WorldWideScience
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Can potassium citrate replace sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride of oral rehydration solution?  

OpenAIRE

Ninety four children aged less than 5 years with diarrhoeal dehydration and acidosis were treated randomly with either World Health Organisation (WHO) oral rehydration solution containing sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and glucose or an oral solution with tripotassium citrate monohydrate replacing the sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride in the WHO solution. Fifty five children (58%) were hypokalaemic (potassium less than 3.5 mmol/l) on admission. All but two in ...

Islam, M. R.

1985-01-01

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Can potassium citrate replace sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride of oral rehydration solution?  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety four children aged less than 5 years with diarrhoeal dehydration and acidosis were treated randomly with either World Health Organisation (WHO) oral rehydration solution containing sodium chloride, potassium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and glucose or an oral solution with tripotassium citrate monohydrate replacing the sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride in the WHO solution. Fifty five children (58%) were hypokalaemic (potassium less than 3.5 mmol/l) on admission. All but two in the citrate group were successfully treated. There were no significant differences in rehydration solution intake, stool output, gain in body weight, and fall in plasma specific gravity and haematocrit between the two treatment groups after 48 hours' treatment. Significant improvement in the serum potassium concentration was observed in the hypokalaemic children receiving potassium citrate solution compared with children receiving WHO solution after 24 and 48 hours' treatment. None developed hyperkalaemia. Although children receiving potassium citrate solution corrected their acidosis at a slower rate than the WHO solution group during the first 24 hours, by 48 hours satisfactory correction was observed in all. Tripotassium citrate can safely replace sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride and may be the most useful and beneficial treatment for diarrhoea and associated hypokalaemia. PMID:2996444

Islam, M R

1985-01-01

3

pH adjustment of local anesthetic solutions with sodium bicarbonate: laboratory evaluation of alkalinization and precipitation.  

Science.gov (United States)

pH adjustment of several commonly administered local anesthetic solutions was evaluated in the laboratory. The pH achieved after the addition of sodium bicarbonate and the onset of precipitation for alkalinized solutions were recorded. Solutions of 2-chloroprocaine and lidocaine readily alkalinized to near physiological pH without precipitation. Mepivacaine solutions exhibited a tendency for delayed precipitation (18-20-minute latency for 1.5% mepivacaine) above neutral pH. Bupivacaine and etidocaine solutions precipitated after the addition of small amounts of sodium bicarbonate and could not be alkalinized to physiologic pH. Two commercially available sodium bicarbonate preparations, 4% (wt/vol) and 8.4% (wt/vol), were compared and produced similar pH changes and precipitation behavior. The data obtained for pH and time to precipitation for local anesthetic solutions alkalinized with sodium bicarbonate may be useful for practical application in the clinical setting. PMID:2562097

Peterfreund, R A; Datta, S; Ostheimer, G W

1989-01-01

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Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication  

OpenAIRE

Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

2012-01-01

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Quality Assessment of Lightly Salted Atlantic Salmon Fillets Injected With Brine Solutions Containing Sodium Bicarbonate  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce lightly salted Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. fillets with improved technical and sensory attributes. Brine containing 0, 50, 150 or 250 g/L NaCl with or without additional 25 g/L sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 was injected into the fillets. 24 hours after injection, the muscle NaCl concentration ranged from 0.2 to 2.4%, and pH ranged from 6.18 to 6.48. Untreated fillets lost 1% weight, whereas the weight increase was 4% of the fillets injected with NaCl or a combination of NaCl and NaHCO3. Liquid loss (LL during storage at 4°C for three days were similar for the untreated fillets and the fillets injected with 50 g/L NaCl (LL 12%, while LL was reduced to 7.5% with the addition of NaHCO3 to the 50 g/L brine. LL was the lowest for the groups injected with 250 g/L NaCl. Injection of NaCl resulted in higher lipid oxidation compared with untreated fillets, determined as doubled levels of alkanals (4.3 vs. 10.4 ng/g and pentenols (8.0 vs. 15.1 ng/g, but addition of NaHCO3 counteracted the action of NaCl as a pro-oxidant. Furthermore, NaHCO3 addition of the 50 g/L brine significantly improved the color of raw and cooked fillets (higher a*-value, Salmo Fan score, red/orange color tone. Sensory assessment of cooked fillet revealed that brine added NaHCO3 gave superior odor (less rancid, flavor (less metallic and higher scores for tenderness. In conclusion, addition of NaHCO3 to the brine solutions improved liquid retention, storage stability, color, odor and flavor of lightly salted salmon fillets.

Magnus Åsli

2013-04-01

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Postharvest behaviour of two Sardinian apple varieties following immersion in heated sodium bicarbonate solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

'Miali' and 'Caddina' are apple varieties of Sardinian germplasm, mainly produced under sustainable conditions. Fruit is rarely subjected to cold storage and postharvest losses are generally high. In order to prolong the marketing period and contain postharvest decay of these local varieties, we investigated on their storage behaviour and on the efficacy of combined alternative postharvest treatments. Pre-climateric fruit was harvested and immersed for 0 (control), 15, 30, 45 or 60 sec. in water at 20, 50, 55 or 60 degrees C with or without 2% (W/V) NaHCO3 (SBC). Then, fruit was stored for 4 months at 5 degrees C and 90% RH followed by a 6 day simulated marketing period (SMP) at 10 degrees C and 75% RH. Decay was monitored at the end of storage and after the SMP, while appearance and physiological disorders were evaluated after SMP. During storage 56 and 62% of the untreated 'Caddina' and 'Miali' apples rotted, respectively. During the SMP, an additional 3% of 'Caddina' and 5% of 'Miali' was lost. Among the treatments the best decay control, for both varieties, was attained when fruit was immersed in the SBC solution at 55 degrees C for 60 sec. Compared to control, decay was reduced by 91 and 95% for 'Caddina' and 'Miali', respectively. This combination induced some rind damage, mainly on 'Caddina' fruit. Superficial scald was evident on 'Caddina' and scored as medium while, cold storage induced a significant deposition of epicuticular wax in 'Miali' fruit, affecting significantly fruit appearance. A significant reduction of decay was also achieved when fruit was immersed at 60 degrees C for 30 or 45 sec., attaining for 'Caddina' a reduction of 82 and 88% of decay, respectively. Other combinations were lesser effective or produced rind damages and most decay was caused by Penicillium expansum. PMID:21534486

Venditti, T; Molinu, M G; Dore, A; Agabbio, M; D'Hallewin, G

2010-01-01

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Sodium-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters  

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Full Text Available Together, the Na(+-coupled HCO(3(- transporters and the AE family of anion exchangers (i.e., Cl-HCO3 exchangers comprise the bicarbonate transporter (BT superfamily. Virtually all BTs are important for the regulation of intracellular pH (pH(i in cells throughout the body. Specific BTs also play roles in cell-volume regulation, as well as for the transport of salt and/or acid-base equivalents across many epithelia. Electrogenic Na/HCO3 cotransporters (NBCe's play key roles in HCO(3(- reabsorption by the renal proximal tubule, and HCO(3(- secretion by the pancreatic duct. Electroneutral NBC's (NBCn's regulate pH(i in vascular smooth muscle and are present in/near axons in the brain. Finally, the Na(+-driven Cl-HCO3 exchanger (NDCBE's appear to be the major pH(i regulators in CNS neurons. A characteristic of most, but not all, BT's is that they are inhibited rather effectively by 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-4,4'-disulfonate (DIDS.

Boron WF

2001-07-01

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Bicarbonate and bicarbonate/lactate peritoneal dialysis solutions for the treatment of infusion pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study was undertaken to determine the effects of novel bicarbonate (38 mM) and bicarbonate (25 mM)/lactate (15 mM) containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions on infusion pain in patients who experienced inflow pain with conventional lactate (40 mM) solution. Pain was assessed using a verbal rating scale and the validated McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Eighteen patients were recruited to the study. Both novel solutions resulted in highly statistically significant reductions in inflow pain compared to the control lactate solution, as assessed with both the verbal rating scale and the MPQ. For all pain variables assessed, the bicarbonate/lactate solution was more effective than the bicarbonate solution in alleviating pain. In conclusion, both solutions reduced the infusion pain experienced with control solution, but the bicarbonate/lactate solution appears to be the most effective. In contrast to the most widespread current treatment, which is the manual injection of sodium bicarbonate, the bicarbonate/lactate solution does not have the associated increased risk of peritonitis. PMID:9551418

Mactier, R A; Sprosen, T S; Gokal, R; Williams, P F; Lindbergh, M; Naik, R B; Wrege, U; Gröntoft, K C; Larsson, R; Berglund, J; Tranaeus, A P; Faict, D

1998-04-01

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Potency and recovery characteristics of rocuronium mixed with sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium bicarbonate may be added to rocuronium to decrease pain on injection. However, this mixture may result in the formation of carbon dioxide bubbles. We investigated whether the addition of sodium bicarbonate to rocuronium alters neuromuscular blockade, in 120 patients randomly assigned to receive rocuronium mixed with saline or bicarbonate 8.4%, either in varying doses (for dose-response measurements; 60 patients) or a fixed dose of 600 ?g.kg(-1) (for time-course measurements; 60 patients). Sodium bicarbonate resulted in a left-shift of the rocuronium dose-response curve. The effective doses of rocuronium to produce 95% twitch depression were 331.6 (95% CI: 310.4-352.8) and 284.3 (95% CI: 262.0-306.6) ?g.kg(-1) mixed with isotonic saline or sodium bicarbonate, respectively (p sodium bicarbonate with rocuronium enhances the potency, shortens the onset and prolongs the duration of action. PMID:20608923

Lee, H J; Kim, K S; Yeon, J T; Suh, J K; Sung, I H; Shin, I C

2010-09-01

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Comparison of the effects of intravenous administration of isotonic and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate solutions on venous acid-base status in dehydrated calves with strong ion acidosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE-To compare the effects of IV administration of isotonic (1.3%) and hypertonic (8.4%) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) solutions on acid-base status in dehydrated calves with strong ion (metabolic) acidosis. DESIGN-Randomized controlled clinical trial. ANIMALS-50 calves with diarrhea and severe dehydration. PROCEDURES-Calves were randomly assigned to receive isotonic NaHCO(3) solution (65 mL/kg [29.5 mL/lb], IV) over 3 hours (n = 30) or hypertonic NaHCO(3) solution (10 mL/kg [4.5 mL/lb], IV) over 20 minutes (20). Blood samples were collected at 0 hours (immediately prior to solution administration) and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 hours after administration began. Samples were submitted for blood gas analysis, serum biochemical analysis, and determination of blood Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) concentrations and percentage change in plasma volume. RESULTS-Calves that received isotonic NaHCO(3) solution had an increase in venous blood pH, HCO(3) concentration, and base excess; a small, transient increase in Po(2); and no change in Pco(2) within 4 hours after administration began. Calves that received hypertonic NaHCO(3) solution had an immediate increase in venous blood pH, HCO(3) concentration, and base excess; a small, transient increase Pco(2); and no change in Po(2) within 0.5 hours after treatment began. Plasma volume increased to a greater extent following administration of isotonic solution than after administration of hypertonic solution. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-IV administration of 8.4% NaHCO(3) solution in small volumes provided fast and effective improvement of severe acid-base abnormalities in calves with severe strong ion acidosis but did not improve hydration status as well as administration of a larger volume of isotonic NaHCO(3) solution. PMID:20470072

Coskun, Alparslan; Sen, Ismail; Guzelbektes, Hasan; Ok, Mahmut; Turgut, Kursat; Canikli, Sebnem

2010-05-15

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Central angiotensin II induces sodium bicarbonate intake in the rat.  

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The aim of this work was to test mineral preference in hydrated rats that received a pulse intracerebroventricular (icv(p)) injection of ANG II at a dipsogenic dose (50 ng). The icv(p) ANG II induced a four-fold higher ingestion of 0.15M NaHCO(3) than of other mineral solutions at palatable concentrations (0.15M NaCl, 0.05 mM CaCl(2) and 0.01 M KCl) in a five-bottle test with water available in a fifth bottle; water intake was not consistently high in this test. Contrary to what is predicted by the mineralocorticoid/angiotensin II synergy hypothesis, the 0.15M NaCl intake in the five-bottle test was not enhanced by icv(p) ANG II preceded by deoxycorticosterone (DOCA) treatment (2.5mg/day for 3 days); neither was the NaHCO(3) intake. This result contrasted with the vigorous ingestion of both isotonic sodium solutions, but mostly of NaCl, rather than of other fluids, by sodium-depleted (furosemide 10mg sc+24h removal ambient sodium) rats in a sodium appetite test. The results suggest that mineralocorticoid combined to icv(p) ANG II does not simulate the sodium preference shown during sodium appetite. The results also show that a dipsogenic dose of central ANG II induces a reliable ingestion of isotonic sodium bicarbonate in the rat. PMID:18272252

David, Richard B; Menani, José V; De Luca, Laurival A

2008-07-01

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Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets fed to dairy calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

During two trials, 35 and 27 Holstein calves were fed ad libitum complete, pelleted diets containing either 35% alfalfa (Trial 1) or 35% grass (Trial 2) hay from birth to 12 wk of age. Calves in Trial 1 were fed one of the following diets: control, control + 3.5% sodium chloride, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate. In Trial 2, diets were: control, control + 5% sodium bicarbonate, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate + loose, chopped grass hay. Intake of dry matter, gain in body weight, ruminal pH, or fecal starch did not differ. Calves fed sodium bicarbonate in Trial 1 but not 2 had a reduced feed efficiency compared with control and supplemented diets. In Trial 1 added sodium bicarbonate did not alter intake or digestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water intake in Trial 2. Incidence of free-gas bloat was higher in calves fed sodium bicarbonate in both trials. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets containing 35% alfalfa or 35% grass hay appeared to have no benefit for young, growing dairy calves in performance and health. PMID:7440817

Wheeler, T B; Wangsness, P J; Muller, L D; Griel, L C

1980-11-01

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Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Diabetic Hyperglycemic Emergencies  

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Full Text Available Background: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state are two of the major metabolic emergencies that may occur. These conditions are not always treated properly.Objective: to describe the metabolic hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetic patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit, and to assess the use of sodium bicarbonate. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted including 52 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the Enrique Cabrera Hospital from 2000 through 2007. The following variables were analyzed: type of diabetes mellitus, type of acute complication, use or not of sodium bicarbonate, blood gases, ionogram and progress of patients. Kitabchi criteria were used for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and its severity and for the diagnosis of the hyperglycemic state as well. Criteria proposed by an Expert Committee of the American Diabetes Association and a World Health Organization Expert Committee were adopted for the diagnosis of diabetes and its classification. Results: diabetic ketoacidosis was confirmed in 57,5 % of type 1 diabetic patients and in 42,5 % of those with type 2 diabetes. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was observed in 23,0 % of type 2 diabetics. There was not any death among patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who did not use sodium bicarbonate whereas 80,0 % of patients with hyperglycemic state who used it died. Conclusions: diabetic ketoacidosis was the most common complication. Mortality due to ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was high. Sodium bicarbonate was not properly used.

