WorldWideScience
1

Can potassium citrate replace sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride of oral rehydration solution?  

OpenAIRE

Ninety four children aged less than 5 years with diarrhoeal dehydration and acidosis were treated randomly with either World Health Organisation (WHO) oral rehydration solution containing sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and glucose or an oral solution with tripotassium citrate monohydrate replacing the sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride in the WHO solution. Fifty five children (58%) were hypokalaemic (potassium less than 3.5 mmol/l) on admission. All but two in ...

Islam, M. R.

1985-01-01

2

Solubility of hydrogen in aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K  

OpenAIRE

An experimental study is presented of the hydrogen solubility in aqueous salt solutions containing sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K. For this purpose, gas consumption measurements have been performed by determining the ultimate pressure decrease in an intensively stirred, high pressure autoclave. Experiments were carried out at salt concentrations up to 1.0 mol kg-1. At higher salt molalities, the hydrogen solubility was too low to be measured reliably. It was demonstrated t...

Engel, D. C.; Versteeg, G. F.; Swaaij, W. P. M.

1996-01-01

3

Solubility of ammonium metavanadate in ammonium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions at 25 deg C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solubility at 25 deg C has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - sodium bicarbonate - water which is a stable section of the corresponding quaternary mutual system. In the eutonic point the content of ammonium metavanadate is 4.95% and of sodium bicarbonate 12.1%. The crystallization branch of ammonium metavanadate has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - water at 25 deg C. Metavanadate solubility attains minimum (0.14%) at ammonium carbonate concentration 2.6%. Three sections have been studied of the quaternary system ammonium - metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate-water at 25 deg C in the crystallization region of ammonium metavanadate at a ratio of sodium bicarbonate to ammonium carbonate 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. A region of minimum solubility of ammonium metavanadate has been detected (0.1%)

4

21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-04-01

5

Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication  

OpenAIRE

Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

2012-01-01

6

The anodic dissolution of SIMFUEL (UO2) in slightly alkaline sodium carbonate/bicarbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion of nuclear fuel under waste disposal conditions is likely to be influenced by the bicarbonate/carbonate content of the groundwater since it increases the solubility of the UVI corrosion product, [UO2]2+. As one of the half reactions involved in the corrosion process, the anodic dissolution of SIMFUEL (UO2) has been studied in bicarbonate/carbonate solutions (pH 9.8) using voltammetric and potentiostatic techniques and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The reaction proceeds by two consecutive one electron transfer reactions (UIV ? UV ? UVI). At low potentials (?250 mV (vs. SCE) the rate of the first electron transfer reaction is rate determining irrespective of the total carbonate concentration. At potentials >250 mV (vs. SCE) the formation of a UVIO2CO3 surface layer begins to inhibit the dissolution rate and the current becomes independent of potential indicating rate control by the chemical dissolution of this layer.

7

Sodium Bicarbonate—A Potent Ergogenic Aid?  

OpenAIRE

This report aims to look at the role of Sodium bicarbonate as a potent Ergogenic aid and its role in improving the performance of athletes. It includes the mechanism of action of sodium bicarbonate during high-intensity exercise. The report also shows the various types of athletes who can be benefited from sodium bicarbonate loading, evidences for improvement in performance, conflicting evidences, recommended dosages and side-effects for bicarbonate loading.

Praveen Kumar, Gideon V.; Jose Shelton

2010-01-01

8

Quality Assessment of Lightly Salted Atlantic Salmon Fillets Injected With Brine Solutions Containing Sodium Bicarbonate  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce lightly salted Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. fillets with improved technical and sensory attributes. Brine containing 0, 50, 150 or 250 g/L NaCl with or without additional 25 g/L sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 was injected into the fillets. 24 hours after injection, the muscle NaCl concentration ranged from 0.2 to 2.4%, and pH ranged from 6.18 to 6.48. Untreated fillets lost 1% weight, whereas the weight increase was 4% of the fillets injected with NaCl or a combination of NaCl and NaHCO3. Liquid loss (LL during storage at 4°C for three days were similar for the untreated fillets and the fillets injected with 50 g/L NaCl (LL 12%, while LL was reduced to 7.5% with the addition of NaHCO3 to the 50 g/L brine. LL was the lowest for the groups injected with 250 g/L NaCl. Injection of NaCl resulted in higher lipid oxidation compared with untreated fillets, determined as doubled levels of alkanals (4.3 vs. 10.4 ng/g and pentenols (8.0 vs. 15.1 ng/g, but addition of NaHCO3 counteracted the action of NaCl as a pro-oxidant. Furthermore, NaHCO3 addition of the 50 g/L brine significantly improved the color of raw and cooked fillets (higher a*-value, Salmo Fan score, red/orange color tone. Sensory assessment of cooked fillet revealed that brine added NaHCO3 gave superior odor (less rancid, flavor (less metallic and higher scores for tenderness. In conclusion, addition of NaHCO3 to the brine solutions improved liquid retention, storage stability, color, odor and flavor of lightly salted salmon fillets.

Magnus Åsli

2013-04-01

9

Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

2012-02-01

10

Elimination of Escherichia coli from Oysters using Sodium Bicarbonate  

OpenAIRE

Sodium bicarbonate is a disinfectant that can be used in food processing because it is safe for humans and is cost effective. In this study, sodium bicarbonate was used to eliminate E. coli from oysters (Crassostrea belcheri). The experiments were divided into 3 trials; in vitro disinfection of E. coli using sodium bicarbonate and the toxicity of sodium bicarbonate in oysters were determined in the first and second trials, and the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate...

Labaiden, Matthura; Kasai, Hisae; Yoshimizu, Mamoru; Direkbusrakom, Sataporn

2013-01-01

11

Oxidation of Am(III) in carbonate - bicarbonate solution by sodium perxenate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oxidation of Am(III) by Na4XeO6 in KHCO3, KHCO3 + K2CO3, and K2CO3 solutions is studied by spectrophotometry. In 1.5M solutions (HCO3- + CO32-) with perxenate concentrations comparable to those of Am, Am(III) is quickly converted to a mixture of Am(IV) + Am(V) + Am(VI). In concentrated K2CO3 solutions (5.9 M), Am(III) is in general not oxidized by perxenate. A mechanism is proposed for the oxidation of Am(III) by perxenate that includes the reaction of Am(III) with Xe(VIII) and possibly with Xe(VI). The reaction of Na4XeO6 and Am(IV) was also investigated. In this instance Am(IV) was quickly converted to Am(V) and Am(VI)

12

Sodium-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters  

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Full Text Available Together, the Na(+-coupled HCO(3(- transporters and the AE family of anion exchangers (i.e., Cl-HCO3 exchangers comprise the bicarbonate transporter (BT superfamily. Virtually all BTs are important for the regulation of intracellular pH (pH(i in cells throughout the body. Specific BTs also play roles in cell-volume regulation, as well as for the transport of salt and/or acid-base equivalents across many epithelia. Electrogenic Na/HCO3 cotransporters (NBCe's play key roles in HCO(3(- reabsorption by the renal proximal tubule, and HCO(3(- secretion by the pancreatic duct. Electroneutral NBC's (NBCn's regulate pH(i in vascular smooth muscle and are present in/near axons in the brain. Finally, the Na(+-driven Cl-HCO3 exchanger (NDCBE's appear to be the major pH(i regulators in CNS neurons. A characteristic of most, but not all, BT's is that they are inhibited rather effectively by 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-4,4'-disulfonate (DIDS.

Boron WF

2001-07-01

13

Bicarbonate and bicarbonate/lactate peritoneal dialysis solutions for the treatment of infusion pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study was undertaken to determine the effects of novel bicarbonate (38 mM) and bicarbonate (25 mM)/lactate (15 mM) containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions on infusion pain in patients who experienced inflow pain with conventional lactate (40 mM) solution. Pain was assessed using a verbal rating scale and the validated McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Eighteen patients were recruited to the study. Both novel solutions resulted in highly statistically significant reductions in inflow pain compared to the control lactate solution, as assessed with both the verbal rating scale and the MPQ. For all pain variables assessed, the bicarbonate/lactate solution was more effective than the bicarbonate solution in alleviating pain. In conclusion, both solutions reduced the infusion pain experienced with control solution, but the bicarbonate/lactate solution appears to be the most effective. In contrast to the most widespread current treatment, which is the manual injection of sodium bicarbonate, the bicarbonate/lactate solution does not have the associated increased risk of peritonitis. PMID:9551418

Mactier, R A; Sprosen, T S; Gokal, R; Williams, P F; Lindbergh, M; Naik, R B; Wrege, U; Gröntoft, K C; Larsson, R; Berglund, J; Tranaeus, A P; Faict, D

1998-04-01

14

Leaching of uranium from Syrian phosphorite (sodium carbonate-bicarbonate)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The leaching of uranium from Syrian phosphorite by sodium carbonate-bicarbonate solution has been studied, using a batch technique. Parameters influencing percentage extraction of uranium that are considered and studies in this work are: Leachant concentration, particle size, heat treatment, leachant renewal, phosphorite renewal and contact time. All measurements of uranium from aqueous solutions were carried out by fluorometry. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

15

Oral rehydration therapy: efficacy of sodium citrate equals to sodium bicarbonate for correction of acidosis in diarrhoea.  

OpenAIRE

Forty patients with moderate degrees of dehydration and acidosis because of acute watery diarrhoea were successfully treated randomly with either WHO recommended oral rehydration solution containing 2.5 g sodium bicarbonate or an oral solution containing 2.94 g sodium citrate in place of sodium bicarbonate per litre of oral rehydration rehydration solution. Efficacies were compared by measuring oral fluid intake, stool and vomitus output, change in body weight, hydration status, and rate of c...

Islam, M. R.; Samadi, A. R.; Ahmed, S. M.; Bardhan, P. K.; Ali, A.

1984-01-01

16

Elimination of Escherichia coli from Oysters using Sodium Bicarbonate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate is a disinfectant that can be used in food processing because it is safe for humans and is cost effective. In this study, sodium bicarbonate was used to eliminate E. coli from oysters (Crassostrea belcheri. The experiments were divided into 3 trials; in vitro disinfection of E. coli using sodium bicarbonate and the toxicity of sodium bicarbonate in oysters were determined in the first and second trials, and the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate in eliminating E. coli in naturally contaminated oysters was performed in the final trial. From the in vitro study, it was found that sodium bicarbonate at 10 and 100 mM could inhibit E. coli; however, the high dose of 100 mM is not suitable to use on oysters, since the 50 % lethal concentration of sodium bicarbonate for oysters was 63 mM. An application of sodium bicarbonate to eliminate E. coli in naturally contaminated oysters at 10 mM for 1 h could decrease the E. coli to 96 MPN/100 g, lower than the standard level (230 MPN/100 g after depuration. These results suggest that sodium bicarbonate could be potentially used to eliminate E. coli contamination in oysters.

Matthura LABAIDEN

2013-12-01

17

Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated. PMID:25405229

Adeva-Andany, María M.; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Mouriño-Bayolo, David; Castro-Quintela, Elvira; Domínguez-Montero, Alberto

2014-01-01

18

40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of...From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

2010-07-01

19

40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

20

Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets fed to dairy calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

During two trials, 35 and 27 Holstein calves were fed ad libitum complete, pelleted diets containing either 35% alfalfa (Trial 1) or 35% grass (Trial 2) hay from birth to 12 wk of age. Calves in Trial 1 were fed one of the following diets: control, control + 3.5% sodium chloride, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate. In Trial 2, diets were: control, control + 5% sodium bicarbonate, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate + loose, chopped grass hay. Intake of dry matter, gain in body weight, ruminal pH, or fecal starch did not differ. Calves fed sodium bicarbonate in Trial 1 but not 2 had a reduced feed efficiency compared with control and supplemented diets. In Trial 1 added sodium bicarbonate did not alter intake or digestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water intake in Trial 2. Incidence of free-gas bloat was higher in calves fed sodium bicarbonate in both trials. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets containing 35% alfalfa or 35% grass hay appeared to have no benefit for young, growing dairy calves in performance and health. PMID:7440817

Wheeler, T B; Wangsness, P J; Muller, L D; Griel, L C

1980-11-01

21

Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Diabetic Hyperglycemic Emergencies  

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Full Text Available Background: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state are two of the major metabolic emergencies that may occur. These conditions are not always treated properly.Objective: to describe the metabolic hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetic patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit, and to assess the use of sodium bicarbonate. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted including 52 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the Enrique Cabrera Hospital from 2000 through 2007. The following variables were analyzed: type of diabetes mellitus, type of acute complication, use or not of sodium bicarbonate, blood gases, ionogram and progress of patients. Kitabchi criteria were used for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and its severity and for the diagnosis of the hyperglycemic state as well. Criteria proposed by an Expert Committee of the American Diabetes Association and a World Health Organization Expert Committee were adopted for the diagnosis of diabetes and its classification. Results: diabetic ketoacidosis was confirmed in 57,5 % of type 1 diabetic patients and in 42,5 % of those with type 2 diabetes. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was observed in 23,0 % of type 2 diabetics. There was not any death among patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who did not use sodium bicarbonate whereas 80,0 % of patients with hyperglycemic state who used it died. Conclusions: diabetic ketoacidosis was the most common complication. Mortality due to ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was high. Sodium bicarbonate was not properly used.

Diana Machado Ramírez

2013-09-01

22

Sodium bicarbonate-augmented stress thallium myocardial scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well known that sodium bicarbonate in pharmacological doses induces transient alkalosis, causing intracellular transport of serum potassium. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate whether, in humans, myocardial thallium-201 uptake can be augmented by pretreatment with a single bolus of sodium bicarbonate at a pharmacological dose, (b) to verify general safety aspects of the intervention and (c) to evaluate the clinical implications of augmentation of 201Tl uptake, if any. Routine exercise myocardial scintigraphy was performed twice in eight adult volunteers (five normal and three abnormal), once without intervention and the second time (within a week) following intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (88 mEq in 50 ml) as a slow bolus 1 h prior to the injection of 201Tl. Conventional myocardial thallium study was compared with sodium bicarbonate interventional myocardial scintigraphy with respect to myocardial uptake (counts per minute per mCi injected dose), washout patterns in normal and abnormal myocardial segments, and overall clinical interpretation based on planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) images. All patients remained asymptomatic after the intervention. A mean increase of 53% in myocardial uptake of thallium was noted in post-exercise acquisitions after the intervention, confirming uptake of the tracer via the potassium-hydrogen pump and its augmentation by transient alkalosis. The washout patterny transient alkalosis. The washout pattern remained unchanged. The visual quality of planar and SPET images improved significantly after the intervention. Out of the five abnormal myocardial segments identified in three cases, four showed significant filling-in after the intervention, causing the diagnosis to be upgraded from ''partial scar'' to ''ischaemia'', or from ''ischaemia'' to ''normal''. The overall scan impression changed in two out of three such cases. Sodium bicarbonate augmentation may have significant implications for stress-thallium scintigraphy and may be a new parameter for defining myocardial viability. (orig.)

23

Sodium bicarbonated mineral water decreases postprandial lipaemia in postmenopausal women compared to a low mineral water  

OpenAIRE

The role of bicarbonated mineral waters on lipid metabolism and lipoprotein concentrations in man has scarcely been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether drinking sodium bicarbonated mineral water affects postprandial cholesterol and triacylglycerol metabolism in postmenopausal women. In a three-way, randomised, crossover study, eighteen healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodium bicarbonated mineral waters (bicarbonated mineral water 1 and bicarbonated mineral wa...

Schoppen, S.; Pe?rez Granados, Ana M.; Carbajal, A.; Sarria?, Beatriz; Sa?nchez-muniz, F. J.; Go?mez-gerique, J. A.; Vaquero, M. Pilar

2005-01-01

24

Separation of uranium from sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate eluate by ion exchange method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ion exchange method was used for separating uranium from the eluate (0.5 N Na2CO3-0.5 N NaHCO3) that was obtained in the extraction process of uranium from natural sea water by using the titanium-activated carbon composite adsorbent. Uranium in the eluate containing 3 mg/l uranium was adsorbed by ion exchange resin (Amberlite IRA-400), and was eluted with the eluent (5% NaCl-0.5% Na2CO3). The concentration ratio of uranium in the final concentrated-eluate became more than 20 times. The eluting solution to the adsorbent and the eluant to the resin could be repeatedly used in the desorption-ion exchange process. Sodium carbonate was consumed at the desorption step, and sodium bicarbonate was consumed at the ion exchange step. The concentration ratio of uranium was found to decrease as chloride ion in the eluate increased. (author)

25

Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate  

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Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR. Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine impact mill and electromagnetic mill, differing in grinding technology. Grounded sorbent was thermally activated, what caused a significant development of surface area. During the studies of SO2 sorption, a model gas with a temperature of 300°C, of composition: sulfur dioxide at a concentration of 6292 mg/mn3, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen as a carrier gas, was used. The best development of surface area and the highest SO2 removal efficiency was obtained for the sorbent treated by electromagnetic grinding, with simultaneous high conversion rate.

Walawska Barbara

2014-09-01

26

The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 is a high-affinity bicarbonate carrier in cortical astrocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 (SLC4A4) is a robust regulator of intracellular H(+) and a significant base carrier in many cell types. Using wild-type (WT) and NBCe1-deficient (NBC-KO) mice, we have studied the role of NBCe1 in cortical astrocytes in culture and in situ by monitoring intracellular H(+) using the H(+)-sensitive dye BCECF [2',7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein] in wide-field and confocal microscopy. Adding 0.1-3 mm HCO3(-) to an O2-gassed, HEPES-buffered saline solution lowered the intracellular H(+) concentration with a Km of 0.65 mm HCO3(-) in WT astrocytes, but slowly raised [H(+)]i in NBCe1-KO astrocytes. Human NBCe1 heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes could be activated by adding 1-3 mm HCO3(-), and even by residual HCO3(-) in a nominally CO2/HCO3(-)-free saline solution. Our results demonstrate a surprisingly high apparent bicarbonate sensitivity mediated by NBCe1 in cortical astrocytes, suggesting that NBCe1 may operate over a wide bicarbonate concentration in these cells. PMID:24453308

Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Ruminot, Iván; Schneider, Hans-Peter; Shull, Gary E; Deitmer, Joachim W

2014-01-22

27

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm² specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then immersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37ºC, the specimens were divided into four groups according to the substance used for disinfection (5% sodium bicarbonate, 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine, vinegar and Corega Tabs. A control group was included, in which distilled water was used. The adhered microorganisms were dispersed, diluted and plated onto culture media to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL. The results were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney statistical test at the 5% level of significance. Only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine and 5% sodium bicarbonate presented a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0156, respectively compared to the control group, decreasing the number of cfu/mL. However, when the different disinfecting solutions were compared with each other, only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine presented a statistically significant difference in the reduction of cfu/mL. It was concluded that although 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine was more effective in the reduction of Candida albicans adherence values to thermally activated acrylic resin, 5% sodium bicarbonate also proved to be a viable alternative.

Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de Sousa

2009-12-01

28

Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

Kunther, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Kunther@empa.ch [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, B. [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Scrivener, K. [EPFL, Laboratory of Construction Materials, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2013-02-15

29

Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

30

Magnesium bicarbonate as an in situ uranium lixiviant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the subsurface solution mining of mineral values, especially uranium, in situ, magnesium bicarbonate leaching solution is used instead of sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonate and bicarbonates. The magnesium bicarbonate solution is formed by combining carbon dioxide with magnesium oxide and water. The magnesium bicarbonate lixivant has four major advantages over prior art sodium, potassium and ammonium bicarbonates

31

Gram-scale solution-phase synthesis of selective sodium bicarbonate Co-transport Inhibitor S0859 : in vitro efficacy studies in breast cancer cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters (NBCs) mediate the transport of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes and are thus ubiquitous regulators of intracellular pH. NBC dysregulation is associated with a range of diseases; for instance, NBCn1 is strongly up-regulated in a model of ErbB2-dependent breast cancer, a malignant and widespread cancer with no targeted treatment options, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NBCn1 genetically link to breast cancer development and hypertension. The N-cyanosulfonamide S0859 has been shown to selectively inhibit NBCs, and its availability on the gram scale is therefore of significant interest to the scientific community. Herein we describe a short and efficient synthesis of S0859 with an overall yield of 45?% from commercially available starting materials. The inhibitory effect of S0859 on recovery of intracellular pH after an acid load was verified in human and murine cancer cell lines in Ringer solutions. However, S0859 binds very strongly to components in plasma, and accordingly, measurements on isolated murine tissues showed no effect of S0859 at concentrations up to 50 mu M.

Larsen, Ann MØller; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels

2012-01-01

32

EFFECTS OF SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION ON SWIM PERFORMANCE IN YOUTH ATHLETES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w. on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s-1, p < 0.05. Resting blood concentration of HCO-3 increased following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p < 0.05. Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p < .05 as well as on post exercise plasma lactate concentration (11.27 vs. 13.06 mM, p < 0.05. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m

Jozef Langfort

2009-03-01

33

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm² specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then i [...] mmersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37ºC, the specimens were divided into four groups according to the substance used for disinfection (5% sodium bicarbonate, 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine, vinegar and Corega Tabs). A control group was included, in which distilled water was used. The adhered microorganisms were dispersed, diluted and plated onto culture media to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL). The results were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney statistical test at the 5% level of significance. Only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine and 5% sodium bicarbonate presented a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0156, respectively) compared to the control group, decreasing the number of cfu/mL. However, when the different disinfecting solutions were compared with each other, only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine presented a statistically significant difference in the reduction of cfu/mL. It was concluded that although 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine was more effective in the reduction of Candida albicans adherence values to thermally activated acrylic resin, 5% sodium bicarbonate also proved to be a viable alternative.

Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de, Sousa; Thaís Cachuté, Paradella; Cristiane Yumi, Koga-Ito; Antonio Olavo Cardoso, Jorge.

2009-12-01

34

Improving eggshell quality at high temperatures with dietary sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments were conducted that confirmed the hypothesis that a dietary bicarbonate supplement will improve eggshell quality in hens at high temperatures as long as feed is consumed during the period of eggshell formation. End-of-lay hens were maintained on continuous light at temperatures of 30 and 35 C. Individual egg weights and shell quality measures for each hen were calculated as a proportion of the initial values determined during an acclimatization period at 25 C. Improvements in shell breaking strength in both experiments were observed as a result of supplementing control diets with 1% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). This response to NaHCO3 was not a reflection of a reduced rate of lay or egg mass output, as these were similar or inferior on the control diets. Similar feed intakes on the control and NaHCO3 diets indicated that the response was not related to differences in calcium intakes. Supplements of zinc methionine and ascorbic acid proved to be inferior to NaHCO3. Improvements in egg weight were associated with the introduction of continuous lighting. PMID:9106886

Balnave, D; Muheereza, S K

1997-04-01

35

Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst  

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Full Text Available The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs. Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

NingYan

2013-09-01

36

Unusual radiolytic behavior of neptunium ions in aqueous bicarbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Behavior of neptunium ions in carbonate and bicarbonate aqueous solutions saturated with air, oxygen or argon during gamma radiation (60Co) by doses up to 3 kGy at dose rates 10 and 25 Gy/min was studied by the method of spectrophotometry. It is shown that in neptunium (5) bicarbonate solution nearly complete (95%) neptunium ion oxidation occurs under the effect of radiation, whereas no oxidation is observed in carbonate solution. Radiation-chemical yield of neptunium (5) oxidation and stationary concentration of neptunium (6) ions depend on concentration of bicarbonate-ions. Explanation to the results obtained is made from the viewpoint of potential radiolytic reactions

37

The Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter (NBCe1) Is Essential for Normal Development of Mouse Dentition*  

OpenAIRE

Proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) is a syndrome caused by abnormal proximal tubule reabsorption of bicarbonate resulting in metabolic acidosis. Patients with mutations to the SLC4A4 gene (coding for the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1), have pRTA, growth delay, ocular defects, and enamel abnormalities. In an earlier report, we provided the first evidence that enamel cells, the ameloblasts, express NBCe1 in a polarized fashion, thereby contributing to trans-cellular bicarbonate tra...

Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Nanci, Antonio; White, Shane N.; Wen, Xin; Wang, Hongjun; Zalzal, Sylvia F.; Luong, Vivian Q.; Schuetter, Verna L.; Conti, Peter S.; Kurtz, Ira; Paine, Michael L.

2010-01-01

38

Anodic deposition of Np(7) compounds from bicarbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Presented are several results of electrochemical oxidation of Np(6) up to Np(7) in pure carbonate solutions. It is shown that Np can be oxidated electrochemically up to Np(7) on platinum anode at current density of 1.5-20 ma/cm2 and at room temperature. Np(7) solutions in bicarbonate solutions of alkali metal with excessive concentration of bicarbonate in solution have been used as electrolyte. At anode potentials higher than 1.3 V an intensive oxidation of Np(6) up to Np(7) takes place, Np(7), producing, being separated from the solution in the form of hard soluble compound with cation of alkali metal. Anodic oxidation of neptunium up to seven-valent state in bicarbonate solutions can be a convinient way of electrosynthesis of Np(7) solid compounds

39

Sodium bicarbonate in-duct injection with sodium sulfate recovery for SO2/NOx control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dry sodium injection with sodium bicarbonate has been used commercially at industrial sites since the mid 1980's. In the past three years, five full scale commercial demonstrations have been completed on electric utility coal fired units. Up to 75% SO2 removal with 0-40% NOx removal has been achieved on units equipped with ESPs. Recent slip stream studies have proven up to 90% SO2 removal and 25% NOx removal when injection is ahead of a baghouse. If dry sodium bicarbonate sorbent injection technology is used prior to a retrofitted baghouse, but after an existing ESP the sodium sulfate by-product/flyash mixture in the baghouse is over 90% Na2SO4. Simple filtration and crystallization will yield a high value 99% + pure Na2SO4 for sale. In this application, no liquid discharge occurs and potentially no solids discharge, since flyash recovered from the filter is either recycled to the boiler with the coal stream or reinjected into the boiler. EPA IAPCS model Version 4 is modified to project costs for this SO2/NOx removal technology when couples with Na2SO4 recovery. In this paper an example is used to show hardware requirements, consumables accountability, by-product recovery rates, capital costs and levelized costs

40

Interactive Effects of the Carbon Paper, Sodium Bicarbonate and Oral Contraceptive Pills on Morphine Urine Test  

OpenAIRE

Background and objectives: A major problem for labs. esp. medicolegal centers is drug test false positive and negative results. Using carbonpaper, sodium bicarbonate or oral contraceptive pills (OCP) are commonamong addict people to make the results negative. Therefore, we decidedto evaluate the effect of carbon paper, sodium bicarbonate or OCP onmorphine urine test.Material and Methods: We performed this pre-experimental study onthe urine samples of all people referred to narcotic drug labor...

Solhi, H.; Ranjbar, A.; Gazerani, N.

2010-01-01

41

Oligomeric Structure and Minimal Functional Unit of the Electrogenic Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe1-A*  

OpenAIRE

The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1-A mediates the basolateral absorption of sodium and bicarbonate in the proximal tubule. In this study the oligomeric state and minimal functional unit of NBCe1-A were investigated. Wild-type (wt) NBCe1-A isolated from mouse kidney or heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells was predominantly in a dimeric state as was shown using fluorescence energy transfer, pulldown, immunoprecipitation, cross-linking experiments...

Kao, Liyo; Sassani, Pakan; Azimov, Rustam; Pushkin, Alexander; Abuladze, Natalia; Peti-peterdi, Janos; Liu, Weixin; Newman, Debra; Kurtz, Ira

2008-01-01

42

Urease-independent chemotactic responses of Helicobacter pylori to urea, urease inhibitors, and sodium bicarbonate.  

OpenAIRE

Helicobacter pylori CPY3401 and an isogenic urease-negative mutant, HPT73, showed chemotactic responses to urea, flurofamide (a potent urease inhibitor), and sodium bicarbonate. Since urea and sodium bicarbonate are secreted through the gastric epithelial surface and hydrolysis of urea by urease on the bacterial surface is essential for colonization, the chemotactic response of H. pylori may be crucial for its colonization and persistence in the stomach.

Mizote, T.; Yoshiyama, H.; Nakazawa, T.

1997-01-01

43

Quantification of Kinetic Rate Law Parameters of Uranium Release from Sodium Autunite as a Function of Aqueous Bicarbonate Concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABSTRACT: Hydrogen carbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, hydrogen carbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous hydrogen carbonate solutions to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate solutions (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and temperatures of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release from sodium autunite exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH and increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions. Most notably at pH 7, the rate of uranium release exhibited 370 fold increases relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release. Results indicate the activation energies were unaffected by temperature and bicarbonate concentration variations, but were strongly dependent on pH conditions. As pH increased from 6 to 11, activation energy values were observed to decrease from 29.94 kJ mol-1 to 13.07 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energies suggest a surface controlled dissolution mechanism.

Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

2013-09-05

44

Radiolysis of Bicarbonate and Carbonate Aqueous Solutions: Product Analysis and Simulation of Radiolytic Processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An understanding of the radiation-induced effects in groundwater is essential to evaluate the safe geological disposal of spent fuel. In groundwater, the bicarbonate ion is the predominant and common anion; this work investigated radiation-induced chemical reactions of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions with steady-state irradiation and pulse radiolysis methods. Aqueous solutions of sodium (bi)carbonate as high as 50 mmol.dm-3 were used. The formation of formate, oxalate, and H2O2 were measured under different conditions. A complete set of reaction steps and reliable kinetic data for the radiolysis of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions at ionic strength close to the groundwater were proposed. Kinetic calculations were completed based on the proposed reaction steps and the kinetic data obtained in the present work. The results from the calculation are in good agreement with the experimental results. With these proposed reaction steps and kinetic data, computer simulation can be performed to predict the yield of radiolytic products of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions as a function of irradiation time and used to evaluate the safety of geological disposal options of spent fuel

45

Studies on the kinetics of UO2 dissolution in carbonate-bicarbonate medium using sodium hypochlorite as oxidant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dissolution of UO2 in carbonate-bicarbonate solutions containing sodium hypochlorite as an oxidant has been investigated. The effect of temperature, sodium hypochlorite concentration and stirring speed was examined. In the temperature range of 303 to 318 K, the leaching reaction displayed linear kinetics. Apparent activation energy obtained from the differential approach was found to be 57 kJ mol-1. This relatively high activation energy value indicates a chemically controlled behavior of UO2 dissolution. The order of reaction with respect to sodium hypochlorite concentration was found to be unity. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs

46

Effect of carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate ingestion on performance during a validated basketball simulation test.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current recommendations for nutritional interventions in basketball are largely extrapolated from laboratory-based studies that are not sport-specific. We therefore adapted and validated a basketball simulation test relative to competitive basketball games using well-trained basketball players (n = 10), then employed this test to evaluate the effects of two common preexercise nutritional interventions on basketball-specific physical and skilled performance. Specifically, in a randomized and counterbalanced order, participants ingested solutions providing either 75 g carbohydrate (sucrose) 45 min before exercise (Study A; n = 10) or 2 × 0.2 g · kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) 90 and 20 min before exercise (Study B; n = 7), each relative to appropriate placebos (H2O and 2 × 0.14 g · kg(-1) NaCl, respectively). Heart rate, sweat rate, pedometer count, and perceived exertion did not systematically differ between the 60-min basketball simulation test and competitive basketball, with a strong positive correlation in heart rate response (r = .9, p basketball simulation test provides a valid reflection of physiological demands in competitive basketball and is sufficiently sensitive to detect meaningful changes in physical and skilled performance. While there are benefits of preexercise carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate ingestion, these should be balanced against potential negative side effects. PMID:24901305

Afman, Gregg; Garside, Richard M; Dinan, Neal; Gant, Nicholas; Betts, James A; Williams, Clyde

2014-12-01

47

A study of the catalytic role of a gold electrode in the electrochemical activation of four macrolide antibiotics in sodium bicarbonate solution  

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Full Text Available Using the cyclic voltammetry, it has been shown that hydrogen evolution at a gold electrode is necessary in the electrochemical activation of azithromycin dihydrate and erythromycin A. After four hours of the potential holding at –1.2 V vs. SCE, the pH of the electrolyte has been changed from 8.40 to 8.96; from 8.40 to 8.77 in the presence of erythromycin A, and from 8.40 to 9.18 in the presence of azithromycin, indicating the reaction of the hydrogen species with antibiotics. This effect has been confirmed by using the phenolphthalein indicator and by analysing colours of the solutions by UV-Vis, as well as by FTIR spectroscopy. Under the identical experimental conditions at the gold electrode, in contrast to azithromycin dihydrate and erythromycin A, roxithromycin and midecamycin electroactivity promotion has been obtained during the first forward sweep starting from the area of a double layer region.

Milka L. Avramov Ivi?

2010-07-01

48

Electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransport in human ciliary muscle cells  

OpenAIRE

We investigated membrane voltage and intracellular pH (pHi) in cultured human ciliary muscle cells using a cell line (H7CM) and primary-cultured human ciliary muscle cells. 1) Resting potential was 58.9 +/- 1.0 mV in H7CM cells and 61.9 +/- 1.4 mV in primary cultures. The following data are from H7CM cells, but results from primary cultures were basically similar. 2) In HCO3(-)-CO2-buffered solution, removal of extracellular sodium resulted in a depolarization [change in membrane resistance (...

Stahl, F.; Lepple-wienhues, A.; Kuppinger, M.; Tamm, Ernst R.; Wiederholt, M.

1992-01-01

49

Interactive Effects of the Carbon Paper, Sodium Bicarbonate and Oral Contraceptive Pills on Morphine Urine Test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and objectives: A major problem for labs. esp. medicolegal centers is drug test false positive and negative results. Using carbonpaper, sodium bicarbonate or oral contraceptive pills (OCP are commonamong addict people to make the results negative. Therefore, we decidedto evaluate the effect of carbon paper, sodium bicarbonate or OCP onmorphine urine test.Material and Methods: We performed this pre-experimental study onthe urine samples of all people referred to narcotic drug laboratory ofMarkazi province during May of 2005. Of 2110 urine samples, theMorphine Rapid Test of 208 samples was positive. Then by means ofTLC method, we confirmed the presence of morphine metabolites in 150urine samples. After that, we divided these samples into three equalgroups for adding carbon paper, sodium bicarbonate or OCP.Results: The results show that in carbon paper group, 41 cases arepositive and nine cases unclear. In sodium bicarbonate group, 45 samplesare positive and 5 cases unclear. In estrogen conjugate group, all 50samples are positive.Conclusion: According to this study, adding carbon paper, sodiumbicarbonate or oral contraceptive pills cannot make negative theMorphine Rapid Test result.Key words: Morphine Rapid Test, Carbon paper, Sodium bicarbonate,Oral contraceptive pill.

Solhi, H

2010-01-01

50

Extraction of tungsten from bicarbonate solutions by MTAA salts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented on investigations of tungsten extraction from bicarbonate reextracts prepared during reprocessing of carbonate solutions of autoclave-carbonate leaching of mineral raw material and so through ammonium reextraction of polymeric tungsten compounds with preparation of concentrated by tungsten reextracts for separation of conditioned ammonium paratungstate. Variants of proposed technological scheme are discussed

51

Some aspects of the electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate (600 ppm) has been investigated using potentiodynamic polarization. In the pre-passive region three well-defined peaks are observed associated to reduction peaks corresponding to Fe(II) and Fe(III) species. A transpassive anodic peak is also observed being attributed to Fe(VI) species showing, in sweep reversal experiments, an associated reduction peak and an increase in the peak associated to the reduction of Fe(III) species. The characterization of the transpassive peak will be subject of further publication. (author)

52

[Bicarbonate hemodialysis. Pharmaceutical aspects].  

Science.gov (United States)

Specific problems during fabrication of concentrated hemodialysis solutions containing bicarbonate arise because of the low solubility of sodium bicarbonate in water and the risk or precipitation of calcium, magnesium carbonates. These problems have been solved by the Pharmacie centrale by making 2 different concentrated solutions, the first one brinding the major essential elements, at the exclusion of bicarbonate, the second less concentrated, with bicarbonate and potassium gluconate, the latter complexing iron and so preventing precipitates of ferric carbonate. The various pharmaceutical steps are described in this paper: formulation, choice of raw materials and manufacturing processes, quality control. PMID:6664421

Hamon, M; Renaux, C; Pradeau, D

1983-01-01

53

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) remains a common complication of coronary angiography (CAG) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although a previous study reported pretreatment with sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride for prophylaxis of CIN, this has not been a universal finding and the long-term effects of sodium bicarbonate on CIN have not been studied before. We performed a prospective, single-center, randomized trial to investigate whether CIN can be avoided by sodium bicarbonate in patients with chronic renal failure. Eighty patients with chronic renal failure (defined as serum creatinine concentration (SCr), >1.1 mg per deciliter), who were undergoing CAG, were enrolled in this study. We assigned them to either sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate (Group B: n=35) or sodium chloride alone (Group C: n=45). In all patients, an infusion of sodium chloride of 1 ml/kg per hour was given between 12 hours before and after the procedure. In Group B, sodium bicarbonate infusion of 1 ml/kg per hour continued from 3 hours before procedure to 6 hours after procedure, changing from sodium chloride at 1 ml/kg per hour. SCr was measured at baseline, day 1, day 2 and 1 month after the procedure. CIN was defined as a 25% increase in SCr from baseline value, or an absolute increase of at least 0.5 mg/dl, which appears within 2 days after CAG. No differences in age, sex and contrast volume were observed between the two groups. SCr were observed between the two groups. SCr at baseline was not significantly different in the two groups (Group B: 1.41±0.32 versus Group C: 1.50±0.38 mg/dl). SCr at day 2 was significantly lower in Group B than Group C (1.44±0.38 versus 1.60±0.5 mg/dl, p<0.05) and 1 month (1.28±0.27 versus 1.49±0.55 mg/dl, p<0.05). CIN occurred in 9 patients (20%) in Group C but in only 2 (6%) in Group B (p=0.03). Sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride alone for prophylaxis of CIN and can help retain long-term renal function. (author)

54

Electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransport in rabbit renal cortical basolateral membrane vesicles.  

OpenAIRE

The present studies examined the mechanism of bicarbonate transport across basolateral membrane vesicles prepared from rabbit renal cortex. Isotopic sodium uptake was stimulated by bicarbonate when compared with gluconate (2.5 nmol/mg protein per 5 s versus 1.4 nmol/mg protein per 5 s), and this process was inhibited by disulfonic stilbenes. Imposition of an interior-positive potassium diffusion potential further stimulated isotopic sodium uptake to 3.4 nmol/mg protein per 5 s, an effect that...

Akiba, T.; Alpern, R. J.; Eveloff, J.; Calamina, J.; Warnock, D. G.

1986-01-01

55

Effect of Potassium Chloride and Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Thermotolerance of Broilers Exposed to Heat Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A total of 100-day-old broiler chicken were randomly divided into five groups and kept under elevated temperature (95-98.6oF to observe the effect of potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on the weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, serum potassium and serum bicarbonate level. Thermostress lead to significant in decrease (P< 0.05 weight gain, serum potassium and serum bicarbonate level, while FCR was increased. During heat stress, KCl and NaHCO3 at levels of 1.5% and 0.5% respectively, improved weight gain, and FCR and significantly increased (P< 0.05 serum potassium and bicarbonate level. The results showed that combination of KCl and NaHCO3 supplementation alleviated the negative effects of heat stress in broilers.

M.T. Naseem

2005-01-01

56

Crack Cocaine-Induced Cardiac Conduction Abnormalities Are Reversed by Sodium Bicarbonate Infusion  

OpenAIRE

We report a dramatic case of a 19-year-old man with crack cocaine overdose with important clinical complications as cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation and epileptics status. During this intoxication, electrocardiographic abnormalities similar to those found in tricyclic antidepressant poisoning were observed, and they were reversed by intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion.

Carlos Henrique Miranda; Antônio Pazin-Filho

2013-01-01

57

CONTROL OF BLUE MOLD OF APPLE BY COMBINING CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE, ANTAGONIST MIXTURES, AND SODIUM BICARBONATE  

Science.gov (United States)

'Golden Delicious' apples were wound-inoculated with Penicillium expansum treated with various combinations of sodium bicarbonate and two antagonists, and stored in air or controlled atmosphere (1.4% O2, 3% CO fruit were stored for 4 months at 1ºC. The antagonists survived and their populations inc...

58

Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration prevents contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrast-induced nephropathy is the leading cause of in-hospital acute renal failure. This side effect of contrast agents leads to increased morbidity, mortality, and health costs. Ensuring adequate hydration prior to contrast exposure is highly effective at preventing this complication, although the optimal hydration strategy to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy still remains an unresolved issue. Former meta-analyses and several recent studies have shown conflicting results regarding the protective effect of sodium bicarbonate. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of normal saline versus sodium bicarbonate for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. Methods The study searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts database, ISI Web of Science (until 15 December 2008, and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials that compared normal saline with sodium bicarbonate-based hydration regimen regarding contrast-induced nephropathy. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary odds ratios. Results A total of 17 trials including 2,633 subjects were pooled. Pre-procedural hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of contrast-induced nephropathy (odds ratios 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.80, P = 0.003. Number needed to treat to prevent one case of contrast-induced nephropathy was 16 (95% confidence interval 10–34. No significant differences in the rates of post-procedure hemodialysis (P = 0.20 or death (P = 0.53 was observed. Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration was found to be superior to normal saline in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in this updated meta-analysis.

Tamhane Umesh

2009-05-01

59

Sodium Is Not Required for Chloride Efflux via Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger from Rat Thymic Lymphocytes  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium-dependent Cl?/HCO3? exchanger acts as a chloride (Cl?) efflux in lymphocytes. Its functional characterization had been described when Cl? efflux was measured upon substituting extracellular sodium (Na+) by N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG). For Na+ and Cl? substitution, we have used D-mannitol or NMDG. Thymocytes of male Wistar rats aged 7–9 weeks were used and intracellular Cl? was measured by spectrofluorimetry using MQAE dye in bicarbonate buffers. Chloride efflux was measured in a Cl?-free buffer (Cl? substituted with isethionate acid) and in Na+ and Cl?-free buffer with D-mannitol or with NMDG. The data have shown that Cl? efflux is mediated in the absence of Na+ in a solution containing D-mannitol and is inhibited by H2DIDS. Mathematical modelling has shown that Cl? efflux mathematical model parameters (relative membrane permeability, relative rate of exchanger transition, and exchanger efficacy) were the same in control and in the medium in which Na+ had been substituted by D-mannitol. The net Cl? efflux was completely blocked in the NMDG buffer. The same blockage of Cl? efflux was caused by H2DIDS. The study results allow concluding that Na+ is not required for Cl? efflux via Cl?/HCO3? exchanger. NMDG in buffers cannot be used for substituting Na+ because NMDG inhibits the exchanger. PMID:25003116

Stakišaitis, Donatas; Meilus, Vaidevutis; Juška, Alfonsas; Matusevi?ius, Paulius; Didžiapetrien?, Janina

2014-01-01

60

Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm-3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60Co gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the ?-radiolysis, G(HCOO-) = 2.2, is due to the reaction COO- + HCO3-? HCOO- +CO3-. The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO- + CO3- is particularly significant. (author)

61

Isotonic sodium bicarbonate-triggered emodin release from borate stabilized emodin nanoparticles-loaded polymeric microgel films.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrosoluble emodin-borate (EmB) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated by a simple solvent exchange method to address emodin's poor water solubility. As the result, negative charges were introduced in the surface of EmB NPs. In addition, layer-by-layer assembled multilayer films containing cation-rich polymeric microgels (named PAHD) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) were employed as drug carrier. Anionic EmB can be loaded into the PAHD/CMC multilayer films. The influences of various experimental parameters on cargo capacity of the PAHD/CMC film were studied in detail. The loaded EmB can be released in the form of emodin molecule in presence of isotonic sodium bicarbonate (ISB) solution. Gratifyingly, EmB did not almost release in presence of water, PBS buffer solution, 0.9% normal saline, and 5% glucose solution. PMID:24755249

Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaozhou

2014-07-20

62

CRACK2 - Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solution in cracks in concrete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description of the model. Hydroxyl ions are transported by diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. The cementitious material is simulated as calcium hydroxide mixed with inert material but with sodium hydroxide dissolved in the pore solution. Diffusive migration of cesium as radioactive isotope is also considered. Electrical interaction of the migrating ions is taken into account. Example calculations demonstrate effects of parameter variations on distribution of precipitated calcite in the crack and on the composition of the outflowing solution, which can be compared directly with experimental results. Leaching behavior of sodium can be used to tune the model to experimental observations. The calcite is mostly precipitated on top of the original crack surface and may under certain circumstances fill the crack. The produced thin layers of low porosity calcite act as a diffusion barrier limiting contact between cement and solution. Pore closure mechanisms in such layers are discussed. Implications for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal are shortly mentioned. The model is also relevant for conventional uses of concrete. (au)

Brodersen, K

2003-03-01

63

Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-b...

Huang Ming-Hsiang; Yang Chia-Cheng; Shih Mu-Chin; Wu Ching-Lin; Chang Chen-Kang

2010-01-01

64

Effect of sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine supplementation on maximal sprint swimming  

OpenAIRE

Background. This study examined the effect of simultaneous supplementation of extracellular buffer sodium bicarbonate (SB) and intracellular buffer beta-alanine (BA) on maximal sprint swimming. Methods. Thirteen competitive male swimmers completed 4 different treatments (placebo [PL], SB, BA?+?PL, and BA + SB) in a crossover procedure. PL or SB supplementation (0.3 g/kg body weight) was ingested 60 min before two maximal 100-m freestyle swims that were performed with a pass...

Mero, Antti; Hirvonen, Petri; Saarela, Janne; Hulmi, Juha; Hoffman, Jay R.; Stout, Jeffrey R.

2013-01-01

65

Effects of Cheap Antidotes; Sodium Bicarbonate and Magnesium Sulfate in Organophosphorous Poisoning  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organophosphorous (OP) compounds have been used as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Despite administration of well known antidotes (atropine and oximes), morbidity and mortality of OP poisoning were still high. Besides, oximes are very expensive and not available in most developing countries. It was thus aimed to study the effects of cheap available antidotes; sodium bicarbonate and magnesium sulfate in OP poisoning. In addition to the standard antidotal treatment, out of 117 patients (63M, 47F) aged 25.2 ± 9.5 years with moderate to severe acute OP pesticide poisoning 59 were given sodium bicarbonate 5 mEq/kg in 60 min. followed by 5-6 mEq/kg/day to obtain arterial blood pH of 7.45 to 7.55. Arterial blood pH increased significantly (p less than 0.01) to 7.48 ± 0.05 compared to the controls (7.32 ± 0.06). Morbidity based on hospitalization days reduced significantly (p less than 0.05) from 5.62 ± 3.4 in the controls to 3.1 ± 2.6 days in the sodium bicarbonate group. Total atropine dose was also significantly (p less than 0.05) lower in the test group. Mortality was lower, but not significantly due to the low numbers (5 and 2 of the controls and test group, respectively). Sodium bicarbonate appeared to be effective and could be added to the treatment regime of OP poisoning. Magnesium sulfate was administered four gram intravenously only for the first 24 hr of hospitalization day for the patients with moderate to severe OP poisoning in a pilot study. The results were promising and thus further investigations are continued.(author)

66

Comparing Sodium Bicarbonate with Normal Saline for Reversing of Epidural Anesthesia with Plain 2% Lidocaine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we investigated whether washout of local anesthetic with sodium bicarbonate compared with 0.9% NaCl through an epidural catheter could provide a faster recovery of motor and sensory block in patients undergoing 2% plain lidocaine epidural anesthesia. In a randomized and double-blinded clinical trial, 60 ASA classes I and II male patients scheduled for elective knee or ankle orthopedic procedures underwent epidural anesthesia with 2% plain lidocaine were enrolled. A T4 dermatome level of analgesia was maintained intraoperatively. Following surgery, patients were randomly allocated to receive no epidural bolus (control, 15 mL Normal Saline (NS or 0.4 mL sodium bicarbonate plus 14.6 mL normal saline (BC postoperatively through epidural catheter. Assessment of motor and sensory block was performed at 5 min intervals until complete motor and sensory block recovery. Times to complete sensory and motor block recovery were significantly less in NS and BC groups compared with control group (p = 0.012 but there were no significant differences between NS and BC group (p = 0.08. The results suggest that recovery of sensory and motor function of the lower extremities in patients undergoing epidural anesthesia with plain 2% lidocaine can be accelerated with epidural administration of 15 mL NS or 0.4 mL Sodium bicarbonate plus 14.6 mL NS.

Gita Shoeibi

2007-01-01

67

The effect of sodium bicarbonate on intracellular pH using 31P-MR spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report deals with the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the intracellular pH of the brain and cerebral blood flow (CBF); five normal volunteers were studied. Intracellular pH and CBF were measured by phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) and stable xenon computed tomography (Xe-CT), respectively. Each individual received 7% sodium bicarbonate (3.5 ml/kg body weight), infused intravenously over a 15-min period. Intracellular pH, CBF, and physiological parameters were determined before and after the injection. Intracellular pH was significantly decreased and CBF was increased. Among the physiological parameters, the hematocrit was significantly decreased and arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), increased. These results suggest that increasing CO2 contributes to the decrease in intracellular pH. In conclusion, three factors increase CBF during the administration of sodium bicarbonate to humans: arterial dilatation in response to carbon dioxide; decrease of the hematocrit, and intracellular cerebral acidosis. (author)

68

CRACK2. Modelling calcium carbonate deposition from bicarbonate solutions in cracks in concrete  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bicarbonate solution (e.g. groundwater) passing through cracks in concrete or other cementitious materials. A summary of experimental work is followed by a detailed description ofthe model. Hydroxyl ions are transported by diffusion in pore systems in columns of cementitious materials. The hydroxyl is precipitating calcite from a flow of bicarbonate solution in a crack connecting the ends of a row of such columns. Thecementitious material is simulated as calcium hydroxide mixed with inert material but with sodium hydroxide dissolved in the pore solution. Diffusive migration of cesium as radioactive isotope is also considered. Electrical interaction of the migratingions is taken into account. Example calculations demonstrate effects of parameter variations on distribution of precipitated calcite in the crack and on the composition of the outflowing solution, which can be compared directly with experimental results.Leaching behavior ofsodium can be used to tune the model to experimental observations. The calcite is mostly precipitated on top of the original crack surface and may under certain circumstances fill the crack. The produced thin layers of low porositycalcite act as a diffusion barrier limiting contact between cement and solution. Pore closure mechanisms in such layers are discussed. Implications for safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal are shortly mentioned. The model is also relevant forconventional uses of concrete.

Brodersen, Knud Erik

2003-01-01

69

Photochemical oxidation of americium(3) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions saturated with N2O  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of UV radiation on 1.1x10-4 mol/l Am(3) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions of sodium and potassium saturated with N2O was studied by spectrographic method. In all the cases Am(4) was formed as a primary product. Initial rate of Am(4) accumulation remains stable in solutions up to HCO3- or HCO3-+CO32- concentration of approximately 1.5 mol/l, but it decreases in case of their higher concentration. In solutions with pH 8.4-10 Am(4) disproportionates at a slow rate and the method suggested permits attaining practically 100% yield of it

70

Sodium bicarbonate absorption and anabolism by detatched root of young paddy rice, corn and wheat plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is aimed at investigating species-to-species difference in the capability of absorption and anabolism through the root and examining the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the capability. Roots detatched from young plants of paddy rice, corn and wheat are used as the samples. The respiratory rate and anabolic rate of the detatched roots are measured by using the 14C tracer. It is found that paddy rice whows the greatest initial anabolic rate, while the rates of corn and wheat are 14 - 30 % of that of paddy rice. The initial anabolic rate is almost independent of the concentration of sodium bicarbonate. The initial absorption rate is greatest in paddy rice, followed by corn (30 - 78 %) and wheat (16 - 21 %). It is also shown that paddy rice has the greatest capability both in anabolism and absorption. The anabolism and absorption capabilities of corn are 17 - 29 % and 31 - 80 % of those of paddy rice, respectively. The corresponding values of wheat are 16 - 38 % and 24 - 66 %. Sidium bicarbonate has little effect on the anabolism capability, while the absorption capability is affected above a high concentration of 50 mM. (Nogami, K.)

71

Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants consumed NaHCO3 (0.3 g. kg-1 or NaCl (0.209 g. kg-1 before the trial. An additional supplementation of 0.1 g. kg-1 NaHCO3 or 0.07 g. kg-1 NaCl was ingested after the third game in the simulated match. The Loughborough Tennis Skill Test was performed before and after the simulated match. Post-match [HCO3-] and base excess were significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial than those in the placebo trial. Blood [lactate] was significantly increased in the placebo (pre: 1.22 ± 0.54; post: 2.17 ± 1.46 mM and bicarbonate (pre: 1.23 ± 0.41; post: 3.21 ± 1.89 mM trials. The match-induced change in blood [lactate] was significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial. Blood pH remained unchanged in the placebo trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.32; post: 7.37 ± 0.14 but was significantly increased in the bicarbonate trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.26; post: 7.45 ± 0.63, indicating a more alkaline environment. The service and forehand ground stroke consistency scores were declined significantly after the simulated match in the placebo trial, while they were maintained in the bicarbonate trial. The match-induced declines in the consistency scores were significantly larger in the placebo trial than those in the bicarbonate trial. This study suggested that NaHCO3 supplementation could prevent the decline in skilled tennis performance after a simulated match.

Huang Ming-Hsiang

2010-10-01

72

Exhaust gas purification with sodium bicarbonate. Analysis and evaluation; Abgasreinigung mit Natriumhydrogencarbonat. Analyse und Bewertung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dry exhaust gas cleaning uses sodium bicarbonate in order to absorb acid components of exhaust gases such as sulphur dioxide or hydrochloric acid. Recently, sodium and calcium based adsorbents are compared with respect to their economic and ecologic options. None of the investigations performed considered decidedly practical experiences from the system operation such as differences in the management, availability, personnel expenditure and maintenance expenditure. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on exhaust gas cleaning systems using sodium carbonate as well as lime adsorbents. The operators of these exhaust gas cleaning systems were questioned on their experiences, and all relevant operational data (consumption of additives, consumption of energy, emissions, standstill, maintenance effort) were recorded and evaluated at a very detailed level.

Quicker, Peter; Rotheut, Martin; Schulten, Marc [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Technologie der Energierohstoffe (TEER); Athmann, Uwe [dezentec ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Essen (Germany)

2013-03-01

73

Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance  

OpenAIRE

We examined the isolated and combined effects of beta-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) on high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in judo and jiu-jitsu competitors. 37 athletes were assigned to one of four groups: (1) placebo (PL)+PL; (2) BA+PL; (3) PL+SB or (4) BA+SB. BA or dextrose (placebo) (6.4 g day?1) was ingested for 4 weeks and 500 mg kg?1 BM of SB or calcium carbonate (placebo) was ingested for 7 days during the 4th week. Before and after 4 weeks of supp...

Tobias, Gabriel; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Salles Painelli, Vitor; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C.; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni

2013-01-01

74

The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1) is essential for normal development of mouse dentition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) is a syndrome caused by abnormal proximal tubule reabsorption of bicarbonate resulting in metabolic acidosis. Patients with mutations to the SLC4A4 gene (coding for the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1), have pRTA, growth delay, ocular defects, and enamel abnormalities. In an earlier report, we provided the first evidence that enamel cells, the ameloblasts, express NBCe1 in a polarized fashion, thereby contributing to trans-cellular bicarbonate transport. To determine whether NBCe1 plays a critical role in enamel development, we studied the expression of NBCe1 at various stages of enamel formation in wild-type mice and characterized the biophysical properties of enamel in NBCe1(-/-) animals. The enamel of NBCe1(-/-) animals was extremely hypomineralized and weak with an abnormal prismatic architecture. The expression profile of amelogenin, a known enamel-specific gene, was not altered in NBCe1(-/-) animals. Our results show for the first time that NBCe1 expression is required for the development of normal enamel. This study provides a mechanistic model to account for enamel abnormalities in certain patients with pRTA. PMID:20529845

Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Nanci, Antonio; White, Shane N; Wen, Xin; Wang, Hongjun; Zalzal, Sylvia F; Luong, Vivian Q; Schuetter, Verna L; Conti, Peter S; Kurtz, Ira; Paine, Michael L

2010-08-01

75

The effect of varying levels of sodium bicarbonate on polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination in Hudson River sediment cultures  

OpenAIRE

The addition of different concentrations of sodium bicarbonate had a profound effect on 2,3,4,5-chlorobiphenyl (2,3,4,5-CB) dechlorination in Hudson River sediment cultures. The most extensive dechlorination was observed in cultures to which 100 mg l?1 bicarbonate was added. Cultures amended with 1000 mg l?1 bicarbonate had the least extensive dechlorination, with 2,4-CB and 2,5-CB as predominant end-products. A significant loss of total chlorinated biphenyl mass was observed in cultures ...

Yan, Tao; Lapara, Timothy M.; Novak, Paige J.

2006-01-01

76

Quantitative analysis of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate in solid mixtures using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).  

Science.gov (United States)

An analytical methodology is proposed based on constant ratio and absorbance correction methods to quantify sodium carbonate, Na?CO? (1450 cm?¹), and sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO? (1000 cm?¹, 1923 cm?¹), in solid mixtures using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Potassium ferricyanide, K?Fe(CN)? (2117cm?¹), was used as an internal standard to get characteristic parameters. NaHCO? was quantified using the constant ratio method. Spectral interference of NaHCO? in Na?CO? (1450 cm?¹) was corrected using the absorbance correction method. The corrected absorbance was successfully applied to quantify Na?CO? (1450 cm?¹) in the mixture using the constant ratio method. The results obtained for simulated samples were satisfactory (relative standard deviation less than 7%) for all samples. PMID:23876722

Joshi, Shailesh; Kalyanasundaram, Sivasubramanian; Balasubramanian, Venkatraman

2013-08-01

77

Reduction of neptunium(V) and uranium(VI) in bicarbonate solutions by iron(II)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interaction of Np(VI) and Fe(II) compounds in bicarbonate solutions is investigated. Interaction of Np(V) with Fe(II) in the presence of phthalate-ions is studied briefly. Fe(II) compounds reduce Np(V) compounds in saturated with Ar or CO2 solutions with any bicarbonate-ion concentrations. Chemical reaction kinetics is studied. Reduction of U(VI) by Fe(II) compounds takes place in the case of diluted bicarbonate solutions. UO2and FeOOH are products of reaction at raised temperatures

78

Interactions in the solid state. II: Interaction of sodium bicarbonate with substituted benzoic acids in the presence of moisture.  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction of an organic acid with sodium bicarbonate in water produces an effervescent reaction. The reaction products are carbon dioxide, water, and the sodium salt of the acid. The kinetic rate-determining step for this reaction is the dehydration of carbonic acid. The solid-solid interaction with known amounts of moisture was followed by quantitatively determining carbon dioxide evolution as a function of time. The aqueous solubilities, diffusion coefficients, dissociation constants, and solid-solid interaction rates of six different substituted benzoic acids were determined. Using a model based on diffusion of the organic acid through the aqueous layer coupled with chemical reaction, predicted rates and levels of carbon dioxide production were compared with experimental results. Included in the model were the effects of the reaction products on the solution properties of the reactants. It was found that high concentrations of substituted sodium benzoate were generated very quickly and affected the solubility of the reactants, diffusion coefficient of the acid, and the carbonic acid dehydration rate constant. Moisture content was found to have a profound influence on the interaction rate. Water provides a medium for diffusion of the reacting species as well as the reaction solvent. PMID:3016234

Wright, J L; Carstensen, J T

1986-06-01

79

Excess sodium bicarbonate in the diet and its effect on Leghorn chickens.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. A commercial 62-week-old layer flock experienced an acute drop in egg production and an increase in shell-less egg production within 2 days of consuming feed erroneously formulated to contain over 30 g/kg instead of 3 g/kg sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Other symptoms included increased water consumption, diarrhoea and increased mortality associated with visceral gout. 2. An experiment was conducted to assess the responses of hens under controlled conditions. Twenty Dekalb XL Single Comb White Leghorn hens (50 weeks old) were placed in individual cages, having ad libitum access to water from trough waterers. Ten hens were fed the TEST (High NaHCO3) feed for one week (Test group), and ten hens remained on normal commercial layer ration (Control group). 3. Hens in the Test group had high water consumption and watery droppings, but egg production and mortality were not affected. Physiological evaluations indicated the Test feed caused metabolic alkalosis. Plasma sodium, urine pH and urinary sodium excretion were increased, and glomerular filtration rates were decreased in the Test group. 4. These physiological effects are consistent with known responses to excess sodium intake in domestic fowl. The reduced egg production and increased mortality caused by the Test feed under commercial conditions may be related to more severe dehydration experienced by hens in multi-bird cages supplied by cup-type watering systems. PMID:1327426

Davison, S; Wideman, R F

1992-09-01

80

Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [40 ng 1,25(OH)2D3/day]. Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH)2D3 increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH)2D3. Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal 45Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH)2D3 metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH)2D3, which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH)2D3 by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO3 supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans

81

Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (40 ng 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3//day). Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/. Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal /sup 45/Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO/sub 3/ supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans.

Goulding, A.; McIntosh, J.; Campbell, D.

1984-04-01

82

Evaluation of powder mixtures and hydrophilic gastroretentive drug delivery systems containing zinc acetate and sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to develop and study floating controlled drug delivery systems consisting of a model drug (zinc acetate dihydrate), different forms of a matrix-forming polymer (Metolose 90 SH) and sodium bicarbonate as an effervescent component. The proportions of Metolose and bicarbonate were varied, and the effects of the different ratios on the properties of the resulting powders and tablets were determined. The water uptakes of different powder mixtures were initially evaluated. These tests indicated the interaction of the active and effervescent agent, this phenomenon leading to an unpredicted increase in the amount of liquid taken up. This interaction was evaluated as concerns the degradation of the hydrophilic matrix system. The disintegration of tablets with different compositions revealed that this interaction increases the time required for the disintegration of these systems. The study demonstrated that the interaction of the components induced significant changes in the parameters of this new sensitive delivery system. In the last steps, the buoyancy and dissolution properties of tablets that appeared appropriate for the formulation of a controlled drug delivery system were investigated. PMID:21109379

Baki, Gabriella; Bajdik, János; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

2011-03-25

83

Influence of mixing and solid concentration on sodium bicarbonate secondary nucleation rate in stirred tank  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work aims to investigate the influence of the solid concentration in suspension on the contact secondary nucleation rate of sodium bicarbonate crystallization in a stirred tank crystallizer and to show the necessity of a local description of the mixing for a nucleation rate influence study. Experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are realized. Crystallization kinetic parameters are extracted from experimental data using a mass distribution fitting approach. CFD and the experimental results allow identifying that a mixing property correlated with the measurements of the secondary nucleation rate in the stirred tank crystallizer appears to be the turbulent dissipation rate on the edge of the impeller. Its influence and the influence of the solid concentration in the suspension on the secondary nucleation rate are estimated by the evaluation of their exponents in a kinetic law. The obtained exponent values are then discussed qualitatively. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

Wylock, C.; Debaste, F.; Haut, B. [Transfers, Interfaces and Processes - Chemical Engineering Unit, ULB, Brussels (Belgium); Gutierrez, V.; Delplancke-Ogletree, M.P. [Chemicals and Materials Department, ULB, Brussels (Belgium); Cartage, T. [Solvay SA, Brussels (Belgium)

2010-09-15

84

Control of blue mold decay of apple during commercial controlled atmosphere storage with yeast antagonists and sodium bicarbonate  

Science.gov (United States)

A mixture of two yeast antagonists, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Cryptococcus laurentii, originally isolated from apples and having superior biocontrol activity against blue mold of apple over individual application of these yeasts, were used in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) in a pilot ...

85

Sodium bicarbonate infusion for prevention of acute kidney injury: No evidence for superior benefit, but risk for harm?  

Science.gov (United States)

The best "treatment" of acute kidney injury (AKI) is prevention. Patients who are at high risk of AKI should have an assessment of their volume status and receive appropriate volume expansion. The most effective type of intravenous fluid remains unclear. Innumerable studies have compared sodium bicarbonate and isotonic saline and have combined fluid hydration with pharmacological interventions, particularly N-acetyl-cysteine. However, abundant systematic reviews and meta-analyses have provided conflicting conclusions and have recognized a significant degree of heterogeneity between studies and publication bias. Most studies comparing intravenous sodium bicarbonate and saline were small. They often enrolled patients with a low risk for AKI, yielding low serious events (renal replacement therapy), and used different protocols for administration of fluids. Based on current literature, intravenous sodium bicarbonate does not seem to be more efficient than saline for the prevention of contrast-media-induced AKI, cardiac surgery-associated AKI, pigment nephropathy or septic AKI. However, some cohort studies or prospective randomized trials did track and report serious adverse events, such as higher rates of AKI or higher in-hospital mortality. At present, it should be concluded that the use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate administration to prevent AKI should be evaluated further in multicenter randomized double-blind trials rather than adopted into routine clinical practice. PMID:25164590

Schiffl, Helmut

2015-02-01

86

A spectroelectrochemical study of the technetium(IV)/technetium(III) couple in bicarbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Spectroelectrochemistry at an optically transparent electrode, in conjunction with controlled potential coulometry, has been used to study the Tc(IV)/Tc(III) redox couple in aqueous bicarbonate solutions. The complexation provided by bicarbonate/carbonate ions was found to stabilize both Tc(IV) and Tc(III). The uv-visible absorption spectra for technetium(III) and technetium(IV) carbonate complexes are described. The redox potential for the Tc(IV)/Tc(III) couple, as well as the number of electrons, the number of carbonate groups, and the number of hydroxyl groups exchanged during the redox process in bicarbonate media are reported

87

Effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium starch glycolate on the in vivo disintegration of hard gelatin capsules--a radiological study in the dog.  

Science.gov (United States)

The release of drugs from hard gelatin capsules is often limited by the disintegration rate of the capsule. We set out to determine whether it is possible to hasten the in vivo disintegration of hard gelatin capsules by adding disintegrants (sodium bicarbonate or sodium starch glycolate) to the formulation. This radiological study was carried out in six beagle dogs. We conclude that if rapid disintegration is desired for a hard gelatin capsule formulation, water-soluble diluents should primarily be selected. Sparingly water-soluble, gelforming diluents cause slow in vivo disintegration. Using swellable disintegrants such as sodium starch glycolate does not accelerate disintegration and may even retard it. With sodium bicarbonate it is possible to shorten the disintegration time of capsules containing water-insoluble ingredients, but not to the extent possible with water-soluble diluents. PMID:2560378

Marvola, M; Hannula, A M; Ojantakanen, S; Westermarck, E; Rajamäki, M

1989-01-01

88

Investigation of the chemical pathway of gaseous nitrogen dioxide formation during flue gas desulfurization with dry sodium bicarbonate injection  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical reaction pathway for the viable flue gas desulfurization process, dry sodium bicarbonate injection, was investigated to mitigate undesirable plume discoloration. Based on a foundation of past findings, a simplified three-step reaction pathway was hypothesized for the formation of the plume-discoloring constituent, NO2. As the first step, it was hypothesized that sodium sulfite formed by sodium bicarbonate reaction with flue gas SO 2. As the second step, it was hypothesized that sodium nitrate formed by sodium sulfite reaction with flue gas NO. And as the third step, it was hypothesized that NO2 and sodium sulfate formed by sodium nitrate reaction with SO2. The second and third hypothesized steps were experimentally investigated using an isothermal fixed bed reactor. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium sulfite was found to be un-reactive with NO and O2. Freshly prepared sodium sulfite, maintained unexposed to moist air, was shown to react with NO and O2 resulting in a mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate together with a significant temperature rise. This reaction was found to proceed only when oxygen was present in the flue gas. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium nitrate was shown to be un-reactive with SO2. But freshly formed sodium nitrate kept unexposed to humidity was found to be reactive with SO2 and O 2 resulting in the formation of NO2 and sodium sulfate polymorphic Form I. The NO2 formation by this reaction was shown to be temperature dependent with maximum formation at 175°C. Plume mitigation methods were studied based on the validated three-step reaction pathway. Mitigation of NO2 was exhibited by limiting oxygen concentration in the flue gas to a level below 5%. It was also shown that significant NO2 mitigation was achieved by operating below 110°C or above 250°C. An innovative NO2 mitigation method was patented as a result of the findings of this study. The patented process incorporated a process step of sodium sulfite injection to remove flue gas NO prior to sodium bicarbonate injection.

Stein, Antoinette Weil

89

Facile and Efficient Acetylation of Primary Alcohols and Phenols with Acetic Anhydride Catalyzed by Dried Sodium Bicarbonate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A variety of primary alcohols and phenols were reacted with acetic anhydride at room temperature in the presence of sodium bicarbonate to produce corresponding esters in good to excellent yields. The acetylation of 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol was also carried out using other bicarbonates and carbonates. The reaction in the presence of cesium bicarbonate and lithium carbonate gave 4-nitrobenzyl acetate in excellent yield, while in the presence of Na2CO3, K2CO3, Cs2CO3, or KHCO3 the yield was in the range of 80%–95%. Calcium carbonate and cobaltous carbonate did not promote the acetylation of 4-ntirobenzyl alcohol using acetic anhydride. The acetylation of 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol was carried out using ethyl acetate, THF, toluene, diethyl ether, dichloromethane and acetonitrile, and gave good yields ranging from 75%–99%. Toluene was the best solvent for the reaction, while diethyl ether was the poorest.

Fulgentius Nelson Lugemwa

2013-12-01

90

New reinfusate composition in high UF haemodiafiltration: electrolyte solution combined with bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

When high-permeability membranes are employed, high UF should be used in order to obtain optimal uraemic toxin removal and to avoid backfiltration. A high UF requires the infusion of an electrolyte solution including Ca2+ and Mg2+ which cannot be associated with bicarbonate in prepackaged solutions because of the risk of precipitation; therefore acetate or lactate are used as buffers. This study evaluated whether bicarbonate can be infused together with an electrolyte solution in high UF HDF, and if so, the clinical advantages that could be obtained by substituting acetate with bicarbonate in the reinfusate. In 12 patients on postdilutional high UF (121 +/- 10 ml/min) HDF (Qb 400, Qd 500 ml/min, dialysate containing Na, 141 +/- 2; K, 2.5; Ca, 3.5; Mg, 0.7; Cl, 111 +/- 2; acetate, 3; bicarbonate, 34 mEq/l; TMP 400 mmHg), an acid bag (Na, 128; K, 4; Ca, 7; Mg, 2; Cl, 141; acetate, 8 mEq/l), and a basic bag (Na, 150; HCO3, 80; Cl, 70 mEq/l), each containing 2 litres, were simultaneously infused through a Y connection. The final composition of reinfusate at the drip-chamber, combined with the above dialysate, allowed a negative intradialytic mass balance for Na, K, Mg and a positive one for Ca, acetate, to maintain prepostdialytic plasma values of these ions as well as bicarbonate close to normal limits. Furthermore, in five high-risk patients, clinical data were evaluated on high UF HDF, infusing a solution containing either acetate or bicarbonate, and an improvement of vascular stability was observed with the bicarbonate reinfusate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8381936

Gonella, M; Calabrese, G; Pratesi, G; Baldin, C; Mazzotta, A; Vagelli, G

1993-01-01

91

In vitro effects of bicarbonate and bicarbonate-lactate buffered peritoneal dialysis solutions on mesothelial and neutrophil function.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inclusion of bicarbonate in the formulation of peritoneal dialysis solutions may avoid the in vitro impairment of certain cell functions seen with acidic lactate-based fluids. The supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 inherent in such formulations may, however, not be biocompatible. This study compared the in vitro biocompatibility of a pH 5.2 lactate-based formulation with formulations containing either 40 mM lactate at pH 7.4, 38 mM HCO3- at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 240 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 60 mm Hg), and 25 mM HCO3- plus 15 mM lactate at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 160 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 40 mm Hg). Significant release of lactate dehydrogenase or decreases in ATP content by human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) and human peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) after a 30-min exposure to each test solution was only seen with the pH 5.2 lactate-based fluid. The ATP content of HPMC exposed to this fluid returned to control levels after 30 min of recovery in M199 control medium but showed a trend toward decreasing ATP content at 240 min. Similarly, interleukin (IL)-1 beta-induced IL-6 synthesis by HPMC was also only significantly reduced by the pH 5.2 lactate solution. PMN chemiluminescence was unaffected by 30-min exposure to all test solutions except for the pH 5.2 lactate formulation. Staphylococcus epidermidis phagocytosis was reduced to between 46 to 57% of control with all test solutions except the pH 5.2 lactate solution, which further suppressed the chemiluminescence response to 17% of control. These data suggest that short exposure to supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 does not impair HPMC or PMN viability and function. Furthermore, neutral pH lactate-containing solutions show equivalent biocompatibility to bicarbonate-based ones. PMID:8785390

Topley, N; Kaur, D; Petersen, M M; Jörres, A; Williams, J D; Faict, D; Holmes, C J

1996-02-01

92

Effects of potential and concentration of bicarbonate solution on stress corrosion cracking of annealed carbon steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of potential and concentration of bicarbonate on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of annealed SM 400 B carbon steel has been investigated in bicarbonate solutions at 343 K. The surface of annealed specimen had decarburized layer of about 0. 5 mm thickness. A potentiostatic slow strain rate testing apparatus equipped with a charge coupled device camera system was employed to evaluate SCC susceptibility from the viewpoint of the crack behavior. In a constant bicarbonate concentration of 1 M, cracks were observed in the potential range from -800 to 600 mVAg/AgCl. and especially, the initiation and the propagation of the cracks were accelerated at -600 mV. At a constant potential of -600 mV, cracks were observed in the concentration range from 0.001 to 1 M, and the initiation and the propagation of the cracks were suppressed as the concentration decreased. Polarization curves for the decarburized surface were measured with two different scan rates. High SCC susceptibility may be expected in the potential range where the difference between the two current densities is large. It was found in this system that the potential with the maximum difference in the current density was -600 mV for 1 M bicarbonate solution, and the potential increased with a decrease in the concentration of bicarbonate. This means that an applied potential of -600 mV provides the highest SCC susceptibility for 1 M bicarbonate solution, and that the SCC susceptibility decreion, and that the SCC susceptibility decreases as the concentration decreases. These findings support the dependence of the actual SCC behavior on the potential and the concentration of bicarbonate. (author)

93

Combination of Kluyveromyces marxianus and sodium bicarbonate for controlling green mold of citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biocontrol efficacy of an antagonistic yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus was evaluated individually or in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) against green mold of citrus fruit caused by Penicillium digitatum. Their effects on postharvest quality of citrus fruit were also investigated. The results indicated that the antagonistic activity of K. marxianus at 1×10? CFU/mL on green mold of citrus fruit was enhanced by 2% SBC treatment. In artificial inoculation trials, disease control after 3 and 6 days, respectively, with the mixture of K. marxianus and 2% SBC (18.33%, 58.33%) was significantly improved over that obtained with K. marxianus (41.67%, 70.00%) or SBC (43.33%, 81.67%) alone. The combination of K. marxianus with SBC was as effective as the imazalil treatment in natural infection trials, which gave about 90% control of green mold. Addition of 2% SBC significantly stimulated the growth of K. marxianus in citrus fruit wounds after 72 h. Moreover, K. marxianus, SBC and their combination did not impair quality parameters including weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid at 4 °C for 30 days followed by 20 °C for 15 days. These results suggested that the use of SBC is a useful approach to improve the efficacy of K. marxianus for the postharvest green mold of citrus fruit. PMID:21920618

Geng, Peng; Chen, Shaohua; Hu, Meiying; Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Lai, Kaiping; Qu, Fei; Zhang, Yanbo

2011-12-01

94

Optimization of sodium bicarbonate injection for acid scrubbing in hospital waste incineration plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optimization of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) injection for acid hydrochloric (HCl) scrubbing was conducted on a hospital waste incineration plant. The plant employs a rotary kiln system having burning capacity of 350 kg/h hospital waste (average calorific value of 17.4 MJ/kg) and is operated on a 24 hr/ day basis. Currently, NaHCO3 injection rate is 25 kg/h as recommended by manufacturer to meet the Department of Environment (DOE) standard emission limit of 200 mg/Nm3 HCl. Testing of HCl emission at various injection rates of 25, 20, 15 and 10 kg/ h results in HCl final concentration in the range of 0.58-7.13, 5.63-7.74, 0.07-2.99 and 3-28 mg/Nm3 respectively. The results showed that NaHCO3 injection rate as low as 10 kg/ h could still meet the HCl stipulated emission limit. Economic comparison between 25 and 10 kg/ h injection rates showed that total saving on NaHCO3 and disposal of fly ash was RM 22,000 per month (equivalent to saving RM 260,000 per year) when using 10 kg/ h injection rate. It was concluded from the study that optimum injection rate would not only save cost and reduce wastage but also reduce bag house loading rate and prolong the life span of filter bags. (author)

95

The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24504936

Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D

2014-03-01

96

Mutation of Aspartate 555 of the Sodium/Bicarbonate Transporter SLC4A4/NBCe1 Induces Chloride Transport*  

OpenAIRE

To understand the mechanism for ion transport through the sodium/bicarbonate transporter SLC4A4 (NBCe1), we examined amino acid residues, within transmembrane domains, that are conserved among electrogenic Na/HCO3 transporters but are substituted with residues at the corresponding site of all electroneutral Na/HCO3 transporters. Point mutants were constructed and expressed in Xenopus oocytes to assess function using two-electrode voltage clamp. Among the mutants, D555E (charge-conserved subst...

Yang, Han Soo; Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Soojung; Park, Hae Jeong; Cooper, Deborah S.; Rajbhandari, Ira; Choi, Inyeong

2009-01-01

97

Onset response of bupivacaine 0.5% which has been added with sodium bicarbonate on epidural block  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are many advantages in using epidural anesthesia technique. However, there are also some constraints, such as the relatively long onset, particularly in the case of bupivacaine. Whereas the need of a rapid onset of anesthesia technique for emergency cares is increasing lately. The objective of this study was to find a method to hasten the onset of bupivacaine. This is a cross sectional randomized double blind controlled clinical trial performed on 40 patients who would undergo lower abdomen and extremity surgery with epidural block. We evaluated the onset of action of bupivacaine which has been added with sodium bicarbonate. Consecutive sampling method was applied to get the sample. The criteria of sample are ASA I – II patient, aged of 20-60 years old, 50-60 kg of weight, 150-170 cm of height. Patients were allocated randomly into two groups. The treatment group would get epidural block using mixture of 20 cc of bupivacaine 0,5 % + 0.5 cc of sodium bicarbonate 1.4 %, whereas the control group received 20 cc bupivacaine 0.5 % + 0.5 cc aqua bides. Time to reach sensoric block at the level of thoracal 10 dermatome using the pinprick method and time to reach motoric blockade using the bromage scale was recorded. The result of this study showed a significant shortening of the onset of sensory blockade (p<0.05 in the treatment group (10.2±1.4 minutes compared with the control group (19.5±1.3 minutes. The onset of motor blockade had also a significant shortening (p<0.05 in the treatment group(13.3±1.6 minutes compared with the control group (23.0±1.2 minutes. It was concluded that the addition of sodium bicarbonate can hasten the onset of bupivacaine on epidural block. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 7-10Keywords : onset response, bupivacaine 0.5%, sodium bicarbonate, epidural block

Marwoto Marwoto

2005-02-01

98

Effects of liquorice extract, probiotic, potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on productive performance of broiler chickens exposed to heat stress  

OpenAIRE

This study was undertaken to compare the effect of licorice extract, probiotic, potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on productive performance of broilers exposed to heat stress. A total of 900 Fawbro broiler chicks were allocated at random into 6 treatments groups of 3 replicates each. Experimental treatments were as follows: Treatment 1: control group was subjected to heat stress; Treatment 2: control group was not subjected to heat stress; Treatment 3: Probiotic group were early expos...

Al-daraji, Hazim J.

2013-01-01

99

Sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy: A meta-analysis of published clinical trials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious but rare complication following contrast based procedures. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been postulated to prevent CIN by various mechanisms. However, the outcomes following sodium bicarbonate administration to prevent CIN have been inconsistent. Methods: A meta-analysis of published randomized clinical trials to determine if the administration of sodium bicarbonate is superior to sodium chloride among patients with chronic renal failure undergoing catheterization and interventional procedures in preventing CIN was performed. Results: Data were combined across seven published clinical trials consisting of 1734 patients. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the NaHCO3 and NaCl groups except patients in the bicarbonate group were heavier (P = 0.04). The odds ratio (OR) for the development of contrast nephropathy for NaHCO3 versus NaCl was 0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.69; P = 0.003). Heterogeneity and publication bias were detectable with P-values 0.01 and 0.0005 respectively. There was no difference between the NaHCO3 group and the NaCl group in the occurrence of death [OR 0.6; 95% CI (0.26-1.41); P = 0.24], congestive heart failure [OR 0.85; 95% CI (0.32-2.24); P = 0.74] and the requirement for renal replacement therapy [OR 0.56; 95% CI (0.22-1.41); P = 0.22]. Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrates that ban: This meta-analysis demonstrates that based on currently available randomized trials, the administration of NaHCO3 is superior to the administration of NaCl alone in the prevention of CIN among patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. However, further controlled clinical trials are needed due to significant study heterogeneity and publication bias.

100

Photochemical reactions of Am(V) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on Am(V) in sodium carbonate and bicarbonate solutions of pH 9.00 - 11.40 was studied by spectrophotometry. An Am(IV) + Am(VI) mixture was formed at pH 9 to 10; however, the conversion of Am(V) did not exceed 60 - 70%. The reaction rate order with respect to Am(V) was about 1. A quantum yield for the reaction on photolysis with light of ? = 337 nm was estimated at 0.003. The reaction rate and the conversion of Am(V) were decreased with increasing pH. The reaction started with the absorption of a UV quantum by a carbonate complex of Am(V). Its first step was presumably the electron transfer either from a water molecule to Am(V) in the coordination sphere of the excited carbonate complex of Am(V) or between two Am(V) ions in an excimer involving an excited and an unexcited carbonate complex of Am(V)

101

On photochemical reactions of Am(5) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of UV radiation on Am(5) in solutions of sodium carbonate-bicarbonate with pH 9.00-11.40 has been studied by spectrophotometric method. At pH 9-10 a mixture of Am(4)+Am(6) is formed, but the degree of Am(5) transformation does not exceed 60-70%. The reaction order in terms of Am(5) is close to 1. Quantum yield of the reaction during photolysis by light with ? = 337 nm is estimated as 0.003. With increase in pH the reaction rate and degree of Am(5) transformation decrease. The reaction starts with absorption of UV light quantum by Am(5) carbonate complex. It is assumed that the reaction first stage is electron transfer either from water molecule to Am(5) in coordination sphere of excited carbonate complex of Am(5) or between two Am(5) ions in excimer, consisting of excited and non-excited carbonate complexes of Am(5). 10 refs., 2 figs

102

The activation/depassivation of nickel–chromium–molybdenum alloys in bicarbonate solution: Part I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrochemical and surface analytical techniques (X-ray photoelectron and Auger spectroscopies) were used to characterize the influence of potential on the properties of the oxide film formed on the Hybrid BC-1 (a Ni–Cr–Mo) alloy in chloride solutions containing bicarbonate. In the passive region the film possesses the expected bilayer structure with a Cr(III)-dominated barrier layer containing mixed oxidation states of Mo and an outer dominantly-hydroxide layer. At more positive potentials the Cr/Mo content of the film decreases when bicarbonate is present and the alloy becomes covered by a thick (>100 nm), and only partially protective, Ni(OH)2 layer

103

Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the isolated and combined effects of beta-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) on high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in judo and jiu-jitsu competitors. 37 athletes were assigned to one of four groups: (1) placebo (PL)+PL; (2) BA+PL; (3) PL+SB or (4) BA+SB. BA or dextrose (placebo) (6.4 g day?¹) was ingested for 4 weeks and 500 mg kg?¹ BM of SB or calcium carbonate (placebo) was ingested for 7 days during the 4th week. Before and after 4 weeks of supplementation, the athletes completed four 30-s upper-body Wingate tests, separated by 3 min. Blood lactate was determined at rest, immediately after and 5 min after the 4th exercise bout, with perceived exertion reported immediately after the 4th bout. BA and SB alone increased the total work done in +7 and 8 %, respectively. The co-ingestion resulted in an additive effect (+14 %, p < 0.05 vs. BA and SB alone). BA alone significantly improved mean power in the 2nd and 3rd bouts and tended to improve the 4th bout. SB alone significantly improved mean power in the 4th bout and tended to improve in the 2nd and 3rd bouts. BA+SB enhanced mean power in all four bouts. PL+PL did not elicit any alteration on mean and peak power. Post-exercise blood lactate increased with all treatments except with PL+PL. Only BA+SB resulted in lower ratings of perceived exertion (p = 0.05). Chronic BA and SB supplementation alone equally enhanced high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in well-trained athletes. Combined BA and SB promoted a clear additive ergogenic effect. PMID:23595205

Tobias, Gabriel; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni

2013-08-01

104

Preventive and therapeutic effects of sodium bicarbonate on melamine-induced bladder stones in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The actual preventive and therapeutic effects of alkalinizing urine on melamine-induced bladder stones (cystolith) are not completely known. Using an ideal model, two experiments were conducted in Balb/c mice. The mice were fed a normal diet in controls and a melamine diet in the other groups. The first day was set as experiment-day 1. In "Experiment 1", either low-/mid-/high-dose sodium bicarbonate (SB) or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once daily) to the mice for 14 days. Relative to the model group, the mean pH of the urine in the SB groups was significantly elevated at 3 h after SB administration, with a significant decrease in cystolith incidence on experiment-day 14. In "Experiment 2", on experiment-day 12, the melamine diet was replaced by a normal diet in 4 groups with melamine withdrawal (MW). Meanwhile, either mid-/high-dose SB or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once) to the mice in the corresponding groups. On experiment-day 12, after an additional 8 h, the cystolith incidence was significantly reduced in the high-SB, MW + mid-SB and MW + high-SB groups than in the model group. In conclusion, low urinary pH is one of the main determinants of the formation of melamine-associated stones, urinary alkalinization can be achieved by a proper dose of oral SB, and SB acts to prevent and treat melamine-induced cystoliths in mice. PMID:25092435

Ren, Shu-Ting; Du, Yun-Xia; Xu, Chang-Fu; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Mo, Li-Ping; Sun, Ying; Gao, Xiao-Li

2014-10-01

105

Analysis of the acid-base reaction between solid indomethacin and sodium bicarbonate using infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Indomethacin was used as a model compound to investigate acid-base reactions of solid materials, a common type of drug-excipient interaction. In a typical experiment, 500 mg of pure alpha-form indomethacin were mixed with 500 mg of sodium bicarbonate. The mixture was kept at 40 degrees C and at several relative humidities. The reaction was monitored by IR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and solid-state NMR. At 40 degrees C and 80% RH, the reaction is nearly complete after 300 h. As observed by IR spectroscopy, the characteristic peaks of alpha-indomethacin disappear during the course of the reaction with the appearance of the characteristic peaks of the salt product, sodium indomethacin trihydrate. Solid-state NMR spectra and X-ray powder diffraction patterns of the reaction mixtures confirm the transformation of the mixtures to sodium indomethacin trihydrate; the reduced peak intensities in the diffraction patterns of the product relative to the initial mixtures indicate the formation of a microcrystalline product. A change in the reaction rate of sodium bicarbonate with alpha-indomethacin is observed when the mixtures are stored at different relative humidities. At 40 degrees C and 66% RH, the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with alpha-indomethacin is about 86% complete after 500 h. No detectable reaction was observed for sodium bicarbonate with the alpha form of indomethacin at 40 degrees C and 11% RH after 15 months. The combination of these solid-state characterization techniques is demonstrated to be essential to detect and monitor acid-base reactions in solid materials, which are impossible to monitor using solution-chemistry methods. The reaction kinetics at 66% RH fits the Jander equation very well, which is consistent with a diffusion-controlled mechanism. PMID:15967295

Chen, Xiaoming; Griesser, Ulrich J; Te, Ruth L; Pfeiffer, Ralph R; Morris, Kenneth R; Stowell, Joseph G; Byrn, Stephen R

2005-07-15

106

Effects of liquorice extract, probiotic, potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on productive performance of broiler chickens exposed to heat stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to compare the effect of licorice extract, probiotic, potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on productive performance of broilers exposed to heat stress. A total of 900 Fawbro broiler chicks were allocated at random into 6 treatments groups of 3 replicates each. Experimental treatments were as follows: Treatment 1: control group was subjected to heat stress; Treatment 2: control group was not subjected to heat stress; Treatment 3: Probiotic group were early exposed to 106 Colony Forming Unit (CFU of Lactobacilli at their first day of age, and then subjected to heat stress; Treatment 4: heat distressed birds and supplemented with 0.5 % potassium chloride in their drinking water; Treatment 5: heat distressed birds and supplemented with 0.5% sodium bicarbonate in their drinking water; and Treatment 6: heat distressed birds and supplemented with 450 mg / liter licorice extract in their drinking water. At the third week of age, birds in treatments 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were exposed to heat stress (38 – 43 ºC for 6 hours(1200 – 1800 h each day until the end of experiment (8th week of age. Results revealed that treated the birds with probiotic or licorice extract resulted in a significant improvement in mean body weight, feed conversion ratio, water consumption, cumulative body weight, cumulative weight gain, cumulative feed conversion ratio, livability, productive index, economic figure and dressing percentage with or without viscera as compared with control group which was subjected to heat stress, potassium chloride treatment and sodium bicarbonate treatment. Furthermore, licorice extract treatment surpasses probiotic treatment in respect to mean body weight, water consumption, final body weight, cumulative feed consumption, livability, and dressing percentage with or without giblet. In conclusion, licorice extract and probiotic can be used as an efficient tools in alleviate the deleterious effects of heat stress on productive performance of broiler chickens.

Hazim J. Al-Daraji

2013-06-01

107

Oral sodium bicarbonate reduces proximal renal tubular peptide catabolism, ammoniogenesis, and tubular damage in renal patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is widely used to treat acidosis in patients with renal failure. However, no data are available in man on the effects on proximal renal tubular protein catabolism or markers of tubular injury. We have developed methods to allow such studies, and both increased tubular catabolism of 99mTc-labelled aprotinin (Apr*), as well as tubular damage were found in association with increased ammonia (NH3) excretion in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria. We now examine the effects of reducing renal ammoniogenesis, without altering proteinuria, using oral NaHCO3 in 11 patients with mild/moderate renal impairment and proteinuria. Renal tubular catabolism of Apr* was measured before and after NaHCO3 by renal imaging (Kidney uptake, K% of dose) and urinary excretion of free 99mTcO4- (metabolism, Met% of dose/h) over 26 h. Fractional degradation (Frac) was calculated from Met/K (/h). Fresh urine was also analyzed for NH3 excretion every fortnight from 6/52 before treatment. Total urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucose-aminidase (NAG) and the more tubulo-specific NAG "A2" were measured. 51CrEDTA clearance and 99mTc-MAG 3 TER were also assessed. After NaHCO3 Met over 26 h was significantly reduced (from 1.3 +/- 0.2% of dose/h to 0.9 +/- 0.1% dose/hr, p excretion also fell significantly (from 0.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/h to 0.2 +/- 0.05 mmol/h, p NAG (from 169 mumol/24 h, 74-642 mumol/24 h to 79 mumol/ 24 h, 37-393 mumol/24 h, p NAG 'A2' isoenzyme (from 81.5 mumol/24 h, 20-472 mumol/24 h to 35.0 mumol/24 h, 6-388 mumol/24 h, p < 0.001). Proteinuria remained unaltered, and there was no change in blood pressure nor in glomerular haemodynamics. Oral NaHCO3 may thus pro-tect the proximal renal tubule and help delay renal disease progression. PMID:9574465

Rustom, R; Grime, J S; Costigan, M; Maltby, P; Hughes, A; Taylor, W; Shenkin, A; Critchley, M; Bone, J M

1998-03-01

108

Corrosion behavior of iron and carbon steel in bicarbonate solution and in ground water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion behavior was studied for iron and carbon steel in bicarbonate solution and in ground water by corrosion potential measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Iron and carbon steel were passivated in the air-saturated carbonate media. In 0.1 M NaHCO3 saturated with N2, iron and carbon steel electrodes were in an active state, but their corrosion rates were not much different from air saturated cases. From the AC impedance spectroscopic result, it is suggested that the electrochemical dissolution of iron and carbon steel accompanies an adsorption reaction in the bicarbonate solutions. In ground water, the corrosion rates of iron and carbon steel were evaluated as 5.8 ? m/yr and 0.27 ? m/yr, respectively

109

A study on the localized corrosion of cobalt in bicarbonate solutions containing halide ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The localized attack of cobalt in bicarbonate aqueous solutions containing halide ions was investigated using electrochemical techniques, scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible and Raman spectroscopies. Rotating disc and rotating ring-disc electrodes were used to determine the effect of bicarbonate concentration, solution pH, nature and concentration of the halide ions, convection and potential sweep rate on the corrosion processes. These parameters were found to play a key role on the localized attack induced by halide ions by influencing the production of a Co(HCO3)2 precipitate on the pit surface. Potentiostatically generated cobalt oxide films (CoO and Co3O4) were found to be efficient to reduce pitting corrosion of cobalt

110

Assessment of Adequacy of Dialysis in Patients Undergoing Dialysis With Bicarbonate Solution  

OpenAIRE

Background & Aim: Hemodialysis is a common replacement therapy for patients with ESRD, worldwide. Effective and adequate hemodialysis can improve quality of life and reduce complications of renal failure. Enhancing quality of dialysis results in reducing the complications and mortality rate in patients with chronic renal failure. The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of dialysis in patients undergoing dialysis with Bicarbonate solution in hemodialysis ward of a hospital in Sary.Met...

Ehteram Sadat Ilali; Raheleh Mohseni

2011-01-01

111

Corrosion-electrochemical behavior of carbon steels in carbonate-bicarbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peculiarities of corrosion-electrochemical behaviour of carbon steel (St3) in carbonate-bicarbonate solution (1 N Na2CO3 + 1 N NaHCO3), including one containing hydrogen sulfide, are studied. The ambiguous effect of anions (Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-) on the steel corrosion behaviour is established. the peculiarity of forming the passivating anode layers on the steel is shown through the volt-ampere characteristic measuring method

112

Influence of feeding and social behaviors and the use of sodium bicarbonate on ruminal pH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the present thesis was to study the effects of some behavioral factors, and the use of sodium bicarbonate, on the digestion processes affecting ruminal function of beef cattle fed concentrate and straw ad libitum. In the first experiment, four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of increasing levels of sodium bicarbonate (0, 1.25, 2.50 and 5 %, on concentrate DM basis) on intake, water consumption, ruminal fer...

Gonza?lez, Luciano Adria?n

2007-01-01

113

Utilization of sodium bicarbonate for the neutralization of acid components in exhaust gases; Verwendung von Natriumbicarbonat zur Neutralisation saurer Bestandteile in Abgasen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The SOLVAIR dry process using sodium bicarbonate as absorbent facilitates an uncomplicated and efficient purification of exhaust gases from different processes. The products from exhaust gas purification can be used either directly in a producing process or subsequently to a treatment process in the chemical process. The author of this contribution reports on the utilization of sodium bicarbonate in the neutralisation of pour components in exhaust gases such as hydrochloric acid, sulphur dioxide and nitrous dioxides. Further aspects of this contribution are the energy efficiency and the recycling of reaction products.

Bauer, Thomas [Solvay Chemicals GmbH, Rheinberg (Germany). Technisches Marketing

2013-03-01

114

Preparation and application of potassium and sodium titanate for removal of plutonium from basic solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In PUREX process, after extraction and stripping of uranium and plutonium, the extractant, tributyl phosphate is usually washed with sodium carbonate solution before reuse for the removal of radiolytic/hydrolytic degradation products of TBP and small amounts of HNO3, uranium and plutonium goes into aqueous phase during carbonate washings. Partial neutralization of carbonate by the acid converts it to bicarbonate. Removal of plutonium from such sodium carbonate/bicarbonate streams facilitates their disposal. In the present work, studies were carried out to prepare inorganic ion-exchangers such as potassium and sodium titanates for their application as ion-exchange material. It is essential to prepare these materials in granular form to obtain good liquid flow property for ion exchange column operations, however, it is also important that the final product is having good surface area and porosity so that they may exhibit good ion exchange capacity

115

Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 ?g/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

2014-02-01

116

Degradation of hydroxyapatite in vivo and in vitro requires osteoclastic sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter NBCn1  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dissolution of the inorganic bone matrix releases not only calcium and phosphate ions, but also bicarbonate. Electroneutral sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter (NBCn1) is expressed in inactive osteoclasts, but its physiological role in bone resorption has remained unknown. We show here that NBCn1, encoded by the SLC4A7 gene, is directly involved in bone resorption. NBCn1 protein was specifically found at the bone-facing ruffled border areas, and metabolic acidosis increased NBCn1 expression in rats in vivo. In human hematopoietic stem cell cultures, NBCn1 mRNA expression was observed only after formation of resorbing osteoclasts. To further confirm the critical role of NBCn1 during bone resorption, human hematopoietic stem cells were transduced with SLC4A7 shRNA lentiviral particles. Downregulation of NBCn1 both on mRNA and protein level by lentiviral shRNAs significantly inhibited bone resorption and increased intracellular acidification in osteoclasts. The lentiviral particles did not impair osteoclast survival, or differentiation of the hematopoietic or mesenchymal precursor cells into osteoclasts or osteoblasts in vitro. Inhibition of NBCn1 activity may thus provide a new way to regulate osteoclast activity during pathological bone resorption.

Riihonen, Riikka; Nielsen, SØren

2010-01-01

117

Effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, PaCO2, HCO3-, PH and cerebral blood flow  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To estimate the quantitative reactivity of cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the end-tidal CO2, arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2), HCO3-, pH and CBF were examined. The CBF was measured by 133Xe inhalation method with ring type SPECT (HEADTOME). Activation study with sodium bicarbonate administration was performed after 30 minutes of resting study, and the reactivity of each parameters was investigated. The arterial HCO3- and pH increased with similar reactivity, but PaCO2, end-tidal CO2 and CBF in the non-injured hemisphere changed with irregular reactivity. The excellent correlation between PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2 was vanished by the administration of sodium bicarbonate. The reactivity of CBF did not correlate with reactivity of PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2, but correlated with arterial HCO3- and pH. Thus the measurement of arterial HCO3- and pH may be indispensable to estimate the CBF reactivity with the administration of sodium bicarbonate. (author)

118

Carbonic acid ionization and the stability of sodium bicarbonate and carbonate ion pairs to 200 °C - A potentiometric and spectrophotometric study  

Science.gov (United States)

Carbonic acid ionization and sodium bicarbonate and carbonate ion pair formation constants have been experimentally determined in dilute hydrothermal solutions to 200 °C. Two experimental approaches were applied, potentiometric acid-base titrations at 10-60 °C and spectrophotometric pH measurements using the pH indicators, 2-napthol and 4-nitrophenol, at 25-200 °C. At a given temperature, the first and second ionization constants of carbonic acid (K1, K2) and the ion pair formation constants for NaHCO(aq)(K) and NaCO3-(aq)(K) were simultaneously fitted to the data. Results of this study compare well with previously determined values of K1 and K2. The NaHCO(aq) and NaCO3-(aq) ion pair formation constants vary between 25 and 200 °C having values of logK=-0.18 to 0.58 and logK=1.01 to 2.21, respectively. These ion pairs are weak at low-temperatures but become increasingly important with increasing temperature under neutral to alkaline conditions in moderately dilute to concentrated NaCl solutions, with NaCO3-(aq) predominating over CO32-(aq) in ?0.1 M NaCl solution at temperatures above 100 °C. The results demonstrate that NaCl cannot be considered as an inert (non-complexing) electrolyte in aqueous carbon dioxide containing solutions at elevated temperatures.

Stefánsson, Andri; Bénézeth, Pascale; Schott, Jacques

2013-11-01

119

Effects of Creatine and Sodium Bicarbonate Co-Ingestion on Multiple Indices of Mechanical Power Output During Repeated Wingate Tests in Trained Men.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of creatine and sodium bicarbonate co-ingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints. Nine well-trained men (age = 21.6 ± 0.9 yr, stature = 1.82 ± 0.05 m, body mass = 80.1 ± 12.8 kg) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover study using six 10-s repeated Wingate tests. Participants ingested either a placebo (0.5 g·kg-1 of maltodextrin), 20 g·d-1 of creatine monohydrate + placebo, 0.3 g·kg-1 of sodium bicarbonate + placebo, or co-ingestion + placebo for 7 d, with a 7 d washout between conditions. Participants were randomised into two groups with a differential counterbalanced order. Creatine conditions were ordered first and last. Indices of mechanical power output (W), total work (J) and fatigue index (W·s-1) were measured during each test and analysed using the magnitude of differences between groups in relation to the smallest worthwhile change in performance. Compared to placebo, both creatine (effect size (ES) = 0.37-0.83) and sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.22-0.46) reported meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output. Co-ingestion provided small meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output (W) compared to sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.28-0.41), but not when compared to creatine (ES = -0.21-0.14). Co-ingestion provided a small meaningful improvement in total work (J) (ES = 0.24) compared to creatine. Fatigue index (W·s-1) was impaired in all conditions compared to placebo. In conclusion, there was no meaningful additive effect of creatine and sodium bicarbonate co-ingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints. PMID:25203421

Griffen, Corbin; Rogerson, David; Ranchordas, Mayur; Ruddock, Alan

2014-09-01

120

Photochemical oxidation of Am(III) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions saturated with N2O  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of UV light on 1.1·10-4 M Am(III) in Na and K bicarbonate-carbonate solutions saturated with N2O is studied by a spectrographic method. In all instances, Am(IV) is the first product formed. It has a characteristic absorption maximum at 370 nm. The initial rate of Am(IV) accumulation is constant in solutions up to [HCO-3] or [HCO-3] + [CO2-3] ? 1.5 M. However, the rate decreases at higher concentrations. In solutions at pH 8.4-10, Am(IV) slowly disproportionates. The proposed method enables practically 100% yields to be attained. The disproportionation of Am(IV) accelerates at pH > 10

121

Effects of sodium bicarbonate and albumin on the in vitro water-holding capacity and some physiological properties of Trigonella foenum graecum L. galactomannan in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study seeks to improve the beneficial effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) galactomannan (GM) in lowering the plasma lipid profile and weight. Three different combinations of diets were prepared with fenugreek GM--(a) fenugreek GM + water (GM); (b) fenugreek GM + sodium bicarbonate (GMB); and (c) fenugreek GM + bicarbonate + albumin (GMBA)--and their in vitro water retention capacity and in vivo lipid-lowering effect were studied. Distilled water and sodium bicarbonate were used as controls. The sodium bicarbonate significantly increased the in vitro water-holding capacity of fenugreek GM (49.1 +/- 8.7 vs. 21.6 +/- 0.9 g of water/g of dry weight, P effective in reducing body weight (-27.0 +/- 0.4%, P cholesterol (P effective in reducing levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P cholesterol levels, with the highest increase coming with GMBA. A significant increase in plasma triglycerides (P effects of fenugreek GM. This finding could have applications in the areas of human obesity, weight loss, and the control of blood lipids. PMID:17472483

Dakam, William; Shang, Judith; Agbor, Gabriel; Oben, Julius

2007-03-01

122

Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

02-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm -3 ammonium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60Co gammas (0.001-170 Mrd) or krd pulses of 10 MeV electrons. Formate, oxalate, formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer (Mw14000-16000 daltons) were found to be the main radiolytic products. A large initial yield of formate in the ?-radiolysis, G(HCOO-) = 2.2, is due to the reaction CO2- + HCO3- ? HC00- + CO3-. The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction CO2- + CO3- is particurlarly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained in the ?-radiolysis and by pulsed electron beam experiments gives k(CO2- + HCO3-) = (2 ± 0.4)x103 dm3mol-1s-1, k(CO2-+ CO3-) = (5 ± 1)x107 dm3mol-1s-1, k(NH2 + = HCO3-) 4 dm3mol-1s-1 and k(NH2 + CO3-) = (1.5 ± 0.5)x109 dm3mol-1s-1. (author)

123

How does live yeast differ from sodium bicarbonate to stabilize ruminal pH in high-yielding dairy cows?  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the capacity of 2 dietary feed additives, sodium bicarbonate and live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain Sc 47), in optimizing ruminal pH in dairy cows and to determine their modes of action. Three early lactating Holstein cows, fitted with ruminal cannulas, were allocated in a 3 x 3 Latin square design. They were given a total mixed ration as control diet (CD) at a daily feeding rate of 28.0 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow supplemented with 150 g/d of sodium bicarbonate (SBD) or 5 g/d of live yeast (YD) during a 21-d experimental period (14 d of diet adaptation, 4 consecutive days of measurement and sampling and 3 d of transition). The pH and redox potential (E(h)) were measured from 1 h before feeding to 8 h after feeding at 1-h intervals, and samples of ruminal fluid were taken at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after feeding for the determination of volatile fatty acids and lactate concentrations. Total tract apparent digestibility of the diet was also determined. Ruminal pH fluctuated between 6.53 at feeding and 5.57 at 5 h postfeeding. Mean pH was greater with SBD (6.21) and YD (6.14) compared with CD (5.94), showing that both additives had a pH stabilization effect. The E(h) varied from -88 mV at 1 h before feeding to -165 mV at 1 h after feeding. Mean E(h) and Clark's Exponent (rH) were lower with YD (-149 mV and 7.31, respectively) than with SBD (-137 mV and 7.85, respectively) and CD (-115 mV and 8.05, respectively), indicating that the yeast strengthened the reducing power of the milieu. Total volatile fatty acids were greater in SBD (95.3 mM) and YD (99.4 mM) compared with CD (85.3 mM). Acetate concentration was greater in SBD (60.8 mM) and YD (59.1 mM) compared with CD (53.2 mM). Propionate concentration was greater in YD (25.8 mM) than in SBD (20.0 mM) and CD (18.0 mM). Butyrate remained constant between diets. Mean total lactate concentrations were 16.5, 12.2, and 5.4 mM for CD, SBD, and YD, respectively, with a 67% decrease with YD. Total tract organic matter digestibility was greater for YD (66.6%) compared with SBD (61.7%) and CD (62.2%). The neutral detergent fiber digestibility was greater with YD (41.6%) compared with SBD (34.3%) and CD (29.6%), whereas acid detergent fiber digestibility was greatest in YD (32.3%), intermediate in SBD (24.4%), and lowest in CD (18.1%). By inducing a lower ruminal E(h) and rH, live yeast prevented accumulation of lactate and allowed better fiber digestion, whereas sodium bicarbonate seemed to act only as an exogenous buffer. PMID:18765611

Marden, J P; Julien, C; Monteils, V; Auclair, E; Moncoulon, R; Bayourthe, C

2008-09-01

124

Interaction of chloride and bicarbonate transport across the basolateral membrane of rabbit proximal straight tubule. Evidence for sodium coupled chloride/bicarbonate exchange.  

OpenAIRE

The existence of chloride/bicarbonate exchange across the basolateral membrane and its physiologic significance were examined in rabbit proximal tubules. S2 segments of the proximal straight tubule were perfused in vitro and changes in intracellular pH (pHi) and chloride activity (aCli) were monitored by double-barreled microelectrodes. Total peritubular chloride replacement with gluconate increased pHi by 0.8, and this change was inhibited by a pretreatment with an anion transport inhibitor,...

Sasaki, S.; Yoshiyama, N.

1988-01-01

125

Failure mechanisms of high strength steels in bicarbonate solutions under anodic polarization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High strength steels used in prestressing concrete structures are not exempt from the effects induced by corrosion on the normal concrete reinforcement. Carbonation of surrounding concrete or mortar is not unlikely for prestressing tendons and strands. Moreover, these steels undergo to brittle fracture as a consequence of stress corrosion cracking phenomena. To evaluate if concrete carbonation can promote this kind of failure, constant load tests in bicarbonate aqueous solutions under anodic polarization were carried out on high strength steel wires. Microscopic examination pointed out that the wires exhibited a brittle fracture mode, while its natural feature is ductile, as indicated by air testing. Failure mechanism was evaluated by a fracture mechanic approach. Cracks initiation was attributed to an anodic dissolution mechanism, while its propagation, interpreted by means of the surface mobility theory, was related to interaction between hydrogen atoms and magnetite at a crack tip

126

Prevention of contrast induced nephropathy with sodium bicarbonate (the PROMEC study) / Prevenção de nefropatia por contraste com bicarbonato de sódio (o estudo PROMEC)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Introdução: A nefropatia induzida por contraste é uma complicação comum de procedimentos radiográficos. Medidas diferentes têm sido utilizadas para evitar estes problemas, mas a evidência é controversa. Novos estudos são necessários para esclarecer isso. Investigamos tanto a eficácia quanto a segur [...] ança de uma solução de bicarbonato de sódio em comparação com a solução de cloreto de sódio para evitar nefropatia por contraste em pacientes com ou em risco de desenvolver disfunção renal. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo, randomizado clínico, conduzido em um único centro, entre 01 de maio de 2007 e 8 de fevereiro de 2008. Os pacientes internados em um centro terciário, agendados para passar por um procedimento radiográfico com uso de contraste não iônico., Havia 220 pacientes com níveis de creatinina sérica de pelo menos 1,2 mg/dL (106,1 mmol/L) e/ou diabéticos do tipo 2, que foram escolhidos aleatoriamente para receber uma infusão de cloreto de sódio (n = 113) ou bicarbonato de sódio (n = 107) antes e após a administração do meio de contraste. A intervenção foi: grupo "A" recebeu 1 ml/kg/hora de solução salina normal, começando 12 horas antes e continuando por 12 horas após o uso do contraste iohexol. Os pacientes do grupo "B" receberam 3 ml/kg de uma solução de bicarbonato de sódio (150 mEq/L), 1 hora antes do procedimento e, em seguida, o gotejamento foi reduzido a 1 ml/kg/hora por até 6 horas após o procedimento. Nosso principal indicador de desfecho foi a alteração na creatinina sérica. Resultados: O valor médio da creatinina após o procedimento foi de 1,26 mg/dL no grupo que recebeu a solução salina e 1,22 mg/dL no grupo do bicarbonato (diferença média: 0,036, IC 95%: -0,16 a 0,23, p = 0,865). O diagnóstico da nefropatia induzida por contraste, definida pelo aumento de creatinina no soro em 25% ou mais dentro de 2 dias após a administração de contraste radiográfico, foi realizado em doze pacientes (12%) no grupo do bicarbonato e oitavo pacientes (7,1%) no grupo da solução salina (RR: 1,68, IC 95%: 0,72-3,94). Conclusão: Nossa investigação mostrou que não houve diferença entre soro fisiológico normal (infusão prolongada) contra uma solução de bicarbonato para nefroproteção. Abstract in english Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common complication of radiographic procedures. Different measures have been used to avoid this damage, but the evidence is controversial. New investigations are required to clarify it. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sodium bicarbonate sol [...] ution compared with sodium chloride solution to prevent contrast induced nephropathy in patients with or at risk of renal dysfunction. Methods: A prospective, single-center, randomized clinical trial conducted from May 1, 2007 to February 8, 2008. Inpatients in a tertiary center, scheduled to undergo a procedure with the nonionic radiographic contrast agent iohexol. There were 220 patients with serum creatinine levels of at least 1.2 mg/dL (106.1 µmol/L) and/or type 2 diabetics, who were randomized to receive an infusion of sodium chloride (n = 113) or sodium bicarbonate (n = 107) before and after contrast dye administration. The intervention were "A" group received 1 ml/kg/hour of normal saline solution, starting 12 hours before and continuing 12 hours after iohexol contrast. "B" group received 3 ml/kg of sodium bicarbonate solution (150 mEq/L) one hour prior to procedure and then drip rate was decreased to 1 ml/kg/hour until 6 hours post procedure. Our main outcome measure was change in serum creatinine. Results: The mean creatinine value after the procedure was 1.26 mg/dL in the saline group and 1.22 mg/dL in the bicarbonate group (mean difference: 0.036; CI 95%: -0.16 to 0.23, p = 0.865). The diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy, defined by increase in serum creatinine on 25% or more within 2 days after administration of radiographic contrast, was done in twelve patien

John Fredy, Nieto-Ríos; Wílmar Arley Maya, Salazar; Oscar Mauricio Santos, Sánchez; Janeth Liliana Jaramillo, Ortega; Jorge Ignacio García, Caro; Julián Miguel Aristizabal, Aristizabal; Lina Maria Serna, Higuita; Álvaro García, García; Fabián Alberto Jaimes, Barragán.

2014-09-01

127

The effects of subacute ruminal acidosis on sodium bicarbonate-supplemented water intake for lactating dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four multiparous ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in an 8-wk experiment utilizing a repeated measures block design to determine the effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) on supplemented water intake. Animals were subjected to SARA, which was induced by replacing 25% of the ad libitum intake of the total mixed ration (dry matter basis) with 50:50 wheat:barley pellets utilizing a grain challenge model. Cows had free choice from 2 water bowls. One bowl contained water with sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplemented at 2.5 g/L. The other bowl contained unsupplemented water. Ruminal pH was monitored continuously during the trial using indwelling pH probes. The induction of SARA reduced daily mean ruminal pH and increased the duration when ruminal pH was below 6. The total mixed ration intake by the cows decreased during the SARA periods. The overall preference for SB-supplemented water did not change, as the preference ratio was similar during the control and SARA periods. During the period of greatest ruminal pH depression, total water intake was higher during the SARA periods than during the control periods. During SARA, there was no difference in the preference of a SB water source to unsupplemented water. During the period of day with the most severe ruminal pH depression, the lactating dairy cows subjected to SARA increased their total water intake. PMID:15328239

Cottee, G; Kyriazakis, I; Widowski, T M; Lindinger, M I; Cant, J P; Duffield, T F; Osborne, V R; McBride, B W

2004-07-01

128

[Effect of treatments of hydrogen peroxide and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate on clay minerals of red earth sediments].  

Science.gov (United States)

As classical procedures for pretreatment of soil sediments, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) treatment methods are very important in removing the organic matter and iron oxides acting as cementing agents in the soils. However, both of these methods have less been focused on the effect on the clay minerals when separating. Here, we report the comparable methods between H2O2 and DCB to reveal their effect on clay minerals in red earth sediments using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results suggested that mineral particles can be totally decentralized by either H2O2 or DCB method in the soils and high purity clay minerals can be obtained by separating quartz and other impurities from clay minerals effectively. However, the XRD data were distorted by the DCB treatment owning to the cation exchange between Na+ and interlayer cation. On the contrary, the authentic data can be obtained by H2O2 treatment. Therefore, the H2O2 treatment seems to be a more appropriate method to obtain authentic information of clay mineralogy when separating of clay minerals from red earth sediments. PMID:23841441

Li, Rong-Biao; Hong, Han-Lie; Yin, Ke; Wang, Chao-Wen; Gao, Wen-Peng; Han, Wen; Wu, Qing-Feng

2013-04-01

129

Enhancing Shelf Life of “Le Conte” Pear Fruits by Using Sodium Bicarbonate and Potassium Sorbate as a Postharvest Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out for two successive seasons 2011 and 2012 in order to evaluate the efficiency dipping of Le Conte pear fruits in sodium bicarbonate (SBC and/or potassium sorbate (KS either alone or in combination to maintain fruit quality and control postharvest diseases at cold storage or during marketing at room temperature. Pear fruits were kept at 0°C±1 with 90-95% R.H. for 90 days at cold storage and 5 days as marketing at room temperature. The reduction in linear growth and dry weight were correlated to the increase in SBC and/or KS concentrations. The SBC 2.0% +KS 2.0% treatment gave complete inhibition of the linear growth and dry weight while, gave the maximum reduction in disease infection of Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea (0.0% in both seasons. Also, application of both SBC+KS showed the best results in reducing loss weight (% and decay (%, since kept chlorophyll A and carotenoids content to a long time after cold storage and 5 days during marketing. Dipping fruits, in SBC alone, was more effective to progress fruit firmness. Furthermore, dipping fruits with KS alone decreased juice acidity (% while increasing chlorophyll B, SSC (% and total sugar (% either after cold storage or through marketing.

E.E. EL-Eryan

2014-01-01

130

The effects of acute and chronic sodium bicarbonate supplementation on high-intensity intermittent performance, recovery and subsequent performance in rugby union players  

OpenAIRE

Exogenous ingestion of alkalising agents, such as sodium bicarbonate (SB), has been shown to enhance muscle buffering capacity, thereby delaying the metabolic acidosis associated with high-intensity exercise and potentially improving performance. Aim: The aim of this research was to examine the effects of acute and chronic SB supplementation and a placebo (PLA) on high-intensity intermittent performance, recovery and subsequent performance in trained rugby union players. Methods: This aim was...

Fitzpatrick, Paula

2012-01-01

131

Observation of Radiolytic Field Alteration of the Uranyl Cation in Bicarbonate Solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In previous work we demonstrated that radiolysis of uranyl tris carbonate in near neutral pH to alkaline carbonate solutions, could be followed by 13C NMR. Radiolysis of the complex produced novel uranyl peroxo-carbonate solution state species, whose structures depended on the pH and radiolytic dose rate. In this work, we investigate speciation of the uranyl carbonate trimer which is predominant in bicarbonate solution near pH 5.9. We observe radiolytically derived speciation to different mixed peroxy carbonate species than seen in the higher pH solutions. Auto radiolysis of uranium (VI) carbonate solutions between pH 5.9 and 7.2 is shown to alter the uranium speciation over relatively short periods of time and was followed by 13C NMR and visible spectrophotometry, using dissolved 233(UO2)3(CO3)6 6- both as the radiolysis source (D= 14.9 Gy/hr) and as a trap for the newly formed hydrogen peroxide. Direct addition of hydrogen peroxide to solutions of the uranyl-carbonate trimer is shown to reproduce the 13 C NMR signatures of the complex(es) formed by radiolysis, but additionally a variety of new complexes are revealed. Ratios of H2O2/trimer 1 resulted in formation of stable higher order peroxo carbonate complexes. The 13C NMR signatures and visible spectra of these complexes are described here. Rigorous characterization of the spehere. Rigorous characterization of the species is an ongoing effort

132

Desiliconization of commercial solutions of sodium tungstate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A part of anolyte prepared in the process of soda regeneration from solutions of pressure soda leaching by the method of electrodialysis is proposed to be used for desiliconization of commercial solution of sodium tungstate. The purification technique consists in the anolyte adding in portions to a arbitrary volume of hot pressurized solution during two hour constant mixing up to pH value magnitude from 9 up to 8.5, the following two hour setting at 90 deg C, and filtration. The above purification technique does not introduce additional impurities to a solution used for WO3 separation

133

Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo calves fed different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age [...] and weight were divided into five treatment groups of 12 per group. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated and randomly allocated to a treatment group. The control diet (0SB) contained no NaHCO3, while diets 4SB, 8SB, 12SB and 16SB contained 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6% NaHCO3, respectively. An increase in nutrient intake was recorded with increasing dietary NaHCO3 level while the reverse was true for nutrient digestibility. Calves fed the 12SB and 16SB diets had higher nitrogen retentions than those fed the 0SB and 4SB diets. Significant increases in blood pH, serum HCO3 and urine pH were recorded with increasing NaHCO3 levels, with the highest in calves receiving the 16SB diet. Calves fed the 14SB and 16SB diets gained more weight than those fed the 0SB and 4SB diets. These results indicate that the best nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen retention and weight gain occurred in the calves receiving the diet containing 1.2% NaHCO3.

M, Sarwar; M.A, Shahzad; M, Nisa; S, Amjad.

134

SALT-SENSITIVITY OF BLOOD PRESSURE IS ASSOCIATED WITH POLYMORPHISMS IN THE SODIUM-BICARBONATE CO-TRANSPORTER  

Science.gov (United States)

Past studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter gene (SLC4A5) are associated with hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that SNPs in SLC4A5 are associated with salt-sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) in 185 Caucasians consuming an isocaloric constant diet with a randomized order of 7 days low Na+ (10 mmol/d) and 7 days high Na+ (300 mmol/d) intake. Salt-sensitivity was defined as a ?7mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during a randomized transition between high and low Na+ diet. A total of 35 polymorphisms in 17 candidate genes were assayed, 25 of which were tested for association. Association analyses with salt-sensitivity revealed three variants that associated with salt-sensitivity, two in SLC4A5 (P <0.001), and one in GRK4 (P = 0.020). Of these, two SNPs in SLC4A5 (rs7571842 and rs10177833) demonstrated highly significant results and large effects sizes, using logistic regression. These two SNPs had P values of 1.0×10?4 and 3.1×10?4 with odds ratios of 0.221 and 0.221 in unadjusted regression models, respectively, with the G allele at both sites conferring protection. These SNPs remained significant after adjusting for BMI and age, (P = 8.9×10?5 and 2.6×10?4 and odds ratios 0.210 and 0.286, respectively). Further, the association of these SNPS with salt-sensitivity was replicated in a second hypertensive population. Meta-analysis demonstrated significant associations of both SNPs with salt-sensitivity [rs7571842 (P=1.2×10?5); rs1017783 (P=1.1×10?4)]. In conclusion, SLC4A5 variants are strongly associated with salt-sensitivity of BP in two separate Caucasian populations. PMID:22987918

Carey, Robert M.; Schoeffel, Cynthia D.; Gildea, John J.; Jones, John E.; McGrath, Helen E.; Gordon, Lindsay N.; Park, Min Jeong; Sobota, Rafal S.; Underwood, Patricia C.; Williams, Jonathan; Sun, Bei; Raby, Benjamin; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Hopkins, Paul N.; Adler, Gail K.; Williams, Scott M.; Jose, Pedro A.; Felder, Robin A.

2012-01-01

135

The potential effects of sodium bicarbonate, a major constituent from coalbed natural gas production, on aquatic life  

Science.gov (United States)

The production water from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) extraction contains many constituents. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established aquatic life criteria for some of these constituents, and it is therefore possible to evaluate their risk to aquatic life. However, of the major ions associated with produced waters, chloride is the only one with an established aquatic life criterion (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1988). The focus of this research was NaHCO3, a compound that is a major constituent of coalbed natural gas produced waters in the Tongue and Powder River Basins. This project included laboratory experiments, field in situ experiments, a field mixing zone study, and a fishery presence/absence assessment. Though this investigation focuses on the Tongue and Powder River Basins, the information is applicable to other watersheds where sodium bicarbonate is a principle component of product water either from CBNG or from traditional or unconventional oil and gas development. These data can also be used to separate effects of saline discharges from those potentially posed by other constituents. Finally, this research effort and the additional collaboration with USGS Water Resources and Mapping, Bureau of Land Management, US Environmental Protection Agency, State of Montana, State of Wyoming, Montana State University, University of Wyoming, and others as part of a Powder River Aquatic Task Group, can be used as a model for successful approaches to studying landscapes with energy development. The laboratory acute toxicity experiments were completed with a suite of organisms, including 7 species of fish, 5 species of invertebrates, and 1 amphibian species. Experiments performed on these multiple species resulted in LC50s that ranged from 1,120 to greater than (>) 8,000 milligrams sodium bicarbonate per liter (mg NaHCO3/L) (also defined as 769 to >8,000 milligrams bicarbonate per liter (mg HCO3-/L) or total alkalinity expressed as 608 to >4,181 milligrams calcium carbonate per liter (mg CaCO3/L)) that varied across species and lifestage within a species. The age at which fish were exposed to NaHCO3 significantly affected the severity of toxic responses for some organisms. The chronic toxicity of NaHCO3 was defined in experiments that lasted from 7—60 days post-hatch. For these experiments, sublethal effects such as growth and reproduction, in addition to significant reductions in survival were included in the final determination of effects. Chronic toxicity was observed at concentrations that ranged from 450 to 800mg NaHCO3/L (also defined as 430 to 657 mg HCO3-/L or total alkalinity expressed as 354 to 539 mg CaCO3/L) and the specific concentration depended on the sensitivity of the four species of invertebrates and fish exposed. Sublethal investigations during chronic studies revealed percent decrease in the activity of sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na/K ATPase, an enzyme involved in ionoregulation) and the age of the fish at the onset of the decrease may affect the ability of fathead minnow to survive exposures to NaHCO3. A database of toxicity evaluations of NaHCO3 on aquatic life has been constructed. Using these data, sample acute and chronic criteria of 459 and 381 mg NaHCO3/L, respectively, can be calculated for the protection of aquatic life. The final derivation and implementation of such criteria is, of course, left to the discretion of the concerned management agencies. A combination of in situ experiments, static-renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory, demonstrated that untreated coalbed natural gas (CBNG) product water from the Tongue and Powder River Basins reduces survival of fathead minnow and pallid sturgeon. More precisely, the survival of early-lifestage fathead minnow, especially those less than 6-days post hatch (dph), likely is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO3 rise above 1,500 mg/L. However, age was not a factor for pallid

Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

2012-01-01

136

Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na supplementation did not affect either water intake or water evaporation. This study demonstrates that the development of predictive models for water intake that include environmental variables could be based on mechanistic models of evaporation. PMID:24485695

Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

2014-04-01

137

Volumetric properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Literature data for the volumetric properties of sodium chloride solutions to concentrations of 5.5 molal have been compiled and critically evaluated. A semi-empirical equation of the same type found to be effective in describing the thermal properties of NaCl solutions has been used to reproduce the volumetric data from O 0C to 300 0C and 1 bar to 1000 bar. Tables of values are given for the specific volume, expansivity, and compressibility. Equations also are given for calculating the pressure dependence of the free energy, enthalpy, and heat capacity. These equations can be combined with a treatment of thermal properties to form a complete equation of state for sodium chloride solutions

138

The thermodynamics and kinetics of uranophane dissolution in bicarbonate test solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of a synthetic uranophane (Ca(H3O)2(UO2)2(SiO4)2 smbullet3H2O) have been determined from dissolution experiments in test solutions of different bicarbonate concentrations at 25 C. The experiments were performed using batch and continuously stirred tank flow-through reactors. From the experimental data obtained with the batch reactor the solubility constant for the reaction: Ca(H3O)2(UO2)2(SiO4)2smbullet 3H2O + 6H3O+ Leftrightarrow Ca+2 + 2UO+22 + 2H4SiO4 + 11H2O was determined to be log K0s0 = 11.7 ± 0.6 and the rate equation for the dissolution process is log rdissol (mol/s m2) = minus8.3 (±0.6) + 0.7 (±0.3) log [HCO-3]. By using the continuously stirred tank flow-through reactor the authors obtained a rate equation in reasonably good agreement with that obtained in the batch reactor: log rdissol (mol/s m2) = minus9.2 (±0.4) + 0.7 (±0.2) log [HCO-3

139

Photochemical americium (3) oxidation by BrO3-, ClO3-, IO3- ions in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is found that BrO3- ion is a new active photochemical oxidizer of americium in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions. Under UV light exposure few minutes are required to achieve quantitative oxidation of Am (3) up to Am (4) in the solutions containing bromate-ions, americium (3) (its concentration amounted up to 10-3 mol/l) and mixture of bicarbonate-carbonate ions in a certain ratio (pH - from 8.4 up to 10.5) and joint concentration exceeding 1 mol/l. Depending on the conditions, the reaction quantum yield constitute 20-30 %. Oxidation proceeds following the zero order, as regards americium. In carbonate solutions which do not contain bicarbonate-ions, americium is quantitatively oxidized by bromate to the hexavalent state. Chlorate- and iodate-ions can oxidize americium only partially to the tetravalent state in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions and can not oxidize to the hexavalent state in carbonate solutions

140

The effect of sodium bicarbonate as an abrasive media on ferrous and non-ferrous metal surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of bicarbonate ions on the surface of carbon steel, aluminium and copper has been investigated using corrosion analyzer. The corrosion rate of samples due to corrosion action, under static conditions at room temperature has been obtained from the current response using Faradays law. The degree of bicarbonate ions attack was referred to the corrosion rate of each sample. The significant resistance to corrosion and the outstanding stability of the corrosion resistance shows that the excellent performances of the carbon steel over that of aluminium and copper. From the results obtained show that the bicarbonate ions were not attacked on the surface of carbon steel but slightly attacked on the aluminium and copper surfaces. (Author)

141

Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin, Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets  

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Full Text Available Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20% or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14% was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg, three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg. Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2, and increased body weight (Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.

Hooge DM

2000-01-01

142

Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate / Atributos metabólicos, produtividade e estabilidade do leite em vacas Jersey alimentadas com dietas com citrato de sódio e bicarbonato de sódio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a inclusão de citrato de sódio e de bicarbonato de sódio na dieta de vacas lactantes Jersey e seus efeitos sobre os atributos metabólicos, a produtividade e a estabilidade do leite. Foram avaliados o pH urinário, os níveis sanguíneos de glicose e ureia, o peso e [...] o escore de condição corporal, a produção e a estabilidade do leite (teste do álcool) e as propriedades físico?químicas do leite de 17 vacas, alimentadas com dietas com citrato de sódio (100 g por vaca por dia), bicarbonato de sódio (40 g por vaca por dia) ou sem aditivos. As avaliações foram feitas no 28º e 44º dias. O fornecimento de citrato ou de bicarbonato de sódio não influencia os atributos metabólicos, a produtividade, o peso e o escore de condição corporal das vacas, nem a composição ou a estabilidade do leite. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body con [...] dition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test), and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day), sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day) or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

Marcelo Tempel, Stumpf; Vivian, Fischer; Giovani Jacob, Kolling; Maira Balbinotti, Zanela; Maria Edi Rocha, Ribeiro; Alexandre Süsenbach de, Abreu.

2013-05-01

143

Oscillating reactions Am(VI)?Am(V) observing during ozonization of Am(OH)3 suspension in bicarbonate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the case of continuous ozonization of Am(III) hydroxide suspension in bicarbonate solutions Am(VI)?Am(V) oscillating reactions are detected. It is shown that 241Am change for 243Am does not result in change of character and parameters of oscillating process. It is proposed that basic source of generation of reducing agents in the system is ozone decomposition with following formation of hydroperoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide which partially reduce Am(VI) in solution. It is shown that maximal Am(VI) yield during ozonization decreases significantly with initial americium content increase

144

EFFECT OF LEACHING ON SOIL IRRIGATED WITH SODIUM BICARBONATE WATER APPLIED BY DRIP IRRIGATION, WITH TWO IRRIGATION AND NITRATE TREATMENTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasing demands on high quality water supplies means that agriculture must evaluate use of lower quality waters for irrigation. Saline waters are often high in nitrate concentrations, and in some instances may contain elevated concentrations of bicarbonates and high pH. In this study we examined ...

145

Hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio não previne a nefropatia de contraste: ensaio clínico multicêntrico / Hydration with sodium bicarbonate does not prevent contrast nephropathy: a multicenter clinical trial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: A exposição ao meio de contraste radiográfico pode causar comprometimento agudo da função renal. Há evidências limitadas e conflitantes de que a hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio previne a Nefropatia Induzida por Contraste (NIC) em pacientes submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. OBJETIVO: [...] O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar se o bicarbonato de sódio é superior à hidratação com soro fisiológico para evitar a nefropatia em pacientes de risco submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. MÉTODOS: Trezentos e um pacientes submetidos a intervenção coronariana percutânea ou angiografia coronariana com creatinina sérica > 1,2 mg/dL ou Taxa de Filtração Glomerular (TFG) Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Radiographic contrast media exposition can cause acute renal function impairment. There is limited and conflicting evidence that hydration with sodium bicarbonate prevents contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. OBJECTIVE: The present study was [...] aimed at determining whether sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline to prevent nephropathy in patients at risk undergoing cardiac catheterization. METHODS: Three hundred and one patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention with serum creatinine > 1.2mg/dL or glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

Vitor O., Gomes; Ricardo, Lasevitch; Valter C., Lima; Fábio S., Brito Jr.; Juan Carlos, Perez-Alva; Bruno, Moulin; Airton, Arruda; Denise, Oliveira; Paulo, Caramori.

1129-11-01

146

Intraocular Irrigating Solutions. A Clinical Study of BSS Plus ® and Dextrose Bicarbonate Fortified BSS ® as an Infusate during Pars Plana Vitrectomy.  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the effect of Balanced Salt Solution Plus (BSS Plus, Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA and fortified regular BSS on the cornea and lens, when used for continuous irrigation in pars plana vitrectomy (PPV surgery. Methods: Prospective, investigator masked, randomised study. Forty patients were randomly assigned to undergo PPV using BSS Plus (n=20 or fortified BSS (n=20 [regular BSS, fortified with 10.5 cc. of dextrose in water (D5W and 13.1cc. of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate]. Intraoperative features of the corneal epithelium, postoperative changes in the corneal endothelial cell denstiy (ECD at 3 months, and clarity of the lens during surgery and postoperatively were evaluated. Results: Intraoperative epithelial changes were similar in both groups with 7 (35% of the cases having the epithelium removed in the BSS Plus group and 8 (40% in the BSS fortified group (P=0.23. The mean differences in ECD (3 months versus preoperative in the operated eyes when adjusted for changes in the control eye showed no difference with the type of BSS (P=0.98. Intraoperative lens changes were more significant (P=0.018 in the BSS fortified group. Postoperative lens status at 3 months was similar for both groups. Though there was a trend towards worse postoperative nuclear sclerosis change in the BSS fortified group, it was not significant (P=0.160. Conclusion: Standard BSS fortified with dextrose and bicarbonate is an efficacious infusion fluid during pars plana vitrectomy. Both solutions showed comparable effects on postoperative corneal endothelial cell density and corneal epithelial changes intraoperatively. BSS fortified has more lenticular changes intraoperatively than BSS Plus although no lens had to be removed in either group. The study implications are important since BSS fortified is significantly less expensive than BSS Plus.

Samuel Michael

2003-01-01

147

Substituição de monensina sódica por bicarbonato de sódio em dietas de novilhas confinadas / Evaluation of the replacement of Monensin with Sodium Bicarbonate in diets for confined bovines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os efeitos da substituição da monensina sódica pelo bicarbonato de sódio em dietas de novilhas em confinamento em relação ao desempenho animal, à conversão alimentar e ao parâmetro de fermentação ruminal. Foram utilizadas 56 novilhas mestiças, confinadas por 112 dias, submetidas a dieta [...] s com duas porcentagens de concentrado, 50% e 80% da matéria seca, com adição de monensina sódica ou bicarbonato de sódio, em fatorial 2x2. O volumoso utilizado para compor as dietas testadas foi composto de silagem de milho e cana-de-açúcar na proporção de 60:40, respectivamente. O nitrogênio amoniacal foi maior nos animais alimentos com dietas com alto grão. A monensina, na dieta 80:20, proporcionou maiores valores de nitrogênio amoniacal, uma e nove horas após o consumo da ração. O uso de bicarbonato promoveu os maiores valores de pH ruminal na dieta com 50% de concentrado, de seis a 18 horas após o consumo. Não houve efeito do aditivo sobre o desempenho animal. A alta inclusão de grãos na dieta propiciou aumento do desempenho animal e da eficiência alimentar. Conclui-se que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio em dietas para terminação de animais em confinamento é uma opção viável em substituição à monensina sódica para a manipulação da fermentação ruminal. Abstract in english The effects of replacing monensin with sodium bicarbonate in diets for confined heifers on weight gain (WG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed:gain ratio (FGR) and rumen fermentation parameters were evaluated. Fifity six heifers were utilized (Santa Gertrudis x Braunvieh). Diets were formulated with two [...] levels of concentrate (50% and 80% concentrate) with sodium monensin or sodium bicarbonate. The DMI was higest in heifers with an intake of 80% concentrate. There was not difference when the same concentrate levels were evaluated in relation to the DMI. The heifers at 80% concentrate showed highest WG. There was no significant difference in relation to WG between monensin and bicarbonate treatments and levels concentrate proportions. There were significant effects regarding FGR between treatments. The heifers on 80% concentrate showed lowest FGR. In the evaluation of N-NH3, the highest values were observed, on the whole, at 80:20 diets in relation to 50:50 diets. In the additive use, the monensin on 80:20 diets promoted the highest values of N-NH3 at 1 for 9 hours after feed intake. In the values of ruminal pH, the bicarbonate increased the values on 50:50 at 6 for18 hours after feed intake, in relation to the 80:20 diet. In this case, it was concluded that the use of sodium bicarbonate in diets for confined finishing heifers is a viable option for the replacement of monensin sodium.

A.P., Oliveira; R.A., Reis; L.M.A., Bertipaglia; G.M.P., Melo; T.T., Berchielli; J.A., Oliveira; D.R., Casagrande; M.A.A., Balsalobre.

1149-11-01

148

Thermal conductivity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents new absolute measurements of the thermal conductivity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions with the transient coated-hot-wire technique. The data cover the range 295--365 K at pressure slightly above the vapor pressures and a concentration range of 0--6 mol/kg. The instrument is able to measure the thermal conductivity with a precision and reproducibility better than [+-]0.2%, and a comparison of the present results with data available in the literature indicates that the accuracy of the present data is better than [+-]0.5%. An empirical correlation that reproduces the data within the claimed accuracy is given.

Ramires, M.L.V.; Nieto De Castro, C.A. (Univ. de Lisbon, Lisboa (Portugal). Dept. de Quimica); Fareleira, J.M.N.A. (Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica); Wakeham, W.A. (Imperial Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology)

1994-01-01

149

Evaluation of the efficacy of oral rehydration solutions using human whole gut perfusion.  

OpenAIRE

Whole gut perfusion in humans was used to compare the effect on intestinal water and electrolyte transport of the World Health Organisation oral rehydration solution (solution II, composition in mmol/l: glucose 111, sodium 90, bicarbonate 30, potassium 20; 308 mOsm/kg); a hypertonic commercial oral rehydration solution (solution III, glucose 188, sodium 50, bicarbonate 20, potassium 20 mmol/l; 335 mOsm/kg); and three experimental bicarbonate free, hypotonic oral rehydration solutions: solutio...

Rolston, D. D.; Zinzuvadia, S. N.; Mathan, V. I.

1990-01-01

150

Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000?mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3?), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000?mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300?mg/L HCO3?. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989?mg/L, 1120?mg/L, 1249?mg/L, and 1430?mg/L NaHCO3, or 699?mg/L, 844?mg/L, 831?mg/L, and 1038?mg/L HCO3?. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3? compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24?h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3?.

Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

2014-01-01

151

Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3(-). The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3(-). Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3(-) compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3(-). This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24504922

Harper, David D; Farag, Aïda M; Skaar, Don

2014-03-01

152

BIOKID: Randomized controlled trial comparing bicarbonate and lactate buffer in biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions in children [ISRCTN81137991  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD is the preferred dialysis modality in children. Its major drawback is the limited technique survival due to infections and progressive ultrafiltration failure. Conventional PD solutions exert marked acute and chronic toxicity to local tissues. Prolonged exposure is associated with severe histopathological alterations including vasculopathy, neoangiogenesis, submesothelial fibrosis and a gradual loss of the mesothelial cell layer. Recently, more biocompatible PD solutions containing reduced amounts of toxic glucose degradation products (GDPs and buffered at neutral pH have been introduced into clinical practice. These solutions contain lactate, bicarbonate or a combination of both as buffer substance. Increasing evidence from clinical trials in adults and children suggests that the new PD fluids may allow for better long-term preservation of peritoneal morphology and function. However, the relative importance of the buffer in neutral-pH, low-GDP fluids is still unclear. In vitro, lactate is cytotoxic and vasoactive at the concentrations used in PD fluids. The BIOKID trial is designed to clarify the clinical significance of the buffer choice in biocompatible PD fluids. Methods/design The objective of the study is to test the hypothesis that bicarbonate based PD solutions may allow for a better preservation of peritoneal transport characteristics in children than solutions containing lactate buffer. Secondary objectives are to assess any impact of the buffer system on acid-base status, peritoneal tissue integrity and the incidence and severity of peritonitis. After a run-in period of 2 months during which a targeted cohort of 60 patients is treated with a conventional, lactate buffered, acidic, GDP containing PD fluid, patients will be stratified according to residual renal function and type of phosphate binding medication and randomized to receive either the lactate-containing Balance solution or the bicarbonate-buffered Bicavera® solution for a period of 10 months. Patients will be monitored by monthly physical and laboratory examinations. Peritoneal equilibration tests, 24-h dialysate and urine collections will be performed 4 times. Peritoneal biopsies will be obtained on occasion of intraabdominal surgery. Changes in small solute transport rates, markers of peritoneal tissue turnover in the effluent, acid-base status and peritonitis rates and severity will be analyzed.

Misselwitz Joachim

2004-10-01

153

The variation of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate concentration, pH and conductivity in groundwater of Karachi region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater in Karachi is influenced mainly by the evaporation / crystallization process as expressed by the Na/(Na+Ca) weight concentration ratio. The high coefficient of determined between conductivity and total dissolved ions concentration in meq/sup -1/ revealed that major ions affect the conductivity of groundwater. It was also found that groundwater quality with respect to cations is not significantly influenced by geology, particularly in the Urban are of the city, where the 90% of the population resides. The relationship between conductivity and bicarbonate concentration shows that supersaturation of groundwater with carbon dioxide is responsible for general depression of pH. (author)

154

Effect of enteric coated sodium bicarbonate, enzymes and bile combination on the absorption of fat in chronic pancreatitis  

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Full Text Available The effects of (A H2-receptor antagonist (ranitidine and enzyme preparation with bile constituents (Digestal forte, (B Digestal forte and NaHCO3, (C NaHCO3 alone, or (D Digestal forte alone, on the increase of lipolysis, were studied in a double-blind, randomized, prospective, controlled cross-over study in 10 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP and steatorrhea. All preparations were enteric-coated tablets except ranitidine. The 14C triolein breath test was used to monitor the lipolytic effect of the regimens, the parameter for the efficacy assessment being cumulative recover (CR of 14CO2 after 6 hours. Before the treatment patients underwent the same test procedure. The regimen B produced significantly higher increase in CR, as compared to other regimens (p<0.01. A, B and D regimens induced a significant increase in CR compared to baseline CR (p<0.01, while regimen C had no effect (p>0.05. No differences were observed between the regimes A and D (p>0.05. The results showed that exogenous lipolytic action of Digestal forte remained unaffected by ranitidine (p>0.05. This study suggests that the adding of bicarbonate with Digestal forte may play an important role in the regulation of lypolysis in these patients. Key words: Chronic pancreatitis, enzyme substitution, bicarbonate, ranitidine

. Vukovic M., Jojic N.

2007-03-01

155

Np(V)/Np(IV) in concentrated carbonate/bicarbonate solutions; Np(V)/Np(IV) en solutions carbonate/bicarbonate concentrees  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solution of Np(V) is electrolysed to Np(IV) at -2.0 V/SHE. -1g(H{sup +}) is decreased from 10.4 to 7.2 by bubbling CO{sub 2} in these solutions, where Np(IV) spectra can be interpreted with the only lost of one CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} anion from the Np(IV) limiting complex. From these spectral changes, the following parameters are fitted: 20.5 {+-} 2.1, 8.44 {+-} 0.9 and 28.9 {+-} 2.9 l/mol./cm for the Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}{sup 6-} molar absorptivity at 823, 990 and 1013 nm respectively, and 54.5 {+-} 5.5, 40.6 {+-} 4.1 and 8.53 {+-} 0.9 for the Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 4-} ones, and log((Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}{sup 6-}) / ((Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 4}{sup 4-})(CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}))) = 1.47 {+-} 0.08, 1.63 {+-} 0.05, 1.80 {+-} 0.04, 1.79 {+-} 0.10 and 2.21 {+-} 0.03 at the half point reaction in initially 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. These values are extrapolated to 0 ionic strength by using the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT). The redox potential of 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions of Np(V) and Np(IV) mixtures, is stable usually after three hours at T from 5 to 60 deg C, and then for up to three weeks at 21.5 deg C. At 25 deg C, its values are 0.247, 0.234, 0.244 and 0.228 V/SEH in 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} solutions. When the tonic strength is equal to 0: E = 0.52 {+-} 0.1 V/SEH and {Delta}S/F = -1.1 {+-} 0.7 mV. deg C{sup -1}. Assuming this potential is controlled by the NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup 5-} + 2 CO{sub 2} + e{sup -} {r_reversible} Np(CO{sub 3}){sub 5}{sup 6-} equilibrium, the formation constant of the limiting complex is deduced by using published values of the other needed equilibria: log {Beta}{sub 5}{sup d}eg = 38 {+-} 4. Qualitative results on the preparation and on the spectra of Np(IV) are used to explain the apparent contradictions between some published results. (authors). 39 refs., figs., tabs.

Delmau, L.H.; Vitorge, P.; Capdevila, H.

1996-01-01

156

Stability of Ceftiofur Sodium and Cefquinome Sulphate in Intravenous Solutions  

OpenAIRE

Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions was studied. Chromatographic separation and quantitative determination were performed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-DAD detection. During the stability study, poly(vinylchloride) minibags were filled with a solution containing 5?mg of ceftiofur sodium or cefquinome sulphate and diluted to 0.2?mg/mL with suitable intravenous solution depending on the test conditions. The solutions for...

Agnieszka Do?ha?; Ska, Anna Jeli X.; Benek, Marcelina B. X.

2014-01-01

157

Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with N-acetylcysteine or sodium bicarbonate in patients with ST-segment-myocardial infarction : a prospective, randomized, open-labeled trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious condition in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We compared the risk of acute CIN and the influence of preventive strategies in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 720 patients were randomized in the Prevention of Contrast-induced Nephropathy in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (CINSTEMI) trial. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive hydration with sodium chloride together with 1 of 4 prophylactic regimes (1) N-acetylcysteine (NAC), (2) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) infusion, (3) NAC in combination with NaHCO3, or (4) hydration with sodium chloride infusion alone. Patients in cardiogenic shock were excluded. Acute CIN was defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration >25% from the baseline value within a 3-day period. Overall, CIN occurred in 141 (21.9%) patients. The prevention treatment with NAC, NaHCO3, or the combined NAC and NaHCO3 did not reduce the rate of CIN significantly compared with hydration with intravenous sodium chloride infusion alone (20.1% versus 20.1% versus 20.8% versus 26.5%; P=NS). However, an increase in serum creatinine >25% from the baseline value to 30 day was significantly lower in patients treated with combined NAC and NaHCO3 (18.7% versus 19.1% versus 9.2% versus 21.3%; P=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with NAC or NaHCO3 did not reduce the rate of acute CIN significantly. Combined treatment with NAC and NaHCO3 may reduce the risk of renal dysfunction after 30 days. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01160627.

Thayssen, Per; Lassen, Jens Flensted

2014-01-01

158

Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy With N-Acetylcysteine or Sodium Bicarbonate in Patients With ST-Segment-Myocardial Infarction : A Prospective, Randomized, Open-Labeled Trial  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious condition in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. We compared the risk of acute CIN and the influence of preventive strategies in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 720 patients were randomized in the Prevention of Contrast-induced Nephropathy in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (CINSTEMI) trial. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive hydration with sodium chloride together with 1 of 4 prophylactic regimes (1) N-acetylcysteine (NAC), (2) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) infusion, (3) NAC in combination with NaHCO3, or (4) hydration with sodium chloride infusion alone. Patients in cardiogenic shock were excluded. Acute CIN was defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration >25% from the baseline value within a 3-day period. Overall, CIN occurred in 141 (21.9%) patients. The prevention treatment with NAC, NaHCO3, or the combined NAC and NaHCO3 did not reduce the rate of CIN significantly compared with hydration with intravenous sodium chloride infusion alone (20.1% versus 20.1% versus 20.8% versus 26.5%; P=NS). However, an increase in serum creatinine >25% from the baseline value to 30 day was significantly lower in patients treated with combined NAC and NaHCO3 (18.7% versus 19.1% versus 9.2% versus 21.3%; P=0.033). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with NAC or NaHCO3 did not reduce the rate of acute CIN significantly. Combined treatment with NAC and NaHCO3 may reduce the risk of renal dysfunction after 30 days. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01160627.

Thayssen, Per; Lassen, Jens Flensted

2014-01-01

159

Better preservation of peritoneal morphologic features and defense in rats after long-term exposure to a bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-term effects of a standard lactate-buffered dialysis fluid and a new, two-chamber, bicarbonate/lactate-buffered dialysis fluid (with fewer glucose degradation products and a neutral pH) were compared in an in vivo peritoneal exposure model. Rats were given daily injections, via an access port, of 10 ml of standard solution or bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution for 9 to 10 wk. The omentum, peritoneum, and mesothelial cell layer were screened for morphologic changes. In addition, the bacterial clearing capacity of the peritoneal cells was studied. Significantly more milky spots and blood vessels were observed in the omenta of animals treated with standard solution (P < 0.03 for both parameters). Electron-microscopic analysis demonstrated dramatic changes in the appearance of the vascular endothelial cells of the milky spots and a severely damaged or even absent mesothelium on the peritoneal membrane of the standard solution-treated animals. In contrast, the mesothelium was still present in the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, although the cells lost microvilli. Both peritoneal dialysis fluids significantly increased the density of mesothelial cells (per square millimeter) on the surface of the liver and the thickness of the submesothelial extracellular matrix of the peritoneum (both P < 0.04 for both fluids versus control). A significantly better ex vivo bacterial clearing capacity was observed with peritoneal cells from the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, compared with the standard solution group (P < 0.05 in both experiments). These results demonstrate that instillation of bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution into rats for 9 to 10 wk preserves both morphologic and immune parameters much more effectively, compared with standard solution. These findings may be of considerable clinical importance. PMID:11729248

Hekking, L H; Zareie, M; Driesprong, B A; Faict, D; Welten, A G; de Greeuw, I; Schadee-Eestermans, I L; Havenith, C E; van den Born, J; ter Wee, P M; Beelen, R H

2001-12-01

160

Use of saturated sodium chloride solution as a tissue fixative  

OpenAIRE

The present study was carried out to examine the capability of saturated sodium chloride solution as a fixative agent instead of formalin which is regarded as a carcinogenic material. For this purpose 3 rabbits were used and their livers, kidneys and spleens were exposed and removed. Neutral buffered formalin solution, saturated sodium chloride solution and distilled water were used as fixatives for specimens obtained from the first, second and third rabbits respectively. Routine histological...

Al-saraj, A.

2010-01-01

161

Use of saturated sodium chloride solution as a tissue fixative  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the capability of saturated sodium chloride solution as a fixative agent instead of formalin which is regarded as a carcinogenic material. For this purpose 3 rabbits were used and their livers, kidneys and spleens were exposed and removed. Neutral buffered formalin solution, saturated sodium chloride solution and distilled water were used as fixatives for specimens obtained from the first, second and third rabbits respectively. Routine histological technique was performed to prepare a stained histological sections for light microscopic examination. The result showed that the tissue sections which were obtained by using sodium chloride have the same histological features and without any artifacts when they compared with the results obtained using formalin fixation method. We conclude that the saturated sodium chloride solution can be used as a fixative agent in some circumstances when no any fixative agent is available.

A. Al-Saraj

2010-01-01

162

Process for uranium and radium removal from carbonated and/or bicarbonated uraniferous solutions by addition of aluminium salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Processing of carbonated uraniferous solution for disposal in environment is obtained by addition in a 1st step of calcium hydroxide until pH 12, in a 2nd step of acid until pH 4 and in a 3 rd step of an aluminium salt (for example) sodium aluminate for the precipitation and adsorption of uranium in solution. The final solution contains up to 1.8 mg/l of uranium and a pH value between 5.5 and 8.5

163

Influence of sodium bicarbonate and monensin on utilization of a fat-supplemented, high-energy growing-finishing diet by feedlot steers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two feedlot growth performance trials and a metabolism trial were conducted to evaluate the relationship between monensin (MON) and sodium bicarbonate (BICARB) supplementation on utilization of a high-energy diet by finishing steers. Two levels of MON (0 and 33 mg/kg of diet) and two levels of BICARB (0 and .75% DM) were compared in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The basal diet contained 75% steam-flaked corn, 4% yellow grease, and 12% forage (DM basis). There were no interactions between supplemental BICARB and MON on feedlot growth performance or characteristics of ruminal and total tract digestion. With either crossbred or Holstein steers there were no treatment effects (P > .10) on ADG, DM intake, feed efficiency, or NE value of the diet. The BICARB did not influence (P > .10) ruminal or total tract digestion of OM, ADF, starch, and N, ruminal pH, or ruminal VFA molar proportions. Monensin decreased (6.6%, P .10). Monensin decreased ruminal molar proportions of acetate (5.3%, P > .10) and butyrate (29.4%, P < .05) and increased molar proportions of propionate (16.3%, P < .10). Coupled with reduced ruminal OM fermentation, the increase in molar proportions of propionate caused a decrease in ruminal methane energy loss and increased diet ME (2.7%, P < .05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8384194

Zinn, R A; Borques, J L

1993-01-01

164

The origin of recharge waters and their evolution into effervescent sodium-bicarbonate groundwater from the Ballimore region, central New South Wales: oxygen and hydrogen isotope data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oxygen-18 and deuterium stable isotopic data were used to investigate the origin of water recharging the Ballimore region's groundwater system. The sodium-bicarbonate-rich groundwater (soda-water) is of meteoric origin with both ?18O and ?D values being shifted to the left of Global Meteoric Water Line. This shift is linked to the influx of mixed mantle-magmatic CO2 gas: the ?18O depletion in the soda-water is interpreted to result from isotopic exchange between groundwater and CO2 gas. The local flow system is shown to be open to the influx of CO2 with the gas being of mixed mantle-magmatic origin. The more saline Na-HCO3 groundwaters have the lowest ?18O and ?D values. Additionally weathering of aluminosilicates and precipitation of kaolinite further depletes the groundwater in both ?18O and D. The stable isotope data support the interpreted major ion chemical processes and ?13C data show that fractionation related to CO2 gas exchange produces groundwater with depleted ?18O and ?D values

165

The Structure and Spectroscopy of Cyanate and Bicarbonate Ions. Astrophysical Implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanate and bicarbonate are two ions that play active roles in many fields of physics and chemistry, including biological sciences and astrochemistry. We present here a comprehensive study of these species covering a range of phases and methodologies. We have performed theoretical calculations on the isolated ions and their hydrates with one to four water molecules, and in clusters with 15 water molecules. The predicted infrared spectra are compared with observed spectra from experiments where liquid droplets of their solutions are frozen at 14 K on a substrate, to mimic some astrophysical conditions. Crystals of cyanate and bicarbonate sodium and potassium salts are also studied experimental and theoretically. As well, the spontaneous decomposition of cyanate into bicarbonate is documented from the spectra of an aged solution. Finally, the possible astrophysical observation of bicarbonate in water-containing particles is discussed.

Moreno, M. A.; Maté, B.; Rodríguez-Lazcano, Y.; Gálvez, O.; Gómez, P. C.; Herrero, V. J.; Escribano, R.

2013-10-01

166

The radiation induced chemistry of uranyl cation in aqueous carbonate ?bicarbonate solutions as followed by NMR spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alpha radiation induced formation of hydrogen peroxide in carbonate ?bicarbonate media was followed by 13C NMR using dissolved [233UO2(13CO3)3]4- as the alpha source (Dalpha= 12.1 Gy/hr). Between the pH region between 5.9 and 11.6 hydrogen peroxide causes a varied speciation of the uranyl carbonates that is a function of the uranium, carbonate and the hydrogen peroxide concentrations. It is shown that the speciation of the peroxy carbonates (or other species) formed in solution by titration with hydrogen peroxide are common to those formed by hydrogen peroxide generated by radiolysis. The radiolysis experiment was carried out above pH = 9.96 to minimize the loss of 13CO2 over a 2800 hr period. Radiolytic generation of hydrogen peroxide was followed by formation of a uranyl peroxy carbonate complex and complex formation accelerated for about 1200 hours. Complex formation was observed to terminate at a concentration between 1x10-4 and 5x10-4 M. It is assumed that either a steady state H2O2 production rate was established in solution or that some limiting feature of the experiment was responsible for slowing the yield of product

167

The reaction of sodium with urania-ceria solid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study of the reaction between sodium and urania-ceria solid solutions has been performed over the range of ceria concentrations in the solid solutions of 3 to 80 mol.% at temperatures up to 8000C. The reaction product formed in the quaternary system could not be identified as either of the compounds Na3UO4 or NaCeO2, the phases in equilibrium with liquid sodium in the corresponding oxide ternary systems. It is suggested that compounds of the type Nasub(2-z)MO3 (M = Usub(1-x)Cesub(x)) are formed which are in equilibrium with sodium and a reduced oxide solid solution. The value of z increases with increasing Ce concentrations and the Ce/(U + Ce) ratio in the product and reduced oxide phase is the same as in the original oxide solid solution. The threshold cerium valency for the reaction is the 3+ state. (orig.)

168

Tetragonal Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Solubility in Sodium Chloride Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

The solubility of chicken egg white lysozyme, crystallized in the tetragonal form was measured in sodium chloride solutions from 1.6 to 30.7 C, using a miniature column solubility apparatus. Sodium chloride solution concentrations ranged from 1 to 7% (w/v). The solutions were buffered with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with the solubility being measured at pH values in 0.2 pH unit increments in the range pH 4.0 to 5.4, with data also included at pH 4.5. Lysozyme solubility was found to increase with increases in temperature and decreasing salt concentration. Solution pH has a varied and unpredictable effect on solubility.

Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

1998-01-01

169

Photochemical oxidation of americium(3) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions in the presence of hypobromite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Americium(3) oxidation under effect of ultraviolet and visible light in HCO3-+CO32- solutions containing 0.05-11 mmol/l of BrO- is studied using spectrophotometry. In 1.5 mol/l solutions of M2CO3 (where M = Na, K) (pH 8.4-10.5) quantitative oxidation of Am(3) up to Am(4) occurs during several minutes. Oxidation occurs according to zero order relatively to Am(3) and according to the first order relatively to BrO-. Oxidation rate reduces with CO3- concentration growth. In 0.9-1.5 mol/l solution of M2CO3 Am(3) oxidizes quantitatively up to Am(6), in 4.00-5.88 mol/l solutions of K2CO3 americium oxidation remains at the stage of Am(4) formation. Am(4) gradually disappears in the second order reaction. The rate of disappearance increases abruptly with growth of pH from 10-up to 12. 9 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

170

Electrochemical Studies on Silicate and Bicarbonate Ions for Corrosion Inhibitors  

Science.gov (United States)

Several types of carbon and high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels are being considered for use in the underground reinforcement of the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. In this study, potentiodynamic polarization under reducing conditions was used to determine the corrosion rates (CRs) and passivity behavior of AISI 4340 steel using different combinations of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), in both pure water (PW) and simulated seawater (SW, 3.5 pct NaCl). These experiments were carried out to examine the potential inhibiting properties of the silicate or bicarbonate ions on the surface of the steel. The addition of sodium silicate to solution reduced the observed CR at room temperature to 19 ?m/y at 0.005 M concentration and 7 ?m/y at 0.025 M concentration in PW. The addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the CR from 84 ?m/y (C = 0.1 M) to 455 ?m/y (C = 1 M). These same behaviors were also observed at higher temperatures.

Mohorich, Michael E.; Lamb, Joshua; Chandra, Dhanesh; Daemen, Jaak; Rebak, Raul B.

2010-10-01

171

Sodium carbonate-bicarbonate leaching of a New Mexico uranium ore and removal of long half-life radionuclides from the leach residue  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study demonstrates the possibility to develop an efficient carbonate-bicarbonate leaching process for the extraction of uranium from a low-grade ore. In this process uranium extraction is coupled with the removal of radionuclides from the leach residue to yield environmentally safe and radiochemically innocuous tailings. Radionuclides are concentrated in small volumes and stored under controlled containment until uses for the radioisotopes are found. The influence of leach parameters Na2CO3, NaHCO3, pulp density, agitation, temperature and oxygen pressure was assessed. Uranium extractions as high as 96% were obtained at atmospheric air pressure with leach suspensions containing 20% pulp density at 750C in 2 h of leaching and at 1700 kPa oxygen pressure with 10% pulp density leach suspensions at 750C in 1.5 h. The activation energy was calculated to be ?Esub(a) = 18.8 kJ mol-1, which suggests a diffusion-controlled mechanism for uranium extraction. Using leach residues of carbonate leaching and brine solutions containing HCl and CaCl2, the highest extraction of radionuclides was approximately 79% of Th-230, 91% of Ra-226 and 69% of Pb-210. The selective extraction of Ra-226 from the brine-containing leach solution was demonstrated with barium-loaded organic solid ion exchangers. (orig.)

172

Np(V)/Np(IV) in concentrated carbonate/bicarbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 1.5 M Na2CO3 solution of Np(V) is electrolysed to Np(IV) at -2.0 V/SHE. -1g(H+) is decreased from 10.4 to 7.2 by bubbling CO2 in these solutions, where Np(IV) spectra can be interpreted with the only lost of one CO32- anion from the Np(IV) limiting complex. From these spectral changes, the following parameters are fitted: 20.5 ± 2.1, 8.44 ± 0.9 and 28.9 ± 2.9 l/mol./cm for the Np(CO3)56- molar absorptivity at 823, 990 and 1013 nm respectively, and 54.5 ± 5.5, 40.6 ± 4.1 and 8.53 ± 0.9 for the Np(CO3)44- ones, and log((Np(CO3)56-) / ((Np(CO3)44-)(CO32-))) = 1.47 ± 0.08, 1.63 ± 0.05, 1.80 ± 0.04, 1.79 ± 0.10 and 2.21 ± 0.03 at the half point reaction in initially 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 M Na2CO3 solutions. These values are extrapolated to 0 ionic strength by using the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT). The redox potential of 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na2CO3 solutions of Np(V) and Np(IV) mixtures, is stable usually after three hours at T from 5 to 60 deg C, and then for up to three weeks at 21.5 deg C. At 25 deg C, its values are 0.247, 0.234, 0.244 and 0.228 V/SEH in 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na2CO3 solutions. When the tonic strength is equal to 0: E = 0.52 ± 0.1 V/SEH and ?S/F = -1.1 ± 0.7 mV. deg C-1. Assuming this potential is controlled by the NpO2(CO3)35- + 2 CO2 + e- ? Np(CO3)56- equilibrium, the formation constant of the limiting complex is deduced by using published values of the other needed equilibria: log ?5deg = 38 ± 4. Qualitative results on the preparation and on the spectra of Np(IV) are used to explain the apparent contradictions between some published results. (authors). 39 refs., figs., tabs

173

Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions was studied. Chromatographic separation and quantitative determination were performed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-DAD detection. During the stability study, poly(vinylchloride) minibags were filled with a solution containing 5 mg of ceftiofur sodium or cefquinome sulphate and diluted to 0.2 mg/mL with suitable intravenous solution depending on the test conditions. The solutions for the study were protected from light and stored at room temperature (22°C), refrigerated (6°C), frozen (-20°C) for 30 days, and then thawed at room temperature. A comparison of results obtained at 22°C and 6°C for the same intravenous solutions showed that temperature as well as components of solutions and their concentration had an influence on the stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate. It was found that ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate dissolved in intravenous solutions used in this study may be stored at room temperature and at 6°C for up to 48 h. PMID:25025091

Do?ha?, Agnieszka; Jeli?ska, Anna; B?benek, Marcelina

2014-01-01

174

Sodium silicate solutions from dissolution of glasswastes. Statistical analysis  

OpenAIRE

It has studied the solubility process of four different waste glasses (with different particle sizes, 125 µm) in alkaline solutions (NaOH and NaOH/Na?CO?) and water as a reference and under different conditions of solubility (at room temperature, at 80°C and a mechano-chemical process). Have established the optimal conditions of solubility and generation of sodium silicates solutions, and these were: the smaller particle size (<45 µm), with NaOH/Na?CO? solution and with...

Torres-carrasco, M.; Palomo, J. G.; Puertas, F.

2014-01-01

175

Photooxidation of americium(III) by water in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of ultraviolet (UV) and visible light on aqueous Am(III) solutions (1.1 x 10-4 mol/l) containing KHCO3 or K2CO3 or K2CO3 + KHCO3 were studied by spectrophotometry. It was found that Am(IV) was gradually formed upon irradiation with UV light. Its concentration settled at a value of approximately 60% of the initial Am(III) concentration within 6 h. Specially prepared Am (IV) was partially reduced to Am(III) concentration, pH, and total concentration of HCO3- and CO32-. The presence of oxygen had no effect on the rate of the process. Laser radiation of a wavelength of 510.6 nm produced no oxidation of Am(III). It was suggested that the excited complex ion of Am(III) forms an excimer with the unexcited ion Am(III); H2 elimnation from this excimer yields Am(IV)

176

Oxidation of americium (3) in bicarbonate and carbonate solutions with neptunium (7)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neptunium (7) is shown to oxidize Am(3) up to Am(4) reducing itself up to Np(6) in 1.5 mole/l solutions of KHCO3, NaHCO3 KHCO3+K2CO3 and NaHCO3+Na2CO3 with maximum 10.9 pH. No excess of Np(7) is practically required for complete transition of Am(3) to Am(4). At excess of Np(7) no further oxidation of americium was observed. The reaction occurs during maximum 20-30 s at 10-4 mole/l reagent concentrations. In 1.5 mole/l K2CO3 or Na2CO3 the triple excess of Np(7) results in quantitative formation of Am(6). 7 refs

177

Sodium Hydroxide Extraction From Caustic Leaching Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes experiments conducted to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a method to recover NaOH from Hanford tank sludge leaching solutions. Aqueous solutions generated from leaching actual Hanford tank waste solids were used. The process involves neutralization of a lipophilic weak acid (t-octylphenol was used in these experiments) by reaction with NaOH in the aqueous phase. This results in the transfer of Na into the organic phase. Contacting with water reverses this process, reprotonating the lipophilic weak acid and transferring Na back into the aqueous phase as NaOH. The work described here confirms the potential application of solvent extraction to recover and recycle NaOH from solutions generated by leaching Hanford tank sludges. Solutions obtained by leaching sludges from tanks S-110 and T-110 were used in this work. It was demonstrated that Na+ is transferred from caustic leaching solution to the organic phase when contacted with t-octylphenol solutions. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the aqueous-phase hydroxide ion concentration. Seventy to 80 % of the extracted Na was recovered by 3 to 4 sequential contacts of the organic phase with water. Cesium was co-extracted by the procedure, but Al and Cr remained in the feed stream.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Garza, Priscilla A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

2002-09-18

178

POLYPYRROLE FILMS ELECTROPOLYMERISED IN SODIUM DODECYLSULPHATE SOLUTION  

OpenAIRE

The electrodeposition of polypyrrole from 0.1 M pyrrole, 0.1 M sodiododecylsulphate, SDS, aqueous solution was studied using voltammetry and ellipsometry on gold electrodes. The thickness ( 4 < d < 140 nm) and the optical indices n – i k were obtained in the (450 nm < ? < 580 nm) visible optical region for the oxidised and reducedlayer. During the oxidation and reduction in SDS there was not appreciable change in thickness. The optical indices showed only a partial reduction of the Ppy in ...

Sustersic, Mari?a G.; Alberto Maltz; Claudio Falivene; Zerbino, Jorge O.

2010-01-01

179

Electrodeposition of Ni-Mo alloy coatings and their characterization as cathodes for hydrogen evolution in sodium hydroxide solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The hydrogen evolution reaction on the electrodeposited Ni-Mo alloy coatings, as well as their electrochemical properties in the NaOH solutions, have been investigated by the polarization measurements, cyclic voltammetry and EIS technique. It was shown that the Ni-Mo alloy coatings electrodeposited from the pyrophosphate-sodium bicarbonate bath possess high catalytic activity for hydrogen evolution in the NaOH solutions. Their stability in the 1 M NaOH at 25 C under the condition of the reverse polarization was shown to be very good, while in the 33% NaOH at 85 C (conditions of the industrial electrolysis) the electrodeposited Ni-Mo alloy coatings exhibited also high catalytic activity, but low stability, as a consequence of a deterioration of the alloy coatings. (author)

Krstajic, N.V. [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4 (RS); Jovic, V.D.; Jovic, B.M. [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, 11030 Belgrade, P.O. Box 33 (RS); Gajic-Krstajic, L. [Institute of Technical Sciences SASA, 11000 Belgrade, Knez Mihajlova 35 (RS); Antozzi, A.L.; Martelli, G.N. [De Nora Industries, Via Bistolfi 35, 20134 Milan (Italy)

2008-07-15

180

Renal bicarbonate reabsorption in the rat. III. Distal tubule perfusion study of load dependence and bicarbonate permeability.  

OpenAIRE

Using continuous microperfusion techniques, we studied the load dependence of bicarbonate reabsorption along cortical distal tubules of the rat kidney and their bicarbonate permeability. Net bicarbonate transport was evaluated from changes in tracer inulin concentrations and total CO2 measurements by microcalorimetry. Bicarbonate permeability was estimated from the flux of total CO2 along known electrochemical gradients into bicarbonate-and chloride-free perfusion solution containing 10(-4) M...

Chan, Y. L.; Malnic, G.; Giebisch, G.

1989-01-01

181

BY THE MECHANOACTIVATION OF SOLUTION OF THE SODIUM SILICATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mixing of cement by the mechanoactivation of the sodium liquid glass solution resulted in increasing of the heat stability and the compressive and flexural strengths of cement stone and reducing of the water adsorption. These data point to compacting of cement stone structure.

Fedosov Sergey Viktorovich

2012-09-01

182

Photochemical oxidation of Am(III) in bicarbonate-carbonate solutions by BrO3-, ClO3-, and IO3-  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A new photochemically active oxidant of Am in bicarbonate-carbonate (HCO3--CO2-3) solutions, BrO3-, is discovered. In solutions containing BrO3-, Am(III) (up to 10-3 M), and a mixture of bicarbonate and carbonate ions in a definite ratio (pH from 8.4 to 10.5) and at a total concentration greater than 1 M, Am(III) is quantitatively oxidized to Am(IV) on irradiation by UV light for several minutes. Quantum yield of the reaction is 20-30% depending on the conditions. The features of the oxidation are practically the same in Na and K HCO3--CO2-3 solutions. The rate of Am(III) oxidation slightly decreases as the pH or the total [HCO3-] + [CO2-3] increase. The oxidation is zero-order in Am. In CO32- solutions that do not contain HCO3-, Am is quantitatively oxidized by BrO3- to Am(VI). The ions ClO3- and IO3- can only partially oxidize Am(III) to Am(IV) in HCO3--CO32- solutions and cannot oxidize it to Am(VI) in CO32- solutions

183

Ionization of methyl orange in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Thermodynamic ionization constant of methyl orange in the temperature range (278.15 to 333.15 K). ? Influence of sodium chloride on the ionization of methyl orange. ? Pitzer interaction coefficients for methyl orange (sodium salt). ? Ionic strength dependence of the stoichiometric ionization constant. - Abstract: Ionization constants of sodium 4?-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4-sulphonate (methyl orange) were determined by means of spectrophotometric measurements in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions with molalities up to 2 mol·kg?1 at temperatures between 278.15 K and 333.15 K. The temperature dependence of the thermodynamic acidity constant shows a slight curvature in accordance with published data. The influence of sodium chloride on the methyl orange deprotonation was assessed by the measurement of stoichiometric acidity constants in this ionic medium. The Pitzer theory, widely used in the evaluation of the excess free energy of non-ideal electrolyte solutions, was applied to the computation of the activity coefficients of the chemical species involved in the equilibria and a good fit of those equations to the experimental data was observed, at all temperatures under consideration.

184

Corrosion behaviour of Alloy 800 in high temperature aqueous solutions: Electrochemical studies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anodic behaviour and passivity breakdown of Alloy 800 in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and sodium bicarbonate were studied by electrochemical techniques in the temperature range from 60 C to 280 C. The pitting resistance and pitting morphology of the alloy in chloride plus sulphate and chloride plus bicarbonate mixtures, at 60 C and 280 C, were also examined. Increasing bicarbonate or sulphate additions to chloride solutions shift the characteristic pitting potential of Alloy 800 to higher values, both at low and high temperatures. Changes in pitting morphology were observed in sulphate containing solutions while the morphology of the attack found in bicarbonate containing solutions was similar to that in pure chloride solutions. Finally, no localized or substantial generalized corrosion was detected in pure sulphate or bicarbonate solutions at any temperature. (orig.)

185

Corrosion behaviour of Alloy 800 in high temperature aqueous solutions: Electrochemical studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The anodic behaviour and passivity breakdown of Alloy 800 in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sodium sulphate and sodium bicarbonate were studied by electrochemical techniques in the temperature range from 60 C to 280 C. The pitting resistance and pitting morphology of the alloy in chloride plus sulphate and chloride plus bicarbonate mixtures, at 60 C and 280 C, were also examined. Increasing bicarbonate or sulphate additions to chloride solutions shift the characteristic pitting potential of Alloy 800 to higher values, both at low and high temperatures. Changes in pitting morphology were observed in sulphate containing solutions while the morphology of the attack found in bicarbonate containing solutions was similar to that in pure chloride solutions. Finally, no localized or substantial generalized corrosion was detected in pure sulphate or bicarbonate solutions at any temperature. (orig.).

Olmedo, A.M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica de Reactores; Villegas, M. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Quimica de Reactores; Alvarez, M.G. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Materiales

1996-04-01

186

A substrate access tunnel in the cytosolic domain is not an essential feature of the solute carrier 4 (SLC4) family of bicarbonate transporters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anion exchanger 1 (AE1; Band 3; SLC4A1) is the founding member of the solute carrier 4 (SLC4) family of bicarbonate transporters that includes chloride/bicarbonate AEs and Na(+)-bicarbonate co-transporters (NBCs). These membrane proteins consist of an amino-terminal cytosolic domain involved in protein interactions and a carboxyl-terminal membrane domain that carries out the transport function. Mutation of a conserved arginine residue (R298S) in the cytosolic domain of NBCe1 (SLC4A4) is linked to proximal renal tubular acidosis and results in impaired transport function, suggesting that the cytosolic domain plays a role in substrate permeation. Introduction of single and double mutations at the equivalent arginine (Arg(283)) and at an interacting glutamate (Glu(85)) in the cytosolic domain of human AE1 (cdAE1) had no effect on the cell surface expression or the transport activity of AE1 expressed in HEK-293 cells. In addition, the membrane domain of AE1 (mdAE1) efficiently mediated anion transport. A 2.1-? resolution crystal structure of cd?54AE1 (residues 55-356 of cdAE1) lacking the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal disordered regions, produced at physiological pH, revealed an extensive hydrogen-bonded network involving Arg(283) and Glu(85). Mutations at these residues affected the pH-dependent conformational changes and stability of cd?54AE1. As these structural alterations did not impair functional expression of AE1, the cytosolic and membrane domains operate independently. A substrate access tunnel within the cytosolic domain is not present in AE1 and therefore is not an essential feature of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters. PMID:24121512

Shnitsar, Volodymyr; Li, Jing; Li, Xuyao; Calmettes, Charles; Basu, Arghya; Casey, Joseph R; Moraes, Trevor F; Reithmeier, Reinhart A F

2013-11-22

187

A Substrate Access Tunnel in the Cytosolic Domain Is Not an Essential Feature of the Solute Carrier 4 (SLC4) Family of Bicarbonate Transporters*  

Science.gov (United States)

Anion exchanger 1 (AE1; Band 3; SLC4A1) is the founding member of the solute carrier 4 (SLC4) family of bicarbonate transporters that includes chloride/bicarbonate AEs and Na+-bicarbonate co-transporters (NBCs). These membrane proteins consist of an amino-terminal cytosolic domain involved in protein interactions and a carboxyl-terminal membrane domain that carries out the transport function. Mutation of a conserved arginine residue (R298S) in the cytosolic domain of NBCe1 (SLC4A4) is linked to proximal renal tubular acidosis and results in impaired transport function, suggesting that the cytosolic domain plays a role in substrate permeation. Introduction of single and double mutations at the equivalent arginine (Arg283) and at an interacting glutamate (Glu85) in the cytosolic domain of human AE1 (cdAE1) had no effect on the cell surface expression or the transport activity of AE1 expressed in HEK-293 cells. In addition, the membrane domain of AE1 (mdAE1) efficiently mediated anion transport. A 2.1-? resolution crystal structure of cd?54AE1 (residues 55–356 of cdAE1) lacking the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal disordered regions, produced at physiological pH, revealed an extensive hydrogen-bonded network involving Arg283 and Glu85. Mutations at these residues affected the pH-dependent conformational changes and stability of cd?54AE1. As these structural alterations did not impair functional expression of AE1, the cytosolic and membrane domains operate independently. A substrate access tunnel within the cytosolic domain is not present in AE1 and therefore is not an essential feature of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters. PMID:24121512

Shnitsar, Volodymyr; Li, Jing; Li, Xuyao; Calmettes, Charles; Basu, Arghya; Casey, Joseph R.; Moraes, Trevor F.; Reithmeier, Reinhart A. F.

2013-01-01

188

Substituted sodium phenylanthranylates as inhibitors of corrosion in chloride solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of corrosion protoction of armco iron, zinc (Ts-O) aluminium (AB 000) and its alloys (.D16 and AMG6) with sodium phenylanthranylate derivatives in clloride buffer solutions (pH 7.4-8.08) are investigated. It has been ascertained that the introduction of sodium phenylantiranylate into phenyl radical in m- and p-position relative to the amino group of electron-seeking substitutes improves protective properties of an inhibitor. The inhibiting effect of phenylanthranylates and its dependence on electron structure enchances in zinc-aluminium-iron series and decreases in case of transition from pure aluminium to its alloys

189

Cryoscopic studies of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, potassium tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freezing temperature lowerings of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate were determined. These values and those taken from the literature for potassium tartrate were used in the determination of the osmotic and activity coefficients in the studied systems, via the numerical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation

190

Sodium bicarbonate as prevention of metabolic acidosis in sheep submitted to experimental ruminal acidosis / Bicarbonato de sódio como preventivo da acidose metabólica em ovinos submetidos à acidose ruminal experimental  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito preventivo do bicarbonato de sódio sobre a acidose sistêmica em decorrência da acidose ruminal, a qual foi induzida pelo fornecimento de concentrado após jejum prolongado. Foram utilizados 14 ovinos, divididos em três grupos experimentais: grupo controle [...] (Cg), contendo quatro ovinos, submetidos a jejum sem desenvolvimento de acidose ruminal; grupo não tratado (NTg), contendo cinco ovinos submetidos a acidose ruminal sem tratamento preventivo; e grupo tratado (Tg), contendo cinco ovinos, submetidos a acidose ruminal e tratados preventivamente com bicarbonato de sódio. Foram realizadas avaliações do pH ruminal e hemogasometria arterial, durante 48 horas após o fornecimento do concentrado. Houve redução do pH ruminal em todos os grupos, sendo que o Cg apresentou a redução apenas às 24 horas. Notou-se redução do pH arterial, bicarbonato e excesso de base em todos os grupos, indicando acidose metabólica sistêmica; no entanto, o NTg apresentou o quadro mais grave. Conclui-se que o bicarbonato de sódio possui efeito preventivo da acidose metabólica sistêmica, reduzindo a sua gravidade em ovinos submetidos à acidose ruminal. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of sodium bicarbonate on systemic acidosis due to ruminal acidosis, which was induced by ingestion of concentrate after prolonged fasting. Fourteen sheep were divided into three experimental groups: control group (Cg), with four sheep, subm [...] itted to fasting without development of ruminal acidosis; no-treated group (NTg), with five sheep with rumen acidosis without preventive treatment; and treated group (Tg), with five sheep with rumen acidosis and preventively treated with sodium bicarbonate. Assessments of ruminal pH and arterial hemogasometry were performed for 48 hours after ingestion of the concentrate. There was a reduction in the ruminal pH in all groups, whereas the Cg showed a reduction only after 24 hours. A reduction in the arterial pH, bicarbonate and base excess in all groups was also noted, indicating systemic metabolic acidosis, but the NTg presented the greatest alteration. It is concluded that sodium bicarbonate prevents systemic metabolic acidosis, reducing its severity in sheep subjected to ruminal acidosis.

Luciane M., Laskoski; Lívia S., Muraro; Marinho S., Santana Júnior; Mariana B., Carvalho; Silvio H., Freitas; Renata G.S., Dória; Marcelo D., Santos; Rosangela Locatelli, Dittrich.

2014-09-01

191

Measurements of the viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 liquid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adding UO2 produces an increase of viscosity of borax and sodium metaborate. For temperatures below 9200C the measurements with the borax-UO2 solution show a phase separation. Contrary to borax the sodium metaborate solutions indicate a well defined melting point. At temperatures slightly below the melting point a solid phase is formed. The tested sodium-borates-UO2 mixtures are in liquid form. (DG)

192

Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

Pavlovi? Ljubica J.

2002-01-01

193

In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate / Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicar [...] bonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme). A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pela determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM). Os resultados mostraram que a solução teste inibiu o crescimento de microrganismos Gram-negativos e Gram-positivos da saliva dos voluntários, bem como das linhagens padrão na CIM de 1:20, enquanto que a CIM da diluição de clorexidina 0.12% contra as mesmas bactérias foi de 1:80. Desta forma, apesar de o enxaguatório bucal testado apresentar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro superior à do placebo, esta foi inferior à da Clorexidina. Abstract in english Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in compa [...] rison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis). Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.

Juliana Rico, Pires; Carlos, Rossa Junior; Antonio Carlos, Pizzolitto.

2007-12-01

194

In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pela determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM. Os resultados mostraram que a solução teste inibiu o crescimento de microrganismos Gram-negativos e Gram-positivos da saliva dos voluntários, bem como das linhagens padrão na CIM de 1:20, enquanto que a CIM da diluição de clorexidina 0.12% contra as mesmas bactérias foi de 1:80. Desta forma, apesar de o enxaguatório bucal testado apresentar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro superior à do placebo, esta foi inferior à da Clorexidina.

Juliana Rico Pires

2007-12-01

195

Influence of feeding and social behaviors and the use of sodium bicarbonate on ruminal PH of beef cattle fed high concentrate diets Influencia del comportamiento de alimentación y social, y del uso de bicarbonato sódico sobre el PH ruminal en el cebo intensivo de terneros /  

OpenAIRE

The objective of the present thesis was to study the effects of some behavioral factors, and the use of sodium bicarbonate, on the digestion processes affecting ruminal function of beef cattle fed concentrate and straw ad libitum. In the first experiment, four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of increasing levels of sodium bicarbonate (0, 1.25, 2.50 and 5 %, on concentrate DM basis) on intake, water consumption, ruminal fer...

Gonza?lez, Luciano Adria?n

2008-01-01

196

SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE FOULING AND CLEANING OF DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION COALESCERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During initial non-radioactive operations at the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the pressure drop across the decontaminated salt solution coalescer reached {approx}10 psi while processing {approx}1250 gallons of salt solution, indicating possible fouling or plugging of the coalescer. An analysis of the feed solution and the 'plugged coalescer' concluded that the plugging was due to sodium aluminosilicate solids. MCU personnel requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate the formation of the sodium aluminosilicate solids (NAS) and the impact of the solids on the decontaminated salt solution coalescer. Researchers performed developmental testing of the cleaning protocols with a bench-scale coalescer container 1-inch long segments of a new coalescer element fouled using simulant solution. In addition, the authors obtained a 'plugged' Decontaminated Salt Solution coalescer from non-radioactive testing in the MCU and cleaned it according to the proposed cleaning procedure. Conclusions from this testing include the following: (1) Testing with the bench-scale coalescer showed an increase in pressure drop from solid particles, but the increase was not as large as observed at MCU. (2) Cleaning the bench-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (11 g of bayerite if all aluminum is present in that form or 23 g of sodium aluminosilicate if all silicon is present in that form). (3) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from bench-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for the NAS solids tested is calculated as 450-950 grams. (4) Cleaning the full-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (60 g of aluminum and 5 g of silicon). (5) Piping holdup in the full-scale coalescer system caused the pH to differ from the target value. Comparable hold-up in the facility could lead to less effective cleaning and precipitation of bayerite solid particles. (6) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from the full-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for these NAS solids was calculated to be 40-170 grams.

Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

2008-10-28

197

SODIUM ALUMINOSILICATE FOULING AND CLEANING OF DECONTAMINATED SALT SOLUTION COALESCERS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During initial non-radioactive operations at the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the pressure drop across the decontaminated salt solution coalescer reached ?10 psi while processing ?1250 gallons of salt solution, indicating possible fouling or plugging of the coalescer. An analysis of the feed solution and the 'plugged coalescer' concluded that the plugging was due to sodium aluminosilicate solids. MCU personnel requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to investigate the formation of the sodium aluminosilicate solids (NAS) and the impact of the solids on the decontaminated salt solution coalescer. Researchers performed developmental testing of the cleaning protocols with a bench-scale coalescer container 1-inch long segments of a new coalescer element fouled using simulant solution. In addition, the authors obtained a 'plugged' Decontaminated Salt Solution coalescer from non-radioactive testing in the MCU and cleaned it according to the proposed cleaning procedure. Conclusions from this testing include the following: (1) Testing with the bench-scale coalescer showed an increase in pressure drop from solid particles, but the increase was not as large as observed at MCU. (2) Cleaning the bench-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (11 g of bayerite if all aluminum is present in that form or 23 g of sodium aluminosilicate if all silicon is present in that form). (3) Basicon is present in that form). (3) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from bench-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for the NAS solids tested is calculated as 450-950 grams. (4) Cleaning the full-scale coalescer with nitric acid reduced the pressure drop and removed a large amount of solid particles (60 g of aluminum and 5 g of silicon). (5) Piping holdup in the full-scale coalescer system caused the pH to differ from the target value. Comparable hold-up in the facility could lead to less effective cleaning and precipitation of bayerite solid particles. (6) Based on analysis of the cleaning solutions from the full-scale test, the 'dirt capacity' of a 40 inch coalescer for these NAS solids was calculated to be 40-170 grams

198

Interaction of sodium arsenate with praseodymium chloride in aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of residual concentrations, electric conductivity and pH measurements, differential thermal, X-ray phase, chemical analyses and IR spectriscopy have been applied to study acidic sodium orthoarsenate interaction with praseodymium (3) chloride at ? 20 deg C, 0.27-2.03 initial salts ratio and 2.6-6.5 pH values. It is found that irrespective of the ratio of reacting salts, fusing order, solution concentration and pH in the solid phase PrAsO4x2H2O praseodiumium orthosenate dihydrate appears. Its dehydration occurs at 143 deg C

199

Interaction of praseodymium chloride with sodium decavanadate in aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Method of residual concentrations, measurement of electric conductivity and pH, differential thermal, X-ray phase and chemical analyses, infrared spectroscopy were used for investigation of praseodymium (3) chloride interaction with sodium decavanadate in aqueous solution. It was established that 25-aqueous praseodymium decavanadate Pr2V10O28 X 25H2O formed as the intermediate solid phase. Then it transformed to the stable solid phase - hexahydrate of acid praseodymium pyrovanadate PrHV2O7 X 6H2O. The prepared vanadates decomposed at ? 130-160 deg C with formation of praseodymium orthovanadate and vanadium (5) oxide

200

Crevice Corrosion of 321 Stainless Steel in Sodium Chloride Solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrochemical techniques have been applied to study the crevice corrosion behaviour of stabilized 321 stainless steel in both 0.5, 1 and 2 M sodium chloride solutions at 25 and 80 degree . This type of stainless steel enjoys a good corrosion resistance especially in the heat affected zone (Haz) of welds. In this investigation the crevice corrosion of 321 stainless steel was studied in both bulk solution environments as well as in chloride solutions simulating those formed inside crevices. A metal-to-nonmetal crevice assembly, in which disc type specimens were faced to a PTFE crevice former, is used for bulk solution tests. Crevice-free specimens of solutions formed inside crevices (known as the critical crevice solutions, CCS). Cyclic potentiodynamic technique was used in evaluating the electrochemical corrosion performance of the alloy in bulk (0.5 and 1 M Nacl) environment. This revealed that both chloride ion concentration and temperature have a marked effect on the electrochemical parameters generally used for the evaluation of the crevice corrosion susceptibility. This included the corrosion potential. E corr. The passivity breakdown potential, Eb, and the protection potential, E p

201

Potentiometric monitoring of sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Platina, paládio, ouro, cádmio, níquel e nióbio imersos em soluções alcalinas de borohidreto de sódio são caracterizados por respostas de eléctrodo que permitem monitorizar o conteúdo em borohidreto presente num dado meio aquoso. Descreve-se uma técnica de titulação potenciométrica relativamente sim [...] ples e precisa que pode ser aplicada para a análise de soluções de borohidreto. Abstract in english Platinum, palladium, gold, cadmium, nickel and niobium immersed in sodium borohydride alkaline solutions are characterised by electrode responses that allow monitoring the borohydride present in aqueous media. A simple and relatively precise potentiometric titration technique is described and applie [...] d for the analysis of borohydride solutions.

Diogo M. F., Santos; César A. C., Sequeira.

2008-12-01

202

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 1404) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sodium bicarbonate. The Panel considers that sodium bicarbonate is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “blood pressure reduction”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effect refers to maintenance of normal blood pressure. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal blood pressure is a beneficial physiological effect. No references were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure.

Tetens, Inge

2011-01-01

203

Isotonic high-sodium oral rehydration solution for increasing sodium absorption in patients with short-bowel syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared the effect of a standard oral rehydration solution and a high-sodium polymeric-glucose solution on sodium absorption in short-bowel syndrome. Six patients with high jejunostomy were tested in a random order with the standard solution or a solution containing maltodextrins (18 g Glucidex 12/L) enriched with 2.5 g NaCl/L. Solutions were administered via a nasogastric tube at a rate of 2 mL/min. Jejunal effluent was collected during an 8-h period. The net 8-h fluid absorption was not significantly different in the two periods. Glucose absorption was greater than 90% of the administered amount for both solutions. Net sodium absorption was greater for the maltodextrin solution than for the standard solution (56 +/- 12 vs 24 +/- 20 mmol, P less than 0.05). We conclude that replacement of glucose with maltodextrins and addition of sodium in the standard oral rehydration solution results in improved sodium absorption in short-bowel syndrome. PMID:2000833

Beaugerie, L; Cosnes, J; Verwaerde, F; Dupas, H; Lamy, P; Gendre, J P; Le Quintrec, Y

1991-03-01

204

Modified sodium diuranate process for the recovery of uranium from uranium hexafluoride transport cylinder wash solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Uranium hexafluoride (UF6) containment cylinders must be emptied and washed every five years in order to undergo recertification, according to ANSI standards. During the emptying of the UF6 from the cylinders, a thin residue, or heel, of UF6 is left behind. This heel must be removed in order for recertification to take place. To remove it, the inside of the containment cylinder is washed with acid and the resulting solution generally contains three or four kilograms of uranium. Thus, before the liquid solution can be disposed of, the uranium must be separated. A modified sodium diuranate (SDU) uranium recovery process was studied to support development of a commercial process. This process was sought to ensure complete uranium recovery, at high purity, in order that it might be reused in the nuclear fuel cycle. An experimental procedure was designed and carried out in order to verify the effectiveness of the commercial process in a laboratory setting. The experiments involved a small quantity of dried UO2F2 powder that was dosed with 3wt% FeF3 and was dissolved in water to simulate the cylinder wash solution. Each experiment series started with a measured amount of this powder mixture which was dissolved in enough water to make a solution containing about 120 gmU/liter. The experiments involved validating the modified SDU extraction process. A potassium diuranate (KDU) process was also attempted. Very little information exists regarding such a process, so the task was undertaken to evaluate its efficacy and determine whether a potassium process yields any significant differences or advantages as compared to a sodium process. However, the KDU process ultimately proved ineffective and was abandoned. Each of the experiments was organized into a series of procedures that started with the UO2F2 powder being dissolved in water, and proceeded through the steps needed to first convert the uranium to a diuranate precipitate, then to a carbonate complex solution, and finally to a uranyl peroxide (UO4) precipitate product. Evaluation of operating technique, uranium recovery efficiency, and final product purity were part of each experiment. Evaluation of a technique for removing fluoride from the diuranate precipitation byproduct filtrate using granular calcite was also included at the end of the uranium recovery testing. It was observed that precipitation of sodium diuranate (SDU) was very nearly complete at a pH of 11-12, using room temperature conditions. Uranium residuals in the filtrate ranged from 3.6 - 19.6 ppm, meaning almost complete precipitation as SDU. It was postulated and then verified that a tailing reaction occurs in the SDU precipitation, which necessitates a digestion period of about 2 hours to complete the precipitation. Further, it was shown, during this phase of the process, that a partial precipitation step at pH 5.5 did not adequately separate iron contamination due to an overlap of uranium and iron precipitations at that condition. Carbonate extraction of the SDU required an extended (3-4 hours) digestion at 40°C and pH 7-8 to complete, with sodium bicarbonate found to be the preferred extractant. The carbonate extraction was also proven to successfully separate the iron contamination from the uranium. Potassium-based chemistry did produce a potassium diuranate (KDU) analogue of SDU, but the subsequent carbonate extraction using either potassium bicarbonate or potassium carbonate proved to be too difficult and was incomplete. The potassium testing was terminated at this step. The uranyl peroxide precipitation was found to operate best at pH 3.5 - 4.0, at room temperature, and required an expected, extended digestion period of 8 -10 hours. The reaction was nearly complete at those conditions, with a filtrate residual ranging from 2.4 to 36.8 ppmU. The uranyl peroxide itself was very pure, with impurity averages at a very low 0.8 ppmNa and 0.004 ppmFe. ASTM maximum levels are 20 ppmNa and 150 ppmFe. Fluoride removal from the SDU precipitation filtrate required multiple passes of the solution through a calcite

Meredith, Austin Dean

205

Speciation and chemical activities in superheated sodium borate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system H2O-B2O3-Na2O has been studied experimentally at 277 degrees and 317 degrees C. The activities of water and boric acid have been determined at mole ratios Na/B from 0 to 1.5, and total dissolved solids 3 to 80 weight percent. The activity of boric acid has been fitted to within experimental error using a speciation model with eight complex species. This model is consistent with the model previously published by Mesmer et al. The electrolyte properties of the liquid are modelled using the Pitzer-Simonson Model of very concentrated electrolyte solutions. The calculated values of water activity agree with experiment, and the activity of NaOH and pOH have also been calculated. These data will allow prediction of the composition and chemical behavior of sodium borate liquids that may accumulate in the superheated crevices within a steam generator. A modified form of the model is provided for use with MULTEQ. The potassium borate system also was briefly studied at 317 degrees C, and is adequately described by a model with five complex species. The potassium borate liquid is more alkaline at K/B = 1 than a sodium borate liquid at the same mole ratio, but pOH in the two systems is the same at lower mole ratios

206

Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5 were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide in the presence of sodium benzoate/sodium sulphite inhibitive mixtures range 0.322mmpy to 1.1269mmpy across the three volumetric ratios considered. The 15ml5ml sodium benzoatesodium sulphite mixture had the best average corrosion rate of 0.5123mmpy.The corrosion rate followed reducing pattern after the first 200 hours of immersion. The average corrosion rate in the sodium benzoate / sodium sulphite mixture is less than the rate in sodium sulphite and the mixture is only effective after long time exposure.It is concluded that adding sodium benzoate to sodium sulphite in the volumetric ratio 155ml improves the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide environment.

Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

2008-12-01

207

Stability of penta- and hexavalent americium in the solutions of sodium peroxydisulfate and sodium bromate at intensive internal ?-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spectrometric method has been used for studying the dependence of the rates of radiolytic reduction of Am(5) and (6) on the initial concentration of sodium persulfate and bromate, Am(5) and (6), acidity, and the dose rate of inner alpha-irradiation of the solutions. The high dose rates of inner alpha-irradiation of solutions (up to 3.25x1021 eV/lxmin-250Ci/l) have been attained with the aid of curium isotopes. The stability of americium (6) ions towards the action of ionizing radiation in solutions of sodium persulfate and bromate has been shown to be considerable lower than that of americium (5). The chemical difference has been shown in radiolytic behaviour between Am(5) and Am(6) ions in solutions of sodium persulfate and bromate. The equations have been derived showing the dependence of the rates of Am(6) and Am(5) reduction of different variables

208

Clinical Effect of a Mixed Solution of Sodium Hyaluronate and Sodium Carboxymethylcellulose During the Transconjunctival Approach for Orbital Wall Reconstruction  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to evaluate the anti-adhesive effect of a mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (HACMC, Guardix-sol®) during the transconjunctival approach to orbital wall reconstruction. Eighty-seven patients who underwent orbital wall reconstruction by the transconjunctival approach were enrolled in this prospective study. We applied HACMC between the orbicularis oculi muscle and the orbital septum after surgery in 47 patients and did not use it in 40 pati...

Kang, Byung Wan; Lee, Hyo Seok; Oh, Han Jin; Yoon, Kyung Chul

2012-01-01

209

Sodium silicate solutions from dissolution of glasswastes. Statistical analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has studied the solubility process of four different waste glasses (with different particle sizes, 125 µm in alkaline solutions (NaOH and NaOH/Na?CO? and water as a reference and under different conditions of solubility (at room temperature, at 80°C and a mechano-chemical process. Have established the optimal conditions of solubility and generation of sodium silicates solutions, and these were: the smaller particle size (Se ha estudiado el proceso de solubilidad de cuatro diferentes residuos vítreos (con distintas granulometrías, 125 µm en disoluciones alcalinas de NaOH y NaOH/Na?CO? y agua como medio de referencia y bajo distintas condiciones de solubilidad (a temperatura ambiente, a 80°C y con un proceso mecano-químico. Se han establecido las condiciones óptimas de solubilidad y generación de disoluciones de silicato sódico, y estas son: menor tamaño de partícula del residuo vítreo (inferior a 45 µm, con la disolución de NaOH/Na?CO? y tratamiento térmico a 80°C durante 6 horas de agitación. El análisis estadístico realizado a los resultados obtenidos da importancia a las variables estudiadas y a las interacciones de las mismas. A través de ²?Si RMN MAS se ha confirmado la formación, tras los procesos de disolución, de un silicato monomérico, apto para su utilización como activador en la preparación de cementos y hormigones alcalinos.

Torres-Carrasco, M.

2014-05-01

210

Chemical equilibrium of hydrogen and aqueous solutions of 1:1 bicarbonate and formate salts with a common cation  

OpenAIRE

This was accomplished for the sodium (M = Na), potassium (M = K) and ammonium (M = NH4) systems by measuring the equilibrium composition. This reaction was allowed to proceed from both sides of the equilibrium in a suspension of Pd/C and Pd/?-Al2O3 catalyst particles, and was carried out at 20, 40 and 60°C for hydrogen pressures ranging from 0.5 to 10 bar. The total salt concentration in the reaction mixture was varied up to the solubility limit. The experimental equilibrium data were inter...

Engel, D. C.; Versteeg, G. F.; Swaaij, W. P. M.

1997-01-01

211

The effects of temperature and pH on the dissolution and passivation processes of copper in carbonate-bicarbonate solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram feitos estudos eletroquímicos de eletrodos de cobre policristalino em soluções de carbonato-bicarbonato, analisando os efeitos da temperatura e do pH, cobrindo uma extensa faixa de composições eletrolíticas num intervalo de 5-65 °C. As condições hidrodinâmicas do sistema também foram considera [...] das. Os resultados são explicados com base numa modificação das características do filme decorrente dos efeitos de agitação da solução e das temperaturas elevadas. Nestas situações, forma-se uma camada menos hidratada, reduzindo o processo de dissolução. A força iônica torna-se um fator adicional que afeta o estado geral do sistema. Abstract in english Electrochemical studies of polycrystalline copper electrodes in carbonate-bicarbonate solutions analyzing both temperature and pH effects were carried out, covering a wide range of electrolyte composition in the 5-65 °C range. Hydrodynamic conditions were also considered. The results are explained o [...] n the basis of a modification of the characteristics of the film through solution stirring and high temperature. In this situation, a less hydrated passive layer is obtained, reducing the dissolution process. The ionic strength becomes an additional factor that affects the general state of the system.

S.B., Ribotta; M.E., Folquer.

212

Effect of Strength and Microstructure on Stress Corrosion Cracking Behavior and Mechanism of X80 Pipeline Steel in High pH Carbonate/Bicarbonate Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

The stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviors and mechanisms of X80 pipeline steels with different strength and microstructure in high pH carbonate/bicarbonate solution were investigated by slow strain rate testing and electrochemical test. The results showed that the cracking mode of low strength X80 steel composed of bulky polygonal ferrite and granular bainite in high pH solution was intergranular (IGSCC), and the SCC mechanism was anodic dissolution (AD). While the mixed cracking mode of high strength X80 steel consisted of fine acicular ferrite and granular bainite was intergranular (IGSCC) in the early stage, and transgranular (TGSCC) in the later stage. The decrease of pH value of crack tip was probably the key reason for the occurrence of TGSCC. The SCC mechanism may be a mixed mode of AD and hydrogen embrittlement (HE), and the HE mechanism may play a significant role in the deep crack propagation at the later stage. The cracking modes and SCC mechanisms of the two X80 steels were associated with its microstructure and strength.

Zhu, Min; Du, Cuiwei; Li, Xiaogang; Liu, Zhiyong; Wang, Shengrong; Zhao, Tianliang; Jia, Jinghuan

2014-04-01

213

The unusual importance of activity coefficients for micelle solutions illustrated by an osmometry study of aqueous sodium decanoate and aqueous sodium decanoate + sodium chloride solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Freezing-point and vapor-pressure osmometry data are reported for aqueous sodium decanoate (NaD) solutions and aqueous NaD + NaCl solutions. The derived osmotic coefficients are analyzed with a mass-action model based on the micelle formation reaction qNa(+) + nD(-) = (Na(q)D(n))(q-n) and Guggenheim equations for the micelle and ionic activity coefficients. Stoichiometric activity coefficients of the NaD and NaCl components and the equilibrium constant for micelle formation are evaluated. Illustrating the remarkable but not widely appreciated nonideal behavior of ionic surfactant solutions, the micelle activity coefficient drops to astonishingly low values, below 10(-7) (relative to unity for ideal solutions). The activity coefficients of the Na(+) and D(-) ions, raised to large powers of q and n, reduce calculated extents of micelle formation by up to 15 orders of magnitude. Activity coefficients, frequently omitted from the Gibbs equation, are found to increase the calculated surface excess concentration of NaD by up to an order of magnitude. Inflection points in the extent of micelle formation, used to calculate critical micelle concentration (cmc) lowering caused by added salt, provide unexpected thermodynamic evidence for the elusive second cmc. PMID:22037556

Sharma, Poonam; MacNeil, Jennifer A; Bowles, Justine; Leaist, Derek G

2011-12-28

214

Synergistic effect of calcium and bicarbonate in enhancing arsenate release from ferrihydrite  

Science.gov (United States)

Many groundwater systems contain anomalously high arsenic concentrations, associated with less than expected retention of As by adsorption to iron (hydr)oxides. Although carbonates are ubiquitous in aquifers, their relationship to arsenate mobilization is not well characterized. This research examines arsenate release from poorly crystalline iron hydroxides in abiotic systems containing calcium and magnesium with bicarbonate under conditions of static and dynamic flow (pH 7.5-8). Aqueous arsenic levels remained low when arsenate-bearing ferrihydrite was equilibrated with artificial groundwater solution containing Ca, Mg, and HCO 3-. In batch titrations in which a solution of Ca and HCO 3- was added repeatedly, the ferrihydrite surface became saturated with adsorbed Ca and HCO 3-, and aqueous As levels increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude. In columns containing Ca or Mg and HCO 3-, As solubility initially mimicked titrations, but then rapidly increased by an additional order of magnitude (reaching 12 ?M As). Separately, calcium chloride and other simple salts did not induce As release, although sodium bicarbonate and lactate facilitated minor As release under flow. Results indicate that adsorption of calcium or magnesium with bicarbonate leads to As desorption from ferrihydrite, to a degree greater than expected from competitive effects alone, especially under dynamic flow. This desorption may be an important mechanism of As mobilization in As-impacted, circumneutral aquifers, especially those undergoing rapid mineralization of organic matter, which induces calcite dissolution and the production of dissolved calcium and bicarbonate.

Saalfield, Samantha L.; Bostick, Benjamin C.

2010-09-01

215

Photo-electrochemical analysis of passive film formed on X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate/carbonate buffer solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photo-electrochemical measurement was used to explore the formation potential, formation time, chloride ions concentration, applied potential and pH value of the solution on the electronic property of passive film formed on X80 pipeline steel in 1 M NaHCO3/0.5 M Na2CO3 buffer solution. The results showed that the photocurrent is positive, indicating an n-type semiconductor character of the passive film, the photocurrent increased with increasing the formation potential, prolonging the formation time, decreasing chloride ions concentration, rising applied potential and decreasing the pH value of the solution. Capacitance measurement exhibited a positive slope of Mott-Schottky plot, and the slopes of Mott-Schottky plots increased with the increasing formation potential, showing a decrement of the donor density of the passive film

216

Componentry, constructive and process solutions of sodium vapour precipitation problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium vapour trap for periodic operation (SVT) is installed to present of sodium vapour emissions after response of safety valve on tanks with sodium and to provide protection from sodium vapour during planned argon blowing from tanks. It is recommended that SVT be placed directly above tanks with sodium. But the main problem of BN-600 and BN-800 componentry (grouping) is the lack of premises. So, the recommended placement is impossible. The principal scheme of SVT piping BN-800. Argon purification from sodium vapor is carried out by air refrigerating. Refrigerating degree is regulated by control valve on the air delivery pipe to SVT. There is montejus tank in the scheme of SVT piping for liquid sodium drainage that is condensed in SVT. Sodium drainage pipe is combined with argon delivery pipe (line E). There are two main problems with the present construction of SVT based on operation experience of BN-600: 1. The horizontal pipeline 'Ar+Na' before the SVT entrance is a dangerous section of this piping. Electric heating of this pipeline is always 'on'. Inspite of this, sodium vapour condenses before SVT. It means that the pipeline becomes progressively clogged up. 2. Two substances (argon with sodium vapour and liquid sodium) are moving towards each other in one pipeline (line E). This is the most probable place of clogging by sodium, especially branch-pipe in the connection point of line E with SVT. Sodium cruds turn into solid state in the process of argon deliverylid state in the process of argon delivery pipe clogging.In most cases solid scrubs melting temperature exceeds 400-500C depending on chemical composition of crud (for example caustic soda - 1200C). It means that it is almost impossible to heat the pipeline to restore its passability. The only measure in this case is the change of pipe section during BN stop. The first problem can be solved by: - Increasing the diameter (which was DN40 in the project of BN-600, and is DN80 in BN-800); - Increasing the temperature of electric heating; - Minimizing pipeline lengths; The second problem can only be solved by changing SVT design: The principal scheme of SVT piping that is optimal in the lack of premises. Argon delivery pipeline is separated from sodium drainage pipeline. Drainage clogging is less probable in such SVT design

217

EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone (ID 331, 1402) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claim are carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium. The Panel considers that carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “acid/base balance and bone health” and “bone density/bone health”. The target population is assumed to be the general population.In the context of the proposed wordings, the Panel assumes that the claimed effects refer to the maintenance of normal bone by maintaining acid-base balance. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal bone is a beneficial physiological effect. No references were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the dietary intake of carbonate or bicarbonate salts of sodium or potassium and maintenance of normal bone.

Tetens, Inge

2011-01-01

218

Zeolite for extraction of strontium from concentrated solutions of sodium salts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sorption of strontium from 5 M sodium chloride solutions on zeolites of differing structure was investigated. It was shown that a synthetic potassium zeolite of the Chabazite type K-G (13) can be used to remove radionuclides of strontium from these solutions. The strontium capacity of zeolite K-G (13) in a 5 M sodium chloride solution is 0.65 mmole/g

219

Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

220

Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol headgroup [5]. In this study we would like to go one step further and look into the effect of a more complex organic compound, CA. We used ambient pressure XPS on a vacuum liquid microjet. The continuously refreshed free-flowing aqueous filament under vacuum permits photoelectron spectroscopy measurements from volatile aqueous interfaces in absence of beam damage [6]. Measurements were made at the SIM beam line of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The ability to tune the photon energy (150-2000 eV) is crucial to get precise component ratios as a function of photoelectron kinetic energy and thus probe depth, thus allowing to determine relative concentrations of citric acid and bromide at the surface and in the bulk, respectively. REFERENCES [1] Clifford and Donaldson, J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 9809-9814, (2007). [2] Oldridge and Abbatt, J. Phys. Chem. A, 115, 2590-2598, (2011). [3] S. Ghosal et al., Science 307, 563 (2005). [4] M.A. Brown et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 4778 (2008). [5] M. Krisch et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13497 (2007). [6] M.A. Brown et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 231 (2012).

Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus

2013-04-01

221

Environment-induced degradation in strength for carbon steel in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions containing chloride ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrochemical behavior and environment-induced degradation in strength for a carbon steel, SM400B, have been investigated in 0.025 M Na2CO3 + 0.075 M NaHCO3 solutions containing various concentrations of NaCl at 363 K. A slow strain rate test (SSRT) was employed to evaluate the degradation in mechanical properties. It was found from polarization curves that there generated pitting corrosion beyond 0.01 M NaCl. The SSRT was carried out applying a potential below the pitting potential to the specimen in the test solutions containing 0.5 and 0.01 M NaCl. Under both solution conditions, at increase in the applied potential resulted in a reduction in maximum stress and fracture strain, as well as an increase in current density during SSRT. From observation of the surface of the fracture specimens, however, there was no crack on it. Based on assumption of homogeneous deformation and general dissolution until maximum load, true stress at the maximum load was calculated. It was revealed that the true stress was almost independent of the applied potential, although the maximum load decreased with increase in the applied potential. It means that the homogeneous dissolution is accelerated by applying the stress and/or the dynamic strain. It is concluded from the facts that the degradation in the mechanical properties results from a rapid reduction in the cross section due to homogeneous dissolution, instead of localized corrosion. (author)tead of localized corrosion. (author)

222

Preventive and curative activity of combined treatments of sodium carbonates and Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 to control postharvest green mold of citrus fruit  

Science.gov (United States)

Preventive and curative activity of 2 min dips in 3% sodium carbonate (SC) or sodium bicarbonate (SBC) aqueous solutions heated to 40ºC, alone of followed by the application of 2 x 108 CFU/ml of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 (BA), in the control of postharvest green mold, caused by ...

223

Investigation of dissolution processes of rhenium sulfides in sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kinetic characteristics (rate constant, activation energy) for the reaction of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide dissolution with provision for change of their surface value were determined and the possible mechanism of rhenium sulfide dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of oxygen was suggested. It was shown, that change of Gibbs energy of sulfide formation correlates with change of Gibbs energy of their dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions.

Ospanov, Kh.K.; Sultanbaeva, R.

1983-02-01

224

Interaction of ammonium perrhenate with sodium thiosulfate in sulfuric-acid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interaction of ammonium perrhenate with sodium thiosulfate in sulfuric-acid solution is studied in a wide range of component ratios. It is established that the medium mainly affects the rate of sodium thiosulfate decomposition to elemental sulphur and sulphur dioxide. Simultaneous increase of thiosulfate and rhenium concentrations in the initial solutions results in their less complete interaction. Composition of solid phases depends but slightly on the acid nature

225

Investigation of dissolution processes of rhenium sulfides in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetic characteristics (rate constant, activation energy) for the reaction of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide dissolution with provision for change of their surface value were determined and the possible mechanism of rhenium sulfide dissolution in sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of oxygen was suggested. It was shown, that change of Gibbs energy of sulfide formation correlates with change of Gibbs energy of their dissolution in sodium hydroxide solutions

226

Mutual solubility of vanadate and fluoride of sodium alkaline solutions at 15 deg C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using isothermal method, mutual solubility of sodium vanadate and fluoride at permanent concentrations of Na2OH, corresponding to industrial ones, is investigated. Equilibrium solutions and bottom phases are analyzed by physicochemical methods of analysis. Dta of the analyses confirm the existence of double salt 2Na3VO4·NaF·1/4NaOH·19H2O. Certain difference of solid phases isolated from aqueous and alkaline solutions permits to assume the presence of alkaline complexes. Crystallization region of alkaline complex of congruently soluble double salt of sodium fluoride and alkaline complex of sodium vanadate dodecahydrate is ascertained

227

Avaliação de procedimentos de extração dos óxidos de ferro pedogênicos com ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio Evaluation of pedogenic iron oxide extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Em 20 amostras hematíticas e goethíticas de horizontes B latossólicos, uma de B plíntico, uma de B incipiente e uma de saprolito, foram avaliados dois procedimentos de extração de óxidos de ferro pedogênicos (Fe d por ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio (DCB. O procedimento a 80 ºC (DCB80 extraiu aproximadamente 90 % do Fe d na primeira extração e praticamente a totalidade do mesmo na segunda extração, sendo mais efetivo que o procedimento a temperatura ambiente (DCB20, o qual teve sua eficiência reduzida com o aumento da substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita. A substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita determinada por DCB80 superestimou os valores determinados por DRX conforme aumentaram as extrações. Em amostras hematíticas, esta estimativa foi prejudicada pela presença de maghemita que dissolveu juntamente com a hematita.Pedogenic iron oxides (Fe d were quantified in 22 hematitic and goethitic soil samples (19 from oxic horizons; one from a plinthic horizon; one from a cambic horizon; one from saprolite by use of two extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB. Approximately ninety percent of the Fe d content was extracted at the first extraction by the DCB80 procedure. This procedure was more effective at extracting Fe d than the DCB20, whose efficiency decreased with increasing Al3+-substitution in goethite. Compared with the DRX analysis, Al3+-substitution in goethite determined by the DCB80 procedure was superestimated. Maghemite masked Al3+-substitution estimates in hematite from hematitic samples.

A. V. Inda Junior

2003-12-01

228

Avaliação de procedimentos de extração dos óxidos de ferro pedogênicos com ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio / Evaluation of pedogenic iron oxide extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em 20 amostras hematíticas e goethíticas de horizontes B latossólicos, uma de B plíntico, uma de B incipiente e uma de saprolito, foram avaliados dois procedimentos de extração de óxidos de ferro pedogênicos (Fe d) por ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio (DCB). O procedimento a 80 ºC (DCB80) extr [...] aiu aproximadamente 90 % do Fe d na primeira extração e praticamente a totalidade do mesmo na segunda extração, sendo mais efetivo que o procedimento a temperatura ambiente (DCB20), o qual teve sua eficiência reduzida com o aumento da substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita. A substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita determinada por DCB80 superestimou os valores determinados por DRX conforme aumentaram as extrações. Em amostras hematíticas, esta estimativa foi prejudicada pela presença de maghemita que dissolveu juntamente com a hematita. Abstract in english Pedogenic iron oxides (Fe d) were quantified in 22 hematitic and goethitic soil samples (19 from oxic horizons; one from a plinthic horizon; one from a cambic horizon; one from saprolite) by use of two extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB). Approximately ninety perce [...] nt of the Fe d content was extracted at the first extraction by the DCB80 procedure. This procedure was more effective at extracting Fe d than the DCB20, whose efficiency decreased with increasing Al3+-substitution in goethite. Compared with the DRX analysis, Al3+-substitution in goethite determined by the DCB80 procedure was superestimated. Maghemite masked Al3+-substitution estimates in hematite from hematitic samples.

A. V., Inda Junior; N., Kämpf.

1139-11-01

229

Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women? / ¿Modifica el agua mineral bicarbonatada rica en sodio la sensibilidad a la insulina de las mujeres postmenopáusicas?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Estudiar los efectos de la ingesta de 0.5L de dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2), junto con una comida estándar, sobre los cambios en la insulina y la glucosa postprandial; y determinar si los posibles efectos varían en función de la resistencia a la insulina eva [...] luada a través del modelo homeostático (HOMA). Métodos: 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas sanas participaron en un estudio triple cruzado aleatorizado, en el que bebieron 2 aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2) y un agua mineral débil (LMW) junto con una comida estándar rica en grasa. Se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas y postprandiales a los 30, 60 y 120 min. Se determinó glucosa, insulina, colesterol y triglicéridos en suero. La resistencia a la insulina fue estimada a través del HOMA y la sensibilidad a la insulina se calculó mediante el índice de sensibilidad cuantitativa a la insulina (QUICKY). Resultados: Los niveles de glucosa no presentaron cambios. Los valores de HOMA y QUICKY presentaron una fuerte correlación inversa (r = -1,000; p Abstract in english Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2), with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Methods [...] : In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW) with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY). Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p

S., Schoppen; F. J., Sánchez-Muniz; A. M.ª, Pérez-Granados; J. A., Gómez-Gerique; B., Sarriá; S., Navas-Carretero; M.ª Pilar, Vaquero.

2007-10-01

230

Sodium picosulphate compared with polyethylene glycol solution for large bowel lavage: a prospective randomised trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mechanical efficiency, patient acceptability and minimal biochemical perturbation are important factors in the choice of lavage solution for bowel preparation. This prospective randomised trial of 59 patients compared a polyethylene glycol bowel lavage solution (Klean Prep) to a sodium picosulphate solution (Picolax) considering their efficacy from both colonoscopists' and radiologists' points of view, patient acceptibility, and plasma biochemical changes. The sodium picosulphate solution was more acceptable to patients than the polyethylene glycol, and resulted in significantly less nausea and vomiting (p = 0.0025), and far fewer consumption difficulties (p magnesium (p bowel preparation. The changes in plasma biochemistry values are unlikely to cause clinical problems. PMID:8731641

Hamilton, D; Mulcahy, D; Walsh, D; Farrelly, C; Tormey, W P; Watson, G

1996-03-01

231

Thermodynamics of plutonium (VI) interaction with bicarbonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interaction of Pu(VI) with bicarbonate was studied by spectrophotometry and by calorimetric titration in a solution of 0.10 M (NaClO4) ionic strength and pH 8.3. Successive complexation of 1:1 and 1:2 (Pu(VI):HCO3-) stoichiometry was observed. (orig./WL)

232

21 CFR 173.325 - Acidified sodium chlorite solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...a component of a spray or dip solution, provided that such application be followed by...Cole] family, application must be by dip treatment...When used in a spray or dip solution...HFS-215), Center for Food...

2010-04-01

233

Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO3) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO3 solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO3 solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO3 solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO3 solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO3, which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary pressure and tortuosity. The higher the temperature, the more significant the salinity driven fluid flow

234

Hydrophobic interactions between polymethacrylic acid and sodium laureth sulfate in aqueous solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of hydrophobic interaction in the development of associative processes is demonstrated, based on the concentration dependences of the viscosity and pH of binary solutions of polymethacrylic acid as an anionic polyelectrolyte and sodium laureth sulfate as an anionic surfactant. It is found that the inflection point on the dependence of the difference between the pH values of binary solutions of polymethacrylic acid and sodium laureth sulfate on the polyelectrolyte concentration is a criterion for determining the predominant contribution from hydrophobic interaction, as is the inflection point on the dependence of pH of individual solutions of polymethacrylic acid on the polyelectrolyte concentration.

Yaremko, Z. M.; Fedushinskaya, L. B.; Burka, O. A.; Soltys, M. N.

2014-09-01

235

Dependence of cesium sorption from sodium chloride solution on nature of compensative zeolite cation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigated is cesium sorption with the method of radioactive indicators under dynamic conditions out of solutions of sodium chloride on crionite, clinoptilolite and zeolite NaX. It is shown that the biggest amount of cesium is sorbed on zeolites where the exchange cation is placed different from the competitive cation in the solution. On erionite and clinoptilolite, in this case

236

Radiation protection by ascorbic acid in sodium alginate solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alginates are gelling hydrocolloids extracted from brown seaweed used widely in the nourishing and pharmaceutical industries. As alginic acid gellification retard food entrance in the stomach alginate is an additive used in diets. The objective of this work was to study the protective action of the ascorbic acid in alginate solutions against the action of {sup 60} Co gamma radiation. One % (w/v) solutions of alginate had been used and concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 0 to 2.5% (w/v). The solutions were irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy. Viscosity/dose relationship and the p H of the solutions at 25 Centigrade were determined. Ascorbic acid behaved as an antioxidant against radiation oxidative shock in this model system of an irradiated viscous solution. Besides its radiation protective role on alginate solutions ascorbic acid promoted a viscosity increase in the range of concentrations employed. (Author)

Aliste, A.J.; Mastro, N.L. Del [Center of Radiation Technology, IPEN/CNEN/SP, University City, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: ajaliste@ipen.br

2004-07-01

237

Radiation protection by ascorbic acid in sodium alginate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alginates are gelling hydrocolloids extracted from brown seaweed used widely in the nourishing and pharmaceutical industries. As alginic acid gellification retard food entrance in the stomach alginate is an additive used in diets. The objective of this work was to study the protective action of the ascorbic acid in alginate solutions against the action of 60 Co gamma radiation. One % (w/v) solutions of alginate had been used and concentrations of ascorbic acid varied from 0 to 2.5% (w/v). The solutions were irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy. Viscosity/dose relationship and the p H of the solutions at 25 Centigrade were determined. Ascorbic acid behaved as an antioxidant against radiation oxidative shock in this model system of an irradiated viscous solution. Besides its radiation protective role on alginate solutions ascorbic acid promoted a viscosity increase in the range of concentrations employed. (Author)

238

A kinetic model of amino-acid polymer growth in sodium and potassium aqueous solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

A kinetic model was proposed and computing calculations of formation of short polymer chains (oligomers) from monomers (amino acids) in aqueous solutions with sodium and potassium ions for which energies of monomer addition to the chain were carried out. It is shown that formation of longer chains of monomers in potassium medium, in comparison with sodium medium, is caused by a smaller value of the energy of addition.

Lubov, M. N.; Eliseev, I. E.; Trushin, Yu. V.; Dubina, M. V.; Natochin, Yu. V.

2013-11-01

239

Thermogravimetric analysis of phase transitions in cement compositions mixed by sodium silicate solution  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a study of the capability to modify cement by mechanical activation of sodium silicate water solution. Admixtures or blends of binding agents were employed for modifying concrete properties. The liquid glass is applied to protect from chemically or physically unfavorable environmental impacts, such as acidic medium and high temperature. The sodium silicate is a high-capacity setting accelerator. The increasing of the liquid glass proportion in the mix leads to the degradat...

Fedosov Sergey Viktorovich; Akulova Marina Vladimirovna; Slizneva Tatyana Evgenyevna; Potemkina O.V.

2014-01-01

240

Degradation of Sodium-Polymethacrylate and Sodium-Carboxymethyl Cellulose in Dilute Aqueous Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

It is shown that Na-PMA and Na-CMC molecules in dilute aqueous solution are degraded during the usual viscosity measurements with a capillary viscometer, and a solution exposed to UV light exhibits an optical absorption maximum at about 270 nm. Polymer degradation proceeds even with time of rest alone, and the rate constant of the degradation increases with decreasing polymer concentration. Consequently, it is shown that the reduced viscosity of a solution of a considerably degraded polymer exhibits a maximum value at a finite concentration, below which the reduced viscosity decreases.

Saita, Takao

1984-01-01

241

Purification of sodium vanadate solutions from silicon, iron, manganese  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dependence of solution purification on the amount of precipitant, the time of the procedure and the temperature of the process as well as on the selected mole ratio Na2O/V2O5 is studied. It is shown that the content of admixtures in tungsten pentoxide decreases 12-fold as to silicon, 18-fold as to iron and 30-fold as to manganese as compared with the product obtained from non-purified solutions

242

Effects of sodium hypochlorite gel and sodium hypochlorite solution on dentin bond strength.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 10% NaOCl gel and 10% NaOCl solution on dentin bond strengths of four adhesive systems. One hundred eighty bovine incisors were ground to achieve a flat polished surface, then divided into 12 groups: Gluma One Bond [G1-control; G2-NaOCl solution; G3-NaOCl gel]; Prime & Bond 2.1 [G4-control; G5-NaOCl solution; G6-NaOCl gel]; Single Bond [G7-control; G8-NaOCl solution; G9-NaOCl gel]; Prime & Bond NT [G10-control; G11-NaOCl solution; G12-NaOCl gel]. Dentin was etched, rinsed, and blot dried. For the experimental groups, after acid etching, 10% NaOCl solution or 10% NaOCl gel was applied for 60 s, rinsed, and blot dried. Composite resin was inserted and light cured. Shear bond strengths were tested with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean values MPa (SD) were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (alpha Gluma One Bond strength. No effect was observed for the other adhesives. The 10% NaOCl gel did not affect bond strengths. Ten percent NaOCl gel was less effective on collagen removal as compared to 10% NaOCl solution. The influence of collagen removal on bond strength is dependent on adhesive system, where both the solvent and the monomer can influence the results. PMID:15490482

Arias, Vanessa G; Bedran-de-Castro, Ana Karina B; Pimenta, Luiz André

2005-02-15

243

Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease presenting after consumption of 'Miracle Mineral Solution' (sodium chlorite).  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case report of a 41-year-old woman of Malay ethnicity who presented with an 11-day history of fever and left-sided lymphadenopathy after consuming 'Miracle Mineral Solution' (sodium chlorite solution) for the first time. A diagnosis of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease was established via lymph node biopsy after other differentials were excluded. The aetiology of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease remains controversial, but viral, autoimmune and physicochemical causes have been suggested as possibilities. In this case, we hypothesise that oxidative injury from sodium chlorite initiated an inflammatory response, which triggered the onset of Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease. PMID:25422331

Loh, John Ming Ren; Shafi, Humaira

2014-01-01

244

Inhibition of copper corrosion in sodium chloride solution by the self-assembled monolayer of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? DDTC is of low toxicity. ? DDTC SAM had good corrosion inhibition effects on copper in 3% NaCl solution. ? DDTC SAM was chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms. - Abstract: Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on copper surface has been investigated by SERS and EDS and the results show that DDTC SAM is chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms with tilted orientation. Corrosion inhibition ability of DDTC SAM was measured in 3% NaCl solution using electrochemical methods. The impedance results indicate that the maximum inhibition efficiency of DDTC SAM can reach 99%. Quantum chemical calculations show that DDTC has relatively small ?E between HOMO and LUMO and large negative charge in its two sulfur atoms, which facilitates the formation of a DDTC SAM on copper surface.

245

Clinical effect of a mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose during the transconjunctival approach for orbital wall reconstruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to evaluate the anti-adhesive effect of a mixed solution of sodium hyaluronate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (HACMC, Guardix-sol®) during the transconjunctival approach to orbital wall reconstruction. Eighty-seven patients who underwent orbital wall reconstruction by the transconjunctival approach were enrolled in this prospective study. We applied HACMC between the orbicularis oculi muscle and the orbital septum after surgery in 47 patients and did not use it in 40 patients. Lower lid retraction and marginal reflex distance 2 (MRD(2)) were measured to analyze the degree of postoperative adhesion at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months. The degree of MRD(2) showed clinically significant differences at postoperative 1 week and 1 month between the HACMC and control groups (p<0.05). Lower lid ectropion developed in two patients (5.0%) in the control group but did not occur in the HACMC group. In orbital wall reconstruction by the transconjunctival approach, the HACMC mixture solution is effective for preventing adhesion and lower lid ectropion during the early postoperative period. PMID:22977754

Kang, Byung Wan; Lee, Hyo Seok; Oh, Han Jin; Yoon, Kyung Chul

2012-08-01

246

CHLORIDEDETERMINATION IN HIGH IONIC STRENGTH SOLUTION OF AMMONIUM ACETATE USING NEGATIVE ION ELECTRON SPRAY IONIZATION (HPLC/MS)  

Science.gov (United States)

A precise ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of chloride in high ionic strength ammonium acetate solutions (10-5 M-5 M) using sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate as eluent. Negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was used for q...

247

Use of hypertonic solutions of sodium chloride in hypergranulating wounds  

OpenAIRE

Objective: to verify the efficiency of hypertonic solution (NaCl/20%) on the hypergranulation due to the constant hypergranulating wound beds treated in venous ulcers in the daily clinic practice, which delays and disables cells epithelization. Methodology: clinical case study, performed in an outpatient’s clinic of Médio Vale do Paraíba, from February to March 2008. MCT, 60 years old, female, white skin, systematic arterial hypertension controlled, with wounds on the middle part and regi...

Bruno Assis Quelemente, Ana Beatriz Pinto Da Silva Morita

2009-01-01

248

Volumetric and conductometric studies on the interactions of dipeptides with sodium acetate and sodium butyrate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Densities and conductivity data for the sodium carboxylate (sodium acetate and sodium butyrate)-dipeptides {(glycyl-L-glutamine and L-alanyl-L-glutamine) + water} systems were determined at T = 298.15 K. The apparent molar volumes of the peptides and the molar conductivity (?) of sodium acetate and sodium butyrate have been calculated. These data have been utilized to deduce the standard partial molar volumes (V2,?0), standard partial molar volumes of transfer for dipeptide from water to aqueous sodium carboxylate solutions (?tVo), volumetric interaction coefficient, the limiting molar conductivity (?o), and Walden product (?o?). Both V2,?0 and ?tVo for the dipeptides increase with increasing concentration of sodium carboxylate. The interpretation is that this result arises from the dominant interactions of the sodium carboxylate with the charged group and polar groups of peptides. The decrease in ?o of sodium carboxylate with increasing dipeptide concentration and nonconstant Walden product are attributed to the interactions of sodium carboxylate with peptide and friction resistance of the solvent medium.

249

Volumetric and conductometric studies on the interactions of dipeptides with sodium acetate and sodium butyrate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Densities and conductivity data for the sodium carboxylate (sodium acetate and sodium butyrate)-dipeptides {l_brace}(glycyl-L-glutamine and L-alanyl-L-glutamine) + water{r_brace} systems were determined at T = 298.15 K. The apparent molar volumes of the peptides and the molar conductivity ({lambda}) of sodium acetate and sodium butyrate have been calculated. These data have been utilized to deduce the standard partial molar volumes (V{sub 2,{phi}}{sup 0}), standard partial molar volumes of transfer for dipeptide from water to aqueous sodium carboxylate solutions ({delta}{sub t}V{sup o}), volumetric interaction coefficient, the limiting molar conductivity ({lambda}{sup o}), and Walden product ({lambda}{sup o}o{eta}). Both V{sub 2,{phi}}{sup 0} and {delta}{sub t}V{sup o} for the dipeptides increase with increasing concentration of sodium carboxylate. The interpretation is that this result arises from the dominant interactions of the sodium carboxylate with the charged group and polar groups of peptides. The decrease in {lambda}{sup o} of sodium carboxylate with increasing dipeptide concentration and nonconstant Walden product are attributed to the interactions of sodium carboxylate with peptide and friction resistance of the solvent medium.

Yan Zhenning [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052 (China)], E-mail: yanzzn@zzu.edu.cn; Wang Xiaoge; Xing Ronghua [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450052 (China); Wang Jianji [Department of Chemistry, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang, Henan 453007 (China)

2009-12-15

250

Electrochemical Evaluation of Stainless Steels in Acidified Sodium Chloride Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results of an investigation in which several 300-series stainless steels (SS): AISI S30403 SS (UNS S30403), AISI 316L SS (UNS S31603), and AISI 317L SS (LINS S31703), as well as highly-alloyed: SS 254-SMO (UNS S32154), AL-6XN (N08367) and AL29-4C (UNS S44735), were evaluated using DC electrochemical techniques in three different electrolyte solutions. The solutions consisted of neutral 3.55% NaCl, 3.55% NaCl in 0.1N HCl, and 3.55% NaCl in 1.0N HCl. These solutions were chosen to simulate environments that are less, similar, and more aggressive, respectively, than the conditions at the Space Shuttle launch pads. The electrochemical test results were compared to atmospheric exposure data and evaluated for their ability to predict the long-term corrosion performance of the subject alloys. The electrochemical measurements for the six alloys indicated that the higher-alloyed SS 254-SMO, AL29-4C, and AL-6XN exhibited significantly higher resistance to localized corrosion than the 300-series SS. There was a correlation between the corrosion performance of the alloys during a two-year atmospheric exposure and the corrosion rates calculated from electrochemical (polarization resistance) measurements.

Calle, L. M.; MacDowell, L. G.; Vinje, R. D.

2004-01-01

251

Special features of humus acids extraction from soils by sodium pyrophosphate solutions of different alkalinity  

Science.gov (United States)

The regularities of extracting humus acids from soils of different types with solutions of sodium pyrophosphate at the equilibrium pH values of 5-13 were studied. The increase in the humus acids yield from the soils with the increasing alkalinity of the solution applied is directly related to the capability of acid functional groups (carboxyl and phenol hydroxyl) for dissociation at definite pH values. The regularities of the changes in the chemical nature and degree of humification of humus acids extracted from the soils related to the pH of the solution were revealed. A sodium pyrophosphate solution (pH 10) was suggested for extracting the humus acids most active in the given soil.

Bakina, L. G.; Orlova, N. E.

2012-04-01

252

Investigation of rhenium sulfide interaction with sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of oxidizers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetics of rhenium heptasulfide and disulfide interaction with sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of hydrogen peroxide is studied. The processes of rhenium sulfide interaction with hydrogen peroxide in the alkali medium proceed on the phase boundary and are limited by kinetic factors. Possible adsorption mechanism of rhenium sulfide oxidation under these conditions is shown

253

RESEARCH OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRIC PULSE DISCHARGE IN CHLORIDE SODIUM SOLUTIONS ???????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????  

OpenAIRE

Electro physical and energetic properties of electric pulse discharge in various concentration solutions of chloride sodium as the results of the researches are provided in this article. The possibility of applying the Yutkin effect in technological processes of food industry has been reviewed

Nagdalyan A. A.; Oboturova N. P.; Barybina L. I.; Lukyanchenko P. P.

2013-01-01

254

RESEARCH OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRIC PULSE DISCHARGE IN CHLORIDE SODIUM SOLUTIONS ???????????? ????????????? ?????????????????? ??????? ? ?????? ????????? ?????????? ??????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Electro physical and energetic properties of electric pulse discharge in various concentration solutions of chloride sodium as the results of the researches are provided in this article. The possibility of applying the Yutkin effect in technological processes of food industry has been reviewed

Nagdalyan A. A.

2013-02-01

255

Properties of cement composites by the mechanoactivation of solution of the sodium silicate ???????? ????????? ?????????? ?? ???????????????????? ???????? ???????? ??????  

OpenAIRE

Mixing of cement by the mechanoactivation of the sodium liquid glass solution resulted in increasing of the heat stability and the compressive and flexural strengths of cement stone and reducing of the water adsorption. These data point to compacting of cement stone structure.??????? ??????? ?????????????? ?????????, ??????? ????????? ? ???????????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ...

Fedosov Sergey Viktorovich; Akulova Marina Vladimirovna; Slizneva Tatjana Evgenjevna; Akhmadulina Juliya Sergeevna; Padokhin Valery Alekseevich; Bazanov Aleksandr Vladimirovich

2012-01-01

256

Reduction of potassium permanganate solution by ?-irradiated sodium chloride [Paper No. RD-21  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dissolution of ?-irradiated sodium chloride in potassium permanganate solution results in the reduction of MnO4- ions. This has been inferred from spectrophotometric studies. This has been explained on the basis of interaction of colour centres with MnO4- ions. The extent to which MnO4- ions are reduced are found to vary with

257

Examination of conditions for cadmium sulfide precipitation by sodium thiosulfate from aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Conditions for the preparation of metal sulfides by their precipitation from aqueous solutions containing sodium thiosulfate and a water-soluble metal salt have been examined using cadmium sulfide as an example. The constants of thiosulfate hydrolytic decomposition were estimated and the values were considered for their compliance with the experimental data found at 25 deg C for cadmium sulfide preparation

258

Hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio na prevenção de nefropatia induzida por contraste em pacientes diabéticos: subanálise de ensaio clínico multicêntrico / Sodium-bicarbonate to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in diabetic patients: a sub-analysis of a multicenter clinical trial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Nefropatia induzida por contraste (NIC) está associada a piores desfechos intra-hospitalar e a longo prazo. Estudos recentes sugerem que hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio possa ser útil na sua prevenção; no entanto, essa medida de prevenção de NIC não foi, ainda, avaliada em pacientes [...] diabéticos. MÉTODO: Subanálise de um estudo multicêntrico envolvendo 301 pacientes com creatinina sérica > 1,2 mg/dl ou depuração de creatinina endógena (DCE) Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with worse clinical outcomes both at short and long-term follow-up. Recent evidence indicates that intravenous hydration with sodium-bicarbonate may reduce the incidence of CIN. However, this strategy has not been reported in diabetic pati [...] ents. METHODS: Sub-analysis of a multicenter study involving 301 patients with serum creatinine > 1,2 mg/dL or creatinine clearance 0,5 mg/dL), and the average change in creatinine and creatinine clearance 48 hours after the procedure. A total of 87 diabetic patients were analyzed. RESULTS: There was no difference between groups regarding baseline characteristics, contrast volume used, baseline creatinine levels and creatinine clearance. Eight patients presented CIN: 4 (9.8%) in the bicarbonate group and 4 (8.9%) in the saline group (p = 0.9). The average change in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: Intravenous hydration with sodium-bicarbonate did not reduce the incidence of CIN in diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention as compared to hydration with normal saline.

Vitor Osório, Gomes; Camila, Tabajara; Patrícia, Hickmann; Juan Carlos, Perez-Alva; Fábio, Brito Jr.; Breno, Almeida; Valter, Lima; Bruno, Machado; Airton, Arruda; José Eduardo T. de, Paula; Ricardo, Lasevitch; Paulo, Caramori.

259

Critical role of bicarbonate and bicarbonate transporters in cardiac function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bicarbonate is one of the major anions in mammalian tissues and extracellular fluids. Along with accompanying H(+), HCO3 (-) is generated from CO2 and H2O, either spontaneously or via the catalytic activity of carbonic anhydrase. It serves as a component of the major buffer system, thereby playing a critical role in pH homeostasis. Bicarbonate can also be utilized by a variety of ion transporters, often working in coupled systems, to transport other ions and organic substrates across cell membranes. The functions of HCO3 (-) and HCO3 (-)-transporters in epithelial tissues have been studied extensively, but their functions in heart are less well understood. Here we review studies of the identities and physiological functions of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchangers and Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporters of the SLC4A and SLC26A families in heart. We also present RNA Seq analysis of their cardiac mRNA expression levels. These studies indicate that slc4a3 (AE3) is the major Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger and plays a protective role in heart failure, and that Slc4a4 (NBCe1) is the major Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporter and affects action potential duration. In addition, previous studies show that HCO3 (-) has a positive inotropic effect in the perfused heart that is largely independent of effects on intracellular Ca(2+). The importance of HCO3 (-) in the regulation of contractility is supported by experiments showing that isolated cardiomyocytes exhibit sharply enhanced contractility, with no change in Ca(2+) transients, when switched from Hepes-buffered to HCO3 (-)- buffered solutions. These studies demonstrate that HCO3 (-) and HCO3 (-)-handling proteins play important roles in the regulation of cardiac function. PMID:25225601

Wang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Yamei; Vairamani, Kanimozhi; Shull, Gary E

2014-08-26

260

An in vivo microperfusion study of distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption in normal and ammonium chloride rats.  

OpenAIRE

For many years it has been thought that distal nephron hydrogen ion secretion can be importantly modulated by factors such as sodium delivery, sodium avidity, and potassium stores. Free flow micropuncture studies have also indicated that the rate of bicarbonate delivery may also alter the rate of bicarbonate reabsorption. The present studies were undertaken to examine possible luminal influences on total CO2 reabsorption in microperfused distal tubules in the rat in vivo. Tubules from normal ...

Levine, D. Z.

1985-01-01

261

Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO3) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10-6M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO3 and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar1, Ile8)-Angiotensin II(10-6M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO3. Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO3. Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium

262

Molecular interaction studies of glycylglycine in aqueous sodium halide solutions at 303, 308 and 313k  

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Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity have been measured for glycylglycine in aqueous sodium halide (NaF, NaCl, NaBr mixture (0.5m at 303, 308 and 313K. Using the experimental values, the adiabatic compressibility, hydration number, apparent molal compressibility, apparent molal volume, limiting apparent molal compressibility, limiting apparent molal volume and their constants (SK, SV, transfer volumes at infinite dilution and viscosity B-coefficient of Jones-Dole equation were calculated. These parameters have been interpreted the molecular interactions in terms of solute-co-solute and solute-solvent interaction present in the given solutions.

R. Palani

2010-12-01

263

Removal of thorium from aqueous solutions by sodium clinoptilolite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adsorptive behavior of natural clinoptilolite was assessed for removal of thorium from aqueous solutions. Natural zeolite was characterized by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The zeolite sample composed mainly of clinoptilolite. Na-exchanged form of zeolite was prepared and its sorption capacity for removal of thorium from aqueous solutions was examined. The effects of relevant parameters, including initial concentration, contact time, solid to liquid ratio, temperature and initial pH on the removal efficiency were investigated in batch studies. The pH strongly influenced thorium adsorption capacity and maximal capacity was obtained at pH 4.0. Kinetics and isotherm of adsorption were also studied. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and intra-particle diffusion models were used to describe the kinetic data. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model provided excellent kinetic data fitting (R2 > 0.999) with rate constant of 1.25, 1.37 and 1.44 g mmol-1 min-1 respectively for 25, 40 and 55 deg C. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms for thorium uptake and the Langmuir model agrees very well with experimental data. Thermodynamic parameters were determined and are discussed. (author)

264

Tetraethylammonium bicarbonate trihydrate  

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Full Text Available In the title compound, C8H20N+·CHO3?·3H2O, the bicarbonate anion, which has a small mean deviation from the plane of 0.0014?Å, fully utilises its three O and one H atom to form various O—H...O hydrogen bonds with the three water molecules in the asymmetric unit, generating a hydrogen-bonded layer, which extends along (10overline{1}. The tetraethylammonium cations, as the guest species, are accommodated between every two neighboring layers, constructing a sandwich-like structure with an interlayer distance of 7.28?Å.

Heping Li

2011-08-01

265

Tetraethylammonium bicarbonate trihydrate  

OpenAIRE

In the title compound, C8H20N+·CHO3?·3H2O, the bicarbonate anion, which has a small mean deviation from the plane of 0.0014?Å, fully utilises its three O and one H atom to form various O—H...O hydrogen bonds with the three water molecules in the asymmetric unit, generating a hydrogen-bonded layer, which extends along (10overline{1}). The tetraethylammonium cations, as the guest species, are accommodated between every two neighboring lay...

Heping Li,; Yimin Hou; Yunxia Yang

2011-01-01

266

The absorption of caesium by stainless steel from liquid sodium-caesium solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stainless steel (types AISI 321) has been shown to be inert towards sodium containing 3 wppm caesium and less than 20 wppm oxygen over 635 d at 673 K. Stainless steel (type AISI 316) has been shown to be inert towards both pure caesium and sodium-caesium solutions (up to 50 wppm caesium) containing less than 20 wppm oxygen over 115 d at 873 K. Penetration and corrosion by the liquid metals was negligible. The addition of ca. 2 mol.% oxygen to the pure caesium caused minor grain-boundary corrosion of the steel, revealed after chemical etching to be ca. 10 ?m in depth after 25 d at 873 K. The only corrosion product detected was chromium. By diluting the caesium with sodium and then adding 0.35 mol.% oxygen to the sodium-caesium system produced a more corrosive liquid which caused more severe grain-boundary degradation of the steel surface. The corrosion mechanism in each case is thought to begin with the formation of Cr2O3 on the steel surface which then undergoes further reaction with the alkali metal. Grinding the flat steel surface against an abrasive paper allowed the removal of thin sections and by this with a #betta#-tracer technique, depth profiles were determined for the caesium penetration from sodium-caesium solutions. The results are reported, analysed and discussed. (author)

267

In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

2005-07-19

268

Concentration of rhenium from dilute sodium chloride solutions  

OpenAIRE

The conditions for the desorption of rhenium from the anion exchange resin Dowex 1-x8 by HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH were determined. The solution (5.0´10-3 mol dm-3 Re in 0.15 mol dm-3 NaCl) was passed through a column containing 0.10 g of the resin. The total sorbed amount of rhenium was 0.20 g/g of the resin. It was then eluted by the corresponding eluent in the concentration range up to about 3.0 mol dm-3. The highest elution efficiency and the most favourable elution profile were found wi...

Lukic, Dragoljub M.; Vucina, Jurij L.; Milonjic, Slobodan K.

2008-01-01

269

Thermal diffusion processes in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experimental results for the Soret coefficients are variable, but suggest a trend with NaCl concentration that is consistent with electrolyte solution behavior. The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficients is in approximate agreement with previous measurements obtained using other techniques. In general, the Soret coefficient values are best interpreted based on the expansion of the fluid inclusion migration fields. The high temperature values for ? at 1.0 N NaCl concentration suggest an expansion of the migration field to smaller inclusion sizes, which for a single halite crystal at these conditions, approach a dimension of one micron. The corresponding fluid inclusion size for the polycrystalline material, where grain boundaries retard the migration, is approximately 10 microns. Although the Soret results obtained in the present study provide additional data for high temperature applications in nuclear waste isolation, more experimentation and new equipment design are required in order to obtain data at temperatures above 80 degree C. The experimental approach utilized in this study is limited in that respect. The almost immeasurable nature of the thermal diffusion process for the brines as examined in the laboratory, suggests that this effect will be insignificant (outside of fluid inclusion migration) in most rock-water interactions associated with a rocksalt nuclear waste repository. Other effects, such as convective fluid transport, pressure solutiovective fluid transport, pressure solution, and groundwater flow, will be orders-of-magnitude more important in evaluating the critical nature of brine migration, waste canister corrosion, and the potential for leaching radioisotopes from waste repositories

270

Acute therapy for hyperkalemia with the combined regimen of bicarbonate and beta(2)-adrenergic agonist (salbutamol) in chronic renal failure patients.  

OpenAIRE

This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of combination therapy of bicarbonate and salbutamol for hyperkalemia in 9 hemodialysis patients. Simultaneous administration of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (i.v., 2 mEq/kg) for 1/2 hour and salbutamol (15 mg) in nebulized form for 10 min was compared with treatment modality of either bicarbonate or salbutamol alone. Infusion of sodium bicarbonate induced a significant rise in plasma bicarbonate from 17.3 +/- 3.2 to 22.1 +/- 2.4 mEq/L (p < 0.01), but ...

Kim, H. J.

1997-01-01

271

Direct rotating ring-disk measurement of the sodium borohydride diffusion coefficient in sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of borohydride anion and solution kinematic viscosity for a large panel of NaOH + NaBH{sub 4} electrolytic solutions relevant for use as anolyte in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC). The diffusion coefficients have been measured by the transit-time technique on gold rotating ring-disk electrodes, and verified using other classical techniques reported in the literature, namely the Levich method and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on a gold RDE, or chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk. The agreement between these methods is generally good. The diffusion coefficients measured from the RRDE technique are however ca. twice larger than those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ca. 3 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaBH{sub 4} at 25 deg. C in the present study vs. ca. 1.6 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.02 M NaBH{sub 4} at 30 deg. C in the literature, as measured by chronoamperometry at a gold microsphere), which is thoroughly discussed. Our measurements using chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk showed that such technique can yield diffusion coefficient values below what expected. The origin of such finding is explained in the frame of the formation of both a film of boron-oxide(s) at the surface of the (static) gold microdisk and the generation of H{sub 2} bubbles at the electrode surface (as a result of the heterogeneous hydrolysis at Au), which alter the access to the electrode surface and thus prevents efficient measurements. Such film formation and H{sub 2} bubbles generation is not so much of an issue for rotating electrodes thanks to the convection of electrolyte which sweeps the electrode surface. In addition, should such film be present, the transit-time determination technique on a RRDE displays the advantage of not being very sensible to its presence: the parameter measured is the time taken by a perturbation generated the disk to reach the ring trough a distance several orders of magnitude bigger than the film thickness, thus minimizing its effect.

Chatenet, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: Marian.Chatenet@phelma.grenoble-inp.fr; Molina-Concha, M.B. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); El-Kissi, N. [Laboratoire de Rheologie, UMR 5520 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1301 rue de la piscine, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Parrour, G.; Diard, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

2009-07-15

272

Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women? ¿Modifica el agua mineral bicarbonatada rica en sodio la sensibilidad a la insulina de las mujeres postmenopáusicas?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2, with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Methods: In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY. Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p Objetivo: Estudiar los efectos de la ingesta de 0.5L de dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2, junto con una comida estándar, sobre los cambios en la insulina y la glucosa postprandial; y determinar si los posibles efectos varían en función de la resistencia a la insulina evaluada a través del modelo homeostático (HOMA. Métodos: 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas sanas participaron en un estudio triple cruzado aleatorizado, en el que bebieron 2 aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2 y un agua mineral débil (LMW junto con una comida estándar rica en grasa. Se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas y postprandiales a los 30, 60 y 120 min. Se determinó glucosa, insulina, colesterol y triglicéridos en suero. La resistencia a la insulina fue estimada a través del HOMA y la sensibilidad a la insulina se calculó mediante el índice de sensibilidad cuantitativa a la insulina (QUICKY. Resultados: Los niveles de glucosa no presentaron cambios. Los valores de HOMA y QUICKY presentaron una fuerte correlación inversa (r = -1,000; p < 0,0001. Las concentraciones de insulina mostraron un efecto significativo en el tiempo (p < 0,0001 y una interacción agua x tiempo significativa (p < 0,021. A los 120 min los niveles de insulina fueron significativamente inferiores con BMW1 respecto a LMW (p = 0,022. Las concentraciones postprandiales de insulina mostraron patrones significativamente distintos según el tipo de agua que se bebía dependiendo de los n-tiles del HOMA (p = 0,016. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren un aumento de la sensibilidad a la insulina tras el consumo de las dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio. Este efecto es más marcado en las mujeres que tienen unos valores de HOMA más altos. Este tipo de aguas deberían ser consideradas como parte de una dieta saludable con objeto de prevenir la resistencia a la insulina y las enfermedades cardiovasculares.

S. Schoppen

2007-10-01

273

Efecto de levaduras antagónicas y bicarbonato de sodio sobre Penicillium expansum Link en dos variedades de manzana / Efect of antagonic yeasts and sodium bicarbonate on Penicillium expansum Link in two apple varieties  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El uso de fungicidas químicos para el control de Penicillium expansum Link en manzanas en poscosecha no es del todo aceptado, por lo que se trabaja con microorganismos antagónicos como las levaduras que al tener una efectividad limitada se combinan con sustancias de origen natural para elevar su efe [...] cto antagónico. Con este propósito, se usaron cepas de levaduras, en combinación con bicarbonato de sodio (BCS) para el control de P. expansum en manzanas (Malus domestica Borkh) 'Golden Delicious' y 'Red Delicious'. Se trataron con tres concentraciones de BCS (0, 2 y 4% p/v) y se inocularon con una concentración conocida de diez levaduras antagónicas, por separado, en heridas donde posteriormente se colocó una suspensión de esporas de P. expansum (1 x 10(4) UFC), midiéndose el diámetro de la lesión y la incidencia después de 10 días de incubación. 'Red Delicious' resultó menos sensible a P. expansum que 'Golden Delicious' (diámetro de lesión de 1.52 vs. 2.01 cm). Las levaduras con mayor poder antagónico sobre el hongo fueron 22-218, 8-121 y 26-224 (Torulaspora spp) que redujeron el desarrollo del hongo en 89, 81.8 y 84.3%, respectivamente a los 10 días de incubación. El BCS 4% no inhibió el crecimiento del hongo, pero a 2% potenció el efecto antagónico de las levaduras 23-61 y 3-5241 en 26.4 y 23.1%, respectivamente. La levadura 22-218 fue la más sobresaliente contra P. expansum en 'Golden Delicious' reduciendo 99.5% el diámetro de la lesión; mientras que las levaduras 22-224 y 8-121 lo fueron en 'Red Delicious' disminuyendo un 91.7 y 91.0%, respectivamente. Abstract in english As the use of chemical fungicides to control postharvest diseases of apple as Penicillium expansum Link is not entirely accepted, antagonist microorganisms as yeasts are employed. However, due to their limited effectiveness they are proposed to be combined with substances of natural origin. To evalu [...] ate the efficacy of different strains of antagonistic yeasts in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) to control P. expansum, 'Golden Delicious' and 'Red Delicious' apples were treated with three levels of SBC and inoculated with a given concentration of ten antagonistic yeasts separately in wounds where a spore suspension of P. expansum (1 x 10(4) UFC), was then placed. Lesion diameter and incidence were measured after ten days of incubation. 'Red Delicious' was less susceptible to P. expansum than 'Golden Delicious' (diameter lesion of 1.52 cm vs 2.01 cm). Yeasts with the highest antagonist capacity on P. expansum were 22-218, 8-121 y 26-224 (Torulaspora spp) reducing the development of fungus in 89, 81.8 y 84.3% respectively. SBC did not reduce the development of fungus, but at 2% it enhanced the antagonistic effect of yeasts 23-61 and 3-5241 in 26.4 y 23.1% respectively. Yeast 22-218 showed the major antagonism against P. expansum in 'Golden Delicious' diminishing the lesion diameter at 0.1 cm, while yeasts 22-224 and 8-121 did in 'Red Delicious' diminishing injury in 91.7 and 91% respectively.

L., Soto-Muñoz; R. A., Martínez-Peniche.

2009-08-01

274

Concentration of rhenium from dilute sodium chloride solutions  

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Full Text Available The conditions for the desorption of rhenium from the anion exchange resin Dowex 1-x8 by HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH were determined. The solution (5.0´10-3 mol dm-3 Re in 0.15 mol dm-3 NaCl was passed through a column containing 0.10 g of the resin. The total sorbed amount of rhenium was 0.20 g/g of the resin. It was then eluted by the corresponding eluent in the concentration range up to about 3.0 mol dm-3. The highest elution efficiency and the most favourable elution profile were found with 3.0 mol dm-3 HNO3. Over 77 % of the sorbed rhenium was found in the first 5 ml of the eluate. Practically all the rhenium was recovered with 20 ml of the acid. Under the given experimental conditions, HCl and H2SO4 were less favourable while NaOH was not applicable, due to very low efficiency of rhenium elution.

DRAGOLJUB M. LUKIC

2008-03-01

275

21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food...Food Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

2010-04-01

276

Corrosion Cyclic Voltammetry of Two Types of Heat-Affected Zones (HAZs) of API-X100 Steel in Bicarbonate Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examined the electrochemical corrosion behavior and corrosion products of two types of heat-affected HAZs made from API-X100 steel. Cyclic voltammetry, with different scan rates and potential ranges at 10 cycles, was applied to analyze the interdependent corrosion reactions of cathodic reduction, anodic dissolution, passivation, and transpassivation. The HAZ cooled at 60 K/s, from a peak temperature of 1470 K (1197 °C) that was held for 15 seconds, exhibited better passivation and lower cathodic activity than the HAZ cooled at 10 K/s. Increasing bicarbonate concentration, from 0.05 and 0.2 to 0.6 M, increases the anodic activity and cathodic reduction, but accordingly protects the active surfaces and enhances passivation.

Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram

2014-12-01

277

Photochemical oxidation of americium with persulfate in sodium carbonate solutions. Preparation and stabilization of Am(4)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oxidation of Am(4) in sodium carbonate solutions was realized by means of photochemical decomposition of persulfate-ions. Quantum yield of Am(3) oxidation to Am(4) during persulfate decomposition by the light with ? = 254 nm was found to be 1.07. At high enough concentration of persulfate spontaneous oxidation of americium to tetravalent state is observed. Am(6) becomes the product of Am(3) photochemical oxidation with carbonate solution pH increase up to 10.5-11.2. Immediately on the irradiation discontinuance the solution contains a mixture of different valency forms of americium, but 30-40 min after americium transforms into pentavalent state

278

Study on the standardization for the radioactivity measurement for sodium perrhenate 188Re solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to determine the radioactivity of 188Re radiopharmaceuticals accurately with dose calibrators, and ensure the safety and efficacy of the 188Re radiopharmaceuticals, the standardization for the radioactivity measurement of sodium perrhenate 188Re solution with dose calibrators were studied, in which 4? liquid scintillator and 4??-? coincidence method were used to determine the values of radioactivity for the sodium perrhenate 188Re Solution standard source with four experimental set-ups in three laboratories, then the dose calibrators were calibrated with the standard source, and the effect of the type of dose calibrator, the container of the standard source, and the volume of the solution were studied systematically, at last the comparative test was carried out among 10 different dose calibrators in three cities. The results showed that the values of CRC series dose calibrators were all in coincidence within ±3%. In conclusion, having been calibrated by standardization, the CRC series dose calibrators can be used to accurately determine the radioactivity of sodium perrhenate 188Re solution. (authors)

279

Investigation of Cs(I) adsorption on densely crosslinked poly(sodium methacrylate) from aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a crosslinked copolymer bearing sodium methacrylate functional groups has been proposed to remove Cs(I) ions from aqueous solutions. For this purpose, the crosslinked copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) and methacrylic acid (MA) containing 25% MA as weight percentage was synthesized by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO)-N,N-dimethyl aniline initiator system. The available carboxyl groups in copolymer were converted to the groups of sodium methacrylate using 2 N NaOH. The adsorption behavior of cesium ions on the densely crosslinked poly(sodium methacrylate) from aqueous solutions were investigated by the technique of ICP-MS measurements of cesium ions in solutions. Batch adsorption method was used to analyze the Cs(I) adsorption as a function of parameters such as the amount of adsorbent, contact time, pH of solution, initial Cs(I) concentration and temperature. The adsorption data were evaluated by the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The adsorption cavity and free energy change were calculated by using D-R isotherm. The adsorption data obtained from experimental results have been tested by the fractional power, the Elovich, the pseudo-first order and the pseudo-second order kinetic models. (author)

280

Thermometric quantitative selective analysis of sodium methoxide in methanol industrial solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O metóxido de sódio é usado como reagente ou como catalisador em muitos processos industriais como, por exemplo, na síntese de fármacos e de biodiesel. O presente trabalho apresenta um novo e seletivo método analítico quantitativo termométrico para a determinação de metóxido de sódio em soluções de [...] metanol na presença de íons hidróxido. Para fins de comparação com o método Karl-Fischer, os dois procedimentos foram aplicados a quatro diferentes soluções de metóxido de sódio em metanol, inclusive em presença de hidróxido de sódio, e os resultados foram comparados estatisticamente mostrando total concordância. Abstract in english Sodium methoxide is used as a reagent or a catalyst in many industrial processes such as, for example, pharmaceuticals and biodiesel syntheses. This work presents a new and selective quantitative analytical thermometric method for sodium methoxide determination in methanol solutions in the presence [...] of hydroxide ions. For comparative purposes with the Karl-Fischer procedure, these two methods were applied to four different solutions of sodium methoxide in methanol, including in presence of sodium hydroxide, and the results were compared statistically showing total agreement.

Flavio A., Bastos; Sabir, Khan; Eduardo H., Simões; Carlos A., Teixeira; Matthieu, Tubino.

1380-13-01

281

Deuterium kinetic isotope effect for oxidation of perdeuterated sodium butyrate with manganate in 3 M sodium hydrochloride solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Deuterium kinetic effect, D-KIE, for oxidation of perdeuterided sodium butyrate, CD3(CD2)2COONa, with manganate in the aqueous solution of 3M NaOH has been determined in the temperature range 323-373 K. The temperature dependent kH/kD ratios are in the range from 17.59 at 323 K to 11,25 at 373 K. The activation energy difference, ?Q0 = Q0DD - Q0=HH ?H0DD - ?H0HH = 9.20 kJ mol-1, and the Arrhenius preexponential factors ratio A0DD/A0HH is equal to 1.76, corresponding to ?S0DD - ?S0HH = 4.70 k J-1 as deduced from the Arrhenius and Eyring diagrams. This is the main evidence of tunnelling in the transfer of methylene hydrogens of butyrate to the negatively charged oxygens of manganate in very basic solutions. The k0HH/k0DD ratios, corrected for the ionic strength, have been reproduced by multiplying the (k0HH/k0DD)KIE value, caused by zero point energy differences, by the Bell tunnel correction QtHH.QtDD. The half width of the energy barrier, as approximated by an inverted parabola, was found to be equal to 5x10-11 m. The physico-chemical origin of the energy barrier for the oxidation of n-chain aliphatic carboxylates with MnO42- ions in strongly alkalinsup>2- ions in strongly alkaline solutions has been discussed. The mechanisms of the permanganate versus manganate oxidation i. e., in acidic versus alkaline media are compared. (author)

282

CONTROL OF GRAPEVINE LEAF SPOT CAUSED BY PSEUDOCERCOSPORA VITIS WITH APPLICATION OF BICARBONATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to find environmentally friendly control methods and to investigate occurrence pattern of grapevine leaf spot, major disease in ‘Campbell early’ cultivar. Grapevine leaf spot caused by Pseudocercospora vitis is one of the most important disease in Korea. The occurrence pattern of leaf spot for ‘Campbell early’ cultivar was conducted in organic vineyards and conventional vineyards of Sangju, the main growing region of grape from 2012 to 2013. As results, the symptom of leaf spot was observed at last-June firstly in the organic vineyards and then the occurrence rate was gradually increased. The rate of lesion area was rapidly increased to 80.2% in last-August. To control grapevine leaf spot, some materials were tested and bicarbonate was selected. The optimum concentration of bicarbonates for control of grapevine leaf spot is 0.5%, and occurrence of grapevine leaf spot by treatment of 0.5% sodium bicarbonate and ammonium bicarbonate were 6.2 or 8.2%, respectively. This result showed that bicarbonate was more effective than Lime Bordeaux mixture in control of grapevine leaf spot widely used in grape organic cultivation for disease control. But phytotoxicity was observed in the treatment of 1% sodium bicarbonate and 2% potassium bicarbonate. So, it is expected that grapevine leaf spot will be successfully controlled by application of 0.5% bicarbonate.

Seok-Hee Park

2014-12-01

283

Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

1973-01-01

284

Synthesis of InP nanocrystals from indium chloride and sodium phosphide by solution route  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Indium phosphide nanocrystals have been synthesized by the direct reaction of sodium phosphide and indium trichloride pre-combined with n-trioctylphosphine in 4-ethylpyridine as a suitable solvent for terminating the particles growth. The formation of InP particles with the size of c.a. 3-7 nm was evidenced by the analysis of powder X-ray diffraction, solution UV-vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy

285

Passivation of chalcopyrite during the leaching with sulphuric acid solution in presence of sodium nitrate  

OpenAIRE

In this work, the process of the chalcopyrite leaching in sulphuric acid solution was investigated. Sodium nitrate was used as oxidant in the leaching process. Chemical reactions of leaching and their thermodynamic possibilities are predicted based on the calculated Gibbs energies and analysis of E?pH diagrams. The negative values of the Gibbs energy show that all chemical reactions are thermodynamically feasible at atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range 25-90°C. At high electrode...

Soki? Miroslav D.; Matkovi? Vladislav Lj.; Markovi? Branislav R.; Štrbac Nada D.; Živkovi? Dragana T.

2010-01-01

286

Slower dissolution rates of sulphamerazine in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulphate solutions than in water  

OpenAIRE

The solubility of sulphamerazine in 0.1 M sodium dodecyl sulphate solution (SDS) was found to be 2.8-times that in water (at standard reporting conditions). The thermodynamics of transfer to the micelle were indicative of a spontaneous, enthalpy-driven, process. Contact angle and surface energy data revealed a favoured interaction between drug and SDS micelles, however, the dissolution rate of the drug into SDS decreased with increasing SDS concentration. The activation thermodynamics reveale...

Mall, S.; Buckton, G.; Rawlins, D. A.

1996-01-01

287

An Impedance Investigation of the Mechanism of Pure Magnesium Corrosion in Sodium Sulfate Solutions  

OpenAIRE

The corrosion behavior of pure magnesium in sodium sulfate solutions was investigated using voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with a rotating disk electrode. The analysis of impedance data obtained at the corrosion potential was consistent with the hypothesis that Mg corrosion is controlled by the presence of a very thin oxide film, probably MgO, and that the dissolution occurs at film-free spots only. This hypothesis was substantiated both by the superposition of the EIS...

Baril, Genevie?ve; Galicia, Gonzalo; Deslouis, Claude; Pe?be?re, Nadine; Tribollet, Bernard; Vivier, Vincent

2007-01-01

288

Kinetics and mechanism of sphalerite leaching by sodium nitrate in sulphuric acid solution  

OpenAIRE

Interest for application of hydrometallurgical processes in a processing of complex sulphide ores and concentrates has increased in recent years. Their application provides better metal recoveries and reduced emission of gaseous and toxic ageneses in the environment. The kinetics and mechanism of sphalerite leaching from complex sulphide concentrate with sulphuric acid and sodium nitrate solution at standard conditions was presented in this paper. The influences of temperature and time ...

Soki? M.; Markovi? B.; Matkovi? V.; Živkovi? D.; Štrbac N.; Stojanovi? J.

2012-01-01

289

Rhenium and VR-20 alloy electrochemical dissolving in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of experimental investigation of rhenium and W-Re (VR-20) alloy electrochemical dissolving both at variable (50 Hz) and constant current in sodium hydroxide solutions are presented. A possibility is shown of complete elimination of electrode polarization at electrochemical reprocessing of wastes of tungsten-rhenium alloys using variable current. It is established that one can work in dissolved electrolytes at constant current only at low densities of current

290

The hydration of interstitial Portland cement phases in sodium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of sulfoaluminate compounds was investigated by isothermal calorimetry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Tricalcium aluminate/gypsum mixtures with a molar ratio of 1:1 sulfate-to-aluminate were hydrated at constant temperatures from 30 to 90°C; in de-ionized water, in 200mM and in 500mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Hydration in de-ionized water produced ettringite and monosulfate as the dominant crystalline phases, regardless of temperature. Complex assemblages of phases formed in 200mM and 500mM sodium hydroxide including ettringite, monosulfate and U-phase, at all temperatures. Hydration of monosulfate and gypsum was also carried out at constant temperatures from 30° to 80°C using de-ionized water and 0.2M, 0.5M, and 1.0M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Ettringite was found to be the dominant crystalline phase over the entire temperature range and at all sodium hydroxide concentrations. A sodium-substituted monosulfate phase was formed as a hydration product in the 1.0M sodium hydroxide solution regardless of temperature. Sulfoaluminate compounds formed by tricalcium aluminate hydration in magnesium sulfate solution were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydration was carried out in 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions and isothermally at temperatures from 30 to 80°C. Monosulfate, ettringite, gypsum and a hydrogarnet phase (Ca3Al2O6·6H2O) were all observed as hydration products. Monosulfate and hydrogarnet were the only phases observed for hydration in 0.5 and 1.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Ettringite was the dominant crystalline phase after hydration in 3.0M solution, regardless of temperature. To investigate the rate of hydration, reactions at 60°C in 3.0M magnesium sulfate solution were quenched after 26 minutes, 73 minutes, 2.5 hours and 12 hours to establish the evolution of hydrated phases. Depending on hydration times ettringite, monosulfate, gypsum, hydrogarnet and residual tricalcium aluminate were observed. No crystalline magnesium-rich phases were detected by XRD. The products formed by hydration of tetracalcium aluminoferrite (Ca 2AlFeO5) and magnesium sulfate solutions were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD and SEM analyses. Hydration reactions were carried out isothermally at temperatures from 25 to 80°C in 0.25M, 0.5M, 1.0M, 2.0M, and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Gypsum was the initial hydration product in all magnesium sulfate concentrations and was the only crystalline hydration product in 2.0M and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Monosulfate was the dominant crystalline phase produced over the entire temperature range when hydration was carried out in magnesium sulfate concentrations between 0.25M and 1.0M. No crystalline phases incorporating iron were observed regardless of magnesium sulfate concentration or temperature. Hydration in 1.0M MgSO 4 solution was more extensively investigated at 50°C. SEM observations indicated gypsum formed initially, consisting of fine particles (ettringite, and monosulfate were present at intermediate times. Monosulfate was the final crystalline hydration product. Amorphous solids produced include a calcium/iron-rich gel and a magnesium/aluminum/sulfate-rich phase. The calcium/iron-rich gel is the only iron-rich phase observed in the hydrated phase assemblage.

Clark, Boyd Arthur

291

Dehydrochlorination of 1,3-Dichloropropan-2-Ol by Calcium and Sodium Hydroxide Solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The results of dehydrochlorination of 88 wt% aqueous solution of 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol to epichlorohydrin are reported. The process was carried out in the reaction-stripping column system with a continuous removal of epichlorohydrin in the steam stream. Aqueous solutions of sodium and calcium hydroxides at concentrations in the range of 3-14 wt% were used for the dehydrochlorination. The infl uence of the type and concentration of dehydrochlorination agent on 1,3-dichloropropan-2-ol conversion, the selectivity of transformation to epichlorohydrin and by-products, and the composition of distillate and wastewater were studied.

Krzy?anowska Anna

2014-09-01

292

Concentration- and pH-dependence of highly alkaline sodium silicate solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study two routes for the gelation of water glass have been investigated; the destabilization by a change in pH and by an increase in concentration through evaporation. Both methods produce optically transparent, highly viscous, homogeneous solutions. The structure and dynamics of the solutions along the two routes have been investigated with dynamic light scattering, (29)Si-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, viscosity measurements and infrared spectroscopy. We find that the two routes are fundamentally different. Increasing the concentration of the sodium silicate system leaves the silica speciation apparently unchanged. Lowering the pH leads to condensation reactions, thus a change in the silica speciation. PMID:21272893

Nordström, Jonas; Nilsson, Erik; Jarvol, Patrik; Nayeri, Moheb; Palmqvist, Anders; Bergenholtz, Johan; Matic, Aleksandar

2011-04-01

293

Mechanism of synergistic extraction of phosphorus from sodium molybdate solution by primary amine and tributyl phosphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To develop methods of molybdate solution purification from phosphorus impurity the mechanism of phosphorus extraction from weakly alkaline solutions of sodium molybdate by synergetic mixture of primary amine and tributylphosphate (TBP) has been studied. By the methods of IR spectroscopy, liquid chromatography and conductometry the composition and structure of complexes formed during the extraction are studied. It is shown that phosphorus is extracted in the form of molybdophosphoric acid solvated by two amine molecules and one TBP molecule. Formation of the complex takes place at the expense of hydrogen bonds. 4 refs.; 8 figs

294

Effect of peroxodisulfate on uranium leaching with ammonium bicarbonate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, uranium leaching from ore material using acid solution and bicarbonate in a presence peroxodisulfate ion was examined. For experiments two different tips of leaching methods were used: leaching in static and dynamic conditions. The determination of uranium concentrations in product solutions were analyzed by titrimetric (by ammonia vanadate solution method. The maximum yield of uranium leached with ammonium bicarbonate in a presence of ammonium peroxodisulfate (5 g/L was only 33%, which is half the corresponding value obtained by sulfuric acid (65%.

Nurbek Nurpeisov

2013-05-01

295

The elimination of selenium(IV) from aqueous solution by precipitation with sodium sulfide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, the removal/precipitation of selenium with sodium sulfide from initially weakly acidic sulfate solutions containing 300 mg/L of selenium(IV) at 23 oC was studied. The results showed that, below a pH of approximately 7.0, the precipitation reaction was complete at a sulfide to selenium ratio above 1.8 and less than 11 with less than 0.005 mg/L of soluble selenium remaining in solution. When the pH rose between 7.0 and 9.5 the precipitation of selenium was incomplete. Above pH 9.5 the solution turned dark red but no precipitation was apparent. The precipitation reaction started as soon as the sodium sulfide was added in the selenium-bearing solution and was completed in less than 10 min. The orange 'selenium sulfide' precipitates, characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis, were crystalline in the form of aggregated dense particles with their sulfur/selenium molar ratio varying from 1.7 to 2.3. The precipitate was deduced to be a Se-S solid solution consisting of ring molecules of the following SenS8-n formula, where n = 2.5-3. Long term leachability tests (>2 month equilibration) under ambient conditions at pH 7 showed the produced precipitate to be essentially insoluble (<0.005 mg/L).

296

The elimination of selenium(IV) from aqueous solution by precipitation with sodium sulfide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the removal/precipitation of selenium with sodium sulfide from initially weakly acidic sulfate solutions containing 300 mg/L of selenium(IV) at 23 {sup o}C was studied. The results showed that, below a pH of approximately 7.0, the precipitation reaction was complete at a sulfide to selenium ratio above 1.8 and less than 11 with less than 0.005 mg/L of soluble selenium remaining in solution. When the pH rose between 7.0 and 9.5 the precipitation of selenium was incomplete. Above pH 9.5 the solution turned dark red but no precipitation was apparent. The precipitation reaction started as soon as the sodium sulfide was added in the selenium-bearing solution and was completed in less than 10 min. The orange 'selenium sulfide' precipitates, characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis, were crystalline in the form of aggregated dense particles with their sulfur/selenium molar ratio varying from 1.7 to 2.3. The precipitate was deduced to be a Se-S solid solution consisting of ring molecules of the following Se{sub n}S{sub 8-n} formula, where n = 2.5-3. Long term leachability tests (>2 month equilibration) under ambient conditions at pH 7 showed the produced precipitate to be essentially insoluble (<0.005 mg/L).

Geoffroy, N., E-mail: nicolas.geoffroy@mail.mcgill.ca [McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada); Demopoulos, G.P., E-mail: george.demopoulos@mcgill.ca [McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2B2 (Canada)

2011-01-15

297

Identification of a Second Substrate-binding Site in Solute-Sodium Symporters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure of the sodium/galactose transporter (vSGLT), a solute-sodium symporter (SSS) from Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shares a common structural fold with LeuT of the neurotransmitter-sodium symporter family. Structural alignments between LeuT and vSGLT reveal that the crystallographically identified galactose-binding site in vSGLT is located in a more extracellular location relative to the central substrate-binding site (S1) in LeuT. Our computational analyses suggest the existence of an additional galactose-binding site in vSGLT that aligns to the S1 site of LeuT. Radiolabeled galactose saturation binding experiments indicate that, like LeuT, vSGLT can simultaneously bind two substrate molecules under equilibrium conditions. Mutating key residues in the individual substrate-binding sites reduced the molar substrate-to-protein binding stoichiometry to ?1. In addition, the related and more experimentally tractable SSS member PutP (the Na(+)/proline transporter) also exhibits a binding stoichiometry of 2. Targeting residues in the proposed sites with mutations results in the reduction of the binding stoichiometry and is accompanied by severely impaired translocation of proline. Our data suggest that substrate transport by SSS members requires both substrate-binding sites, thereby implying that SSSs and neurotransmitter-sodium symporters share common mechanistic elements in substrate transport. PMID:25398883

Li, Zheng; Lee, Ashley S E; Bracher, Susanne; Jung, Heinrich; Paz, Aviv; Kumar, Jay P; Abramson, Jeff; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

2015-01-01

298

Oxidation of trivalent americium, curium, and terbium in solutions of sodium paratungstate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the further study of the behavior of the actinides and lanthanides in solutions of heteropoly-compounds, the authors succeed in finding conditions under which the formation of americium (IV), curium (IV), and terbium (IV) decatungstates is observed. The results of experiments along this line are brieflyoutlined. It is shown that trivalent americium, curium, and terbium are oxidzed by heating with persulfate not only in solutions ofunsaturated heteropolytungstates but also in solutions of isopoly-compounds of tungsten. However, the degree of oxidation of curium and terbium (III) in the latter case is appreciably lover. In addition to persulfate ions, ozone can be used for the oxidation of americium (III) in solutions of sodium paratungstate

299

Uranium sorption from aqueous solutions on sodium-form of HEU-type zeolite crystals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The uranium sorption from aqueous solutions (concentration range 50-20.000 mg/l) by the sodium-form (Na-form) of HEU-type zeolite crystals (particle-size d-values indicated that the relative uranium uptake, and consequently the percentage of removal, is higher for concentrations below 100 mg/l. The uranium uptake by the zeolite is attributed to different sorption processes such as ion-exchange, adsorption and surface precipitation, taking place both to the interior and the surface of the crystals and strongly depending on the pH of the solutions. The investigated zeolitic material was sufficiently resistant at the low initial pH of the solutions with dealumination phenomena only observed in the case of the most acidic solution used. (author). 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

300

Ruthenium (4) reduction on mercury cathode from sodium chloride concentrated solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results obtained during the investigation of Ru(4) electroreduction from concentrated chloride solutions on a stationary mercury electrode at potentials more positive that those of sodium amalgam formation are presented. Experiments have been conducted at 60 deg C in the NaCl solution (270 g/l) deaerated by nitrogen additionally purified of oxygen. The cell with divided cathode and anode spaces has been used. Ruthenium has been introduced into the cathode space in the form of ruthenium hydroxylchloride labelled by the 106Ru radioactive isotope. The ruthenium deposition rate has been determined by the reduction of solution radioactivity in time by means of the periodic selection of catholyte samples from the cell. Graphic differentiation of the curve, expressing the dependence of the solution ruthenium concentration on time has been used to determine the partial current of the Ru(4)?R(0) process. For polarization measurements the potentiostatic method has been used

301

Studies on sodium dodecylsulfate in aqueous and in aqueous amino acid solutions: Volumetric and viscometric approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: The apparent molar volumes, ?v of glycine in water are positive and increase with increasing temperature. The positive values of ?v indicate that the solute–solvent interaction decreases as temperature increases (T = ?, 293.15; ?, 298.15; ?, 303.15; ? 308.15; ? 313.15 K). -- Highlights: • We investigate the interaction of SDS in water and aqueous glycine solution. • The data were analyzed by Masson, Laplace and Jones–Dole equations respectively. • The nature of solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions has been probed. • SDS acts as structure maker in aqueous glycine solution. -- Abstract: Physicochemical properties like density, ultrasound velocity and viscosity of aqueous solutions of glycine and SDS (sodium dodecylsulfate) in 0.1 m aqueous glycine solution as a function of concentration at different temperatures ranging from 293.15 K to 313.15 K have been determined. These data have been used to calculate apparent molar volume, isentropic compressibility and viscosity B-coefficient values of the studied solutions. The viscosity coefficients A and B have been determined from the Jones–Dole equation. The limiting apparent molar volumes (?v0) and experimental slopes (Sv) derived from the Masson equations have been interpreted in terms of solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions. From the volumetric and viscometric data, the structural effect of SDS in glycine solution has been discussed. The change in free energy, enthalpy and entropy of activation were calculated using the Nightingale and Benck, and Eyring equations. Glycine in aqueous solution exhibits structure-breaking behaviour. The results were explained in terms of structure making and structure breaking properties

302

Kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of plutonium (6) by persulfate ions in sodium carbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spectrographic method was used to study the kinetics of oxidation of plutonium (4) by persulphate ions in solutions of sodium carbonate. It was established that plutonium oxidation took place simultaneously along two parallel routes: 1 - by free radicals SO4- and 2 - intramolecularly in the persulphate complex of plutonium (4). The contribution of each of these routes to the total rate of oxidation of plutonium (4) depended on the initial concentrations of the reactants and the temperature. The rate of oxidation of plutonium (4) by the first route was determined by the slowest stage, i.e. decomposition of the persulphate ions, whose activation energy was 32 kcal/mol. The rate constant of intramolecular oxidation of Pu (4) in the persulphate complex was independent of the concentration of sodium carbonate. The activation energy of the intramolecular oxidation reaction was 23 kcal/mol

303

Modelling of niobium sorption on clay minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sorption behaviour of niobium on kaolinite and illite minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions was evaluated with use of the mass distribution coefficient, Rd, obtained in batch sorption experiments. Very high distribution coefficient values, about 100 m{sup 3}/kg, were obtained for both minerals in the neutral pH range between 6 and 8. Values were somewhat lower at pH 5. In NaClO{sub 4} solution, the sorption of niobium starts to decrease at pH higher than 8. This is in agreement with the increase, with pH, in the proportion of anionic niobate species, which are presumed to be low or non-sorbing. A similar decrease was not observed in Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} solution, probably owing to the influence of Ca on niobium solution speciation and surface species. The surface complexation model was applied to model the Rd values. The model fitted well for the NaClO{sub 4} solution but only at pH below 9 for the Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} solution. The discrepancy between the strong sorption of niobium in calcium-bearing solution at high pH and the calculated speciation is due in part to the non-inclusion of calcium niobate solution species and Ca-Nb compounds in the present NEA and other similar thermodynamic databases.

Ervanne, Heini; Hakanen, Martti; Lehto, Jukka [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Laboratory of Radiochemistry

2014-11-01

304

Modelling of niobium sorption on clay minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sorption behaviour of niobium on kaolinite and illite minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions was evaluated with use of the mass distribution coefficient, Rd, obtained in batch sorption experiments. Very high distribution coefficient values, about 100 m3/kg, were obtained for both minerals in the neutral pH range between 6 and 8. Values were somewhat lower at pH 5. In NaClO4 solution, the sorption of niobium starts to decrease at pH higher than 8. This is in agreement with the increase, with pH, in the proportion of anionic niobate species, which are presumed to be low or non-sorbing. A similar decrease was not observed in Ca(ClO4)2 solution, probably owing to the influence of Ca on niobium solution speciation and surface species. The surface complexation model was applied to model the Rd values. The model fitted well for the NaClO4 solution but only at pH below 9 for the Ca(ClO4)2 solution. The discrepancy between the strong sorption of niobium in calcium-bearing solution at high pH and the calculated speciation is due in part to the non-inclusion of calcium niobate solution species and Ca-Nb compounds in the present NEA and other similar thermodynamic databases.

305

Effect of sodium and potassium ions on cesium absorption from nuclear power plant waste solutions on synthetic zeolites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The separation of cesium from low-active waste solutions from a nuclear power plant by ion exchange using synthetic zeolites Zeolon 900 and Linde AW-500 was studied. The pH of the waste solutions was 6-13 and the concentrations of sodium and potassium ions were 8-2700 and 0.5-240 mmol/L, respectively. The distribution coefficient of cesium was determined as a function of pH and sodium and potassium ion concentration. Column breakthrough curves were contained and an empirical equation was derived to calculate the column performance at different sodium and potassium ion concentrations

306

Effects of papaverine and sodium nitroprusside solution as topical vasodilators for internal mammary artery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To compare the effects of topical sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and papaverine solutions to treat left internal mammary artery spasm. Study Design: Randomized Control Trial (RCT). Place and duration of Study: AFIC / NIHD Rawalpindi from Jan 2009 to March 2009. Patients and Methods: Fifty consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) were randomly assigned to two groups: group N (n=25, Sodium Nitroprusside solution), and group P (n=25, Papaverine). In each patient, pedicled left internal mammary artery was harvested, five minutes after heparin administration, left internal mammary artery was divided distally; flow per minute was calculated after measuring the free flow for over 15 seconds; this is named 'Flow 1'. Then, the pedicled left internal mammary artery was sprayed with the randomized solution, and covered with the test solution soaked sponge. The second flow measurement 'Flow 2' was done before commencing cardiopulmonary bypass. A third flow measurement 'Flow 3' was recorded just before left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending coronary artery anastomosis, while the patient was on cardio pulmonary bypass. Results: Analysis of variance was applied to detect differences among groups; paired-sample t test was used for left internal mammary artery topical free flow in both groups. Mean left internal mammary artery free flows were as follows: group N, flow 1=32.72+- 27.67 ml/min, versus group P flow 1=23.+- 27.67 ml/min, versus group P flow 1=23.44 +- 15.16 ml/min (p<0.148), group N flow 2=63.92 +- 33.40 ml/min versus group P flow 2=38.88 +- 24.54 ml/min (p<0.004), and group N flow 3=62.44 +- 38.38 ml/min versus group P flow 3=49.52 +- 30.29 ml/min (p <.170). Topical free flow difference amongst the two groups was statistically significant in the flow 2 (p< 0.004); whereas topical mean free flow difference was statistically significant when the groups were individually compared group N flow 1:flow 2, flow 1: flow 3 and flow 2: flow 3 group N (p<.000, .000, .846) and group P (p<.001, .000, .001) respectively. Conclusion: Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and papaverine solutions are able to treat vascular spasm and increase the flow of left internal mammary artery, when they are used topically. However sodium nitroprusside allows early and better relief of vascular spasm. (author)

307

Determination of potassium and sodium ions with diaphragm glow discharge plasma in aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work, a new apparatus of diaphragm glow discharge emission spectroscopy was described for the determination of potassium and sodium ions in aqueous solution. The discharge was formed in a pin hole on a dielectric diaphragm interposed between two submerged graphite electrodes. Effects of pH and applied voltage on the determination have been examined. It was found that decreasing the solution pH and increasing the applied voltage were favorable for the determination performance. Limits of detection for Na and K were 0.002 and 0.05 mg L?1 under the optimum conditions, respectively. It demonstrates that the diaphragm glow discharge emission spectroscopy is a promising technique in measurements of metal ions in aqueous solution, because no optical interferences from the electrodes were found.

308

Radioactive waste treatment of sodium carbonate solution from U and Th extraction process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of pH on the adsorption of uranium on activated charcoal from aqueous solutions was studied. The maximal sorption was observed at pH 4.8 of equilibrium solution. This sorption property of activated charcoal for uranium was applied to study on the reduction of the radioactive isotopes from waste of sodium carbonate waste in the monazite processing plant. The dependence of radionuclides adsorption from the radioactive waste to the amount of activated charcoal was examined under optimized pH condition. The resulted waste solution after treated with adequate activated charcoal could reach the requirement of radioactive waste disposal, i.e. gross ? <3.7 Bq/L and gross ? <37 Bq/L. A Sequential Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry and Gross ?, ? Counter were used for the analysis of elemental concentration and activities of gross ? and ?, respectively

309

Luminescence of sodium atoms in aqueous solution during sonolysis in moving-single-bubble regime  

Science.gov (United States)

Emission from excited sodium atoms (Na 589 nm) under the conditions of single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) in the moving-bubble regime has been observed in aqueous NaCl solutions at concentrations within 2.5-6 mol/L. Atomic line emission in the gas phase was caused by the penetration of metal salt species inside the bubble, followed by the transition of Na atom to an excited state. Saturation with argon and a low temperature (from -10 to -15°C) of solution are factors that favor the SBSL of metal in solution of a nonvolatile salt. The results confirm the validity of the model of microdrop injection that explains the appearance of metal inside a bubble, its excitation, and subsequent atomic line emission during SBSL as related to deformations of the moving bubble.

Sharipov, G. L.; Abdrakhmanov, A. M.; Gareev, B. M.

2012-01-01

310

Investigation of copper chloride interaction with sodium, potassium and ammonium iodates in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interaction in CuCl2-MIO3-H2O (M-Na+, K+, NH4+) systems is investigated using techniques of residual concentrations, densimetry, as well as, chemical and X-ray phase analysis of precipitates in order to study the effect of cation of soluble iodate on composition of copper iodates precipitated from solutions. It is determined that only Cu(IO3)2x0.67H2O is precipitated in systems with sodium and ammonium iodates. K2Cu(IO3)4x2H2O binary iodate is formed together with mean iodate for system with KIO3

311

Interaction of ammonium perhenate with sodium thiosulfate in hydrochloric acid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of the interaction in the system ammonium perrhenate-sodium thiosulfate-hydrochloric acid-water using the chemical and X-ray phase analyses in a wide range of component ratios has shown that in the system two main process occur: formation of rhenium sulphide and separation of elemental sulphur. The degree of rhenium precipitation mainly depends on the ratio of components and to a less degree - on the mass of precipitate and the presence of high concentrations of ammonium chloride in the initial solutions. Rhenium sulphide and elemental sulphur interact in the moment of separation

312

Preparation and stability of tetra- and hexavalent americium in sodium carbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrochemical oxidation of americium (3) in sodium carbonate solutions is studied. Americium (4) is prepared in oxidation at pH=10, and americium (6) - at pH >=11. Spectrophotometric investigation of tetra- and hexavalent americium stability at different temperatures reveals that Amsup((6)) is reduced to Amsup((5)) according to the reaction of the first order, which activation energy is equal to 63.8+-5.4 kJ/mol. Amsup((4)) disproportionates with formation of Amsup((3)) and Amsup((5)) and is reduced (activation energies of these reactions are equal to 100.8+-4.0 and 96.6+-12.0 kJ/mol, respectively)

313

Production and stability of tetra- and hexavalent americium in solutions of sodium carbonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the electrochemical oxidation of americium(III) in solutions of sodium carbonate. At pH = 10, as a result of oxidation, americium(IV) is obtained, while at pH 11, americium(IV) is obtained. A spectrophotometric investigation of the stability of tetra- and hexavalent americium at various temperatures showed that Am(VI) is reduced to Am(V) according to a first-order reaction, the activation energy of which is equal to 63.8 + or - 5.4 kJ/ mole, while Am(IV) disproportionates to form Am(III) and Am(V) and is reduced

314

Anodic behaviour of zirconium in water-ethylene glycol solutions of sodium chloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of ethylene glycol concentration and solution temperature of water-alcohol 1 M sodium chloride on zirconium anodic dissolution has been studied by electrochemical methods (potentiodynamics and chronoamperometry using a rotating disk electrode). It has been ascertained that in the range of potentials 0.2-0.4 V oxide film is formed on the surface. At E = 0.6-1.0 V the passive state is upset, which is accompanied by a sharp increase in the current density. At potentials exceeding 1.0 V the process considered is limited by diffusion of anodic dissolution products

315

Removal of Cesium from Aqueous Solutions by Sodium and Calcium Alginates  

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Full Text Available Environmental pollution with radioactive materials poses a serious threat to public health. Among radioisotopes, cesium is one of the most dangerous elements which can be found in waste disposals of nuclear plants and similar facilities. Pure sodium and calcium alginic salts were investigated as adsorbents for removal of cesium ions from aqueous solution. It was found that both polysaccharides form complexes with the metal ions. Batch equilibrium experiments were carried out to study the effect of contact time, initial concentration of the metal and pH of the media on the adsorption of cesium by alginate compounds. The equilibrium time was found to be 60 min for adsorption of cesium with various initial metal concentrations. Kinetic studies showed that reactions between alginates and cesium are corresponding to the pseudo-second order model. Langmuir model was found best fit within the whole range of pH values studied. The maximum adsorption capacity of calcium alginate and sodium alginate was found to be 63.69 and 80.64 mg g-1, respectively at pH 6.0. From these results it is clear that sodium alginate possesses more pronounced cesium binding capacity than calcium alginate.

Maksim Y. Khotimchenko

2014-01-01

316

Critical role of bicarbonate and bicarbonate transporters in cardiac function  

OpenAIRE

Bicarbonate is one of the major anions in mammalian tissues and extracellular fluids. Along with accompanying H+, HCO3- is generated from CO2 and H2O, either spontaneously or via the catalytic activity of carbonic anhydrase. It serves as a component of the major buffer system, thereby playing a critical role in pH homeostasis. Bicarbonate can also be utilized by a variety of ion transporters, often working in coupled systems, to transport other ions and organic substrates across cell membrane...

Wang, Hong-sheng; Chen, Yamei; Vairamani, Kanimozhi; Shull, Gary E.

2014-01-01

317

[Role of renal and extrarenal mechanisms in the regulation of sodium blood levels after intravenous administration of hypertonic solution of sodium chloride to the rat].  

Science.gov (United States)

I. v. administration of 1 M and 2 M NaCl solutions (0.17 ml per 100 g body mass) increased sodium concentration in the blood plasma by 2-5% within 10 min. Hypernatriemia and respective hyperosmia were accompanied by the decrease of the protein level in the blood. The amount of NaCl excretion by kidneys within 1.5 hrs was equal to 18 and 39% of the injected sodium load. Close positive correlation was found between the concentration of osmotically active substances in the blood and reabsorption level of osmotically free water in renal tubules. These data suggest existence of at least two mechanisms for regulation of shifts occurring in disturbances of sodium and osmotic balance: 1) extrarenal factor (physico-chemical-the loss of cell water and/or Na influx into the cell); 2) renal factor--an increase in urine Na excretion and osmotically free water reabsorption. PMID:6825885

Monin, Iu G; Goncharevskaia, O A

1983-01-01

318

Influence of temperature, chloride ions and chromium element on the electronic property of passive film formed on carbon steel in bicarbonate/carbonate buffer solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influences of temperature, chloride ions and chromium element on the electronic property of passive film formed on carbon steel in NaHCO3/Na2CO3 buffer solution are investigated by capacitance measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the passive film appears n-type semiconductive character; with increasing the solution temperature, the addition of chromium into carbon steel and increasing the concentration of chloride ions, the slopes of Mott-Schottky plots decrease, which indicates the increment of the defect density in the passive film. EIS results show that the transfer impedance R1 and the diffusion impedance W decrease with increasing the solution temperature, with the addition of chromium into carbon steel and with increasing the chloride ions concentration. It can be concluded that the corrosion protection effect of passive film on the substrate decreases with increasing the solution temperature, adding chromium into carbon steel and increasing chloride ions concentration

319

Spectrometric studies of sodium perchlorate contact ion-pair formation in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is concluded that concentration-dependent variations in the perchlorate ion analytical line, nu1(A1), are caused by the presence of contact ion pairs and, to a lesser extent, solvent-separated ion pairs of NaClO4. Spectroscopic studies indicate a linear dependence between contact association and sodium molality. The estimated thermodynamic association constant is 0.022m-1, which compares to 1.22 for the thermodynamic exchange equilibrium constant for ClO4- ion displacing one water molecule from sodium. Na+ ions have little preference for ClO4- over water, and only at high concentrations, where water content is low, will extensive contact association take place. The interaction is also weak. These conclusions are supported by the smaller splitting of the perchlorate nu2(E) band relative to aprotic organic solutions, small NMR chemical shifts, and little increase of viscosity-corrected relaxation rates with increasing concentrations. Evidence that perchlorate ion forms weak hydrogen bonds with water is found in Raman, IR, and NMR spectroscopy. Two such hydrogen bonds to perchlorate oxygen atoms being replaced by a sodium ion partially account for the smaller splitting of the nu2 band observed in spectra of protic solvents compared to splitting in spectra of aprotic solvents, and for weaker splitting of the perchlorate nu2 band in the Ramperchlorate nu2 band in the Raman spectrum than for solutions not containing molar hydroxide levels. They also account for the very small 35ClO4- chemical shift and viscosity-corrected relaxation rates for 35ClO4- chemical shifts. These effects support the concept of stronger perchlorate-water hydrogen bonds when hydroxide ion is present than when it is not. 25 figures, 13 tables

320

Complex crystals formed in the aqueous solution of copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crystals of different crystal habits were separated from the copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide solution and the thermal changes of the composition of copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide complexes were studied by chemical analysis, thermal analysis and X-ray diffractometry. Granular and columnar crystals were determined to be copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide dihydrate by X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively. Needle crystal (A) which was separated from the solution at 250C was assumed to be Na2CuI3.6H2O. (A) was stable in its appearance in the air, but the X-ray diffraction pattern of (A) changed. Needle crystal (B) which was recrystallized at 100C from mother liquor after the separation of crystal (A) was assumed to be NaCuI2.4H2O. (B) was hygroscopic and decomposed to precipitate copper(I) iodide with moisture in the air. (A) and (B) were found to change by heating and or drying, respectively, as follows: Na2CuI3.6H2O ? (-2H2O, 800C) ? 2NaI.2H2O + CuI ? (-4H2O, 1600C) ? 2NaI + CuI ? (+1/2O2, 4500C) ? 2NaI + CuO + 1/2I2, NaCuI2.4H2O ? (-4H2O, Dried) ? NaI + CuI. (auth.)

321

Composition of protective films on carbon steel in sodium nitrite solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The St.20 corrosion behaviour in naturally aerated solutions with sodium nitrite concentration from 0.05 to 10 g/l during 650 h is studied. It is shown that in all investigated solutions steel corrosion protection is ensured as specific polarization resistances Rsub(p) are sufficiently high: more than 32 kOhm x cm2. The composition of protective films is investigated by the method of IR-spectroscopy. IR-absorption spectrum data re confirmed by the element analysis of the films substance by which the presence of nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon and iron has been found. Judging by IR-spectra the films comprise complex compounds of the Fe(NH3)3(NO3)3 x yH2O - type. In the 0.75-10.00 g/l NaNO2 the films are more stable

322

Inhibitory effect of some carbazides on corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissolution of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide and sym.diphenylcarbazide as corrosion inhibitors has been studied using thermometric, weight-loss and polarization methods. The three methods gave consistent results. The higher inhibition efficiency of these compounds in acidic than in alkaline madia may be due to the less negative potential of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution, favouring adsorption of the additive. The adsorption of these compounds were found to obey Frumkin adsorption isotherm. Cathodic polarization measurements showed that these compounds are cathodic inhibitors and their adsorption in the double layer does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The results are analysed in terms of both molecular and cationic adsorption. (orig.)

Fouda, A.S. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Madkour, L.H. [Tanta Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elshafei, A.A. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elasklany, A.H. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-06-01

323

On the refractive index of sodium iodide solutions for index matching in PIV  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Refractive index matching has become a popular technique for facilitating applications of modern optical diagnostic techniques, such as particle image velocimetry, in complex systems. By matching the refractive index of solid boundaries with that of the liquid, unobstructed optical paths can be achieved for illumination and image acquisition. In this research note, we extend previously provided data for the refractive index of aqueous solutions of sodium iodide (NaI) for concentrations reaching the temperature-dependent solubility limit. Results are fitted onto a quadratic empirical expression relating the concentration to the refractive index. Temperature effects are also measured. The present range of indices, 1.333-1.51, covers that of typical transparent solids, from silicone elastomers to several recently introduced materials that could be manufactured using rapid prototyping. We also review briefly previous measurements of the refractive index, viscosity, and density of NaI solutions, as well as prior research that has utilized this fluid. (orig.)

Bai, Kunlun; Katz, Joseph [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2014-04-15

324

Physicochemical properties and ion-solvent interactions in aqueous sodium, ammonium, and lead acetate solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Densities (?), viscosities (?) and refractive indices ( n D) of aqueous sodium acetate (SA), ammonium acetate (AA), and lead acetate (LA) solutions have been measured for different concentrations of salts at 302.15 K. Apparent molar volumes (?v) for studied solutions were calculated from density data, and fitted to Masson's relation and partial molar volume (?{v/o}) was determined. Viscosity data were fitted to Jones-Dole equation and viscosity A- and B-coefficients were determined. Refractive index and density data were fitted to Lorentz and Lorenz equation and specific refraction ( R D) were calculated. Behavior of various physicochemical properties indicated presence of strong ion-solvent interactions in present systems and the acetate salts structure maker in water.

Deosarkar, S. D.; Mendkudle, M. S.

2014-09-01

325

On the refractive index of sodium iodide solutions for index matching in PIV  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Refractive index matching has become a popular technique for facilitating applications of modern optical diagnostic techniques, such as particle image velocimetry, in complex systems. By matching the refractive index of solid boundaries with that of the liquid, unobstructed optical paths can be achieved for illumination and image acquisition. In this research note, we extend previously provided data for the refractive index of aqueous solutions of sodium iodide (NaI) for concentrations reaching the temperature-dependent solubility limit. Results are fitted onto a quadratic empirical expression relating the concentration to the refractive index. Temperature effects are also measured. The present range of indices, 1.333-1.51, covers that of typical transparent solids, from silicone elastomers to several recently introduced materials that could be manufactured using rapid prototyping. We also review briefly previous measurements of the refractive index, viscosity, and density of NaI solutions, as well as prior research that has utilized this fluid. (orig.)

326

A study of the catalytic role of a gold electrode in the electrochemical activation of four macrolide antibiotics in sodium bicarbonate solution  

OpenAIRE

Using the cyclic voltammetry, it has been shown that hydrogen evolution at a gold electrode is necessary in the electrochemical activation of azithromycin dihydrate and erythromycin A. After four hours of the potential holding at –1.2 V vs. SCE, the pH of the electrolyte has been changed from 8.40 to 8.96; from 8.40 to 8.77 in the presence of erythromycin A, and from 8.40 to 9.18 in the presence of azithromycin, indicating the reaction of the hydrogen species with antibiotics. This effect h...

Avramov Ivic?, Milka L.; Petrovic?, Slobodan D.; Z?ivkovic?, Predrag M.; Z?, Dus?an Mijin; Drljevic?, Katica M.

2010-01-01

327

Densitometry and ultrasound velocimetry of hyaluronan solutions in water and in sodium chloride solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The densities of hyaluronan solutions in water and 0.15M NaCl were measured in the temperature range from 25 to 50°C for the hyaluronan molecular weights from 10 to 1,750 kDa. The density increased linearly with concentration and decreased with temperature. The data were fitted by the equation describing the density as a linear function of concentration and a quadratic function of temperature. The effect of molecular weight was negligible and thus single equation was sufficient to describe all data. The apparent and partial specific volumes were calculated from the density data including their extrapolated values to infinite dilutions. The measurement of ultrasound speed in the same solutions under the same conditions enabled to calculate the compressibility and its dependence on concentration and temperature. The compressibility decreased with both the concentration and the temperature but the effect of the concentration was only slight mild. The compressibility was used to estimate the hydration numbers which slightly decreased with increasing temperature and concentration. The addition of NaCl changed only the numerical values of density and ultrasound velocity while not changing the character of their dependence on temperature and concentration. Measured and calculated data indicate that hyaluronan does not disturb the specific water structure in the studied concentration range and support the idea of the existence of water clusters or nanodroplets hydrating the hyaluronan chains in solution. PMID:24721101

Kargerová, A; Peka?, M

2014-06-15

328

Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Oxalic Acid and Sodium Chloride Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nickel based Alloy 22 (NO6022) is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solution and to compare its behavior to sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solutions increased rapidly as the temperature and the acid concentration increased. Extrapolation studies show that even at a concentration of 10{sup -4}M oxalic acid, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 would be higher in oxalic acid than in 1 M NaCl solution. Alloy 22 was not susceptible to localized corrosion in oxalic acid solutions. Cyclic polarization tests in 1 M NaCl showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion at 90 C but was not susceptible at 60 C.

Day, S D; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

2003-06-24

329

Analysis of Physicochemical Properties of Aqueous Sodium Glycinate (SG Solutions at Low Concentrations from 0.1-2.0 M  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium glycinate, a type of amino acid salt, is one of the potential solvent for carbon dioxide removal from various gas streams. In this study, physicochemical properties such as density, viscosity and refractive index of aqueous sodium glycinate at low concentrations were measured from 303.15 to 333.15 K. It was found that, the densities, viscosities and refractive indices of low concentrated sodium glycinate decrease with an increase in temperature, whereas with increasing the concentration in the solution, all three properties increase. The experimental data were correlated with respect to temperature and concentration by establishing the proper correlations.

M.S. Shaikh

2014-01-01

330

Clinical application of sodium hyaluronate,levarterenol and indicarmine solution in endoscopic submucosal dissection  

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Full Text Available Objective To assess the clinical value of sodium hyaluronate,levarterenol and indicarmine solution used in endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD.Methods Sixteen patients were involved in present study who were diagnosed as precancerous lesion or submucosal tumor in digestive tract by chromoendoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography from Nov,2010 to Feb,2011 at General Hospital of Shenyang Command.The injected solution was mixed with 0.2% indicarmine 10ml,levarterenol 10mg,sodium hyaluronate 20mg,and 0.9% normal saline 200ml.The liquid pad was formed under the submucosal layer by the injection of the mixture.Hybrid knife was employed to perform the injection,cutting and coagulation with no interruption during the procedure of ESD.Satisfactory degree was assessed,and the total solution volume,success rate,bleeding rate,perforation rate,operation duration,and length of stay in hospital were recorded.The recurrence and healing condition were observed at following-up.Results The length of lesion was 0.8~4.5cm with mean of 2.2cm.The operation duration was 45~240 min with an mean time of 95.4 min.The mean dosage of the mixed solution for submucosal injection was 102.4ml.Success rate of endoscopic submucosal dissection was 87.5%.The satisfactory degree was high.Intractable bleeding occurred in 2 cases with lateral spreading tumor(LST during the procedure,but it was controlled after high temperature coagulation without producing perforation.The dissection surface was covered by aluminum phosphate gel in all cases,and metal clips were applied in some cases for closure.The mean length of stay in hospital after ESD was 3.8 days.Conclusions The mixture of sodium hyaluronate,levarterenol,indicarmine and normal saline,when used for submucosal injection in ESD,is safe and satisfactory.

Fei GAO

2011-07-01

331

L-arginine in low concentration improves rat intestinal water and sodium absorption from oral rehydration solutions.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: The nitric oxide (NO) precursor L-arginine has been shown to produce variable effects on intestinal absorptive function, including ion transport. AIMS: To determine whether there is an optimal concentration of L-arginine, promoting proabsorptive effects from oral rehydration solutions (ORS) with 90 or 60 mM sodium. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In vivo perfusion of rat jejunum with determination of net water absorption, unidirectional fluid exchanges, sodium and calcium transport, and glu...

Wapnir, R. A.; Wingertzahn, M. A.; Teichberg, S.

1997-01-01

332

Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

333

Rate constant for reaction of hydroxyl radicals with bicarbonate ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate constant for reaction of hydroxyl radicals with the bicarbonate ion has been determined to be 8.5 x 106 dm3 mol-1 s-1. This value was calculated from: the measured rate of formation of the CO3- radical in pulsed electron irradiation of bicarbonate solutions over the pH range 7.0 to 9.4; the pK for the equilibrium HCO3- = CO32-+ H+; and the rate constant for hydroxyl radicals reacting with the carbonate ion. (author)

334

Anion-exchange method of ammonium paratungstate production from sodium carbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An anion exchange method is suggested for producing ammonium paratungstate from soda solutions for industrial testing. The suggested method allows the process cycle ot be reduced as a result of sorption of tungsten on anionite, followed by desorption of tungsten in form of ammonium tungstate, and by the recovery of the anionite by the solution of a mineral acid. The sorption of tungsten has been carried out in columns having the counter-flow gravitational motion, the desorption in a suspended layer of ionite. It has been established that for the sorption of tungsten it is desirable to use AN-80 P anionite, and that it is expedient to carry out the process with the use of solutions having pH=4 to 2.5. The apparatus flowsheet is presented of an enlarged setup for the production of ammonium paratugstate from the solutions of sodium tungstate. As compared with the deposition method, an increase in the yield of tungsten is achieved by a value of 1.3 to 1.5%. The economical efficiency of the developed method amounts to about 330 rubles per ton of tungsten anhydride

335

Characterization and Oxidation of Chromium(III) by Sodium Hypochlorite in Alkaline Solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Chromium exists in nuclear waste sludges and is a problematic element in the vitrification process of high-level nuclear wastes. It is therefore necessary to treat the waste sludges to remove chromium prior to vitrification, by caustic leaching or oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI). The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of oligomerization of Cr(III) on its oxidation by hypochlorite in alkaline solutions. Monomeric, dimeric and trimeric Cr(III) species in solution were separated by ion exchange. The kinetics of the oxidation of the separated species by hypochlorite in alkaline solutions was studied by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy, and compared with the oxidation by hydrogen peroxide previously studied. Results indicate that hypochlorite can oxidize Cr(III) to Cr(VI) in alkaline solutions, but the rate of oxidation by hypochlorite is slower than that by hydrogen peroxide at the same alkalinity and concentrations of oxidants. The rate of oxidation of Cr(III) by both oxidants decreases as the concentration of sodium hydroxide is increased, but the oxidation by hypochlorite seems less affected by the degree of oligomerization of Cr(III) than that by peroxide. Compared with the oxidation by hydrogen peroxide where the major reaction pathway has an inverse order with respect to CNaOH, the oxidation by hypochlorite has a significant reaction pathway independent of [OH?].

Jiang, Huijian; Rao, Linfeng; Zhang, Zhicheng; Rai, Dhanpat

2006-07-01

336

Study on applicability of liquid emulsion membrane for removal of uranium from acidic sodium sulfate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid Emulsion Membrane (LEM) is a very prominent technique to extract heavy metals from aqueous solutions using emulsion of a suitable solvent and a strip solution. Sodium sulfate solution is one of the effluents, coming out from the phosphoric acid based Rare Material Recovery plants. The effluent contains uranium in the range of 0 to 50 ppm. For treating this effluent and to recover uranium present in it, LEM has been tried using D2EHPA as carrier and phosphoric acid (42% P2O5) as strip solution. Kinetics of the process has been studied. Different sets of experiments have been performed for initial optimization of equilibrium and process parameters like carrier concentration, surfactant concentration, emulsification RPM, emulsification time, pertraction RPM, pertraction time, phase ratio and treatment ratio. Study shows more than 90% of uranium can be extracted with aqueous to organic ratio 10:1. Major work carried out is experimental. Reduction in surfactant quantity and carrier concentration has been significant outcome of the work. The emulsion is stable even at below 2% SPAN-80 surfactant. 2% surfactant gives best results in terms of extraction and stripping.10% of D2EHPA in Heavy Normal Paraffin (HNP) gives good results. 10 minutes time is required for pertraction to give more than 95% of extraction using 10% D2EHPA. Other optimum parameters which give best results are listed

337

Bicarbonate secretion and chloride absorption by rabbit cortical collecting ducts. Role of chloride/bicarbonate exchange.  

OpenAIRE

Cortical collecting ducts (CCD) from rabbits treated with deoxycorticosterone (DOC) actively secrete bicarbonate at high rates. To investigate the mechanism of bicarbonate secretion, we measured bicarbonate and chloride transport in CCD from rabbits treated with DOC for 9-24 d. Removal of chloride (replaced with gluconate) from both perfusate and bath inhibited bicarbonate secretion without changing transepithelial voltage. Removal of chloride only from the bath increased bicarbonate secretio...

Star, R. A.; Burg, M. B.; Knepper, M. A.

1985-01-01

338

Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution  

CERN Document Server

Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a cellulose tetramer reveal a number of preferred cellulose-Na contacts and bridging positions. Large scale MD simulations on a model cellulose fibril find that Na+ perturbs the hydroxymethyl rotational state population and consequently disrupts the "native" hydrogen bonding network.

Bellesia, Giovanni

2013-01-01

339

Polyion-counterion interactions in sodium carboxymethylcellulose-ethylene glycol-water ternary solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polyion-counterion interactions in sodium carboxymethylcellulose-ethylene glycol-water ternary system have been investigated with special reference to their variations with the polyelectrolyte concentration, the medium relative permittivity and the temperature using electrical conductance measurements. The experimental data have been analyzed on the basis of a model for semidilute polyelectrolyte conductivity which takes into account the scaling arguments proposed by Dobrynin et al. Concentration-dependent moderate counterion condensation (24-33%) was observed. Counterion condensation is found to be spontaneous which depends upon the EG-content of the medium and the temperature. A major proportion of the current is transported by the carboxymethylcellulose polyions. The results further demonstrated that the monomer units experience more frictional resistance in solution as the EG-content increases or as the temperature decreases. PMID:23399187

Sharma, Ramesh; Das, Chanchal; Dahal, Sanjay; Das, Bijan

2013-02-15

340

Ultrasonic degradation of metal complexes with organic substances present in mineralized water, brines, and sodium chloride solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of ultrasound over a frequency range from 18 kHz to 2 MHz to the degradation of metal complexes (M=Cd, Cu, Pb) with organic compounds present in water, brines, and sodium chloride solutions was studied to prepare samples for atomic absorption analysis. It was found that ultrasound over a frequency range from 18 to 100 or 200 kHz can be used for the degradation of complexes in sodium chloride solutions and brines or seawater, respectively. In this case, the best results were obtained over the frequency range 80-100 or 80-200 kHz, respectively

341

IGA of alloy 600 in high-temperature solutions of sodium hydroxide contaminated with carbonate. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alloy 600 was tested in sodium hydroxide contaminated with sodium carbonate at 3000C and 3150C to examine its resistance to intergranular attack (IGA) under controlled cathodic and anodic potentials. Specimens of alloy 600 were studied as C-rings under constant deflection, wires under constant load and wires without any applied tensile stress. The material was mainly used in its mill annealed condition, although some specimens were studied as solution annealed and solution annealed plus sensitized. Unlike the last two metallurgical states, the mill annealed alloy 600 material was rather sensitive to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in a range of anodic potentials

342

Relief from alkaline load in two-cell stage mouse embryos by bicarbonate/chloride exchange.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mouse embryos at the two-cell stage are able to recover from an alkaline load. We found that this recovery is mediated by sodium-independent bicarbonate/chloride exchange: intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from alkaline load is inhibited by the anion exchange inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene disulfonic acid, lack of bicarbonate, or lack of chloride. The dependence of the pHi recovery on extracellular chloride concentration exhibits Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Furthermore, uptake of chloride is inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by extracellular bicarbonate. The Km for external chloride was found to be about 3 mM, with a Ki for external bicarbonate of about 2 mM. The exchanger is active above approximately pH 7.15. These results demonstrate that mouse embryos at the two-cell stage possess a sodium-independent bicarbonate/chloride exchange mechanism that is similar to that found in other mammalian cells. This bicarbonate/chloride exchanger appears to be the sole pHi-regulatory mechanism in the two-cell stage mouse embryo, since our previous results have shown that there are apparently no specific mechanisms active in these cells for relieving acid loads. PMID:1894615

Baltz, J M; Biggers, J D; Lechene, C

1991-09-15

343

Effect of different ions on the anodic behaviour of alloy 800 chloride solutions at high temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anodic behaviour and passivity breakdown of alloy 800 in sodium bicarbonate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions were studied in the temperature range from 100 degrees C to 280 degrees C by means of electrochemical techniques. The effect of phosphate or bicarbonate additions on the pitting susceptibility and pitting morphology of the alloy in chloride solutions was also examined. Experiments were performed in the following solutions: 0.1M NaHCO3, at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C, 280 degrees C; 0.06M NaH2PO4 + 0.04M Na2HPO4, at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C and 280 degrees C, and 0.1M NaCl with different additions of bicarbonate ion (0.02M, 0.05M and 0.1M) and phosphate ion (0.01M, 0.05M and 0.1M) at 100 degrees C and 280 degrees C. The anodic polarization curves of alloy 800 in deaerated 0.1M NaHCO3 and 0.06M NaH2PO4 + 0.04M Na2HPO4 solutions exhibited a similar shape at all the tested temperatures. No localized or generalized corrosion was detected on the metallic surface after polarization. The results obtained in chloride plus bicarbonate and chloride plus phosphate mixtures showed that the pitting potential of alloy 800 in chloride solutions was increased by the presence of bicarbonate or phosphate ions. In those solutions where the inhibitor concentration in the mixture is equal or higher than the chloride concentration , the behaviour of the alloy is similar to the one observed in the absence of chlorides. Changes in pitting morphology were found in phosphate containing solutions, while the pits found in bicarbonate containing solutions were similar to those formed in pure chloride solutions. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

344

The study of LaNi5-type intermetallic compound behaviour in sodium borohydride alkaline solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Behaviour of intermetallic LaNi4.5T0.5 compounds (IMC) (T=Mn, Cr, Co, Al, Fe, Cu) in alkaline solutions of sodium borohydride (0.1; 1.0; 4.0 mol/l of NaOH) is investigated within 293-318 K temperature interval. IMC (T=Mn, Al) hydrogenation reaction occurrence with the production of LaNi4.5T0.5H4.5 composition hydride phases is ascertained. Kinetics of the catalytic hydrolysis of NaBH4 in the above mentioned alkaline solutions in the presence of IMC is studied using the gas volumetric method. For all the IMC studied this reaction has a zero order by NaBH4 and the first one by the IMC. It is ascertained that a partial substitution of T for nickel in LaNi5 produces a notable effect on the NaBH4 hydrolysis rate. An anomalous increase of NaBH4 hydrolysis rate with the growth of solution alkalinity in the presence of IMC is detected. 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

345

Influence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose on the aggregation behavior of aqueous 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) on the aggregation phenomena of a surface active ionic liquid 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C16MeImCl) was studied in aqueous solutions using electrical conductivity and surface tension measurements. The counterion condensation behavior of NaCMC (aq) and the premicellar ion-association behavior of C16MeImCl (aq) were also investigated. Two characteristic concentrations, namely the critical aggregation concentration and polymer saturation concentration, before free C16MeImCl micelles appear in C16MeImCl-NaCMC solutions have been identified. Effects of temperature, NaCMC concentration, and the charge density parameter of NaCMC on the self-aggregation of the C16MeImCl have been discussed to elucidate C16MeImCl-NaCMC interactions. The thermodynamic parameters for micellization of C16MeImCl were estimated both in absence and in the presence of NaCMC. The observed enthalpy-entropy compensation effect in C16MeImCl and C16MeImCl-NaCMC systems provided important insight as to how micellization processes are governed by the bulk structural property of the solution with respect to that of the water. PMID:25256477

Das, Bijan; Ray, Dhiman; De, Ranjit

2014-11-26

346

Adsorption of U(VI) ions from low concentration uranium solution by thermally activated sodium feldspar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermally activated sodium feldspar (TASF), a novel material, was prepared by calcinating the micron sodium feldspar (SF) at 450 deg C for 45 min. The TASF and the SF were characterized using X-ray diffraction and mercury injection porosimetry, and the TASF was found to have larger specific surface area and larger porosity than SF. The effects of the initial pH, temperature, contact time and initial U(VI) ions concentration on the adsorption of U(VI) ions from the low concentration uranium solution by TASF were investigated. The maximum adsorption efficiency of TASF for 0.5 mg/L uranium solution amounted to 95.49 % when the initial pH was 5.0, the temperature, 318 K, and and the contact time, 600 min. The relationship between the adsorption capacity qe and equilibrium concentration Ce can well be described by Freundlich equation. Adsorption isotherm and the analysis by FT-IR coupled with SEM revealed that U(VI) ions were adsorbed onto the surface of TASF in multimolecular or cluster states, and that the intraparticle diffusion occurred in spontaneous process. The basic thermodynamic parameters including free energy change, entropy change and enthalpy change were calculated to comprehend the intrinsic features and spontaneous nature of the adsorption process. The FT-IR spectroscopic characterization for the TASF indicated that many groups were involved in the adsorption process of U(VI) ions, and the -OH group played a more important role. The experimental results suggested that TASF had great adsorption efficiency and strong potentiality of enrichment and recovery for the low concentration U(VI). (author)

347

UVA mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles in pharmaceutical-grade heparin sodium solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

A photochemical-based method in which UVA light (?=366 nm) is used for synthesizing gold nanoparticles is presented by irradiating gold (III) chloride hydrate (HAuCl4) in the presence of pharmaceutical-grade heparin sodium (PGHEP) as a reducing and stabilizing agent in aqueous solution. Different HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratios were exposed to UVA for up to seven hours. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-VIS and Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and pH measurements. The synthesized AuNPs present spherical as well as anisotropic shapes, such as oval, triangular, hexagonal sheets, rods, and some other faceted forms, with dimensions ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm. All obtained products show good temporal stability in solution. Surface plasmons differ when varying HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratio. The obtained samples exhibit two absorption peaks, one in the region between 500-600 nm, and another one in the near-IR between 900-1200 nm; both peaks shift to longer wavelengths and increase their absorption intensity as the HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratio increase. TEM images show the change in nanoparticles yield as well as the shape and sizes change depending on HAuCl4 to PGHEP concentration ratio variation. Ph measurements suggest that acidic media promote anisotropic nanoparticle formation. Raman spectroscopy was used to find out which heparin sodium main groups attached to the nanoparticles surface, and in what amount. In summary, it is found that when modifying the reactants concentrations and keeping the UV exposition time as the only fixed parameter, different nanoparticles with distinctive characteristics can be attained.

Rodríguez-Torres, M. Del P.; Diaz-Torres, L. A.; Olmos-López, M.; Salas, P.; Gutiérrez, Clara

2013-09-01

348

Chemical parameters, antimicrobial activities, and tissue toxicity of 0.1 and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solutions.  

OpenAIRE

ffe chemical parameters, antimicrobial activity, and tissue toxicity of two sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions buffered to a physiologic pH were studied. Initially, a 0.5% NaOCl solution buffered with 3 g of NaH2PO4 per liter was examined. The solution had a pH of 7.49 and an osmolality of 352 mOsmol/liter. When compared with unbuffered and NaHCO3-buffered 0.5% NaOCl solutions, the NaH2PO4-buffered solution was significantly more effective in killing Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. However...

Cotter, J. L.; Fader, R. C.; Lilley, C; Herndon, D. N.

1985-01-01

349

Electrochemical screening of organic and inorganic inhibitors for the corrosion of ASTM A-470 steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion of ASTM A-470 turbine disk steel in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution (10 mol/kg) containing sodium silicate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium chromate, aniline and some of its derivatives, tannic acid, L-(-)-phenylalanine (aminopropionic acid) and octadecylamine as potential inhibitors has been studied using the potentiodynamic, AC impedance, and Tafel extrapolation techniques. All tests were performed at 115 + or - 2 C. The anodic and cathodic polarization data show that aniline and its derivatives, L-(-)-phenylalanine, NaH2PO4, Na2SiO3, and Na2CrO4 inhibit the anodic process, whereas tannic acid inhibits the cathodic reaction. Octadecylamine was found to inhibit both the anodic and cathodic processes. The mechanisms of inhibition for some of these compounds have been inferred from the wide band width frequency dispersions of the interfacial impedance

350

2-Butyne-1,4-diol as a novel corrosion inhibitor for API X65 steel pipeline in carbonate/bicarbonate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Corrosion of API 5L X65 is effectively reduced by the addition of the inhibitor. ? The techniques include weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS and AFM. ? 2-Butyne-1,4-diol acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. ? The adsorption of 2-butyne-1,4-diol obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. - Abstract: The inhibition effects of 2-butyne-1,4-diol on the corrosion susceptibility of grade API 5L X65 steel pipeline in 2 M Na2CO3/1 M NaHCO3 solution were studied by electrochemical techniques and weight loss measurements. The results indicated that this inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor, with a maximum percentage inhibition efficiency of approximately 92% in the presence of 5 mM inhibitor. Atomic force microscopy revealed that a protective film was formed on the surface of the inhibited sample. The adsorption of the inhibitor was found to conform to the Langmuir isotherm with the standard adsorption free energy of ?21.08 kJ mol?1.

351

Effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation behaviour of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that magnesium biodegrades rapidly and non-uniformly during 27 h of immersion in four simulated body fluid solutions containing different concentrations of bicarbonate. The biodegradation rate first decreases and then increases with time. A small amount of bicarbonate in simulated body fluid has an inhibition effect on the Mg dissolution, while an overdose of bicarbonate addition activates the magnesium surface in the simulated body fluid. The interesting phenomena can be interpreted by a surface film model involving precipitation of calcium carbonate and further ionization of bicarbonate in the simulated body fluids, incorporation of calcium, carbonate and phosphate compounds in the surface film, and development of chloride-induced pitting corrosion damage on the magnesium with time

352

Bicarbonate/lactate- and bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids improve ex vivo peritoneal macrophage TNFalpha secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peritoneal macrophage (PMO) function was examined ex vivo after their in vivo exposure to either acidic, lactate-buffered solutions (PD4; 40 mM lactate, pH 5.2), bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution (TBL; 25 mM/15 mM bicarbonate/lactate, pH 7.3), or bicarbonate-buffered solution (TB; 38 mM bicarbonate, pH 7.3), containing either 1.36 or 3.86% glucose. Initial experiments demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) release (assessed by TNF-direct immunoassay [DIA]) from PMO isolated from the peritoneal cavities of patients exposed to conventional fluid (PD4 1.36% glucose) was lowest after 30 min of intraperitoneal dwell (3591+/-1200 versus 28,946+/-9359 for 240-min dwell [pg/ml], n=5, P < 0.05). Five patients were exposed on 3 successive days to PD4, TBL, and TB for 30-min acute dwells containing 1.36% glucose in the first week and 3.86% glucose during the second. PMO TNFalpha release was assessed after ex vitro exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure of PMO to TBL or TB (1.36% glucose) resulted in a significant increase in the generation of TNFalpha (pg/2 X 10(6) PMO) compared with PD4. TBL: 68,659+/-35,633, TB: 53,682+/-26,536 versus PD4 17,107+/-8996 (LPS 1.0 ng/ml, n=5 patients, P=0.043 versus PD4 for both). PMO that were recovered from PD4 and TB dwells (3.86% glucose) showed no significant difference in TNFalpha secretion (21,661+/-6934 and 23,923+/-9147, respectively). In contrast, exposure to TBL resulted in a significant increase (41,846+/-11,471) compared with PD4 (LPS 1.0 ng/ml, n=5 patients, P=0.043). These data demonstrate enhanced PMO function after in vivo exposure to bicarbonate- and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solutions. This response was sustained in TBL alone at the highest glucose concentrations. These results suggest that the newer solutions, and particularly bicarbonate/lactate, might improve host defense status in peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:9697673

MacKenzie, R K; Holmes, C J; Moseley, A; Jenkins, J P; Williams, J D; Coles, G A; Faict, D; Topley, N

1998-08-01

353

Nitrate And Bicarbonate Selective Chemfets  

OpenAIRE

The development of durable anion selective CHEMFET micro sensors is described. Selectivity in these sensors is either obtained from differences in hydration energy of the anions (the Hlofmeister series, giving nitrate selectivity) or by introduction of a new class of uranyl salophene ionophores (bicarbonate selectivity). The durability of the nitrate sensor was enhanced by using polysiloxane membranes in which 1 cationic tetraalkylammonium sites were covalently bound to the membrane matrix.

Antonisse, Martijn M. G.; Engbersen, Johan F. J.; Reinhoudt, David N.

1995-01-01

354

Some magnetic resonance properties of solutions of sodium in liquid ammonia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dilute solutions of sodium in liquid ammonia are studied by the mean of dynamic polarization techniques, and with the aid of Becker Lindquist and Alder model. Paramagnetic shifts are computed as a function of the 'average spin density', for each of the nuclear spin system. The nuclear contributions to the Overhauser shift are computed in the same way. A theoretical study of the main relaxation processes is carried out for each of the nuclear spin system and for the electronic spin system. The dynamic polarization experiments consist in classical measurement of the Overhauser enhancement for nitrogen, and in direct measurements of nitrogen Knight shift and nuclear contributions to the Overhauser shift by the mean of double irradiation techniques. The results show that, in dilute solutions, the relaxation of nitrogen arises from quadrupole interaction and from hyperfine interaction with unpaired electrons. Both interactions are of the same order of magnitude. Overhauser shift measurements show that the spin density is negative at the proton site, in agreement with Hughes results. (author)

355

Dispersion stability of functionalized graphene in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The colloidal stability of functionalized graphene sheets (FGSs) in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions of different concentrations was studied by optical microscopy and ultraviolet-visible light absorption after first dispersing the FGSs ultrasonically. In up to ?10 ?M SDS solutions, FGSs reaggregated within a few minutes, forming ramified structures in the absence of SDS and increasingly compact structures as the amount of SDS increased. Above ?10 ?M, the rate of reaggregation decreased with increasing SDS concentration; above ?40 ?M, the suspensions were colloidally stable for over a year. The concentration of ?40 ?M SDS lies 2 orders of magnitude below the critical surface aggregation concentration of ?1.8 mM SDS on FGSs but above the concentration (?18 ?M) at which SDS begins to form a monolayer on FGSs. Neither surface micelle nor dense monolayer coverage is therefore required to obtain stable aqueous FGS dispersions. We support our experimental results by calculating the van der Waals and electrostatic interaction energies between FGSs as a function of SDS concentration and show that the experimentally observed transition from an unstable to a stable dispersion correlates with a transition from negative to positive interaction energies between FGSs in the aggregated state. Furthermore, our calculations support experimental evidence that aggregates tend to develop a compact structure over time. PMID:24188504

Hsieh, Andrew G; Korkut, Sibel; Punckt, Christian; Aksay, Ilhan A

2013-12-01

356

Fracture of nickel-titanium superelastic alloy in sodium hypochlorite solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fracture of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy for endodontic instruments such as files was investigated with a sustained tensile-loading test in sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution of various concentrations. It was found that the time to fracture was reduced when the applied stress exceeded the critical stress for martensite transformation. When the applied stress was higher than the critical stress, the 0.3 mm diameter wires of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy sometimes fractured within 60 min. From the results of observations of the fracture surface using a scanning electron microscope, it was revealed that the fracture of the Ni-Ti superelastic alloy is significantly influenced by corrosion when the applied stress was higher than the critical stress for martensite transformation. The results of the present study suggest that one of the causes of the fracture of Ni-Ti files during clinical use is corrosion under the applied stress above the critical stress for martensite transformation in NaOCl solution

357

Hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride solution using a ruthenium supported on graphite catalyst  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The catalyst with high activity and durability plays a crucial role in the hydrogen generation systems for the portable fuel cell generators. In the present study, a ruthenium supported on graphite catalyst (Ru/G) for hydrogen generation from sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) solution is prepared by a modified impregnation method. This is done by surface pretreatment with NH{sub 2} functionalization via silanization, followed by adsorption of Ru (III) ion onto the surface, and then reduced by a reducing agent. The obtained catalyst is characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Very uniform Ru nanoparticles with sizes of about 10 nm are chemically bonded on the graphite surface. The hydrolysis kinetics measurements show that the concentrations of NaBH{sub 4} and NaOH all exert considerable influence on the catalytic activity of Ru/G catalyst towards the hydrolysis reaction of NaBH{sub 4}. A hydrogen generation rate of 32.3 L min{sup -1} g{sup -1} (Ru) in a 10 wt.% NaBH{sub 4} + 5 wt.% NaOH solution has been achieved, which is comparable to other noble catalysts that have been reported. (author)

Liang, Yan; Dai, Hong-Bin; Ma, Lai-Peng; Wang, Ping; Cheng, Hui-Ming [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

2010-04-15

358

Precipitation of UO2 in sodium carbonate solutions by electrolytic hydrogen and catalyzed by Ni-Raney - Bibliography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report proposes abstracts and short versions of a set of documents (studies, patents) dealing with the precipitation of uranium (notably in its oxide form, UO2) in solutions of sodium carbonate. The main objective is to identify the interest of a chemical reduction by electrolytic hydrogen. The author makes a distinction between the most relevant documents and those relatively relevant ones

359

Fluorimetric study of the mechanism of molecular association in aqueous solutions of polymethacrylic acid and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescent spectroscopy is used to investigate the processes of intermolecular association in mixed solutions of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) and anionic sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). We propose a model for describing the stage-by-stage mechanism of association processes and conclude that the nature of intermolecular associates depends on the PMAA-SDBS concentration ratio in the solution. Studying the kinetics of fluorescence decay reveals the simultaneous existence of two types of formations capable of pyrene solubilization.

Sachko, A. V.; Zakordonskii, V. P.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.

2013-03-01

360

Search for the ideal oral rehydration solution: studies in a model of secretory diarrhoea.  

OpenAIRE

In situ perfusion of whole rat small intestine was used to compare the efficacy of five oral rehydration solutions in promoting water and sodium absorption in normal intestine and secreting intestine after exposure to cholera toxin. Solutions varied in their sodium (35-90 mmol/l) and glucose (111-200 mmol/l) concentrations, molar ratio of glucose:sodium (1.2-5.8), and osmolality (281-331 mOsmol/kg), and contained either bicarbonate (18-30 mmol/l) or citrate (10 mmol/l). In normal intestine al...

Elliott, E. J.; Watson, A. J.; Walker-smith, J. A.; Farthing, M. J.

1991-01-01

361

Sodium fire protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

362

Transepithelial Bicarbonate Secretion: Lessons from the Pancreas  

OpenAIRE

Many cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-expressing epithelia secrete bicarbonate (HCO3?)-containing fluids. Recent evidence suggests that defects in epithelial bicarbonate secretion are directly involved in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis, in particular by building up hyperviscous mucus in the ductal structures of the lung and pancreas. Pancreatic juice is one of the representative fluids that contain a very high concentration of bicarbonate among bodily fluids t...

Park, Hyun Woo; Lee, Min Goo

2012-01-01

363

Reaction of Ru(II)-EDTA in sodium formate-formic acid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When [Ru sup(III)(Hedta)(H2O)] was reduced at mercury electrode in sodium formate-formic acid solutions, the reduced species gradually became polarographically inactive. The final product of the deactivation reaction was isolated and identified as Na2[Ru sup(II)(edta)(CO)]. The kinetics follows the second-order rate equation, -dc1/dt=k sub(obsd) c1 c2, where c1=[[Ru sup(II)(Hedta)(H2O)]-]+[[Ru sup(II)(edta)(H2O)]2-] and c2=[HCOO-]+[HCOOH]. The k sub(obsd) value was found to be expressed by k [H+]/(K sub(A)+[H+])(K sub(R)+[H+]), where K sub(A)(=3.28 x 10-4 mol dm-3) and K sub(R)(=6.92 x 10-4 mol dm-3) are the acid-dissociation constants of formic acid and [Ru sup(II)(Hedta)(H2O)]-, respectively, with k=1.01 x 10-5 s-1 at 250C (ionic strength=0.5 mol dm-3). Several possible mechanisms for the reaction were discussed. Probably the reaction proceeds through the formation of an intermediate involving one formate anion followed by dehydration and rearrangement. (auth.)

364

Adsorption of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate on activated carbons: effects of solution chemistry and presence of bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present investigation was to determine the effectiveness of activated carbon in removing sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) and to analyze the chemical and textural characteristics of the activated carbons that are involved in the adsorption process. Studies were also performed on the influence of operational variables (pH, ionic strength, and presence of microorganisms) and on the kinetics and interactions involved in the adsorption of this pollutant on activated carbon. The kinetics study of SDBS adsorption revealed no problems in its diffusion on any of the activated carbons studied, and Weisz-Prater coefficient (C WP) values were considerably lower than unity for all activated carbons studied. SDBS adsorption isotherms on these activated carbons showed that: (i) adsorption capacity of activated carbons was very high (260-470 mg/g) and increased with larger surface area; and (ii) dispersive interactions between SDBS and carbon surface were largely responsible for the adsorption of this pollutant. SDBS adsorption was not significantly affected by the solution pH, indicating that electrostatic adsorbent-adsorbate interactions do not play an important role in this process. The presence of electrolytes (NaCl) in the medium favors SDBS adsorption, accelerating the process and increasing adsorption capacity. Under the working conditions used, SDBS is not degraded by bacteria; however, the presence of bacteria during the process accelerates and increases SDBS adsorption on the activated carbon. Microorganism adsorption on the activated carbon surface increases its hydrophobicity, explaining the results observed. PMID:17936293

Bautista-Toledo, M I; Méndez-Díaz, J D; Sánchez-Polo, M; Rivera-Utrilla, J; Ferro-García, M A

2008-01-01

365

A new insight on the dynamics of sodium dodecyl sulfate aqueous micellar solutions by dielectric spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar solutions were investigated by a recently developed double-differential dielectric spectroscopy technique in the frequency range 100 MHz-3 GHz at 22 degrees C, in the surfactant concentration range 29.8-524 mM, explored for the first time above 104 mM. The micellar contribution to dielectric spectra was analyzed according to three models containing, respectively, a single Debye relaxation, a Cole-Cole relaxation and a double Debye relaxation. The single Debye model is not accurate enough. Both Cole-Cole and double Debye models fit well the experimental dielectric spectra. With the double Debye model, two characteristic relaxation times were identified: the slower one, in the range 400-900 ps, is due to the motion of counterions bound to the micellar surface (lateral motion); the faster one, in the range 100-130 ps, is due to interfacial bound water. Time constants and amplitudes of both processes are in fair agreement with Grosse's theoretical model, except at the largest concentration values, where interactions between micelles increase. For each sample, the volume fraction of bulk water and the effect of bound water as well as the conductivity in the low frequency limit were computed. The bound water increases as the surfactant concentration increases, in quantitative agreement with the micellar properties. The number of water molecules per surfactant molecule was also computed. The conductivity values are in agreement with Kallay's model over the whole surfactant concentration range. PMID:19004453

Lanzi, Leandro; Carlà, Marcello; Lanzi, Leonardo; Gambi, Cecilia M C

2009-02-01

366

Effects of sodium hypochlorite (Dakin's solution) on cells of the wound module.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the effects of sodium hypochlorite, or Dakin's solution (DS), on the function and viability of cells of the wound module (neutrophils, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells). For functional studies, the influence of DS on the in vitro migration of neutrophils was evaluated. Our data indicate that DS (2.5 x 10(-2)% to 2.5 x 10(-4)%) results in greater than 90% inhibition of the migration of both stimulated and nonstimulated neutrophils. Electron microscopy and trypan blue evaluation of neutrophils exposed to DS at these concentrations revealed normal structural features, which indicates that the observed reduction in neutrophil migration is not a result of cell death. In contrast to neutrophils, cultured fibroblasts and endothelial cells exposed to DS (2.5 x 10(-2)% or 2.5 x 10(-3)%) for 30 minutes show marked cell injury characterized by convoluted nuclei, cytoplasmic vacuolization, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and swollen mitochondria on electron microscopy. These data suggest that DS, even at very dilute concentrations, is toxic to cells of the wound module. We therefore recommend abandonment of the use of DS in open wounds. PMID:3348732

Kozol, R A; Gillies, C; Elgebaly, S A

1988-04-01

367

Passivation of chalcopyrite during the leaching with sulphuric acid solution in presence of sodium nitrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, the process of the chalcopyrite leaching in sulphuric acid solution was investigated. Sodium nitrate was used as oxidant in the leaching process. Chemical reactions of leaching and their thermodynamic possibilities are predicted based on the calculated Gibbs energies and analysis of E?pH diagrams. The negative values of the Gibbs energy show that all chemical reactions are thermodynamically feasible at atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range 25-90°C. At high electrode potential and low pH values, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions exist in water solutions. The increase of temperature reduces the probability of Fe3+ ion existence in the system. The chalcopyrite concentrate, enriched in the “Rudnik” flotation plant, with 27.08% Cu, 25.12% Fe, 4.15% Zn and 2.28% Pb was used in the work. XRD and DTA analysis of the concentrate reveals that the sample contains mainly the chalcopyrite with small amount of sphalerite. For the description of the reaction of leaching process the leach residuals, obtained at different conditions, were chosen for XRD, TG/DTA and SEM/EDX analyses. The elemental sulphur and chalcopyrite phases identified in leach residuals confirm our prediction that the elemental sulphur is formed during the leaching process. Accordingly, elemental sulphur is the main product of the reaction, while a minor amount of sulphide sulphur is oxidized to sulphate during the leaching. The sulphur formed during the reaction was precipitated at the particle surfaces, and slowed down the leaching rate in the final stage of leaching process. In the initial stage, the reaction rate was controlled by the surface reaction. The mechanism, latter has been changed into a diffusion controlled one.

Soki? Miroslav D.

2010-01-01

368

U(VI) ion adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics from aqueous solution onto raw sodium feldspar and acid-activated sodium feldspar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The raw sodium feldspar (RSF) is activated with the concentrated sulfuric acid solution and the acid activated sodium feldspar (AASF) is obtained. The results obtained from the mercury intrusion method show that the acidification can increase the porosity and the specific surface area. The effects of the initial pH, contact time and ambient temperature on the adsorption of U(VI) ions are investigated in a batch process. The adsorption efficiency amounts to the highest at pH 6 and the adsorption equilibrium is reached in 600 min. The pseudo-second-order model is found to be more suitable for the adsorption process than the pseudo-first-order model and intra-particle model, indicating that the chemical adsorption is the predominant step for the adsorption process. Langmuir model is found to describe the adsorption process better than Freundlich model. This proves that the main form of U(VI) ions attached to RSF and AASF is the monolayer coverage. The thermodynamic parameters prove that the adsorption process is a spontaneous endothermic one. It was also found that acid activated treatment can help increase the adsorption rate and capacity. The results show that RSF and AASF can be used as a novel low cost adsorbent for removal of U(VI) ions from the low concentration aqueous solution. (author)

369

Effects of optional structural elements, including two alternative amino termini and a new splicing cassette IV, on the function of the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7).  

Science.gov (United States)

The SLC4A7 gene encodes the electroneutral sodium/HCO3 cotransporter NBCn1, which plays important physiological and pathophysiological roles in many cell types. Previous work identified six NBCn1 variants differing in the sequence of the extreme N terminus--MEAD in rat only, MERF in human only--as well as in the optional inclusion of cassettes I, II, and III. Earlier work also left open the question of whether optional structural elements (OSEs) affect surface abundance or intrinsic (per-molecule) transport activity. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SLC4A7 from one species can express both MEAD- and MERF-NBCn1. We also identify a novel cassette IV of 20 aa, and extend by 10 the number of full-length NBCn1 variants. The alternative N termini and four cassettes could theoretically produce 32 major variants. Moreover, we identify a group of cDNAs predicted to encode just the cytosolic N-terminal domain (Nt) of NBCn1. A combination of electrophysiology and biotinylation shows that the OSEs can affect surface abundance and intrinsic HCO3(-) transport activity of NBCn1, as expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Specifically, MEAD tends to increase whereas novel cassette IV reduces surface abundance. Cassettes II, III and novel cassette IV all appear to increase the intrinsic activity of NBCn1. PMID:23959679

Liu, Ying; Qin, Xue; Wang, Deng-Ke; Guo, Yi-Min; Gill, Harindarpal S; Morris, Nathan; Parker, Mark D; Chen, Li-Ming; Boron, Walter F

2013-10-15

370

Application of solution-mineral equilibrium chemistry to solution mining of uranium ores  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tests described were undertaken to determine the extent to leach solution-rock interactions with uranium-bearing ore obtained from the Mariano Lake mine. Leach solutions of an acidic (H/sub 2/O/sub 4/-sulfuric acid) and basic (NaHCO/sub 3/-sodium bicarbonate) nature were tested, in addition to a leach solution containing potassium chloride and sulfuric acid (KCl/H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The latter solution was chosen in an attempt to equilibrate the aqueous phase with the rock-forming silicate minerals and minimize adverse effects such as clay formation, porosity loss, and lixiviant loss. 29 refs

371

The stability and solubility of cadmium(II)-8-oxyquinoline complexes in water and micellar solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complexing of 8-quinoline (HOx) with cadmium ion in water and 0.01 M solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (293 K, ??0.01) is studied by the method of pH-metric titration. Values of formation constants of complexes lg?1=6.17±0.32 (CdOx+) and lg?2=14.60±0.14 (CdOx2) in aqueous solution and values of apparent stability constants lg?1=8.64 (CdOx+) and lg?2=17.59 (CdOx2) in solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate were obtained by mathematic simulation of the most likely equilibriums. Solubility of cadmium dioxy quinolate in water in the range pH 3-6 and micellar medium of sodium dodecyl sulfate is defined through the method of saturated solutions. Solubility product pLp=21.3±0.9 (H2O, 293 K) was calculated by simulation of CdOx2 solubility having regard to all reactions of acidic-basic interaction and complexing

372

A comparison study between sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate with respect to the thermodynamic properties, micellization, and interaction with poly(ethylene glycol) in aqueous solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: Apparent molar volume against molality: o, {center_dot}, and {Delta}, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 293.15 K; x, {Delta}, and lozenge, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 313.15 K. Research Highlights: > C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na(SDSn) was seen to interact with PEG more weakly than C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na(SDS). > The constraints on molecular mobility of SDS micelles are larger than those of SDSn. > Entropy change on micellization for SDSn is larger than those for SDS. > Micelle formation of SDS is less endothermic and more spontaneous than that of SDSn. > Micelles of SDS have smaller aggregation number than that of SDSn. - Abstract: The density, sound velocity, and conductivity measurements were performed on aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na) or sodium dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na) in the absence and presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at different temperatures. Changes in the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities upon micellization were derived using a pseudophase-transition approach and the infinite dilution apparent molar properties of the monomer and micellar form of C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na and C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na were determined. Variations of the critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of both surfactants in the solutions investigated with temperature were obtained from which thermodynamic parameters of micellization were estimated. It was found that at low temperature the micelle formation process is endothermic and therefore, this process must be entropically driven. However, upon increasing the temperature, the enthalpic factor becomes more significant and, at temperatures higher than 303.15 K the micellization is enthalpy driven. The interactions between C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na/C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na and PEG were studied and it was found that sodium alkyl sulfonates were seen to interact more weakly than their sulfate analogues.

Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rsadeghi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahabi, Somayyeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-09-15

373

A comparison study between sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate with respect to the thermodynamic properties, micellization, and interaction with poly(ethylene glycol) in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Apparent molar volume against molality: o, ·, and ?, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 293.15 K; x, ?, and lozenge, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 313.15 K. Research highlights: ? C12H25SO3Na(SDSn) was seen to interact with PEG more weakly than C12H25SO4Na(SDS). ? The constraints on molecular mobility of SDS micelles are larger than those of SDSn. ? Entropy change on micellization for SDSn is larger than those for SDS. ? Micelle formation of SDS is less endothermic and more spontaneous than that of SDSn. ? Micelles of SDS have smaller aggregation number than that of SDSn. - Abstract: The density, sound velocity, and conductivity measurements were performed on aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (C12H25SO4Na) or sodium dodecyl sulfonate (C12H25SO3Na) in the absence and presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at different temperatures. Changes in the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities upon micellization were derived using a pseudophase-transition approach and the infinite dilution apparent molar properties of the monomer and micellar form of C12H25SO4Na and C12H25SO3Na were determined. Variations of the critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of both surfactants in the solutioth surfactants in the solutions investigated with temperature were obtained from which thermodynamic parameters of micellization were estimated. It was found that at low temperature the micelle formation process is endothermic and therefore, this process must be entropically driven. However, upon increasing the temperature, the enthalpic factor becomes more significant and, at temperatures higher than 303.15 K the micellization is enthalpy driven. The interactions between C12H25SO4Na/C12H25SO3Na and PEG were studied and it was found that sodium alkyl sulfonates were seen to interact more weakly than their sulfate analogues.

374

Efeito de bicarbonato de sódio, feno e bagaço "in natura" sobre a digestibilidade e o desempenho de zebuínos em crescimento alimentados com bagaço de cana auto-hidrolisado / Effect of sodium bicarbonate, grass hay und untreated bagasse on the performance of growing zebu cattle fed steam treated sugarcane bagasse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O bagaço de cana-de-açúcar "in natura" (BIN) associado ou não ao bicarbonato de sódio foi testado como substituto do feno de gramínea como fonte de fibra longa para rações de ruminantes balanceadas com altas proporções de bagaço auto-hidrolisado (BAH). A ração básica (I) continha 54% BAH; 10% milho [...] grão; 25% farelo de algodão; 8% feno de gramínea; 0,9% calcáreo; 0,5% uréia; e 1,5% premix mineral, base seca. As rações II e III continham BIN e BIN mais bicarbonato de sódio (1,1%, base seca) respectivamente em substituição ao feno de gramínea da ração I. Foram usados bovinos Nelore machos não castrados e fêmeas (18 de cada sexo) em crescimento com médias iniciais de peso vivo e idade de 199 kg e 11 meses. O delineamento estatístico usado foi um fatorial com 3 rações e dois sexos, com dois animais por parcela. O período de adaptação foi de 15 dias e o experimental de 87 dias. Os dados para GPV (kg/dia); ingestão de MS (% PV); conversão alimentar (kg MS/Kg GPV); e pH fecal foram de: 0,909; 2,79; 7,41; e 6,46 para a ração I; 0,867; 2,65; 7,24; e 6,57 para a ração II; e 1,019; 2,88; 7,03 e 6,73 para a ração III. A ração III foi superior rações I e II para ganho de peso (P Abstract in english Crude sugarcane bagasse (BIN) with and without the addition of sodium bicarbonate was evaluated as a substitute for grass hay as source of long fiber in ruminant diets balanced with high proportions of steam pressure treated sugarcane bagasse (BAH, 17kgf/cm² for 6 minutes). The basal ration (I) had [...] 54% BAH; 10% corn grain; 25% cottonseed meal; 8% grass hay, 0.9% limestone; 0.5% urea; and 1.5% mineral premix, dry basis. In rations II and III, grass hay was replaced by BIN and BIN plus sodium bicarbonate (1.1%, dry basis) respectively. Nelore bull and heifer calves (18 animals each sex) with 199kg average weight and 11 months average age were used in a factorial design (3 rations and 2 sexes), with two animals per plot. The adaptation and experimental periods were 15 and 87 days respectively. The results for LWG (kg/day), DM intake (% LW), DM conversion (kg DM/kg LWG), and fecal pH were: 0.909; 2.79; 7.41 and 6.46 for ration I; 0.867; 2.65; 7.24; and 6.57 for ration II; and 1.019; 2.88; 7.03 and 6.75 for ration III respectively. Ration III was superior to rations I and II for LWG (P

D.P.D., Lanna; C., Boin.

375

Study of hydrolysis of chromate, molybdate and tungstate of sodium in aqueous solutions at 15-90 deg  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By studying 45% solutions of sodium chromate, molybdate and tungstate at temperatures between 15 and 90 deg C we have determined the hydrolysis constants (Na2MoO4 2.1x10-5 Na2WO4-6.3x10-4 at 25 deg C). A suggestion has been made about the reaction mechanism. The overall thermal effects and the entropies of the hydrolysis of salts of Na2WO4 and Na2MoO4 have been estimated (?H=7.2, ?S=37.8 for the former and ?H=22, ?S=49.6 for the latter). It has been demonstrated that, as the temperature rises, the hydrolysis of the solutions of sodium chomate and tungstate increases

376

Lorentz force on sodium and chlorine ions in a salt water solution flow under a transverse magnetic field  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that, by applying elementary concepts in electromagnetism and electrochemistry to a system consisting of salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe at an average velocity vA under the influence of a transverse magnetic field B0, an electromotive force generator can be conceived. In fact, the Lorentz force acting on the sodium and chlorine ions in a water solution gives rise to a so-called Faraday voltage across the two metal electrodes, positioned at the sides of the pipe. The effect is carried along the following chemical reactions at the electrodes: at the cathode, water is reduced (instead of sodium ions) and hydrogen gas is generated; at the anode, chlorine gas is produced. In college physics teaching, this interdisciplinary subject can be adopted to stress analogies and differences between the Hall voltage in conductors and the Faraday voltage in electrolyte solutions

377

Corrosion resistance of ?-solid solution and hardening ?'-phase of nickel alloys in sodium sulfate and chloride melts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion testings of model alloys, corresponding by chemical composition to simple and complex-alloyed ?- and ?'-phases of nickel heat-resistant alloys are conducted in sodium sulfate and chloride melts. It is ascertained that heat resistant nickel alloys containing over 50 % of hardening ?'-phase, are subject to disastrous sulfide corrosion (SC). Resistance against SC alloys containing below 50 % of ?'-phase is determined by the resistance of ?-solid solution. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

378

Solution self-assembly of the sophorolipid biosurfactant and its mixture with anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate.  

OpenAIRE

The self-assembly in aqueous solution of the acidic (AS) and lactonic (LS) forms of the sophorolipid biosurfactant, their mixtures, and their mixtures with anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, LAS, has been studied using predominantly small-angle neutron scattering, SANS, at relatively low surfactant concentrations of <30 mM. The more hydrophobic lactonic sophorolipid forms small unilamellar vesicles at low surfactant concentrations, in the concentration range of 0.2 to 3 mM, ...

Penfold, J.; Chen, M.; Thomas, Rk; Dong, C.; Smyth, Tj; Perfumo, A.; Marchant, R.; Banat, Im; Stevenson, P.; Parry, A.; Tucker, I.; Grillo, I.

2011-01-01

379

Comparative Antimicrobial Activities of Aerosolized Sodium Hypochlorite, Chlorine Dioxide, and Electrochemically Activated Solutions Evaluated Using a Novel Standardized Assay  

OpenAIRE

The main aim of this study was to develop a standardized experimental assay to enable differential antimicrobial comparisons of test biocidal aerosols. This study represents the first chlorine-matched comparative assessment of the antimicrobial activities of aerosolized sodium hypochlorite, chlorine dioxide, and electrochemically activated solution (ECAS) to determine their relative abilities to decontaminate various surface-associated health care-relevant microbial challenges. Standard micro...

Thorn, R. M. S.; Robinson, G. M.; Reynolds, D. M.

2013-01-01

380

Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate at the surface of aqueous solutions of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) studied by neutron reflection  

OpenAIRE

The surface excess of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions of SDS and the polymer poly-(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) has been measured as a function of SDS and PVP concentrations using neutron reflection. Below the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) the adsorption of SDS is increased by the presence of PVP, indicating that the two components interact cooperatively at the surface. Between the CAC and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant there is a slight dep...

Purcell, Ip; Lu, Jr; Thomas, Rk; Howe, Am; Penfold, J.

1998-01-01

381

Determination of chromic acid and sodium dichromate in a concentrated electrolytic solution with the aid of Artificial Neural Networks  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this work is to quantify the concentration of chromic acid (CA) in a saturated solution of chromium trioxide and sodium dichromate using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). A set of titration curves was obtained by automated acid-base titration according to a factorial experimental design that was developed for this purpose. These titration curves were divided into three subsets, a learning, training and test set for use by ANNs. Once trained, ANNs have the ability to recogniz...

Seepe, Alfred Hlabana

2009-01-01

382

Coacervation and aggregate transitions of a cationic ammonium gemini surfactant with sodium benzoate in aqueous solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coacervation in an aqueous solution of cationic ammonium gemini surfactant hexamethylene-1,6-bis(dodecyldimethylammonium bromide) (C12C6C12Br2) with sodium benzoate (NaBz) has been investigated at 25 °C by turbidity titration, light microscopy, dynamic light scattering, cryogenic temperature transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), isothermal titration calorimetry, ? potential and (1)H NMR measurements. There is a critical NaBz concentration of 0.10 M, only above which coacervation can take place. However, if the NaBz concentration is too large, coacervation also becomes difficult. Coacervation takes place at a very low concentration of C12C6C12Br2 and exists in a very wide concentration region of C12C6C12Br2. The phase behavior in the NaBz concentration from 0.15 to 0.50 M includes spherical micelles, threadlike micelles, coacervation, and precipitation. With increasing NaBz concentration, the phase boundaries of coacervation shift to higher C12C6C12Br2 concentration. Moreover, the C12C6C12Br2-NaBz aggregates in the coacervate are found to be close to charge neutralized. The Cryo-TEM and SEM images of the coacervate shows a layer-layer stacking structure consisting of a three-dimensional network formed by the assembly of threadlike micelles. Long, dense and almost uncharged threadlike micelles are the precursors of coacervation in the system. PMID:24651935

Wang, Ruijuan; Tian, Maozhang; Wang, Yilin

2014-03-21

383

Anodic dissolution of UO2 in slightly alkaline sodium perchlorate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anodic dissolution of UO2 has been studied in aqueous sodium perchlorate solutions at pH ? 9.5. Under potentiostatic conditions two distinct regions of oxidation/dissolution behaviour were observed. In the potential (E) range 0.100 V A, QC respectively) obtained by integration of the anodic current-time plots (QA) and cathodic potential scans to reduce accumulated oxidized surface films (QC), it was shown that > ? 90% of the anodic oxidation current went to produce these films. For E > ? 0.350 V, steady-state currents were obtained and measurements of QA and QC showed the majority of the current went to produce soluble species. The film blocking anodic dissolution appeared to be either UO2.27 or, more probably, UO3.2H2O located primarily at grain boundaries. It is proposed that, at the higher potentials, rapid oxidation and dissolution followed by the hydrolysis of dissolved uranyl species leads to the development of acidic conditions in the grain boundaries. At these lower pH values the UO3.2H2O is soluble and therefore does not accumulate. Alternatively, if this oxide has been formed by prior oxidation at a lower potential, the formation of protons on oxidizing at E > ? 0.350V causes its redissolution, allowing the current to rise to a steady-state value. On the basis of Tafel slopes, an attempt was made to demonstrate that the observed behaviour was consistent with dissolution under acidic conditions. This analysis was only partially successful. (author) 34 refs. 11 figs

384

Comparison of 2% chlorhexidine and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite irrigating solutions on postoperative pain: A randomized clinical trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To compare the levels of postoperative pain after cleaning and shaping of root canals using two different root canal irrigants for debridement. Materials and Methods: Forty patients with irreversible pulpitis, pulp necrosis and non-vital teeth exhibiting acute apical periodontitis requiring root canal treatment were included. At random, canals were cleaned and shaped with the following protocols. 2% chlorhexidine solution in group I and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution in group II were used as an irrigants. Access cavities were closed with a sterile cotton pellet and cavit. The patients recorded degree of pain at various time intervals after cleaning and shaping on a visual analogue scale for 1 week. Results: The mean pain score for group I was between 0.65 and 3.35 and for group II was between 0.95 and 4.50. There was significant difference in the pain level between the two groups only at 6 th hour postoperatively (P<0.05 and the pain was more in sodium hypochlorite group. Conclusions: More pain was present in teeth irrigated using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite when compared to that in teeth irrigated using 2% chlorhexidine solution. Significant difference in pain level was present only at 6th hour postoperatively, and at all other periods (24 th hour, 4 th and 7 th days there was no significant difference in pain level between the two groups.

Bashetty Kusum

2010-01-01

385

Dissolution kinetics of UO2: Flow-through tests on UO2.00 pellets and polycrystalline schoepite samples in oxygenated, carbonate/bicarbonate buffer solutions at 25 degree C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modelling of radionuclide release from waste forms is an important part of the performance assessment of a potential, high-level radioactive waste repository. Since spent fuel consists of UO2 containing actinide elements and other fission products, it is necessary to determine the principal parameters affecting UO2 dissolution and quantify their effects on the dissolution rate before any prediction of long term release rates of radionuclides from the spent fuel can be made. As part of a complex matrix to determine the dissolution kinetics of UO2 as a function of time, pH, carbonate/bicarbonate concentration and oxygen activity, we have measured the dissolution rates at 25 degrees C of: (1) UO2 pellets; (2) UO2.00 powder and (3) synthetic dehydrated schoepite, UO3.H2O using a single-pass flow through system in an argon-atmosphere glove box. Carbonate, carbonate/bicarbonate, and bicarbonate buffers with concentrations ranging from 0.0002 M to 0.02 M and pH values form 8 to 11 have been used. Argon gas mixtures containing oxygen (from 0.002 to 0.2 atm) and carbon dioxide (from 0 to 0.011 atm) were bubbled through the buffers to stabilize their pH values. 12 refs., 2 tabs

386

Postharvest decay reduction of fig fruit (Ficus carica) by hot water sodium carbonate solutions dip.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatments as hot water dips or high temperature conditioning have been proven to be effective to control postharvest decay on various horticultural crops. These treatments reduce chilling injury and rot losses without causing detrimental effects on fruit firmness, flavour, taste or peel appearance. These technologies, aimed to control postharvest pathogens, can be easily matched with the use of "Generally Recognized as Safe" (G.R.A.S.) compounds and employed alternatively to pesticides, known to be harmful to health and environment. In this respect we studied the combined effect of sodium carbonate (SC) and hot water on the storability of black fig fruit cultivar 'Niedda Longa' of Sardinian germplasm. Second crop fig fruit, harvested in the middle of September, was dipped for one minute in water solutions containing 0, 0.05, 0.5, and 1% (w/v) of SC at 25 or 60 degrees C and then stored at 5 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH) for two weeks. After one and two weeks of storage decay, weight loss were monitored and visual assessment was scored. Treatments with hot solutions were more effective in controlling decay compared to cold ones and the best results were achieved with 0.5% of SC at 60 degrees C. This combination reduced the decay rate from 26% (control) to 0% after 1 week and from 50% to 14% after two weeks of storage, respectively. Lower or higher SC concentrations applied at 60 degrees C were less effective and, after two weeks of storage, decay percentages were 38 and 43.6%, respectively. Water dip at 60 degrees C did not affect the weight loss as compared to dips at 25 degrees C either after one or two weeks of storage. At the same time, a significant reduction was found only with 1% of SC at 25 degrees C. The fruit treated with 0.5% of SC at 60 degrees C also had the best visual assessment up to two weeks of storage. PMID:17390840

Molinu, M G; Venditti, T; Dore, A; D'Hallewin, G; Serusi, A; Del Caro, A; Agabbio, M

2006-01-01

387

Effect of a Surfactant on the Antimicrobial Activity of Sodium Hypochlorite Solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl), associado a um tensoativo. Setenta dentes humanos monorradiculares extraídos foram inoculados com Enterococcus faecalis e incubados durante 21 dias (37 °C). Os grupos foram distribuídos de acordo [...] com a solução irrigadora utilizada no preparo do canal: hipoclorito de sódio a 5%, 2,5% e 1%; Hypoclean(r) a 5%, 2,5% e 1% - uma solução contendo um surfactante (cetrimida) associado com NaOCl. Três amostras microbiológicas foram coletadas de cada dente: S1 - antes de instrumentação; S2 - imediatamente após a instrumentação; e S3 - após um período de sete dias. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Tukey com 5% de nível de significância. Os resultados mostraram que imediatamente após o preparo do canal radicular (S2), o E. faecalis foi eliminado em todos os grupos experimentais. No entanto, após 7 dias (S3), apenas os grupos em que se utilizou Hypoclean permaneceram livres de contaminação, incluindo Hypoclean 1%, enquanto que os canais radiculares irrigados apenas com hipoclorito de sódio 1% apresentaram a mais elevada percentagem de crescimento bacteriano. Em conclusão, a adição de surfactante aumentou a atividade antimicrobiana de 1% de NaOCl a níveis semelhantes aos do NaOCl 5% . Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with a surfactant. Seventy single-rooted extracted human teeth were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days (37 °C). The groups were distributed according [...] to the irrigation solution used during root canal preparation: 5%, 2.5% and 1% NaOCl; 5%, 2.5% and 1% Hypoclean(r), a solution containing a surfactant (cetrimide) associated with NaOCl. Three microbiological samples were collected from each tooth: S1 - before instrumentation; S2 - immediately after instrumentation; and S3 - after a seven-day period. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test with 5% significance level. The results showed that immediately after root canal preparation (S2), E. faecalis was eliminated in all the experimental groups. However, after 7 days (S3), only the groups in which Hypoclean was used, remained contamination-free, including Hypoclean associated with 1% NaOCl, while the root canals irrigated with 1% NaOCl only, presented the highest percentage of bacterial growth. In conclusion, the addition of surfactant increased the antimicrobial activity of 1% NaOCl to levels similar to 5% NaOCl.

Marcos Rodolfo, Bolfoni; Marcelo dos Santos, Ferla; Otávio da Silva, Sposito; Luciano, Giardino; Rogério de Castilho, Jacinto; Fernanda Geraldes, Pappen.

2014-10-01

388

Thermochemistry of sodium iodide solutions in aqueous mixtures of ethylene glycol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enthalpies of sodium iodide dissolution in water-ethyleneglycol mixtures at 298.15 R were determined. Enthalpies in case of infinite dilution and enthalpies of transfer from water into a mixed solvent were calculated

389

The impact of electrolyte on the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyethyleneimine complexes at the air-solution interface.  

OpenAIRE

The addition of electrolyte (0.1 M NaCl) is shown to have a significant impact upon the surfactant concentration and solution pH dependence of the adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) complexes at the air-solution interface. Substantial adsorption is observed over a wide surfactant concentration range (from 10(-6) to 10(-)2 M), and over much of that range of concentrations the adsorption is characterized by the formation of surface multilayers. The surface multil...

Penfold, J.; Tucker, I.; Thomas, Rk; Taylor, Dj; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Xl

2007-01-01

390

A Low-Field NMR Study on the Water Condition of Tripe Swelling in Sodium Carbonate-Solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a low-field NMR study was performed to obtain the information on the water condition of tripe swelling in sodium carbonate-solution (Na2CO3-solution. The study researched the water state during different soaking times, concluded that the crispy cooked tripe is closely related with transverse relaxation time (T2 rather than water content. In addition, the water mobility was also found to be affected by soaking time. The study demonstrated that NMR T2 relaxometry was a potential tool to explore the water state, mobility and the way the different water components shift.

Ying Han

2013-06-01

391

Evidence of viscoelastic effects in highly concentrated aqueous solutions of the bile salt sodium deoxycholate by ultrasonic measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Absorption (5-300 MHz and velocity (5-65 MHz) of ultrasound, density, and viscosity have been measured in highly concentrated aqueous solutions of sodium deoxycholate at 20 °C. Ultrasonic results show that classical viscous losses represent a large fraction of the experimental ones and that a small velocity dispersion is present. These experimental findings are interpreted on the grounds of a viscoelastic behavior of these solutions. Accordingly, the contributions from both volume and shear viscosity relaxation processes have been evaluated. For the former process a previously suggeted model of associated reactions is considered while the dynamic shear viscosity is related to the flexibility of the large micellar super aggregates.

D'Arrigo, G.; Sesta, B.; La Mesa, C.

1980-11-01

392

Dynamic volume changes in astrocytes are an intrinsic phenomenon mediated by bicarbonate ion flux.  

Science.gov (United States)

Astrocytes, the major type of non-neuronal cells in the brain, play an important functional role in extracellular potassium ([K(+)](o)) and pH homeostasis. Pathological brain states that result in [K(+)](o) and pH dysregulation have been shown to cause astrocyte swelling. However, whether astrocyte volume changes occur under physiological conditions is not known. In this study we used two-photon imaging to visualize real-time astrocyte volume changes in the stratum radiatum of the hippocampus CA1 region. Astrocytes were observed to swell by 19.0±0.9% in response to a small physiological increase in the concentration of [K(+)](o) (3 mM). Astrocyte swelling was mediated by the influx of bicarbonate (HCO(3-)) ions as swelling was significantly decreased when the influx of HCO(3-) was reduced. We found: 1) in HCO(3-) free extracellular solution astrocytes swelled by 5.4±0.7%, 2) when the activity of the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) was blocked the astrocytes swelled by 8.3±0.7%, and 3) in the presence of an extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor astrocytes swelled by 11.4±0.6%. Because a significant HCO(3-) efflux is known to occur through the ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA) channel, we performed a series of experiments to determine if astrocytes were capable of HCO(3-) mediated volume shrinkage with GABA channel activation. Astrocytes were found to shrink -7.7±0.5% of control in response to the GABA(A) channel agonist muscimol. Astrocyte shrinkage from GABA(A) channel activation was significantly decreased to -5.0±0.6% of control in the presence of the membrane-permeant CA inhibitor acetazolamide (ACTZ). These dynamic astrocyte volume changes may represent a previously unappreciated yet fundamental mechanism by which astrocytes regulate physiological brain functioning. PMID:23226475

Florence, Clare M; Baillie, Landon D; Mulligan, Sean J

2012-01-01

393

Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux Enhancement with Tri Sodium Phosphate and Boric Acid Solution in the Tube  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a nuclear power plant, the cooling water is used to remove the decay heat and the safety system such as safety injection system (SIS) and cavity flooding system (CFS) has the cooling water including boric acid. During severe accident, tri sodium phosphate (TSP, Na{sup 3P}O{sup 4{center_dot}}12H{sup 2O}) is utilized to maintain pH in water within reactor containment. In this study, the purpose is to investigate the critical heat flux (CHF) characteristic of boric acid and TSP solution. In previous studies, Lee et al. and Jeong et al. have reported that boric acid and TSP solution can enhance CHF on a tube. This study examines CHF enhancement on a tube with mixture solution of boric acid and TSP as well as boric acid and TSP solution.

Park, Hae Min; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

394

Shelf-life of a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution as determined by arrhenius equation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Testes acelerados de estabilidade são indicados para avaliar, em um curto período de tempo, o grau de degradação química que poderá afetar uma substância química, isoladamente ou quando inserida em uma fórmula, sob condições normais de armazenamento. Este método está fundamentado na intensificação d [...] as condições de estresse para acelerar a velocidade de degradação química. Baseando-se na equação da reta obtida e na ordem de reação determinada (a 50 e 70 ºC) e usando a equação de Arrhenius, a velocidade de reação foi calculada para a condição de temperatura de 20ºC (condições normais de armazenamento). Este modelo de teste acelerado de estabilidade torna possível a predição da estabilidade química de qualquer substância, em qualquer tempo, desde que o método de quantificação da substância química esteja disponível. Como exemplo da aplicabilidade da equação de Arrhenius em teste acelerado de estabilidade, uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5% foi analisada por ser quimicamente instável. A quantificação do cloro residual livre foi determinada através de titulação iodométrica. A partir dos dados obtidos decorrentes das amostras submetidas às temperaturas de 50 e 70 ºC e com o emprego da equação de Arrhenius, o tempo de prateleira obtido foi de 166 dias em temperatura de 20 ºC, considerando como limite inferior a concentração de 20 mg/mL de cloro residual livre. Este modelo, entretanto, possibilita o cálculo de tempo de prateleira em qualquer outra temperatura de interesse. Abstract in english Accelerated stability tests are indicated to assess, within a short time, the degree of chemical degradation that may affect an active substance, either alone or in a formula, under normal storage conditions. This method is based on increased stress conditions to accelerate the rate of chemical degr [...] adation. Based on the equation of the straight line obtained as a function of the reaction order (at 50 and 70 ºC) and using Arrhenius equation, the speed of the reaction was calculated for the temperature of 20 ºC (normal storage conditions). This model of accelerated stability test makes it possible to predict the chemical stability of any active substance at any given moment, as long as the method to quantify the chemical substance is available. As an example of the applicability of Arrhenius equation in accelerated stability tests, a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was analyzed due to its chemical instability. Iodometric titration was used to quantify free residual chlorine in the solutions. Based on data obtained keeping this solution at 50 and 70 ºC, using Arrhenius equation and considering 2.0% of free residual chlorine as the minimum acceptable threshold, the shelf-life was equal to 166 days at 20 ºC. This model, however, makes it possible to calculate shelf-life at any other given temperature.

Maria Aparecida, Nicoletti; Evandro Luiz, Siqueira; Antonio Carlos, Bombana; Gabriella Guimarães de, Oliveira.

395

Solubility of unirradiated UO2 fuel in aqueous solutions. Comparison between experimental and calculated (EQ3/6) data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solubility behaviour of unirradiated UO2 pellets was studied under oxic (air-saturated) and anoxic (N2) conditions in deionized water, in sodium bicarbonate solutions with varying bicarbonate content (60 - 600 ppm), in Allard groundwater simulating granitic fresh groundwater conditions, and in bentonite water simulating the effects of bentonite on granitic fresh groundwater (25 deg C). The release of uranium was measured during static batch dissolution experiments of long duration (2-6 years). A comparison was made with the theoretical solubility data calculated with the geochemical code EQ3/6 in order to evaluate solubility (steady state) limiting factors. (orig.) (26 refs., 32 figs., 13 tabs.)

396

Effect of lithium on the properties of a liquid crystal formed by sodium dodecylsulphate and decanol in aqueous solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the molecular interactions that rule the physicochemical properties of molecular assemblies is of particular interest when trying to explain the behavior of much more complicated systems, such as the cell membranes. This work was devoted to study a discotic nematic lyotropic liquid crystal, formed by sodium dodecylsulphate (3% SDS-d25) and decanol (20% DeOH-?-d2), dissolved in aqueous solutions (0.1% D2O) of Na2SO4 or Li2SO4. The average size of the aggregates was estimated using fluorescence quenching experiments, and their dynamics were studied by measuring the 2H-NMR quadrupole splitting (??Q) and the longitudinal relaxation times (T1) of the deuterated species. To provide an atomic insight into these assemblies, molecular dynamics simulations of the systems were carried out with atomic detail. As a previous step in this study, a reparameterization of the standard GROMOS 87 force field was required to perform the equilibrated simulations and to prevent instabilities emerging during the simulations. Finally, an excellent agreement between simulation and experimental data was obtained. In addition, variations in the long range electrostatic interactions at the aggregate/solution interface, the orientation and the reorientational relaxation time of the water dipole, the translational diffusion coefficient of sodium ions, and the amphiphile-counterion coordination associated with the presence of Li+ in the solution were other key aspects investigated to explain the variation in the quadrupole splittings (??Q) in the presence of lithium in solution.

Bahamonde-Padilla, V. E.; Espinoza, Javier; Weiss-López, B. E.; Cascales, J. J. López; Montecinos, R.; Araya-Maturana, R.

2013-07-01

397

Behaviour of 29Si NMR and infrared spectra of aqueous sodium and potassium silica solutions as a function of (SiO2/M2+O) ratio  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium and potassium solutions of silica with silica concentration of 1,4 mo/kg and Rms = SiO2/M+2O ratios of 4.56 to 1.6 were obtained by depolymerization of amorphous silica gel in sodium and potassium hydroxide. Solutions have been characterized by 29Si NMR and infrared spectroscopy. The results indicated that Na+ and K+ exhibit the same behaviour during the depolymerization of silica. (authors). 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

398

Model investigations for trace analysis of iodine, uranium, and technetium in saturated sodium chloride leaching solutions of stored radioactive waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the development of a time and cost saving chromatographic technique, which allows the matrix to be separated and the most important species to be analyzed in a leaching solution of vitrified radioactive waste. Uranium, iodine, and technetium were chosen for the model technique to be elaborated. In a first step, iodide and pertechnetate were separated from the matrix by the strongly basic AG 1X 8 anion exchange resin and then separated from each other by selective elution. The uranyl ions eluted with the sodium chloride matrix were separated from the excess of sodium chloride in a second step, again by adsorption to the strongly basic resin. The ion-selective electrode was found to be a suitable tool for iodide analysis. Pertechnetate was analysed by means of liquid scintillation. Uranium was determined by ICP-AES. (orig./RB)

399

A Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study on Micelle Structural Transition at Low concentration of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micellar Solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The micelle structural transition of 0.02 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solution in addition of sodium chloride (NaCI) salt has been investigated using a Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) technique. The micelle progressively changed not just the shape but also the size by addition of salt from 0.02 M to 0.40 M. A nearly spherical micelle transforms into an ellipsoidal micelle as the major axis of micelle increases from 19.0 Angstrom to 27.3 Angstrom with a fixed minor axis of 16.7 Angstrom. The present of salt noticeable reduces the repulsion force between the charge head groups of SDS molecule that decreases the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Furthermore, it leads to decrease the free energy on micellization in which the molecules of SDS easily assembled to form a large size micelle. (author)

400

Solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New experimental results for the solubility of hydrogen sulfide in aqueous solutions of the single salts sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, and ammonium chloride at temperatures from 313 to 393 K and total pressures up to 10 MPa are reported. As in the salt-free system, a second-hydrogen sulfide-rich--liquid phase is observed at high hydrogen sulfide concentrations. A model to describe the phase equilibrium is presented. Calculations are compared to the new experimental data.

Xia, J.; Kamps, A.P.S.; Rumpf, B.; Maurer, G.

2000-04-01

401

Inhibition of cobalt active dissolution by benzotriazole in slightly alkaline bicarbonate aqueous media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of benzotriazole as inhibiting agent for the corrosion of cobalt was probed at pH ranging from 8.3 to 10.2 in a sodium bicarbonate solution, chosen to simulate mild natural environments. From electrochemical, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry experiments, we have demonstrated that benzotriazole markedly affects the electrodissolution reactions, which become modeled by the formation of a [Co(II)(BTA)2.H2O] n film according to two different mechanisms. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy has shown that the polarization of a cobalt electrode at cathodic potentials with respect to its potential of zero charge allows a mechanism of specific adsorption of the neutral form of benzotriazole to take place through a suspected metal-to-molecule electron transfer and which follows Frumkin's adsorption isotherms. At the onset of the anodic dissolution, some experimental evidence suggests that these adsorbed neutral benzotriazole molecules deprotonate to yield a very thin [Co(II)(BTA)2.H2O] n polymer-like and water-insoluble protective film, responsible for the inhibition of active dissolution processes occurring at slightly more anodic potentials. In the anodic dissolution region, deprotonated benzotriazole species present in the bulk solution favors the formation of a multilayered [Co(II)(BTA)2.H2O] n film, which also contributes to the inhi> film, which also contributes to the inhibition of any further cobalt dissolution usually observed at higher electrode potentials

402

Effect of fluoride sodium mouthwash solutions on cpTI: evaluation of physicochemical properties  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os efeitos do fluoreto, o qual está presente em diferentes produtos de higiene oral, necessita de maiores investigações, pois pouco se sabe sobre seus efeitos na superfície do titânio, o qual possui amplo uso na implantodontia. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a superfície do titânio comercialmente pur [...] o (cpTi) após exposição a diferentes concentrações de fluoreto de sódio (NaF). A hipótese testada neste estudo foi que diferentes concentrações de NaF aplicadas em diferentes intervalos de tempo seriam capazes de afetar diferentemente a superfície do titânio. Os tratamentos realizados foram: GA (controle): imersão em água destilada; GB: imersão diária por 3 min em NaF a 0,05%; GC: imersão diária por 3 min em NaF a 0,2%; GD: imersão quinzenal por 3 min em NaF a 0,05%; e GE: imersão quinzenal por 3 min em NaF a 0,2%. O tempo do experimento foi de 60 dias. A análise da rugosidade foi efetuada inicialmente e a cada 15 dias. Após 60 dias foi realizada análise de corrosão e polarização anódica. As amostras foram analisadas em MEV. Os dados de rugosidade foram analisados por ANOVA e não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre grupos e entre tempos. Os dados de corrosão (i corr) foram analisados pelo teste de Mann-Whitney e foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre GA e GC, GC e GB, GC e GD, GC e GE. A MEV evidenciou que a superfície do titânio exposto ao NaF apresentou corrosão variando de acordo com a concentração. Com base nos dados encontrados conclui-se que o uso de solução NaF a 0,05% em cpTi é seguro, enquanto a solução NaF 0,2% para uso diário deve ser cuidadosamente avaliada. Abstract in english The effects of fluoride, which is present in different oral hygiene products, deserve more investigation because little is known about their impact on the surface of titanium, which is largely used in Implantology. This study evaluated the surface of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) after exposure [...] to different concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF). The hypothesis tested in this study was that different concentrations of NaF applied at different time intervals can affect the titanium surface in different ways. The treatments resulted in the following groups: GA (control): immersion in distilled water; GB: immersion in 0.05% NaF for 3 min daily; GC: immersion in 0.2% NaF for 3 min daily; GD: immersion in 0.05% NaF for 3 min every 2 weeks; and GE: immersion in 0.2% NaF for 3 min every 2 weeks. The experiment lasted 60 days. Roughness was measured initially and every 15 days subsequently up to 60 days. After 60 days, corrosion analysis and anodic polarization were done. The samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The roughness data were analyzed by ANOVA and there was no significant difference among groups and among time intervals. The corrosion data (i corr) were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test, and significant differences were found between GA and GC, GB and GC, GC and GD, GC and GE. SEM micrographs showed that the titanium surface exposed to NaF presented corrosion that varied with the different concentrations. This study suggests that the use of 0.05% NaF solution on cpTi is safe, whereas the 0.2% NaF solution should be carefully evaluated with regard to its daily use.

Marcelo Bighetti, Toniollo; Rodrigo, Galo; Ana Paula, Macedo; Renata Cristina Silveira, Rodrigues; Ricardo Faria, Ribeiro; Maria da Gloria Chiarello de, Mattos.

2012-10-01

403

Effect of Polyvnylpyrrolidone (PVP) in Binary Solution on the Performance of Polyethersulfone Hollow Fibre Membrane for Sodium Chloride Separation  

Science.gov (United States)

In membrane preparation, phase inversion is a versatile technique that allow polymer to be transformed from liquid to a solid state in a controlled manner. The preparation and process involves many factors and parameters specifically in fabricating hollow fibre membrane. In this study, dope solution factor in the process of fabricating hollow fibre membrane were explored. The effects of polymer concentration and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as additive in the dope solution on the morphology and separation performance were found able to produced high porous membranes, well interconnected pores and surface properties. Employing polyethersulfone (PES) as polymer, hollow fibre membranes were fabricated using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent and using water as the external coagulant. Finally the fabricated ultrafiltration membranes were characterized and evaluated based on solute transport concentration (sodium chloride) and pure water permeation properties.

Bolong, N.; Ismail, A. F.; Salim, M. R.

2010-03-01

404

The Corrosion Behavior of Nickel and Inconel 600 in Sodium Hydroxide and Hydrochloric Acid Solution at 280 .deg. C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The corrosion behavior of nickel and Inconel 600 has been investigated by the weight change measurement method at pH ranges 3?13 of the solution. The specimens were exposed to aqueous solutions in a static autoclave at 280 .deg. C for 210 hours. The pH of the solutions was adjusted by hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide and the dissolved oxygen concentration was fixed as 10 ppb by using pure nitrogen gas. Weight loss of Inconel 600 was much less than that of nickel over the tested pH ranges. At pH 9.5, nickel and Inconel 600 showed the minimum weight loss phenomenon and the values of weight loss were 1.5mg/dm2 and 0.9mg/dm2, respectively. Microscopic examination showed that nickel surface was attacked uniformly, whereas Inconel 600 surface was not greatly

405

The mechanism of interaction of polymethacrylic acid with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate in aqueous solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

A complex of physicochemical methods (light scattering, potentiometry, conductometry, viscometry, tensiometry, and fluorescence spectroscopy) were used to show the possibility of formation of intermolecular associates/complexes in systems with likely charged components. The driving forces of such interactions were analyzed and a possible scheme of complex formation between polymethacrylic acid and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate was suggested.

Sachko, A. V.; Zakordonskii, V. P.; Voloshinovskii, A. S.; Golod, T. Yu.

2009-07-01

406

Cellular Cycling, Carbon Utilization, and Photosynthetic Oxygen Production during Bicarbonate-Induced Triacylglycerol Accumulation in a Scenedesmus sp.  

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Full Text Available Microalgae are capable of synthesizing high levels of triacylglycerol (TAG which can be used as precursor compounds for fuels and specialty chemicals. Algal TAG accumulation typically occurs when cellular cycling is delayed or arrested due to nutrient limitation, an environmental challenge (e.g., pH, light, temperature stress, or by chemical addition. This work is a continuation of previous studies detailing sodium bicarbonate-induced TAG accumulation in the alkaline chlorophyte Scenedesmus sp. WC-1. It was found that upon sodium bicarbonate amendment, bicarbonate is the ion responsible for TAG accumulation; a culture amendment of approximately 15 mM bicarbonate was sufficient to arrest the cellular cycle and switch the algal metabolism from high growth to a TAG accumulating state. However, the cultures were limited in dissolved inorganic carbon one day after the amendment, suggesting additional carbon supplementation was necessary. Therefore, additional abiotic and biotic experimentation was performed to evaluate in- and out-gassing of CO2. Cultures to which 40–50 mM of sodium bicarbonate were added consumed DIC faster than CO2 could ingas during the light hours and total photosynthetic oxygen production was elevated as compared to cultures that did not receive supplemental inorganic carbon.

Robert D. Gardner

2013-11-01

407

Corrosion behavior of carbon steel for overpack in groundwater containing bicarbonate ions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carbon steel is considered in Japan the candidate material for overpacks in high-level radioactive waste disposal. Effects of bicarbonate solutions on the corrosion behavior and corrosion products of carbon steel were investigated by electrochemical measurements, FT-IR and XRD analyses. The anodic polarization measurements showed that bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) accelerated the anodic dissolution and the outer layer film formation of carbon steel in the case of high concentrations, on the other hand, it inhibited these processes in the case of low concentrations. The FT-IR and XRD analyses of the anodized film showed that siderite (FeCO3) was formed in 0.5 to 1.0 mol/L bicarbonate solution, and Fe2(OH)2CO3 in 0.1 to 0.2 mol/L bicarbonate solution, while Fe6(OH)12CO3 was formed in 0.02 to 0.05 mol/L bicarbonate solutions. The stability of these corrosion products was able to be explained by using the actual potential-pH diagrams for the Fe-H2O-CO2 system. (author)

408

Tricyclic antidepressant toxicity treated with massive sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) morbitity is primarily due to cardiac arrhythmias and hypotension, which become more refractory to treatment as acidosis progresses (Ann Emerg Med. 1985;14:1-9; Clin Toxicol. 2007;45:203-233; Flomenbaum N, Goldfrank L, Hoffman R, et al. Goldfrank's toxicologic emergencies. 8th ed. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, 2006). Early recognition and aggressive treatment are necessary for patient survival. PMID:19931778

Pierog, Jessica E; Kane, Kathleen E; Kane, Bryan G; Donovan, J Ward; Helmick, Tracey

2009-11-01

409

SOW STERIOTYPIC BEHAVIOUR IN RELATION TO DIETARY SODIUM BICARBONATE  

Science.gov (United States)

Stereotypies performed by confined sows have been implicated as indicating poor welfare. There is evidence in horses that oral stereotypies serve to buffer pH and reduce gastric ulceration. Gastric ulceration is prevalent in sows and a weak link with stereotypies has been established. The objective ...

410

Molecular dynamics study on the growth of structure I methane hydrate in aqueous solution of sodium chloride.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of methane hydrates formed from the aqueous solution of sodium chloride are investigated based on molecular dynamics simulations. A three-phase molecular model consisting of a slab of methane hydrate phase, a slab of liquid water containing sodium chloride, and a gas phase of methane molecules is used. The decrease in the three-phase coexisting temperatures (by 2-3 K) at different pressures (10-100 MPa) for aqueous NaCl solutions (about 2 mol %) confirms the thermodynamic inhibition of NaCl. The growth rate of methane hydrates in NaCl solution is found to be half to one-third of that in pure water. The kinetic inhibition of NaCl is found to be a result of the reduced water repelling at the growing interface due to the strong hydration of ions. Individual ions or NaCl ion pairs can replace water molecules to participate in the formation of the cage structures. The distortion of water cages due to the presence of ions may result in a reduced fraction of occupation of methane in the cage cavities. Our results provide useful insights into the mechanism of growth of methane hydrates in seawater and the desalination. PMID:23137227

Tung, Yen-Tien; Chen, Li-Jen; Chen, Yan-Ping; Lin, Shiang-Tai

2012-12-01

411

Extraction of DBP and MBP from actinides: application to the recovery of actinides from TBP-sodium carbonate scrub solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP-Na2CO3 scrub waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory scale counter-current extraction techniques. The process, called the ARALEX process, utilizes 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H2MBP) from acidified Na2CO3 scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds. These hydrogen bonds also diminish the ability of t