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1

Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

1987-07-01

2

Sodium Bicarbonate in Chemical Flooding: Part 1: Topical Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil re...

D. A. Peru P. B. Lorenz

1987-01-01

3

Electrochemical Concentration and Purification of Spent Sodium Bicarbonate Blasting Media.  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility and economics of recovering the spent blast media generated in sodium bicarbonate depainting operations has been investigated. In laboratory-scale tests, a saturated sodium bicarbonate solution was convened to sodium hydroxide in an electr...

R. D. Levy R. E. Hicks H. Gold

1995-01-01

4

Solubility of ammonium metavanadate in ammonium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions at 25 deg C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solubility at 25 deg C has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - sodium bicarbonate - water which is a stable section of the corresponding quaternary mutual system. In the eutonic point the content of ammonium metavanadate is 4.95% and of sodium bicarbonate 12.1%. The crystallization branch of ammonium metavanadate has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - water at 25 deg C. Metavanadate solubility attains minimum (0.14%) at ammonium carbonate concentration 2.6%. Three sections have been studied of the quaternary system ammonium - metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate-water at 25 deg C in the crystallization region of ammonium metavanadate at a ratio of sodium bicarbonate to ammonium carbonate 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. A region of minimum solubility of ammonium metavanadate has been detected (0.1%)

1978-01-01

5

Thermodynamics of aqueous carbonate solutions including mixtures of sodium carbonate, bicarbonate, and chloride  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently the authors examined electrochemical-cell data leading to values of the activity coefficient for aqueous sodium bicarbonate. Since that preliminary analysis, new experimental measurements have been published which contribute significantly to the overall thermodynamic understanding of (sodium carbonate + sodium bicarbonate + carbonic acid). In this more extensive examination we consider a wide variety of measurements leading to activity coefficients of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ from 273 to 323 K and to relative molar enthalpies and heat capacities at 298.15 K. Tables of thermodynamic quantities at selected temperatures are included. 47 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

Peiper, J.C.; Pitzer, K.S.

1982-01-01

6

Quality Assessment of Lightly Salted Atlantic Salmon Fillets Injected With Brine Solutions Containing Sodium Bicarbonate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce lightly salted Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fillets with improved technical and sensory attributes. Brine containing 0, 50, 150 or 250 g/L NaCl with or without additional 25 g/L sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) was injected into the fillets. 24 hours after injection, the muscle NaCl concentration ranged from 0.2 to 2.4%, and pH ranged from 6.18 to 6.48. Untreated fillets lost 1% weight, whereas the weight increase was 4% of the fillets injected with NaCl or a combination of NaCl and NaHCO3. Liquid loss (LL) during storage at 4°C for three days were similar for the untreated fillets and the fillets injected with 50 g/L NaCl (LL 12%), while LL was reduced to 7.5% with the addition of NaHCO3 to the 50 g/L brine. LL was the lowest for the groups injected with 250 g/L NaCl. Injection of NaCl resulted in higher lipid oxidation compared with untreated fillets, determined as doubled levels of alkanals (4.3 vs. 10.4 ng/g) and pentenols (8.0 vs. 15.1 ng/g), but addition of NaHCO3 counteracted the action of NaCl as a pro-oxidant. Furthermore, NaHCO3 addition of the 50 g/L brine significantly improved the color of raw and cooked fillets (higher a*-value, Salmo Fan score, red/orange color tone). Sensory assessment of cooked fillet revealed that brine added NaHCO3 gave superior odor (less rancid), flavor (less metallic) and higher scores for tenderness. In conclusion, addition of NaHCO3 to the brine solutions improved liquid retention, storage stability, color, odor and flavor of lightly salted salmon fillets.

Magnus Åsli; Marit Rødbotten; Gjermund Vogt; Sergey Afanasyev; Turid Mørkøre

2013-01-01

7

Sodium Bicarbonate—A Potent Ergogenic Aid?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report aims to look at the role of Sodium bicarbonate as a potent Ergogenic aid and its role in improving the performance of athletes. It includes the mechanism of action of sodium bicarbonate during high-intensity exercise. The report also shows the various types of athletes who can be benefited from sodium bicarbonate loading, evidences for improvement in performance, conflicting evidences, recommended dosages and side-effects for bicarbonate loading.

Jose Shelton; Gideon V. Praveen Kumar

2010-01-01

8

[Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. II. Study, in an experimental model in rats, of gastric retention of a sodium bicarbonate solution  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The gastric emptying of a 0.25 M sodium bicarbonate solution was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by a previous (6 hours) orogastric infusion of a 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one previously infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water, in the same volume that further solutions. Every animal was fed with 2 ml/100 g of its weight of these solutions. The test meal (bicarbonate solution) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric retentions were determined 6 hours after those first meals at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The results demonstrated that the gastric retentions of the bicarbonate solution were significantly lower in the acidotic group than that one of water group (at 20 minutes) and that one of the sodium chloride (at 10, 20 and 30 minutes). The data here presented suggest that metabolic acidosis accelerates the gastric emptying of a sodium bicarbonate solution.

Belangero VM; Collares EF

1992-01-01

9

[Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. II. Study, in an experimental model in rats, of gastric retention of a sodium bicarbonate solution].  

Science.gov (United States)

The gastric emptying of a 0.25 M sodium bicarbonate solution was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by a previous (6 hours) orogastric infusion of a 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one previously infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water, in the same volume that further solutions. Every animal was fed with 2 ml/100 g of its weight of these solutions. The test meal (bicarbonate solution) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric retentions were determined 6 hours after those first meals at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The results demonstrated that the gastric retentions of the bicarbonate solution were significantly lower in the acidotic group than that one of water group (at 20 minutes) and that one of the sodium chloride (at 10, 20 and 30 minutes). The data here presented suggest that metabolic acidosis accelerates the gastric emptying of a sodium bicarbonate solution. PMID:1339142

Belangero, V M; Collares, E F

10

Sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate: ergogenic aids?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numerous studies have used exogenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) and sodium citrate (Na-citrate) in an attempt to enhance human performance. After ingestion of NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate, two observations have been made: (a) There was great individual variability in the ergogenic benefit reached, which can be attributed to the level of physical conditioning of the subjects and to their tolerance of the buffer substance; and (b) the subjects who had ingested NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate show higher levels of pH, bicarbonate, and lactate ions concentrations in their exercising blood than do the subjects who had ingested the placebo. A majority of the studies have suggested that the ingestion of both substances provides an ergogenic effect due to the establishment and maintenance of an elevated pH level during exercise. However, the exact mechanism by which the ergogenic effects occur has not been demonstrated conclusively. Sodium bicarbonate and Na-citrate seem to be effective in activities with a sufficient duration to generate a difference in the hydrogen ion gradient, characterized by a very high intensity and involving large muscular groups. However, in activities of equally high intensity, but with longer duration, the results obtained have been conflicting and inconclusive.

Requena B; Zabala M; Padial P; Feriche B

2005-02-01

11

Sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate: ergogenic aids?  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous studies have used exogenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) and sodium citrate (Na-citrate) in an attempt to enhance human performance. After ingestion of NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate, two observations have been made: (a) There was great individual variability in the ergogenic benefit reached, which can be attributed to the level of physical conditioning of the subjects and to their tolerance of the buffer substance; and (b) the subjects who had ingested NaHCO(3) and Na-citrate show higher levels of pH, bicarbonate, and lactate ions concentrations in their exercising blood than do the subjects who had ingested the placebo. A majority of the studies have suggested that the ingestion of both substances provides an ergogenic effect due to the establishment and maintenance of an elevated pH level during exercise. However, the exact mechanism by which the ergogenic effects occur has not been demonstrated conclusively. Sodium bicarbonate and Na-citrate seem to be effective in activities with a sufficient duration to generate a difference in the hydrogen ion gradient, characterized by a very high intensity and involving large muscular groups. However, in activities of equally high intensity, but with longer duration, the results obtained have been conflicting and inconclusive. PMID:15705037

Requena, Bernardo; Zabala, Mikel; Padial, Paulino; Feriche, Belén

2005-02-01

12

Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

2012-01-01

13

Sodium Bicarbonate—A Potent Ergogenic Aid?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report aims to look at the role of Sodium bicarbonate as a potent Ergogenic aid and its role in improving the performance of athletes. It includes the mechanism of action of sodium bicarbonate during high-intensity exercise. The report also shows the various types of athletes who can be benefit...

Jose Shelton; Gideon V. Praveen Kumar

14

Supported palladium catalysts for the reduction of sodium bicarbonate to sodium formate in aqueous solution at room temperature and one atmosphere of hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reduction has been effected by using a variety of Pd (palladium)-based catalysts. The typical procedure was to suspend 0.25 g of catalyst in 25 cc of an aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate purged slowly with hydrogen gas. The sodium formate concentration was followed by withdrawing aliquots for formate determination by /sup 13/C, /sup H/NMR. The reduction may be quite rapid; an initial rate of reduction after 1 h reaction produces a turnover rate of 35 formate anions produced/ palladium atom/h. All forms of Pd used appear to be active. The overall results indicate that carbon dioxide may be reduced at room temperature near its thermodynamic potential. 2 figures, 1 table.

Stalder, C.J.; Chao, S.; Summers, D.P.; Wrighton, M.S.

1983-10-05

15

Solubilities of methane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and a natural gas mixture in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solutions under high pressure and elevated temperature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The solubility of natural gas mixtures in formation water (brine) plays an important role in estimating the natural gas reserve, the formation/dissociation conditions of methane hydrates in situ, and the interfacial tension of the hydrocarbon-formation water system. However, solubility data at high pressure and elevated temperature conditions for aqueous electrolyte systems are rare. Recently, in the reservoirs found at the South China Sea areas, the main salt species in the formation water is sodium bicarbonate, and the solubility data of gases in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solutions under reservoir conditions have not previously been reported. An apparatus for measuring the solubility of gases in aqueous electrolyte solutions under high pressure and elevated temperature conditions is described. The solubility of methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and a natural gas mixture in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solutions were measured up to 58 MPa and 403 K. The modified Patel-Teja equation of state proposed by Zuo and Guo (1991) for aqueous electrolyte systems was applied to correlate the measured solubility data, and satisfactory results were obtained.

Gao, J.; Zheng, D.Q.; Guo, T.M. [Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

1997-01-01

16

Investigation of crystallization kinetics of sodium bicarbonate in a continuous stirred tank crystallizer  

Science.gov (United States)

In our previous work [J. Crystal Growth 263 (2004) 459], a supersaturation determination method using a high-precision densimeter was designed and developed for monitoring sodium bicarbonate supersaturation in the sodium carbonate bicarbonate system, a two-component solution in equilibrium. In the present paper, we apply this method to the study of sodium bicarbonate continuous crystallization. It gives us access to the sodium bicarbonate supersaturation evolution. The sodium bicarbonate supersaturation evolution and their crystallization kinetics obtained in a continuous stirred tank crystallizer are investigated under different operational conditions, such as residence time, initial supersaturation and seeding. The induction time determined by density measurements is discussed. Mathematical modeling is used to interpret the supersaturation evolution. It is shown that measuring the density gives satisfying performances for studying the crystallization of a two-component solution in equilibrium, such as the sodium carbonate bicarbonate system.

Zhu, Yi; Haut, Benoît; Halloin, Veronique; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule

2005-08-01

17

Sodium-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Together, the Na(+)-coupled HCO(3)(-) transporters and the AE family of anion exchangers (i.e., Cl-HCO3 exchangers) comprise the bicarbonate transporter (BT) superfamily. Virtually all BTs are important for the regulation of intracellular pH (pH(i)) in cells throughout the body. Specific BTs also play roles in cell-volume regulation, as well as for the transport of salt and/or acid-base equivalents across many epithelia. Electrogenic Na/HCO3 cotransporters (NBCe's) play key roles in HCO(3)(-) reabsorption by the renal proximal tubule, and HCO(3)(-) secretion by the pancreatic duct. Electroneutral NBC's (NBCn's) regulate pH(i) in vascular smooth muscle and are present in/near axons in the brain. Finally, the Na(+)-driven Cl-HCO3 exchanger (NDCBE's) appear to be the major pH(i) regulators in CNS neurons. A characteristic of most, but not all, BT's is that they are inhibited rather effectively by 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-4,4'-disulfonate (DIDS).

Boron WF

2001-01-01

18

A comparison of Listerine(®) and sodium bicarbonate oral cleansing solutions on dental plaque colonisation and incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients: A randomised control trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Effective oral hygiene has been proposed as a key factor in the reduction of dental plaque colonisation and subsequent development of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Listerine(®) oral rinse, while used extensively in dental practice has rarely been tested in mechanically ventilated patients. Sodium bicarbonate as an oral rinse has been more commonly utilised in oral hygiene regimens in intensive care patients. AIM: To test the efficacies of the essential oil mouth rinse, Listerine(®) (Pfizer) and sodium bicarbonate in the reduction of dental plaque colonisation with respiratory pathogens and the subsequent development of VAP. METHODS: The study design was a prospective, single blind randomised comparative study of adult patients mechanically ventilated for at least 4 days. Patients were randomised to Listerine(®) (Pfizer) oral rinse twice daily, sodium bicarbonate oral rinse 2/24 or sterile water 2/24 (control group). All groups received tooth brushing 3 times a day. Dental plaque colonisation (primary outcome) and incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia (secondary outcome) were studied. RESULTS: Three hundred and ninety-eight patients were randomised to either the Listerine group (127), sodium bicarbonate group (133) or the control group (138). Baseline characteristics were similar for all groups. There were no significant differences between the control and study groups in colonisation of dental plaque at Day 4 (p=0.243). Ventilator associated pneumonia was diagnosed in 18 patients. The incidence was, Listerine(®) group 4.7%, sodium bicarbonate group 4.5% and control 4.3% [OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.31 to 3.16; p=0.92]. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to the control group, Listerine(®) or sodium bicarbonate oral rinses were not more effective in the reduction of colonisation of dental plaque or the incidence of VAP. Given the low incidence of VAP, the common factor of a small, soft toothbrush as part of an oral hygiene regimen suggests possible benefit in mechanically ventilated patients.

Berry AM

2013-10-01

19

Elimination of Escherichia coli from Oysters using Sodium Bicarbonate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate has been reported as disinfectant that normal use in food processing. Because its safety for human and cause effective. In this study, sodium bicarbonate was used to eliminate E. coli in oysters.  The experiments were divided into 3 trials. First, was disinfection of E. coli using sodium bicarbonate in vitro. Second, was study the toxicity of sodium bicarbonate in oysters. Final trial was effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate to eliminate E. coli in naturally contaminated oysters.  Results from in vitro study indicated that sodium bicarbonate inhibited E. coli and the effective concentration to disinfection E. coli was 10 and 100 mM. And it was low toxic for oyster due to the 50% lethal concentration was high as 63 mM. Moreover, the sodium bicarbonate application to eliminate was effective.  E. coli in natural contaminated oyster decreased to 96 E. coli MPN/100 g that below the standard level (230 MPN/100 g) after depuration with 10 mM sodium bicarbonate for 1 h. From these results, sodium bicarbonate was considered to be alternative way for farmer because it is simple method and effectiveness to elimination of E. coli from oyster.

Matthura LABAIDEN; Hisae KASAI; Mamoru YOSHIMIZU; Sataporn DIREKBUSRAKOM

2013-01-01

20

The phosphaturic effect of sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide in dogs  

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Urinary inorganic phosphate excretion was studied before and during the administration of sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide in dogs that were not given infusions of phosphate. The excretion fraction of filtered phosphate increased after sodium bicarbonate or acetazolamide was given. This phosphat...

Fulop, Milford; Brazeau, Paul

 
 
 
 
21

THAM v. sodium bicarbonate in idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome*  

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Two buffers (sodium bicarbonate and THAM) were used in a controlled trial for treatment of severe idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome. The results indicate that THAM is marginally superior to sodium bicarbonate. 1 infant died as a result of direct toxic effect of THAM because of inadvertent adm...

van Vliet, P. K. J.; Gupta, J. M.

22

X-ray off-specular reflectivity studies of electrochemical pitting of Cu surfaces in sodium bicarbonate solution  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the electrochemically-induced pitting process on a Cu electrode in NaHCO3 solution using in-situ X-ray off-specular reflectivity measurements. The morphology and growth dynamics of the localized corrosion sites or pits were studied as the applied potential was varied from the cathodic region where the Cu surface is relatively free of oxide films to the anodic region where surface roughening occurs by general corrosion with concomitant formation of an oxide film. Quantitative analysis of the experimental results indicates that early pitting proceeds in favor of nucleation of pit clusters over individual pit growth. It was found that the lateral distribution of the pits is not random but exhibits a short-range order as evidenced by the appearance of a side peak in the transverse off-specular reflectivity. The position, height, and width of the peak was modeled to yield the average size, nearest-neighbor distance (within any one of the clusters), and over-all density of the pits averaged over the entire illuminated surface. In addition, measurements of the longitudinal off-specular reflectivity indicate a bimodal depth distribution for the pits, suggesting a ``film breaking'' type of pitting mechanism.

P. Feng, Y.; Sinha, S. K.; Melendres, C. A.; D. Lee, D.

1996-02-01

23

The effects of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the effects of sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (for >15 minutes). METHODS: The retrospective cohort study consisted of adult patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with the diagnosis of cardiac arrest in 2009. Data were retrieved from the institutional database. RESULTS: A total of 92 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they were treated (group1, n = 30) or not treated (group 2, n = 62) with sodium bicarbonate. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between groups. The median time interval between the administration of CPR and sodium bicarbonate injection was 36.0 minutes (IQR: 30.5-41.8 minutes). The median amount of bicarbonate injection was 100.2 mEq (IQR: 66.8-104.4). Patients who received a sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged CPR had a higher percentage of return of spontaneous circulation, but not statistical significant (ROSC, 40.0% vs. 32.3%; P = .465). Sustained ROSC was achieved by 2 (6.7%) patients in the sodium bicarbonate treatment group, with no survival to discharge. No significant differences in vital signs after ROSC were detected between the 2 groups (heart rate, P = .124; systolic blood pressure, P = .094). Sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged CPR was not associated with ROSC after adjust for variables by regression analysis (Table 3; P = .615; odds ratio, 1.270; 95% confidence interval: 0.501-3.219) CONCLUSIONS: The administration of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged CPR did not significantly improve the rate of ROSC in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.

Weng YM; Wu SH; Li WC; Kuo CW; Chen SY; Chen JC

2013-03-01

24

Effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated sprints.  

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The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated bouts of intensive short duration exercise. Twenty-three subjects participated in the investigation (8 females and 15 males, age 21.4 +/- 2.3, mean +/- sd). Subjects completed six trials; three following ...

Lavender, G; Bird, S R

25

Production of sodium bicarbonate from a basic process stream  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present invention is in the area of the treatment of a gas flow containing carbon dioxide obtained from burning at least one organic waste or feed stream, on the one hand to produce sodium bicarbonate and optionally remove and/or recover molybdenum compounds and/or other impurities from the said...

Witkamp, G.J.; Van Spronsen, J.; Hasselaar, M.

26

Sodium bicarbonate-augmented stress thallium myocardial scintigraphy.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that sodium bicarbonate in pharmacological doses induces transient alkalosis, causing intracellular transport of serum potassium. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate whether, in humans, myocardial thallium-201 uptake can be augmented by pretreatment with a single bolus of sodium bicarbonate at a pharmacological dose, (b) to verify general safety aspects of the intervention and (c) to evaluate the clinical implications of augmentation of (201)Tl uptake, if any. Routine exercise myocardial scintigraphy was performed twice in eight adult volunteers (five normal and three abnormal), once without intervention and the second time (within a week) following intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (88 mEq in 50 ml) as a slow bolus 1 h prior to the injection of (201)Tl. Conventional myocardial thallium study was compared with sodium bicarbonate interventional myocardial scintigraphy with respect to myocardial uptake (counts per minute per mCi injected dose), washout patterns in normal and abnormal myocardial segments, and overall clinical interpretation based on planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) images. All patients remained asymptomatic after the intervention. A mean increase of 53% in myocardial uptake of thallium was noted in post-exercise acquisitions after the intervention, confirming uptake of the tracer via the potassium-hydrogen pump and its augmentation by transient alkalosis. The washout pattern remained unchanged. The visual quality of planar and SPET images improved significantly after the intervention. Out of the five abnormal myocardial segments identified in three cases, four showed significant filling-in after the intervention, causing the diagnosis to be upgraded from "partial scar" to "ischaemia", or from "ischaemia" to "normal". The overall scan impression changed in two out of three such cases. Sodium bicarbonate augmentation may have significant implications for stress-thallium scintigraphy and may be a new parameter for defining myocardial viability. PMID:14673543

Sarin, Badal; Chugh, Pradeep Kumar; Kaushal, Dinesh; Soni, Nakse Lal; Sawroop, Kishan; Mondal, Anupam; Bhatnagar, Aseem

2003-12-12

27

Sodium bicarbonate-augmented stress thallium myocardial scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well known that sodium bicarbonate in pharmacological doses induces transient alkalosis, causing intracellular transport of serum potassium. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate whether, in humans, myocardial thallium-201 uptake can be augmented by pretreatment with a single bolus of sodium bicarbonate at a pharmacological dose, (b) to verify general safety aspects of the intervention and (c) to evaluate the clinical implications of augmentation of 201Tl uptake, if any. Routine exercise myocardial scintigraphy was performed twice in eight adult volunteers (five normal and three abnormal), once without intervention and the second time (within a week) following intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (88 mEq in 50 ml) as a slow bolus 1 h prior to the injection of 201Tl. Conventional myocardial thallium study was compared with sodium bicarbonate interventional myocardial scintigraphy with respect to myocardial uptake (counts per minute per mCi injected dose), washout patterns in normal and abnormal myocardial segments, and overall clinical interpretation based on planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) images. All patients remained asymptomatic after the intervention. A mean increase of 53% in myocardial uptake of thallium was noted in post-exercise acquisitions after the intervention, confirming uptake of the tracer via the potassium-hydrogen pump and its augmentation by transient alkalosis. The washout pattern remained unchanged. The visual quality of planar and SPET images improved significantly after the intervention. Out of the five abnormal myocardial segments identified in three cases, four showed significant filling-in after the intervention, causing the diagnosis to be upgraded from ''partial scar'' to ''ischaemia'', or from ''ischaemia'' to ''normal''. The overall scan impression changed in two out of three such cases. Sodium bicarbonate augmentation may have significant implications for stress-thallium scintigraphy and may be a new parameter for defining myocardial viability. (orig.)

2004-01-01

28

Sodium bicarbonate-augmented stress thallium myocardial scintigraphy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is well known that sodium bicarbonate in pharmacological doses induces transient alkalosis, causing intracellular transport of serum potassium. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate whether, in humans, myocardial thallium-201 uptake can be augmented by pretreatment with a single bolus of sodium bicarbonate at a pharmacological dose, (b) to verify general safety aspects of the intervention and (c) to evaluate the clinical implications of augmentation of {sup 201}Tl uptake, if any. Routine exercise myocardial scintigraphy was performed twice in eight adult volunteers (five normal and three abnormal), once without intervention and the second time (within a week) following intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (88 mEq in 50 ml) as a slow bolus 1 h prior to the injection of {sup 201}Tl. Conventional myocardial thallium study was compared with sodium bicarbonate interventional myocardial scintigraphy with respect to myocardial uptake (counts per minute per mCi injected dose), washout patterns in normal and abnormal myocardial segments, and overall clinical interpretation based on planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) images. All patients remained asymptomatic after the intervention. A mean increase of 53% in myocardial uptake of thallium was noted in post-exercise acquisitions after the intervention, confirming uptake of the tracer via the potassium-hydrogen pump and its augmentation by transient alkalosis. The washout pattern remained unchanged. The visual quality of planar and SPET images improved significantly after the intervention. Out of the five abnormal myocardial segments identified in three cases, four showed significant filling-in after the intervention, causing the diagnosis to be upgraded from ''partial scar'' to ''ischaemia'', or from ''ischaemia'' to ''normal''. The overall scan impression changed in two out of three such cases. Sodium bicarbonate augmentation may have significant implications for stress-thallium scintigraphy and may be a new parameter for defining myocardial viability. (orig.)

Sarin, Badal; Chugh, Pradeep Kumar; Kaushal, Dinesh; Soni, Nakse Lal; Sawroop, Kishan; Mondal, Anupam; Bhatnagar, Aseem [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig. S. K. Mazumdar Road, 110054, Delhi (India)

2004-04-01

29

Chemical kinetic studies on dry sorbents. Final report. [Sodium bicarbonate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scope of this research investigation has included a review of potential additives suitable for dry flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) and a bench scale laboratory study to determine the chemical kinetics for the reaction of five different sorbents with sulfur dioxide. The sorbents chosen included sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/), soda ash (Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/), trona, lime (CaO) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). This study has shown that: (1) The reaction rate increases with temperature for soda ash and calcium oxide. The reaction temperature has an inverse effect on sodium bicarbonate and trona due, primarily, to the simultaneous thermal activation reaction. The calcium hydroxide-SO/sub 2/ reaction increased up to 550/sup 0/F, and then decreased, due to uneven gas flow distribution. (2) The reaction rates for soda ash, calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide were increased by decreasing their particle size. This effect was not confirmed for sodium bicarbonate and trona where reaction temperature was the most important reaction parameter. (3) Reaction with soda ash was found to be limited by the presence of an impervious ash layer which prevented interparticle gaseous diffusion. Calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide were found to be limited by a slow chemical reaction rate. Results on the rate-limiting steps for sodium bicarbonate and trona were inconclusive because of the simultaneous thermal activation reaction. (4) The effect of thermal activation was to increase the reaction rate for sodium bicarbonate and trona at lower temperatures. This effect was less pronounced at higher temperatures. (5) Results obtained for nitric oxide show limited adsorption for the five sorbents tested as compared to the finding for sulfur dioxide.

Davis, W.T.; Keener, T.C.

1982-02-15

30

Sodium bicarbonate improves outcome in prolonged prehospital cardiac arrest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the effect of early administration of an empirical (1 mEq/kg) sodium bicarbonate dose on survival from prehospital cardiac arrest within brief (<5 minutes), moderate (5-15 minutes), and prolonged (>15 minutes) down time. METHODS: Prospective randomized, double-blinded clinical intervention trial that enrolled 874 prehospital cardiopulmonary arrest patients managed by prehospital, suburban, and rural regional emergency medical services. Over a 4-year period, the randomized experimental group received an empirical dose of bicarbonate (1 mEq/kg) after standard advanced cardiac life support interventions. Outcome was measured as survival to emergency department, as this was a prehospital study. RESULTS: The overall survival rate was 13.9% (110/792) for prehospital arrest patients. There was no difference in the amount of sodium bicarbonate administered to nonsurvivors (0.859 +/- 0.284 mEq/kg) and survivors (0.8683 +/- 0.284 mEq/kg) (P = .199). Overall, there was no difference in survival in those who received bicarbonate (7.4% [58/420]), compared with those who received placebo (6.7% [52/372]) (P = .88; risk ratio, 1.0236; 0.142-0.1387). There was, however, a trend toward improved outcome with bicarbonate in prolonged (>15 minute) arrest with a 2-fold increase in survival (32.8% vs 15.4%; P = .007). CONCLUSION: The empirical early administration of sodium bicarbonate (1 mEq/kg) has no effect on the overall outcome in prehospital cardiac arrest. However, a trend toward improvement in prolonged (>15 minutes) arrest outcome was noted.

Vukmir RB; Katz L

2006-03-01

31

Neutral sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate hot waters in geothermal systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The least understood thermal water is a near neutral water which contains varying amounts of bicarbonate and sulfate as the major anions, low concentrations of chloride (< 30 ppM) and sodium as the major cation. In the past this water has been referred to as a sodium bicarbonate water but present studies suggest that the quantities of bicarbonate and sulfate in this water type are frequently of the same order. Of particular interest is the distribution and position of the sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate water in the same and different systems. Many hot springs in Indonesia, for example, discharge water of this composition. Present studies indicate that this water type can originate from high temperature reservoirs which form the secondary steam heated part of a normal high temperature geothermal system. The hydrological conditions producing these waters in geothermal systems are investigated and the relationship between the water type and vapor dominated systems is discussed. It is suggested that the major water type occurring in the so called vapor dominated parts of geothermal systems is this water. The water does not simply represent steam condensate, rather it consists essentially of meteoric water which has been steam heated. The water composition results from the interaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide with meteoric water and the rocks confining this water in the aquifer.

Mahon, W.A.J. (Dept. of Industrial and Scientific Research, Wairakei, New Zealand); Klyen, L.E.; Rhode, M.

1980-03-01

32

Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na2CO3-0.5 N NaHCO3) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/l uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluent (5% NaCl-0.5% Na2CO3). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased. (author)

1982-01-01

33

Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na2CO3-0.5 N NaHCO3) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/1 uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluant (5 % NaCl-0.5 % Na2CO3). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased. (author)

1982-01-01

34

Pilot scale-SO{sub 2} control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SO{sub 2} control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SO{sub 2}. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream of the air preheater and the spent reagents were collected using an electrostatic precipitator. Three different sorbents were used: processed sodium bicarbonate of two particle sizes; solution mined sodium bicarbonate, and processed sodium sesquicarbonate. SO{sub 2} concentrations were measured upstream of the reagent injection, 25-ft (7.62 m) downstream of the injection point, and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator. SO{sub 2} collection efficiencies ranged from 40 to 80% using sodium bicarbonate stoichiometric ratios from 0.5 to 3.0. Much of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal occurred during the first second of reagent reaction time, indicating that the sulfur dioxide-sodium reaction rates may be faster than have been measured for fixed bed measurements reported in the literature.

Pliat, M.J.; Wilder, J.M. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

2007-10-15

35

Gram-scale solution-phase synthesis of selective sodium bicarbonate Co-transport Inhibitor S0859 : in vitro efficacy studies in breast cancer cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters (NBCs) mediate the transport of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes and are thus ubiquitous regulators of intracellular pH. NBC dysregulation is associated with a range of diseases; for instance, NBCn1 is strongly up-regulated in a model of ErbB2-dependent breast cancer, a malignant and widespread cancer with no targeted treatment options, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NBCn1 genetically link to breast cancer development and hypertension. The N-cyanosulfonamide S0859 has been shown to selectively inhibit NBCs, and its availability on the gram scale is therefore of significant interest to the scientific community. Herein we describe a short and efficient synthesis of S0859 with an overall yield of 45?% from commercially available starting materials. The inhibitory effect of S0859 on recovery of intracellular pH after an acid load was verified in human and murine cancer cell lines in Ringer solutions. However, S0859 binds very strongly to components in plasma, and accordingly, measurements on isolated murine tissues showed no effect of S0859 at concentrations up to 50 mu M.

Larsen, Ann MØller; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels

2012-01-01

36

Gram-scale solution-phase synthesis of selective sodium bicarbonate co-transport inhibitor S0859: in vitro efficacy studies in breast cancer cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Na(+)-coupled HCO(3)(-) transporters (NBCs) mediate the transport of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes and are thus ubiquitous regulators of intracellular pH. NBC dysregulation is associated with a range of diseases; for instance, NBCn1 is strongly up-regulated in a model of ErbB2-dependent breast cancer, a malignant and widespread cancer with no targeted treatment options, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NBCn1 genetically link to breast cancer development and hypertension. The N-cyanosulfonamide S0859 has been shown to selectively inhibit NBCs, and its availability on the gram scale is therefore of significant interest to the scientific community. Herein we describe a short and efficient synthesis of S0859 with an overall yield of 45 % from commercially available starting materials. The inhibitory effect of S0859 on recovery of intracellular pH after an acid load was verified in human and murine cancer cell lines in Ringer solutions. However, S0859 binds very strongly to components in plasma, and accordingly, measurements on isolated murine tissues showed no effect of S0859 at concentrations up to 50 ?M.

Larsen AM; Krogsgaard-Larsen N; Lauritzen G; Olesen CW; Honoré Hansen S; Boedtkjer E; Pedersen SF; Bunch L

2012-10-01

37

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm² specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then immersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37ºC, the specimens were divided into four groups according to the substance used for disinfection (5% sodium bicarbonate, 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine, vinegar and Corega Tabs). A control group was included, in which distilled water was used. The adhered microorganisms were dispersed, diluted and plated onto culture media to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL). The results were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney statistical test at the 5% level of significance. Only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine and 5% sodium bicarbonate presented a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0156, respectively) compared to the control group, decreasing the number of cfu/mL. However, when the different disinfecting solutions were compared with each other, only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine presented a statistically significant difference in the reduction of cfu/mL. It was concluded that although 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine was more effective in the reduction of Candida albicans adherence values to thermally activated acrylic resin, 5% sodium bicarbonate also proved to be a viable alternative.

Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de Sousa; Thaís Cachuté Paradella; Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito; Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge

2009-01-01

38

Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on 2000m Rowing Performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ability to buffer H+ could be vital to exercise performance as high concentrations of H+ contribute to the development of fatigue. Purpose: We examined the effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2000m rowing ergometer performance. Methods: Twenty male rowers (age 23±4y; height 1.85±0.08m; mass 82.5±8.9kg; 2000m personal best time 409±16s) completed two 2000m rowing ergometer time-trials, separated by 48h. Participants were supplemented prior to exercise with 0.3g·kg-1BM of sodium bicarbonate (SB) or a placebo (maltodextrin; PLA). The trials were conducted using a double blinded, randomised, counterbalanced crossover study design. Time to complete the 2000m and time taken for each 500m split were recorded. Blood lactate, bicarbonate, pH and base excess were determined pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and 5 minutes post-exercise. Performance data were analysed using paired t-tests as well as magnitude based inferences; haematological data were analysed using a repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Using paired t-tests, there was no benefit of SB over PLA (P=0.095). However, using magnitude based inferences there was a likely beneficial effect of SB compared to PLA (PLA 412.0±15.1s; SB 410.7±14.9s). Furthermore, SB was 0.5±1.2s faster than PLA in the third 500m (P=0.035; possibly beneficial) and 1.1±1.7s faster in the fourth 500m (P=0.004; very likely beneficial). All haematological data were different between SB and PLA, and were different from pre-exercise to post-exercise. Conclusion: Sodium bicarbonate supplementation is likely to be beneficial to the performance of those competing in 2000m rowing events, particularly in the second half of the event.

Hobson RM; Harris RC; Martin D; Smith P; Macklin B; Elliott-Sale KJ; Sale C

2013-04-01

39

Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on 2000m Rowing Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to buffer H+ could be vital to exercise performance as high concentrations of H+ contribute to the development of fatigue. Purpose: We examined the effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2000m rowing ergometer performance. Methods: Twenty male rowers (age 23±4y; height 1.85±0.08m; mass 82.5±8.9kg; 2000m personal best time 409±16s) completed two 2000m rowing ergometer time-trials, separated by 48h. Participants were supplemented prior to exercise with 0.3g·kg-1BM of sodium bicarbonate (SB) or a placebo (maltodextrin; PLA). The trials were conducted using a double blinded, randomised, counterbalanced crossover study design. Time to complete the 2000m and time taken for each 500m split were recorded. Blood lactate, bicarbonate, pH and base excess were determined pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and 5 minutes post-exercise. Performance data were analysed using paired t-tests as well as magnitude based inferences; haematological data were analysed using a repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Using paired t-tests, there was no benefit of SB over PLA (P=0.095). However, using magnitude based inferences there was a likely beneficial effect of SB compared to PLA (PLA 412.0±15.1s; SB 410.7±14.9s). Furthermore, SB was 0.5±1.2s faster than PLA in the third 500m (P=0.035; possibly beneficial) and 1.1±1.7s faster in the fourth 500m (P=0.004; very likely beneficial). All haematological data were different between SB and PLA, and were different from pre-exercise to post-exercise. Conclusion: Sodium bicarbonate supplementation is likely to be beneficial to the performance of those competing in 2000m rowing events, particularly in the second half of the event. PMID:23579002

Hobson, Ruth M; Harris, Roger C; Martin, Dan; Smith, Perry; Macklin, Ben; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J; Sale, Craig

2013-04-01

40

Sodium bicarbonate treatment extends life of formerly acid lake  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the second time, researchers have used a familiar home remedy to restore the balance of a once acid lake. On September 29, Wolf Pond, in New York's Adirondack State Park, was treated with sodium bicarbonate to adjust alkalinity and keep pH at normal levels at least into the 1990's. Since it was first treated with bicarbonate in 1984, Wolf Pond has recovered and stabilized enough to sustain fish life once again. Repeated dosing is necessary because acid rain and runoff gradually deplete alkalinity in the lake over a period of years. Wolf Pond was selected for study because it has very little outflow and its major source of replenishment is rain. As the 1986 study explained, sodium bicarbonate was chosen for this application because it provides four advantages: (1) it is very soluble; (2) it cannot raise pH above 8.5; (3) it is easy to handle and apply; and (4) it is safe enough to be a common ingredient of many pharmaceuticals and foods.

1988-02-01

 
 
 
 
41

Sodium acetate as a replacement for sodium bicarbonate in medical toxicology: a review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sodium bicarbonate is central to the treatment of many poisonings. When it was placed on the FDA drug shortage list in 2012, alternative treatment strategies to specific poisonings were considered. Many hospital pharmacies, poison centers, and medical toxicologists proposed sodium acetate as an adequate alternative, despite a paucity of data to support its use in medical toxicology. The intention of this review is to educate the clinician on the use of sodium acetate and to advise them on the potential adverse events when given in excess. We conducted a literature search focused on the pharmacology of sodium acetate, its use as a buffer in pathologic acidemia and dialysis baths, and potential adverse events associated with excess sodium acetate infusion. It appears safe to replace sodium bicarbonate infusion with sodium acetate on an equimolar basis. The metabolism of acetate, however, is more complex than bicarbonate. Future prospective studies will be needed to confirm the efficacy of sodium acetate in the treatment of the poisoned patient.

Neavyn MJ; Boyer EW; Bird SB; Babu KM

2013-09-01

42

Sodium acetate as a replacement for sodium bicarbonate in medical toxicology: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium bicarbonate is central to the treatment of many poisonings. When it was placed on the FDA drug shortage list in 2012, alternative treatment strategies to specific poisonings were considered. Many hospital pharmacies, poison centers, and medical toxicologists proposed sodium acetate as an adequate alternative, despite a paucity of data to support its use in medical toxicology. The intention of this review is to educate the clinician on the use of sodium acetate and to advise them on the potential adverse events when given in excess. We conducted a literature search focused on the pharmacology of sodium acetate, its use as a buffer in pathologic acidemia and dialysis baths, and potential adverse events associated with excess sodium acetate infusion. It appears safe to replace sodium bicarbonate infusion with sodium acetate on an equimolar basis. The metabolism of acetate, however, is more complex than bicarbonate. Future prospective studies will be needed to confirm the efficacy of sodium acetate in the treatment of the poisoned patient. PMID:23636658

Neavyn, Mark J; Boyer, Edward W; Bird, Steven B; Babu, Kavita M

2013-09-01

43

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm² specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then immersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37ºC, the specimens were divided into four groups accord (more) ing to the substance used for disinfection (5% sodium bicarbonate, 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine, vinegar and Corega Tabs). A control group was included, in which distilled water was used. The adhered microorganisms were dispersed, diluted and plated onto culture media to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL). The results were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney statistical test at the 5% level of significance. Only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine and 5% sodium bicarbonate presented a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0156, respectively) compared to the control group, decreasing the number of cfu/mL. However, when the different disinfecting solutions were compared with each other, only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine presented a statistically significant difference in the reduction of cfu/mL. It was concluded that although 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine was more effective in the reduction of Candida albicans adherence values to thermally activated acrylic resin, 5% sodium bicarbonate also proved to be a viable alternative.

Sousa, Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de; Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

2009-12-01

44

Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-0.5 N NaHCO/sub 3/) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/l uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluent (5% NaCl-0.5% Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased.

Sakane, K.; Hirotsu, T.; Fujii, A.; Katoh, S.; Sugasaka, K. (Government Industrial Research. Inst., Shikoku, Takamatsu (Japan))

1982-01-01

45

Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-0.5 N NaHCO/sub 3/) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/1 uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluant (5 % NaCl-0.5 % Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased.

Sakane, Kohji; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Fujii, Ayako; Katoh, Shunsaku; Sugasaka, Kazuhiko (Government Industrial Research Inst., Shikoku, Takamatsu (Japan))

1982-09-01

46

Urease-independent chemotactic responses of Helicobacter pylori to urea, urease inhibitors, and sodium bicarbonate.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Helicobacter pylori CPY3401 and an isogenic urease-negative mutant, HPT73, showed chemotactic responses to urea, flurofamide (a potent urease inhibitor), and sodium bicarbonate. Since urea and sodium bicarbonate are secreted through the gastric epithelial surface and hydrolysis of urea by urease on ...

Mizote, T; Yoshiyama, H; Nakazawa, T

47

The different effects of sodium bicarbonate and aluminium hydroxide on the absorption of indomethacin in man.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influence of oral sodium bicarbonate and aluminium hydroxide on the absorption of indomethacin has been studied in normal volunteers. While sodium bicarbonate appeared to increase indomethacin absorption, aluminium hydroxide markedly reduced both the rate and extent of absorption. The buccal abs...

Garnham, J. C.; Kaspi, T.; Kaye, C. M.; Oh, V. M.

48

Sodium bicarbonate reduces viability and alters aflatoxin distribution of Aspergillus parasiticus in Czapek's agar.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The potential of sodium bicarbonate to inhibit growth of and aflatoxin synthesis by Aspergillus parasiticus was examined in Czapek's agar (CA), a medium in which fluorescence under UV light indicates aflatoxin production. Incorporation of sodium bicarbonate (SB) into CA at 0.011, 0.022, and 0.033 mo...

Montville, T J; Goldstein, P K

49

Use of sodium bicarbonate to treat tricyclic antidepressant-induced arrhythmias in a patient with alkalosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sodium bicarbonate has been recommended for the treatment of arrhythmias induced by tricyclic antidepressants. It is unclear, however, whether this therapy is effective only in the presence of acidosis. A case is presented in which there was an immediate response to sodium bicarbonate in three episo...

Molloy, D W; Penner, S B; Rabson, J; Hall, K W

50

Effect of ?-Alanine, With & Without Sodium Bicarbonate, on 2000m Rowing Performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of ?-alanine only and ?-alanine with sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2000m rowing performance. METHODS: Twenty well-trained rowers (age 23±4y; height 1.85±0.08m; body mass 82.5±8.9kg) were assigned to either a placebo or ?-alanine (6.4g·d-1 for 4 weeks) group. A 2000m rowing time trial (TT) was performed before supplementation (Baseline) and after 28 and 30 days of supplementation. The post supplementation trials involved supplementation with either maltodextrin or sodium bicarbonate in a double blind, crossover design, creating four study conditions (placebo with maltodextrin; placebo with sodium bicarbonate; ?-alanine with maltodextrin; ?-alanine with sodium bicarbonate). Blood lactate, pH, bicarbonate and base excess were measured pre-TT, immediately post-TT and at TT+5 min. Performance data were analysed using magnitude based inferences. RESULTS: ?-alanine supplementation was very likely to be beneficial to 2000m rowing performance (6.4±8.1 s effect compared with placebo), with the effect of sodium bicarbonate having a likely benefit (3.2±8.8 s). There was a small (1.1±5.6 s) but possibly beneficial additional effect when combining chronic ?-alanine supplementation with acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation compared to chronic ?-alanine supplementation alone. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion led to increases in plasma pH, base excess, bicarbonate and lactate concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Both chronic ?-alanine and acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation alone had positive effects on 2000m rowing performance. The addition of acute sodium bicarbonate to chronic ?-alanine supplementation may further enhance rowing performance.

Hobson RM; Harris RC; Martin D; Smith P; Macklin B; Gualano B; Sale C

2013-03-01

51

Effect of ?-Alanine, With & Without Sodium Bicarbonate, on 2000m Rowing Performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of ?-alanine only and ?-alanine with sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2000m rowing performance. METHODS: Twenty well-trained rowers (age 23±4y; height 1.85±0.08m; body mass 82.5±8.9kg) were assigned to either a placebo or ?-alanine (6.4g·d-1 for 4 weeks) group. A 2000m rowing time trial (TT) was performed before supplementation (Baseline) and after 28 and 30 days of supplementation. The post supplementation trials involved supplementation with either maltodextrin or sodium bicarbonate in a double blind, crossover design, creating four study conditions (placebo with maltodextrin; placebo with sodium bicarbonate; ?-alanine with maltodextrin; ?-alanine with sodium bicarbonate). Blood lactate, pH, bicarbonate and base excess were measured pre-TT, immediately post-TT and at TT+5 min. Performance data were analysed using magnitude based inferences. RESULTS: ?-alanine supplementation was very likely to be beneficial to 2000m rowing performance (6.4±8.1 s effect compared with placebo), with the effect of sodium bicarbonate having a likely benefit (3.2±8.8 s). There was a small (1.1±5.6 s) but possibly beneficial additional effect when combining chronic ?-alanine supplementation with acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation compared to chronic ?-alanine supplementation alone. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion led to increases in plasma pH, base excess, bicarbonate and lactate concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Both chronic ?-alanine and acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation alone had positive effects on 2000m rowing performance. The addition of acute sodium bicarbonate to chronic ?-alanine supplementation may further enhance rowing performance. PMID:23535873

Hobson, Ruth M; Harris, Roger C; Martin, Dan; Smith, Perry; Macklin, Ben; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig

2013-03-26

52

Thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate and its effect on the reaction of sodium bicarbonate and sulfur dioxide in a simulated flue gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of thermally decomposing sodium bicarbonate while simultaneously reacting with SO/sub 2/, was studied. The study was performed by quantitatively determining the rate of thermal decomposition as a function of particle size in an SO/sub 2/ free gas stream. The rate of reaction of sodium carbonate (product of the thermal decomposition) with SO/sub 2/ was then studied, and the data applied to a pore-plugging model which accounts for the loss in reactivity with increased reaction time. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate with SO/sub 2/ was then studied and the results compared to that for sodium carbonate. From the analysis of the data, the activation energy for the thermal decomposition reaction, the SO/sub 2/ sodium carbonate and SO/sub 2/ sodium bicarbonate reaction were derived. The thermal decomposition reaction of sodium biocarbonate was found to be similar to that of calcium carbonate below the point where heat transfer is rate limiting. The degree of conversion of sodium bicarbonate was found to be 12-17 times greater (depending on particle size) than that of sodium carbonate in the temperature range 250/sup 0/-350/sup 0/F (120/sup 0/-177/sup 0/C). This greater conversion was qualitatively explained by hypothesizing the formation of an activated species during thermal decomposition which would be more chemically reactive.

Keener, T.C.

1982-01-01

53

Lack of effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate in preventing kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Because alkalinization of the renal tubules can theoretically protect against the mechanisms of acute kidney injury, we sought to determine whether a sodium bicarbonate infusion can prevent acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. SETTING: Cardiac surgery service in a community hospital. PATIENTS: Ninety-two patients with stage 3 or higher chronic kidney disease who underwent cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. INTERVENTION: Forty-eight patients received a perioperative intravenous infusion of 0.9% sodium chloride 154 mEq/L, and 44 patients received an infusion of sodium bicarbonate infusion 150 mEq/L in 5% dextrose solution; the infusions were started 1 hour preoperatively and continued for 6 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was the development of any stage of acute kidney injury within 5 days after surgery as defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. No statistically significant difference in the primary outcome was noted between the two groups: 32% in the bicarbonate group versus 42% in the sodium chloride group (p=0.12). Likewise, no significant differences in the 30-day hospital mortality rate or other adverse outcomes were noted between the two groups. CONCLUSION: A perioperative infusion of sodium bicarbonate did not reduce the rate of acute kidney injury or adverse outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease who underwent cardiac surgery.

Kristeller JL; Zavorsky GS; Prior JE; Keating DA; Brady MA; Romaldini TA; Hickman TL; Stahl RF

2013-07-01

54

Effect of Potassium Chloride and Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Thermotolerance of Broilers Exposed to Heat Stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A total of 100-day-old broiler chicken were randomly divided into five groups and kept under elevated temperature (95-98.6oF) to observe the effect of potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on the weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum potassium and serum bicarbonate leve...

M.T. Naseem; Shamoon Naseem; M. Younus; Zafar Iqbal Ch.; Aamir Ghafoor; Asim Aslam; S. Akhter

55

Surfactant-enhanced sodium bicarbonate flooding. Project OE6  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three anionic and four nonionic surfactants were tested for their emulsification behavior with TRONACRAB (sodium bicarbonate) and Wilmington crude oil. Three of the surfactants were found to enhance the solubilization of oil in the brine phase in the presence of TRONACARB according to the screening guide established in this study. Interfacial tension measurements were made on the most promising systems. The results support the hypothesis that a synergistic relationship can exist between low concentrations of synthetic surfactant and TRONACRAB. In batch experiments using kaolinite and in a linear coreflood using consolidated Berea sandstone, TRONACRAB reduced adsorption of surfactant by up to 93%. TRONACARB was less effective in preventing adsorption onto crushed Berea sandstone probably due to an unusually high amount of ferrodolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate with iron impurities). The following conclusion have been made from the results of this work. (1) Addition of water-soluble synthetic surfactants to brines containing TRONACARB enhances the aqueous solubility of surfactants formed in situ. (2) The greatest solubilization of oil into the brine phase occurs when TRONACARB is used with synthetic surfactant. (3) The use of TRONACARB in combination with synthetic surfactants results in ultralow interfacial tension upon contact with the oil phase. (4) TRONACARB decreases the temperature at which ninionics can solubilize oil effectively (lower IFT). The use of nonionics at lower temperatures will reduce adsorption significantly. (5) TRONACARB is as useful as higher pH alkaline agents in preventing adsoprtion of anionic surfactants. 12 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Peru, D.A.

1986-08-01

56

A study of the catalytic role of a gold electrode in the electrochemical activation of four macrolide antibiotics in sodium bicarbonate solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using the cyclic voltammetry, it has been shown that hydrogen evolution at a gold electrode is necessary in the electrochemical activation of azithromycin dihydrate and erythromycin A. After four hours of the potential holding at –1.2 V vs. SCE, the pH of the electrolyte has been changed from 8.40 to 8.96; from 8.40 to 8.77 in the presence of erythromycin A, and from 8.40 to 9.18 in the presence of azithromycin, indicating the reaction of the hydrogen species with antibiotics. This effect has been confirmed by using the phenolphthalein indicator and by analysing colours of the solutions by UV-Vis, as well as by FTIR spectroscopy. Under the identical experimental conditions at the gold electrode, in contrast to azithromycin dihydrate and erythromycin A, roxithromycin and midecamycin electroactivity promotion has been obtained during the first forward sweep starting from the area of a double layer region.

Milka L. Avramov Ivi?; Slobodan D. Petrovi?; Predrag M. Živkovi?; Dušan Ž. Mijin; Katica M. Drljevi?

2010-01-01

57

Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding. Project OE6. [Viscosities of chemical slugs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this report we are presenting the results of our investigation in 3 areas: (1) the use of low pH alkaline chemicals for wettability alteration; (2) the development of a correlation between interfacial shear viscosity and water breakout for oil-brine macroemulsions; and (3) the evaluation of bicarbonate as a chemical for use in oil recovery. The main objective of our work is to develop an understanding of the mechanisms involved in bicarbonate flooding and to make specific recommendations for its potential use in enhanced oil recovery. To evaluate the use of bicarbonate as an emulsion destabilizer, emulsification and coalescence test results were compared with interfacial shear viscosities. In two of the three systems studied an inverse relationship was found between the maximum rate of water breakout and interfacial shear viscosity. Temperature and aging of the interface was a major factor affecting these results. Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate were used to determine their effect on rock wettability. Sodium bicarbonate was found to change the wettability of Berea sandstone toward the water-wet state more effectively than sodium carbonate for the low acid oil, Noone crude. Highly acidic crude oils appeared to react with bicarbonate creating highly absorbed surfactants. This caused Berea sandstone to become more oil-wet. The major mechanisms of oil recovery using sodium bicarbonate include wettability alteration, emulsification followed by coalescence, and lowered interfacial shear viscosity. These mechanisms alone did not cause significant recovery of the low acid oil, Noone crude. Previous oil displacement tests indicate that bicarbonate is more effective when using acidic crude oils. The range of oils that can be recovered using bicarbonate can be extended by adding small amounts of surfactants to the bicarbonate slug. 18 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

Peru, D.A.

1986-05-01

58

Sodium bicarbonate in-duct injection with sodium sulfate recovery for SO2/NOx control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dry sodium injection with sodium bicarbonate has been used commercially at industrial sites since the mid 1980's. In the past three years, five full scale commercial demonstrations have been completed on electric utility coal fired units. Up to 75% SO2 removal with 0-40% NOx removal has been achieved on units equipped with ESPs. Recent slip stream studies have proven up to 90% SO2 removal and 25% NOx removal when injection is ahead of a baghouse. If dry sodium bicarbonate sorbent injection technology is used prior to a retrofitted baghouse, but after an existing ESP the sodium sulfate by-product/flyash mixture in the baghouse is over 90% Na2SO4. Simple filtration and crystallization will yield a high value 99% + pure Na2SO4 for sale. In this application, no liquid discharge occurs and potentially no solids discharge, since flyash recovered from the filter is either recycled to the boiler with the coal stream or reinjected into the boiler. EPA IAPCS model Version 4 is modified to project costs for this SO2/NOx removal technology when couples with Na2SO4 recovery. In this paper an example is used to show hardware requirements, consumables accountability, by-product recovery rates, capital costs and levelized costs

1991-01-01

59

Effect of sodium bicarbonate administration on mortality in patients with lactic acidosis: a retrospective analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Lactic acidosis is a common cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Sodium bicarbonate may be considered for an arterial pH <7.15 but paradoxically depresses cardiac performance and exacerbates acidosis by enhancing lactate production. This study aimed to evaluate the cause and mortality rate of lactic acidosis and to investigate the effect of factors, including sodium bicarbonate use, on death. METHODS: We conducted a single center analysis from May 2011 through April 2012. We retrospectively analyzed 103 patients with lactic acidosis among 207 patients with metabolic acidosis. We used SOFA and APACHE II as severity scores to estimate illness severity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and Cox regression analysis models were used to identify factors that affect mortality. RESULTS: Of the 103 patients with a mean age of 66.1±11.4 years, eighty-three patients (80.6%) died from sepsis (61.4%), hepatic failure, cardiogenic shock and other causes. The percentage of sodium bicarbonate administration (p?=?0.006), catecholamine use, ventilator care and male gender were higher in the non-survival group than the survival group. The non-survival group had significantly higher initial and follow-up lactic acid levels, lower initial albumin, higher SOFA scores and APACHE II scores than the survival group. The mortality rate was significantly higher in patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate administration (p?=?0.016) was associated with higher mortality. Independent factors that affected mortality were SOFA score (Exp (B)?=?1.72, 95% CI?=?1.12-2.63, p?=?0.013) and sodium bicarbonate administration (Exp (B)?=?6.27, 95% CI?=?1.10-35.78, p?=?0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Lactic acidosis, which has a high mortality rate, should be evaluated in patients with metabolic acidosis. In addition, sodium bicarbonate should be prescribed with caution in the case of lactic acidosis because sodium bicarbonate administration may affect mortality.

Kim HJ; Son YK; An WS

2013-01-01

60

[Correction of the acid-base balance in the newborn asphyxia. The use of sodium bicarbonate  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The treatment of neonatal respiratory distress associates the improvement of lung ventilation with the correction of acid-base equilibrium (metabolic acidosis). In such a context we have considered 10 newborns with respiratory distress and we monitored pH, PCO2, B.E. and standard bicarbonate in capillary blood at 1, 5, 10, 25 hours after birth. The sodium bicarbonate doses given as a result of the emogasanalisis are above those usually recommended. We then give suggestions on how to use the sodium bicarbonate required to correct the acidosis without the aid of an emogasanaliser in order to avoid the iatrogenic alcalosis danger.

Demi M; Meneghetti G

1982-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

Reliability and effect of sodium bicarbonate: buffering and 2000-m rowing performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the effect and reliability of acute and chronic sodium bicarbonate ingestion for 2000-m rowing ergometer performance (watts) and blood bicarbonate concentration [HCO3-]. METHODS: In a crossover study, 7 well-trained rowers performed paired 2000-m rowing ergometer trials under 3 double-blinded conditions: (1) 0.3 grams per kilogram of body mass (g/kg BM) acute bicarbonate; (2) 0.5 g/kg BM daily chronic bicarbonate for 3 d; and (3) calcium carbonate placebo, in semi-counterbalanced order. For 2000-m performance and [HCO3-], we examined differences in effects between conditions via pairwise comparisons, with differences interpreted in relation to the likelihood of exceeding smallest worthwhile change thresholds for each variable. We also calculated the within-subject variation (percent typical error). RESULTS: There were only trivial differences in 2000-m performance between placebo (277 ± 60 W), acute bicarbonate (280 ± 65 W) and chronic bicarbonate (282 ± 65 W); however, [HCO3-] was substantially greater after acute bicarbonate, than with chronic loading and placebo. Typical error for 2000-m mean power was 2.1% (90% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.0%) for acute bicarbonate, 3.6% (2.5 to 7.0%) for chronic bicarbonate, and 1.6% (1.1 to 3.0%) for placebo. Postsupplementation [HCO3-] typical error was 7.3% (5.0 to 14.5%) for acute bicarbonate, 2.9% (2.0 to 5.7%) for chronic bicarbonate and 6.0% (1.4 to 11.9%) for placebo. CONCLUSION: Performance in 2000-m rowing ergometer trials may not substantially improve after acute or chronic bicarbonate loading. However, performances will be reliable with both acute and chronic bicarbonate loading protocols.

Carr AJ; Slater GJ; Gore CJ; Dawson B; Burke LM

2012-06-01

62

The effects of combined glucose-electrolyte and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on prolonged intermittent exercise performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the effects of combined glucose and sodium bicarbonate ingestion prior to intermittent exercise. Ninemales (mean ± s age 25.4 ± 6.6 years, body mass 78.8 ± 12.0 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max)) 47.0 ± 7 ml · kg · min(-1)) undertook 4 × 45 min intermittent cycling trials including 15 × 10 s sprints one hour after ingesting placebo (PLA), glucose (CHO), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or a combined CHO and NaHCO3 solution (COMB). Post ingestion blood pH (7.45 ± 0.03, 7.46 ± 0.03, 7.32 ± 0.05, 7.32 ± 0.01) and bicarbonate (30.3 ± 2.1, 30.7 ± 1.8, 24.2 ± 1.2, 24.0 ± 1.8 mmol · l(-1)) were greater for NaHCO3 and COMB when compared to PLA and CHO, remaining elevated throughout exercise (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood lactate concentration was greatest throughout exercise for NaHCO3 and COMB (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood glucose concentration was greatest 15 min post-ingestion for CHO followed by COMB, NaHCO3 and PLA (7.13 ± 0.60, 5.58 ± 0.75, 4.51 ± 0.56, 4.46 ± 0.59 mmol · l(-1), respectively; P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal distress was lower during COMB compared to NaHCO3 at 15 min post-ingestion (P < 0.05). No differences were observed for sprint performance between trials (P = 1.00). The results of this study suggest that a combined CHO and NaHCO3 beverage reduced gastrointestinal distress and CHO availability but did not improve performance. Although there was no effect on performance an investigation of the effects in more highly trained individuals may be warranted.

Price MJ; Cripps D

2012-01-01

63

The effects of combined glucose-electrolyte and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on prolonged intermittent exercise performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of combined glucose and sodium bicarbonate ingestion prior to intermittent exercise. Ninemales (mean ± s age 25.4 ± 6.6 years, body mass 78.8 ± 12.0 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max)) 47.0 ± 7 ml · kg · min(-1)) undertook 4 × 45 min intermittent cycling trials including 15 × 10 s sprints one hour after ingesting placebo (PLA), glucose (CHO), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or a combined CHO and NaHCO3 solution (COMB). Post ingestion blood pH (7.45 ± 0.03, 7.46 ± 0.03, 7.32 ± 0.05, 7.32 ± 0.01) and bicarbonate (30.3 ± 2.1, 30.7 ± 1.8, 24.2 ± 1.2, 24.0 ± 1.8 mmol · l(-1)) were greater for NaHCO3 and COMB when compared to PLA and CHO, remaining elevated throughout exercise (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood lactate concentration was greatest throughout exercise for NaHCO3 and COMB (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood glucose concentration was greatest 15 min post-ingestion for CHO followed by COMB, NaHCO3 and PLA (7.13 ± 0.60, 5.58 ± 0.75, 4.51 ± 0.56, 4.46 ± 0.59 mmol · l(-1), respectively; P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal distress was lower during COMB compared to NaHCO3 at 15 min post-ingestion (P < 0.05). No differences were observed for sprint performance between trials (P = 1.00). The results of this study suggest that a combined CHO and NaHCO3 beverage reduced gastrointestinal distress and CHO availability but did not improve performance. Although there was no effect on performance an investigation of the effects in more highly trained individuals may be warranted. PMID:22616569

Price, Mike James; Cripps, David

2012-05-22

64

Some aspects of the electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate (600 ppm) has been investigated using potentiodynamic polarization. In the pre-passive region three well-defined peaks are observed associated to reduction peaks corresponding to Fe(II) and Fe(III) species. A transpassive anodic peak is also observed being attributed to Fe(VI) species showing, in sweep reversal experiments, an associated reduction peak and an increase in the peak associated to the reduction of Fe(III) species. The characterization of the transpassive peak will be subject of further publication.

Rangel, C.M.; Leitao, R.A.; Fonseca, I.T.

1986-12-01

65

Some aspects of the electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate (600 ppm) has been investigated using potentiodynamic polarization. In the pre-passive region three well-defined peaks are observed associated to reduction peaks corresponding to Fe(II) and Fe(III) species. A transpassive anodic peak is also observed being attributed to Fe(VI) species showing, in sweep reversal experiments, an associated reduction peak and an increase in the peak associated to the reduction of Fe(III) species. The characterization of the transpassive peak will be subject of further publication. (author)

1986-01-01

66

Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves hypertrophy-type resistance exercise performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) administration on lower-body, hypertrophy-type resistance exercise (HRE). Using a double-blind randomized counterbalanced design, 12 resistance-trained male participants (mean ± SD; age = 20.3 ± 2 years, mass = 88.3 ± 13.2 kg, height = 1.80 ± 0.07 m) ingested 0.3 g kg(-1) of NaHCO(3) or placebo 60 min before initiation of an HRE regimen. The protocol employed multiple exercises: squat, leg press, and knee extension, utilizing four sets each, with 10-12 repetition-maximum loads and short rest periods between sets. Exercise performance was determined by total repetitions generated during each exercise, total accumulated repetitions, and a performance test involving a fifth set of knee extensions to failure. Arterialized capillary blood was collected via fingertip puncture at four time points and analyzed for pH, [HCO(3)(-)], base excess (BE), and lactate [Lac(-)]. NaHCO(3) supplementation induced a significant alkaline state (pH: NaHCO(3): 7.49 ± 0.02, placebo: 7.42 ± 0.02, P < 0.05; [HCO(3)(-)]: NaHCO(3): 31.50 ± 2.59, placebo: 25.38 ± 1.78 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05; BE: NaHCO(3): 7.92 ± 2.57, placebo: 1.08 ± 2.11 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05). NaHCO(3) administration resulted in significantly more total repetitions than placebo (NaHCO(3): 139.8 ± 13.2, placebo: 134.4 ± 13.5), as well as significantly greater blood [Lac(-)] after the exercise protocol (NaHCO(3): 17.92 ± 2.08, placebo: 15.55 ± 2.50 mM, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate ergogenic efficacy for NaHCO(3) during HRE and warrant further investigation into chronic training applications.

Carr BM; Webster MJ; Boyd JC; Hudson GM; Scheett TP

2013-03-01

67

Evaluation of smear layer removal by bicarbonate soda, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid with cetrimide and sodium hypochlorite with a new model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Various methods are used to evaluate irrigants. The primary aim was to develop a model for preliminary testing of potential irrigants. The second aim was to investigate the effect of bicarbonate soda on smear layer by comparing it with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Extracted human single-canal teeth were halved, and a uniform filing method was used to create smear layer. The following solutions were then applied - distilled water (control), 1% NaOCl, 17% EDTAC and bicarbonate soda at concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10% and 15%. Some samples had multiple solutions in different sequences. Samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Representative images were scored based on the degree of smear layer remaining. Results were analysed with the SAS system, using the GENMOD procedure. Complete smear layer was found in samples treated with all solutions except EDTAC used alone. There were no significant differences between the sequences, EDTAC/NaOCl/EDTAC and NaOCl/EDTAC/NaOCl. There were no significant differences between groups with and without bicarbonate soda. In conclusion, the model was effective for testing chemical effects on solutions on smear layer. Bicarbonate soda did not remove smear layer and provided no additional cleaning effects after EDTAC and NaOCl. PMID:23211069

Leow, Natalie; Abbott, Paul; Castro Salgado, Jacqueline; Firth, Laura

2012-07-16

68

Sodium Bicarbonate Use in Shock and Cardiac Arrest: Attitudes of Pediatric Acute Care Physicians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES:: To evaluate the preferences and self-reported practices of pediatric acute care physicians with respect to sodium bicarbonate administration to infants and children in shock or cardiac arrest. DESIGN:: National survey study utilizing a self-administered questionnaire. SETTING:: Thirteen Canadian pediatric tertiary care centers. SUBJECTS:: Canadian pediatric critical care physicians, pediatric emergency physicians, and trainees in these subspecialties. INTERVENTIONS:: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: Survey items were evaluated based on Yes/No responses, frequency responses, and Likert scales. Overall response rate was 53% (151/284) with 49.0% (74/151) citing pediatric critical care as their primary practice. 82.0% of respondents (123/150) indicated they would administer sodium bicarbonate as part of ongoing resuscitation for septic shock, whereas 58.3% (88/151) would administer sodium bicarbonate in a cardiac arrest scenario (p = 0.004). 47.3% (71/150) selected a pH threshold at or below which they would administer sodium bicarbonate (mean, 6.94?±?0.013; median, 7.00; range, 6.50-7.20; interquartile range, 6.90-7.00), whereas 20.5% (31/151) selected a base excess threshold (mean, -15.62?±?0.78; median, -16; range, -20 to -4; interquartile range, -20 to -14). Both pH and duration of resuscitation were strongly associated with the decision to administer sodium bicarbonate (p < 0.0001). Respondents' perceptions regarding a colleague's likelihood of administering sodium bicarbonate to the same patient under the same circumstances reflect an acknowledgment of disparate practices with respect to sodium bicarbonate use. 53.0% (79/149) felt current American Heart Association guidelines help them in deciding whether to administer sodium bicarbonate to critically ill patients, and 84% would support a randomized trial. CONCLUSION:: Differences of opinion exist among pediatric acute care physicians with respect to the timing and appropriateness of sodium bicarbonate administration during resuscitation. Most indicated they would support moving forward with a clinical trial.

Parker MJ; Parshuram CS

2013-06-01

69

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) remains a common complication of coronary angiography (CAG) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although a previous study reported pretreatment with sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride for prophylaxis of CIN, this has not been a universal finding and the long-term effects of sodium bicarbonate on CIN have not been studied before. We performed a prospective, single-center, randomized trial to investigate whether CIN can be avoided by sodium bicarbonate in patients with chronic renal failure. Eighty patients with chronic renal failure (defined as serum creatinine concentration (SCr), >1.1 mg per deciliter), who were undergoing CAG, were enrolled in this study. We assigned them to either sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate (Group B: n=35) or sodium chloride alone (Group C: n=45). In all patients, an infusion of sodium chloride of 1 ml/kg per hour was given between 12 hours before and after the procedure. In Group B, sodium bicarbonate infusion of 1 ml/kg per hour continued from 3 hours before procedure to 6 hours after procedure, changing from sodium chloride at 1 ml/kg per hour. SCr was measured at baseline, day 1, day 2 and 1 month after the procedure. CIN was defined as a 25% increase in SCr from baseline value, or an absolute increase of at least 0.5 mg/dl, which appears within 2 days after CAG. No differences in age, sex and contrast volume were observed between the two groups. SCr at baseline was not significantly different in the two groups (Group B: 1.41±0.32 versus Group C: 1.50±0.38 mg/dl). SCr at day 2 was significantly lower in Group B than Group C (1.44±0.38 versus 1.60±0.5 mg/dl, p

2007-01-01

70

Electrochemical concentration and purification of spent sodium bicarbonate blasting media. Final report, 30 December 1994--30 June 1995  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The feasibility and economics of recovering the spent blast media generated in sodium bicarbonate depainting operations has been investigated. In laboratory-scale tests, a saturated sodium bicarbonate solution was convened to sodium hydroxide in an electrochemical cell containing a Nafion cation exchange membrane. Energy consumption was 2 kWh per pound of sodium bicarbonate treated and could be reduced by a factor of two by operating the cell at higher flow rates. The proposed treatment train will essentially eliminate the need for off-site waste disposal, reducing the quantity of solid hazardous waste by over 99 percent and completely eliminating all liquid hazardous wastes. The capital costs of an electrochemical treatment system was estimated to be $19,400 for a plant sized to treat 25 lb/day blast media. Estimated operating costs amount to $2,270/yr, some 90 percent less than the $26,850/yr needed for makeup of the blast media and off-site waste disposal when treatment is not used. The savings of $24,580/yr correspond to a very short payback period of 0.8 years (9.5 months) for the capital cost. It was concluded that by conserving resources and eliminating off-site waste disposal, treating the spent blast media has the potential for significantly reducing the overall costs for depainting.

Levy, R.D.; Hicks, R.E.; Gold, H.

1995-08-21

71

Effect of sodium bicarbonate and oils on the control of powdery mildew and black spot of roses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Powdery mildew, caused by Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae, and black spot, caused by Diplocarpon rosae, were significantly controlled by weekly sprays of 0.063 M aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate plus 1.0% (v/v) Sunspray ultrafine spray oil on Rosa spp. Control of powdery mildew was evaluated on cultivars Bridal Pink, Gold Rush, Lavande, Prive, Samantha, Sonia, and Royalty in greenhouse experiments, and control of black spot was evaluated on cultivars Mr. Lincoln and Pascale in field experiments. The chemicals were eradicative when applied individually or in combination; however, for powdery mildew control, treatment in combination was better (P = 0.0002). These results indicate that sodium bicarbonate and oil appear to be effective biocompatible fungicides for control of powdery mildew and black spot of roses. Differences in response to powdery mildew among the cultivars ranged from complete resistance in Gold Rush to high susceptibility in Samantha.

Horst RK; Kawamoto SO; Porter LL

1992-03-01

72

[Intraperitoneal irrigation for pseudomyxoma peritonei-a case of critical metabolic alkalosis precipitated by irrigation with 101 of sodium bicarbonate--].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pseudomyxoma peritonei causes marked accumulation of jelly-like ascites in the peritoneal cavity. Removal of much mucinous ascites by irrigating the cavity appears to be an effective treatment. We describe a patient who underwent the irrigation with sodium bicarbonate solution and developed critical alkalemia. A 68-year-old woman with normal renal function was operated on for recurrent pseudomyxoma peritonei. Fol- lowing the excision of primary lesion, her intraperitoneal cavity was irrigated with 10 1 of 7% sodium bicarbonate in about 45 minutes. Thirty minutes after irrigation, blood gas analysis revealed severe metabolic alkalosis (pH 7.714, BE 25.6 mmol x l-1 ) with electrolyte disorder (Na 157.8 mmol x l-1 K 2.31mmol x l-1, Ca 0.73 mmol x l-1). Hypotension (<60 mmHg) and sinus tachycardia (>130 beats x min -1) supervened 75 minutes later. Transferring to the ICU, she was given KC1 solution intravenously based on serial blood analysis while on mechanical ventilation. The next day acid-base disturbance returned spontaneously to normal (pH 7.45, BE 8.0mmol x l-1), leading to endotracheal extubation. Electrolyte imbalance was gradually resolved on 2nd POD and she was discharged from the ICU. Intraperitoneal irrigation with sodium bicarbonate requires special perioperative considerations for lifethreatening alkalemia, especially in a patient with renal impairment.

Shirasaki R; Yamasaki S; Wakamatsu M; Mori Y; Hirano H; Kaida T; Machino A

2013-05-01

73

[Intraperitoneal irrigation for pseudomyxoma peritonei-a case of critical metabolic alkalosis precipitated by irrigation with 101 of sodium bicarbonate--].  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomyxoma peritonei causes marked accumulation of jelly-like ascites in the peritoneal cavity. Removal of much mucinous ascites by irrigating the cavity appears to be an effective treatment. We describe a patient who underwent the irrigation with sodium bicarbonate solution and developed critical alkalemia. A 68-year-old woman with normal renal function was operated on for recurrent pseudomyxoma peritonei. Fol- lowing the excision of primary lesion, her intraperitoneal cavity was irrigated with 10 1 of 7% sodium bicarbonate in about 45 minutes. Thirty minutes after irrigation, blood gas analysis revealed severe metabolic alkalosis (pH 7.714, BE 25.6 mmol x l-1 ) with electrolyte disorder (Na 157.8 mmol x l-1 K 2.31mmol x l-1, Ca 0.73 mmol x l-1). Hypotension (130 beats x min -1) supervened 75 minutes later. Transferring to the ICU, she was given KC1 solution intravenously based on serial blood analysis while on mechanical ventilation. The next day acid-base disturbance returned spontaneously to normal (pH 7.45, BE 8.0mmol x l-1), leading to endotracheal extubation. Electrolyte imbalance was gradually resolved on 2nd POD and she was discharged from the ICU. Intraperitoneal irrigation with sodium bicarbonate requires special perioperative considerations for lifethreatening alkalemia, especially in a patient with renal impairment. PMID:23772538

Shirasaki, Reimi; Yamasaki, Saeko; Wakamatsu, Masaki; Mori, Yasuichiro; Hirano, Hiroko; Kaida, Takeshi; Machino, Asami

2013-05-01

74

Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation independently increase exercise performance, but it remains unclear whether combining these 2 supplements is more beneficial on exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of combining creatine monohydrate and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance. Thirteen healthy, trained men (21.1 ± 0.6 years, 23.5 ± 0.5 kg·m(-2), 66.7 ± 5.7 ml·(kg·m)(-1) completed 3 conditions in a double-blinded, crossover fashion: (a) Placebo (Pl; 20 g maltodextrin + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), (b) Creatine (Cr; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), and (c) Creatine plus sodium bicarbonate (Cr + Sb; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate). Each condition consisted of supplementation for 2 days followed by a 3-week washout. Peak power, mean power, relative peak power, and bicarbonate concentrations were assessed during six 10-second repeated Wingate sprint tests on a cycle ergometer with a 60-second rest period between each sprint. Compared with Pl, relative peak power was significantly higher in Cr (4%) and Cr + Sb (7%). Relative peak power was significantly lower in sprints 4-6, compared with that in sprint 1, in both Pl and Cr. However, in Cr + Sb, sprint 6 was the only sprint significantly lower compared with sprint 1. Pre-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in Cr + Sb (10%), compared with in Pl and Cr, and mean concentrations remained higher after sprint 6, although not significantly. Combining creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased peak and mean power and had the greatest attenuation of decline in relative peak power over the 6 repeated sprints. These data suggest that combining these 2 supplements may be advantageous for athletes participating in high-intensity, intermittent exercise.

Barber JJ; McDermott AY; McGaughey KJ; Olmstead JD; Hagobian TA

2013-01-01

75

Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal.

Kinnunen, J.; Toetterman, S.; Kaila, R.; Pietilae, J.; Linden, H.; Tervahartiala, P.

1983-08-01

76

Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal. (orig.)

1983-01-01

77

Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm-3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60Co gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the ?-radiolysis, G(HCOO-) = 2.2, is due to the reaction COO- + HCO3-? HCOO- +CO3-. The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO- + CO3- is particularly significant. (author)

1991-01-01

78

Passivation process of X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

The passivation process of X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate solutions was investigated using potentiodynamic, dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS), and Mott-Schottky measurements. The results show that the shape of polarization curves changes with HCO{3/-} concentration. The critical `passive' concentration is 0.009 mol/L HCO{3/-} for X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate solutions. No anodic current peak exists in HCO3/- solutions when the concentration is lower than 0.009 mol/L, whereas there are one and two anodic current peaks when the HCO3/- concentration ranges from 0.009 to 0.05 mol/L and is higher than 0.1 mol/L, respectively. DEIS measurements show that there exist active dissolution range, transition range, pre-passive range, passive layer formation range, passive range, and trans-passive range for X80 pipeline steel in the 0.1 mol/L HCO{3/-} solutions. The results of DEIS measurements are in complete agreement with the potentiodynamic diagram. An equivalent circuit containing three sub-layers is used to explain the Nyquist plots in the passive range. Analyses are well made for explaining the corresponding fitted capacitance and impedance. The Mott-Schottky plots show that the passive film of X80 pipeline steel is an n-type semiconductor, and capacitance measurements are in good accordance with the results of DEIS experiment.

Zhou, Jian-Long; Li, Xiao-Gang; Du, Cui-Wei; Pan, Ying; Li, Tao; Liu, Qian

2011-04-01

79

Management of isolated yew berry toxicity with sodium bicarbonate: a case report in treatment efficacy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Taxus species are known to be toxic and may result in significant dysrhythmias. Treatment of taxus induced cardiac dysrhythmias is based largely on case reports. We describe a case of a 24-year-old male with Taxus cuspidate (yew berry) toxicity initially treated with amiodarone bolus and infusion and subsequently managed with sodium bicarbonate boluses and continuous infusion. CASE REPORT: The patient was found at home by his parents with witnessed "seizure-like"activity 2 hours after reportedly chewing and swallowing 168 yew seeds. The initial prehospital rhythm strip demonstrated ventricular tachycardia (VT); the patient was hypotensive with fluctuating levels of alertness. Prehospital cardioversion was attempted without success. Staff at the local presenting emergency department (ED) consulted toxicology for management of the presumed yew berry ingestion, complicated by cardiac dysrhythmias and mental status change with seizure. Amiodarone 300-mg IV and diazepam 5-mg IV were given. Cardioversion was attempted 4 times without change in the wide complex tachycardia, presumed to be VT, at a rate of 166. An amiodarone drip at 1 mg/min was initiated. The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit (ICU) at a regional toxicology center. On arrival to the toxicology center the patient was alert and verbally appropriate without complaints. Initial heart rate was 76 and regular with premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). A wide complex tachycardia associated with hypotension recurred; however, normal mental status was maintained. A bolus of 100 mEq of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) was given intravenously followed by sodium bicarbonate infusion at 37.5 mEq/hr. The amiodarone drip was discontinued. Subsequent electrocardiograms (EKG's) revealed a prolonged, but steadily narrowing QRS complex. Ultimately, the QRS complex closed to 92 ms, with a rate of 94, PR 154 and a QT/QTc of 390/487. CONCLUSION: This case describes successful treatment of an isolated Taxus cuspidate (yew berry) ingestion with significant toxicity initially with amiodarone bolus and infusion. Due to lack of significant change in telemetry recordings with amiodarone, treatment with sodium bicarbonate bolus and infusion was initiated. While the QRS narrowed significantly temporally related to the bicarbonate, it is difficult to determine if correction of the cardiac dysrhythmias was solely due to the sodium bicarbonate, or the synergism of sodium bicarbonate and amiodarone, or possibly spontaneous improvement due to taxine clearance. One should use caution while drawing conclusions from a single case; however, based on the clinical improvement of this patient, both with EKG recordings and vital signs, this report would suggest that isolated Taxus cuspidate ingestion from yew berry plants can be treated with sodium bicarbonate.

Pierog J; Kane B; Kane K; Donovan JW

2009-06-01

80

Sodium Bicarbonate for the Prevention of Contrast Induced-Acute Kidney Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and objectives: Infusion of sodium bicarbonate has been suggested as a preventative strategy but reports are conflicting on its efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of hydration with sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (...

Brar, Somjot S.; Hiremath, Swapnil; Dangas, George; Mehran, Roxana; Brar, Simerjeet K.; Leon, Martin B.

 
 
 
 
81

Alkalinization of local anesthesia with sodium bicarbonate--preferred method of local anesthesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective anesthetic techniques include local anesthetic infiltration with or without sedation and general anesthesia. Local anesthesia is a safe and effective anesthetic technique, that when performed properly is applicable to many outpatient urologic procedures. We have found that the pain usually associated with intradermal injection of lidocaine is attenuated by the addition of sodium bicarbonate. PMID:8284866

Armel, H E; Horowitz, M

1994-01-01

82

Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skil...

Wu, Ching-Lin; Shih, Mu-Chin; Yang, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Ming-Hsiang; Chang, Chen-Kang

83

Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ...

Wu Ching-Lin; Shih Mu-Chin; Yang Chia-Cheng; Huang Ming-Hsiang; Chang Chen-Kang

84

Acetazolamide and Sodium Bicarbonate in Treatment of Salicylate Poisoning in Adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ten adults suffering from salicylate overdosage were treated successfully with a combination of sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide to exploit the increase in salicylate clearance which is known to occur in very alkaline urine. The advantages of the method include the absence of important complicat...

Morgan, A. G.; Polak, A.

85

The role of sodium bicarbonate in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is proposed that a component of meteoric smoke, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), provides particularly effective condensation nuclei for noctilucent clouds. This assertion is based on three conditions being met. The first is that NaHCO3 is present at suff...

J. M. C. Plane

86

Comparing Sodium Bicarbonate with Normal Saline for Reversing of Epidural Anesthesia with Plain 2% Lidocaine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study we investigated whether washout of local anesthetic with sodium bicarbonate compared with 0.9% NaCl through an epidural catheter could provide a faster recovery of motor and sensory block in patients undergoing 2% plain lidocaine epidural anesthesia. In a randomized and double-blinded ...

Gita Shoeibi; Sussan Soltani Mohammadi; Mojtaba Marashi

87

Comparison of Talc Powder, Starch and Sodium Bicarbonate to Postsurgical Adhesion Formation in Rat Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To find out Sodium bicarbonate comparatively with Talc and Starch in intraperitonealy adhesion formation an experimental study on rat model was designed. Forty eight female rats were selected divided randomly into four groups. After a laparotomy, in the first group, 0.7 mg Talc powder (sterilized wi...

Hamid Zeinalynejad; Mohammad Arash Ramezani

88

The role of sodium bicarbonate in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is proposed that a component of meteoric smoke, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), provides particularly effective condensation nuclei for noctilucent clouds. This assertion is based on three conditions being met. The first is that NaHCO3 is present at sufficient concentration (±1...

Plane, J. M. C.

89

Crack cocaine-induced cardiac conduction abnormalities are reversed by sodium bicarbonate infusion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a dramatic case of a 19-year-old man with crack cocaine overdose with important clinical complications as cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation and epileptics status. During this intoxication, electrocardiographic abnormalities similar to those found in tricyclic antidepressant poisoning were observed, and they were reversed by intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion.

Miranda CH; Pazin-Filho A

2013-01-01

90

Systematic review: sodium bicarbonate treatment regimens for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Intravenous sodium bicarbonate has been proposed to reduce the risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). PURPOSE: To determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate on the risk for CIN. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1950 to December 2008; conference proceedings; and ClinicalTrials.gov, without language restriction. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized, controlled trials of intravenous sodium bicarbonate that prespecified the outcome of CIN as a 25% increase in baseline serum creatinine level or an absolute increase of 44 micromol/L (0.5 mg/dL) after radiocontrast administration. DATA EXTRACTION: Using standardized protocols, 2 reviewers serially abstracted data for each study. DATA SYNTHESIS: 23 published and unpublished trials with information on 3563 patients and 396 CIN events were included. The pooled relative risk was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.86), with evidence of significant heterogeneity across studies (I(2) = 49.1%; P = 0.004). Some heterogeneity was due to the difference in the estimates between published and unpublished studies: relative risk, 0.43 (CI, 0.25 to 0.75) versus 0.78 (CI, 0.52 to 1.17), respectively. Meta-regression showed that small, poor-quality studies that assessed outcomes soon after radiocontrast administration were more likely to suggest benefit (P < 0.05 for all). No clear effects of treatment on the risk for dialysis, heart failure, and total mortality were identified. LIMITATION: Power to assess clinical end points was limited. CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate treatment to prevent CIN in high-risk patients remains uncertain. Earlier reports probably overestimated the magnitude of any benefit, whereas larger, more recent trials have had neutral results. Large multicenter trials are required to clarify whether sodium bicarbonate has value for prevention of CIN before routine use can be recommended. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.

Zoungas S; Ninomiya T; Huxley R; Cass A; Jardine M; Gallagher M; Patel A; Vasheghani-Farahani A; Sadigh G; Perkovic V

2009-11-01

91

Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration prevents contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrast-induced nephropathy is the leading cause of in-hospital acute renal failure. This side effect of contrast agents leads to increased morbidity, mortality, and health costs. Ensuring adequate hydration prior to contrast exposure is highly effective at preventing this complication, although the optimal hydration strategy to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy still remains an unresolved issue. Former meta-analyses and several recent studies have shown conflicting results regarding the protective effect of sodium bicarbonate. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of normal saline versus sodium bicarbonate for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. Methods The study searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts database, ISI Web of Science (until 15 December 2008), and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials that compared normal saline with sodium bicarbonate-based hydration regimen regarding contrast-induced nephropathy. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary odds ratios. Results A total of 17 trials including 2,633 subjects were pooled. Pre-procedural hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of contrast-induced nephropathy (odds ratios 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.80, P = 0.003). Number needed to treat to prevent one case of contrast-induced nephropathy was 16 (95% confidence interval 10–34). No significant differences in the rates of post-procedure hemodialysis (P = 0.20) or death (P = 0.53) was observed. Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration was found to be superior to normal saline in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in this updated meta-analysis.

Meier Pascal; Ko Dennis T; Tamura Akira; Tamhane Umesh; Gurm Hitinder S

2009-01-01

92

Successful correction of D-lactic acid neurotoxicity (drunken lamb syndrome) by bolus administration of oral sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drunken lamb syndrome (DLS) has recently been described as lamb D-lactic acidosis syndrome (LDLAS). In 2012, 18 lambs aged between 7 days and 28 days with LDLAS were identified. Biochemically, each lamb had a metabolic acidosis characterised by D-lactic acidosis and exhibited clinical signs including: not hyperthermic, no evidence of dehydration, demonstrating an ataxic gait tending to recumbency (DLS) and possibly somnolence. These lambs received 50 mmol of sodium bicarbonate as an 8.4 per cent solution given orally, together with parenteral long-acting amoxicillin. All 18 cases made a full clinical recovery. This study demonstrates a novel effective treatment for a disease that is usually fatal, and also demonstrates a strong correlation between venous plasma bicarbonate concentrations and venous plasma D-lactate concentrations (R(2)=0.49). PMID:23812111

Angell, J W; Jones, G L; Voigt, K; Grove-White, D H

2013-06-27

93

Successful correction of D-lactic acid neurotoxicity (drunken lamb syndrome) by bolus administration of oral sodium bicarbonate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drunken lamb syndrome (DLS) has recently been described as lamb D-lactic acidosis syndrome (LDLAS). In 2012, 18 lambs aged between 7 days and 28 days with LDLAS were identified. Biochemically, each lamb had a metabolic acidosis characterised by D-lactic acidosis and exhibited clinical signs including: not hyperthermic, no evidence of dehydration, demonstrating an ataxic gait tending to recumbency (DLS) and possibly somnolence. These lambs received 50 mmol of sodium bicarbonate as an 8.4 per cent solution given orally, together with parenteral long-acting amoxicillin. All 18 cases made a full clinical recovery. This study demonstrates a novel effective treatment for a disease that is usually fatal, and also demonstrates a strong correlation between venous plasma bicarbonate concentrations and venous plasma D-lactate concentrations (R(2)=0.49).

Angell JW; Jones GL; Voigt K; Grove-White DH

2013-08-01

94

Comparative solubilisation of potassium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in hot dimethylformamide: application of cylindrical particle surface-controlled dissolution theory.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A surface-controlled dissolution of cylindrical solid particles model is applied to potassium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in dimethylformamide at elevated temperatures. Previously published data for the dissolution of potassium carbonate is interpreted assuming a cylindrical r...

Forryan, CL; Compton, RG; Klymenko, OV; Brennan, CM; Taylor, CL

95

Effect of Potassium Chloride and Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Thermotolerance of Broilers Exposed to Heat Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 100-day-old broiler chicken were randomly divided into five groups and kept under elevated temperature (95-98.6oF) to observe the effect of potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on the weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum potassium and serum bicarbonate level. Thermostress lead to significant in decrease (P3 at levels of 1.5% and 0.5% respectively, improved weight gain, and FCR and significantly increased (P3 supplementation alleviated the negative effects of heat stress in broilers.

M.T. Naseem; Shamoon Naseem; M. Younus; Zafar Iqbal Ch.; Aamir Ghafoor; Asim Aslam; S. Akhter

2005-01-01

96

Comparison of Talc Powder, Starch and Sodium Bicarbonate to Postsurgical Adhesion Formation in Rat Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To find out Sodium bicarbonate comparatively with Talc and Starch in intraperitonealy adhesion formation an experimental study on rat model was designed. Forty eight female rats were selected divided randomly into four groups. After a laparotomy, in the first group, 0.7 mg Talc powder (sterilized with ethyl oxide) plus 3 cc normal saline; in the second group, 0.7 mg Sodium bicarbonate (sterilized with ethyl oxide) plus 3 cc normal saline; in the third group, 0.7 mg starches powder (sterilized with ethyl oxide) plus 3 cc normal saline and in the forth group (controlling group), 3 cc normal saline entered. Four weeks following surgery, adhesion formation was evaluated by modified Swolin scoring system. There was statistical significant difference between groups in adhesion grade. Talc group had the highest grade of adhesion (P<0.001) and bicarbonate was equal to control group. Multivariable analysis determined statistical significant difference between groups in adhesion parameters (P<0.0001). Present findings suggested Sodium bicarbonate gave at least adhesion. Despite of it is inexpensive and suitable substance for dusting glove powder but needs more study about it.

Hamid Zeinalynejad; Mohammad Arash Ramezani

2004-01-01

97

Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (ie, 300 mg?kg?¹) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind crossover trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6 ± 0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65 ± 6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg?kg?¹) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (P = .38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = .01) and higher heart rate (main treatment effect, +10.1 ± 2.4 beats per minute, P = .002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0-10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.2, P < .0001). Furthermore, 10 of the 11 subjects (91%) experienced diarrhea, 64% experience bloating and thirst, and 45% experienced nausea after bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial gastrointestinal distress.

Kahle LE; Kelly PV; Eliot KA; Weiss EP

2013-06-01

98

The use of sodium bicarbonate for marination of broiler breast meat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to evaluate marination performances and the effect on meat quality traits of sodium bicarbonate, used alone or in combination with sodium chloride, when compared with sodium trypolyphosphate by using advanced analytical tools, including low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry. In total, 140 samples (cylindrical shape of 1 × 4 cm size) were obtained from a batch of 24-h postmortem broiler breast meat (Ross 708, females, 47 d old). Six of the groups were used for subsequent marination treatments, whereas the last group was kept as a nonmarinated control. Samples were subjected to vacuum tumbling in a special equipped laboratory rotary evaporator with a 12% (wt/wt) water:meat ratio using 6 marinade solutions: 7.7% (wt/wt) NaCl (S); 2.3% (wt/wt) Na(4)O(7)P(2) (P); 2.3% (wt/wt) NaHCO(3) (B); S and P; S and B; S, P, and B. Samples marinated with bicarbonate alone or in combination (B, SB, and SPB) significantly increased (P < 0.05) the meat pH by approximately 0.7 units compared with that of the control, whereas phosphate alone or in combination with salt increased (P < 0.05) the pH by 0.2 units. The combination containing all of the ingredients (SPB) produced the highest marinade performances; however, SB was able to guarantee a better marinade uptake and water retention ability with respect to that of SP. According to low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, the combined use of B and P with S determined a remarkable increase in proportion of entrapped water into the myofibrillar spaces, while the extramyofibrillar water fraction was not modified. Moreover, water gain following marination does not correspond to an increase in the freezable water amount, as detected by differential scanning calorimetry. In conclusion, B is a very promising marinating agent, and it can be exploited to develop processed poultry products with no added phosphates to match the request to avoid the nutritional drawbacks recently indicated with the use of phosphates.

Petracci M; Laghi L; Rocculi P; Rimini S; Panarese V; Cremonini MA; Cavani C

2012-02-01

99

CRACK2. Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solutions in cracks in concrete  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description ofthe model. Hydroxyl ions are transported by diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. Thecementitious material is simulated as calcium hydroxide mixed with inert material but with sodium hydroxide dissolved in the pore solution. Diffusive migration of cesium as radioactive isotope is also considered. Electrical interaction of the migratingions is taken into account. Example calculations demonstrate effects of parameter variations on distribution of precipitated calcite in the crack and on the composition of the outflowing solution, which can be compared directly with experimental results.Leaching behavior ofsodium can be used to tune the model to experimental observations. The calcite is mostly precipitated on top of the original crack surface and may under certain circumstances fill the crack. The produced thin layers of low porositycalcite act as a diffusion barrier limiting contact between cement and solution. Pore closure mechanisms in such layers are discussed. Implications for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal are shortly mentioned. The model is also relevant forconventional uses of concrete.

Brodersen, Knud Erik

2003-01-01

100

Effects of Cheap Antidotes; Sodium Bicarbonate and Magnesium Sulfate in Organophosphorous Poisoning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organophosphorous (OP) compounds have been used as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Despite administration of well known antidotes (atropine and oximes), morbidity and mortality of OP poisoning were still high. Besides, oximes are very expensive and not available in most developing countries. It was thus aimed to study the effects of cheap available antidotes; sodium bicarbonate and magnesium sulfate in OP poisoning. In addition to the standard antidotal treatment, out of 117 patients (63M, 47F) aged 25.2 ± 9.5 years with moderate to severe acute OP pesticide poisoning 59 were given sodium bicarbonate 5 mEq/kg in 60 min. followed by 5-6 mEq/kg/day to obtain arterial blood pH of 7.45 to 7.55. Arterial blood pH increased significantly (p less than 0.01) to 7.48 ± 0.05 compared to the controls (7.32 ± 0.06). Morbidity based on hospitalization days reduced significantly (p less than 0.05) from 5.62 ± 3.4 in the controls to 3.1 ± 2.6 days in the sodium bicarbonate group. Total atropine dose was also significantly (p less than 0.05) lower in the test group. Mortality was lower, but not significantly due to the low numbers (5 and 2 of the controls and test group, respectively). Sodium bicarbonate appeared to be effective and could be added to the treatment regime of OP poisoning. Magnesium sulfate was administered four gram intravenously only for the first 24 hr of hospitalization day for the patvere OP poisoning in a pilot study. The results were promising and thus further investigations are continued.(author).

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Comparing Sodium Bicarbonate with Normal Saline for Reversing of Epidural Anesthesia with Plain 2% Lidocaine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether washout of local anesthetic with sodium bicarbonate compared with 0.9% NaCl through an epidural catheter could provide a faster recovery of motor and sensory block in patients undergoing 2% plain lidocaine epidural anesthesia. In a randomized and double-blinded clinical trial, 60 ASA classes I and II male patients scheduled for elective knee or ankle orthopedic procedures underwent epidural anesthesia with 2% plain lidocaine were enrolled. A T4 dermatome level of analgesia was maintained intraoperatively. Following surgery, patients were randomly allocated to receive no epidural bolus (control), 15 mL Normal Saline (NS) or 0.4 mL sodium bicarbonate plus 14.6 mL normal saline (BC) postoperatively through epidural catheter. Assessment of motor and sensory block was performed at 5 min intervals until complete motor and sensory block recovery. Times to complete sensory and motor block recovery were significantly less in NS and BC groups compared with control group (p = 0.012) but there were no significant differences between NS and BC group (p = 0.08). The results suggest that recovery of sensory and motor function of the lower extremities in patients undergoing epidural anesthesia with plain 2% lidocaine can be accelerated with epidural administration of 15 mL NS or 0.4 mL Sodium bicarbonate plus 14.6 mL NS.

Gita Shoeibi; Sussan Soltani Mohammadi; Mojtaba Marashi

2007-01-01

102

The effect of sodium bicarbonate on intracellular pH using 31P-MR spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report deals with the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the intracellular pH of the brain and cerebral blood flow (CBF); five normal volunteers were studied. Intracellular pH and CBF were measured by phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and stable xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT), respectively. Each individual received 7% sodium bicarbonate (3.5 ml/kg body weight), infused intravenously over a 15-min period. Intracellular pH, CBF, and physiological parameters were determined before and after the injection. Intracellular pH was significantly decreased and CBF was increased. Among the physiological parameters, the hematocrit was significantly decreased and arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), increased. These results suggest that increasing CO2 contributes to the decrease in intracellular pH. In conclusion, three factors increase CBF during the administration of sodium bicarbonate to humans: arterial dilatation in response to carbon dioxide; decrease of the hematocrit, and intracellular cerebral acidosis. (author)

1997-01-01

103

Efficacy of urine alkalinization by oral administration of sodium bicarbonate: a prospective open-label trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Urine alkalinization is indicated for various medical conditions. Alkalinization is usually achieved by intravenous administration of alkali substances titrated by repeated urinalyses. Some situations such as mass casualty events might require urine alkalinization by the oral route. We evaluated the efficacy of oral sodium bicarbonate administration for urine alkalinization. METHODS: In a prospective open-label trial, 4 g of sodium bicarbonate was administered orally 3 times daily to 9 healthy volunteers for 24 hours. Serial blood and urine samples were collected, and urine pH was evaluated. Plasma electrolytes and pH were also measured for safety purposes. RESULTS: All participants had a urine pH of at least 7 after 10 hours. At 20 hours, all participants had a urine pH of at least 8. No adverse effects or abnormal blood results were documented during the 24-hour follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Oral administration of a standard dose of sodium bicarbonate tablets resulted in effective urine alkalinization. Further research is needed to investigate the natural course of urine pH after cessation of our protocol and the efficacy of longer periods of treatment.

Cohen B; Laish I; Brosh-Nissimov T; Hoffman A; Katz LH; Braunstein R; Sagi R; Michael G

2013-09-01

104

Investigation of sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and water systems for saturated solar ponds. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of this study was to gather relevant data primarily from the published literature to investigate the technical feasibility of using a Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-NaHCO/sub 3/ mixture for a saturated solar pond. This objective was accomplished by a literature search and review of existing chemical information and by performing simple chemistry experiments in the laboratory. Information on density, solubility, phase diagram, equilibrium compositions, reaction rate constant, equilibrium constant, diffusion coefficient, vapor pressure and potentially useful additives is compiled. It is concluded that even though both the saturation density and solubility increase with temperature for trona, it is not chemically stable either at room temperature or higher temperatures (80/sup 0/C). Therefore, as is, trona is not suitable for use in a saturated solar pond. From the literature it has been found that sugar and gum can retard the decomposition of bicarbonate to carbonate in the mixture. Nevertheless, trona is a very attractive solute for an unsaturated solar pond. A laboratory unsaturated pond with a stable density gradient has worked without any problems for about two months at InterTechnology/Solar Corporation.

None

1980-03-28

105

pH and salivary sodium bicarbonate during the administration protocol for methotrexate in children with leukemia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Objective: To analyze the behavior of pH and sodium bicarbonate (NAHCO3) in the saliva of patients with leukemia during the administration protocol for Methotrexate (Mtx). Materials and Methods: A controlled clinical essay was carried out on 23 patients between 4 and 18 years of age with high-risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Sampling was carried out at To: basal condition; T1: 12 hours after intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, before administering Mtx and (more) T2: 3 hours after administering Mtx, the time of maximum concentration. Chiron-Diagnostic 378® equipment was used to determine pH and sodium bicarbonate. The data was interpreted using Analysis of Variance at the 5% significance level. Results: The highest values of sodium bicarbonate were observed at T2, with salivary pH levels remaining within neutrality ranges, diminishing slightly in T1. Conclusion. In this study, the dose of sodium bicarbonate considered in the administration protocol of 3 g /m² Mtx, kept sodium bicarbonate levels in saliva at normal levels and pH neutral.

Rojas de Morales, Thais; Navas, Rita; Viera, Ninoska; Álvarez, Carmen Julia; Chaparro, Neira; Griman, Dariana

2007-10-01

106

Safety evaluation of a trial of lipocalin-directed sodium bicarbonate infusion for renal protection in at-risk critically ill patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Urine alkalinisation with sodium bicarbonate decreases renal oxidative stress and might attenuate sepsisassociated acute kidney injury (s-AKI). The safety and feasibility of urine alkalinisation in patients at risk of s-AKI has never been tested. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients at risk of s-AKI (those with systemic inflammatory response syndrome [SIRS], oliguria and elevated [?150 µg/L] serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [sNGAL] concentration) to receive sodium bicarbonate (treatment group) or sodium chloride (placebo group) in a 0.5 mmol/kg bolus followed by an infusion of 0.2 mmol/kg/hour. RESULTS: Among 50 patients with SIRS and oliguria, 25 (50%) had an elevated sNGAL concentration. Of these, 13 were randomised to receive sodium bicarbonate and 12 to receive sodium chloride infusion. Study drugs were infused for a mean period of 25.9 hours (SD, 10 hours). Severe electrolyte abnormalities occurred in seven patients (28%) (four [30.8%] in the treatment group and three [25%] in the placebo group). These abnormalities resulted in early protocol cessation in six patients (24%) and study drug suspension in one patient (4%). This adverse event rate was judged to be unacceptable and the study was terminated early. There was no difference between the two groups in sNGAL or urinary NGAL concentrations over time, occurrence of acute kidney injury, requirement for renal replacement therapy, hospital length-of-stay or mortality. CONCLUSION: Administration of sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride solutions to patients at risk of s-AKI was associated with frequent major electrolyte abnormalities and early protocol cessation. The tested protocol does not appear safe or feasible.

Schneider AG; Bellomo R; Reade M; Peck L; Young H; Eastwood GM; Garcia M; Moore E; Harley N

2013-06-01

107

Influence of sodium bicarbonate on performance and hydration in lightweight rowing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on prerace hydration status and on 2000 m ergometer performance in elite lightweight rowers was examined using a randomized, cross-over, double-blinded design. METHODS: To simulate body mass (BM) management strategies common to lightweight rowing, oarsmen reduced BM by approx. 4% in the 24 h preceding the trials, and, in the 2 h before performance, undertook nutritional recovery consisting of mean 43.2 kJ/kg, 2.2 g of CHO per kilogram, 31.8 mg of Na+ per kilogram, 24.3 mL of H2O per kilogram, and NaHCO3 (0.3 g of NaHCO3 per kilogram BM) or placebo (PL; 0.15 g of corn flour per kilogram BM) at 70 to 90 min before racing. RESULTS: At 25 min before performance, NaHCO3 had increased blood pH (7.48 ± 0.02 vs PL: 7.41 ± 0.03, P = .005) and bicarbonate concentrations (29.1 ± 1.8 vs PL: 23.9 ± 1.6 mmol/L, P < .001), whereas BM, urine specific gravity, and plasma volume changes were similar between trials. Rowing ergometer times were similar between trials (NaHCO3: 397.8 ± 12.6; PL: 398.6 ± 13.8 s, P = .417), whereas posttest bicarbonate (11.6 ± 2.3 vs 9.4 ± 1.8 mmol/L, P = .003) and lactate concentration increases (13.4 ± 1.7 vs 11.9 ± 1.9 mmol/L, P = .001) were greater with NaHCO3. CONCLUSION: Sodium bicarbonate did not further enhance rehydration or performance in lightweight rowers when undertaking recommended post-weigh-in nutritional recovery strategies.

Kupcis PD; Slater GJ; Pruscino CL; Kemp JG

2012-03-01

108

Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm-3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of Co-60 gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the gamma-radiolysis, G(HCOO-) = 2.2, is due to the reaction COO- + HCO3- reversible HCOO- + CO3-. The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO- + CO3- is particularly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained gives k(COO- + HCO3-) = (2 +/- 0.4) x 10(3) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(COO- + CO3-) = (5 +/- 1) x 10(7) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(NH2 + HCO3-) < 10(4) dm3 mol-1 s-1, and k(NH2 + CO3-) = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(9) dm3 mol-1 s-1.

Draganic, Z.D.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.

1991-01-01

109

Exhaust gas purification with sodium bicarbonate. Analysis and evaluation; Abgasreinigung mit Natriumhydrogencarbonat. Analyse und Bewertung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dry exhaust gas cleaning uses sodium bicarbonate in order to absorb acid components of exhaust gases such as sulphur dioxide or hydrochloric acid. Recently, sodium and calcium based adsorbents are compared with respect to their economic and ecologic options. None of the investigations performed considered decidedly practical experiences from the system operation such as differences in the management, availability, personnel expenditure and maintenance expenditure. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on exhaust gas cleaning systems using sodium carbonate as well as lime adsorbents. The operators of these exhaust gas cleaning systems were questioned on their experiences, and all relevant operational data (consumption of additives, consumption of energy, emissions, standstill, maintenance effort) were recorded and evaluated at a very detailed level.

Quicker, Peter; Rotheut, Martin; Schulten, Marc [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Technologie der Energierohstoffe (TEER); Athmann, Uwe [dezentec ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Essen (Germany)

2013-03-01

110

[The use of sodium bicarbonate in stages in treating hypoperfusion induced lactic acidemia in septic shock].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To explore the use of sodium bicarbonate in stages in treating hypoperfusion induced lactic acidemia due to septic shock. METHODS: In this prospective randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial, a total of 65 patients of hypoperfusion induced lactic acidemia due to septic shock admitted between April 2006 and April 2010 were assigned to two groups. Thirty-five patients of "stage" group sodium bicarbonate was used in two stages: in first stage sodium bicarbonate was given by venous drip until pH?7.15, and in second stage sodium bicarbonate was given by intravenous drip till pH?7.25 after 6 hours. Thirty patients in control group intravenous drip of sodium bicarbonate was used till pH?7.15. Early goal-directed therapy(EGDT) was used in the first 6 hours of fluid resuscitation. The number of dysfunction organ, time of mechanical ventilation, maximum sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, delta SOFA score, durations of stay in intensive care unit (ICU) and in hospital, and mortality were recorded in two groups. Blood gas analysis and index of hemodynamics were monitored at 0 hour and 8 hours in both groups. RESULTS: Compared with control group, "stage" group was associated with a lower number of dysfunction organ, time of mechanical ventilation, maximum SOFA score, delta SOFA score, durations of stay in ICU and in hospital, and mortality (number of dysfunction organ: 2.68±0.79 vs. 3.28±0.80, time of mechanical ventilation: 10.32±2.26 days vs. 13.80±2.56 days, maximum SOFA score: 11.01±2.26 vs. 13.11±2.26, delta SOFA score: 1.71±1.25 vs. 3.43±1.27, duration of stay in ICU: 14.0±3.6 days vs. 20.0±3.7 days, duration of stay in hospital: 28.3±12.9 days vs. 41.9±13.2 days, mortality: 34.28% vs. 60.00%, P<0.05 or P<0.01). There were no significant differences in blood gas analysis and index of hemodynamics at 0 hour, and they were improved at 8 hours. Compared with control group, in "stage" group, lactic acid (Lac) was significantly lowered (1.50±1.08 mmol/L vs. 2.93±1.09 mmol/L), and pH, mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER), cardiac index (CI), oxygen delivery (DO2) were significantly increased (pH:7.29±0.05 vs. 7.20±0.05, SvO2: 0.75±0.18 vs. 0.66±0.17, O2ER: 0.32±0.06 vs. 0.25±0.06, CI: 113.36±13.34 ml×s(-1)×m(-2) vs. 83.35±13.34 ml×s(-1)×m(-2), DO2: 840±170 ml×min(-1)×m(-2) vs. 630±171 ml×min(-1)×m(-2), all P<0.01). CONCLUSION: The use of sodium bicarbonate in stages in treating hypoperfusion induced lactic acidemia as a result of septic shock can lower the occurrence rate of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, time of mechanical ventilation, durations of stay in ICU and in hospital, and mortality.

Chen XF; Ye JL; Zhu ZY

2013-01-01

111

Effect of orally administered sodium bicarbonate on caecal pH.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Caecal acidosis is a central event in the metabolic cascade that occurs following grain overload. Buffering the caecal acidosis by enterally administered sodium bicarbonate may be beneficial to affected horses. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect and duration of enterally administered sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 ) on caecal pH in healthy horses. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study using horses with caecal cannulas METHODS: Nine horses previously fitted with a caecal cannula. Six horses received 1.0 g/kg bwt NaHCO3 via nasogastric tube and 3 control horses were given 3 l of water via nasogastric tube. Clinical parameters, water consumption, venous blood gases, caecal pH, faecal pH and faecal water content were measured at 6 h intervals over a 36 h study period. RESULTS: Horses that received enterally administered NaHCO3 had significantly increased caecal pH that lasted the duration of the study. Treated horses increased their water intake, developed metabolic alkalemia, significantly increased plasma sodium concentrations and significantly decreased plasma potassium concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Enterally administered NaHCO3 may be beneficial in buffering the caecal acidosis.

Taylor EA; Beard WL; Douthit T; Pohlman L

2013-06-01

112

Sodium bicarbonate injection: a small-plant SO sub 2 /NO sub x option  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sodium bicarbonate injection process provides a cost effective alternative to flue gas desulfurization for smaller power plants. EPRI and NaTec Resources have been conducting demonstrations on coal-fired utility boilers. 90% SO{sub 2} reduction was achieved in EPRI's High-Sulfur Test Centre 4 MW pilot HYPAS installation near Barker, NY. During 1990 Public Service Company of Colorado and NaTec completed a two-phase commercial demonstration for continuous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} control on Cherokee Unit 1 to determine levels of urea and injection locations for urea and sodium bicarbonate to minimise NO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} emissions while maintaining a high level of SO{sub 2} reduction. Methods for sodium sulphate by-product recovery/sale are described - these are higher value than those from the limestone process. Costs for the whole process, driven by sorbent costs, work out typically for a dry sorbent injection/HYPAS system at $610/ton SO{sub 2} removed. 11 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Darmstaedter, E. (NaTec Resources Inc. (USA). Environmental Systems Division)

1990-12-01

113

A case of near-fatal flecainide overdose in a neonate successfully treated with sodium bicarbonate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Flecainide is a class IC antidysrhythmic primarily indicated for ventricular dysrhythmias and supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). Class IC antidysrhythmic overdose has a reported mortality of 22%, and death results from dysrhythmias and cardiovascular collapse. We report a near-fatal flecainide overdose in an 18-day-old treated successfully with sodium bicarbonate. CASE REPORT: An 18-day-old, 2 weeks premature, 4-kg boy developed persistently high heart rates (220-240 beats/min) and electrocardiographic changes consistent with SVT. There was minimal response to vagal maneuvers, adenosine, and esmolol, and a transthoracic echocardiogram showed no underlying structural abnormality. The patient was then started on flecainide 4 mg orally every 8 h (Q8h). After the fourth dose he developed lethargy, cold clammy skin, and a heart rate of 40 beats/min with no palpable pulse. The patient was given 0.1 mg of atropine intravenously, with an increase of the heart rate to 160 beats/min. The child's cardiac monitor revealed a wide-complex tachycardia with left bundle branch morphology, with associated pallor and poor capillary refill. Sodium bicarbonate was administered intravenously due to suspected flecainide toxicity. Approximately 5 min after intravenous administration of 10 mEq of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate twice, his rhythm converted to a narrow-complex tachycardia. A serum flecainide concentration was 1360 ?g/L (therapeutic, 200-1000 ?g/L) drawn 1 h before the cardiac arrest. It was later discovered that a twofold dosing error occurred: the patient received 8 mg Q8h instead of 4 mg Q8h for four doses. CONCLUSION: Flecainide toxicity in children is rare, especially in neonates. It is important for clinicians to be able to identify and treat this uncommon poisoning.

Jang DH; Hoffman RS; Nelson LS

2013-04-01

114

Effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on the cariogenic microbiota  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on salivary counting of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in 32 children ranging from 7 to 10 years of age, has been assessed. Whole stimulated saliva was collected before the prophylaxis, immediately after it and 30 days later, and the number of CFU/ml in the saliva was detected through the Caritest system. A statistically significant immediate decrease on salivary levels of both microorganisms was observed, 50% for mutans streptococci and 27% for lactobacilli. For mutans streptococci this decrease continued through the 30 days period; the same did not occur with lactobacilli, that returned to their baseline values.

LANZA Célia Regina Moreira; LIMA José Eduardo de Oliveira; TORRES Sergio Aparecido; MACHADO Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira

2000-01-01

115

Geochemistry of fly ash from desulphurisation process performed by sodium bicarbonate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The application of NEUTREC {sup registered} technology - desulphurisation by means of sodium bicarbonate - has been tested at the Trebovice coal-fired power plant (Ostrava, Czech Republic). This technology significantly influences the chemical composition of fly ash and the leachability of total dissolved substances (TDS), e.g., sulphates, fluorides and oxyanions (Se, Sb, Cr, As), which are monitored according to the Council of the European Union Decision 2003/33/EC. An increase of TDS in the water leachate from the fly ash obtained at 60% desulphurisation was influenced by sodium content, which is present in the form of Na{sup +} ions (85-90%). The percentages of sodium sulphate and sodium carbonate were between 5 and 10% of the total sodium content. In order to decrease the leachability of TDS, sodium, sulphates and oxyanion mixtures were prepared containing a sorbent (60% bentonite) and mixed with desulphurised and non-desulphurised fly ash in various ratios. The addition of CaO resulted in the formation of a new mineral phase, burkeite. None of the applied technologies tested for the processed fly ash resulted in the preparation of a water leachate which complied in all monitored parameters to the requirements of Council Decision 2003/33 EC for nonhazardous wastes. (author)

Raclavska, Helena; Matysek, Dalibor; Raclavsky, Konstantin; Juchelkova, Dagmar [VSB - Technical University Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava, Poruba (Czech Republic)

2010-02-15

116

Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC) started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction) of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in association with sodium bicarbonate salt, a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) substance. The yeast was able to survive at different concentrations of the salt (1%, 2% and 5%), and continued to grow for a week at the wound site, remaining viable at high population for 14 days on the fruit surface. The yeast alone reduced the severity of decay by 41.7% and sodium bicarbonate alone reduced severity of decay by 19.8%, whereas the application of both led to a delay in the development of symptoms from 2 to 10 days. Ingredients of the formulations were not aggressive to fruits since no lesions were produced in control experiments.

R. S. Pimenta; J. F. M. Silva; C. M. Coelho; P. B. Morais; C. A. Rosa; A. Corrêa Jr

2010-01-01

117

Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC) started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction) of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegen (more) sis was tested in association with sodium bicarbonate salt, a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) substance. The yeast was able to survive at different concentrations of the salt (1%, 2% and 5%), and continued to grow for a week at the wound site, remaining viable at high population for 14 days on the fruit surface. The yeast alone reduced the severity of decay by 41.7% and sodium bicarbonate alone reduced severity of decay by 19.8%, whereas the application of both led to a delay in the development of symptoms from 2 to 10 days. Ingredients of the formulations were not aggressive to fruits since no lesions were produced in control experiments.

Pimenta, R. S.; Silva, J. F. M.; Coelho, C. M.; Morais, P. B.; Rosa, C. A.; Corrêa Jr, A.

2010-06-01

118

Quantitative analysis of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate in solid mixtures using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An analytical methodology is proposed based on constant ratio and absorbance correction methods to quantify sodium carbonate, Na?CO? (1450 cm?¹), and sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO? (1000 cm?¹, 1923 cm?¹), in solid mixtures using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Potassium ferricyanide, K?Fe(CN)? (2117cm?¹), was used as an internal standard to get characteristic parameters. NaHCO? was quantified using the constant ratio method. Spectral interference of NaHCO? in Na?CO? (1450 cm?¹) was corrected using the absorbance correction method. The corrected absorbance was successfully applied to quantify Na?CO? (1450 cm?¹) in the mixture using the constant ratio method. The results obtained for simulated samples were satisfactory (relative standard deviation less than 7%) for all samples.

Joshi S; Kalyanasundaram S; Balasubramanian V

2013-08-01

119

Exclusion of dietary sodium bicarbonate from a wheat-based diet: effects on milk production and ruminal fermentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Milk production, rumen fermentation, and whole-tract apparent nutrient digestibility in response to feeding 20% steam-rolled wheat with or without sodium bicarbonate were evaluated in 12 Holstein cows averaging 165±16 DIM. Cows were fed 1 of 2 isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing either 0 or 0.75% sodium bicarbonate on a DM basis for 21 d in a crossover design. Rumen fluid samples were obtained 18 times during the last 2 d of each period, and fecal samples were collected on 12 occasions from d 18 to 21 of each period. Removal of sodium bicarbonate from the diet did not affect DMI (21.0 kg/d), yields of milk (30.8 kg/d), or milk components (1.16, 1.01, and 1.40 kg/d for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively). Whole-tract apparent digestibility of DM, CP, ADF, and NDF did not differ between the 2 treatments (75.3, 76.6, 67.2, and 63.6%, respectively). The mean rumen pH was 6.24 and was not affected by excluding sodium bicarbonate from the diet. Rumen NH3-N (12.31 mg/dL) and lactic acid (3.63 mM) concentrations were not different, whereas total volatile fatty acids concentration tended to increase when sodium bicarbonate was present in the diet (110 vs. 116 mM). However, average concentrations of the individual volatile fatty acids, as a proportion of total volatile fatty acids, were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, dairy cow diets can include up to 20% steam-rolled wheat without the need for added sodium bicarbonate as long as the diets are formulated to meet the fiber requirements of the cow. PMID:21183047

Doepel, L; Hayirli, A

2011-01-01

120

Exclusion of dietary sodium bicarbonate from a wheat-based diet: effects on milk production and ruminal fermentation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Milk production, rumen fermentation, and whole-tract apparent nutrient digestibility in response to feeding 20% steam-rolled wheat with or without sodium bicarbonate were evaluated in 12 Holstein cows averaging 165±16 DIM. Cows were fed 1 of 2 isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing either 0 or 0.75% sodium bicarbonate on a DM basis for 21 d in a crossover design. Rumen fluid samples were obtained 18 times during the last 2 d of each period, and fecal samples were collected on 12 occasions from d 18 to 21 of each period. Removal of sodium bicarbonate from the diet did not affect DMI (21.0 kg/d), yields of milk (30.8 kg/d), or milk components (1.16, 1.01, and 1.40 kg/d for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively). Whole-tract apparent digestibility of DM, CP, ADF, and NDF did not differ between the 2 treatments (75.3, 76.6, 67.2, and 63.6%, respectively). The mean rumen pH was 6.24 and was not affected by excluding sodium bicarbonate from the diet. Rumen NH3-N (12.31 mg/dL) and lactic acid (3.63 mM) concentrations were not different, whereas total volatile fatty acids concentration tended to increase when sodium bicarbonate was present in the diet (110 vs. 116 mM). However, average concentrations of the individual volatile fatty acids, as a proportion of total volatile fatty acids, were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, dairy cow diets can include up to 20% steam-rolled wheat without the need for added sodium bicarbonate as long as the diets are formulated to meet the fiber requirements of the cow.

Doepel L; Hayirli A

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effect of ?-alanine plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: We examined the effect of ?-alanine supplementation plus sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity cycling capacity. METHODS: Twenty males (age = 25 ± 5 yr, height = 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass = 80.0 ± 10.3 kg) were assigned to either a placebo (P) or a ?-alanine (BA; 6.4 g·d(-1) for 4 wk) group based on power max, completing four cycling capacity tests at 110% of power max (CCT110%) to determine time to exhaustion (TTE) and total work done. A CCT(110%) was performed twice (habituation and baseline) before supplementation (with maltodextrin [MD]) and twice after supplementation (with MD and with sodium bicarbonate [SB]), using a crossover design with 2 d of rest between trials, creating four study conditions (PMD, PSB, BAMD, and BASB). Blood pH, Lactate, bicarbonate and base excess were determined at baseline, before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 5 min after exercise. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS: TTE was increased in all conditions after supplementation (+1.6% PMD, +6.5% PSB, +12.1% BAMD, and +16.2% BASB). Both BAMD and BASB resulted in significantly improved TTE compared with that before supplementation (P ? 0.01). Although further increases in TTE (4.1%) were shown in BASB compared with BAMD, these differences were not significant (P = 0.74). Differences in total work done were similar to those of TTE. Blood bicarbonate concentrations were significantly (P ? 0.001) elevated before exercise in PSB and BASB but not in PMD or BAMD. Blood lactate concentrations were significantly elevated after exercise, remaining elevated after 5 min of recovery (P ? 0.001) and were highest in PSB and BASB. CONCLUSIONS: Results show that BA improved high-intensity cycling capacity. However, despite a 6-s (?4%) increase in TTE with the addition of SB, this did not reach statistical significance, but magnitude-based inferences suggested a ?70% probability of a meaningful positive difference.

Sale C; Saunders B; Hudson S; Wise JA; Harris RC; Sunderland CD

2011-10-01

122

A model for dry sodium bicarbonate duct injection flue gas desulfurization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical model is developed for simulation of dry sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) duct injection for the removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in flue gases across a fabric filter (baghouse). The model employs parallel reaction kinetics and assumes that the sodium bicarbonate injection process can be separated into two stages. The first stage is a transport duct section where NaHCO{sub 3} particles are injected into the sulfur dioxide laden gas stream. The second stage is the fabric filter section where sodium sorbents are collected and behave as a variable depth fixed bed reactor. The process simulation for the efficiency of desulfurization in flue gas is performed and evaluated for a variety of operating conditions. It is found that the removal of SO{sub 2} within the duct section is small and negligible for most practical conditions, with a contribution normally less than 5% of total SO{sub 2} removal. The major removal of SO{sub 2} occurs across the filter cake, which accumulates the sorbent particles on the fabric filter. These particles are periodically disposed as the filter is cleaned. The major factors for the process are temperature, particle size and SO{sub 2} gas concentration for all operating conditions. At low temperatures, the removal of SO{sub 2} increases as temperature increases, but the removal decreases at higher temperatures due to the impact of the thermal decomposition reaction of NaHCO{sub 3} on SO{sub 2} removal. It was found that the temperature for the highest removal of SO{sub 2} is within the range of 127-150{sup o}C and the removal efficiency also depends on particle size.

Changfa Wu; Soon-Jai Khang; Tim C. Keener; Sang-Kwun Lee [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

2004-03-01

123

Comparison of surface area changes during sulfation of sodium bicarbonate in a simulated flue gas with and without NO  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium bicarbonate has been identified as one of the most efficient reagents for flue gas desulfurization. Sodium bicarbonate has been demonstrated both in bench scale and large scale applications by a number of researchers globally. Scattered reporting of plume discolouration during demonstrations of sodium bicarbonate injection have been attributed to the formation of the reddish-brown gas NO{sub 2}. The purpose of this study was to compare the surface area changes of sodium bicarbonate during flue gas desulfurization as it relates to the formation of NO{sub 2} The results of this study have indicated an anomolous behaviour with respect to previously published data for non reactive gas environments. Notably it was shown that flue gas with NO lowered the surface area, most likely due to the formation of a low melting eutectic of sodium nitrate and sulphate. Nitrogen uptake was found to coincide with water evolution from decomposition. The results of this study more clearly define, on the microstructural level, the sulphur uptake mode. A unique laboratory differential fixed bed reactor was designed for this study. The setup included a quick quench zone to quench the reactions for data acquisition. BET surface area, IR elemental analysis, XRD crystallographic identification and SEM imaging were used to characterize microstructural mechanisms and to confirm reaction paths. 4 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Weil, A.E.; Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1994-12-31

124

Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [40 ng 1,25(OH)2D3/day]. Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH)2D3 increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH)2D3. Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal 45Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH)2D3 metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH)2D3, which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH)2D3 by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO3 supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans.

1984-01-01

125

Characterization of physical, thermal and chemical contributions of sodium bicarbonate particles in extinguishing counterflow nonpremixed flames  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on laminar, nonpremixed methane-air flames established in a counterflow field, the flame extinction effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate particles is investigated here, both experimentally and numerically. In experiments, particles are separated into varying sizes (with the range of each size group approximately 10 {micro}m), and are introduced with the air stream. Flame extinction strain rates estimated using the measured nozzle exit velocities and separation distance are reported, as well as limited comparisons with LDV data (latter are mainly for calibration of the system). Numerical flame extinction results are also reported using a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian model previously developed for characterization of the flame extinction mechanism of fine-water droplets in a counterflow field. Comparison of the experimental and numerical results indicates a similar trend with particular size variation, but uncertainties in the particle decomposition model employed precludes any absolute comparisons at this time.

Chelliah, H.K.; Krauss, R.H.; Zhou, H.; Lentati, A.M.

1999-07-01

126

Influence of mixing and solid concentration on sodium bicarbonate secondary nucleation rate in stirred tank  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work aims to investigate the influence of the solid concentration in suspension on the contact secondary nucleation rate of sodium bicarbonate crystallization in a stirred tank crystallizer and to show the necessity of a local description of the mixing for a nucleation rate influence study. Experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are realized. Crystallization kinetic parameters are extracted from experimental data using a mass distribution fitting approach. CFD and the experimental results allow identifying that a mixing property correlated with the measurements of the secondary nucleation rate in the stirred tank crystallizer appears to be the turbulent dissipation rate on the edge of the impeller. Its influence and the influence of the solid concentration in the suspension on the secondary nucleation rate are estimated by the evaluation of their exponents in a kinetic law. The obtained exponent values are then discussed qualitatively. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Wylock, C.; Debaste, F.; Haut, B. [Transfers, Interfaces and Processes - Chemical Engineering Unit, ULB, Brussels (Belgium); Gutierrez, V.; Delplancke-Ogletree, M.P. [Chemicals and Materials Department, ULB, Brussels (Belgium); Cartage, T. [Solvay SA, Brussels (Belgium)

2010-09-15

127

INTEGRATING HEAT TREATMENT, BIOCONTROL AND SODIUM BICARBONATE TO REDUCE POSTHARVEST DECAY OF APPLE CAUSED BY COLLETOTRICHUM ACUTATUM AND PENICILLIUM EXPANSUM  

Science.gov (United States)

'Golden Delicious' apples were wound inoculated with either Colletotrichum acutatum or Penicillium expansum then treated with heat (38 °C) for four days, sodium bicarbonate, and/or one of two heat tolerant biocontrol agents (yeasts). Following four months storage at 0°C, the apples were left at roo...

128

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on aspirin-induced damage and potential difference changes in human gastric mucosa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two aspirin tablets in 100 ml fluid will produce microscopical damage to the human stomach. A study was performed to determine whether a small amount of sodium bicarbonate (equivalent to one-third of a teaspoonful of baking soda) could protect against this damage. Sequential gastric biopsy specimens...

Bowen, Bruce K; Krause, William J; Ivey, Kevin J

129

Mutation of Aspartate 555 of the Sodium/Bicarbonate Transporter SLC4A4/NBCe1 Induces Chloride Transport*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To understand the mechanism for ion transport through the sodium/bicarbonate transporter SLC4A4 (NBCe1), we examined amino acid residues, within transmembrane domains, that are conserved among electrogenic Na/HCO3 transporters but are substituted with residues at the corresponding site of all electr...

Yang, Han Soo; Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Soojung; Park, Hae Jeong; Cooper, Deborah S.; Rajbhandari, Ira; Choi, Inyeong

130

Facilitated Lactate Transport by MCT1 when Coexpressed with the Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter (NBC) in Xenopus Oocytes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) and sodium-bicarbonate cotransporters (NBC) transport acid/base equivalents and coexist in many epithelial and glial cells. In nervous systems, the electroneutral MCT1 isoform cotransports lactate and other monocarboxylates with H+, and is believed to be involved i...

Becker, Holger M.; Bröer, Stefan; Deitmer, Joachim W.

131

Neuronal expression of sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) and its response to chronic metabolic acidosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) is an acid-base transporter that normally moves Na+ and HCO3? into the cell. This membrane protein is sensitive to cellular and systemic pH changes. We examined NBCn1 expression and localization in the brain and its response to chronic metabolic ac...

Park, Hae Jeong; Rajbhandari, Ira; Yang, Han Soo; Lee, Soojung; Cucoranu, Delia; Cooper, Deborah S.; Klein, Janet D.

132

Comparative in vitro evaluation of apheresis platelets stored with 100% plasma versus bicarbonated Ringer's solution with less than 5% plasma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The major strategy for reducing the frequency of adverse reactions to platelet (PLT) transfusions is PLT washing with PLT additive solutions (PASs). In Japan, a mixture of medical infusion solutions such as acetate Ringer's solution, sodium bicarbonate, magnesium sulfate, and ACD-A is currently used as a PAS because none of the common types of PASs are officially permitted for clinical use. Recently, a bicarbonated Ringer's solution (BRS) was developed using bicarbonate as an alkaline agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a BRS can effectively be utilized as a PAS for clinical use. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The washing and storage solution was prepared by adding 25 mL ACD-A to 500 mL of BRS (BRS-A), consisting of 95.2 mmol/L NaCl, 3.8 mmol/L KCl, 0.9 mmol/L MgCl2 ,1.4 mmol/L CaCl2 , 26.6 mmol/L NaHCO3 , 5.8 mmol/L glucose, 4.2 mmol/L trisodium citrate, and 1.8 mmol/L citric acid. The in vitro properties of apheresis PLTs suspended in BRS-A with low concentration of plasma (<5%) were compared with those suspended in 100% plasma during 7-day storage. RESULTS: The in vitro properties of pH, hypotonic shock response, glucose consumption rate, lactate production rate, swirling, CD62P, and CD42b expression in PLTs suspended in BRS-A were comparable or superior to those suspended in 100% plasma during 7-day storage. CONCLUSION: BRS-A, prepared by mixing the only two solutions permitted for clinical use in Japan, has a positive capability to maintain PLT function. These results indicate that PLT washing and storage with BRS-A is feasible.

Oikawa S; Sasaki D; Kikuchi M; Sawamura Y; Itoh T

2013-03-01

133

Hypertonic sodium bicarbonate versus intravenous lipid emulsion in a rabbit model of intravenous flecainide toxicity: no difference, no sink.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: The use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) as an antidote in non-local, anaesthetic drug toxicity has generated considerable interest. Flecainide is a lipophilic anti-arrhythmic with a significant cardiotoxic profile, with blockade of sodium and potassium channels causing arrhythmias and shock in severe toxicity. ILE has been proposed as a treatment option in severe flecainide toxicity refractory to other modalities. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of ILE and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate in a rabbit model of flecainide toxicity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty sedated and ventilated New Zealand White Rabbits received flecainide infusion titrated to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 60% baseline, which was defined as toxicity. The rabbits then received either sodium bicarbonate or ILE, and the flecainide infusion was reduced in an attempt to model ongoing enteric absorption. MAP and heart rate were recorded every minute for 15 min and plasma flecainide concentration was measured at toxicity and 15 min. ECG QRS duration was recorded at baseline, toxicity and at 5, 10 and 15 min post-toxicity. RESULTS: No difference was observed in heart rate (p = 0.2804), MAP (p = 0.1802) or QRS duration (p = 0.7471) between groups. The immediate rate of rise in MAP was greatest in the bicarbonate group in the 5 min immediately post-toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, no differences were observed between an active control of hypertonic sodium bicarbonate and ILE for the primary endpoint of MAP at 15 min nor for QRS duration at any timepoint. There was a transient rapid increase in blood pressure seen in the sodium bicarbonate group that was not sustained. No increase was seen in blood concentration of flecainide in the ILE group, suggesting no 'lipid sink' for flecainide in this model. More research is warranted to define any role for ILE in flecainide toxicity.

Cave G; Harvey M; Quinn P; Heys D

2013-06-01

134

The effect of sodium bicarbonate upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of oral sodium bicarbonate (NaBic) supplementation upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers (CSFs). METHODS: Sixteen adult calcium stone formers with hypocitraturia were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover protocol using 60 mEq/day of NaBic during 3 days compared to the same period and doses of potassium citrate (KCit) supplementation. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and during the third day of each alkali salt. RESULTS: NaBic, similarly to KCit supplementation, led to an equivalent and significant increase in urinary citrate and pH. Compared to baseline, NaBic led to a significant increase in sodium excretion without concomitant increases in urinary calcium excretion, whereas KCit induced a significant increase in potassium excretion coupled with a significant reduction in urinary calcium. Although NaBic and KCit both reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation (CaOxSS) significantly vs baseline, KCit reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation significantly further vs NaBic. Both KCit and NaBic significantly reduced urinary phosphate and increased calcium phosphate supersaturation (CaPSS) compared to baseline. Finally, a significantly higher sodium urate supersaturation (NaUrSS) was observed after the use of the 2 drugs. CONCLUSION: This short-term study suggests that NaBic represents an effective alternative for the treatment of hypocitraturic calcium oxalate stone formers who cannot tolerate or afford the cost of KCit. In view of the increased sodium urate supersaturation, patients with pure uric acid stones and high urate excretion may be less suited for treatment with NaBic.

Pinheiro VB; Baxmann AC; Tiselius HG; Heilberg IP

2013-07-01

135

Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2), with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). METHODS: In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodium-rich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW) with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY). RESULTS: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p < 0.0001). Insulin concentrations showed a significant time effect (p < 0.0001) and a significant water x time interaction (p < 0.021). At 120 min insulin levels with BMW-1 were significantly lower than with LMW (p = 0.022). Postprandial insulin concentrations showed significantly different patterns of mineral water intake depending on HOMA n-tiles (p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Results suggests an increase in insulin sensitivity after BMWs consumption. This effect is more marked in the women, who have higher HOMA values. These waters should be considered part of a healthy diet in order to prevent insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease.

Schoppen S; Sánchez-Muniz FJ; Pérez-Granados M; Gómez-Gerique JA; Sarriá B; Navas-Carretero S; Pilar Vaquero M

2007-09-01

136

The effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on high intensity cycling capacity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ten healthy, non-cycling trained males (age: 21.2 ± 2.2 years, body mass: 75.9 ± 13.4 kg, height: 178 ± 6 cm, [Vdot]O2PEAK: 46 ± 10 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, two familiarisation trials and six experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion at 100%, 110% and 120% WPEAK, 60 min after ingesting either 0.3 g · kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or 0.1 g · kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (placebo). NaHCO3 ingestion increased cycling capacity by 17% at 100% WPEAK (327 vs. 383 s; P = 0.02) although not at 110% WPEAK (249 vs. 254 s; P = 0.66) or 120% WPEAK (170 vs. 175 s; P = 0.60; placebo and NaHCO3 respectively). Heart rate (P = 0.02), blood lactate (P = 0.001), pH (P < 0.001), [HCO3 (-)], (P < 0.001), and base excess (P < 0.001) were greater in all NaHCO3 trials. NaHCO3 attenuated localised ratings of perceived exertion (RPEL) to a greater extent than placebo only at 100% WPEAK (P < 0.02). Ratings of abdominal discomfort and gut fullness were mild but higher for NaHCO3. NaHCO3 ingestion significantly improves continuous constant load cycling at 100% WPEAK due to, in part, attenuation of RPEL.

Higgins MF; James RS; Price MJ

2013-01-01

137

Multiple effects of swelling by sodium bicarbonate after delignification on enzymatic saccharification of rice straw.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The multiple effects of pretreatments by chemical delignification using acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and swelling using sodium bicarbonate (SB) for enzymatic saccharification of rice straw in bioethanol production have been investigated in this study. The treatment with the combination of ASC three times (3× ASC) first and SB later resulted in the significant reduction in Klason lignin content up to 90% (wt./wt.). By the saccharification of the pretreated rice straw with cellulase enzymes, it was confirmed that SB treatment was an important step in the pretreatment process not only to disintegrate the cellulose structure but also to facilitate the amorphization of the crystalline cellulose as well as the extended removal of integrated lignin. Furthermore, FTIR analyses revealed that the crystal type of cellulose appeared to be changed from type I to type II by SB treatment, thereby increasing the cellulose surface area and making it more accessible to the cellulase enzyme. Conversion rate to sugar was remarkably increased when 3× ASC + SB treatments were applied to untreated rice straw, even though the saccharification of the treated rice straw was performed at a low enzyme loading (1/100, wt.-enzymes/wt.-substrate). Conclusively, rice straw could be saccharified at high yield in short time at low cellulase loading, enables the enzymatic saccharification to be more feasible for practical bioethanol production using rice straw as a substrate.

Kahar P; Taku K; Tanaka S

2013-07-01

138

The physiological stress response to high-intensity sprint exercise following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-exercise alkalosis on the physiological stress response to high-intensity exercise. Seven physically active males (age 22 ± 3 years, height 1.82 ± 0.06 m, mass 81.3 ± 8.4 kg and peak power output 300 ± 22 W) performed a repeated sprint cycle exercise following a dose of 0.3 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) (BICARB), or a placebo of 0.045 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium chloride (PLAC). Monocyte-expressed heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly attenuated in BICARB compared to PLAC (p = 0.04 and p = 0.039, respectively), however total anti-oxidant capacity, the ratio of oxidised to total glutathione, cortisol, interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 were not significantly induced by the exercise. In conclusion, monocyte-expressed HSP72 is significantly increased following high-intensity anaerobic exercise, and its attenuation following such exercise with the ingestion of NaHCO(3) is unlikely to be due to a decreased oxidative stress.

Peart DJ; Kirk RJ; Hillman AR; Madden LA; Siegler JC; Vince RV

2013-01-01

139

Investigation of the chemical pathway of gaseous nitrogen dioxide formation during flue gas desulfurization with dry sodium bicarbonate injection  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical reaction pathway for the viable flue gas desulfurization process, dry sodium bicarbonate injection, was investigated to mitigate undesirable plume discoloration. Based on a foundation of past findings, a simplified three-step reaction pathway was hypothesized for the formation of the plume-discoloring constituent, NO2. As the first step, it was hypothesized that sodium sulfite formed by sodium bicarbonate reaction with flue gas SO 2. As the second step, it was hypothesized that sodium nitrate formed by sodium sulfite reaction with flue gas NO. And as the third step, it was hypothesized that NO2 and sodium sulfate formed by sodium nitrate reaction with SO2. The second and third hypothesized steps were experimentally investigated using an isothermal fixed bed reactor. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium sulfite was found to be un-reactive with NO and O2. Freshly prepared sodium sulfite, maintained unexposed to moist air, was shown to react with NO and O2 resulting in a mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate together with a significant temperature rise. This reaction was found to proceed only when oxygen was present in the flue gas. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium nitrate was shown to be un-reactive with SO2. But freshly formed sodium nitrate kept unexposed to humidity was found to be reactive with SO2 and O 2 resulting in the formation of NO2 and sodium sulfate polymorphic Form I. The NO2 formation by this reaction was shown to be temperature dependent with maximum formation at 175°C. Plume mitigation methods were studied based on the validated three-step reaction pathway. Mitigation of NO2 was exhibited by limiting oxygen concentration in the flue gas to a level below 5%. It was also shown that significant NO2 mitigation was achieved by operating below 110°C or above 250°C. An innovative NO2 mitigation method was patented as a result of the findings of this study. The patented process incorporated a process step of sodium sulfite injection to remove flue gas NO prior to sodium bicarbonate injection.

Stein, Antoinette Weil

140

Bicarbonate-based peritoneal dialysis solution has less effect on ingestive behavior than lactate-based peritoneal dialysis solution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The anorexia seen in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients may be due partially to factors of dialysis solutions, such as pH and buffering agent. We tested the effects of different PD solutions in an experimental rat model for appetite. DESIGN: The intraoral intake of a sucrose solution from an implanted intraoral cannula in freely moving male Wistar rats was used to evaluate appetite at 30 minutes and 120 minutes after intraperitoneal (IP) infusion of bicarbonate (25 mmol/L)/lactate (15 mmol/L)-based PD solution (P) and conventional lactate (40 mmol/L)-based PD solution (D) with different concentrations of glucose. We also tested different buffer solutions containing lactate and bicarbonate with different pH but with no glucose. RESULTS: The IP infusion as such and the 30 mL volume did not inhibit appetite; however, appetite was significantly less inhibited by P than by D in the 1.36%, 2.27%, and 3.86% solutions (p < 0.05). Furthermore, intraoral intake was significantly higher in rats receiving IP solution with bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.4) than with lactate buffer (p < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in intraoral intake for lactate with pH 5.5, pH 6.6, or pH 7.4. CONCLUSIONS: The bicarbonate/lactate solution inhibited appetite less than the lactate solution; this was due partially to the use of bicarbonate. The results show possible benefit on appetite of reducing the lactate concentration in PD solutions.

Zheng ZH; Anderstam B; Yu X; Qureshi AR; Heimbürger O; Lindholm B

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Influence of bicarbonate on the sensitivity of renin release to sodium chloride  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Juxtaglomerular cells in vitro are sensitive to changes in osmolality, but it is unknown whether volume-regulatory changes in cellular ion fluxes are important for the renin secretory process. The sensitivity of renin release to increases in osmolality by NaCl was therefore tested on superfused rat glomeruli treated with bicarbonate/chloride exchange inhibitor (DNDS), NaCl/KCl cotransport inhibitor (bumetanide), or Na+/H+ antiport inhibitor (amiloride) in the presence or absence of bicarbonate. In addition, the sensitivity to increases in osmolality by addition of sucrose was tested in the presence or absence of bicarbonate. Renin release from time controls superfused with a bicarbonate-free Ringer was identical to release from glomeruli superfused with a bicarbonate Ringer. DNDS (0.11 or 1.1 mM) had no effect on renin release in a bicarbonate Ringer. 30 mM sucrose inhibited renin release independently of bicarbonate. 15 mM NaCl stimulated renin release when bicarbonate was absent, while it caused an inhibition in the presence of bicarbonate. When bicarbonate/chloride exchange was inhibited, addition of NaCl stimulated renin release even when bicarbonate was present. The effect of NaCl on renin release was not affected by amiloride (1 mM) or bumetanide (10 microM). Thus, volume regulatory mechanisms as known from other cells are not involved in the renin secretory response to small increases in NaCl concentration. Furthermore, the sensitivity of renin release to changes in NaCl concentrations is modulated by bicarbonate in a way that depends on a functioning anion-exchange mechanism. The results are compatible with the existence in the membrane of the secretory granule of a Cl-/HCO3- exchange mechanism which mediates exit of Cl-, and thereby attenuates granular swelling and exocytotic release.

SkØtt, O; Jensen, B L

1989-01-01

142

Optimization of sodium bicarbonate injection for acid scrubbing in hospital waste incineration plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optimization of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) injection for acid hydrochloric (HCl) scrubbing was conducted on a hospital waste incineration plant. The plant employs a rotary kiln system having burning capacity of 350 kg/h hospital waste (average calorific value of 17.4 MJ/kg) and is operated on a 24 hr/ day basis. Currently, NaHCO3 injection rate is 25 kg/h as recommended by manufacturer to meet the Department of Environment (DOE) standard emission limit of 200 mg/Nm3 HCl. Testing of HCl emission at various injection rates of 25, 20, 15 and 10 kg/ h results in HCl final concentration in the range of 0.58-7.13, 5.63-7.74, 0.07-2.99 and 3-28 mg/Nm3 respectively. The results showed that NaHCO3 injection rate as low as 10 kg/ h could still meet the HCl stipulated emission limit. Economic comparison between 25 and 10 kg/ h injection rates showed that total saving on NaHCO3 and disposal of fly ash was RM 22,000 per month (equivalent to saving RM 260,000 per year) when using 10 kg/ h injection rate. It was concluded from the study that optimum injection rate would not only save cost and reduce wastage but also reduce bag house loading rate and prolong the life span of filter bags. (author)

2010-01-01

143

Combination of Kluyveromyces marxianus and sodium bicarbonate for controlling green mold of citrus fruit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Biocontrol efficacy of an antagonistic yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus was evaluated individually or in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) against green mold of citrus fruit caused by Penicillium digitatum. Their effects on postharvest quality of citrus fruit were also investigated. The results indicated that the antagonistic activity of K. marxianus at 1×10? CFU/mL on green mold of citrus fruit was enhanced by 2% SBC treatment. In artificial inoculation trials, disease control after 3 and 6 days, respectively, with the mixture of K. marxianus and 2% SBC (18.33%, 58.33%) was significantly improved over that obtained with K. marxianus (41.67%, 70.00%) or SBC (43.33%, 81.67%) alone. The combination of K. marxianus with SBC was as effective as the imazalil treatment in natural infection trials, which gave about 90% control of green mold. Addition of 2% SBC significantly stimulated the growth of K. marxianus in citrus fruit wounds after 72 h. Moreover, K. marxianus, SBC and their combination did not impair quality parameters including weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid at 4 °C for 30 days followed by 20 °C for 15 days. These results suggested that the use of SBC is a useful approach to improve the efficacy of K. marxianus for the postharvest green mold of citrus fruit.

Geng P; Chen S; Hu M; Rizwan-Ul-Haq M; Lai K; Qu F; Zhang Y

2011-12-01

144

Repeated supra-maximal sprint cycling with and without sodium bicarbonate supplementation induces endothelial microparticle release.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Under normal homeostatic conditions, the endothelium releases microparticles (MPs), which are known to increase under stressful conditions and in disease states. CD105 (endoglin) and CD106 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) are expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and increased expression in response to stress may be observed. A randomised-controlled double-blinded study aimed to examine the use of endothelial MPs as a marker for the state of one's endothelium, as well as whether maintaining acid-base homeostasis affects the release of these MPs. This study tested seven healthy male volunteers, who completed a strenuous cycling protocol, with venous blood analysed for CD105+ and CD106+ MPs by flow cytometry at regular intervals. Prior to each trial participants consumed either 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or 0.045 g·kg(-1) body mass of sodium chloride (NaCl). A significant rise in endothelial CD105+ MPs and CD106+ MPs (p<0.05) was observed at 90 min post-exercise. A significant trend was shown for these MPs to return to resting levels 180 min post-exercise in both groups. No significance was found between experimental groups, suggesting that maintaining acid-base variables closer to basal levels has little effect upon the endothelial stress response for this particular exercise mode. In conclusion, strenuous exercise is accompanied by MP release and the endothelium is able to rapidly recover in healthy individuals, whilst maintaining acid-base homeostasis does not attenuate the MP release from the endothelium after exercise.

Kirk RJ; Peart DJ; Madden LA; Vince RV

2013-05-01

145

Effect of lactate supplementation and sodium bicarbonate on 40 km cycling time trial performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The use of nutritional supplements to improve sporting performance and increase training adaptations is commonplace amongst athletes and is an expanding market in terms of product choice and availability. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two ergogenic aids with extracellular blood buffering potential, namely sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and a lactate supplement, during a 40 km cycling time trial. Seven recreationally active males (age, 22.3 ± 3.3 years; height, 182.5 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 79.2 ± 6.3 kg) completed five 40 km cycling time trials, including a familiarization trial in a randomized blind double placebo design. Subjects ingested either 1.) 300 mg per kg body mass NaHCO3 (BICARB), 2.) 45 mg per kg sodium chloride (PL-BICARB) as the placebo for the NaHCO3 trial, 3.) 21.5 mg per kg body mass lactate supplement (LACTATE) and 4.) plain flour as the placebo for the lactate trial (PL-LACTATE) 60 minutes before exercise. There was no significant difference in performance between the four conditions (p> 0.05). Whilst NaHCO3 ingestion induced significant changes in all the acid-base variables (all p< 0.05), no significant change was seen following lactate ingestion (p> 0.05). Subjects in the LACTATE condition did have a significantly higher heart rate (p< 0.05) without experiencing any greater perceived exertion (p> 0.05) than the other three conditions. Neither NaHCO3 nor lactate supplementation appear to improve 40 km cycling time trial performance. However the potential benefits following LACTATE regarding perceived exertion require further research.