Diana Machado Ramírez

2013-09-01

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Sodium bicarbonate-augmented stress thallium myocardial scintigraphy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is well known that sodium bicarbonate in pharmacological doses induces transient alkalosis, causing intracellular transport of serum potassium. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate whether, in humans, myocardial thallium-201 uptake can be augmented by pretreatment with a single bolus of sodium bicarbonate at a pharmacological dose, (b) to verify general safety aspects of the intervention and (c) to evaluate the clinical implications of augmentation of {sup 201}Tl uptake, if any. Routine exercise myocardial scintigraphy was performed twice in eight adult volunteers (five normal and three abnormal), once without intervention and the second time (within a week) following intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (88 mEq in 50 ml) as a slow bolus 1 h prior to the injection of {sup 201}Tl. Conventional myocardial thallium study was compared with sodium bicarbonate interventional myocardial scintigraphy with respect to myocardial uptake (counts per minute per mCi injected dose), washout patterns in normal and abnormal myocardial segments, and overall clinical interpretation based on planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) images. All patients remained asymptomatic after the intervention. A mean increase of 53% in myocardial uptake of thallium was noted in post-exercise acquisitions after the intervention, confirming uptake of the tracer via the potassium-hydrogen pump and its augmentation by transient alkalosis. The washout pattern remained unchanged. The visual quality of planar and SPET images improved significantly after the intervention. Out of the five abnormal myocardial segments identified in three cases, four showed significant filling-in after the intervention, causing the diagnosis to be upgraded from ''partial scar'' to ''ischaemia'', or from ''ischaemia'' to ''normal''. The overall scan impression changed in two out of three such cases. Sodium bicarbonate augmentation may have significant implications for stress-thallium scintigraphy and may be a new parameter for defining myocardial viability. (orig.)

Sarin, Badal; Chugh, Pradeep Kumar; Kaushal, Dinesh; Soni, Nakse Lal; Sawroop, Kishan; Mondal, Anupam; Bhatnagar, Aseem [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig. S. K. Mazumdar Road, 110054, Delhi (India)

2004-04-01

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Sodium bicarbonate-augmented stress thallium myocardial scintigraphy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well known that sodium bicarbonate in pharmacological doses induces transient alkalosis, causing intracellular transport of serum potassium. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate whether, in humans, myocardial thallium-201 uptake can be augmented by pretreatment with a single bolus of sodium bicarbonate at a pharmacological dose, (b) to verify general safety aspects of the intervention and (c) to evaluate the clinical implications of augmentation of 201Tl uptake, if any. Routine exercise myocardial scintigraphy was performed twice in eight adult volunteers (five normal and three abnormal), once without intervention and the second time (within a week) following intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (88 mEq in 50 ml) as a slow bolus 1 h prior to the injection of 201Tl. Conventional myocardial thallium study was compared with sodium bicarbonate interventional myocardial scintigraphy with respect to myocardial uptake (counts per minute per mCi injected dose), washout patterns in normal and abnormal myocardial segments, and overall clinical interpretation based on planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) images. All patients remained asymptomatic after the intervention. A mean increase of 53% in myocardial uptake of thallium was noted in post-exercise acquisitions after the intervention, confirming uptake of the tracer via the potassium-hydrogen pump and its augmentation by transient alkalosis. The washout patterny transient alkalosis. The washout pattern remained unchanged. The visual quality of planar and SPET images improved significantly after the intervention. Out of the five abnormal myocardial segments identified in three cases, four showed significant filling-in after the intervention, causing the diagnosis to be upgraded from ''partial scar'' to ''ischaemia'', or from ''ischaemia'' to ''normal''. The overall scan impression changed in two out of three such cases. Sodium bicarbonate augmentation may have significant implications for stress-thallium scintigraphy and may be a new parameter for defining myocardial viability. (orig.)

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The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 is a high-affinity bicarbonate carrier in cortical astrocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 (SLC4A4) is a robust regulator of intracellular H(+) and a significant base carrier in many cell types. Using wild-type (WT) and NBCe1-deficient (NBC-KO) mice, we have studied the role of NBCe1 in cortical astrocytes in culture and in situ by monitoring intracellular H(+) using the H(+)-sensitive dye BCECF [2',7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein] in wide-field and confocal microscopy. Adding 0.1-3 mm HCO3(-) to an O2-gassed, HEPES-buffered saline solution lowered the intracellular H(+) concentration with a Km of 0.65 mm HCO3(-) in WT astrocytes, but slowly raised [H(+)]i in NBCe1-KO astrocytes. Human NBCe1 heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes could be activated by adding 1-3 mm HCO3(-), and even by residual HCO3(-) in a nominally CO2/HCO3(-)-free saline solution. Our results demonstrate a surprisingly high apparent bicarbonate sensitivity mediated by NBCe1 in cortical astrocytes, suggesting that NBCe1 may operate over a wide bicarbonate concentration in these cells. PMID:24453308

Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Ruminot, Iván; Schneider, Hans-Peter; Shull, Gary E; Deitmer, Joachim W

2014-01-22

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Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

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Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

Kunther, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Kunther@empa.ch [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, B. [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Scrivener, K. [EPFL, Laboratory of Construction Materials, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

2013-02-15

19

Transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over NiPd nanoparticle catalyst  

OpenAIRE

The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active t...

NingYan

2013-01-01

20

Gram-scale solution-phase synthesis of selective sodium bicarbonate Co-transport Inhibitor S0859 : in vitro efficacy studies in breast cancer cells  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters (NBCs) mediate the transport of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes and are thus ubiquitous regulators of intracellular pH. NBC dysregulation is associated with a range of diseases; for instance, NBCn1 is strongly up-regulated in a model of ErbB2-dependent breast cancer, a malignant and widespread cancer with no targeted treatment options, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NBCn1 genetically link to breast cancer development and hypertension. The N-cyanosulfonamide S0859 has been shown to selectively inhibit NBCs, and its availability on the gram scale is therefore of significant interest to the scientific community. Herein we describe a short and efficient synthesis of S0859 with an overall yield of 45?% from commercially available starting materials. The inhibitory effect of S0859 on recovery of intracellular pH after an acid load was verified in human and murine cancer cell lines in Ringer solutions. However, S0859 binds very strongly to components in plasma, and accordingly, measurements on isolated murine tissues showed no effect of S0859 at concentrations up to 50 mu M.

Larsen, Ann MØller; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels

2012-01-01

21

EFFECTS OF SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION ON SWIM PERFORMANCE IN YOUTH ATHLETES  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w. on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s-1, p < 0.05. Resting blood concentration of HCO-3 increased following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p < 0.05. Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p < .05 as well as on post exercise plasma lactate concentration (11.27 vs. 13.06 mM, p < 0.05. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m

Jozef Langfort

2009-03-01

22

Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm² specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then i [...] mmersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37ºC, the specimens were divided into four groups according to the substance used for disinfection (5% sodium bicarbonate, 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine, vinegar and Corega Tabs). A control group was included, in which distilled water was used. The adhered microorganisms were dispersed, diluted and plated onto culture media to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL). The results were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney statistical test at the 5% level of significance. Only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine and 5% sodium bicarbonate presented a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0156, respectively) compared to the control group, decreasing the number of cfu/mL. However, when the different disinfecting solutions were compared with each other, only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine presented a statistically significant difference in the reduction of cfu/mL. It was concluded that although 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine was more effective in the reduction of Candida albicans adherence values to thermally activated acrylic resin, 5% sodium bicarbonate also proved to be a viable alternative.

Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de, Sousa; Thaís Cachuté, Paradella; Cristiane Yumi, Koga-Ito; Antonio Olavo Cardoso, Jorge.

2009-12-01

23

Injection of salt, tripolyphosphate and bicarbonate marinade solutions to improve the yield and tenderness of cooked pork loin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several marinade solutions were tested for their effects on pork tenderness. Paired loins were removed from eight Large White crossbred pigs. Each pair was cut to give eight pieces and injected to a target of 110% of original weight with one of the following eight solutions (g/100 g water): uninjected (A, control), 5% salt (B), 5% sodium tripolyphosphate (C), 3% sodium bicarbonate (D), 5% salt and 5% sodium tripolyphosphate 5% (E), 5% salt and 3% sodium bicarbonate (F), 5% sodium tripolyphosphate and 3% sodium bicarbonate (G), 5% salt, 5% sodium tripolyphosphate and 3% sodium bicarbonate (H). Samples were left overnight to equilibrate, cooked and assessed for tenderness using a Volodkevich shear force method. Mean pHs for meat injected with phosphate and/or bicarbonate (C-H) ranged from 5.75 to 5.97, compared to 5.45 for the control. All injected loins, had a significantly higher yield than the control (p0.05) from the control. Treatment H increased the yield from 70% (control) to 85%. All marinades significantly reduced the shear force (p<0.05), some treatments (D and F) by up to a half compared to the control (5150 g). Individual animal results suggest that marination could be used to good effect even in the toughest samples, whilst improving tender samples still further. Samples treated with bicarbonate had an usual porous structure, probably due to carbon dioxide produced during cooking which may have contributed to the reduced toughness. PMID:22062241

Sheard, P R; Tali, A

2004-10-01

24

Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs. Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

NingYan

2013-09-01

25

[Differential effect of sodium bicarbonate on disposition of sulfadimethoxine and sulfisoxazole in rabbits].  

Science.gov (United States)

The orally co-administered sodium bicarbonate significantly enhanced the blood concentration of sulfadimethoxine at the early stage after oral administration to rabbits, by increasing its intestinal absorption. On the other hand, the sodium bicarbonate significantly reduced the blood concentration of sulfisoxazole at the elimination phase after oral administration to rabbits, by increasing its urinary excretion. The fact that sodium bicarbonate exhibits different effects in the disposition of these two sulfonamides is an interesting example to gain a better understanding for the complexity of drug interaction. PMID:2553915

Imamura, Y; Murahashi, N; Suenaga, A; Otagiri, M

1989-06-01

26

Strategies to eliminate atypical aromas and flavors in sow loins-part II: consumer acceptance of loins marinated with sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

An identified challenge in using sow loins as a raw material for value added enhanced whole muscle products is to eliminate or minimize objectionable atypical aromas and flavors ("sow taint," ST) that may occur in some sow carcasses. The objective of this study was to determine consumer acceptance of sow loins exhibiting atypical aromas and flavors marinated with a solution of salt, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium bicarbonate. Sow loins (N=34) with atypical aromas and flavors and commodity loins (N=6) were fabricated into anterior and posterior loin sections and marinated with one of four ST marinade treatment combinations (15% pump, 0.5% PO(4), 0.70 M NaHCO(3); 15% pump, 0.25% PO(4), 0.70 M NaHCO(3); 15% pump, 0.25% PO(4), 0.35 M NaHCO(3); and 15% pump, 0.25% PO(4), 0.35 M NaHCO(3)), or a control marinade (0.25% sodium tripolyphosphate, 15% injection level) and evaluated by a consumer sensory panel. Sensory ratings determined that ST loin chops injected with a 15% solution of sodium tripolyphosphate (0.50%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.35 M) were not different (P>0.05) than loin chops from marinated commodity control loin sections (N=12) for flavor, texture, juiciness, and overall acceptability. These results indicate that a solution containing sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium bicarbonate minimized the detection of atypical aromas and flavors in sow loins. PMID:22063764

Sindelar, Jeffrey J; Prochaska, Fred; Britt, Jason; Smith, Gordon L; Osburn, Wesley N

2003-12-01

27

Mechanisms of contrast-induced nephropathy reduction for saline (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3).  

Science.gov (United States)

Nephropathy following contrast media (CM) exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline) or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb). The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid. PMID:24826379

Burgess, W Patrick; Walker, Phillip J

2014-01-01

28

Radiolysis of Bicarbonate and Carbonate Aqueous Solutions: Product Analysis and Simulation of Radiolytic Processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An understanding of the radiation-induced effects in groundwater is essential to evaluate the safe geological disposal of spent fuel. In groundwater, the bicarbonate ion is the predominant and common anion; this work investigated radiation-induced chemical reactions of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions with steady-state irradiation and pulse radiolysis methods. Aqueous solutions of sodium (bi)carbonate as high as 50 mmol.dm-3 were used. The formation of formate, oxalate, and H2O2 were measured under different conditions. A complete set of reaction steps and reliable kinetic data for the radiolysis of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions at ionic strength close to the groundwater were proposed. Kinetic calculations were completed based on the proposed reaction steps and the kinetic data obtained in the present work. The results from the calculation are in good agreement with the experimental results. With these proposed reaction steps and kinetic data, computer simulation can be performed to predict the yield of radiolytic products of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions as a function of irradiation time and used to evaluate the safety of geological disposal options of spent fuel

29

Sodium bicarbonate in-duct injection with sodium sulfate recovery for SO2/NOx control  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dry sodium injection with sodium bicarbonate has been used commercially at industrial sites since the mid 1980's. In the past three years, five full scale commercial demonstrations have been completed on electric utility coal fired units. Up to 75% SO2 removal with 0-40% NOx removal has been achieved on units equipped with ESPs. Recent slip stream studies have proven up to 90% SO2 removal and 25% NOx removal when injection is ahead of a baghouse. If dry sodium bicarbonate sorbent injection technology is used prior to a retrofitted baghouse, but after an existing ESP the sodium sulfate by-product/flyash mixture in the baghouse is over 90% Na2SO4. Simple filtration and crystallization will yield a high value 99% + pure Na2SO4 for sale. In this application, no liquid discharge occurs and potentially no solids discharge, since flyash recovered from the filter is either recycled to the boiler with the coal stream or reinjected into the boiler. EPA IAPCS model Version 4 is modified to project costs for this SO2/NOx removal technology when couples with Na2SO4 recovery. In this paper an example is used to show hardware requirements, consumables accountability, by-product recovery rates, capital costs and levelized costs

30

Oligomeric Structure and Minimal Functional Unit of the Electrogenic Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe1-A*  

OpenAIRE

The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1-A mediates the basolateral absorption of sodium and bicarbonate in the proximal tubule. In this study the oligomeric state and minimal functional unit of NBCe1-A were investigated. Wild-type (wt) NBCe1-A isolated from mouse kidney or heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells was predominantly in a dimeric state as was shown using fluorescence energy transfer, pulldown, immunoprecipitation, cross-linking experiments...

Kao, Liyo; Sassani, Pakan; Azimov, Rustam; Pushkin, Alexander; Abuladze, Natalia; Peti-peterdi, Janos; Liu, Weixin; Newman, Debra; Kurtz, Ira

2008-01-01

31

Quantification of Kinetic Rate Law Parameters of Uranium Release from Sodium Autunite as a Function of Aqueous Bicarbonate Concentrations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ABSTRACT: Hydrogen carbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, hydrogen carbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous hydrogen carbonate solutions to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate solutions (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and temperatures of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release from sodium autunite exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH and increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions. Most notably at pH 7, the rate of uranium release exhibited 370 fold increases relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release. Results indicate the activation energies were unaffected by temperature and bicarbonate concentration variations, but were strongly dependent on pH conditions. As pH increased from 6 to 11, activation energy values were observed to decrease from 29.94 kJ mol-1 to 13.07 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energies suggest a surface controlled dissolution mechanism.

Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

2013-09-05

32

The use of sodium bicarbonate in oral hygiene products and practice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Early dentifrices contained natural ingredients, mostly in coarse particle form, and were quite abrasive. Salts, either sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or a mixture of both, have also been used for tooth cleaning because of their ready availability and low cost. Because of both their relatively low intrinsic hardness and their high solubility, another advantage is low abrasivity. Their biggest disadvantage is a salty, unpalatable taste. Many modern dentifrices that contain sodium bicarbonate, either as the sole abrasive or one of several, disguise the saltiness with flavoring and sweetening agents. An almost inverse relationship exists between the percentage of baking soda in a dentifrice and its abrasivity. Sodium bicarbonate has no anticaries activity per se but is compatible with fluoride. In high concentrations, sodium bicarbonate is bactericidal against most periodontal pathogens. Most clinical studies have not found significant differences in periodontal response to baking soda as compared with other commercial dentifrices, probably because of its rapid clearance from the gingival sulcus. Sodium bicarbonate may not be the "magic bullet" for curing dental diseases, but its safety (if ingested), low abrasivity, low cost, and compatibility with fluoride make it a consummate dentifrice ingredient. PMID:12017930

Newbrun, E

1997-01-01

33

Effect of Phytase on the Sodium Requirement of Starting Broilers 1. Sodium Bicarbonate as Primary Sodium Source  

OpenAIRE

Recent work has indicated that phytase enzymes may influence Sodium (Na) metabolism in the chick but to date no work has conclusively demonstrated that the Na requirement of the chick for live performance is influenced by phytase supplementation. In this study male broilers were fed diets with Na levels ranging from 0.10-0.28% using sodium bicarbonate as the primary source of supplemental Na. Diets were supplemented with no phytase, 500 FTU/kg (1x) or 2,000 FTU/kg (4x) of phytase. When phytas...

Waldroup, P. W.; Bradley, C. D.; Lu, C.; Mussini, F. J.; Goodgame, S. D.

2011-01-01

34

Use of isotonic sodium bicarbonate to prevent radiocontrast nephropathy in patients with mild pre-existing renal impairment: a meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute renal dysfunction after radiocontrast in patients with pre-existing renal impairment is not uncommon and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution was first reported to reduce radiocontrast nephropathy in 2004. This first study was, however; limited by its small sample size and as such, the use of isotonic sodium bicarbonate to prevent radiocontrast nephropathy is still not widely used by many anaesthetists and intensivists. We meta-analysed relevant randomised controlled studies sourced from the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register (2007 issue 4), EMBASE and MEDLINE databases (1966 to April 15, 2008) without any language restriction. The use of isotonic sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant reduction in risk of an incremental rise in serum creatinine concentration 25% above baseline (relative risk 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11 to 0.44, P isotonic sodium bicarbonate (relative risk 0.59, 95% CI: 0.15 to 2.42, P = 0.47; F = 0%). With the limited data available, isotonic sodium bicarbonate appears to be safe and very effective in reducing radiocontrast nephropathy in patients with mild pre-existing renal impairment. A large randomised controlled study is needed to confirm whether isotonic bicarbonate can improve patient centred clinical outcomes. PMID:18853581

Ho, K M; Morgan, D J

2008-09-01

35

The use of sodium bicarbonate for marination of broiler breast meat.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to evaluate marination performances and the effect on meat quality traits of sodium bicarbonate, used alone or in combination with sodium chloride, when compared with sodium trypolyphosphate by using advanced analytical tools, including low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and differential scanning calorimetry. In total, 140 samples (cylindrical shape of 1 × 4 cm size) were obtained from a batch of 24-h postmortem broiler breast meat (Ross 708, females, 47 d old). Six of the groups were used for subsequent marination treatments, whereas the last group was kept as a nonmarinated control. Samples were subjected to vacuum tumbling in a special equipped laboratory rotary evaporator with a 12% (wt/wt) water:meat ratio using 6 marinade solutions: 7.7% (wt/wt) NaCl (S); 2.3% (wt/wt) Na(4)O(7)P(2) (P); 2.3% (wt/wt) NaHCO(3) (B); S and P; S and B; S, P, and B. Samples marinated with bicarbonate alone or in combination (B, SB, and SPB) significantly increased (P meat pH by approximately 0.7 units compared with that of the control, whereas phosphate alone or in combination with salt increased (P marinade performances; however, SB was able to guarantee a better marinade uptake and water retention ability with respect to that of SP. According to low-field nuclear magnetic resonance, the combined use of B and P with S determined a remarkable increase in proportion of entrapped water into the myofibrillar spaces, while the extramyofibrillar water fraction was not modified. Moreover, water gain following marination does not correspond to an increase in the freezable water amount, as detected by differential scanning calorimetry. In conclusion, B is a very promising marinating agent, and it can be exploited to develop processed poultry products with no added phosphates to match the request to avoid the nutritional drawbacks recently indicated with the use of phosphates. PMID:22252368

Petracci, M; Laghi, L; Rocculi, P; Rimini, S; Panarese, V; Cremonini, M A; Cavani, C

2012-02-01

36

Some aspects of the electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in carbonate/bicarbonate solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The electrochemical behaviour of mild steel in aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate (600 ppm) has been investigated using potentiodynamic polarization. In the pre-passive region three well-defined peaks are observed associated to reduction peaks corresponding to Fe(II) and Fe(III) species. A transpassive anodic peak is also observed being attributed to Fe(VI) species showing, in sweep reversal experiments, an associated reduction peak and an increase in the peak associated to the reduction of Fe(III) species. The characterization of the transpassive peak will be subject of further publication.

Rangel, C.M.; Leitao, R.A.; Fonseca, I.T.

1986-12-01

37

[Intraperitoneal irrigation for pseudomyxoma peritonei-a case of critical metabolic alkalosis precipitated by irrigation with 101 of sodium bicarbonate--].  

Science.gov (United States)

Pseudomyxoma peritonei causes marked accumulation of jelly-like ascites in the peritoneal cavity. Removal of much mucinous ascites by irrigating the cavity appears to be an effective treatment. We describe a patient who underwent the irrigation with sodium bicarbonate solution and developed critical alkalemia. A 68-year-old woman with normal renal function was operated on for recurrent pseudomyxoma peritonei. Fol- lowing the excision of primary lesion, her intraperitoneal cavity was irrigated with 10 1 of 7% sodium bicarbonate in about 45 minutes. Thirty minutes after irrigation, blood gas analysis revealed severe metabolic alkalosis (pH 7.714, BE 25.6 mmol x l-1 ) with electrolyte disorder (Na 157.8 mmol x l-1 K 2.31mmol x l-1, Ca 0.73 mmol x l-1). Hypotension (130 beats x min -1) supervened 75 minutes later. Transferring to the ICU, she was given KC1 solution intravenously based on serial blood analysis while on mechanical ventilation. The next day acid-base disturbance returned spontaneously to normal (pH 7.45, BE 8.0mmol x l-1), leading to endotracheal extubation. Electrolyte imbalance was gradually resolved on 2nd POD and she was discharged from the ICU. Intraperitoneal irrigation with sodium bicarbonate requires special perioperative considerations for lifethreatening alkalemia, especially in a patient with renal impairment. PMID:23772538

Shirasaki, Reimi; Yamasaki, Saeko; Wakamatsu, Masaki; Mori, Yasuichiro; Hirano, Hiroko; Kaida, Takeshi; Machino, Asami

2013-05-01

38

In Situ Investigation of the Remineralizing Effect of Saliva and Fluoride on Enamel Following Prophylaxis Using Sodium Bicarbonate  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: This in situ study evaluated the effect of saliva, associated or not with fluoride, on enamel previously submitted to prophylaxis using sodium bicarbonate. Methods: The study was conducted on enamel blocks submitted to in vitro prophylaxis using sodium bicarbonate. The blocks were randomly divided into 2 groups (G1/G2) and mounted on intraoral appliances wore by 10 volunteers. G1 blocks were directly exposed to saliva in situ, while blocks in G2 were exposed to saliva with fluoride (rinsing with 0.2% NaF solution during the initial minute). Enamel alterations were evaluated using surface microhardness and profilometry. Enamel hardness data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey tests and surface wear was evaluated using paired t test (P<.05). Results: No significant differences were found between G1 and G2 for enamel hardness and wear. The wear after prophylaxis was not different from the wear after the in situ stage. Baseline mean values of enamel hardness, after prophylaxis and after the in situ stage were 340±16.6, 329±35.7 and 354±37.8 for G1 and 338±15.6, 312±46.3 and 340±21.8 for G2, respectively. Conclusions: It was concluded that saliva alone exhibited a similar effect to saliva associated with fluoride; after 4h of in situ remineralization, there was no recovery in height of the enamel structure that had been lost due to the application of sodium bicarbonate. PMID:21228955

Grazziotin, Gladis Benjamina; Rios, Daniela; Honório, Heitor Marques; Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio; Lima, José Eduardo Oliveira

2011-01-01

39

Formation of a sodium bicarbonate cluster in the structure of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite  

Science.gov (United States)

Ceramic sodium-substituted carbonated hydroxyapatite has been synthesized using the method of the solid-phase reaction in the temperature range of 640-820°C in water vapor. It has been established that substitutions of Ca2+ ions in the cation and anion subsystems with Na+ ions and the PO{4/3-} and OH- groups with CO{3/2-} ions lead to a considerable acceleration of the shrinkage and synthesis of dense ceramics at substantially lower temperatures than in the case of unsubstituted hydroxyapatite. Sintering in water vapor leads to densification of carbonate groups in channel positions, which induces the appearance of orderings of A2 and B2 types (bands with wave numbers 867 and 865 cm-1 in IR spectra, respectively) as well as the protonation of carbonate groups both in A and B sites and the formation of sodium bicarbonate clusters (856 and 859 cm-1) in addition to carbonate ordering of A1 and B1 types (879 and 872 cm-1).

Tkachenko, M. V.; Kamzin, A. S.

2015-02-01

40

Diphenhydramine Overdose with Intraventricular Conduction Delay Treated with Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate and IV Lipid Emulsion  

OpenAIRE

Diphenhydramine toxicity commonly manifests with antimuscarinic features, including dry mucous membranes, tachycardia, urinary retention, mydriasis, tachycardia, and encephalopathy. Severe toxicity can include seizures and intraventricular conduction delay. We present here a case of a 23-year-old male presenting with recurrent seizures, hypotension and wide complex tachycardia who had worsening toxicity despite treatment with sodium bicarbonate. The patient was ultimately treated with intrave...

Abdi, Amin; Rose, Emily; Levine, Michael

2014-01-01

41

Effect of cimetidine and sodium bicarbonate on pancreatic replacement therapy in cystic fibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifteen patients with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency were studied during four randomised seven day treatment periods in which they received only pancreatic supplement (Pancrelipase, 27 capsules per day) or supplement plus cimetidine (20 mg/kg body weight/24 h) or sodium bicarbonate (15 g/m2/24 h) alone or in combination. Dietary intake was not fixed but was restricted to foods of known fat and nitrogen content from which daily intakes could be computed. Faecal fat and nitrogen were calculated as g/24 h and percentage of intake. Addition of either cimetidine or bicarbonate resulted in significant improvement in fat and nitrogen excretion, which was not greater with the combination of both drugs. Cimetidine and sodium bicarbonate in these doses are therefore sufficient to produce maximal improvement in digestive activity of pancreatic supplements. Fat excretion per gram of intake fell with cimetidine and bicarbonate from 12 times the normal level, to normal, in patients consuming less than 120 g fat daily. Above this intake the dose of pancreatic supplement appeared to be inadequate. Faecal nitrogen excretion increased with nitrogen intake in all four periods, but, in contrast with fat excretion, the response to cimetidine and bicarbonate was not affected by the level of intake. Dietary intake appears to be a significant factor in determining the faecal output of fat and nitrogen in patients with pancreatic insufficiency and should be considered when determining the optimum amount of pancreatic supplementation. PMID:7429342

Durie, P R; Bell, L; Linton, W; Corey, M L; Forstner, G G

1980-01-01

42

Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm{sup -3} ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of {sup 60}Co gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the {gamma}-radiolysis, G(HCOO{sup -}) = 2.2, is due to the reaction COO{sup -} + HCO{sub 3}{sup -}{r reversible} HCOO{sup -} +CO{sub 3}{sup -}. The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO{sup -} + CO{sub 3}{sup -} is particularly significant. (author).

Draganic, Z.D. (Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Negron-Mendoza, A. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Centro de Estudios Nucleares); Sehested, K. (Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)); Vujosevic, S.I. (Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)); Navarro-Gonzales, R.; Albarran-Sanchez, M.G. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Centro de Estudios Nucleares); Draganic, I.G. (Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

1991-01-01

43

Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm-3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60Co gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the ?-radiolysis, G(HCOO-) = 2.2, is due to the reaction COO- + HCO3-? HCOO- +CO3-. The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO- + CO3- is particularly significant. (author)

44

Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration prevents contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrast-induced nephropathy is the leading cause of in-hospital acute renal failure. This side effect of contrast agents leads to increased morbidity, mortality, and health costs. Ensuring adequate hydration prior to contrast exposure is highly effective at preventing this complication, although the optimal hydration strategy to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy still remains an unresolved issue. Former meta-analyses and several recent studies have shown conflicting results regarding the protective effect of sodium bicarbonate. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of normal saline versus sodium bicarbonate for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. Methods The study searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts database, ISI Web of Science (until 15 December 2008, and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials that compared normal saline with sodium bicarbonate-based hydration regimen regarding contrast-induced nephropathy. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary odds ratios. Results A total of 17 trials including 2,633 subjects were pooled. Pre-procedural hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of contrast-induced nephropathy (odds ratios 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.80, P = 0.003. Number needed to treat to prevent one case of contrast-induced nephropathy was 16 (95% confidence interval 10–34. No significant differences in the rates of post-procedure hemodialysis (P = 0.20 or death (P = 0.53 was observed. Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration was found to be superior to normal saline in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in this updated meta-analysis.

Tamhane Umesh

2009-05-01

45

Sodium is not required for chloride efflux via chloride/bicarbonate exchanger from rat thymic lymphocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium-dependent Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger acts as a chloride (Cl(-)) efflux in lymphocytes. Its functional characterization had been described when Cl(-) efflux was measured upon substituting extracellular sodium (Na(+)) by N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG). For Na(+) and Cl(-) substitution, we have used D-mannitol or NMDG. Thymocytes of male Wistar rats aged 7-9 weeks were used and intracellular Cl(-) was measured by spectrofluorimetry using MQAE dye in bicarbonate buffers. Chloride efflux was measured in a Cl(-)-free buffer (Cl(-) substituted with isethionate acid) and in Na(+) and Cl(-)-free buffer with D-mannitol or with NMDG. The data have shown that Cl(-) efflux is mediated in the absence of Na(+) in a solution containing D-mannitol and is inhibited by H2DIDS. Mathematical modelling has shown that Cl(-) efflux mathematical model parameters (relative membrane permeability, relative rate of exchanger transition, and exchanger efficacy) were the same in control and in the medium in which Na(+) had been substituted by D-mannitol. The net Cl(-) efflux was completely blocked in the NMDG buffer. The same blockage of Cl(-) efflux was caused by H2DIDS. The study results allow concluding that Na(+) is not required for Cl(-) efflux via Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger. NMDG in buffers cannot be used for substituting Na(+) because NMDG inhibits the exchanger. PMID:25003116

Stakišaitis, Donatas; Meilus, Vaidevutis; Juška, Alfonsas; Matusevi?ius, Paulius; Didžiapetrien?, Janina

2014-01-01

46

Successful correction of D-lactic acid neurotoxicity (drunken lamb syndrome) by bolus administration of oral sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Drunken lamb syndrome (DLS) has recently been described as lamb D-lactic acidosis syndrome (LDLAS). In 2012, 18 lambs aged between 7 days and 28 days with LDLAS were identified. Biochemically, each lamb had a metabolic acidosis characterised by D-lactic acidosis and exhibited clinical signs including: not hyperthermic, no evidence of dehydration, demonstrating an ataxic gait tending to recumbency (DLS) and possibly somnolence. These lambs received 50 mmol of sodium bicarbonate as an 8.4 per cent solution given orally, together with parenteral long-acting amoxicillin. All 18 cases made a full clinical recovery. This study demonstrates a novel effective treatment for a disease that is usually fatal, and also demonstrates a strong correlation between venous plasma bicarbonate concentrations and venous plasma D-lactate concentrations (R(2)=0.49). PMID:23812111

Angell, J W; Jones, G L; Voigt, K; Grove-White, D H

2013-08-31

47

Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (ie, 300 mg?kg?¹) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind crossover trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6 ± 0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65 ± 6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg?kg?¹) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (P = .38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = .01) and higher heart rate (main treatment effect, +10.1 ± 2.4 beats per minute, P = .002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0-10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.2, P < .0001). Furthermore, 10 of the 11 subjects (91%) experienced diarrhea, 64% experience bloating and thirst, and 45% experienced nausea after bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial gastrointestinal distress. PMID:23746564

Kahle, Laura E; Kelly, Patrick V; Eliot, Kathrin A; Weiss, Edward P

2013-06-01

48

Isotonic sodium bicarbonate-triggered emodin release from borate stabilized emodin nanoparticles-loaded polymeric microgel films.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrosoluble emodin-borate (EmB) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated by a simple solvent exchange method to address emodin's poor water solubility. As the result, negative charges were introduced in the surface of EmB NPs. In addition, layer-by-layer assembled multilayer films containing cation-rich polymeric microgels (named PAHD) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) were employed as drug carrier. Anionic EmB can be loaded into the PAHD/CMC multilayer films. The influences of various experimental parameters on cargo capacity of the PAHD/CMC film were studied in detail. The loaded EmB can be released in the form of emodin molecule in presence of isotonic sodium bicarbonate (ISB) solution. Gratifyingly, EmB did not almost release in presence of water, PBS buffer solution, 0.9% normal saline, and 5% glucose solution. PMID:24755249

Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaozhou

2014-07-20

49

Stress corrosion cracking of X-60 line pipe steel in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An experimental system was developed to reproduce stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of API X-60 line pipe steels in highly alkaline (pH = 10) carbonate-bicarbonate (1 N sodium carbonate [Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3

Pilkey, A.K.; Lambert, S.B.; Plumtree, A. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1995-02-01

50

Patterns in the Parathyroid Response to Sodium Bicarbonate Infusion Test in Healthy Volunteers  

OpenAIRE

Background. The sodium bicarbonate infusion test evaluates the function of the parathyroid glands. The present study aims to evaluate the range of parathyroid response in healthy individuals and the potential influence of various factors. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers were subjected to the test. Levels of vitamin D, calcium, albumin, and PTH were measured before infusion. PTH was measured at 3, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after infusion. Results. A curve describing the response of parathyro...

Papavramidis, Theodossis S.; Anastasiou, Olympia E.; Ioannis Pliakos; Nick Michalopoulos; Mike Polyzonis; Konstantina Triantafyllopoulou; Georgia Kokaraki; Spiros Papavramidis

2014-01-01

51

Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants con...

Huang Ming-Hsiang; Yang Chia-Cheng; Shih Mu-Chin; Wu Ching-Lin; Chang Chen-Kang

2010-01-01

52

Investigation of sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and water systems for saturated solar ponds. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The overall objective of this study was to gather relevant data primarily from the published literature to investigate the technical feasibility of using a Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-NaHCO/sub 3/ mixture for a saturated solar pond. This objective was accomplished by a literature search and review of existing chemical information and by performing simple chemistry experiments in the laboratory. Information on density, solubility, phase diagram, equilibrium compositions, reaction rate constant, equilibrium constant, diffusion coefficient, vapor pressure and potentially useful additives is compiled. It is concluded that even though both the saturation density and solubility increase with temperature for trona, it is not chemically stable either at room temperature or higher temperatures (80/sup 0/C). Therefore, as is, trona is not suitable for use in a saturated solar pond. From the literature it has been found that sugar and gum can retard the decomposition of bicarbonate to carbonate in the mixture. Nevertheless, trona is a very attractive solute for an unsaturated solar pond. A laboratory unsaturated pond with a stable density gradient has worked without any problems for about two months at InterTechnology/Solar Corporation.

None

1980-03-28

53

Sodium bicarbonate absorption and anabolism by detatched root of young paddy rice, corn and wheat plants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work is aimed at investigating species-to-species difference in the capability of absorption and anabolism through the root and examining the effects of sodium bicarbonate on the capability. Roots detatched from young plants of paddy rice, corn and wheat are used as the samples. The respiratory rate and anabolic rate of the detatched roots are measured by using the 14C tracer. It is found that paddy rice whows the greatest initial anabolic rate, while the rates of corn and wheat are 14 - 30 % of that of paddy rice. The initial anabolic rate is almost independent of the concentration of sodium bicarbonate. The initial absorption rate is greatest in paddy rice, followed by corn (30 - 78 %) and wheat (16 - 21 %). It is also shown that paddy rice has the greatest capability both in anabolism and absorption. The anabolism and absorption capabilities of corn are 17 - 29 % and 31 - 80 % of those of paddy rice, respectively. The corresponding values of wheat are 16 - 38 % and 24 - 66 %. Sidium bicarbonate has little effect on the anabolism capability, while the absorption capability is affected above a high concentration of 50 mM. (Nogami, K.)

54

Addition of sodium bicarbonate to rations of pre- and postpartum dairy cows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to evaluate the effect of buffer addition on adaptation to high-energy rations by dairy cows in elderly lactation. Forty-five Holstein cows were assigned to one of three treatment groups: control pre- and postpartum; control prepartum, buffer postpartum; and buffer pre- and postpartum. Rations consisted of 85% chopped grass hay: 15% concentrate prepartum and 60% corn silage:40% concentrate postpartum. On day 4 postpartum, cows were switched abruptly to the postpartum ration for 9 wk. Buffered rations contained .6% sodium bicarbonate prepartum and .7% postpartum. Daily dry matter intake as a percent of body weight for cows fed buffer postpartum (3.51%) was greater than for cows fed no buffer (3.04%) of buffer pre- and postpartum (3.14%). Average production of 4% fat-corrected milk was greater for cows fed buffer postpartum and buffer pre- and postpartum (31.9 kg/day and 31.7 kg/day) than for cows fed no buffer (28.9 kg/day). Milk fat tests were not different. Cows fed the buffered rations lost body weight between wk 1 and 9 as compared to a net gain for cows fed no buffer. Cows fed buffers consumed more dry matter during wk 1 than did cows fed no buffer. Samples of rumen fluid, feces, and serum showed few differences that could be attributed to treatments. Compared to controls, cows fed sodium bicarbonate adapted to rations more rapidly postpartum as indicated by increased feed intake during the first 2 wk and by increased milk production during the first 4 wk of the trial. PMID:6259222

Kilmer, L H; Muller, L D; Wangsness, P J

1980-12-01

55

Diphenhydramine Overdose with Intraventricular Conduction Delay Treated with Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate and IV Lipid Emulsion  

Science.gov (United States)

Diphenhydramine toxicity commonly manifests with antimuscarinic features, including dry mucous membranes, tachycardia, urinary retention, mydriasis, tachycardia, and encephalopathy. Severe toxicity can include seizures and intraventricular conduction delay. We present here a case of a 23-year-old male presenting with recurrent seizures, hypotension and wide complex tachycardia who had worsening toxicity despite treatment with sodium bicarbonate. The patient was ultimately treated with intravenous lipid emulsion therapy that was temporally associated with improvement in the QRS duration. We also review the current literature that supports lipid use in refractory diphenhydramine toxicity. PMID:25493135

Abdi, Amin; Rose, Emily; Levine, Michael

2014-01-01

56

Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance  

OpenAIRE

We examined the isolated and combined effects of beta-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) on high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in judo and jiu-jitsu competitors. 37 athletes were assigned to one of four groups: (1) placebo (PL)+PL; (2) BA+PL; (3) PL+SB or (4) BA+SB. BA or dextrose (placebo) (6.4 g day?1) was ingested for 4 weeks and 500 mg kg?1 BM of SB or calcium carbonate (placebo) was ingested for 7 days during the 4th week. Before and after 4 weeks of supp...

Tobias, Gabriel; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Salles Painelli, Vitor; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C.; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni

2013-01-01

57

Effect of cimetidine and sodium bicarbonate on pancreatic replacement therapy in cystic fibrosis.  

OpenAIRE

Fifteen patients with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency were studied during four randomised seven day treatment periods in which they received only pancreatic supplement (Pancrelipase, 27 capsules per day) or supplement plus cimetidine (20 mg/kg body weight/24 h) or sodium bicarbonate (15 g/m2/24 h) alone or in combination. Dietary intake was not fixed but was restricted to foods of known fat and nitrogen content from which daily intakes could be computed. Faecal fat and nitrogen w...

Durie, P. R.; Bell, L.; Linton, W.; Corey, M. L.; Forstner, G. G.

1980-01-01

58

The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1) is essential for normal development of mouse dentition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) is a syndrome caused by abnormal proximal tubule reabsorption of bicarbonate resulting in metabolic acidosis. Patients with mutations to the SLC4A4 gene (coding for the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1), have pRTA, growth delay, ocular defects, and enamel abnormalities. In an earlier report, we provided the first evidence that enamel cells, the ameloblasts, express NBCe1 in a polarized fashion, thereby contributing to trans-cellular bicarbonate transport. To determine whether NBCe1 plays a critical role in enamel development, we studied the expression of NBCe1 at various stages of enamel formation in wild-type mice and characterized the biophysical properties of enamel in NBCe1(-/-) animals. The enamel of NBCe1(-/-) animals was extremely hypomineralized and weak with an abnormal prismatic architecture. The expression profile of amelogenin, a known enamel-specific gene, was not altered in NBCe1(-/-) animals. Our results show for the first time that NBCe1 expression is required for the development of normal enamel. This study provides a mechanistic model to account for enamel abnormalities in certain patients with pRTA. PMID:20529845

Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Nanci, Antonio; White, Shane N; Wen, Xin; Wang, Hongjun; Zalzal, Sylvia F; Luong, Vivian Q; Schuetter, Verna L; Conti, Peter S; Kurtz, Ira; Paine, Michael L

2010-08-01

59

Facile and Efficient Acetylation of Primary Alcohols and Phenols with Acetic Anhydride Catalyzed by Dried Sodium Bicarbonate  

OpenAIRE

A variety of primary alcohols and phenols were reacted with acetic anhydride at room temperature in the presence of sodium bicarbonate to produce corresponding esters in good to excellent yields. The acetylation of 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol was also carried out using other bicarbonates and carbonates. The reaction in the presence of cesium bicarbonate and lithium carbonate gave 4-nitrobenzyl acetate in excellent yield, while in the presence of Na2CO3, K2CO3, Cs2CO3, or KHCO3 the yield was in the ...

Fulgentius Nelson Lugemwa; Koonj Shaikh; Edwin Hochstedt

2013-01-01

60

Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm-3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of Co-60 gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the gamma-radiolysis, G(HCOO-) = 2.2, is due to the reaction COO- + HCO3- reversible HCOO- + CO3-. The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO- + CO3- is particularly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained gives k(COO- + HCO3-) = (2 +/- 0.4) x 10(3) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(COO- + CO3-) = (5 +/- 1) x 10(7) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(NH2 + HCO3-) < 10(4) dm3 mol-1 s-1, and k(NH2 + CO3-) = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10(9) dm3 mol-1 s-1.

Draganic, Z.D.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.

1991-01-01

61

Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm -3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60Co gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the ?-radiolysis, G( HCOO-)=2.2, is due to the reaction COO - + HCO -3?HCOO -+CO -3. The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO -+CO -3 is particularly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained gives k(COO - + HCO -3)=(2±0.4) x 10 3 dm 3 mol -1 s -1, k(COO -+CO -3) = (5±1) x 10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s -1, k(NH 2+HCO -3)< 10 4 dm 3 mol -1 s -1, and k(NH 2+CO -3) = (1.5±0.5) x 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1.

Dragani?, Z. D.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Sehested, K.; Vujoševi?, S. I.; Navarro-Gonzáles, R.; Albarrán-Sanchez, M. G.; Dragani?, I. G.

62

Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in association with sodium bicarbonate salt, a generally regarded as safe (GRAS substance. The yeast was able to survive at different concentrations of the salt (1%, 2% and 5%, and continued to grow for a week at the wound site, remaining viable at high population for 14 days on the fruit surface. The yeast alone reduced the severity of decay by 41.7% and sodium bicarbonate alone reduced severity of decay by 19.8%, whereas the application of both led to a delay in the development of symptoms from 2 to 10 days. Ingredients of the formulations were not aggressive to fruits since no lesions were produced in control experiments.

R. S. Pimenta

2010-06-01

63

Infusion of sodium bicarbonate in experimentally induced metabolic acidosis does not provoke cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis in calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a crossover study, 5 calves were made acidotic by intermittent intravenous infusion of isotonic hydrochloric acid (HCl) over approximately 24 h. This was followed by rapid (4 h) or slow (24 h) correction of blood pH with isotonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) to determine if rapid correction of acidemia produced paradoxical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis. Infusion of HCl produced a marked metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation. Venous blood pH (mean ± S(x)) was 7.362 ± 0.021 and 7.116 ± 0.032, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2), torr) 48.8 ± 1.3 and 34.8 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate (mmol/L), 27.2 ± 1.27 and 11 ± 0.96; CSF pH was 7.344 ± 0.031 and 7.240 ± 0.039, Pco(2) 42.8 ± 2.9 and 34.5 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate 23.5 ± 0.91 and 14.2 ± 1.09 for the period before the infusion of hydrochloric acid and immediately before the start of sodium bicarbonate correction, respectively. In calves treated with rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate, correction of venous acidemia was significantly more rapid and increases in Pco(2) and bicarbonate in CSF were also more rapid. However, there was no significant difference in CSF pH. After 4 h of correction, CSF pH was 7.238 ± 0.040 and 7.256 ± 0.050, Pco(2) 44.4 ± 2.2 and 34.2 ± 2.1, and bicarbonate 17.8 ± 1.02 and 14.6 ± 1.4 for rapid and slow correction, respectively. Under the conditions of this experiment, rapid correction of acidemia did not provoke paradoxical CSF acidosis. PMID:22754090

Abeysekara, Saman; Zello, Gordon A; Lohmann, Katharina L; Alcorn, Jane; Hamilton, Don L; Naylor, Jonathan M

2012-01-01

64

A comparison of the effects of potassium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the alkalinization of urine in homozygous cystinuria.  

Science.gov (United States)

For many years, urine alkalinization has been one of the cornerstones in the treatment of homozygous cystinuria. Because of the relationship found between the excretion of urinary sodium and cystine, potassium citrate has emerged as the preferred sodium-free alkalizing agent. To evaluate the usefulness of potassium citrate for urine alkalization in cystinuric patients, sodium bicarbonate and potassium citrate were compared in 14 patients (10 on tiopronin treatment and four without treatment with sulfhydryl compounds). The study started with 1 week without the use of any alkalizing agents (Period 0) followed by 2 weeks with sodium bicarbonate (Period 1) and 2 weeks with potassium citrate (Period 2). Urinary pH, volume, excretion of sodium, potassium, citrate and free cystine, as well as the plasma potassium concentration, were recorded. Potassium citrate was shown to be effective as an alkalizing agent and, in this respect, not significantly different from sodium bicarbonate. Even though a normal diet was used, a significant increase in urinary sodium excretion was observed with sodium bicarbonate (Period 1). Urinary potassium and citrate excretion increased with potassium citrate (Period 2). A significant correlation was found between urinary sodium and cystine in the tio-pronin-treated patients. No significant differences in cystine excretion were recorded in Periods 0, 1 and 2. Plasma potassium was significantly higher during Period 2, but only one patient developed a mild hyperkalemia (5.0 mmol/l). The use of potassium citrate for urine alkalization in homozygous cystinuria is effective and can be recommended in the absence of severe renal impairment. PMID:11762790

Fjellstedt, E; Denneberg, T; Jeppsson, J O; Tiselius, H G

2001-10-01

65

Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [40 ng 1,25(OH)2D3/day]. Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH)2D3 increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH)2D3. Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal 45Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH)2D3 metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH)2D3, which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH)2D3 by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO3 supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans

66

Oligomeric Structure and Minimal Functional Unit of the Electrogenic Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe1-A*  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1-A mediates the basolateral absorption of sodium and bicarbonate in the proximal tubule. In this study the oligomeric state and minimal functional unit of NBCe1-A were investigated. Wild-type (wt) NBCe1-A isolated from mouse kidney or heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells was predominantly in a dimeric state as was shown using fluorescence energy transfer, pulldown, immunoprecipitation, cross-linking experiments, and nondenaturing perfluorooctanoate-PAGE. NBCe1-A monomers were found to be covalently linked by S-S bonds. When each of the 15 native cysteine residues were individually removed on a wt-NBCe1-A backbone, dimerization of the cotransporter was not affected. In experiments involving multiple native cysteine residue removal, both Cys630 and Cys642 in extracellular loop 3 were shown to mediate S-S bond formation between NBCe1-A monomers. When native NBCe1-A cysteine residues were individually reintroduced into a cysteineless NBCe1-A mutant backbone, the finding that a Cys992 construct that lacked S-S bonds functioned normally indicated that stable covalent linkage of NBCe1-A monomers was not a necessary requirement for functional activity of the cotransporter. Studies using concatameric constructs of wt-NBCe1-A, whose activity is resistant to methanesulfonate reagents, and an NBCe1-AT442C mutant, whose activity is completely inhibited by methanesulfonate reagents, confirmed that NBCe1-A monomers are functional. Our results demonstrate that wt-NBCe1-A is predominantly a homodimer, dependent on S-S bond formation that is composed of functionally active monomers. PMID:18658147

Kao, Liyo; Sassani, Pakan; Azimov, Rustam; Pushkin, Alexander; Abuladze, Natalia; Peti-Peterdi, Janos; Liu, Weixin; Newman, Debra; Kurtz, Ira

2008-01-01

67

Sodium bicarbonate infusion for prevention of acute kidney injury: no evidence for superior benefit, but risk for harm?  

Science.gov (United States)

The best "treatment" of acute kidney injury (AKI) is prevention. Patients who are at high risk of AKI should have an assessment of their volume status and receive appropriate volume expansion. The most effective type of intravenous fluid remains unclear. Innumerable studies have compared sodium bicarbonate and isotonic saline and have combined fluid hydration with pharmacological interventions, particularly N-acetyl-cysteine. However, abundant systematic reviews and meta-analyses have provided conflicting conclusions and have recognized a significant degree of heterogeneity between studies and publication bias. Most studies comparing intravenous sodium bicarbonate and saline were small. They often enrolled patients with a low risk for AKI, yielding low serious events (renal replacement therapy), and used different protocols for administration of fluids. Based on current literature, intravenous sodium bicarbonate does not seem to be more efficient than saline for the prevention of contrast-media-induced AKI, cardiac surgery-associated AKI, pigment nephropathy or septic AKI. However, some cohort studies or prospective randomized trials did track and report serious adverse events, such as higher rates of AKI or higher in-hospital mortality. At present, it should be concluded that the use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate administration to prevent AKI should be evaluated further in multicenter randomized double-blind trials rather than adopted into routine clinical practice. PMID:25164590

Schiffl, Helmut

2015-02-01

68

Bicarbonate-form anion exchange: affinity, regeneration, and stoichiometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) is an effective process for removing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from natural waters, but its implementation has been limited due to production of waste sodium chloride solution (i.e., brine) from the regeneration process. Chloride is of concern because elevated concentrations can have adverse effects on engineered and natural systems. The goal of this research was to explore the efficacy of using anion exchange resin with bicarbonate as the mobile counter ion, which would produce a non-chloride regeneration solution. It was found that bicarbonate-form MIEX resin had a similar affinity as chloride-form MIEX resin for sulfate, nitrate, DOC, and ultraviolet-absorbing substances. Both bicarbonate-form and chloride-form MIEX resins showed the greatest removal efficiencies as fresh resin, and removal efficiency decreased with multiple regeneration cycles. Nevertheless, sodium bicarbonate solution was as effective as sodium chloride solution at regenerating MIEX resin. Regeneration of the bicarbonate-form MIEX resin was illustrated by sparging carbon dioxide gas in a water/resin slurry. This regeneration process would eliminate the need for the addition of salts such as sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate. The stoichiometry of the bicarbonate-form resin revealed that the bicarbonate was deprotonating within the resin matrix leading to a mixture of both carbonate and bicarbonate mobile counter ions. This work makes an important contribution to ion exchange applications for water treatment by evaluating the affinity, regeneration, and stoichiometry of bicarbonate-form anion exchange. PMID:21056451

Rokicki, Christopher A; Boyer, Treavor H

2011-01-01

69

N-Acetylcysteine added to volume expansion with sodium bicarbonate does not further prevent contrast-induced nephropathy: results from the cardiac angiography in renally impaired patients study.  

Science.gov (United States)

We reviewed data from the multicenter CARE (Cardiac Angiography in Renally Impaired Patients) study to see if benefit could be shown for N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in patients undergoing cardiac angiography who all received intravenous bicarbonate fluid expansion. Four hundred fourteen patients with moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease were randomized to receive intra-arterial administration of iopamidol-370 or iodixanol-320. All patients were prehydrated with isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution. Each site chose whether or not to administer NAC 1,200 mg twice daily to all patients. Serum creatinine (SCr) levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate were assessed at baseline and 2-5 days after receiving contrast. The primary outcome was a postdose SCr increase 0.5 mg/dL (44.2 mumol/L) over baseline. Secondary outcomes were a postdose SCr increase 25% and the mean peak change in SCr. The NAC group received significantly less hydration (892 +/- 236 mL vs. 1016 +/- 328 mL; P sodium bicarbonate failed to reduce the rate of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after the intra-arterial administration of iopamidol or iodixanol to high-risk patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:19490358

Staniloae, Cezar S; Doucet, Serge; Sharma, Samin K; Katholi, Richard E; Mody, Kanika R; Coppola, John T; Solomon, Richard

2009-06-01

70

Multiple effects of swelling by sodium bicarbonate after delignification on enzymatic saccharification of rice straw.  

Science.gov (United States)

The multiple effects of pretreatments by chemical delignification using acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and swelling using sodium bicarbonate (SB) for enzymatic saccharification of rice straw in bioethanol production have been investigated in this study. The treatment with the combination of ASC three times (3× ASC) first and SB later resulted in the significant reduction in Klason lignin content up to 90% (wt./wt.). By the saccharification of the pretreated rice straw with cellulase enzymes, it was confirmed that SB treatment was an important step in the pretreatment process not only to disintegrate the cellulose structure but also to facilitate the amorphization of the crystalline cellulose as well as the extended removal of integrated lignin. Furthermore, FTIR analyses revealed that the crystal type of cellulose appeared to be changed from type I to type II by SB treatment, thereby increasing the cellulose surface area and making it more accessible to the cellulase enzyme. Conversion rate to sugar was remarkably increased when 3× ASC + SB treatments were applied to untreated rice straw, even though the saccharification of the treated rice straw was performed at a low enzyme loading (1/100, wt.-enzymes/wt.-substrate). Conclusively, rice straw could be saccharified at high yield in short time at low cellulase loading, enables the enzymatic saccharification to be more feasible for practical bioethanol production using rice straw as a substrate. PMID:23830033

Kahar, Prihardi; Taku, Kazuo; Tanaka, Shuzo

2013-12-01

71

Facile and Efficient Acetylation of Primary Alcohols and Phenols with Acetic Anhydride Catalyzed by Dried Sodium Bicarbonate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A variety of primary alcohols and phenols were reacted with acetic anhydride at room temperature in the presence of sodium bicarbonate to produce corresponding esters in good to excellent yields. The acetylation of 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol was also carried out using other bicarbonates and carbonates. The reaction in the presence of cesium bicarbonate and lithium carbonate gave 4-nitrobenzyl acetate in excellent yield, while in the presence of Na2CO3, K2CO3, Cs2CO3, or KHCO3 the yield was in the range of 80%–95%. Calcium carbonate and cobaltous carbonate did not promote the acetylation of 4-ntirobenzyl alcohol using acetic anhydride. The acetylation of 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol was carried out using ethyl acetate, THF, toluene, diethyl ether, dichloromethane and acetonitrile, and gave good yields ranging from 75%–99%. Toluene was the best solvent for the reaction, while diethyl ether was the poorest.

Fulgentius Nelson Lugemwa

2013-12-01

72

In vitro effects of bicarbonate and bicarbonate-lactate buffered peritoneal dialysis solutions on mesothelial and neutrophil function.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inclusion of bicarbonate in the formulation of peritoneal dialysis solutions may avoid the in vitro impairment of certain cell functions seen with acidic lactate-based fluids. The supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 inherent in such formulations may, however, not be biocompatible. This study compared the in vitro biocompatibility of a pH 5.2 lactate-based formulation with formulations containing either 40 mM lactate at pH 7.4, 38 mM HCO3- at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 240 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 60 mm Hg), and 25 mM HCO3- plus 15 mM lactate at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 160 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 40 mm Hg). Significant release of lactate dehydrogenase or decreases in ATP content by human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) and human peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) after a 30-min exposure to each test solution was only seen with the pH 5.2 lactate-based fluid. The ATP content of HPMC exposed to this fluid returned to control levels after 30 min of recovery in M199 control medium but showed a trend toward decreasing ATP content at 240 min. Similarly, interleukin (IL)-1 beta-induced IL-6 synthesis by HPMC was also only significantly reduced by the pH 5.2 lactate solution. PMN chemiluminescence was unaffected by 30-min exposure to all test solutions except for the pH 5.2 lactate formulation. Staphylococcus epidermidis phagocytosis was reduced to between 46 to 57% of control with all test solutions except the pH 5.2 lactate solution, which further suppressed the chemiluminescence response to 17% of control. These data suggest that short exposure to supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 does not impair HPMC or PMN viability and function. Furthermore, neutral pH lactate-containing solutions show equivalent biocompatibility to bicarbonate-based ones. PMID:8785390

Topley, N; Kaur, D; Petersen, M M; Jörres, A; Williams, J D; Faict, D; Holmes, C J

1996-02-01

73

Ergogenic effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on intermittent exercise performance preceded by intense arm cranking exercise  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have been suggested to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise, but it is unclear if these ergogenic substances affect performance under provoked metabolic acidification. To study the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on intense intermittent exercise performance and metabolic markers under exercise-induced acidification, intense arm-cranking exercise was performed prior to intense intermittent running after intake of placebo, caffeine and sodium bicarbonate. METHODS: Male team-sports athletes (n?=?12) ingested sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3; 0.4 g.kg(-1) b.w.), caffeine (CAF; 6 mg.kg(-1) b.w.) or placebo (PLA) on three different occasions. Thereafter, participants engaged in intense arm exercise prior to the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level-2 (Yo-Yo IR2). Heart rate, blood lactate and glucose as well as rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during the protocol. RESULTS: CAF and NaHCO3 elicited a 14 and 23% improvement (P?sodium bicarbonate administration improved Yo-Yo IR2 performance and lowered perceived exertion after intense arm cranking exercise, with greater overall effects of sodium bicarbonate intake.

Marriott, Matthaus; Krustrup, Peter

2015-01-01

74

Influence of bicarbonate on the sensitivity of renin release to sodium chloride  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Juxtaglomerular cells in vitro are sensitive to changes in osmolality, but it is unknown whether volume-regulatory changes in cellular ion fluxes are important for the renin secretory process. The sensitivity of renin release to increases in osmolality by NaCl was therefore tested on superfused rat glomeruli treated with bicarbonate/chloride exchange inhibitor (DNDS), NaCl/KCl cotransport inhibitor (bumetanide), or Na+/H+ antiport inhibitor (amiloride) in the presence or absence of bicarbonate. In addition, the sensitivity to increases in osmolality by addition of sucrose was tested in the presence or absence of bicarbonate. Renin release from time controls superfused with a bicarbonate-free Ringer was identical to release from glomeruli superfused with a bicarbonate Ringer. DNDS (0.11 or 1.1 mM) had no effect on renin release in a bicarbonate Ringer. 30 mM sucrose inhibited renin release independently of bicarbonate. 15 mM NaCl stimulated renin release when bicarbonate was absent, while it caused an inhibition in the presence of bicarbonate. When bicarbonate/chloride exchange was inhibited, addition of NaCl stimulated renin release even when bicarbonate was present. The effect of NaCl on renin release was not affected by amiloride (1 mM) or bumetanide (10 microM). Thus, volume regulatory mechanisms as known from other cells are not involved in the renin secretory response to small increases in NaCl concentration. Furthermore, the sensitivity of renin release to changes in NaCl concentrations is modulated by bicarbonate in a way that depends on a functioning anion-exchange mechanism. The results are compatible with the existence in the membrane of the secretory granule of a Cl-/HCO3- exchange mechanism which mediates exit of Cl-, and thereby attenuates granular swelling and exocytotic release.

SkØtt, O; Jensen, B L

1989-01-01

75

Optimization of sodium bicarbonate injection for acid scrubbing in hospital waste incineration plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Optimization of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) injection for acid hydrochloric (HCl) scrubbing was conducted on a hospital waste incineration plant. The plant employs a rotary kiln system having burning capacity of 350 kg/h hospital waste (average calorific value of 17.4 MJ/kg) and is operated on a 24 hr/ day basis. Currently, NaHCO3 injection rate is 25 kg/h as recommended by manufacturer to meet the Department of Environment (DOE) standard emission limit of 200 mg/Nm3 HCl. Testing of HCl emission at various injection rates of 25, 20, 15 and 10 kg/ h results in HCl final concentration in the range of 0.58-7.13, 5.63-7.74, 0.07-2.99 and 3-28 mg/Nm3 respectively. The results showed that NaHCO3 injection rate as low as 10 kg/ h could still meet the HCl stipulated emission limit. Economic comparison between 25 and 10 kg/ h injection rates showed that total saving on NaHCO3 and disposal of fly ash was RM 22,000 per month (equivalent to saving RM 260,000 per year) when using 10 kg/ h injection rate. It was concluded from the study that optimum injection rate would not only save cost and reduce wastage but also reduce bag house loading rate and prolong the life span of filter bags. (author)

76

Sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy: A meta-analysis of published clinical trials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious but rare complication following contrast based procedures. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) has been postulated to prevent CIN by various mechanisms. However, the outcomes following sodium bicarbonate administration to prevent CIN have been inconsistent. Methods: A meta-analysis of published randomized clinical trials to determine if the administration of sodium bicarbonate is superior to sodium chloride among patients with chronic renal failure undergoing catheterization and interventional procedures in preventing CIN was performed. Results: Data were combined across seven published clinical trials consisting of 1734 patients. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the NaHCO{sub 3} and NaCl groups except patients in the bicarbonate group were heavier (P = 0.04). The odds ratio (OR) for the development of contrast nephropathy for NaHCO{sub 3} versus NaCl was 0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.69; P = 0.003). Heterogeneity and publication bias were detectable with P-values 0.01 and 0.0005 respectively. There was no difference between the NaHCO{sub 3} group and the NaCl group in the occurrence of death [OR 0.6; 95% CI (0.26-1.41); P = 0.24], congestive heart failure [OR 0.85; 95% CI (0.32-2.24); P = 0.74] and the requirement for renal replacement therapy [OR 0.56; 95% CI (0.22-1.41); P = 0.22]. Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrates that based on currently available randomized trials, the administration of NaHCO{sub 3} is superior to the administration of NaCl alone in the prevention of CIN among patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. However, further controlled clinical trials are needed due to significant study heterogeneity and publication bias.

Kunadian, Vijayalakshmi, E-mail: kunadianvijay@aol.com [Cardiothoracic Centre, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust/Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Zaman, Azfar, E-mail: Azfar.Zaman@nuth.nhs.uk [Cardiothoracic Centre, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust/Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Spyridopoulos, Ioakim [Cardiothoracic Centre, Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals, NHS Foundation Trust/Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Institute of Human Genetics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Qiu, Weiliang [Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America (United States)

2011-07-15

77

Effects of liquorice extract, probiotic, potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on productive performance of broiler chickens exposed to heat stress  

OpenAIRE

This study was undertaken to compare the effect of licorice extract, probiotic, potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on productive performance of broilers exposed to heat stress. A total of 900 Fawbro broiler chicks were allocated at random into 6 treatments groups of 3 replicates each. Experimental treatments were as follows: Treatment 1: control group was subjected to heat stress; Treatment 2: control group was not subjected to heat stress; Treatment 3: Probiotic group were early expos...

Al-daraji, Hazim J.

2013-01-01

78

Sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy: A meta-analysis of published clinical trials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is a serious but rare complication following contrast based procedures. Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been postulated to prevent CIN by various mechanisms. However, the outcomes following sodium bicarbonate administration to prevent CIN have been inconsistent. Methods: A meta-analysis of published randomized clinical trials to determine if the administration of sodium bicarbonate is superior to sodium chloride among patients with chronic renal failure undergoing catheterization and interventional procedures in preventing CIN was performed. Results: Data were combined across seven published clinical trials consisting of 1734 patients. There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the NaHCO3 and NaCl groups except patients in the bicarbonate group were heavier (P = 0.04). The odds ratio (OR) for the development of contrast nephropathy for NaHCO3 versus NaCl was 0.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.69; P = 0.003). Heterogeneity and publication bias were detectable with P-values 0.01 and 0.0005 respectively. There was no difference between the NaHCO3 group and the NaCl group in the occurrence of death [OR 0.6; 95% CI (0.26-1.41); P = 0.24], congestive heart failure [OR 0.85; 95% CI (0.32-2.24); P = 0.74] and the requirement for renal replacement therapy [OR 0.56; 95% CI (0.22-1.41); P = 0.22]. Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrates that ban: This meta-analysis demonstrates that based on currently available randomized trials, the administration of NaHCO3 is superior to the administration of NaCl alone in the prevention of CIN among patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease. However, further controlled clinical trials are needed due to significant study heterogeneity and publication bias.

79

The activation/depassivation of nickel–chromium–molybdenum alloys in bicarbonate solution: Part I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrochemical and surface analytical techniques (X-ray photoelectron and Auger spectroscopies) were used to characterize the influence of potential on the properties of the oxide film formed on the Hybrid BC-1 (a Ni–Cr–Mo) alloy in chloride solutions containing bicarbonate. In the passive region the film possesses the expected bilayer structure with a Cr(III)-dominated barrier layer containing mixed oxidation states of Mo and an outer dominantly-hydroxide layer. At more positive potentials the Cr/Mo content of the film decreases when bicarbonate is present and the alloy becomes covered by a thick (>100 nm), and only partially protective, Ni(OH)2 layer

80

Preventive and therapeutic effects of sodium bicarbonate on melamine-induced bladder stones in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The actual preventive and therapeutic effects of alkalinizing urine on melamine-induced bladder stones (cystolith) are not completely known. Using an ideal model, two experiments were conducted in Balb/c mice. The mice were fed a normal diet in controls and a melamine diet in the other groups. The first day was set as experiment-day 1. In "Experiment 1", either low-/mid-/high-dose sodium bicarbonate (SB) or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once daily) to the mice for 14 days. Relative to the model group, the mean pH of the urine in the SB groups was significantly elevated at 3 h after SB administration, with a significant decrease in cystolith incidence on experiment-day 14. In "Experiment 2", on experiment-day 12, the melamine diet was replaced by a normal diet in 4 groups with melamine withdrawal (MW). Meanwhile, either mid-/high-dose SB or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once) to the mice in the corresponding groups. On experiment-day 12, after an additional 8 h, the cystolith incidence was significantly reduced in the high-SB, MW + mid-SB and MW + high-SB groups than in the model group. In conclusion, low urinary pH is one of the main determinants of the formation of melamine-associated stones, urinary alkalinization can be achieved by a proper dose of oral SB, and SB acts to prevent and treat melamine-induced cystoliths in mice. PMID:25092435

Ren, Shu-Ting; Du, Yun-Xia; Xu, Chang-Fu; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Mo, Li-Ping; Sun, Ying; Gao, Xiao-Li

2014-10-01

81

Stability of sodium hypochlorite solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of diluted solutions of sodium hypochlorite was studied. Sodium hypochlorite 1% solutions were diluted (1:8, 1:12, and 1:20) and stored at room temperature in a window exposed to sunlight in amber-glass, two-liter bottles that were two-thirds full. Samples were taken 25 times throughout a six-month study period; bottles were opened only on sampling days. An iodometric titration was used to determine the percent available chlorine in each sample. Least-squares regression analyses of the percent available chlorine yielded lines with negative slopes for each dilution (-7.7 X 10(-6), -8.1 X 10(-6), and -1.5 X 10(-6) for the 1:8, 1:12, and 1:20 dilutions, respectively). Using the fastest degradation rate (from the 1:12 dilution), 5.24% of available chlorine would be lost per year. The concentration of sodium hypochlorite would therefore remain above 90% of the initial concentration for 22.9 months. It is concluded that sodium hypochlorite solution stored in amber-glass bottles should carry a 23-month expiry date on chemical stability. PMID:7102683

Fabian, T M; Walker, S E

1982-06-01

82

Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials  

OpenAIRE

This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been e...

Efsa Panel On Food Contact Materials, Enzymes

2014-01-01

83

Effects of liquorice extract, probiotic, potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on productive performance of broiler chickens exposed to heat stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to compare the effect of licorice extract, probiotic, potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate on productive performance of broilers exposed to heat stress. A total of 900 Fawbro broiler chicks were allocated at random into 6 treatments groups of 3 replicates each. Experimental treatments were as follows: Treatment 1: control group was subjected to heat stress; Treatment 2: control group was not subjected to heat stress; Treatment 3: Probiotic group were early exposed to 106 Colony Forming Unit (CFU of Lactobacilli at their first day of age, and then subjected to heat stress; Treatment 4: heat distressed birds and supplemented with 0.5 % potassium chloride in their drinking water; Treatment 5: heat distressed birds and supplemented with 0.5% sodium bicarbonate in their drinking water; and Treatment 6: heat distressed birds and supplemented with 450 mg / liter licorice extract in their drinking water. At the third week of age, birds in treatments 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were exposed to heat stress (38 – 43 ºC for 6 hours(1200 – 1800 h each day until the end of experiment (8th week of age. Results revealed that treated the birds with probiotic or licorice extract resulted in a significant improvement in mean body weight, feed conversion ratio, water consumption, cumulative body weight, cumulative weight gain, cumulative feed conversion ratio, livability, productive index, economic figure and dressing percentage with or without viscera as compared with control group which was subjected to heat stress, potassium chloride treatment and sodium bicarbonate treatment. Furthermore, licorice extract treatment surpasses probiotic treatment in respect to mean body weight, water consumption, final body weight, cumulative feed consumption, livability, and dressing percentage with or without giblet. In conclusion, licorice extract and probiotic can be used as an efficient tools in alleviate the deleterious effects of heat stress on productive performance of broiler chickens.

Hazim J. Al-Daraji

2013-06-01

84

Diphenhydramine overdose with intraventricular conduction delay treated with hypertonic sodium bicarbonate and i.v. lipid emulsion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diphenhydramine toxicity commonly manifests with antimuscarinic features, including dry mucous membranes, tachycardia, urinary retention, mydriasis, tachycardia, and encephalopathy. Severe toxicity can include seizures and intraventricular conduction delay. We present here a case of a 23-year-old male presenting with recurrent seizures, hypotension and wide complex tachycardia who had worsening toxicity despite treatment with sodium bicarbonate. The patient was ultimately treated with intravenous lipid emulsion therapy that was temporally associated with improvement in the QRS duration. We also review the current literature that supports lipid use in refractory diphenhydramine toxicity. PMID:25493135

Abdi, Amin; Rose, Emily; Levine, Michael

2014-11-01

85

Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin), Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets  

OpenAIRE

Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20%) or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14%) was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg) or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg) in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg), three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each) were tested with o...

Dm, Hooge; Kr, Cummings; Jl, Mcnaughton

2000-01-01

86

Effect of ion concentrations on uranium absorption from sodium carbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of various ion concentrations on uranium absorption from a sodium carbonate solution by a strong-base, anion resin was investigated in order to help assure an adequate uranium supply for future needs. The studies were conducted to improve the recovery of uranium from in situ leach solutions by ion exchange. The effects of carbonate, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate ions were examined. Relatively low (less than 5 g/l) concentrations of chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate were found to be detrimental to the absorption of uranium. High (greater than 10 g/l) carbonate concentrations also adversely affected the uranium absorption. In addition, the effect of initial resin form was investigated in tests of the chloride, carbonate, and bicarbonate forms; resin form was shown to have no effect on the absorption of uranium

87

Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 ?g/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

2014-02-01

88

Preparation and application of potassium and sodium titanate for removal of plutonium from basic solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In PUREX process, after extraction and stripping of uranium and plutonium, the extractant, tributyl phosphate is usually washed with sodium carbonate solution before reuse for the removal of radiolytic/hydrolytic degradation products of TBP and small amounts of HNO3, uranium and plutonium goes into aqueous phase during carbonate washings. Partial neutralization of carbonate by the acid converts it to bicarbonate. Removal of plutonium from such sodium carbonate/bicarbonate streams facilitates their disposal. In the present work, studies were carried out to prepare inorganic ion-exchangers such as potassium and sodium titanates for their application as ion-exchange material. It is essential to prepare these materials in granular form to obtain good liquid flow property for ion exchange column operations, however, it is also important that the final product is having good surface area and porosity so that they may exhibit good ion exchange capacity

89

The radiation chemistry of aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiation chemistry of cobalt-60 gamma-irradiated aqueous sodium terephthalate solutions has been studied. In aerated 4 x 10-4M sodium hydroxide solutions, the main products are hydroxyterephthalate (HTA) (G = 0.99 +- 0.01), carbonate (G = 1.31 +- 0.08), and peroxides (G = 2.84 +- 0.04). The HTA and carbonate species are both formed as a result of hydroxyl radical attack and account for approximately 90 per cent of hydroxyl radical reactions. Oxygen needs to be present for efficient conversion of the terephthalate-OH radical adduct to HTA and oxygenation increases G(HTA) above the aerated solution value. G(HTA) is unaffected by changes in terephthalate concentration between 1 x 10-4M and 1 x 10-2M in sodium hydroxide solutions at pH 10. Decreasing the solution pH does however affect G(HTA). In phosphate buffered solutions pH 6.85, G(HTA) is 0.93 +- 0.01 and lower values are obtained with further decrease in solution pH. The lowering of the G(HTA) value is attributed to recombination reactions between the terephthalate-OH radical products and reducing radical products. Experimental evidence supporting the recombination postulate was obtained from the measurement of a parallel decrease in the peroxide yield and the observation of a dose rate effect on G(HTA). Competition kinetic studies with the added solutes carbonate and bicarbonate gave the rate ratios k (OH + TA2-) : k(OH + CO32-) : k(OH + HCO3-) = 1 : 0.105 : 0.0036

90

Effect of sodium bicarbonate as a pharmaceutical formulation excipient on the interaction of fluvastatin with membrane phospholipids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excipients in the pharmaceutical formulation of oral drugs are notably employed to improve drug stability. However, they can affect drug absorption and bioavailability. Passive transport through intestinal cell walls is the main absorption mechanism of drugs and, thus, involves an interaction with the membrane lipids. Therefore in this work, the effect of the excipient NaHCO(3) on the interaction of the anticholesterolemic drug fluvastatin sodium (FS) with membrane phospholipids was investigated by (1)H NMR and FTIR spectroscopy. Sodium bicarbonate is often combined with fluvastatin for oral delivery to prevent its degradation. We have used model DMPC/DMPS membranes to mimic the phospholipid content of gut cell membranes. The results presented in this work show a 100% affinity of FS for the membrane phospholipids that is not modified by the presence of the excipient. However, NaHCO(3) is shown to change the interaction mechanism of the drug. According to our data, FS enters the DMPC/DMPS bilayer interface by interacting with the lipids' polar headgroups and burying its aromatic moieties into the apolar core. Moreover, lipid segregation takes place between the anionic and zwitterionic lipids in the membranes due to a preferential interaction of FS with phosphatidylserines. The excipient counteracts this favored interaction without affecting the drug affinity and location in the bilayer. This work illustrates that preferential interactions with lipids can be involved in passive drug permeation mechanisms and gives evidence of a possible nonpassive role of certain excipients in the interaction of drugs with membrane lipids. PMID:20798935

Larocque, Germain; Arnold, Alexandre A; Chartrand, Etienne; Mouget, Yves; Marcotte, Isabelle

2010-11-01

91

Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

02-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm -3 ammonium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60Co gammas (0.001-170 Mrd) or krd pulses of 10 MeV electrons. Formate, oxalate, formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer (Mw14000-16000 daltons) were found to be the main radiolytic products. A large initial yield of formate in the ?-radiolysis, G(HCOO-) = 2.2, is due to the reaction CO2- + HCO3- ? HC00- + CO3-. The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction CO2- + CO3- is particurlarly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained in the ?-radiolysis and by pulsed electron beam experiments gives k(CO2- + HCO3-) = (2 ± 0.4)x103 dm3mol-1s-1, k(CO2-+ CO3-) = (5 ± 1)x107 dm3mol-1s-1, k(NH2 + = HCO3-) 4 dm3mol-1s-1 and k(NH2 + CO3-) = (1.5 ± 0.5)x109 dm3mol-1s-1. (author)

92

The efficacy of sodium bicarbonate in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency: a meta-analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Methods We searched PubMed, Medline and the Cochrane Library from 1 January 2004 to 1 August 2014. The effect estimate was expressed as a pooled OR with 95% CI, using the fixed-effects or random-effects model. Results 20 randomised controlled trials (n=4280) were identified. Hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in CIN among patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.96; p=0.027). However, moderate heterogeneity was noted across trials (I2=48%; p=0.008). Subgroup analyses indicated a better effect of sodium bicarbonate in studies using low-osmolar (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.93; p=0.024) compared with iso-osmolar contrast agents (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.34; p=0.351). The odds of CIN with sodium bicarbonate were lower in studies including only patients undergoing emergency (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.51; p=0.002) compared with elective procedures (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.06; p=0.105). Sodium bicarbonate was more beneficial in patients given a bolus injection before procedures (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.54; p=0.004) compared with continuous infusion (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.05; p=0.091). Sodium bicarbonate plus N-acetylcysteine (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.79; p=0.024) was better than sodium bicarbonate alone (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.03; p=0.071). The effect of sodium bicarbonate was considered greater in papers published before (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.41; p=0.000) compared with after 2008 (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.16; p=0.302). However, no significant differences were found in mortality (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.32; p=0.263) or requirement for dialysis (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.52 to 2.25; p=0.841). Conclusions Sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing CIN among patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency. However, it fails to lower the risks of dialysis and mortality and therefore cannot improve the clinical prognosis of patients with CIN. PMID:25783425

Zhang, Bin; Liang, Long; Chen, Wenbo; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

2015-01-01

93

Factors affecting the synergy of thiabendazole, sodium bicarbonate, and heat to control postharvest green mold of citrus fruit.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of thiabendazole (TBZ) to control postharvest decay caused by Penicillium digitatum of citrus fruit can be enhanced by co-application with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) and/or heat treatment. The impact of these treatments was investigated in citrus fruit, as a function of TBZ and SBC concentration and temperature, and were related to the amount of TBZ residues in fruit (total residues), in fruit surface, in the cuticular wax, and in the inner fruit. The residue levels of TBZ were determined in 'Valencia' oranges following a 1 min dip in an aqueous mixture of SBC at 0.5, 1, or 2 wt %/vol and TBZ at 600 or 400 mg/L (active ingredient, a.i.) at 20 or 40 degrees C and after 0 and 20 days at 17 degrees C and 90% relative humidity. The influence of SBC and heat on the TBZ residue concentration on the fruit surface, in cuticular wax, and on the inner cuticle tissue was determined in 'Salustiana' oranges after a 1 or 3 min dip in TBZ alone at 600 mg/L and 20 or 50 degrees C or for 1 min in TBZ at 600 mg/L and SBC at 2% and 20 degrees C. The efficacy of heat treatments with water, SBC, and TBZ, applied separately or in combination, was investigated on artificially inoculated 'Nova' mandarins and 'Valencia' oranges for the control of postharvest green mold caused by a TBZ-sensitive (TBZ-s) or TBZ-resistant (TBZ-r) isolate of P. digitatum. The residue levels of TBZ in fruit, evaluated as total residues, were not affected by the co-application of SBC in most samples. While TBZ residues in the fruit surface were not significantly affected by the dip temperature or by co-application of SBC, the rates of diffusion and penetration of TBZ into cuticular wax markedly increased in the presence of SBC or when TBZ was applied in combination with heat. TBZ residues in the inner tissue of fruits treated at 20 degrees C were not dependent upon the dip time or by the presence of SBC and were similar to those found in fruit treated with TBZ at 50 degrees C for 1 min, whereas significantly higher values were recorded in samples treated with TBZ at 50 degrees C for 3 min. When TBZ at 600 mg/L and 20 degrees C was applied in the presence of SBC at concentrations of 1-2 or 0.5-2%, it effectively reduced decay caused by the TBZ-resistant isolate of green mold in 'Nova' mandarins and 'Valencia' oranges. This treatment was also significantly more effective than TBZ alone to control green mold caused by a TBZ-s isolate in 'Valencia' oranges. The combination with SBC and mild heat (40 degrees C) and TBZ at 400 mg/L generally improved the control of a TBZ-r isolate of green mold with respect to the combined treatment at 20 degrees C. TBZ efficacy was also improved when applied at reduced rates (200 mg/L) and 50 degrees C, significantly suppressing green mold caused by a TBZ-s isolate of P. digitatum and effectively controlling a TBZ-r isolate. The rate of weight loss of 'Valencia' oranges was significantly increased by SBC treatment and was positively dependent upon the concentration of SBC used in the treatment, while the temperature of the treatment solution had little influence on later weight loss. PMID:18973341

Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Cabras, Paolo

2008-11-26

94

Evaluation of BSK-H Complete Medium Supplemented with Rabbit Serum and Sodium Bicarbonate for the Growth of Borrelia anserina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to compare the effect of 3 formulations Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK medium on the growth of Borrelia (B. anserina, the causative agent of avian borreliosis. Three different formulations of BSK medium (BSK-H, BSK-II and BSK-H complete medium were prepared. For the isolation of B. anserina, Argas ticks were inoculated in all the three (BSK-H, BSK-II and BSK-H complete formulations of BSK medium. All the samples were also observed for the impact of BSK medium on the growth (Generation time, Growth per hour, Specific growth rate of B. anserina. Phase contrast microscopy was performed for the observation of viable B. anserina cells, and additional confirmation of all the isolates was done by performing indirect immunofluorescence assay and PCR. BSK-H complete medium supplemented with 6% rabbit serum and sodium bicarbonate was found best when compared to two other formulations of BSK medium with respect to the isolation, generation time and growth rate of Borrelia spirochetes.

Bilal Aslam, Iftikhar Hussain*, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood and Ahrar Khan1

2013-04-01

95

Nutrient intake, acid base status and weight gain in water buffalo calves fed different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The impact of different dietary levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen balance and weight gain was examined in growing male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves exposed to hot summer conditions. In a complete randomized block design 60 animals of similar age [...] and weight were divided into five treatment groups of 12 per group. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated and randomly allocated to a treatment group. The control diet (0SB) contained no NaHCO3, while diets 4SB, 8SB, 12SB and 16SB contained 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6% NaHCO3, respectively. An increase in nutrient intake was recorded with increasing dietary NaHCO3 level while the reverse was true for nutrient digestibility. Calves fed the 12SB and 16SB diets had higher nitrogen retentions than those fed the 0SB and 4SB diets. Significant increases in blood pH, serum HCO3 and urine pH were recorded with increasing NaHCO3 levels, with the highest in calves receiving the 16SB diet. Calves fed the 14SB and 16SB diets gained more weight than those fed the 0SB and 4SB diets. These results indicate that the best nutrient intake, acid-base status, nitrogen retention and weight gain occurred in the calves receiving the diet containing 1.2% NaHCO3.

M, Sarwar; M.A, Shahzad; M, Nisa; S, Amjad.

96

Uso de bicarbonato de sódio na acidose metabólica do paciente gravemente enfermo / Sodium bicarbonate in the critically lll patient with metabolic acidosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A acidose lática é um distúrbio do equilíbrio ácido-base muito frequente em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva e está associado a um mau prognóstico. Embora exista um acúmulo substancial de evidências de que níveis críticos de acidemia provocam inúmeros efeitos adversos sobre o fu [...] ncionamento celular, a utilização de bicarbonato de sódio para o tratamento da acidose lática em pacientes gravemente enfermos permanece alvo de controvérsias. Neste artigo, pretendemos: 1) analisar as principais diferenças entre as acidoses hiperclorêmicas e as acidoses orgânicas, com ânion gap (AG) elevado, visando embasar a discussão sobre os fundamentos da terapia com bicarbonato de sódio nas acidoses metabólicas; 2) avaliar os riscos associados à persistência de níveis críticos de acidemia, contrastando-os com os riscos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio; 3) analisar criticamente as evidências da literatura sobre o uso de bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento da acidose lática do paciente crítico, com ênfase em ensaios clínicos randomizados em seres humanos; 4) fornecer um fundamento para a utilização judiciosa de bicarbonato de sódio nesta situação. Abstract in english Lactic acidosis is an acid-base imbalance frequently found in critically ill patients. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite the substantial body of evidence that critical levels of acidemia have several adverse effects on cell function, the use of sodium bicarbonate to treat lactic acidos [...] is in critically ill patients remains highly controversial. This article aimed at: 1) analyzing the main differences between hyperchloremic and organic acidoses, with high anion gap; 2) comparing the risks associated with critical levels of acidemia with those associated with the use of sodium bicarbonate; 3) critically analyzing the literature evidence about the use of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of lactic acidosis in critically ill patients, with an emphasis on randomized control trials in human beings; and 4) providing a rationale for the judicious use of sodium bicarbonate in that situation.

Paulo Novis, Rocha.

2009-12-01

97

Observation of Radiolytic Field Alteration of the Uranyl Cation in Bicarbonate Solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In previous work we demonstrated that radiolysis of uranyl tris carbonate in near neutral pH to alkaline carbonate solutions, could be followed by 13C NMR. Radiolysis of the complex produced novel uranyl peroxo-carbonate solution state species, whose structures depended on the pH and radiolytic dose rate. In this work, we investigate speciation of the uranyl carbonate trimer which is predominant in bicarbonate solution near pH 5.9. We observe radiolytically derived speciation to different mixed peroxy carbonate species than seen in the higher pH solutions. Auto radiolysis of uranium (VI) carbonate solutions between pH 5.9 and 7.2 is shown to alter the uranium speciation over relatively short periods of time and was followed by 13C NMR and visible spectrophotometry, using dissolved 233(UO2)3(CO3)6 6- both as the radiolysis source (D= 14.9 Gy/hr) and as a trap for the newly formed hydrogen peroxide. Direct addition of hydrogen peroxide to solutions of the uranyl-carbonate trimer is shown to reproduce the 13 C NMR signatures of the complex(es) formed by radiolysis, but additionally a variety of new complexes are revealed. Ratios of H2O2/trimer 1 resulted in formation of stable higher order peroxo carbonate complexes. The 13C NMR signatures and visible spectra of these complexes are described here. Rigorous characterization of the spehere. Rigorous characterization of the species is an ongoing effort

98

Freezability of rat epididymal sperm induced by raffinose in modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate (mKRB) based extender solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to develop an ideal freezing extender and method for rat epididymal sperm cryopreservation. Epididymal sperm collected from 30 Wistar males was frozen, and experiments were conducted to study its post-thaw characteristics when freezing with raffinose-free buffer or various concentrations of raffinose and egg yolk dissolved in distilled and deionised water, PBS, or modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate (mKRB)-based extender. Different concentrations of glycerol, Equex STM, or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) dissolved in either PBS or mKRB containing egg yolk were also tested. Based on the data from these experiments, further experiments tested how different sugars such as raffinose, trehalose, lactose, fructose, and glucose dissolved in mKRB with Equex STM, SDS and egg yolk supplementation affected the post-thaw characteristics of cryopreserved sperm. Cryosurvival of frozen-thawed sperm were judged by microscopic assessment of the sperm motility index (SMI), and acrosome integrity was measured using FITC-PNA staining. Thawed sperm were subjected to 3h of a thermal resistance test. Beneficial effects on the post-thaw survival of sperm were obtained when 0.1M raffinose in mKRB was used with 0.75% Equex STM, 0.05% SDS, and 20% egg yolk. Sperm cryopreserved with this treatment exhibited a higher motility index and maintained greater SMI and acrosome integrity throughout incubation when compared to sperm frozen in various concentrations of other cryoprotectants and trehalose, lactose, fructose, glucose. In conclusion, cryopreservation in an extender solution of raffinose dissolved in mKRB containing Equex STM, SDS and egg yolk greatly enhances the freezability of rat epididymal sperm. PMID:17923121

Yamashiro, Hideaki; Han, Young-Joon; Sugawara, Atsushi; Tomioka, Ikuo; Hoshino, Yumi; Sato, Eimei

2007-12-01

99

SALT-SENSITIVITY OF BLOOD PRESSURE IS ASSOCIATED WITH POLYMORPHISMS IN THE SODIUM-BICARBONATE CO-TRANSPORTER  

Science.gov (United States)

Past studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter gene (SLC4A5) are associated with hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that SNPs in SLC4A5 are associated with salt-sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) in 185 Caucasians consuming an isocaloric constant diet with a randomized order of 7 days low Na+ (10 mmol/d) and 7 days high Na+ (300 mmol/d) intake. Salt-sensitivity was defined as a ?7mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during a randomized transition between high and low Na+ diet. A total of 35 polymorphisms in 17 candidate genes were assayed, 25 of which were tested for association. Association analyses with salt-sensitivity revealed three variants that associated with salt-sensitivity, two in SLC4A5 (P <0.001), and one in GRK4 (P = 0.020). Of these, two SNPs in SLC4A5 (rs7571842 and rs10177833) demonstrated highly significant results and large effects sizes, using logistic regression. These two SNPs had P values of 1.0×10?4 and 3.1×10?4 with odds ratios of 0.221 and 0.221 in unadjusted regression models, respectively, with the G allele at both sites conferring protection. These SNPs remained significant after adjusting for BMI and age, (P = 8.9×10?5 and 2.6×10?4 and odds ratios 0.210 and 0.286, respectively). Further, the association of these SNPS with salt-sensitivity was replicated in a second hypertensive population. Meta-analysis demonstrated significant associations of both SNPs with salt-sensitivity [rs7571842 (P=1.2×10?5); rs1017783 (P=1.1×10?4)]. In conclusion, SLC4A5 variants are strongly associated with salt-sensitivity of BP in two separate Caucasian populations. PMID:22987918

Carey, Robert M.; Schoeffel, Cynthia D.; Gildea, John J.; Jones, John E.; McGrath, Helen E.; Gordon, Lindsay N.; Park, Min Jeong; Sobota, Rafal S.; Underwood, Patricia C.; Williams, Jonathan; Sun, Bei; Raby, Benjamin; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Hopkins, Paul N.; Adler, Gail K.; Williams, Scott M.; Jose, Pedro A.; Felder, Robin A.

2012-01-01

100

Cross-over study of the influence of bicarbonate-rich mineral water on urinary composition in comparison with sodium potassium citrate in healthy male subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urine volume is the greatest risk factor for nephrolithiasis. High fluid intake is the first general advice given to stone-forming patients for the prevention of their recurrence. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (1715 mg bicarbonate/l) on urinary-stone risk factors in comparison with sodium potassium citrate, a well-established treatment for urinary stones. The mineral water and sodium potassium citrate were administered in equimolar concentrations, with respect to the alkali load. All investigations were carried out in healthy male subjects aged 23-38 years. The study followed a cross-over design. All subjects received a standardized diet during the cross-over phase, which was formulated according to the dietary recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, 1996). On the loading day of the cross-over phase, fruit tea was substituted for either mineral water or sodium potassium citrate dissolved in fruit tea. The treatment offered during the second part of the cross-over phase was continued for a 4-week follow-up under normal dietary conditions. During the cross-over phase, there was a significant increase in urinary pH (p < 0.001). There was also a significant increase in the excretion of citric acid (P < 0.01), a decrease in the excretion of oxalic acid, and therefore a decrease in the relative supersaturations for calcium oxalate and uric acid. In the follow-up phase also, the relative supersaturations decreased and there were beneficial effects on the other urinary variables. The effect of the bicarbonate-rich mineral water was similar to that of the sodium potassium citrate, which suggests that it could be useful in the prevention of the recurrence of calcium oxalate and uric acid stones. PMID:11177203

Kessler, T; Hesse, A

2000-12-01

101

Extraction process of U from its ores using solutions of alkaline earth carbonates and bicarbonates in presence of carbon dioxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process is described for extracting uranium from its ores, either directly in the ore deposit or after such ore bodies have been taken from the ground, comprising an oxidation-leaching stage followed by a recovery stage. The characteristic of this process is that in the leaching process, carbonate and bicarbonate solutions of an alkaline-earth metal are used under a pressure of carbon dioxide between zero and 60 bars and at a temperature of zero to 1000C

102

Desiliconization of commercial solutions of sodium tungstate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A part of anolyte prepared in the process of soda regeneration from solutions of pressure soda leaching by the method of electrodialysis is proposed to be used for desiliconization of commercial solution of sodium tungstate. The purification technique consists in the anolyte adding in portions to a arbitrary volume of hot pressurized solution during two hour constant mixing up to pH value magnitude from 9 up to 8.5, the following two hour setting at 90 deg C, and filtration. The above purification technique does not introduce additional impurities to a solution used for WO3 separation

103

Use of sodium bicarbonate to promote weight gain, maintain body temperature, normalize renal functions and prevent mortality in rodents receiving the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin  

OpenAIRE

A simple method to reduce adverse effects of the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin on animal health is described. Animals receiving normal saline (0.9% NaCl) s.c. prior to once weekly injections of cisplatin (3 mg/kg i.p.×3 or 4 weeks) exhibited failure of weight gain, lowered body temperature, elevations in creatinine and ketone levels and increased kidney weight ratios. By contrast, rats treated with sodium bicarbonate (4% NaHCO3 in saline s.c.) prior to cisplatin (3 mg/kg i.p.×3 or 4 week...

Guindon, Jose?e; Hohmann, Andrea G.

2013-01-01

104

The effect of sodium bicarbonate as an abrasive media on ferrous and non-ferrous metal surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of bicarbonate ions on the surface of carbon steel, aluminium and copper has been investigated using corrosion analyzer. The corrosion rate of samples due to corrosion action, under static conditions at room temperature has been obtained from the current response using Faradays law. The degree of bicarbonate ions attack was referred to the corrosion rate of each sample. The significant resistance to corrosion and the outstanding stability of the corrosion resistance shows that the excellent performances of the carbon steel over that of aluminium and copper. From the results obtained show that the bicarbonate ions were not attacked on the surface of carbon steel but slightly attacked on the aluminium and copper surfaces. (Author)

105

Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

1977-04-01

106

Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin, Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20% or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14% was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg, three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg. Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2, and increased body weight (Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.

Hooge DM

2000-01-01

107

Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate / Atributos metabólicos, produtividade e estabilidade do leite em vacas Jersey alimentadas com dietas com citrato de sódio e bicarbonato de sódio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a inclusão de citrato de sódio e de bicarbonato de sódio na dieta de vacas lactantes Jersey e seus efeitos sobre os atributos metabólicos, a produtividade e a estabilidade do leite. Foram avaliados o pH urinário, os níveis sanguíneos de glicose e ureia, o peso e [...] o escore de condição corporal, a produção e a estabilidade do leite (teste do álcool) e as propriedades físico?químicas do leite de 17 vacas, alimentadas com dietas com citrato de sódio (100 g por vaca por dia), bicarbonato de sódio (40 g por vaca por dia) ou sem aditivos. As avaliações foram feitas no 28º e 44º dias. O fornecimento de citrato ou de bicarbonato de sódio não influencia os atributos metabólicos, a produtividade, o peso e o escore de condição corporal das vacas, nem a composição ou a estabilidade do leite. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body con [...] dition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test), and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day), sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day) or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

Marcelo Tempel, Stumpf; Vivian, Fischer; Giovani Jacob, Kolling; Maira Balbinotti, Zanela; Maria Edi Rocha, Ribeiro; Alexandre Süsenbach de, Abreu.

2013-05-01

108

21 CFR 522.1610 - Oleate sodium solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Oleate sodium solution. 522.1610 Section 522...522.1610 Oleate sodium solution. (a) Specifications...milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 50 milligrams of sodium...number of injection sites, the total volume used should not...

2010-04-01

109

Sodium ion diffusion in solid solutions of sodium orthophosphate and sodium sulphate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The diffusion of sodium ions in fast cation conducting solid solutions of sodium orthophosphate and sodium sulphate, xNa2SO4·(1-x)Na3PO4, has been studied by quasielastic neutron scattering. The Q-dependent linewidths are analysed in terms of a model which considers jumps between different types of site on an fcc lattice. The sodium motion is found to be dominated by jumps between neighbouring tetrahedrally coordinated sites, the jump distance being half the fcc lattice constant. The Na+ self-diffusivities show Arrhenius behaviour with activation energies ranging from 0.64 for Na3PO4 to 0.30 eV for the composition x=0.5

110

Hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio não previne a nefropatia de contraste: ensaio clínico multicêntrico / Hydration with sodium bicarbonate does not prevent contrast nephropathy: a multicenter clinical trial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: A exposição ao meio de contraste radiográfico pode causar comprometimento agudo da função renal. Há evidências limitadas e conflitantes de que a hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio previne a Nefropatia Induzida por Contraste (NIC) em pacientes submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. OBJETIVO: [...] O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar se o bicarbonato de sódio é superior à hidratação com soro fisiológico para evitar a nefropatia em pacientes de risco submetidos a cateterismo cardíaco. MÉTODOS: Trezentos e um pacientes submetidos a intervenção coronariana percutânea ou angiografia coronariana com creatinina sérica > 1,2 mg/dL ou Taxa de Filtração Glomerular (TFG) Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Radiographic contrast media exposition can cause acute renal function impairment. There is limited and conflicting evidence that hydration with sodium bicarbonate prevents contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. OBJECTIVE: The present study was [...] aimed at determining whether sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline to prevent nephropathy in patients at risk undergoing cardiac catheterization. METHODS: Three hundred and one patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention with serum creatinine > 1.2mg/dL or glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

Vitor O., Gomes; Ricardo, Lasevitch; Valter C., Lima; Fábio S., Brito Jr.; Juan Carlos, Perez-Alva; Bruno, Moulin; Airton, Arruda; Denise, Oliveira; Paulo, Caramori.

1129-11-01

111

Substituição de monensina sódica por bicarbonato de sódio em dietas de novilhas confinadas / Evaluation of the replacement of Monensin with Sodium Bicarbonate in diets for confined bovines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se os efeitos da substituição da monensina sódica pelo bicarbonato de sódio em dietas de novilhas em confinamento em relação ao desempenho animal, à conversão alimentar e ao parâmetro de fermentação ruminal. Foram utilizadas 56 novilhas mestiças, confinadas por 112 dias, submetidas a dieta [...] s com duas porcentagens de concentrado, 50% e 80% da matéria seca, com adição de monensina sódica ou bicarbonato de sódio, em fatorial 2x2. O volumoso utilizado para compor as dietas testadas foi composto de silagem de milho e cana-de-açúcar na proporção de 60:40, respectivamente. O nitrogênio amoniacal foi maior nos animais alimentos com dietas com alto grão. A monensina, na dieta 80:20, proporcionou maiores valores de nitrogênio amoniacal, uma e nove horas após o consumo da ração. O uso de bicarbonato promoveu os maiores valores de pH ruminal na dieta com 50% de concentrado, de seis a 18 horas após o consumo. Não houve efeito do aditivo sobre o desempenho animal. A alta inclusão de grãos na dieta propiciou aumento do desempenho animal e da eficiência alimentar. Conclui-se que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio em dietas para terminação de animais em confinamento é uma opção viável em substituição à monensina sódica para a manipulação da fermentação ruminal. Abstract in english The effects of replacing monensin with sodium bicarbonate in diets for confined heifers on weight gain (WG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed:gain ratio (FGR) and rumen fermentation parameters were evaluated. Fifity six heifers were utilized (Santa Gertrudis x Braunvieh). Diets were formulated with two [...] levels of concentrate (50% and 80% concentrate) with sodium monensin or sodium bicarbonate. The DMI was higest in heifers with an intake of 80% concentrate. There was not difference when the same concentrate levels were evaluated in relation to the DMI. The heifers at 80% concentrate showed highest WG. There was no significant difference in relation to WG between monensin and bicarbonate treatments and levels concentrate proportions. There were significant effects regarding FGR between treatments. The heifers on 80% concentrate showed lowest FGR. In the evaluation of N-NH3, the highest values were observed, on the whole, at 80:20 diets in relation to 50:50 diets. In the additive use, the monensin on 80:20 diets promoted the highest values of N-NH3 at 1 for 9 hours after feed intake. In the values of ruminal pH, the bicarbonate increased the values on 50:50 at 6 for18 hours after feed intake, in relation to the 80:20 diet. In this case, it was concluded that the use of sodium bicarbonate in diets for confined finishing heifers is a viable option for the replacement of monensin sodium.

A.P., Oliveira; R.A., Reis; L.M.A., Bertipaglia; G.M.P., Melo; T.T., Berchielli; J.A., Oliveira; D.R., Casagrande; M.A.A., Balsalobre.

1149-11-01

112

The variation of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate concentration, pH and conductivity in groundwater of Karachi region  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Groundwater in Karachi is influenced mainly by the evaporation / crystallization process as expressed by the Na/(Na+Ca) weight concentration ratio. The high coefficient of determined between conductivity and total dissolved ions concentration in meq/sup -1/ revealed that major ions affect the conductivity of groundwater. It was also found that groundwater quality with respect to cations is not significantly influenced by geology, particularly in the Urban are of the city, where the 90% of the population resides. The relationship between conductivity and bicarbonate concentration shows that supersaturation of groundwater with carbon dioxide is responsible for general depression of pH. (author)

113

Carbon solubility and solute species in liquid sodium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For a thorough understanding of carbon behaviour in sodium systems it is necessary to have some fundamental knowledge of the solution chemistry and thermodynamic of carbon in liquid sodium. Basic to this knowledge are, the saturated solubility of carbon and its change with temperature, the nature of the solute species, the chemical potential activity concentration relationship and any interaction with other solutes in sodium. This paper reviews the data available in the mentioned areas

114

Better preservation of peritoneal morphologic features and defense in rats after long-term exposure to a bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The long-term effects of a standard lactate-buffered dialysis fluid and a new, two-chamber, bicarbonate/lactate-buffered dialysis fluid (with fewer glucose degradation products and a neutral pH) were compared in an in vivo peritoneal exposure model. Rats were given daily injections, via an access port, of 10 ml of standard solution or bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution for 9 to 10 wk. The omentum, peritoneum, and mesothelial cell layer were screened for morphologic changes. In addition, the bacterial clearing capacity of the peritoneal cells was studied. Significantly more milky spots and blood vessels were observed in the omenta of animals treated with standard solution (P < 0.03 for both parameters). Electron-microscopic analysis demonstrated dramatic changes in the appearance of the vascular endothelial cells of the milky spots and a severely damaged or even absent mesothelium on the peritoneal membrane of the standard solution-treated animals. In contrast, the mesothelium was still present in the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, although the cells lost microvilli. Both peritoneal dialysis fluids significantly increased the density of mesothelial cells (per square millimeter) on the surface of the liver and the thickness of the submesothelial extracellular matrix of the peritoneum (both P < 0.04 for both fluids versus control). A significantly better ex vivo bacterial clearing capacity was observed with peritoneal cells from the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, compared with the standard solution group (P < 0.05 in both experiments). These results demonstrate that instillation of bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution into rats for 9 to 10 wk preserves both morphologic and immune parameters much more effectively, compared with standard solution. These findings may be of considerable clinical importance. PMID:11729248

Hekking, L H; Zareie, M; Driesprong, B A; Faict, D; Welten, A G; de Greeuw, I; Schadee-Eestermans, I L; Havenith, C E; van den Born, J; ter Wee, P M; Beelen, R H

2001-12-01

115

Ecological comparison between hydrated lime and sodium bicarbonate when used for dry flue gas purification; Oekologischer Vergleich von Kalkhydrat und Natriumbicarbonat beim Einsatz in der trockenen Rauchgasreinigung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lime plays an important role in environmental protection. Not only due to its properties but also due to its natural occurrence, it is suitable and accepted for universal application in the environment sector. Lime and its refined products can be used in various processes to remove the acid gases, the gaseous metal compounds and organic trace constituents from the flue gas of waste incineration plants. The choice of the suitable process depends on the raw gas load, the separation efficiency to be achieved and the way of recovery of the reaction product obtained as a result of flue gas cleaning. The dry sorption processes have been established for many years and have been continuously further developed, in which lime is injected into the flue gas flow and the reaction product is retained via a filtering separator. As an alternative to lime products, it is also possible, under certain boundary conditions, to use sodium hydrogen-carbonate NaHCO{sub 3} (below called sodium bicarbonate) as a basic reaction component in the dry sorption process. As opposed to calcium hydroxide, there are differences, for example as regards the reaction temperature required and the necessary amount of sorbent to achieve the desired purification effect. (orig.)

Wecker, Andreas [Federal German Association of the Lime Industry, Koeln (Germany)

2009-07-01

116

Stability of Ceftiofur Sodium and Cefquinome Sulphate in Intravenous Solutions  

OpenAIRE

Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions was studied. Chromatographic separation and quantitative determination were performed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-DAD detection. During the stability study, poly(vinylchloride) minibags were filled with a solution containing 5?mg of ceftiofur sodium or cefquinome sulphate and diluted to 0.2?mg/mL with suitable intravenous solution depending on the test conditions. The solutions for...

Agnieszka Do?ha?; Ska, