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) on Stainless Steel in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Samide; A., Ciuciu; C., Negrila.

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition of stainless steel in 0.9% NaCl solution in presence of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is discussed according to electrochemical measurements, such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS).The morphology of the surface was analyzed using Sc [...] anning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The composition of the layer formed on stainless steel surface was estimated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) technique. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the presence of PVA in NaCl solution decreases the corrosion current and increases the polarization resistance. The values of inhibition efficiency obtained from polarization curves and EIS measurements are in good agreement. In absence and in presence of PVA, SEM images showed that the stainless steel surface was covered with a non-uniform layer and a uniform adsorbed film, respectively. XPS analysis indicated that the surface layer consists of PVA containing a small amount of other elements, such as Na and Cl.

  4. Surface Analysis of Inhibitor Film Formed by Poly(Vinyl Alcohol on Stainless Steel in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Samide

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition of stainless steel in 0.9% NaCl solution in presence of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA is discussed according to electrochemical measurements, such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS.The morphology of the surface was analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The composition of the layer formed on stainless steel surface was estimated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS technique. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the presence of PVA in NaCl solution decreases the corrosion current and increases the polarization resistance. The values of inhibition efficiency obtained from polarization curves and EIS measurements are in good agreement. In absence and in presence of PVA, SEM images showed that the stainless steel surface was covered with a non-uniform layer and a uniform adsorbed film, respectively. XPS analysis indicated that the surface layer consists of PVA containing a small amount of other elements, such as Na and Cl.

  5. Hydraulic conductivity in response to exchangeable sodium percentage and solution salt concentration / Condutividade hidráulica em resposta à saturação por sódio e concentração salina da solução

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jefferson Luiz de Aguiar, Paes; Hugo Alberto, Ruiz; Raphael Bragança Alves, Fernandes; Maria Betânia Galvão dos Santos, Freire; Maria de Fatima Cavalcanti, Barros; Genelício Crusóe, Rocha.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Para estimar o movimento de água no solo, determina-se, em laboratório, a condutividade hidráulica em meio saturado. Porém, os resultados dessa análise, ao se utilizar água destilada ou deionizada, podem não corresponder às condições de campo em solos que apresentem concentrações elevadas de sais so [...] lúveis. Por essa razão, determinou-se, em laboratório, utilizando-se soluções de trabalho de diferentes condutividades elétricas, a condutividade hidráulica de seis solos representativos do Estado de Pernambuco, com percentagem de saturação de sódio ajustada no intervalo de 5 a 30%. Os resultados evidenciaram que houve incremento nos valores de condutividade hidráulica, diretamente relacionado com a diminuição da percentagem de saturação de sódio e com o aumento da condutividade elétrica na solução de trabalho. A resposta aos tratamentos foi mais acentuada nos solos com maiores proporções de argilas mais ativas. As determinações de condutividade hidráulica são realizadas com água deionizada ou destilada. No entanto, para solos afetados por sais, conclui-se que as análises deveriam ser realizadas com soluções com condutividades elétricas diferentes de 0 dS m-1, utilizando-se valores próximos aos do extrato da pasta de saturação. Abstract in english Hydraulic conductivity is determined in laboratory assays to estimate the flow of water in saturated soils. However, the results of this analysis, when using distilled or deionized water, may not correspond to field conditions in soils with high concentrations of soluble salts. This study therefore [...] set out to determine the hydraulic conductivity in laboratory conditions using solutions of different electrical conductivities in six soils representative of the State of Pernambuco, with the exchangeable sodium percentage adjusted in the range of 5-30%. The results showed an increase in hydraulic conductivity with both decreasing exchangeable sodium percentage and increasing electrical conductivity in the solution. The response to the treatments was more pronounced in soils with higher proportion of more active clays. Determination of hydraulic conductivity in laboratory is routinely performed with deionized or distilled water. However, in salt affected soils, these determinations should be carried out using solutions of electrical conductivity different from 0 dS m-1, with values close to those determined in the saturation extracts.

  6. Stable solution of the energy equation for the calculation of transitory regimes of natural convection in sodium circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new treatment is given to the problem studied in the previous work 'Conveccao Natural em um Circuito Termico a Sodio' (1981) by the same author. It consists of another method of the solution of the energy equation. It was obtained some stability in the numerical calculation independent of the value of the step; it was also obtained a considerable reduction in the machine time. A new program is being elaborated for testing the time reduction as compared to the previous one. (author)

  7. Volumetric Mass Transfer Coefficient of SO2 Gas Absorption into Aqueous Sodium Sulphite Solution in Plate Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Ghani Majeed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The volumetric mass transfer coefficient (KG.a for SO2 removal from gas mixture into aqueous Na2SO3 solution was studied in a plate column at constant temperature ( 25 , and liquid holdup. The KG.a values were evaluated over ranges of operating independent variables: gas flow rate (QG, SO2 concentration in inlet gas (CSO2, in, and concentration of aqueous Na2SO3 solution (CNa2SO3. The experimental results showed that KG.a decreased with increasing of CSO2, in, increased with increase of QG, and CNa2SO3. The influence of gas flow rate on KG.a is more than the influence of SO2 concentration in inlet gas, and concentration of aqueous Na2SO3 solution respectively. Computer program Statgrhaphics/Experimental design was used to find the linear fitted models of the KG.a in terms of the dimensional and dimensionless of independent operating variables. The QG, CSO2, in, and CNa2SO3 have significant effects on KG.a, while the interactions of them have no significant effects on it, and could be neglected. The R-squared statistic indicates that the model as fitted explains 90.4949% of the variability in KG.a.

  8. Effects of 1,4-naphthoquinone on aluminum corrosion in 0.50 M sodium chloride solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of 1,4-naphthoquinone (NQ) have been investigated as a corrosion inhibitor for aluminum in aerated and de-aerated solutions of 0.50 M NaCl using potentiodynamic polarization, chronoamperometry (CA), open-circuit potential (OCP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), cyclic voltammetric, and quartz crystal analyzer (QCA) techniques. These measurements revealed that the presence of NQ shifted the corrosion and pitting potentials to more noble values and decreased the anodic currents in the passive region in both aerated and de-aerated chloride solutions, and the surface and polarization resistances are increased as the concentration of NQ is increased. The most effective concentration of NQ for corrosion inhibition was found to be 1.0 x 10-3 M in both aerated and de-aerated chloride solutions. The QCA data indicate that adsorption of NQ molecules plays an important role in protecting the pits on the aluminum surface. The SEM images show that the presence of NQ decreased the severity of the pitting corrosion of aluminum to a great extent at -675 mV versus Ag/AgCl

  9. Direct AFM force measurements between air bubbles in aqueous polydisperse sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) solutions: effect of collision speed, polyelectrolyte concentration and molar mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Christine; Tabor, Rico F; Grieser, Franz; Dagastine, Raymond R

    2015-07-01

    Interactions between colliding air bubbles in aqueous solutions of polydisperse sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (NaPSS) using direct force measurements were studied. The forces measured with deformable interfaces were shown to be more sensitive to the presence of the polyelectrolytes when compared to similar measurements using rigid interfaces. The experimental factors that were examined were NaPSS concentration, bubble collision velocity and polyelectrolyte molar mass. These measurements were then compared with an analytical model based on polyelectrolyte scaling theory in order to explain the effects of concentration and bubble deformation on the interaction between bubbles. Typically structural forces from the presence of monodisperse polyelectrolyte between interacting surfaces may be expected, however, it was found that the polydispersity in molar mass resulted in the structural forces to be smoothed and only a depletion interaction was able to be measured between interacting bubbles. It was found that an increase in number density of NaPSS molecules resulted in an increase in the magnitude of the depletion interaction. Conversely this interaction was overwhelmed by an increase in the fluid flow in the system at higher bubble collision velocities. Polymer molar mass dispersity plays a significant role in the interactions present between the bubbles and has implications that also affect the polyelectrolyte overlap concentration of the solution. Further understanding of these implications can be expected to play a role in the improvement in operations in such fields as water treatment and mineral processing where polyelectrolytes are used extensively. PMID:25596872

  10. Comparison between the pitting corrosion of pure Al and Al-Si alloys in deaerated neutral sodium perchlorate solutions and the effect of some inorganic inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of potentiodynamic polarization and chrono-potentiometry potential/time measurements on the pitting corrosion of pure AI and three Al-Si alloys, namely (Al+6%Si), (Al+12%Si), and (Al+18%Si) in deaerated neutral sodium perchlorate solutions, complemented by ex situ energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) examinations of the electrode surface. In all cases, the potentiodynamic anodic polarization curves do not exhibit an active dissolution region due to spontaneous passivation. The passivity is due to the presence of a thin region due to spontaneous passivation. The passivity is due to presence of a thin film of Al2O3 on the anode surface. The passive region is followed by pitting corrosion as a result of breakdown of the passive film ClO4 ions. Polarization measurements showed that the breakdown potential (Eb) decreases with the increase in ClO4 concentration, while it increases with the increasing %Si in the alloy. The resistance of four tested samples towards pitting corrosion increases in the order: Al < (Al+6%Si) < (Al+12%Si) < (Al+18%Si). Chronopotentiometry potential/time measurements show that the incubation time pitting initiation increases with the increasing Si content in the alloy. Addition of WO4 and MoO4, as inorganic inhibitor anions, to the perchlorate solution inhibits pitting corrosion to an extent depending on the concentration and type the added inhibiter. (author)

  11. Extração de amido em cavacos de bambu tratados com solução diluída de hidróxido de sódio Starch extraction from bamboo chips treated with sodium hydroxide diluted solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisio Azzini

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se, em colmos de bambu (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. de um e cinco anos, os teores de amido, a fração fibrosa e o resíduo parenquimatoso em função da concentração de hidróxido de sódio (0,25, 0,50 e 0,75%, do tempo de tratamento (5, 10 e 15 horas e do tempo de desfibramento (30, 60 e 90 segundos. 0 delineamento experimental utilizado foi um fatorial 3³. Pelos resultados, a concentração de hidróxido de sódio e o tempo de tratamento não influíram significativamente nos teores de amido, fração fibrosa e resíduo parenquimatoso. A maior quantidade de amido (75,22 g/kg foi obtida em colmos de cinco anos no maior tempo de desfibramento (90 segundos. Com este estudo, demonstrou-se que a extração de amido é tecnicamente viável como um pré-tratamento de cavacos de Bambusa vuigaris, utilizados na produção de celulose e papel.In culms of Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. (1 and 5 years old, the contents of starch fibrous materials and parenchymatous residue were determined in function of sodium hydroxide solution concentration (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75%, treatment time (5, 10 and 15 hours and shredding time (30, 60 and 90 seconds. The experimental trial was a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial. The results showed the contents of starch, fibrous materials and parenchymatous residue were not affected by sodium hydroxide concentration and treatment time. The highest starch quantity (75.22 g/kg was obtained in the highest shredding time (90 seconds from the 5 years bamboo culms. This study showed the starch extraction is feasible technically as a pre-treatment of the bamboo chips employed to produce pulp and paper.

  12. In vivo exposure to bicarbonate/lactate- and bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids improves ex vivo peritoneal macrophage function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, R K; Jones, S; Moseley, A; Holmes, C J; Argyle, R; Williams, J D; Coles, G A; Pu, K; Faict, D; Topley, N

    2000-01-01

    The impact on peritoneal macrophage (PMO) function of acidic lactate-buffered (Lac-PDF [PD4]; 40 mmol/L of lactate; pH 5.2) and neutral-pH, bicarbonate-buffered (TB; 38 mmol/L of bicarbonate; pH 7. 3) and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered (TBL; 25 mmol/L of bicarbonate/15 mmol/L of lactate; pH 7.3) peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) was compared during a study of continuous therapy with PD4, TB, or TBL. During a run-in phase of 6 weeks when all patients (n = 15) were treated with their regular dialysis regimen with Lac-PDF, median PMO tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) release values were 203.6, 89.9, and 115.5 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the patients subsequently randomized to the PD4, TB, and TBL treatment groups, respectively. Median stimulated TNFalpha values (serum-treated zymosan [STZ], 10 microgram/mL) were 1,894.6, 567.3, and 554.5 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the same groups, respectively. During the trial phase of 12 weeks, when the three groups of patients (n = 5 per group) were randomized to continuous treatment with PD4, TB, or TBL, median constitutive TNFalpha release values were 204.7, 131.4, and 155.4 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO, respectively. Stimulated TNFalpha values (STZ, 10 microgram/mL) were 1,911, 1,832, and 1,378 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the same groups, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of variance comparing the run-in phase with the trial phase showed that PMO TNFalpha release was significantly elevated in patients treated with both TB (P = 0.040) and TBL (P = 0.014) but not in patients treated with Lac-PDF (P = 0. 795). These data suggest that patients continuously exposed to bicarbonate- and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDFs might have better preserved PMO function and thus improved host defense status. PMID:10620552

  13. Recovery of uranium from the Syrian phosphate by solid-liquid method using alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium concentrations were analyzed in the Syrian phosphate deposits. Mean concentrations were found between 50 and 110 ppm. As a consequence, an average phosphate dressing of 22 kg/ha phosphate would charge the soil with 5-20 g/ha uranium when added as a mineral fertilizer. Fine grinding phosphate produced at the Syrian mines was used for uranium recovery by carbonate leaching. The formation of the soluble uranyl tricarbonate anion UO2(CO3)34- permits use of alkali solutions of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate salts for the nearly selective dissolution of uranium from phosphate. Separation of iron, aluminum, titanium, etc., from the uranium during leaching was carried out. Formation of some small amounts of molybdates, vanadates, phosphates, aluminates, and some complexes metal was investigated. This process could be used before the manufacture of TSP fertilizer, and the final products would contain smaller uranium quantities. (author)

  14. 1.2. Substitution of sodium on sodium sulfate in alumina and cryolite production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the problems of wastes processing of aluminum production is utilization of sodium sulphate, obtained by crystallization of circulating solutions of gas purification and mixed salt Na2SO4·NaF obtaining at evaporation of these solutions. Therefore, the dry alkaline method of alumina production where instead of sodium used sodium sulfate was studied.

  15. Comparison of colon-cleansing methods in preparation for colonoscopy - Comparative efficacy of solutions of mannitol, sodium picosulfate and monobasic and dibasic sodium phosphates Estudo comparativo entre as soluções de manitol, picossulfato de sódio e fosfato monobásico e dibásico de sódio no preparo de cólon para colonoscopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Miki Jr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Colonoscopy plays an essential role in the therapeutic and diagnostic approach in various colonic pathologies, the aim of the present study was to compare three solutions and their efficacy for the bowel preparation in adult patients submitted to elective colonoscopy. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomly divided into three groups of 20 each. Each group was submitted to a bowel preparation with one of the following solutions: 10% manitol, sodium picosulphate or sodium phosphate. The parameters evaluated were: taste, tolerance, associated side effects and quality of cleansing. Postural blood pressure and pulse rate as well as serum sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphate were compared. RESULTS: Sodium phosphate and 10% manitol solutions provided superior results in terms of colon cleansing compared to sodium picosulphate solution. All serum electrolytes evaluated were significantly altered in the three groups, without important clinical signs. DISCUSSION: High levels of serum phosphate were the most striking alteration in patients prepared with sodium phosphate solution, again with no clinical signs. Variations related to blood pressure and pulse rate suggested contraction of intravascular volume, with no clinical effects. CONCLUSION: Sodium phosphate and 10% manitol solutions are equivalent in providing good quality colon cleansing, with no significant side effects that could compromise the procedure.INTRODUÇÃO: A colonoscopia é exame fundamental na avaliação das doenças do cólon e na abordagem terapêutica de determinado grupo de patologias. O preparo intestinal é obrigatório para a realização das colonoscopias eletivas, e a qualidade encontra-se relacionada ao sucesso do procedimento. Comparou-se três soluções para limpeza anterógrada do cólon em pacientes adultos, submetidos à colonoscopia. METODOS: Sessenta pacientes foram distribuídos em três grupos de vinte. Cada grupo realizou o preparo do cólon com uma das três soluções estudadas: manitol a 10% (MN, picossulfato sódico (PS e fosfato monobásico e dibásico de sódio (NaP. O sabor, a tolerância, os efeitos colaterais, os custos e a qualidade de limpeza do preparo foram avaliados. Frequência cardíaca e pressão arterial sistêmica foram analisados. Variações dos eletrólitos foram dosados antes e após o preparo. RESULTADOS: Os resultados foram semelhantes em relação aos efeitos colaterais. O sabor da solução de NaP não chegou a comprometer a sua aceitação. DISCUSSÃO: Soluções de NaP e MN proporcionaram resultados superiores tanto em qualidade de limpeza colônica, como em relação aos custos, quando comparadas à solução de PS. CONCLUSÃO: Comparados os três, os eletrólitos avaliados apresentaram diferenças significativas, sendo a hiperfosfatemia dos pacientes com a solução de NaP, a mais importante.

  16. Influence of microstructure in corrosion behavior of an Inconel 600 commercial alloy in 0.1 M sodium thiosulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Inconel 600 is used in diverse components of BWR and PWR type reactors, where diverse cases of intergranular stress corrosion have been presented. It has been reported susceptibility to the corrosion of this alloy, in presence of thiosulfates, which come from the degradation of the ion exchange resins of water treatments that use the reactors. The objective of this work is to study the influence of metallurgical condition in the corrosion velocity of Inconel 600 commercial alloy, in a 0.1 M thiosulfates solution. (Author)

  17. Increasing wheat production while decreasing nitrogen losses from ammonium bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of a 4-year field experiment were i) to investigate the effects of rate and timing of application of ammonium bicarbonate on N-uptake efficiency by irrigated winter wheat, ii) to determine the fate of fertilizer N in wheat followed by maize, and iii) to study nitrate dynamics in the soil after N-fertilizer application to evaluate groundwater pollution by leaching. Nitrogen-application rates significantly affected wheat grain yields and straw dry matter. Grain yields were higher with 150 than with 225 kg N ha-1, whereas the highest fractional recoveries of N from ammonium bicarbonate occurred with 75 kg N ha-1 (38.5% in 1994-95 and 33.5% in 1996-97). On the basis of grain yield, N recovery and soil-N balance, ammonium bicarbonate at 150 kg N ha-1, was the optimum rate, when applied basally and as a top dressing to wheat. Subsequent yields of maize stover and grain were affected by N applied to the wheat, suggesting that fertilizer recommendations, in terms of rate and timing, should be made on the basis of effects on the cropping rotation as a whole. Water-holding capacity of the soil was poor, therefore large applications of N are likely to cause nitrate pollution of ground water. (author)

  18. Selective removal of cesium from highly concentrated sodium nitrate neutral solutions by potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate(II)-loaded silica gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate(II) (KNiFC)-loaded silica gels were prepared by successive impregnation of macro pores with Ni(NO3)2 and K4Fe(CN)6 solutions. The KNiFC precipitates uniformly dispersed in the matrix of silica gel, and the loading percentage of KNiFC increased with the number impregnation cycles. The uptake of Cs+ on KNiFC-loaded silica gels (SLFC) attained equilibrium within 2 d, and relatively large distribution coefficients of Cs+, Kd,Cs, above 104 cm3/g, were obtained even in the presence of 5 M NaNO3. The ion exchange of K+ right-equilibrium Cs+ in SLFC followed a Langmuir-type isotherm and the maximum uptake amount of Cs+ was estimated to be 0.305 mmol/g. The breakthrough curve of Cs+ through a column packed with SLFC exhibited a favorable S-shaped profile. This exchanger proved to be effective for the selective removal of radioactive cesium from neutral waste solutions containing highly concentrated NaNO3

  19. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  20. Modeling and simulation of pit chemistry of 304 austenitic stainless steel under applied stress in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? A corrosion model was developed to simulate a stressed metal surface with a pit. ? The stress state in the pit bottom was coupled with the local corrosion environment. ? An analytical expression was established for current density of deformed pit surface. ? Local deformation had a strong effect on potential and species concentration in pits. -- Abstract: A mathematical model for simulating the active dissolution of a pit on stressed metal surface had been developed. Based on active dissolution mechanism, dissolution current density on the pit surface was assumed and extended through accounting for the thermal activation energy and the multiaxial stress state in pit bottom. The influence of applied tensile stress, pit radius and temperature was addressed. The distribution of solution potential and species concentration was predicted for different applied tensile stresses based on finite element calculations

  1. Effect of magnesium hydride on the corrosion behavior of an AZ91 magnesium alloy in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of magnesium hydride on the corrosion behavior of an as-cast AZ91 alloy in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution was investigated using gas collection method and potentiostatic test. The Pourbaix diagram of Mg-H2O system was built using thermodynamic calculation. It was possible that magnesium hydride could form in the whole pH range in theory. The experimental results showed that at cathodic region, magnesium hydride formed on surface, which was the controlling process for the corrosion behavior of AZ91 alloy; at anodic region and free corrosion potential, magnesium hydride model and partially protective film model, monovalent magnesium ion model and particle undermining model were responsible for the corrosion process of AZ91 alloy

  2. CCMR: Investigation of Potential Buffer Solutions and Concentrations for an Electrochemical Microfluidic Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Laura K.

    2009-08-15

    Biosensors are analytical devices that are being used to detect a variety of analytes including pathogens via antibody recognition. Liposomes have been used in the Baeumner research group for signal generation and amplification. In one detection strategy, electrochemical signals are being reported by entrapping a redox couple in the inner cavity of the liposomes and releasing them upon detection of the pathogen. The main task of this research was the optimization of a buffer system that can be used for the entrapment of the redox couple and does not inhibit the oxidation and reduction reactions on a gold electrode. Potassium ferrihexacyanide and potassium ferrohexacyanide (ferri/ferrohexacyanide) were used as redox couple and dissolved in 0.01M bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.0; 0.01M and 0.1M sodium borate buffers, pH 7.0; and 0.01M and 0.1M phosphate buffers, pH 7.0. The current produced by flowing each of these solutions through a 500?m long by 50?m deep channel in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) over the interdigitated ultramicroelectrode array (IDUA) was measured using amperometry. The resulting signal peaks created by the redox cycling of ferri/ferrohexacyanide on the electrode were compared. A 10?M solution of ferri/ferrohexacyanide gave signals of 0.44nA in 0.01M phosphate buffer, 0.41nA in sodium borate, 0.37nA in sodium borate diluted in phosphate buffer, and 0.04nA in 0.01M bicarbonate. Since the phosphate buffer cannot be used for liposome synthesis, it was determined that the sodium borate buffer might be the best alternative.

  3. Radiation effect on poly (p-sodium styrene sulphonate) of different degrees of polymerization in aqueous solution: pulse radiolysis and steady state study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced effects on poly (p-sodium styrene sulphonate) (PSSS) of two molecular weights, namely 106 and 70,000 in aqueous solution have been investigated by steady state and pulse radiolysis (PR) techniques. The reactions of primary radicals of water radiolysis such as OH radical, eaq-, H atom, some oxidizing radicals like N3·, Cl2·- and SO4·- and reducing species like CO2·-with PSSS have been investigated. The results indicate that the reactivity of these species towards PSSS is a function of molecular weight of PSSS. The absorption spectra of transient species produced when dilute aqueous solutions of PSSS of different molecular weights are subjected to pulse radiolysis have been compared. Rate constants for the reaction of OH radical and H atom with PSSS have been evaluated both by competition kinetics method and by direct observation of build up of transient species. The results indicate that OH radical and H atom react with PSSS in different ways. Near neutral pH, the OH radical reacts with substituted pendant aromatic ring of the PSSS to form an adduct, with a rate constant of 5.5x108 and 1.1x109 dm3 mol-1 s-1 for PSSS of molecular weights 106 and 70,000, respectively. H atom on the other hand abstracts H atom from the PSSS backbone as well as forms an adduct by reacone as well as forms an adduct by reacting with aromatic ring. The rate constant values for reaction of aqueous electron with PSSS were found to be 5x107 dm3 mol-1 s-1 (Mw=106) and 2.2x108 dm3 mol-1 s-1 (Mw=70,000). The anion formed did not transfer electron to methyl viologen in the pH range of 6-10.5. The viscosity of the aqueous PSSS solution decreases with irradiation, up to doses of 1000 kGy indicating degradation of PSSS in this dose range. The PSSS of higher molecular weight is more prone to degradation. The chain scission is a function of dose rate, concentration of polymer and ambient of irradiation. At doses beyond ?2500 kGy there is a sharp increase in viscosity of the PSSS solutions till the solutions set to a soft, sticky gel mass. The gelation dose (Dgel) is a function of molecular weight of the polymer and initial polymer concentration. In the presence of crosslinking agent like N,N-methylene bis acrylamide, the gelation was faster for PSSS of higher molecular weight. Gelation was most efficient for 20% (w/w) polymer concentration

  4. The Effect of Bicarbonate on the Microbial Dissolution of Autunite Mineral in the Presence of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepulveda-Medina, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel

    2015-06-01

    Bacteria are key players in the processes that govern fate and transport of contaminants. The uranium release from Na and Ca-autunite by Arthrobacter oxydans strain G968 was evaluated in the presence of bicarbonate ions. This bacterium was previously isolated from Hanford Site soil and in earlier prescreening tests demonstrated low tolerance to U(VI) toxicity compared to other A.oxydans isolates. Experiments were conducted using glass serum bottles as mixed bioreactors and sterile 6-well cell culture plates with inserts separating bacteria cells from mineral solids. Reactors containing phosphorus-limiting media were amended with bicarbonate ranging between 0-10 mM and metaautunite solids to provide a U(VI) concentration of 4.4 mmol/L. Results showed that in the presence of bicarbonate, A.oxydans G968 was able to enhance the release of U(VI) from Na and Ca autunite at the same capacity as other A.oxydans isolates with relatively high tolerance to U(VI). The effect of bacterial strains on autunite dissolution decreases as the concentration of bicarbonate increases. The results illustrate that direct interaction between the bacteria and the mineral is not necessary to result in U (VI) biorelease from autunite. The formation of secondary calcium-phosphate mineral phases on the surface of the mineral during the dissolution can ultimately reduce the natural autunite mineral contact area, which bacterial cells can access. This thereby reduces the concentration of uranium released into the solution. This study provides a better understanding of the interactions between meta-autunite and microbes in conditions mimicking arid and semiarid subsurface environments of western U.S.

  5. Solution-solid state conformational dependence in a rigid-ligand lanthanide complex. Preparation and structure of sodium(diaquobis(benzene-1,2-dioxydiacetato)lanthanate(III)) tetrahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerfoot, Henry B.; Choppin, Gregory R.; Kistenmacher, Thomas J.

    1978-01-01

    The preparation and crystal structure of sodium(diaquobis(benzene-1,2-dioxydiacetato)lanthanate(III)) tetrahydrate, Na(La(H/sub 2/O)/sub 2/(C/sub 10/H/sub 8/O/sub 6/)/sub 2/) . 4H/sub 2/O are reported. Crystals obtained from aqueous solution are triclinic, space group P anti 1, with a = 12.350(4)A, b = 12.760(3)A, c = 8.783(3)A, ..cap alpha.. = 101.54(2)/sup 0/, ..beta.. = 95.28(2)/sup 0/, ..gamma.. = 75.98(2)/sup 0/, Z = 2, d/sub measd/ = 1.86(2) g cm/sup -3/, d/sub calcd/ = 1.81 g cm/sup -3/. Standard heavy-atom methods were employed in the structural solution. Full-matrix, least-squares refinement of the non-hydrogen atom parameters, based on 4337 counter-collected F/sub 0/'s, led to a final R value of 0.041 and a final weighted R value of 0.054. The lanthanum ion is decacoordinate, with a primary coordination sphere comprised of two tetradentate benzene-1,2-dioxydiacetate ligands and two water molecules. The coordination polyhedron about the lanthanum ion approximates a s-bicapped square antiprism, with typical La-O separations. Individual sodium ions are hexacoordinate and inversion-related sodium coordination polyhedra together form a distorted, edge-shared bioctahedron. The novel aspect of the structure is the multiple bridging between the lanthanum and sodium ion coordination spheres, primarily through the benzene-1,2-dioxydiacetate ligands. The molecular conformation of the lanthanum complex observed in this structure does not duplicate that found in solution by NMR techniques. These conformational differences are attributable to interactions involving the coordinating sodium ion and other crystal packing forces not expected to be present in solution.

  6. Solution-solid state conformational dependence in a rigid-ligand lanthanide complex. Preparation and structure of sodium[diaquobis(benzene-1,2-dioxydiacetato)lanthanate(III)] tetrahydrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation and crystal structure of sodium[diaquobis(benzene-1,2-dioxydiacetato)lanthanate(III)] tetrahydrate, Na[La(H2O)2(C10H8O6)2] . 4H2O are reported. Crystals obtained from aqueous solution are triclinic, space group P anti 1, with a = 12.350(4)A, b = 12.760(3)A, c = 8.783(3)A, ? = 101.54(2)0, ? = 95.28(2)0, ? = 75.98(2)0, Z = 2, d/sub measd/ = 1.86(2) g cm-3, d/sub calcd/ = 1.81 g cm-3. Standard heavy-atom methods were employed in the structural solution. Full-matrix, least-squares refinement of the non-hydrogen atom parameters, based on 4337 counter-collected F0's, led to a final R value of 0.041 and a final weighted R value of 0.054. The lanthanum ion is decacoordinate, with a primary coordination sphere comprised of two tetradentate benzene-1,2-dioxydiacetate ligands and two water molecules. The coordination polyhedron about the lanthanum ion approximates a s-bicapped square antiprism, with typical La-O separations. Individual sodium ions are hexacoordinate and inversion-related sodium coordination polyhedra together form a distorted, edge-shared bioctahedron. The novel aspect of the structure is the multiple bridging between the lanthanum and sodium ion coordination spheres, primarily through the benzene-1,2-dioxydiacetate ligands. The molecular conformation of the lanthanum complex observed in this structure does not duplicate that found in solution by NMR techniques. These conformational differences are attributable to interactions involving the coordinating sodium ion and other crystal packing forces not expected to be present in solution

  7. Decommissioning of experimental breeder reactor - II. Complex, post sodium draining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors. (author)

  8. Effect of sodium acetate on the volumetric behaviour of some mono-, di-, and tri-saccharides in aqueous solutions over temperature range (288.15 to 318.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The standard partial molar volumes, V20 at infinite dilution of eight monosaccharides [D(+)-xylose, D(-)-arabinose, D(-)-ribose, L(-)-sorbose, D(-)-fructose, D(+)-galactose, D(+)-glucose, and D(+)-mannose], six disaccharides [D(+)-cellobiose, sucrose, D(+)-melibiose, D(+)-lactose monohydrate, D(+)-trehalose dihydrate, and D(+)-maltose monohydrate] and two trisaccharides [D(+)-melizitose and D(+)-raffinose pentahydrate] (molalities of saccharides range from (0.03 to 0.12) mol . kg-1) have been determined in water and in (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0) mol . kg-1 aqueous sodium acetate solutions at temperatures, T = (288.15, 298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K from density measurements using a vibrating-tube digital densimeter. From these results, corresponding standard partial molar volumes of transfer, ?tV20 have been determined for the transfer of various saccharides from water to aqueous solutions of sodium acetate. Positive values of ?tV20 were obtained for most of the saccharides, whose magnitude increase with the concentration of sodium acetate as well as temperature. However, negative ?tV20 values were observed for L(-)-sorbose, D(-)-fructose and D(+)-xylose at lower concentrations of co-solute. The negative magnitude of ?tV20 values decrease with rise of temperature from (288.15 to 318.15) K. Pairrature from (288.15 to 318.15) K. Pair and higher order volumetric interaction coefficients have been determined by using McMillan-Mayer theory. Partial molar expansion coefficients, (?V20/?T)p and the second derivatives (?2V20/?T2)p have also been estimated. These parameters have been utilized to understand various mixing effects in aqueous solutions due to the interactions between solute (saccharide) and co-solute (sodium acetate).

  9. Trona and sodium bicarbonate in beef cattle diets: effects on site and extent of digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, B J; Byers, F M; Schelling, G T; Coppock, C E; Greene, L W

    1987-07-01

    Six yearling Hereford X Angus steers (avg 272 kg), each with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were used in a 6 X 6 Latin-square metabolism trial to evaluate the impact of NaHCO3 and trona (a ground, nonrefined ore with chemical composition NaHCO3-Na2CO3-2H2O) on site and extent of digestion of nutrients in the digestive tract. The diets were 50:50 or 90:10 (cracked corn-based concentrate:cottonseed hulls) with no buffer, 1% NaHCO3, or 1% trona. Intake, across all treatments, averaged 2.4% of body weight. Dry matter (DM) and starch digestibility (via indigestible acid detergent fiber) before the duodenum was decreased (P less than .10) with trona in the 50:50 diet. Digestibility of DM, crude protein and starch before the ileum were greater (P less than .05) in the 90:10 diet vs 50:50 diet. Total tract digestibility was similar across buffer treatments in the 90:10 diet. Addition of NaHCO3 increased (P less than .05) digestibility of dry matter and cell solubles in the 50:50 diet. Organic matter and crude protein digestibility were also increased (P less than .10) with NaHCO3. Apparent crude protein and cell solubles digestibility were greater (P less than .10) with trona than NaHCO3 in the 50:50 diet. This trial indicates that buffers provide overall enhancement of diet digestibility in mixed grain/roughage diets. PMID:3038822

  10. EFFECTS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS KURSTAKI AND SODIUM BICARBONATE IN COLEOPTERAN AND LEPIDOPTERAN LARVAL DIETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the hypothesis that Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki (Btk) would adversely affect coleopteran larvae if the mid-gut pH is adjusted to the alkaline pH of lepidopteran larvae, which are susceptible to Btk. Bollworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and mealworm, ...

  11. Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges

    OpenAIRE

    R. S. Pimenta; J. F. M. Silva; C. M. Coelho; Morais, P B; Rosa, C. A.; A Corrêa Jr

    2010-01-01

    Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC) started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction) of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in ass...

  12. Production of Spirulina platensis using dry chicken manure supplemented with urea and sodium bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Thepparath Ungsethaphand

    2009-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis is an attractive source of valuable protein for both human and animal consumption. The conventional nitrogen source for S. platensis is nitrate. However, recent research has evaluated the potential of using animal waste as a low-cost nitrogen source. In this work, the cultivation of S. platensis was done using dry chicken manure (DCM), collected from a closed-system poultry house, as nitrogen source. The experiment was carried out in open concrete tanks ...

  13. Rheology and physical-chemical characteristics of the solutions of the medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urakov, A.; Urakova, N.

    2015-04-01

    In the laboratory studied the dynamics of rheology of water solutions with plasma- inflammatory and antiseptic funds when mixing them with blood, plasma and pus under the influence of the following physical and chemical factors of local interaction: gravity, specific gravity, temperature, relative viscosity, internal pressure, sparkling water, total concentration of the ingredients, surface activity, volume of acid and osmotic activity of medicines. Found that the rheology of biological liquids improve hyperthermic, highly alkaline and highly carbonated solution medicines. For the dilution of pus, dense festering mass of sulfur plugs and tear stones invited to apply heated to +39 – +42°C with aqueous solution of 0.5 – 3% hydrogen peroxide and 0.5 – 10% sodium bicarbonate saturated with carbon dioxide to excess pressure 0.2 ATM.

  14. Electrode potential kinetics during corrosion fatigue and crack growth in ?- and (?+?)- titanium alloys in sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetics of the general electrode potential is studied and other electrochemical investigations are carried out during corrosion fatigue fracture of titanium alloys and when determining the degree of the effect of 3% aqueous NaCl solution on the rate of fatique crack growth. Titanium VT1-0 and VT5, AT3, PT3V, VT14 alloys are chosen for investigations. Different sensitivity of surface protection films of the alloys to the effect of corrosion medium is found. This is connected with the effect of alloying elements on the properties of oxide films. The main alloy components of titanium (aluminium, vanadium, molybdenum, chromium) are shown to affect, among other factors, the nature of alterations in the electrode potential during corrosion fatigue. According to the velocity of crack propagation it is shown that the ?-VT5 alloy has the highest resistance to crack propagation in the air, though that of (?+?) VT14-and pseudo-?-AT3-alloys is lower and of the technical VT1-0 titanium is minimum

  15. Structure of aqueous solutions of microcrystalline cellulose/sodium hydroxide below 0 degrees C and the limit of cellulose dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egal, Magali; Budtova, Tatiana; Navard, Patrick

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the structure of solutions of microcrystalline cellulose in NaOH/water mixtures and to determine the limit of cellulose solubility. The binary NaOH/water and the ternary cellulose/NaOH/water phase diagrams in the area of cellulose dissolution (7-10% NaOH below 0 degrees C) are studied by DSC. The NaOH/water binary phase diagram has a simple eutectic behavior. Because of the existence of this eutectic structure, it is possible to measure the influence of the addition of pure low molar mass microcrystalline cellulose. This shows that a minimum of four NaOH molecules should be linked to one anhydroglucose unit to allow for the dissolution of microcrystalline cellulose. The proportions between bound Avicel, NaOH, and water molecules as a function of cellulose concentrations are calculated. A tentative explanation about the origin of the dissolving power of NaOH/water is given. PMID:17571851

  16. Effects of sodium hypochlorite and high pH buffer solution in electrokinetic soil treatment on soil chromium removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), applied as an oxidant in catholyte, and high pH buffer solution on soil Cr removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community during enhanced electrokinetic treatments of a chromium (Cr) contaminated red soil are evaluated. Using pH control system to maintain high alkalinity of soil together with the use of NaClO increased the electrical conductivities of soil pore liquid and electroosmotic flux compared with the control (Exp-01). The pH control and NaClO improved the removal of Cr(VI) and total Cr from the soil. The highest removal percentages of soil Cr(VI) and total Cr were 96 and 72%, respectively, in Exp-04 when the pH value of the anolyte was controlled at 10 and NaClO was added in the catholyte. The alkaline soil environment and introduction of NaClO in the soil enhanced the desorption of Cr(VI) from the soil and promoted Cr(III) oxidation to mobile Cr(VI), respectively. However, the elevated pH and introduction of NaClO in the soil, which are necessary for improving the removal efficiency of soil Cr, resulted in a significantly adverse impact on the functional diversity of soil microbial community. It suggests that to assess the negative impact of extreme conditions for enhancing the extraction efficiencies of Cr on the soil properties and function is necessary

  17. Preparation and evaluation of Pd/polymeric pyrrole-sodium lauryl sulfonate/foam-Ni electrode for 2,4-dichlorophenol dechlorination in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymeric pyrrole-sodium lauryl sulfonate (PPy-SLS) composite film was applied to the preparation of palladium/foam-nickel (Pd/foam-Ni) electrode. The prepared Pd/PPy-SLS/foam-Ni electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The addition of SLS improved the polymerization of pyrrole to form PPy-SLS film, which was conducive to prepare small Pd microparticles and led to the lower Pd loading, 0.85 mg cm?2. The composite electrode was used for electrochemically reductive dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in aqueous solution. The influences of dechlorination current and initial pH value on the conversion efficiency and current the efficiency of 2,4-DCP dechlorination were studied. Complete dechlorination could be achieved on the Pd/PPy-SLS/foam-Ni electrode at ambient temperature under the condition of dechlorination current of 5 mA and initial pH value of 2.5 within 50 min. The electrode exhibits promising potential for dechlorination with high catalytic activity, good stability and low cost

  18. AC impedance spectroscopy study of the corrosion behavior of an AZ91 magnesium alloy in 0.1 M sodium sulfate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion behavior of an AZ91 magnesium alloy in 0.1 M sodium sulfate solution at the corrosion potential (E corr) was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that when the immersion time was less than 18th, general corrosion occurred on the surface and the main corrosion products were hydroxides and sulfates. The film coverage effect was the main mechanism for the corrosion process of AZ91 alloy. At this stage, the matrix had a better corrosion resistance. With the increasing immersion time, pitting occurred on the surface. At this stage, the corrosion process was controlled by three surface state variables: the area fraction ? 1 of the region controlled by the formation of Mg(OH)2, the area fraction ? 2 of the region controlled by the precipitation of MgAl2(SO4)4.2H2O, and the metastable Mg+ concentration C m

  19. Corrosion evaluation of multi-pass welded nickel–aluminum bronze alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride solution: A restorative application of gas tungsten arc welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Corrosion of GTA welded nickel–aluminum bronze (C95800) was studied. • Drastic microstructural changes occurred during the welding operations. • The ?? and ? phases acts as anode and cathode, correspondingly, in weld region. • A few nanoamperes couple current was measured in ZRA test as galvanic corrosion. • Corrosion resistance of weld parts could not be weakened in marine environments. - Abstract: In this research, the corrosion behavior of a gas tungsten arc welded nickel–aluminum bronze (NAB) alloy is investigated by DC and AC electrochemical techniques in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Regarding the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic results, uniform corrosion resistance of instantly immersed weld and base samples are almost analogous and increased (more in weld region) during the immersion times. Moreover, zero resistant ammeter results demonstrated that the few nanoampere galvanic currents are attributed to microstructural and morphological differences between these two regions. Therefore, the welding procedure could not deteriorate the general corrosion resistance of the restored damaged NAB parts operating in marine environments

  20. Comparison of the effect of hydrogel and solution forms of sodium ascorbate on orthodontic bracket-enamel shear bond strength immediately after bleaching: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimyai Soodabeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study compared the effects of hydrogel and solution forms of sodium ascorbate (SA with two different application times on bracket bond strength subsequent to bleaching. Materials and Methods: A total of 72 sound premolars were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12: An unbleached control group (group one and five experimental groups of carbamide peroxide. Specimens in group two were bonded immediately after bleaching; specimens in groups three and four were bleached, then treated with SA solution for ten minutes and three hours, respectively, and then bonded. In groups five and six, SA hydrogel was used and the specimens were prepared similar to groups three and four, respectively. Following debonding, bond strengths were recorded in MPa. To evaluate the amount of resin left on the enamel surfaces, adhesive remnant index (ARI scores were used. Statistical Analysis: The bond strength data were analyzed with ANOVA and pairwise comparisons were made by Tukey test. The ARI data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis test and two-by-two comparisons were made by the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: There were significant differences in bond strengths between the groups ( P < 0.0005. However, the differences between groups three, four, five and six were not significant. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between group one and groups four and six, whereas the differences between the other groups were significant ( P < 0.05. Regarding ARI, there were significant differences among the groups ( P = 0.004. Conclusion: Bleaching significantly decreased the bracket bond strength. Compromised bonding was reversed with a three-hour application of both forms of SA.

  1. Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with sodium lauryl sulfate as a sorbent for 152+154Eu from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, Mg-Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with nitrate anions (LDH-NO3) was synthesized, modified with the anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate, and applied for the removal of 152+154Eu from aqueous solutions. Modification of the as-synthesized Mg-Al layered double hydroxide was carried out at surfactant concentration of 0.01 M (the organo-LDH produced denoted LDH-NaLS). The as-synthesized and surfactant-intercalated LDHs were characterized by FT-IR and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques. The effect of some variables such as solution pH, contact time and sorbate concentration on removal of 152+154Eu was investigated. The kinetic data obtained were well fitted by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model rather than the pseudo-first-order model. Intraparticle diffusion model showed that sorption of 152+154Eu proceed by intraparticle diffusion together with boundary layer diffusion. Experimental isotherm data were well described by Langmuir model. Organo-LDH was found to have higher capacity (156.45 mg g-1) for europium than the as-synthesized LDH-NO3 (119.56 mg g-1). Comparing LDHs capacities obtained for Eu(III) in the present work with other sorbents reported in literature indicated that LDHs have the highest capacities. Application of the developed process for removal of 152+154Eu(III) from radioactive process wastewaters was also studied ande process wastewaters was also studied and the obtained results revealed that these LDHs are promising materials for treatment of radioactive wastewaters. (author)

  2. Control of Cladosporium echinulatum in carnation using bicarbonates and Trichoderma / Control de Cladosporium echinulatum en clavel mediante el uso de bicarbonatos y Trichoderma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Claudio, Sandoval; Valeria, Terreros; Flavia, Schiappacasse.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El clavel, Dianthus caryophyllus, ha sido cultivado en Chile para producción de flores de corte desde hace varías décadas. Existen actualmente 2124 ha dedicadas a la floricultura, de las cuales 180 ha son de clavel. Prácticamente toda la producción de esta especie se comercializa en el mercado inter [...] no. Numerosas son las enfermedades que afectan su cultivo, siendo Cladosporium echinulatum el agente causal de la mancha foliar (mancha anular) más importante en esta especie. Se evaluaron distintas alternativas de control de esta patología en clavel cv. Sarinah, determinándose incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad en las plantas. El estudio se realizó en junio-agosto de 2003, en un plantel comercial bajo invernadero, ubicado en la localidad de Champa(33° 49' Latitud Sur, 70° 45' Longitud Oeste), el cual tenía antecedentes de una alta incidencia de mancha anular. Los tratamientos fueron: bicarbonato de amonio (5 g L-1), bicarbonato de sodio (5 gL-1), bicarbonato de amonio + aceite mineral Springuill (5 gL4+ 10 mLL-1), bicarbonato de sodio + aceite mineral Springuill (5 gL-1 + 10 mLL-1), aceite mineral Springuill (10 mLL-1), Mancozeb (2 gL-1), Oxicloruro de Cobre (2 gL-1), Sulfato de cobre pentahidratado (Phyton-27) (1 mLL-1), Trichoderma virens cepa Sherwood (Trichonativa) (5 mLL-1), y el testigo (sin aplicación). Los resultados indicaron que los tratamientos más efectivos en el control de la enfermedad fueron bicarbonato de sodio y Trichoderma virens cepa Sherwood, presentando las mayores tasas de disminución de incidencia (varas enfermas y hojas con lesión) y severidad (lesiones activas por vara). Las plantas tratadas con mancozeb, oxicloruro de cobre, bicarbonato de sodio + aceite mineral Springuill, bicarbonato de amonio, aceite mineral Springuill y Sulfato de cobre pentahidratado presentaron los valores de incidencia y severidad de la enfermedad más altos, al final del experimento. Abstract in english Carnations, Dianthus caryophyllus, have been cultivated in Chile for several decades as a cut flower crop. At the present time, floriculture occupies 2,124 ha, of which 180 ha are devoted to carnations. Almost all carnations produced are sold in the domestic market. Several diseases affect carnation [...] s, among them fairyring leaf spot (Cladosporium echinulatum), the most important foliar disease in Chile. Different control alternatives for fairy-ring spot were evaluated on the carnation cv. Sarinah in terms of disease incidence and severity. The study was performed in June-August 2003 with a commercial carnation planting in a greenhouse located in Champa(33° 49' S, 70° 45' W) that in previous growing seasons reported a high incidence of fairyring leaf spot. The treatments included ammonium bicarbonate (5 g L-1), sodium bicarbonate (5 g L-1), ammonium bicarbonate + mineral oil Srpinguill (5 g L-1 + 10 mL L-1), sodium bicarbonate + mineral oil Srpinguill (5 g L-1 + 10 mL L-1), mineral oil Srpinguill (10 mL L-1), mancozeb (2 g L-1), copper oxichloride (2 g L-1), pentahydrated copper sulfate (1 mL L-1), Trichoderma virens strain Sherwood (Trichonativa) (5 mL L-1) and an untreated control. Based on the results obtained, the most effective treatments were sodium bicarbonate and T virens. Mancozeb, copper oxichloride, sodium bicarbonate + mineral oil Springuill, ammonium bicarbonate, mineral oil Springuill and pentahydrated copper sulfate were ineífective in controlling carnation fairyring leaf spot.

  3. Sodium Oxybate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and excessive daytime sleepiness in patients who have narcolepsy (a sleep disorder that may cause extreme sleepiness, sudden uncontrollable urge ... The way that sodium oxybate works to treat narcolepsy is not known.

  4. Bicarbonate production inhibitors as a novel transmission-blocking approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaria and leishmaniasis are caused by Plasmodium and Leishmania parasites transmitted by female anopheline mosquitoes and female sand flies respectively. These diseases are responsible for the deaths of more than a million people in developing countries every year and effective methods to control their propagation have not been developed at this point. A combination of several strategies for insect control is usually required in order to eliminate the vectors and the disease in a specific area. We believe that a strategy that combines vector population control as well as the simultaneous interruption of the life cycle of these parasites inside such vectors will have a greater impact (over a broader area) on the spreading of these diseases than vector control alone. Plasmodium and Leishmania parasites propagate naturally in the midgut of female anopheline mosquitoes and sand flies in which the pH is slightly alkaline. It has been suggested that the enzyme responsible for generating the bicarbonate necessary to maintain this pH is carbonic anhydrase. However, the molecular and physiological basis that implicate carbonic anhydrase (responsible for bicarbonate production) and bicarbonate transport proteins in the developmental mechanism of the parasites are poorly understood. We have used molecular biology as well as pharmacology to study the role that these proteins play in the development of Plasmodium and Leishmania parasites inside the female dipteran midgut with ai inside the female dipteran midgut with aims to interrupt their life cycle inside the vector. Disruption of the parasite's life cycle in combination with control strategies that target the insect vector will allow us to design new approaches to interrupt the propagation of these diseases using area-wide insect pest control methods. We have found that treatment of Plasmodium and Leishmania infected blood with carbonic anhydrase and bicarbonate transport inhibitors, interrupts development of these parasites in vitro and in vivo. Methazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, has proven to be more effective in in vitro studies than chloroquine in terms of anti-Plasmodium activity. We have determined an inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 100 ?/ml for methazolamide. Compared to the IC50 obtained for chloroquine (500 ?/ml) this value is very promising. Acetazolamide, another carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, has proven to be effective at interrupting development of Leishmania parasites in vitro with an effective concentration (EC50) of 14.6 ?/ml. The anti-Leishmania activity of acetazolamide is comparable to that of glucantime (meglumine antimonite, EC50 = 4.7 ?/ml). In terms of toxicity, the cytotoxic activity in vitro of methazolamide reported as lethal concentration or LC50 was lower (312.9 ?/ml) than the one observed for glucantime (400 ?/ml). In terms of selectivity, acetazolamide presents the best selectivity of the two inhibitors tested, with a 44.7 selective index compared to methazolamide (index = 7.6). Our in vivo results have demonstrated that P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. cynomolgi development can be interrupted 100% inside the midgut of An. stephensi, An. freeborni and An. albimanus mosquitoes if treated with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors or bicarbonate transport inhibitors such as DIDS at concentrations as low as 10-7 M. Results for An. albimanus and P. vivax are shown in a figure and this effect is observed even in the presence of xanthurenic acid, a factor considered previously as essential for development of Plasmodium parasites. We are currently investigating the effect of these inhibitors on the alkalization mechanism in the midgut of the sand flies and in the development of Leishmania parasites inside the midgut of Lutzomya longipalpis. Although the mechanism of action for these compounds in the inhibition of development of the parasites is not completely understood, we postulate that by inhibiting carbonic anhydrase activity in the midgut of these dipterans, we are inhibiting production and transport of bicarbonate, altering the pH maintena

  5. Effects of amiloride on sodium flux in isolated rat lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultured alveolar epithelial cell monolayers actively transport sodium (Na) from apical to basolateral surface. The process can be stimulated by terbutaline and inhibited by amiloride. In this study, the isolated perfused rat lung was used to investigate the presence of these phenomena in intact mammalian alveolar epithelium. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g) were tracheostomized and ventilated with 95%O2:5% CO2. Two ml Krebs-Ringer-bicarbonate solution (KRB) with or without terbutaline (5 x 10-6M) were instilled into the trachea Lungs were then perfused via the pulmonary artery with KRB. At t=0, 3 ml KRB containing 0.6uCi 22Na and 0.6uCi 14C-sucrose were lavaged into the trachea. Samples of the recirculated perfusate were taken periodically thereafter. At t=20 min, amiloride (10-3M) was added to the perfusate. Samples were counted and apparent permeability x surface area products (PA) calculated. Control PA for 22Na was 3.72 (+/-0.15) x 10-4 ml/s. Amiloride inhibited 22Na flux by 30% (PA=2.62(+/-0.17) x 10-4 ml/s). Terbutaline stimulated 22Na flux by 59% (PA=5.92(+/-0.46) x 10-4 ml/s). Amiloride inhibited this pre-stimulated 22Na flux by 46% (PA=3.19(+/-0.37) x 10-4 ml/s). PA for sucrose was unchanged by any of these drugs. These data are consistent with the presence of a regulable component of active sodium transport from airspace to vascular space in intact mammalian lungs

  6. Relationship Between Normal Reference Value of Standards Bicarbonate and Geography Distributing Rule in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GE Miao

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the geography distributing regularity of normal reference value of Chinese Standards bicarbonate and provide scientific basis for making its unified standards, this paper has collected 12803 cases of normal reference value of Standards bicarbonate throughout China. In the application of the method of related analysis and regression analysis, it is found that the correlation of geographical factors (altitude, annual sunshine duration, average annual temperature,annual average relative humidity, annual precipitation and the Chinese normal reference value of standards bicarbonate are quite significant. In the application of the method of remove in SPSS software, multiple linear regressions between normal reference value of Chinese standards bicarbonate and geographical factors, one regression equation is inferred:y=21.84+0.151 5x-0.000 830 0x5±1.040 3. In the above equation , y is normal reference value of Chinese standards bicarbonate (mmol/L, x3 is Average annual temperature (?,x5 is Annual precipitation (mm, 1.0403 is the value of the residual standard deviations . 1288 observation points of normal reference value of Chinese standards bicarbonate have been calculated in China by using this equation.The normal reference value of Chinese standards bicarbonate distribution map has been made by using spatial analysis of GIS. If Chinese standards bicarbonate is wanted to know in some certainarea, the normal reference value of Chinese standards bicarbonate of this area can be reckoned by using the regression equations or the inspection map.

  7. Dynamic light scattering and viscosimetry of aqueous solutions of pectin, sodium alginate and their mixtures: effects of added salt, concentration, counterions, temperature and chelating agent

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline M. F., Lima; Valdir, Soldi; Redouane, Borsali.

    1705-17-01

    Full Text Available Efeitos de adição de sal, concentração, presença de contraíons, temperatura e agente quelante em soluções aquosas de pectina, alginato de sódio e misturas destes foram analisadas por viscosimetria e espalhamento de luz dinâmico (DLS). A viscosidade intrínseca dos sistemas binários diminuiu com a adi [...] ção de sal e com o aumento da temperatura, porém, mostrou-se insensível à adição de NaEDTA. Como esperado, a viscosidade intrínseca do sistema ternário alginato/pectina/água foi igual a média da viscosidade intrínseca determinada para os sistemas binários. Estudos de DLS indicaram a ocorrência de uma distribuição bimodal (presença dos modos de relaxação rápido e lento) para ambos os sistemas binários e ternários a 25 °C, refletindo um processo de agregação. No caso do modo lento de relaxação, um aumento significativo do raio hidrodinâmico foi observado tanto para os sistemas binários como ternário, na presença de NaCl e KCl a 25 °C. No entanto, a 80 °C, o raio hidrodinâmico correspondente ao modo lento em soluções de KCl foi praticamente constante para todos os sistemas estudados e não foi observado para o sistema binário alginato/solução aquosa. Abstract in english The effects of added salt, concentration, counterions, temperature and chelating agent on aqueous solutions of pectin, sodium alginate and their mixtures were analyzed by viscosimetry and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The intrinsic viscosity of the binary systems decreased with the addi [...] tion of salt and with temperature, while it was found to be insensitive to the addition of NaEDTA. As expected the intrinsic viscosity of the ternary alginate/pectin/water system was equal to the average of the intrinsic viscosity for the binary systems. The DLS studies indicated a bimodal distribution (fast and slow relaxation modes) for both binary and ternary systems at 25 °C, reflecting aggregation. A significant increase in the hydrodynamic radius, in the case of the slow mode, was observed for the binary and ternary systems in the presence of NaCl and KCl at 25 °C. However, at 80 °C the hydrodynamic radius for the slow mode in KCl solutions was practically constant for all the studied systems, except for the alginate binary solutions in which were not observed.

  8. Ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate plus alkaline chlorate oxidant for recovery of uranium values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the present invention, uranium values are extracted from materials containing uranium in valence states lower than its hexavalent state by contacting the materials containing uranium with an aqueous alkaline leach solution containing an alkaline chlorate in an amount sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the uranium in valence states lower than its hexavalent state to its hexavalent state. In a further embodiment of the present invention, the alkaline leach solution is an aqueous solution of a carbonate selected from the group consisting of ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and mixtures thereof. In yet another embodiment of the present invention, at least one catalytic compound of a metal selected from the group consisting of copper, cobalt, iron, nickel, chromium and mixtures thereof adapted to assure the presence of the ionic species Cu++, Co++, Fe+++, Ni++, Cr+++ and mixtures thereof, respectively, during the contacting of the material containing uranium with the alkaline leach solution and in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of at least a portion of the uranium in its lower valence states to its hexavalent state, is present

  9. Regulation and roles of bicarbonate transport in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    StineFalsigPedersen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A unifying feature of solid tumors is a markedly altered pH profile compared to normal tissues. This reflects that solid tumors, despite completely different origins, often share several phenotypic properties with implications for intra- and extracellular pH. These include: a metabolic shift in most cancer cells towards more acid-producing pathways, reflecting both oncogenic signaling and the development of hypoxia in poorly perfused regions of the tumors; the poorly perfused and often highly dense tumor microenvironment, reducing the diffusive flux of acid equivalents compared to that in normal tissues; and the markedly altered regulation of the expression and activity of pH-regulatory transport proteins in the cancer cells. While some of these properties of tumors have been well described in recent years, the great majority of the research in this clinically important area has focused on proton transport, in particular via the Na+/H+-exchanger 1 (SLC9A1, NHE1 and various H+ ATPases. We have, however, recently demonstrated that at least under some conditions, including in vitro models of HER2 positive breast cancer, and measurements obtained directly in freshly dissected human mammary tumors, bicarbonate transporters such as the electroneutral Na+,HCO3--cotransporter (SLC4A7, NBCn1, are upregulated and play central roles in pH regulation. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding the regulation and roles of bicarbonate transport in cancer.

  10. Undisplayed Bicarbonate ion Concentration in Arterial Blood Gas Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Aditya Balakrishna; Bhalkar, Manjiri Shashank

    2013-12-01

    Blood bicarbonate ion concentration (BcHCO3 (-)) is a vital parameter in the management of acid base disorders. In an arterial blood gas (ABG) analyzer, the BcHCO3 (-) is calculated from the values of pH and pCO2. We received four samples in a span of one year, from December 2011 to November 2012 for arterial blood gas analysis, in which the BcHCO3 (-) was not displayed by the blood gas analyzer. Based on the information available in literature, the formula for calculating the BcHCO3 (-) from pH and pCO2 was obtained and BcHCO3 (-) was calculated in all four samples mentioned above. An attempt was made to establish a clinical correlation between laboratory and clinical data of these patients. All these values of BcHCO3 (-) were above the maximum display limit of our blood gas analyzer, which was 60 mmol/L and hence, they were not displayed. All four patients had chronic respiratory disease and they were taking furosemide and / or dexamethasone. High values of BcHCO3 (-) , sometimes falling beyond the display range of the ABG analyzer, could be observed in patients of chronic respiratory disease, treated with drugs like furosemide and dexamethasone, that result in bicarbonate retention. PMID:24551683

  11. Structure of sodium bis(N-methyl-iminodiacetato)iron(III): trans-meridional N-coordination in the solid state and in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Roland; Molinier, Michel; Anson, Chris; Powell, Anne K; Kallies, Bernd; van Eldik, Rudi

    2006-12-14

    The results of a detailed solid state and solution structural study of the Fe(III) bis-mida complex [Fe(III)(mida)(2)]- (mida = N-methyl-iminodiacetate) are reported. The structure of the sodium salt Na[Fe(mida)2][NaClO4]2.3H2O (1) was determined by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The complex anion in 1 contains a six-coordinate Fe(III) centre bound to two tridentate mida ligands arranged in the meridional configuration, and the mer Fe(III)N2O4 chromophore shows a high degree of distortion from regular octahedral symmetry. Raman- and UV/VIS/NIR spectroscopic measurements showed that no gross changes take place in the Fe(III) coordination sphere upon redissolution in water. Quantum chemical calculations of all three possible configurations of the [Fe(mida)2]- complex ion in the gas phase support the finding that the mer isomer is more stable than the u-fac (cis) and s-fac (trans) isomers. Redox potential measurements of the Fe(III/II)(mida) couple in dependence of pH led to the following values for the equilibrium contants: log beta(III)(101) = 11.98 +/- 0.05, log beta(III)(102) = 20.49 +/- 0.01, pK(III)(a1 OH) = 7.81; log beta(II)(101) = 6.17 +/- 0.01, log beta(II)(102) = 11.39 +/- 0.01. PMID:17117220

  12. Conserved tyrosine in the first transmembrane segment of solute:sodium symporters is involved in Na+-coupled substrate co-transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazier, Sonia; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2011-08-19

    Solute:sodium symporters (SSSs) transport vital molecules across the plasma membrane of all living organisms. vSGLT, the Na(+)/galactose transporter of Vibrio parahemeolyticus, is the only SSS for which high resolution structural information is available, revealing a LeuT-like fold and a Na(+)-binding site analogous to the Na2 site of LeuT. Whereas the core transmembrane segments (TMs) of SSSs share high structural similarity with other transporters of LeuT-like fold, TM1 does not correspond to any TM in those structural homologs and was only resolved for the backbone atoms in the initial vSGLT structure (Protein Data Bank code 3DH4). To assess the role of TM1 in Na(+)-coupled substrate symport by the SSSs, here we have studied the role of a conserved residue in TM1 by computational modeling in conjunction with radiotracer transport and binding studies. Based on our sequence alignment and much topological data for homologous PutP, the Na(+)/proline transporter, we have simulated a series of vSGLT models with shifted TM1 residue assignments. We show that in two converged vSGLT models that retained the original TM1 backbone conformation, a conserved residue, Tyr-19, is associated with the Na(+) binding interaction network. In silico and in vitro mutagenesis of homologous Tyr-14 in PutP revealed the involvement of this conserved residue in Na(+)-dependent substrate binding and transport. Thus, our combined computati