Northgraves MJ; Peart DJ; Jordan C; Vince RV

2013-05-01

146

Repeated supra-maximal sprint cycling with and without sodium bicarbonate supplementation induces endothelial microparticle release.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Under normal homeostatic conditions, the endothelium releases microparticles (MPs), which are known to increase under stressful conditions and in disease states. CD105 (endoglin) and CD106 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) are expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and increased expression in response to stress may be observed. A randomised-controlled double-blinded study aimed to examine the use of endothelial MPs as a marker for the state of one's endothelium, as well as whether maintaining acid-base homeostasis affects the release of these MPs. This study tested seven healthy male volunteers, who completed a strenuous cycling protocol, with venous blood analysed for CD105+ and CD106+ MPs by flow cytometry at regular intervals. Prior to each trial participants consumed either 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or 0.045 g·kg(-1) body mass of sodium chloride (NaCl). A significant rise in endothelial CD105+ MPs and CD106+ MPs (p<0.05) was observed at 90 min post-exercise. A significant trend was shown for these MPs to return to resting levels 180 min post-exercise in both groups. No significance was found between experimental groups, suggesting that maintaining acid-base variables closer to basal levels has little effect upon the endothelial stress response for this particular exercise mode. In conclusion, strenuous exercise is accompanied by MP release and the endothelium is able to rapidly recover in healthy individuals, whilst maintaining acid-base homeostasis does not attenuate the MP release from the endothelium after exercise. PMID:23679091

Kirk, Richard J; Peart, Daniel J; Madden, Leigh A; Vince, Rebecca V

2013-05-17

147

The role of sodium bicarbonate in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds  

Science.gov (United States)

It is proposed that a component of meteoric smoke, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), provides particularly effective condensation nuclei for noctilucent clouds. This assertion is based on three conditions being met. The first is that NaHCO3 is present at sufficient concentration (+/-104 cm-3) in the upper mesosphere between 80 and 90 km. It is demonstrated that there is strong evidence for this based on recent laboratory measurements coupled with atmospheric modelling. The second condition is that the thermodynamics of NaHCO3(H2O)n cluster formation allow spontaneous nucleation to occur under mesospheric conditions at temperatures below 140 K. The Gibbs free energy changes for forming clusters with n = 1 and 2 were computed from quantum calculations using hybrid density functional/Hartree-Fock (B3LYP) theory and a large basis set with added polarization and diffuse functions. The results were then extrapolated to higher n using an established dependence of the free energy on cluster size and the free energy for the sublimation of H2O to bulk ice. A 1-dimensional model of sodium chemistry was then employed to show that spontaneous nucleation to form ice particles (n >100) should occur between 84 and 89 km in the high-latitude summer mesosphere. The third condition is that other metallic components of meteoric smoke are less effective condensation nuclei, so that the total number of potential nuclei is small relative to the amount of available H2O. Quantum calculations indicate that this is probably the case for major constituents such as Fe(OH)2, FeO3 and MgCO3.

Plane, J. M. C.

2000-07-01

148

Effect of lactate supplementation and sodium bicarbonate on 40 km cycling time trial performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of nutritional supplements to improve sporting performance and increase training adaptations is commonplace amongst athletes and is an expanding market in terms of product choice and availability. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two ergogenic aids with extracellular blood buffering potential, namely sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and a lactate supplement, during a 40 km cycling time trial. Seven recreationally active males (age, 22.3 ± 3.3 years; height, 182.5 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 79.2 ± 6.3 kg) completed five 40 km cycling time trials, including a familiarization trial in a randomized blind double placebo design. Subjects ingested either 1.) 300 mg per kg body mass NaHCO3 (BICARB), 2.) 45 mg per kg sodium chloride (PL-BICARB) as the placebo for the NaHCO3 trial, 3.) 21.5 mg per kg body mass lactate supplement (LACTATE) and 4.) plain flour as the placebo for the lactate trial (PL-LACTATE) 60 minutes before exercise. There was no significant difference in performance between the four conditions (p> 0.05). Whilst NaHCO3 ingestion induced significant changes in all the acid-base variables (all p 0.05). Subjects in the LACTATE condition did have a significantly higher heart rate (p 0.05) than the other three conditions. Neither NaHCO3 nor lactate supplementation appear to improve 40 km cycling time trial performance. However the potential benefits following LACTATE regarding perceived exertion require further research. PMID:23660571

Northgraves, Matthew J; Peart, Daniel J; Jordan, Christian; Vince, Rebecca V

2013-05-01

149

Sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy: A meta-analysis of published clinical trials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious but rare complication following contrast based procedures. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been postulated to prevent CIN by various mechanisms. However, the outcomes following sodium bicarbonate administration to prevent CIN have been inconsistent. Methods: A meta-analysis of published randomized clinical trials to determine if the administration of sodium bicarbonate is superior to sodium chloride among patients with chronic renal failure undergoing catheterization and interventional procedures in preventing CIN was performed. Results: Data were combined across seven published clinical trials consisting of 1734 patients. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the NaHCO3 and NaCl groups except patients in the bicarbonate group were heavier (P = 0.04). The odds ratio (OR) for the development of contrast nephropathy for NaHCO3 versus NaCl was 0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.69; P = 0.003). Heterogeneity and publication bias were detectable with P-values 0.01 and 0.0005 respectively. There was no difference between the NaHCO3 group and the NaCl group in the occurrence of death [OR 0.6; 95% CI (0.26-1.41); P = 0.24], congestive heart failure [OR 0.85; 95% CI (0.32-2.24); P = 0.74] and the requirement for renal replacement therapy [OR 0.56; 95% CI (0.22-1.41); P = 0.22]. Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrates that based on currently available randomized trials, the administration of NaHCO3 is superior to the administration of NaCl alone in the prevention of CIN among patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. However, further controlled clinical trials are needed due to significant study heterogeneity and publication bias.

2011-01-01

150

The effect of sodium bicarbonate on intracellular pH using {sup 31}P-MR spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report deals with the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the intracellular pH of the brain and cerebral blood flow (CBF); five normal volunteers were studied. Intracellular pH and CBF were measured by phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-MRS) and stable xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT), respectively. Each individual received 7% sodium bicarbonate (3.5 ml/kg body weight), infused intravenously over a 15-min period. Intracellular pH, CBF, and physiological parameters were determined before and after the injection. Intracellular pH was significantly decreased and CBF was increased. Among the physiological parameters, the hematocrit was significantly decreased and arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO{sub 2}), increased. These results suggest that increasing CO{sub 2} contributes to the decrease in intracellular pH. In conclusion, three factors increase CBF during the administration of sodium bicarbonate to humans: arterial dilatation in response to carbon dioxide; decrease of the hematocrit, and intracellular cerebral acidosis. (author)

Nakashima, Kazuya; Kashiwagi, Shiro; Ito, Haruhide [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine; Yamashita, Tetsuo; Kitahara, Tetsuhiro; Nakayama, Naoto; Saito, Kennichi

1997-03-01

151

Cleaning of road accessories with powdered sodium bicarbonate; Jutansan natrium ryu wo mochiita doro fuzokubutsu no senjo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for cleaning highway accessories with powdered sodium bicarbonate is developed, to replace mechanical cleaning by a multi-purpose vehicle or manual cleaning, and thereby to reduce road maintenance cost. It pneumatically blows sodium bicarbonate particles by a blaster connected to a water tank and compressor onto a variety of stains to remove them. The cleaning system is applicable to a variety of purposes, allowing dry and wet cleaning modes to be easily switched from each other. Sodium bicarbonate, being naturally occurring, is harmless, and its type can be freely chosen. This method was applied in FY1996 mainly to cleaning interior plates in highways, to collect the basic data. Its cleaning effectiveness has been confirmed by applying it to the internal plates, which are difficult to clean by a multi-purpose vehicle, and illuminators in tunnels, whose cleaning areas are narrow. It recovers reflectivity of plates to 85% of the initial level at the highest, and shows 3 times higher efficiency for heavily stained plates. The test was continued in FY1997. It shows an approximately 5 times higher cleaning capacity than the conventional method, greatly reducing cleaning time, especially for illuminators in tunnels. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Yamashita, H.; Amagori, Y.; Mori, E. [Japan Highway Public Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

1998-06-25

152

Effect of Phytase on the Sodium Requirement of Starting Broilers 1. Sodium Bicarbonate as Primary Sodium Source  

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Recent work has indicated that phytase enzymes may influence Sodium (Na) metabolism in the chick but to date no work has conclusively demonstrated that the Na requirement of the chick for live performance is influenced by phytase supplementation. In this study male broilers were fed diets with Na le...

S.D. Goodgame; F.J. Mussini; C. Lu; C.D. Bradley; P.W. Waldroup

153

Antifungal activity of sodium bicarbonate against fungal agents causing superficial infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although sodium bicarbonate-NaHCO(3) (SB) has many domestic and medical, traditional and empirical uses, only little scientific documentation of its activity is available. The aims of this study were to investigate the antifungal activity of SB on the three fungal groups (yeasts, dermatophytes and molds) responsible for human skin and nail infections. We first evaluated the in vitro antifungal activity of SB on 70 fungal strains isolated from skin and nail infections: 40 dermatophytes, 18 yeasts and 12 molds. A concentration of 10 g/L SB inhibited the growth of 80% of all the fungal isolates tested on Sabouraud dextrose agar. The minimal inhibitory concentration 90 (MIC90) of SB measured on Sabouraud dextrose agar, Sabouraud dextrose broth and potato dextrose broth was 5 g/L for the yeasts, 20 g/L for the dermatophytes and 40 g/L for the molds. In a second step, we prospectively evaluated the ex vivo antifungal activity of SB on 24 infected (15 dermatophytes, 7 yeasts and 2 molds) clinical specimens (15 nails and 9 skin scrapings). The fungal growth was completely inhibited for 19 (79%) specimens and reduced for 4 (17%) specimens after 7 days of incubation on Sabouraud dextrose-chloramphenicol agar supplemented with 10 g/L of SB as compared to Sabouraud dextrose-chloramphenicol agar without SB. In conclusion, we documented the antifungal activity of SB on the most common agents of cutaneous fungal infection and onychomycosis, and we specified the effective concentrations for the different groups of pathogenic fungi. The mechanism of action of SB has yet to be explored.

Letscher-Bru V; Obszynski CM; Samsoen M; Sabou M; Waller J; Candolfi E

2013-02-01

154

Laying Performance and Egg Quality of Hens Supplemented with Sodium Bicarbonate During the Late Laying Period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine effects of dietary NaHCO3 supplementation on egg production and egg quality during the late laying period. Hisex Brown layers, 54 wks of age, were blocked according to the cage location and then assigned randomly to receive one of four diets containing 0, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4% NaHCO3 for 75 d. Each diet was replicated in 6 groups; each consisting of 2 cages containing 10 hens. Feed intake (FI) and egg production (EP) were recorded daily and egg weight (EW) was measured bi-weekly. A sample of 12 eggs from each group were collected randomly every 25 d for specific gravity (SG), shape index (SI), shell stiffness (SS), shell thickness (ST), yolk color (YC), albumen index (AI), yolk index (YI) and Haugh unit (HU). The mortality rate (MR) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were lower, whereas FI, EP and EW were greater for hens fed the experimental diets than those for hens fed the control diet. Moreover, increasing NaHCO3 level linearly decreased MR and FCR, linearly increased EP and EW and quadratically increased FI. Specific gravity and YI for hens fed the experimental diets were lower than for fed the control diet. The diets did not affect SI, SS, ST, YC, AI and HU. However, SG and YI decreased linearly and AI increased linearly with increasing NaHCO3 level. In conclusion, increasing sodium bicarbonate level positively affected laying performance and altered inner egg quality, but did not improve shell quality, during the late laying period in hens.

M.A. Yoruk; M. Gul; A. Hayirli; M. Karaoglu

2004-01-01

155

Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the isolated and combined effects of beta-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) on high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in judo and jiu-jitsu competitors. 37 athletes were assigned to one of four groups: (1) placebo (PL)+PL; (2) BA+PL; (3) PL+SB or (4) BA+SB. BA or dextrose (placebo) (6.4 g day?¹) was ingested for 4 weeks and 500 mg kg?¹ BM of SB or calcium carbonate (placebo) was ingested for 7 days during the 4th week. Before and after 4 weeks of supplementation, the athletes completed four 30-s upper-body Wingate tests, separated by 3 min. Blood lactate was determined at rest, immediately after and 5 min after the 4th exercise bout, with perceived exertion reported immediately after the 4th bout. BA and SB alone increased the total work done in +7 and 8 %, respectively. The co-ingestion resulted in an additive effect (+14 %, p < 0.05 vs. BA and SB alone). BA alone significantly improved mean power in the 2nd and 3rd bouts and tended to improve the 4th bout. SB alone significantly improved mean power in the 4th bout and tended to improve in the 2nd and 3rd bouts. BA+SB enhanced mean power in all four bouts. PL+PL did not elicit any alteration on mean and peak power. Post-exercise blood lactate increased with all treatments except with PL+PL. Only BA+SB resulted in lower ratings of perceived exertion (p = 0.05). Chronic BA and SB supplementation alone equally enhanced high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in well-trained athletes. Combined BA and SB promoted a clear additive ergogenic effect. PMID:23595205

Tobias, Gabriel; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni

2013-04-18

156

Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the isolated and combined effects of beta-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) on high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in judo and jiu-jitsu competitors. 37 athletes were assigned to one of four groups: (1) placebo (PL)+PL; (2) BA+PL; (3) PL+SB or (4) BA+SB. BA or dextrose (placebo) (6.4 g day?¹) was ingested for 4 weeks and 500 mg kg?¹ BM of SB or calcium carbonate (placebo) was ingested for 7 days during the 4th week. Before and after 4 weeks of supplementation, the athletes completed four 30-s upper-body Wingate tests, separated by 3 min. Blood lactate was determined at rest, immediately after and 5 min after the 4th exercise bout, with perceived exertion reported immediately after the 4th bout. BA and SB alone increased the total work done in +7 and 8 %, respectively. The co-ingestion resulted in an additive effect (+14 %, p < 0.05 vs. BA and SB alone). BA alone significantly improved mean power in the 2nd and 3rd bouts and tended to improve the 4th bout. SB alone significantly improved mean power in the 4th bout and tended to improve in the 2nd and 3rd bouts. BA+SB enhanced mean power in all four bouts. PL+PL did not elicit any alteration on mean and peak power. Post-exercise blood lactate increased with all treatments except with PL+PL. Only BA+SB resulted in lower ratings of perceived exertion (p = 0.05). Chronic BA and SB supplementation alone equally enhanced high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in well-trained athletes. Combined BA and SB promoted a clear additive ergogenic effect.

Tobias G; Benatti FB; de Salles Painelli V; Roschel H; Gualano B; Sale C; Harris RC; Lancha AH Jr; Artioli GG

2013-08-01

157

Effect of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated-sprint performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to investigate if combining beta-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation could lead to enhanced repeated-sprint performance in team-sport athletes, beyond what is possible with either supplement alone. Participants (n = 24) completed duplicate trials of a repeated-sprint test (3 sets; 6 x 20 m departing every 25 s, 4 min active recovery between sets) and were then allocated into 4 groups; BA only (n = 6; 28 days BA, acute NaCl placebo); NaHCO3 only (n = 6; 28 days glucose placebo, acute NaHCO3); BA/NaHCO3 (n = 6; 28 days BA, acute NaHCO3); placebo only (n = 6; 28 days glucose placebo, acute NaCl placebo), then completed duplicate trials post-supplementation. NaHCO3 alone resulted in moderate ES (d = 0.40 - 0.71) and 'likely' and 'very likely' benefit for overall total sprint times (TST) and for each individual set, as well as for first sprint (Set 2 and 3) and best sprint time (Set 2 and 3). Combining BA and NaHCO3 resulted in 'possible' to 'likely' benefits for overall TST, as well as for Sets 2 and 3. First sprint (Set 3) and best sprint time (Sets 2 and 3) also showed 'likely' benefit after this trial. The BA and placebo groups showed no differences in performance after supplementation. In conclusion, these results indicate that supplementation with acute NaHCO3 improved repeated-sprint performance more than either a combination of NaHCO3 and BA or BA alone.

Ducker KJ; Dawson B; Wallman KE

2013-03-01

158

Effects of caffeine, sodium bicarbonate, and their combined ingestion on high-intensity cycling performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of ingesting caffeine (CAFF) and sodium bicarbonate (SB), taken individually and simultaneously, on 3-km cycling time-trial (TT) performance. METHOD: Ten well-trained cyclists, age 24.2 ± 5.4 yr, participated in this acute-treatment, double-blind, crossover study that involved four 3-km cycling TTs performed on separate days. Before each TT, participants ingested either 3 mg/kg body mass (BM) of CAFF, 0.3 g · kg?¹ · BM?¹ of SB, a combination of the two (CAFF+SB), or a placebo (PLAC). They completed each 3-km TT on a laboratory-based cycle ergometer, during which physiological, perceptual, and performance measurements were determined. For statistical analysis, the minimal worthwhile difference was considered ~1% based on previous research. RESULTS: Pretrial pH and HCO? were higher in SB and CAFF+SB than in the CAFF and PLAC trials. Differences across treatments for perceived exertion and gastric discomfort were mostly unclear. Compared with PLAC, mean power output during the 3-km TT was higher in CAFF, SB, and CAFF+SB trials (2.4%, 2.6%, 2.7% respectively), resulting in faster performance times (-0.9, -1.2, -1.2% respectively). Effect sizes for all trials were small (0.21-0.24). CONCLUSIONS: When ingested individually, both CAFF and SB enhance high-intensity cycling TT performance in trained cyclists. However, the ergogenic effect of these 2 popular supplements was not additive, bringing into question the efficacy of coingesting the 2 supplements before short-duration high-intensity exercise. In this study there were no negative effects of combining CAFF and SB, 2 relatively inexpensive and safe supplements.

Kilding AE; Overton C; Gleave J

2012-06-01

159

Effects of caffeine, sodium bicarbonate and their combined ingestion on high-intensity cycling performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of ingesting caffeine (CAFF) and sodium bicarbonate (SB), taken individually and simultaneously, on 3 km cycling time trial (TT) performance. METHOD: Ten well-trained cyclists, age 24.2±5.4 yrs, participated in this acute treatment, double-blind, cross-over study that involved four 3 km cycling TT's performed on separate days. Prior to each TT, participants ingested either 3 mg/kg body mass (BM) of CAFF, 0.3 g/kg/BM of SB, a combination of both (CAFF+SB), or a placebo (PLAC). Participants completed each 3 km TT on a laboratory-based cycle ergometer, during which physiological, perceptual and performance measurements were determined. For statistical analysis, we considered the minimal worthwhile difference as ~1% based on previous research. RESULTS: Pre-trial pH and HCO3 were higher in SB and CAFF+SB when compared to CAFF and PLAC trials. Differences across treatments for perceived exertion and gastric discomfort were mostly 'unclear'. Compared to PLAC, mean power output during the 3 km TT was higher in CAFF, SB and CAFF+SB trials (2.4, 2.6, 2.7% respectively), resulting in faster performance times (-0.9, -1.2, -1.2 % respectively). Effects sizes for all trials were small (0.21 to 0.24). CONCLUSIONS: When ingested individually, both CAFF and SB enhance high-intensity cycling time trial performance in trained cyclists. However, the ergogenic effect of these two popular supplements was not additive, questioning the efficacy of co-ingesting these two supplements prior to short duration high-intensity exercise. In this study there were no negative effects of combining CAFF and SB, two supplements that are relatively inexpensive and safe.

Kilding AE; Overton C; Gleave J

2012-06-01

160

The role of bicarbonate in platelet additive solution for apheresis platelet concentrates stored with low residual plasma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Complex platelet additive solutions (PASs) are required to store platelet (PLT) concentrates with plasma levels below 30%. Previously, apheresis PLTs stored with 5% plasma in acetate- and bicarbonate-containing PAS maintained stable pH and bicarbonate levels during 7-day storage. Due to this observation, the necessity of added bicarbonate in PAS was investigated and whether the concurrent increase in PAS pH after bicarbonate addition had any effect on PLT storage. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Apheresis PLTs were stored in 5% plasma-95% high- or low-pH PAS, with or without bicarbonate (n=10 per arm). Bicarbonate PAS PLTs were paired and nonbicarbonate PAS PLTs were paired (split from same double-dose collection). PLTs were evaluated for in vitro variables on Days 1 and 7 and up to Day 14 if the Day 7 pH was higher than 6.2. RESULTS: PLT pH was maintained above 7.3 to Day 14 in bicarbonate PAS PLTs while pH failures below 6.2 were observed in 4 of 10 and 2 of 10 units on Day 7 in low- and high-pH nonbicarbonate PAS arms, respectively. Day 7 in vitro variables in nonbicarbonate PAS PLTs with pH?values of higher than 6.2 were comparable to Day 7 variables in bicarbonate PAS PLTs. The pH of bicarbonate PAS did have a small effect on pH and bicarbonate levels in PLT units, but did not have an effect on functional variables and metabolism. CONCLUSION: Bicarbonate was not required to maintain in vitro PLT function in 5% plasma-95% PAS, but was required as a pH buffer and increased PAS pH did not significantly contribute to this effect.

Radwanski K; Min K

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Determination of the optimal time for premedication with pronase, dimethylpolysiloxane, and sodium bicarbonate for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

GOALS AND BACKGROUND: Premedication with pronase, dimethylpolysiloxane, and sodium bicarbonate improves visibility during upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy. However, the optimal time for this combination to take effect is unknown. We investigated the optimal time of pre-UGI endoscopy medication. STUDY: A randomized, investigator-blind, controlled trial. The 300 patients who were to receive premedication were randomized into 3 groups according to the following medication time before UGI endoscopy: 10 minutes (group A, n=98), 10 to 30 minutes (group B, n=97), and 30 minutes premedication (group C, n=99). Visibility scores (range, 1 to 4, with lower scores indicating better gastric mucosal visibility) were assessed for the antrum, lower body, upper body, and fundus and compared, including the sum of the scores, between the 3 groups. RESULTS: Group B had significantly lower visibility scores for the lower body, upper body, and fundus than group C (P=0.001, 0.009, and 0.002, respectively). Group A obtained significantly lower scores for the antrum and lower body than group C (P=0.007 and 0.005, respectively). The total visibility scores of groups A and B were significantly lower compared with those of group C (P=0.001, 0.003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Administration of pronase, dimethylpolysiloxane, and sodium bicarbonate within 30 minutes before UGI endoscopy significantly improved endoscopic visualization. However, the optimal time to achieve the best visibility was between 10 to 30 minutes before UGI endoscopy.

Woo JG; Kim TO; Kim HJ; Shin BC; Seo EH; Heo NY; Park J; Park SH; Yang SY; Moon YS; Lee NY

2013-05-01

162

The radiation chemistry of aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation chemistry of cobalt-60 gamma-irradiated aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions has been studied. In aerated 4 x 10-4M sodium hydroxide solutions, the main products are hydroxyterephthalate (HTA) (G = 0.99 +- 0.01), carbonate (G = 1.31 +- 0.08), and peroxides (G = 2.84 +- 0.04). The HTA and carbonate species are both formed as a result of hydroxyl radical attack and account for approximately 90 per cent of hydroxyl radical reactions. Oxygen needs to be present for efficient conversion of the terephthalate-OH radical adduct to HTA and oxygenation increases G(HTA) above the aerated solution value. G(HTA) is unaffected by changes in terephthalate concentration between 1 x 10-4M and 1 x 10-2M in sodium hydroxide solutions at pH 10. Decreasing the solution pH does however affect G(HTA). In phosphate buffered solutions pH 6.85, G(HTA) is 0.93 +- 0.01 and lower values are obtained with further decrease in solution pH. The lowering of the G(HTA) value is attributed to recombination reactions between the terephthalate-OH radical products and reducing radical products. Experimental evidence supporting the recombination postulate was obtained from the measurement of a parallel decrease in the peroxide yield and the observation of a dose rate effect on G(HTA). Competition kinetic studies with the added solutes carbonate and bicarbonate gave the rate ratios k (OH + TA2-) : k(OH + CO32-) : k(OH + HCO3-) = 1 : 0.105 : 0.0036.

1980-01-01

163

Utilization of sodium bicarbonate for the neutralization of acid components in exhaust gases; Verwendung von Natriumbicarbonat zur Neutralisation saurer Bestandteile in Abgasen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SOLVAIR dry process using sodium bicarbonate as absorbent facilitates an uncomplicated and efficient purification of exhaust gases from different processes. The products from exhaust gas purification can be used either directly in a producing process or subsequently to a treatment process in the chemical process. The author of this contribution reports on the utilization of sodium bicarbonate in the neutralisation of pour components in exhaust gases such as hydrochloric acid, sulphur dioxide and nitrous dioxides. Further aspects of this contribution are the energy efficiency and the recycling of reaction products.

Bauer, Thomas [Solvay Chemicals GmbH, Rheinberg (Germany). Technisches Marketing

2013-03-01

164

Electrochemical polarization and stress corrosion cracking behaviors of a pipeline steel in dilute bicarbonate solution with chloride ion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrochemical and stress corrosion cracking behavior of Grade 550 (X-80) pipeline steel with coating disbandments was studied in a range of bicarbonate solutions using a potentiodynamic polarization technique and slow strain rate test. The shape of the polarization curves were found to vary with bicarbonate concentration. Increase in bicarbonate concentration results in a wider passive region and a more noble breakdown potential. Low concentrations of chloride ion in bicarbonate greatly affect the polarization characteristics and can cause the elimination of passivity in specific solutions. Tensile specimens were pulled at constant strain rate {dot {epsilon}} = 10{sup {minus}6}/sec. under potential control ranging from {minus}350 mV to {minus}900 mV (SCE) in NS-4 solution (dilute bicarbonate solution with chloride ion). Fracture surface of the specimens were examined under scanning electron microscopy. Overall fracture is ductile dimple, however, transgranular stress corrosion cracking has been found in the edge of specimen for the sample with potential controlled at {minus}800 mV, {minus}750 mV and {minus}650 mV (SCE).

Liu, X.; Mao, X. [Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-07-01

165

Prophylactic Perioperative Sodium Bicarbonate to Prevent Acute Kidney Injury Following Open Heart Surgery: A Multicenter Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Preliminary evidence suggests a nephroprotective effect of urinary alkalinization in patients at risk of acute kidney injury. In this study, we tested whether prophylactic bicarbonate-based infusion reduces the incidence of acute kidney injury and tubular damage in patients undergoing open heart surgery. Methods and Findings In a multicenter, double-blinded (patients, clinical and research personnel), randomized controlled trial we enrolled 350 adult patients undergoing open heart surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. At induction of anesthesia, patients received either 24 hours of intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (5.1 mmol/kg) or sodium chloride (5.1 mmol/kg). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients developing acute kidney injury. Secondary endpoints included the magnitude of acute tubular damage as measured by urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), initiation of acute renal replacement therapy, and mortality. The study was stopped early under recommendation of the Data Safety and Monitoring Committee because interim analysis suggested likely lack of efficacy and possible harm. Groups were non-significantly different at baseline except that a greater proportion of patients in the sodium bicarbonate group (66/174 [38%]) presented with preoperative chronic kidney disease compared to control (44/176 [25%]; p?=?0.009). Sodium bicarbonate increased urinary pH (from 6.0 to 7.5, pNGAL in patients receiving bicarbonate infusion was observed compared to control patients (p?=?0.011). The incidence of postoperative renal replacement therapy was similar but hospital mortality was increased in patients receiving sodium bicarbonate compared with control (11/174 [6.3%] versus 3/176 [1.7%], OR 3.89 [1.07–14.2], p?=?0.031). Conclusions Urinary alkalinization using sodium bicarbonate infusion was not found to reduce the incidence of acute kidney injury or attenuate tubular damage following open heart surgery; however, it was associated with a possible increase in mortality. On the basis of these findings we do not recommend the prophylactic use of sodium bicarbonate infusion to reduce the risk of acute kidney injury. Discontinuation of growing implementation of this therapy in this setting seems to be justified. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00672334 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Plass, Michael; Kuppe, Hermann; Hetzer, Roland; Hannon, Claire; Murray, Patrick T.; Bailey, Michael J.; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Bagshaw, Sean M.

2013-01-01

166

Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in diabetic patients with impaired renal function: A randomized, double blind trial of sodium bicarbonate versus sodium chloride-based hydration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Diabetes mellitus and decreased renal function are important risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in which oxidative stress damage may play a role. Alkalinization with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been proposed as a means of reducing free-radical mediated renal injury; however, the effectiveness of NaHCO3 treatment to prevent CIN in high-risk patients remains uncertain. METHODS: We performed a prospective, randomized, double blind, sodium chloride (NaCl) hydration-controlled study of NaHCO3 in 120 diabetic patients with impaired renal function (serum creatinine ?100?mol/L) undergoing an elective procedure with use of low-osmolar contrast media. The primary endpoint was the incidence of CIN defined as creatinine increase of ?25% and/or ?44?mol/L within 2 days after contrast. Secondary end-points were maximal changes in serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Urine F2-isoprostane levels were also assessed as measure of oxidative stress. RESULTS: There were no significant group differences in baseline characteristics except for the marginally lower age of the NaHCO3 treated patients (63±11 vs. 67±10 years; p=0.05). CIN occurred in 7 (11.5%) and 5 (8.5%) patients of the NaHCO3 and NaCl groups, respectively (p=0.76; incidence rate ratio 1.35; 95% CI 0.37-5.41). No significant differences were seen in secondary outcome measures and changes in the parameter of oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: In diabetic patients with renal function impairment sodium bicarbonate does not confer protection against contrast-induced nephropathy greater than sodium chloride-based hydration. Its specific role in mitigating oxidative stress damage in CIN is also not supported by our data.

Boucek P; Havrdova T; Oliyarnyk O; Skibova J; Pecenkova V; Pucelikova T; Sarkady D

2013-07-01

167

Assessing the survival of MRC5 and a549 cell lines upon exposure to pyruvic Acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate - biomed 2013.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lung cancer is among the most prevalent and deadly cancers in United States. In general, cancer cells are known to exhibit higher rates of glycolysis in comparison to normal cells. In attempting to exploit this unique cancer-dependent ATP generation phenomenon, it was our hypothesis that upon exposure to organic inhibitors of glycolysis, cancer cells would not survive normally and that their growth and viability would be vastly decreased; essential glycolytic ATP production will be exhausted to the point of collapsing energy utilization. Furthermore, we hypothesize that no negative effect would be seen with exposures to organic inhibitors for normal lung cells. The human lung fibroblast MRC-5 and the human A549 alveolar epithelial cell lines were used as in vitro models of normal lung and lung cancers respectively. Using standard methods, both cell lines were maintained and exposed to pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate reagents at concentration levels ranging from 31.3-2,000 µg/ml in 96 well plates in quadruplets and experiments repeated at least three times using MTT, and cell counting (T4 Cellometer) assays as well as phase-contrast photo-imaging for parallel morphological displays of any changes in the course of their vitality and metabolic activities. Our results indicate that exposure of both cell lines to these organics resulted in concentration dependent cell destruction/cell survival depending on the cell line exposed. Pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate showed statistically significant (p<0.05) differential negative effects on the A549 cell line in comparison to its unexposed control as well as to their effects on the MRC-5 cell line, presenting a potential promise for their use as cancer biotherapeutics.

Farah IO; Lewis VL; Ayensu WK; Cameron JA

2013-01-01

168

Uso del bicarbonato de sodio en las urgencias hiperglucémicas diabéticas Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Diabetic Hyperglycemic Emergencies  

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Full Text Available Fundamento: la cetoacidosis diabética y el estado hiperglucémico hiperosmolar no cetósico son dos de las más graves emergencias metabólicas que pueden ocurrir. Estos estados no siempre son tratados adecuadamente. Objetivo: describir las urgencias metabólicas hiperglicémicas del diabético atendidas en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos y valorar el uso del bicarbonato de sodio. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, en 52 pacientes ingresados en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva del Hospital Enrique Cabrera entre los años 2000 al 2007. Las variables analizadas en el estudio fueron: tipo de diabetes mellitus, tipo de complicación aguda, uso o no del bicarbonato de sodio, gasometría, ionograma y evolución de los pacientes. Fueron utilizados los criterios de Kitabchi para los diagnósticos de la cetoacidosis diabética y su severidad, y los del estado hiperglucémico. Para el diagnóstico de diabetes y el tipo se adoptaron los criterios propuestos por un Comité de Expertos de la Asociación Americana de Diabetes y un Comité de Expertos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados: se confirmó cetoacidosis diabética en el 57,5 % de los diabéticos tipo 1 y en el 42,5 % de los tipo 2. Se observó estado hiperglucémico hiperosmolar no cetósico en el 23,0 % de los diabéticos tipo 2. Entre los pacientes con cetoacidosis diabética que no usaron bicarbonato de sodio NaHCO3 no hubo muerte, y aquellos con estado hiperglucémico que lo utilizaron fue del 80,0 %. Conclusiones: la cetoacidosis diabética fue la complicación que predominó. La mortalidad por cetoacidosis y el estado hiperglucémico hiperosmolar no cetósico fue elevada y se utilizó inadecuadamente el NaHCO3.Background: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state are two of the major metabolic emergencies that may occur. These conditions are not always treated properly.Objective: to describe the metabolic hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetic patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit, and to assess the use of sodium bicarbonate. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted including 52 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the Enrique Cabrera Hospital from 2000 through 2007. The following variables were analyzed: type of diabetes mellitus, type of acute complication, use or not of sodium bicarbonate, blood gases, ionogram and progress of patients. Kitabchi criteria were used for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and its severity and for the diagnosis of the hyperglycemic state as well. Criteria proposed by an Expert Committee of the American Diabetes Association and a World Health Organization Expert Committee were adopted for the diagnosis of diabetes and its classification. Results: diabetic ketoacidosis was confirmed in 57,5 % of type 1 diabetic patients and in 42,5 % of those with type 2 diabetes. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was observed in 23,0 % of type 2 diabetics. There was not any death among patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who did not use sodium bicarbonate whereas 80,0 % of patients with hyperglycemic state who used it died. Conclusions: diabetic ketoacidosis was the most common complication. Mortality due to ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was high. Sodium bicarbonate was not properly used.

Diana Machado Ramírez; Manuel Licea Puig

2013-01-01

169

Identification of membrane topography of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter pNBC1 by in vitro transcription/translation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The transmembrane topography of the human pancreatic electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter pNBC1 was investigated using in vitro transcription/translation of HK-M0 and HK-M1 fusion vectors designed to test membrane insertion properties of pNBC1 hydrophobic sequences (H). These vectors encode N-terminal 101 (HK-M0) or 139 (HK-M1) amino acids of the H,K-ATPase alpha-subunit, a linker region and the C-terminal 177 amino acids of the H,K-ATPase beta-subunit that contain five N-linked glycosylation consensus sites (Bamberg, K., and Sachs, G. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 16909-16919). The glycosylation status of the beta-region was used as a reporter to determine whether a given hydrophobic sequence possesses signal anchor and/or stop transfer properties in the HK-M0 and HK-M1 vectors. The linker region of each vector was replaced either with individual hydrophobic sequences or combinations thereof. The transcription/translation products of these fusion vectors in reticulocyte lysate system +/- microsomal membranes were identified by [(35)S]-autoradiography following separation using SDS-PAGE. The results of the in vitro transcription/translation analysis indicated that 10 (H1, H2N, H3, H5, H6, H7, H8, H9, H11, and H12) out of 12 hydrophobic sequences were able to insert into the plasma membrane. Two hydrophobic sequences, H4 and H10, had no membrane insertion activity even when upstream and downstream sequences were present. These data and immunocytochemical studies indicate that pNBC1 contains 10 transmembrane domains with N- and C-termini oriented intracellularly. This is the first characterization of the membrane topography of a sodium bicarbonate cotransporter.

Tatishchev S; Abuladze N; Pushkin A; Newman D; Liu W; Weeks D; Sachs G; Kurtz I

2003-01-01

170

The effects of acute and chronic sodium bicarbonate supplementation on high-intensity intermittent performance, recovery and subsequent performance in rugby union players  

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Exogenous ingestion of alkalising agents, such as sodium bicarbonate (SB), has been shown to enhance muscle buffering capacity, thereby delaying the metabolic acidosis associated with high-intensity exercise and potentially improving performance. Aim: The aim of this research was to examine the effe...

Fitzpatrick, Paula

171

Effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO[sub 2], PaCO[sub 2], HCO[sub 3][sup -], PH and cerebral blood flow  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To estimate the quantitative reactivity of cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO[sub 2], arterial partial pressure of CO[sub 2] (PaCO[sub 2]), HCO[sub 3][sup -], pH and CBF were examined. The CBF was measured by [sup 133]Xe inhalation method with ring type SPECT (HEADTOME). Activation study with sodium bicarbonate administration was performed after 30 minutes of resting study, and the reactivity of each parameters was investigated. The arterial HCO[sub 3][sup -] and pH increased with similar reactivity, but PaCO[sub 2], end-tidal CO[sub 2] and CBF in the non-injured hemisphere changed with irregular reactivity. The excellent correlation between PaCO[sub 2] and end-tidal CO[sub 2] was vanished by the administration of sodium bicarbonate. The reactivity of CBF did not correlate with reactivity of PaCO[sub 2] and end-tidal CO[sub 2], but correlated with arterial HCO[sub 3][sup -] and pH. Thus the measurement of arterial HCO[sub 3][sup -] and pH may be indispensable to estimate the CBF reactivity with the administration of sodium bicarbonate. (author).

Komatani, Akio; Akutsu, Tooru; Yoshida, Michihiko; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Seo, Hiroshi (Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

1992-09-01

172

Effects of the inclusion of sodium bicarbonate and sugar beet pulp in the concentrate for fattening lambs on acid-base status and meat characteristics  

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7 pages, 4 tables.-- Available online June 4, 2007. , Thirty-six young Merino lambs (15.3 kg live weight) were allocated into four equal groups to study the effects of the inclusion of sodium bicarbonate (‘Bic’, 0 vs. 2%) and sugar beet pulp (‘SBP’, 0 vs. 12%) in the concentrate on meat characteristics...

Bodas, Raúl; Rodríguez, Ana Belén; López, Secundino; Fernández, Begoña; Mantecón, Ángel R.; Giráldez, Francisco Javier

173

Effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, PaCO2, HCO3-, PH and cerebral blood flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To estimate the quantitative reactivity of cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2), HCO3-, pH and CBF were examined. The CBF was measured by 133Xe inhalation method with ring type SPECT (HEADTOME). Activation study with sodium bicarbonate administration was performed after 30 minutes of resting study, and the reactivity of each parameters was investigated. The arterial HCO3- and pH increased with similar reactivity, but PaCO2, end-tidal CO2 and CBF in the non-injured hemisphere changed with irregular reactivity. The excellent correlation between PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2 was vanished by the administration of sodium bicarbonate. The reactivity of CBF did not correlate with reactivity of PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2, but correlated with arterial HCO3- and pH. Thus the measurement of arterial HCO3- and pH may be indispensable to estimate the CBF reactivity with the administration of sodium bicarbonate. (author)

1992-01-01

174

A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of the Anesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate Buffered 2% Lidocaine With 1?:?100,000 Epinephrine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks  

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The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a double-blind manner, inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks using a buffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine/sodium bicarbonate formulation and an unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine formulation at 2 separate...

Whitcomb, Michael; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

175

Failure mechanisms of high strength steels in bicarbonate solutions under anodic polarization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] High strength steels used in prestressing concrete structures are not exempt from the effects induced by corrosion on the normal concrete reinforcement. Carbonation of surrounding concrete or mortar is not unlikely for prestressing tendons and strands. Moreover, these steels undergo to brittle fracture as a consequence of stress corrosion cracking phenomena. To evaluate if concrete carbonation can promote this kind of failure, constant load tests in bicarbonate aqueous solutions under anodic polarization were carried out on high strength steel wires. Microscopic examination pointed out that the wires exhibited a brittle fracture mode, while its natural feature is ductile, as indicated by air testing. Failure mechanism was evaluated by a fracture mechanic approach. Cracks initiation was attributed to an anodic dissolution mechanism, while its propagation, interpreted by means of the surface mobility theory, was related to interaction between hydrogen atoms and magnetite at a crack tip

2003-01-01

176

Highly selective recognition of acetate and bicarbonate by thiourea-functionalised inverse opal hydrogel in aqueous solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have synthesised an inverse opal hydrogel functionalised with a thiourea moiety as an anion recognition site. The resulting hydrogel showed remarkable changes of its structural colour with respect to acetate and bicarbonate ions selectively in aqueous solution, indicating a potential as colorimetric sensing materials for hydrophilic anions. PMID:23238179

Kado, Shinpei; Otani, Haruka; Nakahara, Yoshio; Kimura, Keiichi

2013-01-30

177

Highly selective recognition of acetate and bicarbonate by thiourea-functionalised inverse opal hydrogel in aqueous solution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have synthesised an inverse opal hydrogel functionalised with a thiourea moiety as an anion recognition site. The resulting hydrogel showed remarkable changes of its structural colour with respect to acetate and bicarbonate ions selectively in aqueous solution, indicating a potential as colorimetric sensing materials for hydrophilic anions.

Kado S; Otani H; Nakahara Y; Kimura K

2013-01-01

178

Prophylactic perioperative sodium bicarbonate to prevent acute kidney injury following open heart surgery: a multicenter double-blinded randomized controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence suggests a nephroprotective effect of urinary alkalinization in patients at risk of acute kidney injury. In this study, we tested whether prophylactic bicarbonate-based infusion reduces the incidence of acute kidney injury and tubular damage in patients undergoing open heart surgery. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a multicenter, double-blinded (patients, clinical and research personnel), randomized controlled trial we enrolled 350 adult patients undergoing open heart surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. At induction of anesthesia, patients received either 24 hours of intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (5.1 mmol/kg) or sodium chloride (5.1 mmol/kg). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients developing acute kidney injury. Secondary endpoints included the magnitude of acute tubular damage as measured by urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), initiation of acute renal replacement therapy, and mortality. The study was stopped early under recommendation of the Data Safety and Monitoring Committee because interim analysis suggested likely lack of efficacy and possible harm. Groups were non-significantly different at baseline except that a greater proportion of patients in the sodium bicarbonate group (66/174 [38%]) presented with preoperative chronic kidney disease compared to control (44/176 [25%]; p?=?0.009). Sodium bicarbonate increased urinary pH (from 6.0 to 7.5, p<0.001). More patients receiving bicarbonate (83/174 [47.7%]) developed acute kidney injury compared with control patients (64/176 [36.4%], odds ratio [OR] 1.60 [95% CI 1.04-2.45]; unadjusted p?=?0.032). After multivariable adjustment, a non-significant unfavorable group difference affecting patients receiving sodium bicarbonate was found for the primary endpoint (OR 1.45 [0.90-2.33], p?=?0.120]). A greater postoperative increase in urinary NGAL in patients receiving bicarbonate infusion was observed compared to control patients (p?=?0.011). The incidence of postoperative renal replacement therapy was similar but hospital mortality was increased in patients receiving sodium bicarbonate compared with control (11/174 [6.3%] versus 3/176 [1.7%], OR 3.89 [1.07-14.2], p?=?0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Urinary alkalinization using sodium bicarbonate infusion was not found to reduce the incidence of acute kidney injury or attenuate tubular damage following open heart surgery; however, it was associated with a possible increase in mortality. On the basis of these findings we do not recommend the prophylactic use of sodium bicarbonate infusion to reduce the risk of acute kidney injury. Discontinuation of growing implementation of this therapy in this setting seems to be justified. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00672334 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

Haase M; Haase-Fielitz A; Plass M; Kuppe H; Hetzer R; Hannon C; Murray PT; Bailey MJ; Bellomo R; Bagshaw SM

2013-01-01

179

The effects of chronic sodium bicarbonate ingestion and interval training in highly trained rowers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent research has reported performance improvements after chronic NaHCO3 ingestion in conjunction with high-intensity interval training (HIT) in moderately trained athletes. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of altering plasma H+ concentration during HIT through NaHCO3 ingestion over 4 wk (2 HIT sessions/wk) in 12 Australian representative rowers (M ± SD; age 22 ± 3 yr, mass 76.4 ± 4.2 kg, VO2peak 65.50 ± 2.74 ml · kg-1 · min-1). Baseline testing included a 2,000-m time trial and an incremental exercise test. After baseline testing, rowers were allocated to either a chronic NaHCO3 (ALK) or placebo (PLA) group. Starting 90 min before each HIT session, subjects ingested a 0.3-g/kg body mass dose of NaHCO3 or a placebo substance. Fingertip blood samples were taken throughout the study to analyze bicarbonate and pH levels. The ALK group did not produce any additional improvements in 2,000-m rowing performance time compared with PLA (p > .05). Magnitude-based inferential analysis indicated an unclear or trivial effect on 2,000-m power, 2,000-m time, peak power output, and power at 4 mmol/L lactate threshold in the ALK group compared with the PLA group. Although there was no difference between groups, during the study there was a significant mean (± SD) 2,000-m power improvement in both the ALK and PLA groups of 17.8 ± 14.5 and 15.2 ± 18.3 W, respectively. In conclusion, despite overall improvements in rowing performance after 4 wk of HIT, the addition of chronic NaHCO3 supplementation during the training period did not significantly enhance performance further.

Driller MW; Gregory JR; Williams AD; Fell JW

2013-02-01

180

The effects of chronic sodium bicarbonate ingestion and interval training in highly trained rowers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent research has reported performance improvements after chronic NaHCO3 ingestion in conjunction with high-intensity interval training (HIT) in moderately trained athletes. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of altering plasma H+ concentration during HIT through NaHCO3 ingestion over 4 wk (2 HIT sessions/wk) in 12 Australian representative rowers (M ± SD; age 22 ± 3 yr, mass 76.4 ± 4.2 kg, VO2peak 65.50 ± 2.74 ml · kg-1 · min-1). Baseline testing included a 2,000-m time trial and an incremental exercise test. After baseline testing, rowers were allocated to either a chronic NaHCO3 (ALK) or placebo (PLA) group. Starting 90 min before each HIT session, subjects ingested a 0.3-g/kg body mass dose of NaHCO3 or a placebo substance. Fingertip blood samples were taken throughout the study to analyze bicarbonate and pH levels. The ALK group did not produce any additional improvements in 2,000-m rowing performance time compared with PLA (p > .05). Magnitude-based inferential analysis indicated an unclear or trivial effect on 2,000-m power, 2,000-m time, peak power output, and power at 4 mmol/L lactate threshold in the ALK group compared with the PLA group. Although there was no difference between groups, during the study there was a significant mean (± SD) 2,000-m power improvement in both the ALK and PLA groups of 17.8 ± 14.5 and 15.2 ± 18.3 W, respectively. In conclusion, despite overall improvements in rowing performance after 4 wk of HIT, the addition of chronic NaHCO3 supplementation during the training period did not significantly enhance performance further. PMID:23400621

Driller, Matthew W; Gregory, John R; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
181

Hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio não previne a nefropatia de contraste: ensaio clínico multicêntrico Hydration with sodium bicarbonate does not prevent contrast nephropathy: a multicenter clinical trial  

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Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A exposição ao meio de contraste radiográfico pode causar comprometimento agudo da função renal. Há evidências limitadas e conflitantes de que a hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio previne a Nefropatia Induzida por Contraste (NIC) em pacientes submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar se o bicarbonato de sódio é superior à hidratação com soro fisiológico para evitar a nefropatia em pacientes de risco submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. MÉTODOS: Trezentos e um pacientes submetidos a intervenção coronariana percutânea ou angiografia coronariana com creatinina sérica > 1,2 mg/dL ou Taxa de Filtração Glomerular (TFG) BACKGROUND: Radiographic contrast media exposition can cause acute renal function impairment. There is limited and conflicting evidence that hydration with sodium bicarbonate prevents contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at determining whether sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline to prevent nephropathy in patients at risk undergoing cardiac catheterization. METHODS: Three hundred and one patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention with serum creatinine > 1.2mg/dL or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 50ml/min were randomized to receive hydration with sodium bicarbonate starting 1 hour before the procedure and 6 hours after the procedure, or hydration with 0.9% saline. CIN was defined as an increase of 0.5mg/dL in creatinine in 48h RESULTS: Eighteen patients (5.9%) developed contrast induced nephropathy: 9 patients in the bicarbonate group (6.1%) and 9 patients in the saline group (6.0%), p = 0.97. The change in serum creatinine was similar in both groups, 0.01 ± 0.26 mg/dL in the bicarbonate group and 0.01 ± 0.35 mg/dL in the saline group, p = 0.9. No statistical difference was observed between the change in glomerular filtration rate (0.89 ± 9 ml/min vs. 2.29 ± 10 ml/min, p = 0.2 bicarbonate group and saline group, respectively). CONCLUSION: Hydration with sodium bicarbonate was not superior to saline to prevent contrast media induced nephropathy in patients at risk undergoing cardiac catheterization.

Vitor O. Gomes; Ricardo Lasevitch; Valter C. Lima; Fábio S. Brito Jr.; Juan Carlos Perez-Alva; Bruno Moulin; Airton Arruda; Denise Oliveira; Paulo Caramori

2012-01-01

182

Desiliconization of commercial solutions of sodium tungstate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A part of anolyte prepared in the process of soda regeneration from solutions of pressure soda leaching by the method of electrodialysis is proposed to be used for desiliconization of commercial solution of sodium tungstate. The purification technique consists in the anolyte adding in portions to a arbitrary volume of hot pressurized solution during two hour constant mixing up to pH value magnitude from 9 up to 8.5, the following two hour setting at 90 deg C, and filtration. The above purification technique does not introduce additional impurities to a solution used for WO/sub 3/ separation.

Tysh, G.M. (Severo-Kavkazskij Gornometallurgicheskij Inst. (USSR))

1982-01-01

183

Desiliconization of commercial solutions of sodium tungstate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A part of anolyte prepared in the process of soda regeneration from solutions of pressure soda leaching by the method of electrodialysis is proposed to be used for desiliconization of commercial solution of sodium tungstate. The purification technique consists in the anolyte adding in portions to a arbitrary volume of hot pressurized solution during two hour constant mixing up to pH value magnitude from 9 up to 8.5, the following two hour setting at 90 deg C, and filtration. The above purification technique does not introduce additional impurities to a solution used for WO3 separation

1982-01-01

184

Stress corrosion cracking tests on electron beam welded carbon steel specimens in carbonate-bicarbonate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stress corrosion cracking tests have been performed on tapered carbon steel test pieces containing electron beam welds with a view to defining susceptibility to such cracking in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution at 90 C and an appropriate electrode potential. The tests involved applying cyclic loads to the specimens and it is shown that the threshold stress for cracking reduces linearly with increase in the magnitude of the cyclic load component. Extrapolation of these trends to zero fluctuating stress indicates static load threshold stresses in the vicinity of the yield stress (i.e. about 300 N/mm2 for parent plate without a weld, 400 N/mm2 for specimens with welds on one side only and 600 N/mm2 for specimens having welds penetrating through the thickness of the specimen). The averages of the maximum crack velocities observed were least for parent plate material and greatest for weld metal, the former being essentially intergranular in morphology and the latter mostly transgranular, with heat affected zone material being intermediate between these extremes. (author)

1985-01-01

185

Assessment of Adequacy of Dialysis in Patients Undergoing Dialysis With Bicarbonate Solution  

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Full Text Available Background & Aim: Hemodialysis is a common replacement therapy for patients with ESRD, worldwide. Effective and adequate hemodialysis can improve quality of life and reduce complications of renal failure. Enhancing quality of dialysis results in reducing the complications and mortality rate in patients with chronic renal failure. The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of dialysis in patients undergoing dialysis with Bicarbonate solution in hemodialysis ward of a hospital in Sary.Methods & Materials: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 50 patients admitted in the hemodialysis ward with chronic renal failure diagnosis. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to gather data. The KT/V formula was used to assess the adequacy of hemodialysis. The URR common characteristic was also measured. Data were analyzed using statistical tests.Results: The mean age of patients was 54.76±12.55 years. The mean of KT/V and URR were 0.26±0.92 and 0.47±0.09, respectively. The kt/v ratio was lower than 1.2 in 85.2% of the patients; and the URR was lower than 65% in 97.8% of the patients.Conclusion: The hemodialysis adequacy was low in 85.2% of the patients in the hospital and the hemodialysis efficacy indicators were lower than the standard measures. Assessment to find the reasons of low efficacy of hemodialysis is recommended.

Raheleh Mohseni; Ehteram Sadat Ilali

2011-01-01

186

The thermodynamics and kinetics of uranophane dissolution in bicarbonate test solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a synthetic uranophane (Ca(H3O)2(UO2)2(SiO4)2 smbullet3H2O) have been determined from dissolution experiments in test solutions of different bicarbonate concentrations at 25 C. The experiments were performed using batch and continuously stirred tank flow-through reactors. From the experimental data obtained with the batch reactor the solubility constant for the reaction: Ca(H3O)2(UO2)2(SiO4)2smbullet 3H2O + 6H3O+ Leftrightarrow Ca+2 + 2UO+22 + 2H4SiO4 + 11H2O was determined to be log K0s0 = 11.7 ± 0.6 and the rate equation for the dissolution process is log rdissol (mol/s m2) = minus8.3 (±0.6) + 0.7 (±0.3) log [HCO-3]. By using the continuously stirred tank flow-through reactor the authors obtained a rate equation in reasonably good agreement with that obtained in the batch reactor: log rdissol (mol/s m2) = minus9.2 (±0.4) + 0.7 (±0.2) log [HCO-3].

2000-01-01

187

[Effect of treatments of hydrogen peroxide and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate on clay minerals of red earth sediments].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As classical procedures for pretreatment of soil sediments, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) treatment methods are very important in removing the organic matter and iron oxides acting as cementing agents in the soils. However, both of these methods have less been focused on the effect on the clay minerals when separating. Here, we report the comparable methods between H2O2 and DCB to reveal their effect on clay minerals in red earth sediments using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results suggested that mineral particles can be totally decentralized by either H2O2 or DCB method in the soils and high purity clay minerals can be obtained by separating quartz and other impurities from clay minerals effectively. However, the XRD data were distorted by the DCB treatment owning to the cation exchange between Na+ and interlayer cation. On the contrary, the authentic data can be obtained by H2O2 treatment. Therefore, the H2O2 treatment seems to be a more appropriate method to obtain authentic information of clay mineralogy when separating of clay minerals from red earth sediments.

Li RB; Hong HL; Yin K; Wang CW; Gao WP; Han W; Wu QF

2013-04-01

188

Decomposição térmica do bicarbonato de sódio: do processo Solvay ao diagrama tipo Ellingham/ Thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate: from Solvay process to an Ellingham type diagram  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english A didactic experiment based on the thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate using a reagent found in the marketplace is proposed. The reaction products are identified by qualitative tests and stoichiometric calculations. The thermal stability of carbonates and the influence of lattice energies are discussed, emphasizing periodic trends in the alkali and alkaline earth families. The industrial importance of the reaction is also explored.

Maia, Alessandra de Souza; Osorio, Viktoria Klara Lakatos

2003-08-01

189

Uso de bicarbonato de sódio na acidose metabólica do paciente gravemente enfermo/ Sodium bicarbonate in the critically lll patient with metabolic acidosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A acidose lática é um distúrbio do equilíbrio ácido-base muito frequente em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva e está associado a um mau prognóstico. Embora exista um acúmulo substancial de evidências de que níveis críticos de acidemia provocam inúmeros efeitos adversos sobre o funcionamento celular, a utilização de bicarbonato de sódio para o tratamento da acidose lática em pacientes gravemente enfermos permanece alvo de controvérsias. (more) Neste artigo, pretendemos: 1) analisar as principais diferenças entre as acidoses hiperclorêmicas e as acidoses orgânicas, com ânion gap (AG) elevado, visando embasar a discussão sobre os fundamentos da terapia com bicarbonato de sódio nas acidoses metabólicas; 2) avaliar os riscos associados à persistência de níveis críticos de acidemia, contrastando-os com os riscos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio; 3) analisar criticamente as evidências da literatura sobre o uso de bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento da acidose lática do paciente crítico, com ênfase em ensaios clínicos randomizados em seres humanos; 4) fornecer um fundamento para a utilização judiciosa de bicarbonato de sódio nesta situação. Abstract in english Lactic acidosis is an acid-base imbalance frequently found in critically ill patients. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite the substantial body of evidence that critical levels of acidemia have several adverse effects on cell function, the use of sodium bicarbonate to treat lactic acidosis in critically ill patients remains highly controversial. This article aimed at: 1) analyzing the main differences between hyperchloremic and organic acidoses, with high anio (more) n gap; 2) comparing the risks associated with critical levels of acidemia with those associated with the use of sodium bicarbonate; 3) critically analyzing the literature evidence about the use of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of lactic acidosis in critically ill patients, with an emphasis on randomized control trials in human beings; and 4) providing a rationale for the judicious use of sodium bicarbonate in that situation.

Rocha, Paulo Novis

2009-12-01

190

Uso de bicarbonato de sódio na acidose metabólica do paciente gravemente enfermo Sodium bicarbonate in the critically lll patient with metabolic acidosis  

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Full Text Available A acidose lática é um distúrbio do equilíbrio ácido-base muito frequente em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva e está associado a um mau prognóstico. Embora exista um acúmulo substancial de evidências de que níveis críticos de acidemia provocam inúmeros efeitos adversos sobre o funcionamento celular, a utilização de bicarbonato de sódio para o tratamento da acidose lática em pacientes gravemente enfermos permanece alvo de controvérsias. Neste artigo, pretendemos: 1) analisar as principais diferenças entre as acidoses hiperclorêmicas e as acidoses orgânicas, com ânion gap (AG) elevado, visando embasar a discussão sobre os fundamentos da terapia com bicarbonato de sódio nas acidoses metabólicas; 2) avaliar os riscos associados à persistência de níveis críticos de acidemia, contrastando-os com os riscos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio; 3) analisar criticamente as evidências da literatura sobre o uso de bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento da acidose lática do paciente crítico, com ênfase em ensaios clínicos randomizados em seres humanos; 4) fornecer um fundamento para a utilização judiciosa de bicarbonato de sódio nesta situação.Lactic acidosis is an acid-base imbalance frequently found in critically ill patients. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite the substantial body of evidence that critical levels of acidemia have several adverse effects on cell function, the use of sodium bicarbonate to treat lactic acidosis in critically ill patients remains highly controversial. This article aimed at: 1) analyzing the main differences between hyperchloremic and organic acidoses, with high anion gap; 2) comparing the risks associated with critical levels of acidemia with those associated with the use of sodium bicarbonate; 3) critically analyzing the literature evidence about the use of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of lactic acidosis in critically ill patients, with an emphasis on randomized control trials in human beings; and 4) providing a rationale for the judicious use of sodium bicarbonate in that situation.

Paulo Novis Rocha

2009-01-01

191

Decomposição térmica do bicarbonato de sódio: do processo Solvay ao diagrama tipo Ellingham Thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate: from Solvay process to an Ellingham type diagram  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A didactic experiment based on the thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate using a reagent found in the marketplace is proposed. The reaction products are identified by qualitative tests and stoichiometric calculations. The thermal stability of carbonates and the influence of lattice energies are discussed, emphasizing periodic trends in the alkali and alkaline earth families. The industrial importance of the reaction is also explored.

Alessandra de Souza Maia; Viktoria Klara Lakatos Osorio

2003-01-01

192

Electrical and thermal investigations of the phase transition in sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on a structural phase transition in sodium hydrogen carbonate, NaHCO3 as revealed by the investigations of some electrical and thermal parameters. Measurements of d.c. electric conductivity (?) and relative premittivity (epsilon) of polycrystalline samples of NaHCO3 as a function of temperature in the interval 300 < T < 400 K reveal the existence of a structural phase transition around 365 K. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also performed in the same temperature range. The (DTA) results confirm the existence of a structural phase transition at cong 365 K whereas the (TGA) results show the absence of any actual loss in weight in the transition temperature region. The data are correlated to the crystal structure including the hydrogen bonding system.

Abdel-Kader, M. M.; Fadly, M.; Abutaleb, M.; El-Tanahy, Z. H.; Eldehemy, K.; Ali, A. I.

1995-09-01

193

Combined Effect of Glycation and Sodium Carbonate-bicarbonate Buffer Concentration on IgG binding, IgE binding and Conformation of Ovalbumin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Ovalbumin (OVA) is a major allergen in hen egg. During thermal processing, reducing sugars contained in the hen egg white might easily undergo glycation with OVA, but few studies have conducted on its corresponding immunoreactivity changes. The aim of the present study was to assess changes of the?antigenicity, potential?allergenicity and the conformation of OVA after glycation in a wet-thermal processing system under different concentration of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer. RESULTS: IgE binding of the glycated OVA was increased after glycation, and the higher the sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer concentration, the higher the IgE binding capacity. The increase in IgE binding of OVA corresponded well with the disruption of the disulfide bond, which exposed the epitopes initially buried. Antigenicity of the glycated OVA was increased, and the amount of the increase varied among samples treated under different buffer concentration. CONCLUSION: Glycation increased the allergenic potential for OVA, with the amount of increase varied among different sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer concentration.

Ma XJ; Gao JY; Chen HB

2013-04-01

194

Combined effect of glycation and sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer concentration on IgG binding, IgE binding and conformation of ovalbumin.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Ovalbumin (OVA) is a major allergen in hen egg. During thermal processing, reducing sugars contained in the hen egg white might easily undergo glycation with OVA, but few studies have been conducted on its corresponding immunoreactivity changes. The aim of the present study was to assess changes of the antigenicity, potential allergenicity and conformation of OVA after glycation in a wet-thermal processing system under different concentrations of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer. RESULTS: IgE binding of the glycated OVA was increased after glycation, and the higher the sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer concentration, the higher the IgE binding capacity. The increase in IgE binding of OVA corresponded well with the disruption of the disulfide bond, which exposed the epitopes initially buried. Antigenicity of the glycated OVA was increased, and the amount of the increase varied among samples treated under different buffer concentrations. CONCLUSION: Glycation increased the allergenic potential for OVA, with the amount of increase varying with different sodium carbonate-bicarbonate buffer concentrations. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:23553593

Ma, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Jin-Yan; Chen, Hong-Bing

2013-04-01

195

Effect of calcium hydroxide, carbonate and sodium bicarbonate on water quality and zootechnical performance of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared in bio-flocs technology (BFT) systems  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Litopenaeus vannamei (the Pacific white shrimp) is the most commonly reared species in super-intensive biofloc technology (BFT) without water renewal. In BFT, the pH may decrease due to the reduction of alkalinity and the increase of dissolved carbon dioxide. This study evaluated the effects of calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and bicarbonate in maintaining water quality during the cultivation of L. vannamei in BFT. The experiment was conducted using juveniles stocked in 150-L 12 tanks at a density of 333shrimp/m3. There were four treatments with three replicates each: T1 — Na2CO3, T2 — Ca(OH)2, T3 — NaHCO3 and T4 — control. For pH correction, alkalinity and both pH and alkalinity corrections, we used sodium carbonate (0.06g/L), sodium bicarbonate (0.20g/L) and hydrated lime (0.15g/L), respectively. Significant physical, chemical and biological differences (P<0.05) were detected among treatments. Control shrimps showed lower growth performance (P<0.05) than shrimps in other treatments. Hydrated lime and sodium bicarbonate appeared effective in supplementing alkalinity, whereas the soda ash did not. We verified the effectiveness of sodium carbonate in raising pH levels and assisting in supplementing alkalinity. This study demonstrates that the results obtained in the control treatment levels of alkalinity and pH decrease during rearing, and that CO2 levels would be increased in super-intensive systems with bioflocs without water renewal.

Furtado PS; Poersch LH; Wasielesky W

2011-11-01

196

Regulation of the cardiac sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter by angiotensin II: potential Contribution to structural, ionic and electrophysiological myocardial remodelling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sodium/ bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) is, with the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE), an important alkalinizing mechanism that maintains cellular intracellular pH (pHi). In the heart exists at least three isoforms of NBC, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 1molecule of HCO3-(electroneutral isoform; nNBC) and two others that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 2 molecules of HCO3- (electrogenic isoforms; eNBC). In addition, the eNBC generates an anionic repolarizing current that modulate the cardiac action potential (CAP), adding to such isoforms the relevance to modulate the electrophysiological function of the heart. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is one of the main hormones that regulate cardiac physiology. The alkalinizing mechanisms (NHE and NBC) are stimulated by Ang II, increasing pHi and intracellular Na+ concentration, which indirectly, due to the stimulation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) operating in the reverse form, leads to an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Interestingly, it has been shown that Ang II exhibits an opposite effect on NBC isoforms: it activates the nNBC and inhibits the eNBC. This inhibition generates a CAP prolongation, which could directly increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The regulation of the intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations is crucial for the cardiac cellular physiology, but these ions are also involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and the damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion, suggesting a potential role of NBC in cardiac diseases.

Aiello EA; De Giusti VC

2013-02-01

197

Regulation of the cardiac sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter by angiotensin II: potential Contribution to structural, ionic and electrophysiological myocardial remodelling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sodium/ bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) is, with the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE), an important alkalinizing mechanism that maintains cellular intracellular pH (pHi). In the heart exists at least three isoforms of NBC, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 1molecule of HCO3-(electroneutral isoform; nNBC) and two others that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 2 molecules of HCO3- (electrogenic isoforms; eNBC). In addition, the eNBC generates an anionic repolarizing current that modulate the cardiac action potential (CAP), adding to such isoforms the relevance to modulate the electrophysiological function of the heart. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is one of the main hormones that regulate cardiac physiology. The alkalinizing mechanisms (NHE and NBC) are stimulated by Ang II, increasing pHi and intracellular Na+ concentration, which indirectly, due to the stimulation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) operating in the reverse form, leads to an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Interestingly, it has been shown that Ang II exhibits an opposite effect on NBC isoforms: it activates the nNBC and inhibits the eNBC. This inhibition generates a CAP prolongation, which could directly increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The regulation of the intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations is crucial for the cardiac cellular physiology, but these ions are also involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and the damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion, suggesting a potential role of NBC in cardiac diseases. PMID:23116057

Aiello, Ernesto Alejandro; De Giusti, Verónica Celeste

2013-02-01

198

Sodium bicarbonate causes dose-dependent increases in cerebral blood flow in infants and children with single-ventricle physiology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is a common treatment for metabolic acidemia; however, little definitive information exists regarding its treatment efficacy and cerebral hemodynamic effects. This pilot observational study quantifies relative changes in cerebral blood flow (?rCBF) and oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations (?HbO2 and ?Hb) due to bolus administration of NaHCO3 in patients with mild base deficits. METHODS: Infants and children with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) were enrolled before cardiac surgery. NaHCO3 was given as needed for treatment of base deficit. Diffuse optical spectroscopies were used for 15 min postinjection to noninvasively monitor ?Hb, ?HbO2, and ?rCBF relative to baseline before NaHCO3 administration. RESULTS: Twenty-two anesthetized and mechanically ventilated patients with HLHS (aged 1 d to 4 y) received a median (interquartile range) dose of 1.1 (0.8, 1.8) mEq/kg NaHCO3 administered intravenously over 10-20 s to treat a median (interquartile range) base deficit of -4 (-6, -3) mEq/l. NaHCO3 caused significant dose-dependent increases in ?rCBF; however, population-averaged ?Hb and ?HbO2 as compared with those of controls were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Dose-dependent increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF) caused by bolus administration of NaHCO3 are an important consideration in vulnerable populations wherein risk of rapid CBF fluctuations does not outweigh the benefit of treating a base deficit.

Buckley EM; Naim MY; Lynch JM; Goff DA; Schwab PJ; Diaz LK; Nicolson SC; Montenegro LM; Lavin NA; Durduran T; Spray TL; Gaynor JW; Putt ME; Yodh AG; Fogel MA; Licht DJ

2013-05-01

199

Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo calves fed different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age and weight were divided into five treatment groups of 12 per group. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated and randomly allocated to a treatment group. The (more) control diet (0SB) contained no NaHCO3, while diets 4SB, 8SB, 12SB and 16SB contained 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6% NaHCO3, respectively. An increase in nutrient intake was recorded with increasing dietary NaHCO3 level while the reverse was true for nutrient digestibility. Calves fed the 12SB and 16SB diets had higher nitrogen retentions than those fed the 0SB and 4SB diets. Significant increases in blood pH, serum HCO3 and urine pH were recorded with increasing NaHCO3 levels, with the highest in calves receiving the 16SB diet. Calves fed the 14SB and 16SB diets gained more weight than those fed the 0SB and 4SB diets. These results indicate that the best nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen retention and weight gain occurred in the calves receiving the diet containing 1.2% NaHCO3.

Sarwar, M; Shahzad, M.A; Nisa, M; Amjad, S

2011-01-01

200

Sodium hyaluronate opthalmic solution, 0.18%: Safety and ...  

Science.gov (United States)

Text Version... Page 2. C-1 Rejena™ (Sodium Hyaluronate Ophthalmic Solution, 0.18%) ... Page 3. C-2 Rejena™ (Sodium Hyaluronate Ophthalmic Solution, 0.18%) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

 
 
 
 
201

BAM R74: 10 N Sodium Hydroxide Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

... BAM R74: 10 N Sodium Hydroxide Solution. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. R74 10 N Sodium Hydroxide Solution. NaOH, 400 g. ... More results from www.fda.gov/Food/FoodScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods

202

BAM R74: 10 N Sodium Hydroxide Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

... BAM R74: 10 N Sodium Hydroxide Solution. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. R74 10 N Sodium Hydroxide Solution. NaOH, 400 g. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

203

The divergence, actions, roles, and relatives of sodium-coupled bicarbonate transporters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mammalian Slc4 (Solute carrier 4) family of transporters is a functionally diverse group of 10 multi-spanning membrane proteins that includes three Cl-HCO3 exchangers (AE1-3), five Na(+)-coupled HCO3(-) transporters (NCBTs), and two other unusual members (AE4, BTR1). In this review, we mainly focus on the five mammalian NCBTs-NBCe1, NBCe2, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2. Each plays a specialized role in maintaining intracellular pH and, by contributing to the movement of HCO3(-) across epithelia, in maintaining whole-body pH and otherwise contributing to epithelial transport. Disruptions involving NCBT genes are linked to blindness, deafness, proximal renal tubular acidosis, mental retardation, and epilepsy. We also review AE1-3, AE4, and BTR1, addressing their relevance to the study of NCBTs. This review draws together recent advances in our understanding of the phylogenetic origins and physiological relevance of NCBTs and their progenitors. Underlying these advances is progress in such diverse disciplines as physiology, molecular biology, genetics, immunocytochemistry, proteomics, and structural biology. This review highlights the key similarities and differences between individual NCBTs and the genes that encode them and also clarifies the sometimes confusing NCBT nomenclature. PMID:23589833

Parker, Mark D; Boron, Walter F

2013-04-01

204

Nitrogen oxide scrubbing with sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The scrubbing of gaseous nitrogen oxides into aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions was investigated using an absorber packed with 13-mm Intalox saddles. The NO/sub x/ scrubbing efficiency for dilute mixtures of NO and NO/sub 2/ was observed to dramatically increase when caustic solutions were used as the absorbent. Several mathematical models were tested in attempts to explain the observed phenomena. A model providing for N/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and N/sub 2/O/sub 3/ absorption described the experimental results very well. Other models involving HNO/sub 2/ absorption cannot however be ruled out.

Lucero, A.J.; Counce, R.M.; Sickles, J.E. II

1987-01-01

205

[Blood gas and acid-base changes and rhythmologic tolerance of acetate and bicarbonate hemodialysis using a standard dialyser with high sodium and control of ultrafiltration  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to demonstrate a possible superiority of bicarbonate dialysis (HDB) over acetate dialysis (HDA) in conditions of standard dialysis (4 hours on a 1 m2 cuprophan dialyser) but with a bath rich in sodium (143 mEq/l) and control of ultrafiltration, we have compared 2 sequences of 3 runs of HDA and HDB with these conditions in 8 patients as regards their acido-basic and cardiologic parameters (continuous monitoring of ECG by Holter, regular measurement of blood pressure). Acid base balance study in AHD led to the distinction of 2 groups according to wether their plasma bicarbonate increased or decreased during the run. Rythmological tolerance was the same in BHD and AHD, wether all patients or both groups were considered. Heart rate was however slightly but significantly higher during AHD than during BHD, in the patients whose plasma bicarbonate decreased. In conclusion, the benefit of HDB is not remarkable when HDA is performed not only in standard conditions but also with a bath rich in sodium and with control of ultrafiltration.

Westeel PF; Coevoet B; Bens JL; Neuville M; Morinière P; Fievet P; Dkhissi H; Fournier A

1983-01-01

206

Sodium bicarbonate infusion to reduce cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury: a phase II multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury occurs in up to 50% of patients and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to discover if perioperative urinary alkalinization with sodium bicarbonate infusion reduces the prevalence of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury. DESIGN: This study was a phase IIb multicenter double-blind randomized controlled trial. SETTING: This study was conducted in three tertiary hospitals in New Zealand and Australia. PATIENTS: A total of 427 patients scheduled to undergo elective cardiac surgery, who were at increased risk of development of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury using recognized risk factors. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were randomly allocated to receive either sodium bicarbonate (n = 215) or sodium chloride (n = 212) infusion, commencing at the start of anesthesia, in a dose of 0.5 mEq/kg/hr for the first hour and then 0.2 mmol/kg/hr for 23 hours. The primary outcome measure was the number of patients with development of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury, defined as an increase in creatinine greater than 25% or 0.5 mg/dL (44 µmol/L) from baseline to peak value within the first five postoperative days. Significant differences among the groups in both plasma and urinary biochemistry were achieved 6 hours after commencement of the infusion, and these changes persisted for more than 24 hours. A total of 100 out of 215 patients (47% [95% CI, 40%-53%]) in the sodium bicarbonate group and 93 of 212 patients (44% [95% CI, 37%-51%]) in the sodium chloride group with development of acute kidney injury within the first five postoperative days (p = 0.58). There were also no significant differences in ventilation hours, ICU or hospital length of stay, or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative alkalinization of blood and urine using an infusion of sodium bicarbonate did not result in a decrease in the prevalence of acute kidney injury in patients following cardiac surgery.

McGuinness SP; Parke RL; Bellomo R; Van Haren FM; Bailey M

2013-07-01

207

Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy: A randomized controlled trial of sodium bicarbonate and N-acetylcysteine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) continues to be a common cause of acute renal failure in high-risk patients undergoing radiocontrast studies. However, there is still a lack of consensus regarding the most effective measures to prevent CIN. METHODS: ONE HUNDRED EIGHTEEN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS AND/OR RENAL INSUFFICIENCY, SCHEDULED FOR CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY OR INTERVENTION, WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO ONE OF FOUR TREATMENT GROUPS: intravenous (IV) 0.9% NaCl alone, IV 0.9% NaCl plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC), IV 0.9% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) alone or IV 0.9% NaHCO(3) plus NAC. All patients received IV hydration as a preprocedure bolus and as maintenance. Iso-osmolar contrast was used in all patients. CIN was defined as an increase of greater than 25% in the serum creatinine concentration from baseline to 72 h. RESULTS: The overall incidence of CIN was 6%. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of CIN among the groups. There was a CIN incidence of 7% in the NaCl only group, 5% in the NaCl/NAC group, 11% in the NaHCO(3) only group and 4% in the NaHCO(3)/NAC group (P=0.86). The maximum increase in serum creatinine was 14.14±12.38 ?mol/L in the NaHCO(3) group, 10.60±29.14 ?mol/L in the NaCl only group, 9.72±13.26 ?mol/L in the NaCl/NAC group and 0.177±15.91 ?mol/L for the NaHCO(3)/NAC group (P=0.0792). CONCLUSION: CIN in high-risk patients may be effectively minimized solely through the use of an aggressive hydration protocol and an iso-osmolar contrast agent. The addition of NaHCO(3) and/or NAC did not have an effect on the incidence of CIN.

Ratcliffe JA; Thiagarajah P; Chen J; Kavala G; Kanei Y; Fox J; Gowda R; Schmitz SJ; Friedmann P; Bergmann S

2009-01-01

208

Infusing sodium bicarbonate suppresses hydrogen peroxide accumulation and superoxide dismutase activity in hypoxic-reoxygenated newborn piglets.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) has recently been questioned although it is often used to correct metabolic acidosis of neonates. The aim of the present study was to examine its effect on hemodynamic changes and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generation in the resuscitation of hypoxic newborn animals with severe acidosis. METHODS: Newborn piglets were block-randomized into a sham-operated control group without hypoxia (n = 6) and two hypoxia-reoxygenation groups (2 h normocapnic alveolar hypoxia followed by 4 h room-air reoxygenation, n = 8/group). At 10 min after reoxygenation, piglets were given either i.v. SB (2 mEq/kg), or saline (hypoxia-reoxygenation controls) in a blinded, randomized fashion. Hemodynamic data and blood gas were collected at specific time points and cerebral cortical H(2)O(2) production was continuously monitored throughout experimental period. Plasma superoxide dismutase and catalase and brain tissue glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, nitrotyrosine and lactate levels were assayed. RESULTS: Two hours of normocapnic alveolar hypoxia caused cardiogenic shock with metabolic acidosis (PH: 6.99 ± 0.07, HCO(3)(-): 8.5 ± 1.6 mmol/L). Upon resuscitation, systemic hemodynamics immediately recovered and then gradually deteriorated with normalization of acid-base imbalance over 4 h of reoxygenation. SB administration significantly enhanced the recovery of both pH and HCO(3-) recovery within the first hour of reoxygenation but did not cause any significant effect in the acid-base at 4 h of reoxygenation and the temporal hemodynamic changes. SB administration significantly suppressed the increase in H(2)O(2) accumulation in the brain with inhibition of superoxide dismutase, but not catalase, activity during hypoxia-reoxygenation as compared to those of saline-treated controls. CONCLUSIONS: Despite enhancing the normalization of acid-base imbalance, SB administration during resuscitation did not provide any beneficial effects on hemodynamic recovery in asphyxiated newborn piglets. SB treatment also reduced the H(2)O(2) accumulation in the cerebral cortex without significant effects on oxidative stress markers presumably by suppressing superoxide dismutase but not catalase activity.

Liu JQ; Manouchehri N; Lee TF; Yao M; Bigam DL; Cheung PY

2012-01-01

209

The ergogenic effect of beta-alanine combined with sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity swimming performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigated the effect of beta-alanine (BA) alone (study A) and in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SB) (study B) on 100- and 200-m swimming performance. In study A, 16 swimmers were assigned to receive either BA (3.2 g·day(-1) for 1 week and 6.4 g·day(-1) for 4 weeks) or placebo (PL; dextrose). At baseline and after 5 weeks of supplementation, 100- and 200-m races were completed. In study B, 14 were assigned to receive either BA (3.2 g·day(-1) for 1 week and 6.4 g·day(-1) for 3 weeks) or PL. Time trials were performed once before and twice after supplementation (with PL and SB), in a crossover fashion, providing 4 conditions: PL-PL, PL-SB, BA-PL, and BA-SB. In study A, BA supplementation improved 100- and 200-m time-trial performance by 2.1% (p = 0.029) and 2.0% (p = 0.0008), respectively. In study B, 200-m time-trial performance improved in all conditions, compared with presupplementation, except the PL-PL condition (PL-SB, +2.3%; BA-PL, +1.5%; BA-SB, +2.13% (p < 0.05)). BA-SB was not different from BA-PL (p = 0.21), but the probability of a positive effect was 78.5%. In the 100-m time-trial, only a within-group effect for SB was observed in the PL-SB (p = 0.022) and BA-SB (p = 0.051) conditions. However, 6 of 7 athletes swam faster after BA supplementation. The probability of BA having a positive effect was 65.2%; when SB was added to BA, the probability was 71.8%. BA and SB supplementation improved 100- and 200-m swimming performance. The coingestion of BA and SB induced a further nonsignificant improvement in performance.

de Salles Painelli V; Roschel H; de Jesus F; Sale C; Harris RC; Solis MY; Benatti FB; Gualano B; Lancha AH Jr; Artioli GG

2013-05-01

210

The ergogenic effect of beta-alanine combined with sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity swimming performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the effect of beta-alanine (BA) alone (study A) and in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SB) (study B) on 100- and 200-m swimming performance. In study A, 16 swimmers were assigned to receive either BA (3.2 g·day(-1) for 1 week and 6.4 g·day(-1) for 4 weeks) or placebo (PL; dextrose). At baseline and after 5 weeks of supplementation, 100- and 200-m races were completed. In study B, 14 were assigned to receive either BA (3.2 g·day(-1) for 1 week and 6.4 g·day(-1) for 3 weeks) or PL. Time trials were performed once before and twice after supplementation (with PL and SB), in a crossover fashion, providing 4 conditions: PL-PL, PL-SB, BA-PL, and BA-SB. In study A, BA supplementation improved 100- and 200-m time-trial performance by 2.1% (p = 0.029) and 2.0% (p = 0.0008), respectively. In study B, 200-m time-trial performance improved in all conditions, compared with presupplementation, except the PL-PL condition (PL-SB, +2.3%; BA-PL, +1.5%; BA-SB, +2.13% (p < 0.05)). BA-SB was not different from BA-PL (p = 0.21), but the probability of a positive effect was 78.5%. In the 100-m time-trial, only a within-group effect for SB was observed in the PL-SB (p = 0.022) and BA-SB (p = 0.051) conditions. However, 6 of 7 athletes swam faster after BA supplementation. The probability of BA having a positive effect was 65.2%; when SB was added to BA, the probability was 71.8%. BA and SB supplementation improved 100- and 200-m swimming performance. The coingestion of BA and SB induced a further nonsignificant improvement in performance. PMID:23668760

de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Roschel, Hamilton; de Jesus, Flávia; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger Charles; Solis, Marina Yázigi; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Gualano, Bruno; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

2013-04-24

211

BIOKID: Randomized controlled trial comparing bicarbonate and lactate buffer in biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions in children [ISRCTN81137991  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the preferred dialysis modality in children. Its major drawback is the limited technique survival due to infections and progressive ultrafiltration failure. Conventional PD solutions exert marked acute and chronic toxicity to local tissues. Prolonged exposure is associated with severe histopathological alterations including vasculopathy, neoangiogenesis, submesothelial fibrosis and a gradual loss of the mesothelial cell layer. Recently, more biocompatible PD solutions containing reduced amounts of toxic glucose degradation products (GDPs) and buffered at neutral pH have been introduced into clinical practice. These solutions contain lactate, bicarbonate or a combination of both as buffer substance. Increasing evidence from clinical trials in adults and children suggests that the new PD fluids may allow for better long-term preservation of peritoneal morphology and function. However, the relative importance of the buffer in neutral-pH, low-GDP fluids is still unclear. In vitro, lactate is cytotoxic and vasoactive at the concentrations used in PD fluids. The BIOKID trial is designed to clarify the clinical significance of the buffer choice in biocompatible PD fluids. Methods/design The objective of the study is to test the hypothesis that bicarbonate based PD solutions may allow for a better preservation of peritoneal transport characteristics in children than solutions containing lactate buffer. Secondary objectives are to assess any impact of the buffer system on acid-base status, peritoneal tissue integrity and the incidence and severity of peritonitis. After a run-in period of 2 months during which a targeted cohort of 60 patients is treated with a conventional, lactate buffered, acidic, GDP containing PD fluid, patients will be stratified according to residual renal function and type of phosphate binding medication and randomized to receive either the lactate-containing Balance solution or the bicarbonate-buffered Bicavera® solution for a period of 10 months. Patients will be monitored by monthly physical and laboratory examinations. Peritoneal equilibration tests, 24-h dialysate and urine collections will be performed 4 times. Peritoneal biopsies will be obtained on occasion of intraabdominal surgery. Changes in small solute transport rates, markers of peritoneal tissue turnover in the effluent, acid-base status and peritonitis rates and severity will be analyzed.

Nau Barbara; Schmitt Claus P; Almeida Margarida; Arbeiter Klaus; Ardissino Gianluigi; Bonzel Klaus E; Edefonti Alberto; Fischbach Michel; Haluany Karin; Misselwitz Joachim; Kemper Markus J; Rönnholm Kai; Wygoda Simone; Schaefer Franz

2004-01-01

212

BIOKID: Randomized controlled trial comparing bicarbonate and lactate buffer in biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions in children [ISRCTN81137991  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the preferred dialysis modality in children. Its major drawback is the limited technique survival due to infections and progressive ultrafiltration failure. Conventional PD solutions exert marked acute and chronic toxicity to local tissues. Prolonged exposure is associated with severe histopathological alterations including vasculopathy, neoangiogenesis, submesothelial fibrosis and a gradual loss of the mesothelial cell layer. Recently, more biocompatible PD solutions containing reduced amounts of toxic glucose degradation products (GDPs) and buffered at neutral pH have been introduced into clinical practice. These solutions contain lactate, bicarbonate or a combination of both as buffer substance. Increasing evidence from clinical trials in adults and children suggests that the new PD fluids may allow for better long-term preservation of peritoneal morphology and function. However, the relative importance of the buffer in neutral-pH, low-GDP fluids is still unclear. In vitro, lactate is cytotoxic and vasoactive at the concentrations used in PD fluids. The BIOKID trial is designed to clarify the clinical significance of the buffer choice in biocompatible PD fluids. Methods/design The objective of the study is to test the hypothesis that bicarbonate based PD solutions may allow for a better preservation of peritoneal transport characteristics in children than solutions containing lactate buffer. Secondary objectives are to assess any impact of the buffer system on acid-base status, peritoneal tissue integrity and the incidence and severity of peritonitis. After a run-in period of 2 months during which a targeted cohort of 60 patients is treated with a conventional, lactate buffered, acidic, GDP containing PD fluid, patients will be stratified according to residual renal function and type of phosphate binding medication and randomized to receive either the lactate-containing Balance solution or the bicarbonate-buffered Bicavera® solution for a period of 10 months. Patients will be monitored by monthly physical and laboratory examinations. Peritoneal equilibration tests, 24-h dialysate and urine collections will be performed 4 times. Peritoneal biopsies will be obtained on occasion of intraabdominal surgery. Changes in small solute transport rates, markers of peritoneal tissue turnover in the effluent, acid-base status and peritonitis rates and severity will be analyzed.

Nau, Barbara; Schmitt, Claus P; Almeida, Margarida; Arbeiter, Klaus; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Bonzel, Klaus E; Edefonti, Alberto; Fischbach, Michel; Haluany, Karin; Misselwitz, Joachim; Kemper, Markus J; Ronnholm, Kai; Wygoda, Simone; Schaefer, Franz

2004-01-01

213

Visual compatibility of common nebulizer medications with 7% sodium chloride solution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The visual compatibility of hypertonic saline solution with various other drugs used for nebulizer therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF) was assessed. METHODS: Nebulized hypertonic saline solution has proved to be an effective adjunctive therapy for management of CF-related respiratory symptoms. Admixing of hypertonic saline solution and standard medications for nebulizer delivery has been suggested as a way to reduce the time-treatment burden on patients with CF, but that practice has been discouraged due to concerns about potential incompatibilities that could lead to precipitate formation (in the nebulizer or airway) and impeded drug delivery. For the study described here, visual and turbidimetric testing was conducted to assess the compatibility of admixtures of hypertonic saline solution and 11 medications widely used in CF (acetylcysteine, albuterol, atropine, cromolyn sodium, dexamethasone, glycopyrrolate, ipratropium, metaproterenol, sodium bicarbonate, terbutaline, and tobramycin). Three samples each of admixtures of the 11 drugs and 7% sodium chloride (experimental samples) or sterile water for injection (control samples) were prepared. The testing procedure entailed four turbidimetry measurements obtained at 15-minute intervals, as well as visual checks for signs of incompatibility (e.g., haze, particle or gas formation, alteration of color); analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences in test results between the experimental and control samples. RESULTS: Ten of the 11 medications assessed were visually compatible with 7% sodium chloride solution, as determined by serial turbidimetric testing and visual inspection; only cromolyn sodium was found to be visually incompatible with hypertonic saline. CONCLUSION: Eleven medications used in nebulizers for the treatment of CF were visually compatible with 7% sodium chloride solution.

Fox LM; Foushee JA; Jackson DJ; Watson H

2011-06-01

214

Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin), Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets  

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Full Text Available Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20%) or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14%) was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg) or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg) in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg), three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each) were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg). Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON) in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2), and increased body weight (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.

Hooge DM; Cummings KR; McNaughton JL

2000-01-01

215

Bicarbonate and citrate in oral rehydration therapy: studies in a model of secretory diarrhea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In situ perfusion of the rat jejunum and ileum was used to study the effect of inclusion of bicarbonate or citrate on the ability of four oral rehydration solutions to promote small-intestinal absorption of water and sodium. Solutions varied in their sodium (60-90 mM) and glucose (111-140 mM) content and osmolality (281-331 mosmol/kg). They were studied before and after exclusion of base both in normal intestine and in secreting intestine after exposure to cholera toxin. All solutions promoted net water absorption in the normal intestine and reversed net water secretion to absorption in the cholera toxin-treated intestine to varying degrees. Net sodium movement was directly related to the sodium content of oral rehydration solutions. Inclusion of bicarbonate or citrate did not promote significantly greater absorption of water or sodium than did solutions without base, in normal or secreting intestine. In the secreting intestine, inclusion of bicarbonate in two solutions actually resulted in greater sodium secretion than did identical solutions from which bicarbonate was omitted. These studies suggest that the inclusion of base or base precursors in oral rehydration solutions to enhance water and sodium absorption is unjustified in both normal and secreting small intestine.

Elliott EJ; Watson AJ; Walker-Smith JA; Farthing MJ

1993-04-01

216

Role of microstructures on stress corrosion cracking of pipeline steels in carbonate-bicarbonate solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on the external surface of pipelines contributes to the major failure of pipelines. The great majority of SCC is intergranular and occurs in a carbonate-bicarbonate environment. Metallurgical factors affecting SCC are still vague and therefore have been studied. Uniform microstructures, not mixed structures, are favorable for suppressing SCC. Low-C steels produced in a process such as thermomechanical-controlled processing are less susceptible to SCC. The presence of locally soft microstructures decreases resistance to SCC (mixed structure and decarburized structure). However, SCC resistance is high on hard layers, like grit-blasted surfaces.

Asahi, H.; Kushida, T.; Kimura, M.; Fukai, H.; Okano, S.

1999-07-01

217

Hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio não previne a nefropatia de contraste: ensaio clínico multicêntrico/ Hydration with sodium bicarbonate does not prevent contrast nephropathy: a multicenter clinical trial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: A exposição ao meio de contraste radiográfico pode causar comprometimento agudo da função renal. Há evidências limitadas e conflitantes de que a hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio previne a Nefropatia Induzida por Contraste (NIC) em pacientes submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar se o bicarbonato de sódio é superior à hidratação com soro fisiológico para evitar a nefropatia em pacientes d (more) e risco submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. MÉTODOS: Trezentos e um pacientes submetidos a intervenção coronariana percutânea ou angiografia coronariana com creatinina sérica > 1,2 mg/dL ou Taxa de Filtração Glomerular (TFG) Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Radiographic contrast media exposition can cause acute renal function impairment. There is limited and conflicting evidence that hydration with sodium bicarbonate prevents contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed at determining whether sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline to prevent nephropathy in patients at risk undergoing cardiac catheterization. METHODS: Thr (more) ee hundred and one patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention with serum creatinine > 1.2mg/dL or glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

Gomes, Vitor O.; Lasevitch, Ricardo; Lima, Valter C.; Brito Jr., Fábio S.; Perez-Alva, Juan Carlos; Moulin, Bruno; Arruda, Airton; Oliveira, Denise; Caramori, Paulo

2012-12-01

218

Substituição de monensina sódica por bicarbonato de sódio em dietas de novilhas confinadas/ Evaluation of the replacement of Monensin with Sodium Bicarbonate in diets for confined bovines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os efeitos da substituição da monensina sódica pelo bicarbonato de sódio em dietas de novilhas em confinamento em relação ao desempenho animal, à conversão alimentar e ao parâmetro de fermentação ruminal. Foram utilizadas 56 novilhas mestiças, confinadas por 112 dias, submetidas a dietas com duas porcentagens de concentrado, 50% e 80% da matéria seca, com adição de monensina sódica ou bicarbonato de sódio, em fatorial 2x2. O volumoso utilizad (more) o para compor as dietas testadas foi composto de silagem de milho e cana-de-açúcar na proporção de 60:40, respectivamente. O nitrogênio amoniacal foi maior nos animais alimentos com dietas com alto grão. A monensina, na dieta 80:20, proporcionou maiores valores de nitrogênio amoniacal, uma e nove horas após o consumo da ração. O uso de bicarbonato promoveu os maiores valores de pH ruminal na dieta com 50% de concentrado, de seis a 18 horas após o consumo. Não houve efeito do aditivo sobre o desempenho animal. A alta inclusão de grãos na dieta propiciou aumento do desempenho animal e da eficiência alimentar. Conclui-se que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio em dietas para terminação de animais em confinamento é uma opção viável em substituição à monensina sódica para a manipulação da fermentação ruminal. Abstract in english The effects of replacing monensin with sodium bicarbonate in diets for confined heifers on weight gain (WG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed:gain ratio (FGR) and rumen fermentation parameters were evaluated. Fifity six heifers were utilized (Santa Gertrudis x Braunvieh). Diets were formulated with two levels of concentrate (50% and 80% concentrate) with sodium monensin or sodium bicarbonate. The DMI was higest in heifers with an intake of 80% concentrate. There was not diff (more) erence when the same concentrate levels were evaluated in relation to the DMI. The heifers at 80% concentrate showed highest WG. There was no significant difference in relation to WG between monensin and bicarbonate treatments and levels concentrate proportions. There were significant effects regarding FGR between treatments. The heifers on 80% concentrate showed lowest FGR. In the evaluation of N-NH3, the highest values were observed, on the whole, at 80:20 diets in relation to 50:50 diets. In the additive use, the monensin on 80:20 diets promoted the highest values of N-NH3 at 1 for 9 hours after feed intake. In the values of ruminal pH, the bicarbonate increased the values on 50:50 at 6 for18 hours after feed intake, in relation to the 80:20 diet. In this case, it was concluded that the use of sodium bicarbonate in diets for confined finishing heifers is a viable option for the replacement of monensin sodium.

Oliveira, A.P.; Reis, R.A.; Bertipaglia, L.M.A.; Melo, G.M.P.; Berchielli, T.T.; Oliveira, J.A.; Casagrande, D.R.; Balsalobre, M.A.A.

2013-08-01

219

Np(V)/Np(IV) in concentrated carbonate/bicarbonate solutions; Np(V)/Np(IV) en solutions carbonate/bicarbonate concentrees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution of Np(V) is electrolysed to Np(IV) at -2.0 V/SHE. -1g(H{sup +}) is decreased from 10.4 to 7.2 by bubbling CO{sub 2} in these solutions, where Np(IV) spectra can be interpreted with the only lost of one CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anion from the Np(IV) limiting complex. From these spectral changes, the following parameters are fitted: 20.5 {+-} 2.1, 8.44 {+-} 0.9 and 28.9 {+-} 2.9 l/mol./cm for the Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}{sup 6-} molar absorptivity at 823, 990 and 1013 nm respectively, and 54.5 {+-} 5.5, 40.6 {+-} 4.1 and 8.53 {+-} 0.9 for the Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 4-} ones, and log((Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}{sup 6-}) / ((Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 4-})(CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}))) = 1.47 {+-} 0.08, 1.63 {+-} 0.05, 1.80 {+-} 0.04, 1.79 {+-} 0.10 and 2.21 {+-} 0.03 at the half point reaction in initially 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. These values are extrapolated to 0 ionic strength by using the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT). The redox potential of 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions of Np(V) and Np(IV) mixtures, is stable usually after three hours at T from 5 to 60 deg C, and then for up to three weeks at 21.5 deg C. At 25 deg C, its values are 0.247, 0.234, 0.244 and 0.228 V/SEH in 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. When the tonic strength is equal to 0: E = 0.52 {+-} 0.1 V/SEH and {Delta}S/F = -1.1 {+-} 0.7 mV. deg C{sup -1}. Assuming this potential is controlled by the NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 5-} + 2 CO{sub 2} + e{sup -} {r_reversible} Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}{sup 6-} equilibrium, the formation constant of the limiting complex is deduced by using published values of the other needed equilibria: log {Beta}{sub 5}{sup d}eg = 38 {+-} 4. Qualitative results on the preparation and on the spectra of Np(IV) are used to explain the apparent contradictions between some published results. (authors). 39 refs., figs., tabs.

Delmau, L.H.; Vitorge, P.; Capdevila, H.

1996-01-01

220

Passivity and Pitting Corrosion of X80 Pipeline Steel in Carbonate/Bicarbonate Solution Studied by Electrochemical Measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

This work investigated the effects of chloride ions and hydrogen-charging on the passivity and pitting corrosion behavior of X80 pipeline steel in a bicarbonate-carbonate solution by electrochemical and photo-electrochemical techniques. It was found that a stable passivity can be established on the steel in the absence and presence of chloride ions. The hydrogen-charging does not alter the transpassive potential, but increases the passive current density. When chloride ions are contained in the solution, pitting corrosion will be initiated. The pitting potential is independent of the hydrogen-charging. Hydrogen-charging would enhance the anodic dissolution and electrochemical activity of the steel, but does not affect the pitting potential, which indicates that the charged hydrogen is not involved in the pitting initiation. However, hydrogen may accelerate the pit growth. Photo illumination could enhance the activity of the steel electrode, resulting in an increase of photo-induced anodic current density.

Xue, H. B.; Cheng, Y. F.

2010-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

[Bicarbonate balance in hemodiafiltration (HDF): a comparison between two infusion methods of on-line prepared solution  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Hemodiafiltration (HDF) has high removal rates of low and middle-high molecular weight uremic toxins. We aimed to understand the efficacy and the safety in correcting on-line HDF acidosis. We compared two infusion methods of on-line prepared solution in HDF: HDF with an infusion solution produced from dialysate (HDF-OL) and HDF with a solution from patient ultrafiltrate after regeneration (HFR). METHODS: Eleven patients (four males, seven females) age 66 +/- 10 yrs, dialysis age 5.0 +/- 1.3 yrs, on anuria had two dialysis methods for the 1st session of the week, one HDF-OL and one HFR in 2 different weeks. In HDF-OL a high-flux polysulphone dialyser 1.8 m2 was used, in HFR a two-stage filter was used: polyetersulfone 0.7 m2 + SMC 1.95 m2 and a sorbent cartridge Selecta plus (Bellco) to regenerate the ultrafiltrate. HCO3- in the dialysis bath was 32 mmol/L. RESULTS: Plasma bicarbonates, before dialysis were 21.6 +/- 2.1 mmol/L on HDF-OL and 21.5 +/- 3.3 on HFR (p=ns), at the end they were 27.5 +/- 1.8 mmol/L on HDF-OL and 27.8 +/- 1.2 mmol/L on HFR (p=ns). On HDF-OL bicarbonates reached a plateau at mid session: 27 +/- 1.2, 27.5 +/- 1.2, 27.5 +/- 1.8 to 120, 180 and 240 min respectively. On HFR the plateau was reached more slowly: 26.1 +/- 1.9, 27.1 +/- 1.4, 27.8 +/- 1.2 with the same times. CONCLUSIONS: HFR-OL and HFR efficaciously corrected acidosis in a 4-h dialysis session. The same results, statistically and clinically, were achieved with infusion solution derived from dialysate and from solution from regenerated ultrafiltrate. In the latter, it was interesting that the global quality of the infusion solution was obtained from a close circuit from the patient ultrafiltrate.

Sidoti A; Borracelli D; Biagioli M; Ghezzi PM

2004-11-01

222

Effect of enteric coated sodium bicarbonate, enzymes and bile combination on the absorption of fat in chronic pancreatitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of (A) H2-receptor antagonist (ranitidine) and enzyme preparation with bile constituents (Digestal forte), (B) Digestal forte and NaHCO3, (C) NaHCO3 alone, or (D) Digestal forte alone, on the increase of lipolysis, were studied in a double-blind, randomized, prospective, controlled cross-over study in 10 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) and steatorrhea. All preparations were enteric-coated tablets except ranitidine. The 14C triolein breath test was used to monitor the lipolytic effect of the regimens, the parameter for the efficacy assessment being cumulative recover (CR) of 14CO2 after 6 hours. Before the treatment patients underwent the same test procedure. The regimen B produced significantly higher increase in CR, as compared to other regimens (p0.05). No differences were observed between the regimes A and D (p>0.05). The results showed that exogenous lipolytic action of Digestal forte remained unaffected by ranitidine (p>0.05). This study suggests that the adding of bicarbonate with Digestal forte may play an important role in the regulation of lypolysis in these patients. Key words: Chronic pancreatitis, enzyme substitution, bicarbonate, ranitidine

. Vukovic M., Jojic N.

2007-01-01

223

Recovery of Sodium Hydroxide from Alkaline Waste Solutions  

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Large quantities of highly alkaline, radioactive, liquid wastes are stored in underground tanks throughout the Department of Energy complex. These wastes will be pretreated to separate radionuclides and the remaining decontaminated liquid wastes incorporated into solid wasteforms for permanent disposal. Significant savings in disposal costs could result by recovering the sodium as sodium hydroxide for reuse or disposal as nonradioactive waste. Recent testing demonstrated an electrochemical separation process for the recovery of sodium hydroxide from alkaline waste solutions. The separation process uses ion-selective membranes to separate sodium from the bulk of the waste constituents under an applied electrical field. The sodium is recovered as a 10-15 wt percent solution of sodium hydroxide. Results of bench-scale and pilot-scale tests with simulated and radioactive waste solutions are presented.

Hobbs, D.T.

1999-04-09

224

Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate/ Atributos metabólicos, produtividade e estabilidade do leite em vacas Jersey alimentadas com dietas com citrato de sódio e bicarbonato de sódio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a inclusão de citrato de sódio e de bicarbonato de sódio na dieta de vacas lactantes Jersey e seus efeitos sobre os atributos metabólicos, a produtividade e a estabilidade do leite. Foram avaliados o pH urinário, os níveis sanguíneos de glicose e ureia, o peso e o escore de condição corporal, a produção e a estabilidade do leite (teste do álcool) e as propriedades físico?químicas do leite de 17 vacas, alimentadas c (more) om dietas com citrato de sódio (100 g por vaca por dia), bicarbonato de sódio (40 g por vaca por dia) ou sem aditivos. As avaliações foram feitas no 28º e 44º dias. O fornecimento de citrato ou de bicarbonato de sódio não influencia os atributos metabólicos, a produtividade, o peso e o escore de condição corporal das vacas, nem a composição ou a estabilidade do leite. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test), and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day), sodium bica (more) rbonate (40 g per cow per day) or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; Fischer, Vivian; Kolling, Giovani Jacob; Zanela, Maira Balbinotti; Ribeiro, Maria Edi Rocha; Abreu, Alexandre Süsenbach de

2013-05-01

225

Dry process of smokes treatment with sodium bicarbonate and the recycling of sodic wastes; Proceso seco de depuracion de humos con bicarbonato sodico de reciclado de productos sodicos residuales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Neutrec process of Solvay for the acid emissions treatment by sodium bicarbonate is using in Belgium, France, Italy, The Netherland and Spain. there are 28 facilities for the smokes treatment. these smokes are coming from the urban, sanitary and hazardous wastes. The Neutrec process is using dry reactive for neutralizing the acid smoker. (Author)

Catalan, X.

1996-12-01

226

The Density of Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide-Sodium Aluminate Solutions: Data Review and Model Development  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The density of Hanford tank waste supernatants affects the design and performance of waste treatment processes. The density of aluminate ion [Al(OH)4-] bearing sodium hydroxide solutions is important for describing the caustic leaching processes in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Flowsheet. The dissolved aluminate has a particularly large impact on the density of supernatants, but this ion is absent from most density estimation algorithms because of its rarity in most industrial processes. Fortunately, there is a large amount of published data on the density of aqueous sodium-hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions, which can be used to develop density models. This study reviewed the available data and determined the partial molar volume of sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate for mixtures of these salts in water by regression. This study determined that much of the published data suffered from a strong correlation between the sodium hydroxide and sodium aluminate concentrations in solution. Nonetheless, there was sufficient un-correlated data to identify and quantify the affect of both hydroxide and aluminate concentration on solution density. The density was found to increase linearly with both hydroxide and aluminate concentrations over a wide composition range. The effect of temperature on the density of aqueous sodium hydroxide-sodium aluminate solutions was found to be statistically significant but small in magnitude. (authors)

2006-03-02

227

On the mechanisms responsible for the phosphaturia of bicarbonate administration.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experiments were carried out in normal dogs to characterize the mechanisms by which sodium bicarbonate administration results in increased excretion of phosphate. Infusion of sodium bicarbonate alone increased fractional phosphate excretion from 0.8 to 29.3%. During bicarbonate administration, ioniz...

Mercado, A; Slatopolsky, E; Klahr, S

228

The radiation induced chemistry of uranyl cation in aqueous carbonate –bicarbonate solutions as followed by NMR spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alpha radiation induced formation of hydrogen peroxide in carbonate ?bicarbonate media was followed by 13C NMR using dissolved [233UO2(13CO3)3]4- as the alpha source (Dalpha= 12.1 Gy/hr). Between the pH region between 5.9 and 11.6 hydrogen peroxide causes a varied speciation of the uranyl carbonates that is a function of the uranium, carbonate and the hydrogen peroxide concentrations. It is shown that the speciation of the peroxy carbonates (or other species) formed in solution by titration with hydrogen peroxide are common to those formed by hydrogen peroxide generated by radiolysis. The radiolysis experiment was carried out above pH = 9.96 to minimize the loss of 13CO2 over a 2800 hr period. Radiolytic generation of hydrogen peroxide was followed by formation of a uranyl peroxy carbonate complex and complex formation accelerated for about 1200 hours. Complex formation was observed to terminate at a concentration between 1x10-4 and 5x10-4 M. It is assumed that either a steady state H2O2 production rate was established in solution or that some limiting feature of the experiment was responsible for slowing the yield of product.

McNamara, Bruce K.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Cho, Herman M.; Friese, Judah I.

2006-05-01

229

Ecological comparison between hydrated lime and sodium bicarbonate when used for dry flue gas purification; Oekologischer Vergleich von Kalkhydrat und Natriumbicarbonat beim Einsatz in der trockenen Rauchgasreinigung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lime plays an important role in environmental protection. Not only due to its properties but also due to its natural occurrence, it is suitable and accepted for universal application in the environment sector. Lime and its refined products can be used in various processes to remove the acid gases, the gaseous metal compounds and organic trace constituents from the flue gas of waste incineration plants. The choice of the suitable process depends on the raw gas load, the separation efficiency to be achieved and the way of recovery of the reaction product obtained as a result of flue gas cleaning. The dry sorption processes have been established for many years and have been continuously further developed, in which lime is injected into the flue gas flow and the reaction product is retained via a filtering separator. As an alternative to lime products, it is also possible, under certain boundary conditions, to use sodium hydrogen-carbonate NaHCO{sub 3} (below called sodium bicarbonate) as a basic reaction component in the dry sorption process. As opposed to calcium hydroxide, there are differences, for example as regards the reaction temperature required and the necessary amount of sorbent to achieve the desired purification effect. (orig.)

Wecker, Andreas [Federal German Association of the Lime Industry, Koeln (Germany)

2009-07-01

230

Use of saturated sodium chloride solution as a tissue fixative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the capability of saturated sodium chloride solution as a fixative agent instead of formalin which is regarded as a carcinogenic material. For this purpose 3 rabbits were used and their livers, kidneys and spleens were exposed and removed. Neutral buffered formalin solution, saturated sodium chloride solution and distilled water were used as fixatives for specimens obtained from the first, second and third rabbits respectively. Routine histological technique was performed to prepare a stained histological sections for light microscopic examination. The result showed that the tissue sections which were obtained by using sodium chloride have the same histological features and without any artifacts when they compared with the results obtained using formalin fixation method. We conclude that the saturated sodium chloride solution can be used as a fixative agent in some circumstances when no any fixative agent is available.

A. Al-Saraj

2010-01-01

231

Regulation of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1 function: role of Asp(986), Asp(988) and kNBC1-carbonic anhydrase II binding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The HCO(3)(-) : Na(+) cotransport stoichiometry of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter kNBC1 determines the reversal potential (E(rev)) and thus the net direction of transport of these ions through the cotransporter. Previously, we showed that phosphorylation of kNBC1-Ser(982) in the carboxy-terminus of kNBC1 (kNBC1-Ct), by cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA), shifts the stoichiometry from 3 : 1 to 2 : 1 and that binding of bicarbonate to the cotransporter is electrostaticaly modulated. These results raise the possibility that phosphorylated kNBC1-Ser(982), or other nearby negatively charged residues shift the stoichiometry by blocking a bicarbonate-binding site. In the current study, we examined the role of the negative charge on Ser(982)-phosphate and three aspartate residues in a D986NDD custer in altering the stoichiometry of kNBC1. mPCT cells expressing kNBC1 mutants were grown on filters and mounted in an Ussing chamber for electrophysiological studies. Enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)-tagged mutant constructs expressed in the same cells were used to determine the phosphorylation status of kNBC1-Ser(982). The data indicate that both kNBC1-Asp(986) and kNBC1-Asp(988), but not kNBC1-Asp(989), are required for the phosphorylation-induced shift in stoichiometry. A homologous motif (D887ADD) in the carboxy-terminus of the anion exchanger AE1 binds to carbonic anhydrase II (CAII). In isothermal titration calorimetry experiments, CAII was found to bind to kNBC1-Ct with a K(D) of 160 +/- 10 nM. Acetazolamide inhibited the short-circuit current through the cotransporter by 65 % when the latter operated in the 3 : 1 mode, but had no effect on the current in the 2 : 1 mode. Acetazolamide did not affect the cotransport stoichiometry or the ability of 8-Br-cAMP to shift the stoichiometry. Although CAII does not affect the transport stoichiometry, it may play an important role in enhancing the flux through the transporter when kNBC1-Ser(982) is unphosphorylated.

Gross E; Pushkin A; Abuladze N; Fedotoff O; Kurtz I

2002-11-01

232

Stability of colistimethate sodium in aqueous solution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Colistimethate sodium, increasingly used to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections, spontaneously hydrolyzes to form colistin A (polymyxin E1) and B (polymyxin E2/B) when mixed with water. High levels of these active breakdown products at the time of administration have been associated with nephrotoxicity and even death. In this study, reconstituted colistimethate sodium was shown to be stable (<1.0% colistin A/B formation) for up to 24 h when stored at 21, 0, -20, and -70°C.

Healan AM; Gray W; Fuchs EJ; Griffiss JM; Salata RA; Blumer J

2012-12-01

233

Stability of colistimethate sodium in aqueous solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colistimethate sodium, increasingly used to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections, spontaneously hydrolyzes to form colistin A (polymyxin E1) and B (polymyxin E2/B) when mixed with water. High levels of these active breakdown products at the time of administration have been associated with nephrotoxicity and even death. In this study, reconstituted colistimethate sodium was shown to be stable (<1.0% colistin A/B formation) for up to 24 h when stored at 21, 0, -20, and -70°C. PMID:23070159

Healan, A M; Gray, W; Fuchs, E J; Griffiss, J M; Salata, R A; Blumer, J

2012-10-15

234

Dynamic interfacial tension between bitumen and aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dynamic interfacial tension between bitumen-in-toluene solutions (0.1-10 wt%) and aqueous sodium hydroxide solutions (0-5 wt%) were measured by drop volume method. The results of these measurements were analyzed on the basis of two models. The two models, based on diffusion-controlled adsorption, provided good fits to the dynamic interfacial tension data. The kinetic parameters and equilibrium interfacial tension were derived and were found to depend on both bitumen concentration in the oil phase and sodium hydroxide concentration in the aqueous phase. Equilibrium interfacial tensions decrease considerably with the increase of the concentration of bitumen or sodium hydroxide. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Xu, Y. [CANMET, Devon, AB (Canada). Western Research Center

1995-01-01

235

Corrosion of dental amalgams in solutions of sodium chloride, sodium sulfide and ammonia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Specimens were prepared from three different dental amalgams and were immersed in 0.5% aqueous solutions of sodium sulfide, ammonia and sodium chloride. Every month and over a 6-month experimental period the solutions were replaced with fresh electrolyte and were analyzed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer with respect to their content in silver, mercury, copper, tin and zinc. In sulfide solutions large amounts of tin and mercury were released from the amalgams while none of the other elements could be detected. Copper, tin and mercury were mostly dissolved in ammonia solutions. An increased silver dissolution could also be observed. Zinc was the first element to be released in sodium chloride solutions. After a 4-month immersion, considerable amounts of copper and mercury could also be found in the same solutions.

Palaghias G

1986-06-01

236

Sodium bicarbonate versus isotonic saline for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus undergoing coronary angiography and/or intervention: a multicenter prospective randomized study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a leading cause of acute renal failure and affects mortality and morbidity. Although the incidence of CIN is quite low in the general population, CIN incidence is significantly increased in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). OBJECTIVES: We compared the efficacy of prophylactic use consisting of a saline infusion or a sodium bicarbonate infusion for the prevention of CIN in patients with DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 195 DM patients who had unselected renal function were randomized into 2 groups: 101 patients were assigned to saline infusion, and 94 patients were assigned to bicarbonate infusion. The primary end point was the maximum increase in the serum creatinine (SCr) level, whereas the secondary end point was the development of CIN after the procedure. RESULTS: The maximum increase in SCr levels was significantly lower in the saline group than in the bicarbonate group: -0.03 mg/dL (IQR, -0.09 to 0.10 mg/dL) versus 0.02 mg/dL (IQR, -0.09 to 0.13 mg/dL) (P = 0.014). The rate of CIN was significantly lower in the saline group than in the bicarbonate group (5.9% vs 16%, P = 0.024). In the subset of study participants with a baseline creatinine clearance of less than 60 mL/min, the maximum increase in SCr levels was significantly lower, -0.08 mg/dL (IQR, -0.13 to -0.04 mg/dL), in the saline group than in the bicarbonate group, 0.03 mg/dL (IQR, -0.13 to 0.12 mg/dL) (P = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The use of prophylactic hydration with isotonic saline before coronary procedures may decrease SCr levels and reduce the incidence of CIN in patients with DM with unselected renal functions to a greater extent than sodium bicarbonate can.

Koc F; Ozdemir K; Altunkas F; Celik A; Dogdu O; Karayakali M; Gul EE; Erkorkmaz U; Kadi H; Akpek M; Kaya MG

2013-06-01

237

Prevenção de nefrotoxicidade por contraste com solução de bicarbonato: resultados preliminares e revisão da literatura/ Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by use of bicarbonate solution: preliminary results and literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A incidência da nefropatia por contraste tem aumentado simultaneamente ao aumento da sua utilização com fins diagnósticos e de intervenção terapêutica. A sua incidência na população geral é baixa, porém aumenta exponencialmente em pacientes com fatores de risco como diabetes e doença renal prévia. Várias estratégias têm sido utilizadas na tentativa de prevenir a nefropatia por contraste. Hidratação com solução fisiológica, contraste de (more) baixa osmolalidade ou iso-osmolar e infusão de bicarbonato de sódio são consideradas como as mais eficazes. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar a literatura pertinente sobre prevenção de nefropatia do contraste e estudar, de forma inicial, a eficácia da hidratação a base de bicarbonato de sódio a 1,3% comparada à hidratação a base de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% na prevenção da nefrotoxicidade do contraste em pacientes de alto risco para o seu desenvolvimento. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a literatura por meio de busca sistemática no banco de dados PubMed usando as palavras-chave bicarbonato, nefrotoxicidade, contraste e insuficiência renal aguda e, adicionalmente, foram estudados 27 pacientes, portadores de diabetes mellitus e/ou doença renal crônica prévia e diagnosticados com algum tipo de câncer. RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes desenvolveu nefropatia do contraste, caracterizada como aumento de 0,5 mg/ dL e/ou de 25% na creatinina basal. CONCLUSÃO: A revisão de literatura sugere fortemente que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio é eficaz na prevenção de nefropatia por contraste. Em relação ao estudo randomizado e controlado o soro fisiológico e o bicarbonato de sódio apresentaram eficácia similar quanto à prevenção de nefrotoxicidade do contraste. No entanto, o pequeno número de pacientes não permite conclusões definitivas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy has increased simultaneously with the increase in contrast medium use in diagnostic and interventional procedures. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in the general population is low, but increases exponentially in patients with risk factors, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Several strategies have been used in order to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. The most efficient strategies are (more) saline hydration (0.9% or 0.45%), use of low-or iso-osmolality contrast medium, and sodium bicarbonate infusion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the pertinent literature and to assess the efficacy of hydration with 1.3% sodium bicarbonate compared with hydration with 0.9% saline solution in preventing contrastinduced nephropathy in high-risk patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed by using the following keywords: bicarbonate, nephropathy, contrast medium, and acute kidney failure. In addition, 27 patients with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, diagnosed with some kind of cancer were randomized for study. RESULTS: None of the patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy characterized as a 0.5 mg/ dL-increase and/or a relative 25%-increase in baseline creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review strongly suggested that sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. Regarding the randomized study, saline solution and bicarbonate solution had similar efficacy in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. However, the small number of patients does not allow definite conclusions.

Silva, Ricardo Gonçalves da; Silva, Nelson Gonçalves da; Lucchesi, Fabiano; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

2010-09-01

238

Prevenção de nefrotoxicidade por contraste com solução de bicarbonato: resultados preliminares e revisão da literatura Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by use of bicarbonate solution: preliminary results and literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A incidência da nefropatia por contraste tem aumentado simultaneamente ao aumento da sua utilização com fins diagnósticos e de intervenção terapêutica. A sua incidência na população geral é baixa, porém aumenta exponencialmente em pacientes com fatores de risco como diabetes e doença renal prévia. Várias estratégias têm sido utilizadas na tentativa de prevenir a nefropatia por contraste. Hidratação com solução fisiológica, contraste de baixa osmolalidade ou iso-osmolar e infusão de bicarbonato de sódio são consideradas como as mais eficazes. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar a literatura pertinente sobre prevenção de nefropatia do contraste e estudar, de forma inicial, a eficácia da hidratação a base de bicarbonato de sódio a 1,3% comparada à hidratação a base de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% na prevenção da nefrotoxicidade do contraste em pacientes de alto risco para o seu desenvolvimento. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a literatura por meio de busca sistemática no banco de dados PubMed usando as palavras-chave bicarbonato, nefrotoxicidade, contraste e insuficiência renal aguda e, adicionalmente, foram estudados 27 pacientes, portadores de diabetes mellitus e/ou doença renal crônica prévia e diagnosticados com algum tipo de câncer. RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes desenvolveu nefropatia do contraste, caracterizada como aumento de 0,5 mg/ dL e/ou de 25% na creatinina basal. CONCLUSÃO: A revisão de literatura sugere fortemente que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio é eficaz na prevenção de nefropatia por contraste. Em relação ao estudo randomizado e controlado o soro fisiológico e o bicarbonato de sódio apresentaram eficácia similar quanto à prevenção de nefrotoxicidade do contraste. No entanto, o pequeno número de pacientes não permite conclusões definitivas.INTRODUCTION: The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy has increased simultaneously with the increase in contrast medium use in diagnostic and interventional procedures. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in the general population is low, but increases exponentially in patients with risk factors, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Several strategies have been used in order to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. The most efficient strategies are saline hydration (0.9% or 0.45%), use of low-or iso-osmolality contrast medium, and sodium bicarbonate infusion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the pertinent literature and to assess the efficacy of hydration with 1.3% sodium bicarbonate compared with hydration with 0.9% saline solution in preventing contrastinduced nephropathy in high-risk patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed by using the following keywords: bicarbonate, nephropathy, contrast medium, and acute kidney failure. In addition, 27 patients with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, diagnosed with some kind of cancer were randomized for study. RESULTS: None of the patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy characterized as a 0.5 mg/ dL-increase and/or a relative 25%-increase in baseline creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review strongly suggested that sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. Regarding the randomized study, saline solution and bicarbonate solution had similar efficacy in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. However, the small number of patients does not allow definite conclusions.

Ricardo Gonçalves da Silva; Nelson Gonçalves da Silva; Fabiano Lucchesi; Emmanuel A Burdmann

2010-01-01

239

Pre-harvest treatments with fungicides and post-harvest dips in sodium bicarbonate to control postharvest decay in stone fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different commercial formulations of fungicides containing one or more active ingredients in controlling postharvest decay of Thyrinthos and Boccuccia apricots, Red top peaches and Caldesi nectarines. Field treatments consisted of two sprays with cupric compounds, at the end of leaf fall and before bud swelling, one with sulfur compound, at fruit about half final size stage, and one with one of the following commercial formulations at the label suggested rates, one week before harvest: Teldor (fenexamid 50%; Bayer Crop Protection), Folicur (Tebuconazole 4.35%; Bayer Crop Protection), Signum (boscalid 26.7%, pyraclostrobin 6.7%; Basf Crop Protection), Score (difenoconazole 23.23%, Syngenta Crop Protection) and Switch (cyprodinil 37.5%, fludioxonil 25%, Syngenta Crop Protection). After harvest the fruit were stored for 1 week at 6 degrees C and 90% RH followed by 1 week at 20 degrees C and 60% RH to simulate retail conditions, or placed directly at 20 degrees C. All formulations significantly reduced decay in all cultivars. Switch, Signum and Folicur were the most active, while Score was slightly less effective. Teldor activity was low, especially in Thyrintos apricots, where the percentage of rotten fruit was slightly lower than in control fruit. Brown rot was the most representative disease, but in apricots a high percentage of fruit was affected by blue mold and grey mold. Rhizopus rot generally developed as a secondary disease on fruit previously affected by other pathogens and was more frequent in control and Teldor treated fruit. Preharvest sprays with Signum 3 days before harvest reduced postharvest decay after 1 week storage at 20 degrees C in Glo haven peaches and Venus nectarine harvested at advanced stage of maturity. Combining pre-harvest sprays with Signum and a 2-min postharvest dip in 2% sodium bicarbonate at 20 degrees C further reduced decay. In Sothern regions of Italy, the use of synthetic fungicides only immediately before harvest in years when the weather conditions are not favorable to brown rot and other pathogens inducing postharvest decay, combined with a postharvest treatment with sodium bicarbonate could be a feasible integrated approach to reduce the risk of selection of resistant strains of fungi to synthetic fungicides while controlling effectively postharvest decay. PMID:23878974

D'Aquino, S; Barberis, A; Satta, D; De Pau, L; Schirra, M

2012-01-01

240

Pre-harvest treatments with fungicides and post-harvest dips in sodium bicarbonate to control postharvest decay in stone fruit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different commercial formulations of fungicides containing one or more active ingredients in controlling postharvest decay of Thyrinthos and Boccuccia apricots, Red top peaches and Caldesi nectarines. Field treatments consisted of two sprays with cupric compounds, at the end of leaf fall and before bud swelling, one with sulfur compound, at fruit about half final size stage, and one with one of the following commercial formulations at the label suggested rates, one week before harvest: Teldor (fenexamid 50%; Bayer Crop Protection), Folicur (Tebuconazole 4.35%; Bayer Crop Protection), Signum (boscalid 26.7%, pyraclostrobin 6.7%; Basf Crop Protection), Score (difenoconazole 23.23%, Syngenta Crop Protection) and Switch (cyprodinil 37.5%, fludioxonil 25%, Syngenta Crop Protection). After harvest the fruit were stored for 1 week at 6 degrees C and 90% RH followed by 1 week at 20 degrees C and 60% RH to simulate retail conditions, or placed directly at 20 degrees C. All formulations significantly reduced decay in all cultivars. Switch, Signum and Folicur were the most active, while Score was slightly less effective. Teldor activity was low, especially in Thyrintos apricots, where the percentage of rotten fruit was slightly lower than in control fruit. Brown rot was the most representative disease, but in apricots a high percentage of fruit was affected by blue mold and grey mold. Rhizopus rot generally developed as a secondary disease on fruit previously affected by other pathogens and was more frequent in control and Teldor treated fruit. Preharvest sprays with Signum 3 days before harvest reduced postharvest decay after 1 week storage at 20 degrees C in Glo haven peaches and Venus nectarine harvested at advanced stage of maturity. Combining pre-harvest sprays with Signum and a 2-min postharvest dip in 2% sodium bicarbonate at 20 degrees C further reduced decay. In Sothern regions of Italy, the use of synthetic fungicides only immediately before harvest in years when the weather conditions are not favorable to brown rot and other pathogens inducing postharvest decay, combined with a postharvest treatment with sodium bicarbonate could be a feasible integrated approach to reduce the risk of selection of resistant strains of fungi to synthetic fungicides while controlling effectively postharvest decay.

D'Aquino S; Barberis A; Satta D; De Pau L; Schirra M

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Effect of oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation on progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with chronic metabolic acidosis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SoBic-Study).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Overt chronic metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease develops after a drop of glomerular filtration rate to less than approximately 25 mL/min/1.73 m2. The pathogenic mechanism seems to be a lack of tubular bicarbonate production, which in healthy individuals neutralizes the acid net production. As shown in several animal and human studies the acidotic milieu alters bone and vitamin D metabolism, induces muscle wasting, and impairs albumin synthesis, aside from a direct alteration of renal tissue by increasing angiotensin II, aldosteron and endothelin kidney levels. Subsequent studies testing various therapeutic approaches in very selected study populations showed that oral supplementation of the lacking bicarbonate halts progression of decline of renal function. However, due to methodological limitations of these studies further investigations are of urgent need to ensure the validity of this therapeutic concept. METHODS: The SoBic-study is a single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label clinical phase IV study performed at the nephrological outpatient service of the Medical University of Vienna. Two-hundred patients classified to CKD stage 3 or 4 with two separate measurements of HCO3- of <21 mmol/L will be 1:1 randomized to either receive a high dose of oral sodium bicarbonate with a serum target HCO3- level of 24 +/- 1 mmol/L or receive a rescue therapy of sodium bicarbonate with a serum target level of 20 +/- 1 mmol/L. The follow up will be for two years. The primary outcome is the effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on renal function measured by means of estimated glomerular filtration rates (4-variable-MDRD-equation) after two years. Secondary outcomes are change in markers of bone metabolism between groups, death rates between groups, and the number of subjects proceeding to renal replacement therapy across groups. Adverse events, such as worsening of arterial hypertension due to the additional sodium consumption, will be accurately monitored. DISCUSSION: We hypothesize that sufficiently balanced acid--base homeostasis leads to a reduction of decline of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease. The concept of an exogenous bicarbonate supplementation to substitute the lacking endogenous bicarbonate has existed for a long time, but has never been investigated sufficiently to state clear treatment guidelines.Trial registration: EUDRACT Number: 2012-001824-36.

Gaggl M; Cejka D; Plischke M; Heinze G; Fraunschiel M; Schmidt A; Hörl WH; Sunder-Plassmann G

2013-07-01

242

Recovery of acids and sodium hydroxide from solutions of sodium sulfate and sodium chloride with the use of bipolar membranes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors examined the kinetic laws governing the electrodialysis recovery of hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid, as well as sodium hydroxide, from 1M sodium chloride and 0.5 M sodium sulfate solutions and from a mixture of these salts with the use of the MB-1, MB-2, and MB-3 bipolar membranes. Kinetic plots of the current density and the concentration of the acid and the base in the chambers next to the bipolar membranes during the electrodialysis treatment of 1M sodium chloride, 0.5 M sodium sulfate, and solutions are presented. It was established that it is better to use the MB-3 membrane for the electrodialysis conversion of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate into acids and sodium hydroxide owing to the high rate and current efficiency and low expenditure of electrical energy and degree of contamination of the products obtained by the salts. It was also established that the resistance of the MB-1 and MB-2 bipolar membranes is almost an order of magnitude higher than that of the MB-3 membrane.

Bobrinskaya, G.A.; Pavlova, T.V.; Shatalov, A.Ya.

1985-09-01

243

Sodium-hydroxide solution treatment on sandstone cores  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This research was performed to study the effect of sodium hydroxide solution on the sandstone core samples and to develop a method whereby the permeability of the samples could be increased by the injection of sodium hydroxide solution. This work should provide the first step in developing a technique that can be used in the stimulation of oil and gas wells. A series of tests was conducted in which sodium hydroxide solution with concentrations ranging from 0.25 N to 2.00 N was injected into a number of Berea sandstone cores. The tests were conducted at room temperature and at 180{degree}F. In some cases the core sample were damaged by the injection of fresh water which resulted in a marked reduction in the permeability of the cores prior to the injection of sodium hydroxide solution. Based on laboratory testing with measurements of uniaxial compressive strength, SEM examination and X-ray analysis, it was found that sodium hydroxide interacted with sandstone to promote (1) partial dissolution of the sandstone minerals; (2) sandstone weight loss; (3) increased porosity; (4) weakening of the sandstone cores; and (5) changes in permeability. The interaction increased with increasing temperature and increasing sodium hydroxide concentration. However, at concentrations higher than 1.00 N, the degree of increase in permeability was not as large even though the sandstone weight loss and the increase in porosity did increase.

Lee, S.J.

1984-01-01

244

The Structure and Spectroscopy of Cyanate and Bicarbonate Ions. Astrophysical Implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanate and bicarbonate are two ions that play active roles in many fields of physics and chemistry, including biological sciences and astrochemistry. We present here a comprehensive study of these species covering a range of phases and methodologies. We have performed theoretical calculations on the isolated ions and their hydrates with one to four water molecules, and in clusters with 15 water molecules. The predicted infrared spectra are compared with observed spectra from experiments where liquid droplets of their solutions are frozen at 14 K on a substrate, to mimic some astrophysical conditions. Crystals of cyanate and bicarbonate sodium and potassium salts are also studied experimental and theoretically. As well, the spontaneous decomposition of cyanate into bicarbonate is documented from the spectra of an aged solution. Finally, the possible astrophysical observation of bicarbonate in water-containing particles is discussed. PMID:23360125

Moreno, M A; Maté, B; Rodríguez-Lazcano, Y; Gálvez, O; Gómez, P C; Herrero, V J; Escribano, R

2013-02-14

245

The Structure and Spectroscopy of Cyanate and Bicarbonate Ions. Astrophysical Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanate and bicarbonate are two ions that play active roles in many fields of physics and chemistry, including biological sciences and astrochemistry. We present here a comprehensive study of these species covering a range of phases and methodologies. We have performed theoretical calculations on the isolated ions and their hydrates with one to four water molecules, and in clusters with 15 water molecules. The predicted infrared spectra are compared with observed spectra from experiments where liquid droplets of their solutions are frozen at 14 K on a substrate, to mimic some astrophysical conditions. Crystals of cyanate and bicarbonate sodium and potassium salts are also studied experimental and theoretically. As well, the spontaneous decomposition of cyanate into bicarbonate is documented from the spectra of an aged solution. Finally, the possible astrophysical observation of bicarbonate in water-containing particles is discussed.

Moreno, M. A.; Maté, B.; Rodríguez-Lazcano, Y.; Gálvez, O.; Gómez, P. C.; Herrero, V. J.; Escribano, R.

2013-10-01

246

Effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on the cariogenic microbiota/ Efeito da profilaxia profissional com jato de bicarbonato de sódio sobre a microbiota cariogênica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se o efeito da profilaxia dentária profissional com o jato de bicarbonato de sódio na contagem salivar de estreptococos do grupo mutans e de lactobacilos em 32 crianças entre 7-10 anos. Coletou-se saliva total estimulada antes e 60 minutos após o procedimento, e decorridos 30 dias, sendo o número de UFC/mL saliva detectado através do sistema Caritest. Constatou-se uma redução imediata, estatisticamente significativa, nos níveis salivares de ambos os micro (more) rganismos, sendo de 50% para estreptococos do grupo mutans e de 27% para lactobacilos. Para os estreptococos do grupo mutans, esta redução persistiu pelo período de 30 dias, o mesmo não ocorrendo para os lactobacilos, que retornaram aos seus valores iniciais. Abstract in english The effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on salivary counting of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in 32 children ranging from 7 to 10 years of age, has been assessed. Whole stimulated saliva was collected before the prophylaxis, immediately after it and 30 days later, and the number of CFU/ml in the saliva was detected through the Caritest system. A statistically significant immediate decrease on salivary levels of both microorganisms (more) was observed, 50% for mutans streptococci and 27% for lactobacilli. For mutans streptococci this decrease continued through the 30 days period; the same did not occur with lactobacilli, that returned to their baseline values.

LANZA, Célia Regina Moreira; LIMA, José Eduardo de Oliveira; TORRES, Sergio Aparecido; MACHADO, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira

2000-03-01

247

Distinct and additive effects of sodium bicarbonate and continuous mild heat stress on fiber type shift via calcineurin/NFAT pathway in human skeletal myoblasts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is known to enhance athletic performance, probably via increased extracellular buffering capacity. At present, little is known about the direct effects of NaHCO3 on myogenesis, especially in vitro. Here, we examined the effects of NaHCO3 and the combined effects of NaHCO3 and continuous mild heat stress (CMHS) at 39°C on the differentiation of human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMMs). Levels of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) type I mRNA increased with increasing NaHCO3 concentrations; in contrast, those of MyHC IIx decreased. The NaHCO3-induced fast-to-slow shift was additively enhanced by CMHS. Likewise, intracellular calcium levels and expression of three factors, nuclear factor of activated T cells c2 (NFATc2), NFATc4, and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, were upregulated with increasing NaHCO3 concentrations; moreover, these effects of NaHCO3 were additively enhanced by CMHS. Overexpression experiments and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown experiments confirmed that NFATc2 and NFATc4 were involved in MyHC I regulation. The present study provided evidence that NaHCO3 and CMHS distinctly and additively induced a fast-to-slow fiber type shift through changes in intracellular calcium levels and the modulation of calcium signaling.

Yamaguchi T; Omori M; Tanaka N; Fukui N

2013-08-01

248

Effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on the cariogenic microbiota Efeito da profilaxia profissional com jato de bicarbonato de sódio sobre a microbiota cariogênica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of professional dental prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on salivary counting of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in 32 children ranging from 7 to 10 years of age, has been assessed. Whole stimulated saliva was collected before the prophylaxis, immediately after it and 30 days later, and the number of CFU/ml in the saliva was detected through the Caritest system. A statistically significant immediate decrease on salivary levels of both microorganisms was observed, 50% for mutans streptococci and 27% for lactobacilli. For mutans streptococci this decrease continued through the 30 days period; the same did not occur with lactobacilli, that returned to their baseline values.Avaliou-se o efeito da profilaxia dentária profissional com o jato de bicarbonato de sódio na contagem salivar de estreptococos do grupo mutans e de lactobacilos em 32 crianças entre 7-10 anos. Coletou-se saliva total estimulada antes e 60 minutos após o procedimento, e decorridos 30 dias, sendo o número de UFC/mL saliva detectado através do sistema Caritest. Constatou-se uma redução imediata, estatisticamente significativa, nos níveis salivares de ambos os microrganismos, sendo de 50% para estreptococos do grupo mutans e de 27% para lactobacilos. Para os estreptococos do grupo mutans, esta redução persistiu pelo período de 30 dias, o mesmo não ocorrendo para os lactobacilos, que retornaram aos seus valores iniciais.

Célia Regina Moreira LANZA; José Eduardo de Oliveira LIMA; Sergio Aparecido TORRES; Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira MACHADO

2000-01-01

249

Distinct and additive effects of sodium bicarbonate and continuous mild heat stress on fiber type shift via calcineurin/NFAT pathway in human skeletal myoblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is known to enhance athletic performance, probably via increased extracellular buffering capacity. At present, little is known about the direct effects of NaHCO3 on myogenesis, especially in vitro. Here, we examined the effects of NaHCO3 and the combined effects of NaHCO3 and continuous mild heat stress (CMHS) at 39°C on the differentiation of human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMMs). Levels of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) type I mRNA increased with increasing NaHCO3 concentrations; in contrast, those of MyHC IIx decreased. The NaHCO3-induced fast-to-slow shift was additively enhanced by CMHS. Likewise, intracellular calcium levels and expression of three factors, nuclear factor of activated T cells c2 (NFATc2), NFATc4, and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator-1?, were upregulated with increasing NaHCO3 concentrations; moreover, these effects of NaHCO3 were additively enhanced by CMHS. Overexpression experiments and small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown experiments confirmed that NFATc2 and NFATc4 were involved in MyHC I regulation. The present study provided evidence that NaHCO3 and CMHS distinctly and additively induced a fast-to-slow fiber type shift through changes in intracellular calcium levels and the modulation of calcium signaling. PMID:23703530

Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Omori, Maiko; Tanaka, Nobuho; Fukui, Naoshi

2013-05-22

250

Use of sodium bicarbonate to promote weight gain, maintain body temperature, normalize renal functions and minimize mortality in rodents receiving the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A simple method to reduce adverse effects of the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin on animal health is described. Animals receiving normal saline (0.9% NaCl) s.c. prior to once weekly injections of cisplatin (3 mg/kg i.p.×3 or 4 weeks) exhibited failure of weight gain, lowered body temperature, elevations in creatinine and ketone levels and increased kidney weight ratios. By contrast, rats treated with sodium bicarbonate (4% NaHCO3 in saline s.c.) prior to cisplatin (3 mg/kg i.p.×3 or 4 weeks) exhibited normal weight gain, body temperature, creatinine and ketone levels, as well as normal kidney weight ratios (over 16 or 28 days, respectively). Cisplatin-induced neuropathy (i.e. mechanical and cold allodynia) developed equivalently in both groups. Our studies suggest that NaHCO3 pretreatment promotes animal health and minimizes weight loss, body temperature dysregulation and signs of renal toxicity (i.e. increases in creatinine and kidney weight ratio) following repeated cisplatin treatment without altering the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

Guindon J; Hohmann AG

2013-06-01

251

Use of sodium bicarbonate to promote weight gain, maintain body temperature, normalize renal functions and minimize mortality in rodents receiving the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple method to reduce adverse effects of the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin on animal health is described. Animals receiving normal saline (0.9% NaCl) s.c. prior to once weekly injections of cisplatin (3 mg/kg i.p.×3 or 4 weeks) exhibited failure of weight gain, lowered body temperature, elevations in creatinine and ketone levels and increased kidney weight ratios. By contrast, rats treated with sodium bicarbonate (4% NaHCO3 in saline s.c.) prior to cisplatin (3 mg/kg i.p.×3 or 4 weeks) exhibited normal weight gain, body temperature, creatinine and ketone levels, as well as normal kidney weight ratios (over 16 or 28 days, respectively). Cisplatin-induced neuropathy (i.e. mechanical and cold allodynia) developed equivalently in both groups. Our studies suggest that NaHCO3 pretreatment promotes animal health and minimizes weight loss, body temperature dysregulation and signs of renal toxicity (i.e. increases in creatinine and kidney weight ratio) following repeated cisplatin treatment without altering the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. PMID:23570729

Guindon, Josée; Hohmann, Andrea G

2013-04-06

252

Aggregation of sodium alkylbenzenesulfonates in aqueous solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The surfactant 6 phenyl C/sub 12/SNa forms small spherical micelles in aqueous solution, having an aggregation number of 20 to 30 and a fractional charge of 0.45. These micelles are hydrated to the extent of approximately 18 moles H/sub 2/O per moles of surfactant. A second larger aggregate is also present in 6 phenyl C/sub 12/SNa solutions; its importance increases with solution age. Addition of NaCl causes both aggregates to apparently increase modestly in size. The surfactant 8 phenyl C/sub 16/SNa also contains both aggregates in its solutions; the larger one is relatively more important here. The larger aggregate does not correspond to dispersed bits of a liquid crystalline mesophase.

Magid, L.J.; Shaver, R.J.; Gulari, E.; Bedwell, B.; Alkhafaji, S.

1981-01-01

253

Sodium Hydroxide Extraction From Caustic Leaching Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes experiments conducted to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a method to recover NaOH from Hanford tank sludge leaching solutions. Aqueous solutions generated from leaching actual Hanford tank waste solids were used. The process involves neutralization of a lipophilic weak acid (t-octylphenol was used in these experiments) by reaction with NaOH in the aqueous phase. This results in the transfer of Na into the organic phase. Contacting with water reverses this process, reprotonating the lipophilic weak acid and transferring Na back into the aqueous phase as NaOH. The work described here confirms the potential application of solvent extraction to recover and recycle NaOH from solutions generated by leaching Hanford tank sludges. Solutions obtained by leaching sludges from tanks S-110 and T-110 were used in this work. It was demonstrated that Na+ is transferred from caustic leaching solution to the organic phase when contacted with t-octylphenol solutions. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the aqueous-phase hydroxide ion concentration. Seventy to 80 % of the extracted Na was recovered by 3 to 4 sequential contacts of the organic phase with water. Cesium was co-extracted by the procedure, but Al and Cr remained in the feed stream.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Garza, Priscilla A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

2002-09-18

254

Sodium Hydroxide Extraction From Caustic Leaching Solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes experiments conducted to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a method to recover NaOH from Hanford tank sludge leaching solutions. Aqueous solutions generated from leaching actual Hanford tank waste solids were used. The process involves neutralization of a lipophilic weak acid (t-octylphenol was used in these experiments) by reaction with NaOH in the aqueous phase. This results in the transfer of Na into the organic phase. Contacting with water reverses this process, reprotonating the lipophilic weak acid and transferring Na back into the aqueous phase as NaOH. The work described here confirms the potential application of solvent extraction to recover and recycle NaOH from solutions generated by leaching Hanford tank sludges. Solutions obtained by leaching sludges from tanks S-110 and T-110 were used in this work. It was demonstrated that Na+ is transferred from caustic leaching solution to the organic phase when contacted with t-octylphenol solutions. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the aqueous-phase hydroxide ion concentration. Seventy to 80% of the extracted Na was recovered by 3 to 4 sequential contacts of the organic phase with water. Cesium was co-extracted by the procedure, but Al and Cr remained in the feed stream.

2002-01-01

255

Densities of Sodium Tetrafluoroborate Aqueous Solutions at 20 Degrees C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analytical data and plant solution compositions are often reported in molarity units. Densities of salt solutions are needed to convert the concentrations to molal basis in order to utilize physical property data that have been established on a molal basis, for example, solution reaction equilibrium constants or activity coefficients. We report here the densities at 20.0 Degrees C of sodium tetrafluoroborate (NaBF4) solutions from 0.05 molal to 9.0 molal, near saturation of 9.2 molal.

Crooks, W.J. III

2002-07-09

256

Lead sulphate leaching by sodium chloride solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioleaching treatment of complex multi-metallic Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au mineral concentrates leds to the formation, besides easily soluble zinc and cooper sulphates, of hardly soluble lead (II) sulfate (PbSO4) sludge. To determine the leaching parameters of PbSO4 with NaCl in the bioleaching residue, lead sulphate solution was synthetically prepared. The effect of process parameters, namely NaCl concentration, solid:liquid phase ratio, processing time, temperature and Cl ions was examined. It was found that 100% Pb by leaching can be achieved with NaCl concentration of 250 g/dm3, time 20 min, temperature 353 K and solid:liquid phase ratio =1:20.

Coni? Vesna T.; Pešovski Branka D.; Cvetkovski Vladimir B.; Stanojevi?-Šimši? Zdenka S.; Dragulovi? Suzana S.; Simonovi? Danijela B.; Dimitrijevi? Silvana B.

2013-01-01

257

POLYPYRROLE FILMS ELECTROPOLYMERISED IN SODIUM DODECYLSULPHATE SOLUTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The electrodeposition of polypyrrole from 0.1 M pyrrole, 0.1 M sodiododecylsulphate, SDS, aqueous solution was studied using voltammetry and ellipsometry on gold electrodes. The thickness ( 4 < d < 140 nm) and the optical indices n – i k were obtained in the (450 nm < ? < 580 nm) visible optical region for the oxidised and reducedlayer. During the oxidation and reduction in SDS there was not appreciable change in thickness. The optical indices showed only a partial reduction of the Ppy in the 0.1 < E < 0.9 V potential region, remaining the Ppy highly oxidised. After immersion in 0.1 M KCl it was observed an increase in electrocrhomism and pseudocapacity, and a 40 % decrease in thickness for the reduced layer. The optical indices at 0.9 V were similar to that in SDS, whereas at 0.1 V, it was observed significant reduction of the PPy.

Jorge O. Zerbino; Claudio Falivene; Alberto Maltz; María G. Sustersic

2010-01-01

258

The role of aspartic acid residues 405 and 416 of the kidney isotype of sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter 1 in its targeting to the plasma membrane.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The NH(2) terminus of the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) plays an important role in its targeting to the plasma membrane. To identify the amino acid residues that contribute to the targeting of NBCe1 to the plasma membrane, polarized MDCK cells were transfected with expression constructs coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NBCe1 NH(2)-terminal deletion mutants, and the localization of GFP-tagged proteins was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Our results indicate that the amino acids between residues 399 and 424 of NBCe1A contain important sequences that contribute to its localization to the plasma membrane. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that GFP-NBCe1A mutants D405A and D416A are retained in the cytoplasm of the polarized MDCK epithelial cells. Examination of functional activities of D405A and D416A reveals that their activities are reduced compared with the wild-type NBCe1A. Similarly, aspartic acid residues 449 and 460 of pancreatic NBCe1 (NBCe1B), which correspond to residues 405 and 416 of NBCe1A, are also required for its full functional activity and accurate targeting to the plasma membrane. In addition, while replacement of D416 with glutamic acid did not affect the targeting or functional activity of NBCe1A, substitution of D405 with glutamic acid led to the retention of the mutated protein in the intracellular compartment and impaired functional activity. These studies demonstrate that aspartic acid residues 405 and 416 in the NH(2) terminus of NBCe1A are important in its accurate targeting to the plasma membrane.

Li HC; Kucher V; Li EY; Conforti L; Zahedi KA; Soleimani M

2012-06-01

259

The role of aspartic acid residues 405 and 416 of the kidney isotype of sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter 1 in its targeting to the plasma membrane.  

Science.gov (United States)

The NH(2) terminus of the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) plays an important role in its targeting to the plasma membrane. To identify the amino acid residues that contribute to the targeting of NBCe1 to the plasma membrane, polarized MDCK cells were transfected with expression constructs coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NBCe1 NH(2)-terminal deletion mutants, and the localization of GFP-tagged proteins was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Our results indicate that the amino acids between residues 399 and 424 of NBCe1A contain important sequences that contribute to its localization to the plasma membrane. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that GFP-NBCe1A mutants D405A and D416A are retained in the cytoplasm of the polarized MDCK epithelial cells. Examination of functional activities of D405A and D416A reveals that their activities are reduced compared with the wild-type NBCe1A. Similarly, aspartic acid residues 449 and 460 of pancreatic NBCe1 (NBCe1B), which correspond to residues 405 and 416 of NBCe1A, are also required for its full functional activity and accurate targeting to the plasma membrane. In addition, while replacement of D416 with glutamic acid did not affect the targeting or functional activity of NBCe1A, substitution of D405 with glutamic acid led to the retention of the mutated protein in the intracellular compartment and impaired functional activity. These studies demonstrate that aspartic acid residues 405 and 416 in the NH(2) terminus of NBCe1A are important in its accurate targeting to the plasma membrane. PMID:22442137

Li, Hong C; Kucher, Volodymyr; Li, Emily Y; Conforti, Laura; Zahedi, Kamyar A; Soleimani, Manoocher

2012-03-21

260

The effects of elevated levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO?) on the acute power output and time to fatigue of maximally stimulated mouse soleus and EDL muscles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the effects of elevated buffer capacity [~32 mM HCO?(-)] through administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO?) on maximally stimulated isolated mouse soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles undergoing cyclical length changes at 37 °C. The elevated buffering capacity was of an equivalent level to that achieved in humans with acute oral supplementation. We evaluated the acute effects of elevated [HCO?(-)] on (1) maximal acute power output (PO) and (2) time to fatigue to 60 % of maximum control PO (TLIM60), the level of decline in muscle PO observed in humans undertaking similar exercise, using the work loop technique. Acute PO was on average 7.0 ± 4.8 % greater for NaHCO?-treated EDL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.0) and 3.6 ± 1.8 % greater for NaHCO?-treated SOL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.3) compared to CON. Increases in PO were likely due to greater force production throughout shortening. The acute effects of NaHCO? on EDL were significantly greater (P < 0.001; ES = 0.9) than on SOL. Treatment of EDL (P = 0.22; ES = 0.6) and SOL (P = 0.19; ES = 0.9) with NaHCO? did not alter the pattern of fatigue. Although significant differences were not observed in whole group data, the fatigability of muscle performance was variable, suggesting that there might be inter-individual differences in response to NaHCO? supplementation. These results present the best indication to date that NaHCO? has direct peripheral effects on mammalian skeletal muscle resulting in increased acute power output.

Higgins MF; Tallis J; Price MJ; James RS

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Kinetic Analysis of Isothermal Decomposition Process of Sodium Bicarbonate Using the Weibull Probability Function—Estimation of Density Distribution Functions of the Apparent Activation Energies  

Science.gov (United States)

The decomposition process of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been studied by thermogravimetry in isothermal conditions at four different operating temperatures (380 K, 400 K, 420 K, and 440 K). It was found that the experimental integral and differential conversion curves at the different operating temperatures can be successfully described by the isothermal Weibull distribution function with a unique value of the shape parameter ( ? = 1.07). It was also established that the Weibull distribution parameters ( ? and ?) show independent behavior on the operating temperature. Using the integral and differential (Friedman) isoconversional methods, in the conversion (?) range of 0.20 ? ? ? 0.80, the apparent activation energy ( E a ) value was approximately constant ( E a, int = 95.2 kJmol-1 and E a, diff = 96.6 kJmol-1, respectively). The values of E a calculated by both isoconversional methods are in good agreement with the value of E a evaluated from the Arrhenius equation (94.3 kJmol-1), which was expressed through the scale distribution parameter ( ?). The Málek isothermal procedure was used for estimation of the kinetic model for the investigated decomposition process. It was found that the two-parameter Šesták-Berggren (SB) autocatalytic model best describes the NaHCO3 decomposition process with the conversion function f(?) = ?0.18(1-?)1.19. It was also concluded that the calculated density distribution functions of the apparent activation energies ( ddfE a ’s) are not dependent on the operating temperature, which exhibit the highly symmetrical behavior (shape factor = 1.00). The obtained isothermal decomposition results were compared with corresponding results of the nonisothermal decomposition process of NaHCO3.

Jankovi?, Bojan

2009-10-01

262

Complex permittivity of sodium chloride solutions at microwave frequencies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The complex permittivity of aqueous solutions at 20 degrees C has been measured at concentrations between 0.001 and 5 mol/L and over a frequency range 0.13-20 GHz. The results were combined with literature values to derive empirical equations to predict the dielectric behavior of sodium chloride solutions between 0 and 5 mol/L and 5 degrees C-35 degrees C.

Peyman A; Gabriel C; Grant EH

2007-05-01

263

Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH)3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic ...

Pavlovi? Ljubica J.; A?imovi?-Pavlovi? Zagorka; Andri? Ljubiša D.; Prsti? Aurel

264

Effect of orthoaminothiophenol on nickel in 3% sodium chloride solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of thiol compounds as inhibitors against corrosion of nickel in 3% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution was studied using a rotating disk electrode (RDE). Stationary and transient measurements were made. Results implied the formation of a thick and compact inhibitor film. A correlation between the inhibiting film and the structure of orthoaminothiophenol (OATP) was shown.

Srhiri, A. [Electrochemistry Lab., Kenitra City (Morocco); Derbali, Y. [National High School of Sciences and Technics, Tunis City (Tunisia). Applied Chemistry Lab.; Picaud, T. [National High School of Chemistry, Toulouse (France). Metallurgy Lab.

1995-10-01

265

[Bicarbonate-containing dialysate: a critical study  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Renewed interest in bicarbonate as the dialysate base replacement during hemodialysis has introduced new settings on acetate-dialysate delivery systems commercially available. Numerous technical problems are associated with unstable bicarbonate solutions. Therefore, several precautions must be observed: 1) Bicarbonate dialysis requires two concentrates: one containing the base replacement bicarbonate and the other containing basically calcium and magnesium chlorides, 2) A two-stream proportioning system afforded by an appropriate dialysate delivery machine should be used to mix the bicarbonate and acid concentrates, in order to ensure on-line production of the final dialysate, 3) Additional monitors, such as pH monitor, are required to prevent misuse of concentrates. These new ancillary equipments and the relatively high cost of bicarbonate concentrates could slow down the extension of bicarbonate dialysis which is potentially beneficial for all dialysis patients.

Man NK; Jehenne G; Funck-Brentano JL

1983-01-01

266

Ionization of methyl orange in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Thermodynamic ionization constant of methyl orange in the temperature range (278.15 to 333.15 K). ? Influence of sodium chloride on the ionization of methyl orange. ? Pitzer interaction coefficients for methyl orange (sodium salt). ? Ionic strength dependence of the stoichiometric ionization constant. - Abstract: Ionization constants of sodium 4?-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4-sulphonate (methyl orange) were determined by means of spectrophotometric measurements in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions with molalities up to 2 mol·kg?1 at temperatures between 278.15 K and 333.15 K. The temperature dependence of the thermodynamic acidity constant shows a slight curvature in accordance with published data. The influence of sodium chloride on the methyl orange deprotonation was assessed by the measurement of stoichiometric acidity constants in this ionic medium. The Pitzer theory, widely used in the evaluation of the excess free energy of non-ideal electrolyte solutions, was applied to the computation of the activity coefficients of the chemical species involved in the equilibria and a good fit of those equations to the experimental data was observed, at all temperatures under consideration.

2012-01-01

267

Optimization of sodium sulfonate extraction from oil solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficiency of sodium sulfonate extraction from oil solutions depends to a great degree on the concentration and quantity of the extractant, an aqueous isopropyl alcohol solution. Attempts to determine how the yield of sodium sulfonate concentrate, the content of sulfonates in the concentrate, and the degree of sulfonate recovery from the oil solutions are influenced by the concentration and amount of extractant, with a constant extraction temperature (55-60 C) and constant pH of the medium (pH 10). Finds that the optimal concentration of the extractant and the amount of extractant used (both relative to the content of sulfonates) are 50-55% and 250-300% by weight, respectively.

Matselyukh, V.S.; Bodan, A.N.; Garun, Ya.E.; Kachmar, O.S.; Kravchuk, G.G.; Topil' nitskii, P.I.

1983-03-01

268

On the texturization of monocrystalline silicon with sodium carbonate solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The texturization of monocrystalline silicon wafers using sodium carbonate solution has been investigated. This etching process has been evaluated in terms of the surface morphology and the reflectance value. The results show that for low concentration of sodium carbonate the increase of texturing time decreases the reflectance value because of the change in morphology from hillocks to pyramidal; on the contrary for intermediate and high concentrations the increase of time has a detrimental effect on texturization because it increases both the pyramid sizes and their non-uniform distribution. However, a good cell performance could be obtained by etching at high concentrations and short times. (author)

Vallejo, B.; Gonzalez-Manas, M.; Martinez-Lopez, J.; Caballero, M.A. [Departamento de Cristalografia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain)

2007-05-15

269

Ion-exchange properties of cesium and strontium into zeolites from sodium salt solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The ion-exchange properties of cesium and strontium into zeolite from sodium salt solution has been studied in zeolite A, zeolite X, zeolite Y, mordenite and clinoptilolite. The distribution of cesium into mordenite from about 1 -- 2 M sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide solutions is considerably larger than that into zeolite A. The distribution coefficient for 2 M solution of sodium salts was about 300. Therefore, the separation of cesium from sodium salt solution is possible by using mordenite. The distribution of strontium into zeolites form 1 -- 2 M solutions of sodium chloride and sodium nitrate were in the order of zeolite A>zeolite X>zeolite Y asymptoticaly equals mordenite. The distribution coefficient of 230 was obtained for 1 M solutions of sodium salts. The anion in solutions had no effect on the distribution of cesium and strontium into zeolite from sodium salt solution. (author)

1978-01-01

270

Molybdenum recovery from sulfide ores by alkali sodium hypochlorite solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The specified kinetic characteristics of hydrochemical oxidation of molybdenite by sodium hypochlorite are discussed. The methods of hypochlorite synthesis, Mo recovery from solutions after leaching are selected. It is shown that the most acceptable method of preparing hypochlorite should be considered the NaCl solution electrolysis. Mo recovery from solutions after leaching has been performed by sorption on V-P-1p anionite, eluated from resin by 10% solution of ammonia, commodity product has been extracted in a form of ammonium polymolybdate. A principle flowsheet of Mo recovery from sulfide ores is suggested. The flowsheet has been tested under laboratory conditions. It ensures a closed cycle of leaching solution circulation and meets the requirements of environment control.

1985-01-01

271

The reaction of lead chloride with solutions containing sodium carbonate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An environmentally acceptable process for the recovery of lead from baghouse dust was described. A problem associated with the recycling of lead batteries is that the lead blast furnace dust from the smelting process contains lead chloride. The treatment of this dust by a hydrometallurgical process was investigated. The reaction of lead chloride with sodium carbonate- containing solutions was studied on a laboratory scale. The lead chloride was leached with a sodium carbonate-containing solution, converting the lead chloride to lead carbonate. The effects of temperature, lead chloride particle size, stirring rate, pH, and the carbonate and chloride ion concentrations on the degree of conversion of lead chloride to lead carbonate was studied. Results showed that stirring and temperature increased the reaction rate. Also, an increase in the carbonate ion concentration had a significant effect on the reaction rate. Chloride ion concentration, however, had no effect on the reaction rate. 8 refs., 9 figs.

Rice, D.; Pickles, C.A. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

1994-12-31

272

Sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1/slc4a7 increases cytotoxicity in magnesium depletion in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growing evidence suggests that pharmacological inhibition of Na/H exchange and Na/HCO(3) transport provides protection against damage or injury in cardiac ischemia. In this study, we examined the contribution of the sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 (slc4a7) to cytotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons of rats. In neurons exposed to extracellular pH (pH(o)) ranging from 6.2 to 8.3, NBCn1 protein expression increased by fivefold at pH < 6.5 compared to the expression at pH(o) 7.4. At pH(o) 6.5, the intracellular pH of neurons was approximately 1 unit lower than that at pH 7.4. Immunochemistry showed a marked increase in NBCn1 immunofluorescence in plasma membranes and cytosol of the soma as well as in dendrites, at pH(o) 6.5. NBCn1 expression also increased by 40% in a prolonged Mg(2+)-free incubation at normal pH(o). Knockdown of NBCn1 in neurons had negligible effect on cell viability. The effect of NBCn1 knockdown on cytotoxicity was then determined by exposing neurons to 0.5 mm glutamate for 10 min and measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from neurons. Compared to normal incubation (pH(o) 7.2 for 6 h) after glutamate exposure, acidic incubation (pH(o) 6.3 for 6 h) reduced cytotoxicity by 75% for control neurons and 78% for NBCn1-knockdown neurons. Thus, both controls and knockdown neurons showed acidic protection from cytotoxicity. However, in Mg(2+)-free incubation after glutamate exposure, NBCn1 knockdown progressively attenuated cytotoxicity. This attenuation was unaffected by acidic preincubation before glutamate exposure. We conclude that NBCn1 has a dynamic upregulation in low pH(o) and Mg(2+) depletion. NBCn1 is not required for acidic protection, but increases cytotoxicity in Mg(2+)-free conditions. PMID:19170751

Cooper, Deborah S; Yang, Han Soo; He, Peijian; Kim, Eunjin; Rajbhandari, Ira; Yun, Chris C; Choi, Inyeong

2008-12-19

273

Sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1/slc4a7 increases cytotoxicity in magnesium depletion in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Growing evidence suggests that pharmacological inhibition of Na/H exchange and Na/HCO(3) transport provides protection against damage or injury in cardiac ischemia. In this study, we examined the contribution of the sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 (slc4a7) to cytotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons of rats. In neurons exposed to extracellular pH (pH(o)) ranging from 6.2 to 8.3, NBCn1 protein expression increased by fivefold at pH < 6.5 compared to the expression at pH(o) 7.4. At pH(o) 6.5, the intracellular pH of neurons was approximately 1 unit lower than that at pH 7.4. Immunochemistry showed a marked increase in NBCn1 immunofluorescence in plasma membranes and cytosol of the soma as well as in dendrites, at pH(o) 6.5. NBCn1 expression also increased by 40% in a prolonged Mg(2+)-free incubation at normal pH(o). Knockdown of NBCn1 in neurons had negligible effect on cell viability. The effect of NBCn1 knockdown on cytotoxicity was then determined by exposing neurons to 0.5 mm glutamate for 10 min and measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from neurons. Compared to normal incubation (pH(o) 7.2 for 6 h) after glutamate exposure, acidic incubation (pH(o) 6.3 for 6 h) reduced cytotoxicity by 75% for control neurons and 78% for NBCn1-knockdown neurons. Thus, both controls and knockdown neurons showed acidic protection from cytotoxicity. However, in Mg(2+)-free incubation after glutamate exposure, NBCn1 knockdown progressively attenuated cytotoxicity. This attenuation was unaffected by acidic preincubation before glutamate exposure. We conclude that NBCn1 has a dynamic upregulation in low pH(o) and Mg(2+) depletion. NBCn1 is not required for acidic protection, but increases cytotoxicity in Mg(2+)-free conditions.

Cooper DS; Yang HS; He P; Kim E; Rajbhandari I; Yun CC; Choi I

2009-02-01

274

Residue levels and efficacy of fludioxonil and thiabendazole in controlling postharvest green mold decay in citrus fruit when applied in combination with sodium bicarbonate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The curative and protective activity of sodium bicarbonate (SBC) at 1% alone or in combination with fludioxonil (FLU), thiabendazole (TBZ), or FLU and TBZ together, between 50 and 600 mg/L, was evaluated on fruit of different citrus species and cultivars. Fruits were either artificially inoculated with a resistant (TBZ-r) or sensitive (TBZ-s) strain of Penicillium digitatum or not inoculated and incubated at 20 °C and 90% relative humidity (RH) for 7 days (incubated fruit) or stored at 1.5 °C for 21 days plus 7 days of simulated marketing conditions at 20 °C and 60% RH. The effectiveness of these treatments was related with treatment-induced changes of epicuticular wax morphology, the mode of distribution of SBC, TBZ, and FLU on the fruit surface, and FLU and TBZ fruit residue levels. SBC alone showed a weak activity against both strains of P. digitatum. Both TBZ and FLU were very effective at all rates used, and their activity markedly increased when combined together or with SBC, even at concentrations of 50-150 mg/L. Fruit treated with SBC either alone or in combination with TBZ and/or FLU increased weight loss, although no treatment damage was detected. Residue levels of TBZ generally increased when TBZ was combined with FLU and/or SBC, whereas those of FLU slightly increased only in treatment where FLU was combined with TBZ and SBC. Initial residues of TBZ and FLU when applied at 600 mg/L were around 2 and 1 mg/kg, respectively, several times below the lowest MRLs set by most important citrus-producing countries. In treatments with SBC or SBC plus TBZ or FLU, SEM observation of the fruit surface showed a smoothing of cuticular wax platelets' surface, whereas ESEM micrographs showed irregular spots of salt deposits of roundish to irregular shape. The apparently uneven distribution of SBC or SBC plus TBZ or FLU or SBC plus TBZ and FLU on fruit might in part reduce the potential beneficial effects of SBC or of fungicide-SBC mixtures.

D'Aquino S; Palma A; Angioni A; Schirra M

2013-01-01

275

Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH)3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT) and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

Pavlovi? Ljubica J.; A?imovi?-Pavlovi? Zagorka; Andri? Ljubiša D.; Prsti? Aurel

2002-01-01

276

Hydrogen production via photolytic oxidation of aqueous sodium sulfite solutions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emission from coal-burning power plants and refinery operations has been implicated as a cause of acid rain and other air pollution related problems. The conventional treatment of SO(2)-contaminated air consists of two steps: SO(2) absorption using an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, forming aqueous sodium sulfite (Na(2)SO(3)), and Na(2)SO(3) oxidation via air purging to produce sodium sulfate (Na(2)SO(4)). In this process, the potential energy of SO(2) is lost. This paper presents a novel ultraviolet (UV) photolytic process for production of hydrogen from aqueous Na(2)SO(3) solutions. The results show that the quantum efficiency of hydrogen production can reach 14.4% under illumination from a low pressure mercury lamp. The mechanism occurs via two competing reaction pathways that involve oxidation of SO(3)(2-) to SO(4)(2-) directly and through the dithionate (S(2)O(6)(2-)) ion intermediate. The first route becomes dominant once a photostationary state for S(2)O(6)(2-) is established. The initial pH of Na(2)SO(3) solution plays an important role in determining both the hydrogen production rate and the final products of the photolytic oxidation. At initial solution pH of 9.80 Na(2)SO(3) photo-oxidation generates Na(2)SO(4) as the final reaction product, while Na(2)S(2)O(6) is merely a reaction intermediate. The highest hydrogen production rate occurs when the initial solution pH is 7.55. Reduction in the initial solution pH to 5.93 results in disproportionation of HSO(3)(-) to elemental sulfur and SO(4)(2-) but no hydrogen production.

Huang C; Linkous CA; Adebiyi O; T-Raissi A

2010-07-01

277

Potentiometric monitoring of sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Platinum, palladium, gold, cadmium, nickel and niobium immersed in sodium borohydride alkaline solutions are characterised by electrode responses that allow monitoring the borohydride present in aqueous media. A simple and relatively precise potentiometric titration technique is described and applied for the analysis of borohydride solutions.Platina, paládio, ouro, cádmio, níquel e nióbio imersos em soluções alcalinas de borohidreto de sódio são caracterizados por respostas de eléctrodo que permitem monitorizar o conteúdo em borohidreto presente num dado meio aquoso. Descreve-se uma técnica de titulação potenciométrica relativamente simples e precisa que pode ser aplicada para a análise de soluções de borohidreto.

Diogo M. F. Santos; César A. C. Sequeira

2008-01-01

278

Potentiometric monitoring of sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Platina, paládio, ouro, cádmio, níquel e nióbio imersos em soluções alcalinas de borohidreto de sódio são caracterizados por respostas de eléctrodo que permitem monitorizar o conteúdo em borohidreto presente num dado meio aquoso. Descreve-se uma técnica de titulação potenciométrica relativamente simples e precisa que pode ser aplicada para a análise de soluções de borohidreto. Abstract in english Platinum, palladium, gold, cadmium, nickel and niobium immersed in sodium borohydride alkaline solutions are characterised by electrode responses that allow monitoring the borohydride present in aqueous media. A simple and relatively precise potentiometric titration technique is described and applied for the analysis of borohydride solutions.

Santos, Diogo M. F.; Sequeira, César A. C.

2008-12-01

279

Effect of sodium chloride on the solubility of ethane in micellar solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments have been carried out to determine the solubility of ethane in aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate containing sodium chloride. Addition of successive increments of NaCl to a micellar solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) causes a small increase in gas solubility at low salt concentrations (< 0.1 M). However, at higher salt concentrations NaCl suppresses the solubility of ethane. These salt effects are found to be independent of surfactant concentration. The variation in ethane solubility with salt concentration is interpreted as reflecting the combined effects of an increase in micellar SDS at the expense of the monomeric form which occurs at low salt concentrations and the salting out of ethane from the external aqueous phase. The intramicellar solubility of ethane is not affected by added salt, even in solutions having very high NaCl concentrations (> 0.6 M) which are thought to contain SDS in the form of large aggregates which are thermodynamically unstable with respect to the hydrated solid state.

Hoskins, J.C.; King, A.D. Jr.

1981-07-01

280

Cryoscopic studies of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, potassium tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Freezing temperature lowerings of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate were determined. These values and those taken from the literature for potassium tartrate were used in the determination of the osmotic and activity coefficients in the studied systems, via the numerical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation.

Apelblat, Alexander. E-mail: apelblat@bgumail.bgu.ac.il; Manzurola, Emanuel

2003-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Photoionization of Sodium Salt Solutions in a Liquid Jet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A liquid microjet was employed to examine the gas/liquid interface of aqueous sodium halide (Na+X-, X=Cl, Br, I) salt solutions. Laser excitation at 193 nm produced and removed cations of the form H+(H2O)n and Na+(H2O)m from liquid jet surfaces containing either NaCl, NaBr or NaI. The protonated water cluster yield varied inversely with increasing salt concentration, while the solvated sodium ion cluster yield varied by anion type. The distribution of H+(H2O)n at low salt concentration is identical to that observed from low-energy electron irradiated amorphous ice and the production of these clusters can be accounted for using a localized ionization/Coulomb expulsion model. Production of Na+(H2O)m is not accounted for by this model but requires ionization of solvation shell waters and a contact ion/Coulomb expulsion mechanism. The reduced yields of Na+(H2O)m from high concentration (10-2 and 10-1 M) NaBr and NaI solutions indicate a propensity for Br- and I- at the solution surfaces and interfaces. This is supported by the observation of multiphoton induced production and desorption of Br+ and I+ from the 10-2 and 10-1 M solution surfaces.

2008-06-05

282

SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE FOULING AND CLEANING OF DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION COALESCERS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During initial non-radioactive operations at the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the pressure drop across the decontaminated salt solution coalescer reached ?10 psi while processing ?1250 gallons of salt solution, indicating possible fouling or plugging of the coalescer. An analysis of the feed solution and the 'plugged coalescer' concluded that the plugging was due to sodium aluminosilicate solids. MCU personnel requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate the formation of the sodium aluminosilicate solids (NAS) and the impact of the solids on the decontaminated salt solution coalescer. Researchers performed developmental testing of the cleaning protocols with a bench-scale coalescer container 1-inch long segments of a new coalescer element fouled using simulant solution. In addition, the authors obtained a 'plugged' Decontaminated Salt Solution coalescer from non-radioactive testing in the MCU and cleaned it according to the proposed cleaning procedure. Conclusions from this testing include the following: (1) Testing with the bench-scale coalescer showed an increase in pressure drop from solid particles, but the increase was not as large as observed at MCU. (2) Cleaning the bench-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (11 g of bayerite if all aluminum is present in that form or 23 g of sodium aluminosilicate if all silicon is present in that form). (3) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from bench-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for the NAS solids tested is calculated as 450-950 grams. (4) Cleaning the full-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (60 g of aluminum and 5 g of silicon). (5) Piping holdup in the full-scale coalescer system caused the pH to differ from the target value. Comparable hold-up in the facility could lead to less effective cleaning and precipitation of bayerite solid particles. (6) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from the full-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for these NAS solids was calculated to be 40-170 grams.

2008-01-01

283

Diffusion and aggregation of sodium fluorescein in aqueous solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diffusion and aggregation of sodium fluorescein in aqueous solutions was investigated adopting density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. First, DFT calculations in implicit water were used to determine minimum energy structure and atomic charges of the solute, which were then used as input for explicit water MD simulations. The self-diffusion coefficient of sodium fluorescein was calculated using the Einstein equation, computing the mean square displacement from 24 ns trajectories. The calculated diffusion coefficient, 0.42 · 10(-5) cm(2) s(-1), is in good agreement with literature experimental data. The simulations confirmed the tendency of fluorescein to form dimers. In order to achieve a deeper understanding of aggregation phenomena, the dimer geometry was investigated through DFT calculations both in vacuo and in implicit water using different functionals and solvation theories. The results showed that dimerization does not occur in vacuo, as charge repulsion dominates, and that the minimum energy dimer structure is symmetric and stabilized by edge-to-face ?-? interactions. The interaction energy was computed both at the DFT level and through MD simulations using Umbrella Sampling. The free interaction energy calculated with the WHAM and Umbrella Integration protocol, -1.3 kcal/mol, is in good agreement with experimental data, while the value determined using DFT calculations is significantly smaller and depends largely from the chosen functional and the computational methodology used to determine the solute-solvent boundary surface. PMID:21957875

Casalini, Tommaso; Salvalaglio, Matteo; Perale, Giuseppe; Masi, Maurizio; Cavallotti, Carlo

2011-10-19

284

In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate/ Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtil (more) is foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme). A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pela determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM). Os resultados mostraram que a solução teste inibiu o crescimento de microrganismos Gram-negativos e Gram-positivos da saliva dos voluntários, bem como das linhagens padrão na CIM de 1:20, enquanto que a CIM da diluição de clorexidina 0.12% contra as mesmas bactérias foi de 1:80. Desta forma, apesar de o enxaguatório bucal testado apresentar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro superior à do placebo, esta foi inferior à da Clorexidina. Abstract in english Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples (more) of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis). Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers? saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.

Pires, Juliana Rico; Rossa Junior, Carlos; Pizzolitto, Antonio Carlos

2007-12-01

285

In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis). Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme). A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pela determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM). Os resultados mostraram que a solução teste inibiu o crescimento de microrganismos Gram-negativos e Gram-positivos da saliva dos voluntários, bem como das linhagens padrão na CIM de 1:20, enquanto que a CIM da diluição de clorexidina 0.12% contra as mesmas bactérias foi de 1:80. Desta forma, apesar de o enxaguatório bucal testado apresentar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro superior à do placebo, esta foi inferior à da Clorexidina.

Juliana Rico Pires; Carlos Rossa Junior; Antonio Carlos Pizzolitto

2007-01-01

286

Interaction of praseodymium chloride with sodium decavanadate in aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Method of residual concentrations, measurement of electric conductivity and pH, differential thermal, X-ray phase and chemical analyses, infrared spectroscopy were used for investigation of praseodymium (3) chloride interaction with sodium decavanadate in aqueous solution. It was established that 25-aqueous praseodymium decavanadate Pr2V10O28 X 25H2O formed as the intermediate solid phase. Then it transformed to the stable solid phase - hexahydrate of acid praseodymium pyrovanadate PrHV2O7 X 6H2O. The prepared vanadates decomposed at ? 130-160 deg C with formation of praseodymium orthovanadate and vanadium (5) oxide.

1987-01-01

287

Solubility and prediction of the heat of solution of sodium naproxen in aqueous solutions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The solubility of sodium naproxen was determined over a range of temperatures from 15.2 degrees C to 39.7 degrees C by two methods: analyses of samples from equilibrated solutions and a recently developed procedure utilizing a focused-beam reflectance method (FBRM). The results demonstrate the utility of the newer and, in some cases, simpler method. A discontinuity in the solubility was observed at 29.8 degrees C, identifying the temperature as which the dihydrate and anhydrous forms of sodium naproxen trade places as being the more stable of the two forms. The heats of solution for the two pseudopolymorphs were obtained from van't Hoff plots of the solubility data. These results were used to demonstrate how the heat of solution of one form can be estimated using the heat of dehydration obtained from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the heat of solution from another form.

Kim YS; Méndez del Río JR; Rousseau RW

2005-09-01

288

Steam gasification of brown coal with sodium catalyst prepared from sodium chloride solution by using the ion exchange method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium was supported on coal using sodium chloride as the starting material by the ion exchange method, and the sodium content and residual chloride in the carrier coal and its reactivity in the steam gasification were examined to study the catalytic coal-gasification using the sodium catalyst. Sodium was supported on coal as follows: Yallourn coal (100 to 200 mesh) was dipped in sodium chloride solutions with different pH values; the stirred mixture was filtered; and the filter cake was washed with demineralized water. The sodium was analyzed by the flame analysis and the chlorine content was determined by the Eschka method. The amount of sodium supported increases with the increase of pH of the catalyst preparation solution. The residual chlorine can be reduced to the same level as that of the feed coal only by washing the carrier coal with pure water. The reactivity of carrier coal of sodium was as high as that of the sodium carbonate-impregnated coal. (2 figs, 2 tabs, 3 refs)

Nabatame, Toshihide; Takarada, Takayuki; Otsuka, Yasuo; Tomita, Akira

1986-10-23

289

Effect of bicarbonate on neonatal serum ionized magnesium in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium bicarbonate is used to treat metabolic acidosis, or to induce metabolic alkalosis in sick neonates. The aim of this study was to quantify the decrease in serum concentration of ionized magnesium ([Mg2+]) when sodium bicarbonate is added to neonatal serum in vitro. Sodium bicarbonate was added to 30 cord serum samples of term infants to reach incremental concentrations of 0 to 2.0 mEq/L and [Mg2+] was measured. Serum [Mg2+] decreased significantly with the addition of sodium bicarbonate. At incremental sodium bicarbonate concentrations of 1.0 to 2.0 mEq/L, which is within the range of the desired aim in the treatment of metabolic acidosis, the magnitude of the decrease in serum [Mg2+] was approximately 0.084 to 0.158 mmol/L (18% to 34%) from the average baseline value. The addition of sodium bicarbonate causes a significant decrease in [Mg2+]. From this in vitro study we speculate that fast infusion of sodium bicarbonate in human neonates may potentially cause a clinically significant decrease in serum [Mg2+]. PMID:15319140

Zaidenberg, Galit; Mimouni, Francis B; Dollberg, Shaul

2004-06-01

290

Anodic polarization behavior of low-carbon steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide and sodium nitrate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] High-level radioactive wastes, primarily consisting of concentrated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) solutions, are stored in large underground storage tanks made of low-carbon steel. The anodic polarization behavior of low-carbon steel in concentrated solutions of 10 M NaOH and various concentrations of NaNO3 (0.01-2.0 M) was determined in order to predict the caustic stress corrosion cracking (CSCC) susceptibility of the tanks. The active-passive transition peak exhibited during anodic polarization of low-carbon steel in 10 M NaOH, typically associated with CSCC, at -0.25 and -0.75 VSCE, is still present at the lower and higher concentrations of nitrate. However, there is a mid-range of nitrate concentrations (0.5-1 M) within which the peak is suppressed by the strongly oxidizing nitrate in the presence of oxygen, a cathodic depolarizer. Temperature also affects the magnitude of this mid-range of nitrate concentrations where CSCC is seen to be electrochemically prevented. The data suggest that the oxygen solubility at the relatively low temperatures tested (corr is driven more noble than the active-passive transition peak

2005-04-30

291

Expression and/or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter may be decreased in many aggressive cancers, suggesting potential utility for sodium bicarbonate and dehydroascorbic acid in cancer therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimer transcription factor whose elevated activity in many cancers helps them to survive under hypoxic conditions and enhances their capacity to grow invasively, establish metastases, and survive chemo- or radiotherapy. Optimal intracellular levels of ascorbate suppress the level and transcriptional activity of HIF-1under normoxic or mildly hypoxic conditions by supporting the activity of proly and asparagyl hydroxylases that target HIF-1alpha. High intracellular ascorbate can also work in various ways to down-regulate activation of NF-kappaB which, like HIF-1 is constitutively active in many cancers and promotes aggressive behavior - in part by promoting transcription of HIF-1alpha. Yet recent evidence suggests that, even in the context of adequate ascorbate nutrition, the intracellular ascorbate content of many aggressive cancers may be supoptimal for effective HIF-1 control. This likely reflects low expression or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter. The expression of SVCT2 in cancers has so far received little study; but the extracellular acidity characteristic of many tumors would be expected to reduce the activity of this transporter, which has a mildly alkaline pH optimum. Unfortunately, since SVCT2 has a high affinity for ascorbate, and its activity is nearly saturated at normal healthy serum levels of this vitamin, increased oral administration of ascorbate would be unlikely to have much impact on the intracellular ascorbate content of tumors. However, cancers in which HIF-1 is active express high levels of glucose transporters such as GLUT-1, and these transporters can promote influx of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) via facilitated diffusion; once inside the cell, DHA is rapidly reduced to ascorbate, which effectively is "trapped" within the cell. Hence, episodic intravenous infusions of modest doses of DHA may have potential for optimizing the intracellular ascorbate content of cancers, potentially rendering them less aggressive. Indeed, several published studies have concluded that parenteral DHA - sometimes in quite modest doses - can retard the growth of transplanted tumors in rodents. As an alternative or adjunctive strategy, oral administration of sodium bicarbonate, by normalizing the extracellular pH of tumors, has the potential to boost the activity of SCTV2 in tumor cells, thereby promoting increased ascorbate uptake. Indeed, the utility of oral sodium bicarbonate for suppressing metastasis formation in nude mice xenografted with a human breast cancer has been reported. Hence, oral sodium bicarbonate and intravenous DHA may have the potential to blunt the aggressiveness of certain cancers in which suboptimal intracellular ascorbate levels contribute to elevated HIF-1 activity.

McCarty MF

2013-10-01

292

Expression and/or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter may be decreased in many aggressive cancers, suggesting potential utility for sodium bicarbonate and dehydroascorbic acid in cancer therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimer transcription factor whose elevated activity in many cancers helps them to survive under hypoxic conditions and enhances their capacity to grow invasively, establish metastases, and survive chemo- or radiotherapy. Optimal intracellular levels of ascorbate suppress the level and transcriptional activity of HIF-1under normoxic or mildly hypoxic conditions by supporting the activity of proly and asparagyl hydroxylases that target HIF-1alpha. High intracellular ascorbate can also work in various ways to down-regulate activation of NF-kappaB which, like HIF-1 is constitutively active in many cancers and promotes aggressive behavior - in part by promoting transcription of HIF-1alpha. Yet recent evidence suggests that, even in the context of adequate ascorbate nutrition, the intracellular ascorbate content of many aggressive cancers may be supoptimal for effective HIF-1 control. This likely reflects low expression or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter. The expression of SVCT2 in cancers has so far received little study; but the extracellular acidity characteristic of many tumors would be expected to reduce the activity of this transporter, which has a mildly alkaline pH optimum. Unfortunately, since SVCT2 has a high affinity for ascorbate, and its activity is nearly saturated at normal healthy serum levels of this vitamin, increased oral administration of ascorbate would be unlikely to have much impact on the intracellular ascorbate content of tumors. However, cancers in which HIF-1 is active express high levels of glucose transporters such as GLUT-1, and these transporters can promote influx of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) via facilitated diffusion; once inside the cell, DHA is rapidly reduced to ascorbate, which effectively is "trapped" within the cell. Hence, episodic intravenous infusions of modest doses of DHA may have potential for optimizing the intracellular ascorbate content of cancers, potentially rendering them less aggressive. Indeed, several published studies have concluded that parenteral DHA - sometimes in quite modest doses - can retard the growth of transplanted tumors in rodents. As an alternative or adjunctive strategy, oral administration of sodium bicarbonate, by normalizing the extracellular pH of tumors, has the potential to boost the activity of SCTV2 in tumor cells, thereby promoting increased ascorbate uptake. Indeed, the utility of oral sodium bicarbonate for suppressing metastasis formation in nude mice xenografted with a human breast cancer has been reported. Hence, oral sodium bicarbonate and intravenous DHA may have the potential to blunt the aggressiveness of certain cancers in which suboptimal intracellular ascorbate levels contribute to elevated HIF-1 activity. PMID:23916956

McCarty, Mark F

2013-08-02

293

Cryoscopic studies of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, potassium tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Freezing temperature lowerings of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate were determined. These values and those taken from the literature for potassium tartrate were used in the determination of the osmotic and activity coefficients in the studied systems, via the numerical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation

2003-01-01

294

Hydrophilic and hydrophobic hydration of sodium propanoate and sodium butanoate in aqueous solution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aqueous solutions of sodium propanoate (NaOPr) and n-butanoate (NaOBu) have been studied at concentrations of c ~/< 3 M by broadband dielectric relaxation spectroscopy over the frequency range 0.2 ? ?/GHz ? 89 at 25 °C. Three relaxation modes were resolved, centered at (approximately) 1, 8, and 18 GHz, for both sets of solutions. The two faster modes were assigned to the cooperative relaxation of "slow" and bulk water molecules. Detailed analysis of the spectra indicated that both OPr(-) and OBu(-) were strongly hydrated, with ~23 and ~33 slow water molecules per anion, respectively, at infinite dilution. These effective hydration numbers include ~6 water molecules hydrophilically bound to the carboxylate moiety, with the remainder arising from the hydrophobic hydration of the nonpolar alkyl chains. The latter shows a characteristic rapid decrease with increasing solute concentration, which facilitated the separation of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic contributions. The lowest frequency mode was a composite with contributions from ion-cloud, ion-pair, and anion relaxations. Although this low intensity mode provided specific evidence of weak ion pairing between Na(+)(aq) and the carboxylate anions, reliable estimates of the association constant could not be made because of its composite nature.

Rahman HM; Hefter G; Buchner R

2013-02-01

295

Comparison of albumin versus bicarbonate treatment for neonatal metabolic acidosis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study the effectiveness of 4.5% human albumin was compared with 4.2% sodium bicarbonate for neonatal metabolic acidosis, using a randomised controlled trial. The change in median pH following bicarbonate was more than twice that in the albumin group. This was statistically significant. CONCL...

Dixon, H; Hawkins, K; Stephenson, T

296

Sodium bicarbonate plus N-acetylcysteine to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in primary and rescue percutaneous coronary interventions: the BINARIO (BIcarbonato e N-Acetil-cisteina nell'infaRto mIocardico acutO) study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a frequent and potentially harmful complication of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), especially in the setting of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We tested the efficacy of a sodium bicarbonate (SB)-based hydration in urgent PCI for STEMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: From June 2009 to September 2010, 262 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing urgent PCI were prospectively enrolled and treated by SB-based hydration (154 mEq/L at 3 ml Kg-1 for one hour followed by 1 ml Kg-1 for six hours) (group A). As controls, 262 consecutive STEMI patients receiving 0.9% saline hydration (1 ml Kg-1 for 24 hours) before June 2009 were retrospectively enrolled (group B). Both groups received high-dose N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The primary endpoint was the composite of in-hospital death, need for dialysis and CIN (?25% increase in serum creatinine at 48 hours). The two groups were comparable for baseline clinical and procedural characteristics, for Mehran risk score and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate. The primary combined endpoint was significantly reduced in group A as compared to group B (9.2 vs. 18.7%, p=0.023) with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 11. Specifically, a significant reduction of both in-hospital death (2.3 vs. 6.1%, p=0.049, NNT 27) and CIN (8.0 vs. 14.1%, p=0.03, NNT 17) was observed, with no difference in the need for dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that hydration with sodium bicarbonate in addition to high-dose NAC in the setting of urgent PCI for STEMI is associated with a net clinical benefit.

Leone AM; De Caterina AR; Sciahbasi A; Aurelio A; Basile E; Porto I; Trani C; Burzotta F; Niccoli G; Mongiardo R; Mazzari MA; Buffon A; Panocchia N; Romagnoli E; Lioy E; Rebuzzi AG; Crea F

2012-11-01

297

Efeitos da correção da acidose metabólica com bicarbonato de sódio sobre o catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica The effects of the correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate on protein catabolism in chronic kidney failure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A desnutrição protéico-energética constitui problema comum aos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica, influenciando diretamente na sua morbi-mortalidade. A acidose metabólica tem papel no catabolismo protéico, ativando a via proteolítica proteasoma-ubiquitina, dependente de adenosina trifosfato, e conjuntamente com glicocorticóides induz uma maior atividade na desidrogenase que degrada os aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada. Esta revisão teve como objetivo descrever o mecanismo pelo qual a acidose metabólica nos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica promove o catabolismo protéico, favorecendo assim a desnutrição, bem como avaliar os efeitos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio na correção da acidose e conseqüentemente redução do catabolismo protéico. Pesquisas mostram melhora da acidose pelo uso de bicarbonato de sódio e conseqüente redução do catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica, podendo ser esta uma conduta promissora na atenuação da desnutrição nestes pacientes.Protein-Energy Malnutrition is common among patients with chronic kidney failure, thus increasing morbidity and mortality. Several studies have shown that metabolic acidosis is a major cause of muscle protein breakdown, and recently it was attributed to ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Acidosis, plus glucocorticoids, also respond to increasing branched-chain amino acids oxidation. In this review, the impact of metabolic acidosis on protein and amino acid metabolism is examined in order to understand its effect on lean body mass and the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney failure. The study also observes whether or not sodium bicarbonate supplementation is beneficial to chronic kidney failure patients. In summary, there is a preliminary evidence suggesting that the correction of acidosis using sodium bicarbonate reduces protein degradation in chronic kidney failure patients, thus emerging as a potential therapy for reducing protein-energy malnutrition among them.

Denise MAFRA; Roberto Carlos BURINI

2001-01-01

298

Efeitos da correção da acidose metabólica com bicarbonato de sódio sobre o catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica/ The effects of the correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate on protein catabolism in chronic kidney failure  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A desnutrição protéico-energética constitui problema comum aos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica, influenciando diretamente na sua morbi-mortalidade. A acidose metabólica tem papel no catabolismo protéico, ativando a via proteolítica proteasoma-ubiquitina, dependente de adenosina trifosfato, e conjuntamente com glicocorticóides induz uma maior atividade na desidrogenase que degrada os aminoácidos de cadeia ramificada. Esta revisão teve como objetivo de (more) screver o mecanismo pelo qual a acidose metabólica nos pacientes com insuficiência renal crônica promove o catabolismo protéico, favorecendo assim a desnutrição, bem como avaliar os efeitos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio na correção da acidose e conseqüentemente redução do catabolismo protéico. Pesquisas mostram melhora da acidose pelo uso de bicarbonato de sódio e conseqüente redução do catabolismo protéico na insuficiência renal crônica, podendo ser esta uma conduta promissora na atenuação da desnutrição nestes pacientes. Abstract in english Protein-Energy Malnutrition is common among patients with chronic kidney failure, thus increasing morbidity and mortality. Several studies have shown that metabolic acidosis is a major cause of muscle protein breakdown, and recently it was attributed to ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. Acidosis, plus glucocorticoids, also respond to increasing branched-chain amino acids oxidation. In this review, the impact of metabolic acidosis on protein and amino (more) acid metabolism is examined in order to understand its effect on lean body mass and the nutritional status of patients with chronic kidney failure. The study also observes whether or not sodium bicarbonate supplementation is beneficial to chronic kidney failure patients. In summary, there is a preliminary evidence suggesting that the correction of acidosis using sodium bicarbonate reduces protein degradation in chronic kidney failure patients, thus emerging as a potential therapy for reducing protein-energy malnutrition among them.

MAFRA, Denise; BURINI, Roberto Carlos

2001-04-01

299

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 1404) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sodium bicarbonate. The Panel considers that sodium bicarbonate is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “blood pressure reduction”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effect refers to maintenance of normal blood pressure. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal blood pressure is a beneficial physiological effect. No references were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure.

Tetens, Inge

2011-01-01

300

BIOKID: Randomized controlled trial comparing bicarbonate and lactate buffer in biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions in children [ISRCTN81137991  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the preferred dialysis modality in children. Its major drawback is the limited technique survival due to infections and progressive ultrafiltration failure. Conventional PD solutions exert marked acute and chronic toxicity to local tis...

Nau Barbara; Schmitt Claus P; Almeida Margarida; Arbeiter Klaus; Ardissino Gianluigi; Bonzel Klaus E; Edefonti Alberto

 
 
 
 
301

Relevance of Rheological Properties of Sodium Alginate in Solution to Calcium Alginate Gel Properties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to determine whether sodium alginate solutions’ rheological parameters are meaningful relative to sodium alginate’s use in the formulation of calcium alginate gels. Calcium alginate gels were prepared from six different grades of sodium alginate (FMC Biopolymer), one of ...

Fu, Shao; Thacker, Ankur; Sperger, Diana M.; Boni, Riccardo L.; Buckner, Ira S.; Velankar, Sachin; Munson, Eric J.

302

Drop-on-demand for aqueous solutions of sodium alginate  

Science.gov (United States)

Inkjet printing is a rapidly growing commercial process for applications that depend on precisely patterning micro-scale droplets. These applications increasingly require complex fluids, introducing viscoelastic properties which play an important role in droplet formation. The objective of this study is to determine how to obtain single, uniform and spherical ("successful") droplets from aqueous solutions of sodium alginate with a piezoelectric drop-on-demand printing method. In order to control the volume and velocities of droplets, the effect on the droplet formation of the characteristics of the waveform such as voltage amplitude and dwell time is studied. The results depend also on the fluid rheology. The viscosity of the chosen fluid is a function of the concentration, as the viscoelastic properties increase at higher concentration. In this paper, the droplet formation process is characterized in terms of both the waveform and the rheological properties of the solution. The characterization of the fluids and waveform will be pursued first and the droplet formation and its control will be studied. Finally, the results will be presented with a map in ranges of the Ohnesorge, Deborah and Weber numbers.

Herran, C. Leigh; Coutris, Nicole

2013-06-01

303

Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5) were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide in the presence of sodium benzoate/sodium sulphite inhibitive mixtures range 0.322mmpy to 1.1269mmpy across the three volumetric ratios considered. The 15ml5ml sodium benzoatesodium sulphite mixture had the best average corrosion rate of 0.5123mmpy.The corrosion rate followed reducing pattern after the first 200 hours of immersion. The average corrosion rate in the sodium benzoate / sodium sulphite mixture is less than the rate in sodium sulphite and the mixture is only effective after long time exposure.It is concluded that adding sodium benzoate to sodium sulphite in the volumetric ratio 155ml improves the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide environment.

Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA; Olusegun Olusoji SOREMEKUN; Olakunle Wasiu SUBAIR; Atinuke OLADOYE

2008-01-01

304

Photo-electrochemical analysis of passive film formed on X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate/carbonate buffer solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photo-electrochemical measurement was used to explore the formation potential, formation time, chloride ions concentration, applied potential and pH value of the solution on the electronic property of passive film formed on X80 pipeline steel in 1 M NaHCO3/0.5 M Na2CO3 buffer solution. The results showed that the photocurrent is positive, indicating an n-type semiconductor character of the passive film, the photocurrent increased with increasing the formation potential, prolonging the formation time, decreasing chloride ions concentration, rising applied potential and decreasing the pH value of the solution. Capacitance measurement exhibited a positive slope of Mott-Schottky plot, and the slopes of Mott-Schottky plots increased with the increasing formation potential, showing a decrement of the donor density of the passive film.

2008-02-28

305

Photo-electrochemical analysis of passive film formed on X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate/carbonate buffer solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Photo-electrochemical measurement was used to explore the formation potential, formation time, chloride ions concentration, applied potential and pH value of the solution on the electronic property of passive film formed on X80 pipeline steel in 1 M NaHCO{sub 3}/0.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} buffer solution. The results showed that the photocurrent is positive, indicating an n-type semiconductor character of the passive film, the photocurrent increased with increasing the formation potential, prolonging the formation time, decreasing chloride ions concentration, rising applied potential and decreasing the pH value of the solution. Capacitance measurement exhibited a positive slope of Mott-Schottky plot, and the slopes of Mott-Schottky plots increased with the increasing formation potential, showing a decrement of the donor density of the passive film.

Li, D.G. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Tubular Goods Research Center of CNPC, Xi' an 710065 (China)], E-mail: dangguoli78@yahoo.com.cn; Feng, Y.R.; Bai, Z.Q. [Tubular Goods Research Center of CNPC, Xi' an 710065 (China); Zhu, J.W.; Zheng, M.S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

2008-02-28

306

Use of hypertonic solutions of sodium chloride in hypergranulating wounds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to verify the efficiency of hypertonic solution (NaCl/20%) on the hypergranulation due to the constant hypergranulating wound beds treated in venous ulcers in the daily clinic practice, which delays and disables cells epithelization. Methodology: clinical case study, performed in an outpatient’s clinic of Médio Vale do Paraíba, from February to March 2008. MCT, 60 years old, female, white skin, systematic arterial hypertension controlled, with wounds on the middle part and region of distal third of the left leg. Dressings were made with prior sterilization sores of sodium chloride to 0.9%, which was applied compress of gauze soaked with hypertonic solution (NaCl 20%) was applied on the region presenting hypergrantulation tissue and immediately occluded with dry gauze and fixed with crepe bandage and adhesive tapes. Results: on February 13, 2008, the first wound on the middle part of the left leg measured 3,5 x 2,3 inches (9x6 cm) and 2,7 9 inches (7 cm) of hypergranulation, and the second wound on the region of distal third of the left leg measured 5,5 x 5,1 inches (14x13 cm) and 5,1 inches (13 cm) of hypergranulation. After 22 days, the first wound measured 1,5 x 1,5 inches (4X4 cm) and 1,5 inches (4 cm) of hypergranulation and the second wound measured 4,3 x 3,9 inches (11X10 cm) and 2,3 inches (6 cm) of hypergranulation. Conclusion: the healing process presented a satisfactory evolution after applying hypertonic solution (NaCl/20%) improving the characteristic of the wound bed and diminishing the area where hypergranulation was present.

Bruno de Assis Quelemente, Ana Beatriz Pinto da Silva Morita, Angelo Teixeira Balbi

2009-01-01

307

Effect of sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution on peripheral staining of rigid contact lens wearers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solutions on 3 and 9 o'clock staining with rigid contact lens wearers in a double masked multicenter study involving four institutions and 43 patients. Both sodium hyaluronate (0.1%) and control ophthalmic solutions (artificial tears) without preservative were used. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. The test group received sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution, and the control group received artificial tears as a control ophthalmic solution. The agents were instilled six times per day for 2 weeks while patients wore contact lenses. Although subjective symptoms improved similarly in the two groups, slit lamp observation, corneal staining, and anterior segment photography demonstrated improved results in eyes having received sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solutions. We conclude that sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution is effective and safe for treating 3 and 9 o'clock staining in rigid contact lens wearers. PMID:8565197

Itoi, M; Kim, O; Kimura, T; Kanai, A; Momose, T; Kanki, K; Yamaguchi, T; Ueno, Y; Kurokawa, M; Komemushi, S

1995-10-01

308

Effect of sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution on peripheral staining of rigid contact lens wearers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We evaluated the efficacy of sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solutions on 3 and 9 o'clock staining with rigid contact lens wearers in a double masked multicenter study involving four institutions and 43 patients. Both sodium hyaluronate (0.1%) and control ophthalmic solutions (artificial tears) without preservative were used. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. The test group received sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution, and the control group received artificial tears as a control ophthalmic solution. The agents were instilled six times per day for 2 weeks while patients wore contact lenses. Although subjective symptoms improved similarly in the two groups, slit lamp observation, corneal staining, and anterior segment photography demonstrated improved results in eyes having received sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solutions. We conclude that sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution is effective and safe for treating 3 and 9 o'clock staining in rigid contact lens wearers.

Itoi M; Kim O; Kimura T; Kanai A; Momose T; Kanki K; Yamaguchi T; Ueno Y; Kurokawa M; Komemushi S

1995-10-01

309

The effect of bicarbonate on resuscitation from cardiac arrest.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY OBJECTIVES: This study attempted to determine the effect of bicarbonate administration on resuscitation in a porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest. DESIGN: After instrumentation, 26 swine were subjected to ventricular fibrillation for 15 minutes (16 animals) or 20 minutes (ten animals) with no resuscitative efforts. INTERVENTIONS: Resuscitation attempts with open-chest cardiac massage and epinephrine were used in all animals after the arrest period. The experimental group was given sodium bicarbonate (3 mEq/kg), and the control group received 3% saline (5 mL/kg) at the initiation of cardiac massage. MEASUREMENTS: Resuscitation success, hemodynamics, and arterial and mixed venous gases were compared in the bicarbonate and hypertonic saline-treated groups. RESULTS: There was no difference in resuscitation rates between bicarbonate and nonbicarbonate-treated swine. After 15 minutes of ventricular fibrillation, six of eight bicarbonate-treated swine were resuscitated successfully compared with five of eight hypertonic saline-treated animals. None of the five bicarbonate-treated or five hypertonic saline-treated swine that underwent 20 minutes of ventricular fibrillation were resuscitated. The arterial and mixed venous pH values were significantly different in the bicarbonate-treated animals from values in the control group. There was no difference in systolic or diastolic blood pressures or myocardial perfusion pressure between the bicarbonate and hypertonic saline-treated animals. CONCLUSION: Despite correlation of arterial and venous acidemia, the use of sodium bicarbonate did not improve resuscitation from prolonged cardiac arrest.

Federiuk CS; Sanders AB; Kern KB; Nelson J; Ewy GA

1991-11-01

310

The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium acetates, chlorates, and perchlorates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of sodium acetate, potassium acetate, sodium perchlorate, and potassium perchlorate were determined over the (278 to 318) K temperature range and compared with available in the literature data. The cases of saturated solutions of sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate are also considered. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the osmotic coefficients, and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in considered systems.

Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Manzurola, Emanuel [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2007-08-15

311

The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium acetates, chlorates, and perchlorates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of sodium acetate, potassium acetate, sodium perchlorate, and potassium perchlorate were determined over the (278 to 318) K temperature range and compared with available in the literature data. The cases of saturated solutions of sodium chlorate and potassium chlorate are also considered. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the osmotic coefficients, and the molar enthalpies of vaporization in considered systems

2007-01-01

312

Solution interactions of diclofenac sodium and meclofenamic acid sodium with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC).  

Science.gov (United States)

Many pharmaceutical agents require formulation in order to facilitate their efficacious delivery. However, the interaction between the active species and the formulation additives has the potential to significantly influence the pharmocokinetics of the active. In this study, the solution interactions between hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) with two non-steroidal anti-inflammatories - the sodium salts of diclofenac and meclofenamate - were investigated using tensiometric, rheological, NMR, neutron scattering and turbidimetric techniques. The two drugs behaved very differently-meclofenamate addition to HPMC solutions led to substantial increases in viscosity, a depression of the gel point and a marked reduction in the self-diffusion coefficient of the drug, whereas diclofenac did not induce these changes. Collectively, these observations are evidence of meclofenamate forming self-assembled aggregates on the HPMC, a phenomenon not observed with diclofenac Na. Any process that leads to aggregation on a nonionic polymer will not be strongly favoured when the aggregating species is charged. Thus, it is hypothesised that the distinction between the two drugs arises as a consequence of the tautomerism present in meclofenamate that builds electron density on the carbonyl group that is further stabilised by hydrogen bonding to the HPMC. This mechanism is absent in the diclofenac case and thus no interaction is observed. These studies propose for the first time a molecular basis for the observed often-unexpected, concentration-dependant changes in HPMC solution properties when co-formulated with different NSAIDs, and underline the importance of characterising such fundamental interactions that have the potential to influence drug release in solid HPMC-based dosage forms. PMID:21129466

Pygall, Samuel R; Griffiths, Peter C; Wolf, Bettina; Timmins, Peter; Melia, Colin D

2010-12-01

313

Environment-induced degradation in strength for carbon steel in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions containing chloride ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrochemical behavior and environment-induced degradation in strength for a carbon steel, SM400B, have been investigated in 0.025 M Na2CO3 + 0.075 M NaHCO3 solutions containing various concentrations of NaCl at 363 K. A slow strain rate test (SSRT) was employed to evaluate the degradation in mechanical properties. It was found from polarization curves that there generated pitting corrosion beyond 0.01 M NaCl. The SSRT was carried out applying a potential below the pitting potential to the specimen in the test solutions containing 0.5 and 0.01 M NaCl. Under both solution conditions, at increase in the applied potential resulted in a reduction in maximum stress and fracture strain, as well as an increase in current density during SSRT. From observation of the surface of the fracture specimens, however, there was no crack on it. Based on assumption of homogeneous deformation and general dissolution until maximum load, true stress at the maximum load was calculated. It was revealed that the true stress was almost independent of the applied potential, although the maximum load decreased with increase in the applied potential. It means that the homogeneous dissolution is accelerated by applying the stress and/or the dynamic strain. It is concluded from the facts that the degradation in the mechanical properties results from a rapid reduction in the cross section due to homogeneous dissolution, instead of localized corrosion. (author)

1998-01-01

314

The effect of sodium chlorite solutions on zebra mussel mortality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of four dilutions, 8 ppm, 40 ppm, 120 ppm and 473 ppm of the stock solution of a first product, Z-8, on zebra mussel mortality was investigated in static continuous exposure systems and compared to controls. The entire size class spectrum of the mussel population present at the sampling site was tested by leaving mussels attached to their original rock substrata. Two size class grouping of mussels, 13 mm and less and more than 13 mm in length, were exposed in the same test chambers but were analyzed separately. No mortality occurred in the controls. Concentration 8 ppm had no effect after 166 hours on both size class groupings. Concentrations 40, 120 and 473 ppm had observable killing effect within the 331 hours of experiment for both size groupings. The smaller mussels died faster than the larger ones. Another product, Z-11, was similarly tested during fall 1994 with dilutions 8, 40, 80 and 120 ppm. At 8 ppm dilution, Z-11 had induced only little mortality on both size class groupings after 739 hours. At 40, 80 and 120 ppm dilutions, Z-11 had interesting killing effect for both mussel size groupings within the 739 hours of experiment considering the somehow intermittent treatment used. The results already appear to show that sodium chlorite solutions have the potential for eventually becoming a surrogate to the use of chlorine for the control of zebra mussels. That is because they already show a good killing efficiency without being involved in the formation of undesired by-products such as the use of chlorine is. On this purpose, the product is engaged in the process of homologation by Agriculture Canada for it use as treatment against zebra mussels.

Dion, J.; Richer, Y. [Subdev Canada Inc., Ste-Julie, Quebec (Canada); Messer, R. [BiO2xy Incorporated, Raleigh, NC (United States)

1995-06-01

315

Environment-induced degradation in strength for carbon steel in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions containing chloride ions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrochemical behavior and environment-induced degradation in strength for a carbon steel, SM400B, have been investigated in 0.025 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + 0.075 M NaHCO{sub 3} solutions containing various concentrations of NaCl at 363 K. A slow strain rate test (SSRT) was employed to evaluate the degradation in mechanical properties. It was found from polarization curves that there generated pitting corrosion beyond 0.01 M NaCl. The SSRT was carried out applying a potential below the pitting potential to the specimen in the test solutions containing 0.5 and 0.01 M NaCl. Under both solution conditions, at increase in the applied potential resulted in a reduction in maximum stress and fracture strain, as well as an increase in current density during SSRT. From observation of the surface of the fracture specimens, however, there was no crack on it. Based on assumption of homogeneous deformation and general dissolution until maximum load, true stress at the maximum load was calculated. It was revealed that the true stress was almost independent of the applied potential, although the maximum load decreased with increase in the applied potential. It means that the homogeneous dissolution is accelerated by applying the stress and/or the dynamic strain. It is concluded from the facts that the degradation in the mechanical properties results from a rapid reduction in the cross section due to homogeneous dissolution, instead of localized corrosion. (author)

Haruna, Takumi; Zhu, Liehong; Shibata, Toshio [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan)

1998-12-01

316

Stress corrosion cracking of X80 pipeline steel exposed to high pH solutions with different concentrations of bicarbonate  

Science.gov (United States)

Susceptibilities to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of X80 pipeline steel in high pH solutions with various concentrations of HCO{3/-} at a passive potential of -0.2 V vs. SCE were investigated by slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) test. The SCC mechanism and the effect of HCO{3/-} were discussed with the aid of electrochemical techniques. It is indicated that X80 steel shows enhanced susceptibility to SCC with the concentration of HCO{3/-} increasing from 0.15 to 1.00 mol/L, and the susceptibility can be evaluated in terms of current density at -0.2 V vs. SCE. The SCC behavior is controlled by the dissolution-based mechanism in these circumstances. Increasing the concentration of HCO{3/-} not only increases the risk of rupture of passive films but also promotes the anodic dissolution of crack tips. Besides, little susceptibility to SCC is found in dilute solution containing 0.05 mol/L HCO{3/-} for X80 steel. This can be attributed to the inhibited repassivation of passive films, manifesting as a more intensive dissolution in the non-crack tip areas than at the crack tips.

Fan, Lin; Du, Cui-wei; Liu, Zhi-yong; Li, Xiao-gang

2013-07-01

317

Phenol formation in gamma radiolysis of aqueous benzene solution with sodium hypochlorite.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phenol formation by gamma radiolysis of an aqueous benzene solution containing sodium hypochlorite is reported. The phenol formation in a benzene solution containing sodium hypochlorite irradiated with (60)Co ?-rays is about six times higher than that without sodium hypochlorite. Ten micromolar sodium hypochlorite enhanced the formation of phenol up to a total dose of 6 Gy. Above 6 Gy in solutions containing sodium hypochlorite, the rate of phenol yield sharply decreased and was essentially the same as that without sodium hypochlorite. The yield of phenol with sodium hypochlorite is 0.89 ?mol J(-1) and is larger than the sum of yield for the radicals and reactive oxygen species by water radiolysis such as •OH, e(-), H, H2, and H2O2. The formation of phenol with sodium hypochlorite was reduced by NaCl. Results suggest that the radiolytic formation of phenol in a benzene solution with sodium hypochlorite relates to the reaction process involving chlorine atoms. Sodium hypochlorite can be applied as a sensitizer for a benzene chemical dosimetry system. The lower limit of dose detection calculated from the detection limit of phenol and the G value of phenol was estimated to be 1 × 10(-3) Gy.

Takeda K; Nagano K

2013-03-01

318

Improved extraction of sodium sulphonates from oil solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The extraction process of sodium sulphonate is described with the aid of a rotatable, centrally composed planned experiment. The derived regression equations establish the relationship of extraction and composition of the product to the extraction mode. Determines optimal extraction regimen for sodium sulphonate production.

Matselyukh, V.S.; Bodan, A.N.; Garun, Ya.Ye.; Kachmar, O.S.; Kravchuk, G.G.; Topil' nitskiy, P.I.

1982-01-01

319

Comparison of the sodium contents of six commonly recommended oral rehydration solutions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The sodium contents of six differently prepared oral rehydration solutions (ORS) were measured. A total of 452 solutions were prepared in our gastro-enteritis unit. The finger-pinch-and-cup method produced sodium values that were too high and too variable. The most acceptable sodium level was achieved using half a 5 ml medicine teaspoon or 1 level common household teaspoon of salt in 1 litre of water. Half a commonly available household teaspoon of salt caused sodium levels to be low but still acceptable and safe. We recommend that half a teaspoon of salt in 1 litre of water be used when preparing an ORS.

Zietsman J; Hay IT; Hansen JD; Dauth J; Dreyer MJ

1989-11-01

320

Zeolite for extraction of strontium from concentrated solutions of sodium salts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sorption of strontium from 5 M sodium chloride solutions on zeolites of differing structure was investigated. It was shown that a synthetic potassium zeolite of the Chabazite type K-G (13) can be used to remove radionuclides of strontium from these solutions. The strontium capacity of zeolite K-G (13) in a 5 M sodium chloride solution is 0.65 mmole/g.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

2002-01-01

322

Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

You, D.; Lefefre, S.; Feron, D. [CEA-Saclay, Lab. d' Etude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vaillant, F. [EDF-Les Renardieres - DRD/EMA, Moret-sur-Loing (France)

2002-07-01

323

Maximizing adhesion of auxin solutions to stem cuttings using sodium cellulose glycolate  

Science.gov (United States)

Auxin solutions prepared with sodium cellulose glycolate (SCG; a thickening agent, also known as sodium carboxymethylcellulose) and applied to stem cuttings using a basal quick-dip extend the duration of exposure of cuttings to the auxin and have previously been shown to increase root number and/or ...

324

Intravenous Suitability Studies of Commonly Used Oxacillin Sodium Solutions in the ACCUFUSER® Infusion Device  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our study compares two commonly used solutions of oxacillin sodium, 5.0 mg/mL in either 0.9% sodium chloride (NS) or 5% dextrose water (D5W), for their continued suitability for IV usage, and stability of active compound over time, when stored at two different controlled temperatures for six weeks. ...

Min-Jeong Kim; Ga-Young Lee; Yoo-Shin Park; Shin-Hee Kim; Sang-Yeon Kim; Mina Kang; Min-Ji Kim; Ju-Seop Kang

325

Methods for the recovery of sulfur components from flue gas and recycle sodium sulfite by reduction-smelting and carbonating to strip hydrogen sulfide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An improved method for recovering sulfur from flue gas which contains sulfur dioxide formed from burning sulfur containing fuels is disclosed. The method first involves the reduction burning of auxilary fuel in the presence of sodium sulfite to convert it to smelt containing sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate. The smelt is dissolved, and the solution reacted with carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and water vapor forming sodium hydrosulfide. The sodium hydrosulfide is reacted with a high concentration of recycled sodium bicarbonate and stripped with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate and release the sulfides as hydrogen sulfide from the stripper. The hydrogen sulfide released is then converted to sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur. Pressurized carbon dioxide is used for pressure carbonation of recycled solution from the stripper to convert the sodium carbonate to the high concentration of recycled sodium bicarbonate used for stripping. The sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate from the stripper are reacted under pressure with sodium bisulfite in a decarbonator to form sodium sulfite and release carbon dioxide under pressure for use in the pressure carbonation. A portion of the sodium sulfite formed by decarbonation is then reduced in the smelter. The balance of the sodium sulfite is then used for absorption of the sulfur dioxide from the flue gas forming the sodium bisulfite used for decarbonation.

Farin, W.G.

1980-12-23

326

Sodium citrate 4% versus heparin as a lock solution in hemodialysis patients with central venous catheters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The effects of heparin versus sodium citrate 4% as a lock solution on catheter-related infections (CRIs), catheter patency, and hospitalizations in long-term hemodialysis patients with central venous catheters (CVCs) were compared. METHODS: Data for patients receiving heparin lock solutions were collected from July 2008 to July 2009. Data on patients receiving sodium citrate 4% lock solution were collected from September 2009 through December 2010. Patients who were receiving the heparin lock solution who continued to have a CVC in September 2009 were transitioned from heparin to sodium citrate catheter 4% lock solution. New patients with CVCs placed after September 2009 received sodium citrate 4% without a period of using heparin lock solution. Pertinent information on patient medical history, bleeding or clotting events, infections, and hospitalization was collected. Data were collected retrospectively for the heparin group and prospectively for the sodium citrate group. RESULTS: Data were collected from 360 patient-months among 60 patients during the heparin treatment period and from 451 patient-months among 58 patients during the sodium citrate period. Thirty-three patients were common to both study groups. There were significantly more CRIs and CRIs per 1000 catheter-days in the heparin than the sodium citrate treatment group. Secondary outcomes of hospitalizations and catheter thrombosis were comparable. CRIs and thrombosis led to significantly more catheter exchanges or removals in the heparin group than the sodium citrate group. CONCLUSION: In patients with long-term hemodialysis catheters, a lock solution of sodium citrate 4% was associated with fewer CRIs and similar effectiveness when compared with heparin 5000 units/mL.

Yon CK; Low CL

2013-01-01

327

Predicting total soil lead from an acetic acid-sodium acetate buffered solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total soil lead was predicted satisfactorily from the lead extracted by the Standard Morgan soil testing solution (sodium acetate with acetic acid, pH 4.8). A modified Morgan solution, utilizing EDTA as a chelating agent, extracted greater than 3 times as much lead as the regular Morgan's solution, but was no better in predicting total lead.

Nicklow, C.W. (Univ. of Massachusetts, Waltham); Norvell, W.A.; Spittler, T.

1981-01-01

328

Furfural Yield and Decomposition in Sodium 2,4-Dimethylbenzinesulfonate- Sulfuric Acid-Water Solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Batch-type microreactors (about 1/40 milliliter of reactants) were used to measure furfural yields from acidified xylose solutions containing sodium xylenesulfonate. Initial xylose concentration was 0.666 molar. Two levels of sulfuric acid catalyst were u...

J. M. Smuk L. L. Zoch

1965-01-01

329

Factors Affecting Dissolution Resistance of AC Anodizing Al in Sodium Carbonate Solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Studies were performed to determine the effect of different factors on the properties and so the dissolution resistance of the anodic film of Al. Conductance and thermometric measurements were applied to evaluate the dissolution rate. The effect of applied AC voltage concentration of sodium carbonate solution, the anodization time and the temperature of sodium carbonate solutions show a parallel increase in the dissolution resistance of studied Al in hydrochloride acid. The results show that films formed by sodium carbonate solution were of porous type and have pronounced high resistance. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction further examined the films. The anodic and cathodic behavior and the effect of the scanning rate on the polarization of Al in sodium carbonate solution were studied. The regression analysis was applied to all results. (Author)

2001-01-01

330

Amorphous silica solubilities IV. Behavior in pure water and aqueous sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium sulfate solutions up to 350/sup 0/C  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solubilities of amorphous silica were determined in separate aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium sulfate at temperatures up to 350/sup 0/C. These salts, of strong interest in hydrothermal oceanography and geothermal energy, generally ranged in concentration from zero to saturation. Solubilities in the sodium chloride solutions followed closely earlier observed decreases in sodium nitrate solutions at high temperatures. Amorphous silica solubilities were depressed most by magnesium chloride, followed by magnesium sulfate, and less by sodium chloride. As the temperature rose the relative decrease in solubility caused by added salt became smaller. Surprisingly, sodium sulfate solutions, showing little effect at 25/sup 0/C, sharply raised the solubility as the temperature increased to 350/sup 0/C. Plots of the logarithms of derived activity coefficients against molalities of added salt gave approximately straight lines. These plots allow simple predictions of amorphous silica solubility in single salt solutions.

Chen, C.T.A.; Marshall, W.L.

1982-02-01

331

Investigation of dissolution processes of rhenium sulfides in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetic characteristics (rate constant, activation energy) for the reaction of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide dissolution with provision for change of their surface value were determined and the possible mechanism of rhenium sulfide dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of oxygen was suggested. It was shown, that change of Gibbs energy of sulfide formation correlates with change of Gibbs energy of their dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions

1983-01-01

332

Investigation of dissolution processes of rhenium sulfides in sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kinetic characteristics (rate constant, activation energy) for the reaction of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide dissolution with provision for change of their surface value were determined and the possible mechanism of rhenium sulfide dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of oxygen was suggested. It was shown, that change of Gibbs energy of sulfide formation correlates with change of Gibbs energy of their dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions.

Ospanov, Kh.K.; Sultanbaeva, R.

1983-02-01

333

The mechanisms of sodium absorption in the human small intestine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present studies were designed to characterize sodium transport in the jejunum and ileum of humans with respect to the effects of water flow, sodium concentration, addition of glucose and galactose, and variations in aniomic composition of luminal fluid. In the ileum, sodium absorption occurred against very steep electrochemical gradients (110 mEq/liter, 5-15 mv), was unaffected by the rate or direction of water flow, and was not stimulated by addition of glucose, galactose, or bicarbonate. These findings led to the conclusion that there is an efficiently active sodium transport across a membrane that is relatively impermeable to sodium. In contrast, jejunal sodium (chloride) absorption can take place against only the modest concentration gradient of 13 mEq/liter, was dramatically influenced by water movement, and was stimulated by addition of glucose, galactose, and bicarbonate. The stimulatory effect of glucose and galactose was evident even when net water movement was inhibited to zero by mannitol. These observations led to the conclusion that a small fraction of jejunal sodium absorption was mediated by active transport coupled either to active absorption of bicarbonate or active secretion of hydrogen ions. The major part of sodium absorption, i.e. sodium chloride absorption, appeared to be mediated by a process of bulk flow of solution along osmotic pressure gradients. The stimulatory effect of glucose and galactose, even at zero water flow, was explained by a model in which the active transport of monosaccharide generates a local osmotic force for the absorption of solution (NaCl and water) from the jejunal lumen, which, in the presence of mannitol, is counterbalanced by a reverse flow of pure solvent (H(2)O) through a parallel set of channels which are impermeable to sodium. Support for the model was obtained by the demonstration that glucose and bicarbonate stimulated the absorption of the nonactively transported solute urea even when net water flow was maintained at zero by addition of mannitol to luminal contents.

Fordtran JS; Rector FC Jr; Carter NW

1968-04-01

334

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone (ID 331, 1402) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claim are carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium. The Panel considers that carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “acid/base balance and bone health” and “bone density/bone health”. The target population is assumed to be the general population.In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to the maintenance of normal bone by maintaining acid-base balance. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal bone is a beneficial physiological effect. No references were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the dietary intake of carbonate or bicarbonate salts of sodium or potassium and maintenance of normal bone.

Tetens, Inge

2011-01-01

335

The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate.

2008-01-01

336

The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate.

Apelblat, Alexander [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)], E-mail: apelblat@bgu.ac.il; Korin, Eli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2008-05-15

337

PROCESS FOR OBTAINING FREE AND PURE LACTIC ACID FROM A SODIUM LACTATE SOLUTION.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The process described in the present document provides a form to purify lactic acid, from which free and pure lactic acid is obtained and used in the industry. The described process is related to the obtention o free and pure lactic acid from a sodium lactate-rich solution resulting from fermentation of synthetic chemical processes. The obtention process comprises the following steps: a) dissociating the sodium lactate by reducing the value of the pH thereof upon adding hydrochloric acid, b) precipitating the sodium chloride by distilling the aqueous solvent, and c) extracting a solution rich in free and pure lactic acid.

SANCHEZ ALVARO CARLOS RODRIGUEZ; PINA HAZAEL PINTO; MURILLO ELVIRA CRISTINA SANCHEZ

338

Myocardial uptake of thallium-201 augmented with bicarbonate: concise communication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium bicarbonate was used to enhance the myocardial concentration of Tl-201 in rabbits and dogs. Organ distribution studies in rabbits and in vivo imaging in dogs showed a 1.5 to 2-fold increase in myocardial Tl-201 concentration in bicarbonate-treated animals as compared with matched controls. Image improvement was noted, with threefold enhancement of myocardium-to-liver ratios. The results suggest that a similar improvement may be possible for clinical myocardial imaging

1977-01-01

339

Radiation protection by ascorbic acid in sodium alginate solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alginates are gelling hydrocolloids extracted from brown seaweed used widely in the nourishing and pharmaceutical industries. As alginic acid gellification retard food entrance in the stomach alginate is an additive used in diets. The objective of this work was to study the protective action of the ascorbic acid in alginate solutions against the action of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation. One % (w/v) solutions of alginate had been used and concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 0 to 2.5% (w/v). The solutions were irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy. Viscosity/dose relationship and the p H of the solutions at 25 Centigrade were determined. Ascorbic acid behaved as an antioxidant against radiation oxidative shock in this model system of an irradiated viscous solution. Besides its radiation protective role on alginate solutions ascorbic acid promoted a viscosity increase in the range of concentrations employed. (Author)

Aliste, A.J.; Mastro, N.L. Del [Center of Radiation Technology, IPEN/CNEN/SP, University City, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajaliste@ipen.br

2004-07-01

340

Hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio na prevenção de nefropatia induzida por contraste em pacientes diabéticos: subanálise de ensaio clínico multicêntrico/ Sodium-bicarbonate to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in diabetic patients: a sub-analysis of a multicenter clinical trial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Nefropatia induzida por contraste (NIC) está associada a piores desfechos intra-hospitalar e a longo prazo. Estudos recentes sugerem que hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio possa ser útil na sua prevenção; no entanto, essa medida de prevenção de NIC não foi, ainda, avaliada em pacientes diabéticos. MÉTODO: Subanálise de um estudo multicêntrico envolvendo 301 pacientes com creatinina sérica > 1,2 mg/dl ou depuração de creatinina endógena (more) (DCE) Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with worse clinical outcomes both at short and long-term follow-up. Recent evidence indicates that intravenous hydration with sodium-bicarbonate may reduce the incidence of CIN. However, this strategy has not been reported in diabetic patients. METHODS: Sub-analysis of a multicenter study involving 301 patients with serum creatinine > 1,2 mg/dL or creatinine clearance (more) aphy or percutaneous coronary intervention and randomized to intravenous hydration with sodium-bicarbonate or normal saline. All patients received low-osmolar contrast media. We assessed the incidence of CIN (defined as creatinine increase > 0,5 mg/dL), and the average change in creatinine and creatinine clearance 48 hours after the procedure. A total of 87 diabetic patients were analyzed. RESULTS: There was no difference between groups regarding baseline characteristics, contrast volume used, baseline creatinine levels and creatinine clearance. Eight patients presented CIN: 4 (9.8%) in the bicarbonate group and 4 (8.9%) in the saline group (p = 0.9). The average change in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: Intravenous hydration with sodium-bicarbonate did not reduce the incidence of CIN in diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention as compared to hydration with normal saline.

Gomes, Vitor Osório; Tabajara, Camila; Hickmann, Patrícia; Perez-Alva, Juan Carlos; Brito Jr., Fábio; Almeida, Breno; Lima, Valter; Machado, Bruno; Arruda, Airton; Paula, José Eduardo T. de; Lasevitch, Ricardo; Caramori, Paulo

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Interaction kinetics for cadmium tungstate with solutions of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kinetic parameters for interaction of cadmium tungstate powders, produced by milling monocrystals, with solutions of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid are determined. The interaction with NaOH solutions is shown to proceed with higher rate compared to HCL. The interaction rates at 90 deg C are high enough for practical use with the object to process.

1992-01-01

342

Surface tension of poly(acrylic acid) in sodium chloride solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surface tension of polyacrylic acid (PAA) in sodium chloride solutions was measured at various ionic strengths. Surface activity of PAA solutions increases and shows a large time dependence with increasing salt concentration. Surface activity and time dependence of surface tension is explained by the changing flexibility of PAA chains.

Ishimuro, Y.; Ueberreiter, K.

1980-09-01

343

Stability Test of Ampicillin Sodium Solutions in the Accufuser® Elastomeric Infusion Device Using HPLC: UV Method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The stabilities of two kinds of solutions (30 mg/mL) of Ampicillin sodium in 0.9% NaCl in water (NS, normal saline) and in sterile water (SW) in the intravenous elastomeric infusion device (Accufuser®) were evaluated based on recommended solutions and storage periods. The injectable NS- and SW-Ampic...

Min A Kang; Ju-Seop Kang

344

Dissolution of sodium chlorate crystals in supersaturated solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of the investigations regarding the growth and the dissolution behavior of small sodium chlorate crystals at temperatures near saturation temperature of (31.00±0.02)°C are presented. Above this temperature all the observed crystals dissolved, as was expected. At temperatures between 30.5°C and 31.0°C coexistence of growing, non-growing and dissolving crystals was occurred. At temperatures below 30.5°C dissolution of the crystals did not occur. A significant growth/dissolution rate dispersion existed at all temperatures. Possible reasons for simultaneous growth and dissolution are discussed.

Malivuk, Dragana A.; Žeki?, Andrijana A.; Mitrovi?, Mi?o M.; Misailovi?, Branislava M.

2013-08-01

345

Avaliação quantitativa do efeito do jato de bicarbonato de sódio no esmalte de dentes permanentes jovens Quantitative analysis of the effect of sodium bicarbonate on the enamel surface of young permanent teeth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliou-se clinicamente o efeito do jato de bicarbonato de sódio sob pressão, empregado na profilaxia da superfície de esmalte sadio de dentes permanentes jovens. Trabalhou-se com réplicas positivas, o que permitiu a análise antes e após a realização de tal procedimento. Foram feitas sessenta moldagens da superfície vestibular de incisivos centrais superiores, as quais sofreram um preparo para a análise quantitativa da rugosidade das superfícies de esmalte. A análise quantitativa foi efetuada utilizando-se o programa para computador Diracom-3, que mensura as sombras e penumbras das imagens dos espécimes. Estabeleceram-se três grupos experimentais com vinte crianças que nunca haviam sido submetidas à profilaxia com Profident, as quais foram moldadas em três momentos. Antes do procedimento ou controle (Grupo 1); imediatamente após (Grupo 2); e um mês após o tratamento (Grupo 3). A análise quantitativa dos dados mostrou não haver diferença estatisticamente significante entre os grupos analisados.The effect of sodium bicarbonate under pressure used in the prophylaxis of the healthful enamel surface of young permanent teeth was clinically evaluated. Positive reproductions were used, which permitted the analysis before and after the realization of such procedure. The moldings of the vestibular surface of central superior incisives made totalized sixty, which went trough a preparation for the quantitative rugosity analysis of the enamel surfaces. The computer program DIRACOM - 3, that measures the shades and half - shadows of the sample images was used for quantitative analysis for which the scanning electron microscopy was employed. Three experimental groups with twenty children each, who had never been submitted to that technique of prophylaxis were established and molds taken in three moments: Group 1 - before the procedure or control ; Group 2 - immediately after and Group 3 - one month after the treatment ( subgroup 2c ). The quantitative analysis of the data showed that there was not a statistically significant difference between the analyzed groups.

Sara Nader MARTA; José Eduardo de Oliveira LIMA; Bernardo Gonzales VONO; Salete Moura Bonifácio da SILVA

1999-01-01

346

Avaliação de procedimentos de extração dos óxidos de ferro pedogênicos com ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio Evaluation of pedogenic iron oxide extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em 20 amostras hematíticas e goethíticas de horizontes B latossólicos, uma de B plíntico, uma de B incipiente e uma de saprolito, foram avaliados dois procedimentos de extração de óxidos de ferro pedogênicos (Fe d) por ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio (DCB). O procedimento a 80 ºC (DCB80) extraiu aproximadamente 90 % do Fe d na primeira extração e praticamente a totalidade do mesmo na segunda extração, sendo mais efetivo que o procedimento a temperatura ambiente (DCB20), o qual teve sua eficiência reduzida com o aumento da substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita. A substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita determinada por DCB80 superestimou os valores determinados por DRX conforme aumentaram as extrações. Em amostras hematíticas, esta estimativa foi prejudicada pela presença de maghemita que dissolveu juntamente com a hematita.Pedogenic iron oxides (Fe d) were quantified in 22 hematitic and goethitic soil samples (19 from oxic horizons; one from a plinthic horizon; one from a cambic horizon; one from saprolite) by use of two extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB). Approximately ninety percent of the Fe d content was extracted at the first extraction by the DCB80 procedure. This procedure was more effective at extracting Fe d than the DCB20, whose efficiency decreased with increasing Al3+-substitution in goethite. Compared with the DRX analysis, Al3+-substitution in goethite determined by the DCB80 procedure was superestimated. Maghemite masked Al3+-substitution estimates in hematite from hematitic samples.

A. V. Inda Junior; N. Kämpf

2003-01-01

347

Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women?/ ¿Modifica el agua mineral bicarbonatada rica en sodio la sensibilidad a la insulina de las mujeres postmenopáusicas?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Estudiar los efectos de la ingesta de 0.5L de dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2), junto con una comida estándar, sobre los cambios en la insulina y la glucosa postprandial; y determinar si los posibles efectos varían en función de la resistencia a la insulina evaluada a través del modelo homeostático (HOMA). Métodos: 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas sanas participaron en un estudio triple cruzado aleatorizado, en el que bebieron 2 ag (more) uas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2) y un agua mineral débil (LMW) junto con una comida estándar rica en grasa. Se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas y postprandiales a los 30, 60 y 120 min. Se determinó glucosa, insulina, colesterol y triglicéridos en suero. La resistencia a la insulina fue estimada a través del HOMA y la sensibilidad a la insulina se calculó mediante el índice de sensibilidad cuantitativa a la insulina (QUICKY). Resultados: Los niveles de glucosa no presentaron cambios. Los valores de HOMA y QUICKY presentaron una fuerte correlación inversa (r = -1,000; p Abstract in english Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2), with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Methods: In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW) with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and p (more) ostprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY). Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p

Schoppen, S.; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.; Pérez-Granados, A. M.ª; Gómez-Gerique, J. A.; Sarriá, B.; Navas-Carretero, S.; Vaquero, M.ª Pilar

2007-10-01

348

Preventive and curative activity of combined treatments of sodium carbonates and Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 to control postharvest green mold of citrus fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

Preventive and curative activity of 2 min dips in 3% sodium carbonate (SC) or sodium bicarbonate (SBC) aqueous solutions heated to 40ºC, alone of followed by the application of 2 x 108 CFU/ml of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 (BA), in the control of postharvest green mold, caused by ...

349

Iodine absorption in mixed solution of sodium hydroxide-boric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the absorption solution used for the removal of radioactive iodine in the exhaust gas from nuclear facilities by washing with water, boron compounds with large neutron capture cross section are mixed in many cases as nuclear reaction inhibitor. Generally sodium hydroxide aqueous solution in which boric acid is dissolved is employed. Therefore in practical point of view, absorption of iodine in the mixed solution of sodium hydroxide - boric acid is important, and the partition equilibrium of iodine in sodium hydroxide - boric acid, vapor - liquid overall dissolution equilibrium coefficient between the mixed solution and decarboxilated air, and iodine absorption rate in the mixed solution were experimented and discussed. Boric acid partly becomes ions by hydrolysis in the mixed solution of sodium hydroxide - boric acid and acts as a pH control agent. It only affects the partition of iodine in liquid phase through its dissociation and electric charge equilibrium. Overall absorption rate of iodine decreases by adding the boric acid. Alkaline water of 9.5 to 10 pH containing boric acid of 1 to 3 g-boron/kg-water is very often used as the absorption solution for the removal of radioactive iodine by washing with alka- line water. This condition of boric acid concentration is higher than the condition in this investigation, and hence the detailed examination by the experiments over a wide range of concentration will be necessary. (Wakatsuki, Y

1978-01-01

350

Study on the utilization of a sodium-sulfuric acid solution for the uranium minerals' leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argentine uranium minerals have been leached at bench scale with a different agent trying to reduce sulfuric acid consumption. The leaching agent was a sodium sulfate-sulfuric acid solution and the ore was from Sierra Pintada (San Rafael - Mendoza). The work was performed in stirred vessel at atmospheric pressure. The influence of different variables, pH, temperature, oxidant agent, sodium sulfate concentration and time, in the sulfuric acid consumption and the uranium yield was studied. (Author).

1988-01-01

351

Binding of resveratrol with sodium caseinate in aqueous solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between resveratrol (Res) and sodium caseinate (Na-Cas) has been studied by measuring fluorescence quenching of the protein by resveratrol. Quenching constants were determined using Stern-Volmer equation, which suggests that both dynamic and static quenching occur between Na-Cas and Res. Binding constants for the complexation between Na-Cas and Res were determined at different temperatures. The large binding constants (3.7-5.1×10(5)M(-1)) suggest that Res has strong affinity for Na-Cas. This affinity decreases as the temperature is raised from 25 to 37°C. The binding involves both hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction, as suggested by negative enthalpy change and positive entropy change for the binding reaction. The present study indicates that Na-Cas, a common food protein, may be used as a carrier of Res, a bioactive polyphenol which is insoluble in both water and oils. PMID:23790885

Acharya, Durga P; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann

2013-03-26

352

Compatibility and stability of telavancin and vancomycin in heparin or sodium citrate lock solutions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The compatibility and stability of telavancin and vancomycin in heparin or sodium citrate lock solutions were evaluated. METHODS: Telavancin and vancomycin hydrochloride injection powder lyophilized for solution were reconstituted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection at room temperature according to the manufacturer's instructions and then further diluted with (1) commercially available heparin sodium to reach a final heparin concentration of 2500 units/mL or (2) sodium citrate solution 2.2% or 4% to achieve final telavancin and vancomycin concentrations of 2 and 5 mg/mL. Physical stability, chemical compatibility, and biological anticoagulant stability were analyzed for each antibiotic-anticoagulant combination immediately after preparation and at 24, 48, and 72 hours. Changes in coagulation were measured at each time point and compared using two-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Both telavancin and vancomycin retained at least 90% of the initial concentration after incubation at 37 °C over 72 hours. The biological stability of vancomycin 2 mg/mL and telavancin 2 mg/mL did not significantly alter prothrombin time when compared with that of 0.9% sodium chloride injection. However, telavancin 5 mg/mL and vancomycin 5 mg/mL significantly increased the activated partial thromboplastin time at 72 hours compared with the control solution. Visual precipitation only occurred with vancomycin-containing solutions; however, this dissipated after 10 minutes. CONCLUSION: Telavancin 2 and 5 mg/mL was physically compatible in combination with heparin 2500 units/mL and with sodium citrate 2.2% and 4% over 72 hours. Vancomycin 2 and 5 mg/mL initially precipitated in the sodium citrate 2.2% formulation, but no precipitation was noted after 10 minutes of incubation at 37 °C. Telavancin and vancomycin 2 and 5 mg/mL retained over 90% of the initial concentration after incubation at 37 °C over 72 hours.

LaPlante KL; Woodmansee S; Mermel LA

2012-08-01

353

Method for recovering sodium chemicals from green liquor and flue gases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention relates to a method for recovering sodium chemicals from green liquor by precarbonating green liquor by means of flue gases, by bringing a precarbonated solution into contact with a sodium bicarbonate solution and by stripping hydrogen sulphide from the so obtained reaction mixture by means of steam, for producing hydrogen sulphide gas and a sodium carbonate solution, which sodium carbonate solution is so pure, in relation to sodium sulphide that it can directly be led into the washing of the flue gases and into a carbonation stage, for producing the sodium bicarbonate solution. In order to save steam and sodium carbonate all precarbonated solution is not treated to the sodium sulphide free solution, which is required by a scrubber, but a part is discharged at higher sodium sulphide content by dividing the stripping into two stages which take place one above the other in the same tower, whereby a part of a solution obtained from the first stripping stage is led directly into the second stripping stage and the steams containing hydrogen sulphide, obtained from the second stripping stage are led directly into the first stripping stage.

Rimpi, P.

1984-09-11

354

Effects of sodium hypochlorite gel and sodium hypochlorite solution on dentin bond strength.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 10% NaOCl gel and 10% NaOCl solution on dentin bond strengths of four adhesive systems. One hundred eighty bovine incisors were ground to achieve a flat polished surface, then divided into 12 groups: Gluma One Bond [G1-control; G2-NaOCl solution; G3-NaOCl gel]; Prime & Bond 2.1 [G4-control; G5-NaOCl solution; G6-NaOCl gel]; Single Bond [G7-control; G8-NaOCl solution; G9-NaOCl gel]; Prime & Bond NT [G10-control; G11-NaOCl solution; G12-NaOCl gel]. Dentin was etched, rinsed, and blot dried. For the experimental groups, after acid etching, 10% NaOCl solution or 10% NaOCl gel was applied for 60 s, rinsed, and blot dried. Composite resin was inserted and light cured. Shear bond strengths were tested with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean values MPa (SD) were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (alpha Gluma One Bond strength. No effect was observed for the other adhesives. The 10% NaOCl gel did not affect bond strengths. Ten percent NaOCl gel was less effective on collagen removal as compared to 10% NaOCl solution. The influence of collagen removal on bond strength is dependent on adhesive system, where both the solvent and the monomer can influence the results. PMID:15490482

Arias, Vanessa G; Bedran-de-Castro, Ana Karina B; Pimenta, Luiz André

2005-02-15

355

Preparation of ammonium metavanadate from sodium vanadate solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A flowsheet of preparing ammonium metavanadate is suggested that excludes harmful effluents and regenerates difficult-to-obtain alkali. The flowsheet comprises operations of ammonium metavanadate precipitation by ammonium carbonate, causticization of soda solution, and slime processing; the extraction of vanadium makes up approximately 98%.

Poletaev, I.F.; Temurdzhanov, Kh.T.; Lyudomirskaya, A.P.; Lyukmanova, E.M.

1984-07-01

356

Effects of bicarbonates and film-forming polymers on cucurbit foliar diseases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The inhibitory effects of sodium, potassium, and ammonium bicarbonates (NaHCO3, KHCO3 and NH4HCO3, respectively) alone and in combination with SunSpray Ultra-Fine Spray Oil (SS) on powdery mildew, caused by Sphaerotheca fuliginea; gummy stem blight, caused by Didymella bryoniae; Alternaria leaf blight, caused by Alternaria cucumerina; and Ulocladium leaf spot, caused by Ulocladium cucurbitae, were studied. SS oil performed consistently better than ForEverGreen, Masbrane, Crop Life, Vapor Gard, Nu-Film 17, and Bio-Film for powdery mildew control in cucumber and pumpkin. NaHCO3 or KHCO3 combined with SS oil, both at 0.5%, were more effective treatments for powdery mildew on pumpkin than either of the materials used alone, whereas NH4HCO3 was ineffective. All three bicarbonates (1% w/v) plus SS oil (1% v/v), and especially NH4HCO3 + SS, provided good control of gummy stem blight and Alternaria leaf blight of muskmelon and Ulocladium leaf spot of cucumber in greenhouse trials. The bicarbonate-plus-oil treatments were more effective when applied prior to inoculation. KHCO3 was phytotoxic to mildew-infected pumpkin leaves at concentrations greater than 0.5%; NaHCO3 caused minimal injury, and NH4HCO3 caused no injury. Similar results were obtained when bicarbonate solutions were applied to punctured cucumber cotyledons. In vitro studies showed that bicarbonate salts inhibited growth of these organisms and Colletotrichum orbiculare, causal fungus of cucurbit anthracnose. NH4HCO3 was most inhibitory. Na, K, and NH4 chloride salts were least inhibitory.

Ziv O; Zitter TA

1992-05-01

357

Determination of the oxidation states of neptunium in sodium hydroxide solutions by adsorption on zirconium(IV) hydroxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An adsorption method for determining the distribution of the oxidation states of neptunium in sodium hydroxide solutions is proposed. In the range of sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1 - 2 M (1 M = 1 mol dm/sup -3/), the Np(V) was almost entirely adsorbed on zirconium(IV) hydroxide, while both Np(VI) and Np(VII) remained in the supernatant. By means of this adsorption method, it was found that Np(V) in tracer quantities, though it was most stable in acidic or neutral solutions, was not the most stable state in sodium hydroxide solutions. Also, the oxidation and reduction of Np in sodium hydroxide solutions were investigated.

Shiokawa, Y.; Sato, A.; Suzuki, S. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Iron, Steel and Other Metals)

1980-10-01

358

Actinyl(6) speciation in concentrated sodium chloride solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Thermodynamic parameters and sorption coefficients provide the fundamental database for the mathematical abstraction of environmental transport of actinides. We have been investigating the chemistry of the hexavalent actinides, U and Pu, in the solid state in concentrated salt (NaCl) solutions representative of conditions within geologic salt formations, sites for nuclear waste disposal. Chloride complexation is proven to play an important role for actinyl(VI) solubility and speciation. We investigated U(VI) and Pu(VI) equilibria with the predominant inorganic ligands hydroxide and carbonate in the presence of chloride. We used a number of spectroscopic techniques (UV-vis-NIR, Raman, FTIR, NMR, XAS) and X-ray diffraction to characterise solution species and solid phases as a function of pH, carbonate concentration, and ionic strength. (authors)

2001-01-01

359

Carbon dioxide capture capacity of sodium hydroxide aqueous solution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present paper investigates the various features of NaOH aqueous solution when applied as an absorbent to capture carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emitted with relatively high concentration in the flue gas. The overall CO(2) absorption reaction was carried out according to consecutive reaction steps that are generated in the order of Na(2)CO(3) and NaHCO(3). The reaction rate and capture efficiency were strongly dependent on the NaOH concentration in the Na(2)CO(3) production range, but were constant in the NaHCO(3) production step, irrespective of the NaOH concentration. The amount of CO(2) absorbed in the solution was slightly less than the theoretical value, which was ascribed to the low trona production during the reaction and the consequent decrease in CO(2) absorption in the NaOH solution. The mass ratio of absorbed CO(2) that participated in the Na(2)CO(3), NaHCO(3), and trona production reactions was calculated to be 20:17:1, respectively.

Yoo M; Han SJ; Wee JH

2013-01-01

360

Penetration into dentin of sodium hypochlorite associated with acid solutions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the penetration of 2.5% NaOCl associated with 17.0% EDTA, 1.0% citric acid, and 1.0% peracetic acid into dentin tubules. STUDY DESIGN: The roots of 44 bovine incisors were cross-sectioned and 5-mm-long fragments were produced from their middle thirds. The specimens were instrumented with ProTaper hand files, stained in crystal violet, then sectioned mesiodistally. The buccal fragments were divided into 4 groups (n = 9) and subjected to 2 consecutive 10-minute immersion periods in one of the following acid solutions combined with 2.5% NaOCl: 17.0% EDTA (group 1), 1.0% citric acid (group 2), and 1.0% peracetic acid (group 3). Nine fragments were immersed in 2.5% NaOCl (group 4). The analysis of the penetration of NaOCl solutions into dentin was performed by measuring the depth of crystal violet stain that was bleached using a steromicroscope under ×50 magnification. Statistical comparisons were carried out by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests at the 5% significance level. RESULTS: Group 1 showed less penetration into dentin than group 4 (P < .05). No statistically significant differences were observed among groups 2, 3, and 4 (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Association of NaOCl with acid solutions did not increase its penetration depth into root dentin.

Kuga MC; Gouveia-Jorge É; Tanomaru-Filho M; Guerreiro-Tanomaru JM; Bonetti-Filho I; Faria G

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
361

Comparison of colon-cleansing methods in preparation for colonoscopy--comparative efficacy of solutions of mannitol, sodium picosulfate and monobasic and dibasic sodium phosphates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Colonoscopy plays an essential role in the therapeutic and diagnostic approach in various colonic pathologies, the aim of the present study was to compare three solutions and their efficacy for the bowel preparation in adult patients submitted to elective colonoscopy. METHODS: Sixty patients were randomly divided into three groups of 20 each. Each group was submitted to a bowel preparation with one of the following solutions: 10% manitol, sodium picosulphate or sodium phosphate. The parameters evaluated were: taste, tolerance, associated side effects and quality of cleansing. Postural blood pressure and pulse rate as well as serum sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphate were compared. RESULTS: Sodium phosphate and 10% manitol solutions provided superior results in terms of colon cleansing compared to sodium picosulphate solution. All serum electrolytes evaluated were significantly altered in the three groups, without important clinical signs. DISCUSSION: High levels of serum phosphate were the most striking alteration in patients prepared with sodium phosphate solution, again with no clinical signs. Variations related to blood pressure and pulse rate suggested contraction of intravascular volume, with no clinical effects. CONCLUSION: Sodium phosphate and 10% manitol solutions are equivalent in providing good quality colon cleansing, with no significant side effects that could compromise the procedure.

Miki P Jr; Lemos CR; Popoutchi P; Garcia RL; Rocha JJ; Feres O

2008-01-01

362

Radiation-induced addition reaction of sodium hydrogensulfite to allyl alcohol in aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Addition reaction of sodium hydrogensulfite to allyl alcohol was initiated by ?-rays in an aqueous sodium sulfite buffered solution. The rate of disappearance of sodium hydrogensulfite, which is equal to that of allyl alcohol, is proportional to the concentration of hydrogensulfite ion and varies inversely with the concentration of allyl alcohol. Chain termination reaction was deduced as follows: *:radical HOCH2C*HCH2SO3-+CH2=CHCH2OH ? HOCH2CH2CH2SO3-+CH2=CHC*HOH The apparent rate constant of sodium hydrogensulfite consumption was calculated to be 1.28x10-5 exp(1.66x103/RT) mol/l. sec at a dose rate of 6.40x1015 eV/g.sec. (auth.).

1976-01-01

363

Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO{sub 3} solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO{sub 3} solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO{sub 3} solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO{sub 3} solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO{sub 3}, which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary pressure and tortuosity. The higher the temperature, the more significant the salinity driven fluid flow.

Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

2001-10-01

364

Inhibition of copper corrosion in sodium chloride solution by the self-assembled monolayer of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? DDTC is of low toxicity. ? DDTC SAM had good corrosion inhibition effects on copper in 3% NaCl solution. ? DDTC SAM was chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms. - Abstract: Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on copper surface has been investigated by SERS and EDS and the results show that DDTC SAM is chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms with tilted orientation. Corrosion inhibition ability of DDTC SAM was measured in 3% NaCl solution using electrochemical methods. The impedance results indicate that the maximum inhibition efficiency of DDTC SAM can reach 99%. Quantum chemical calculations show that DDTC has relatively small ?E between HOMO and LUMO and large negative charge in its two sulfur atoms, which facilitates the formation of a DDTC SAM on copper surface.

2004-01-00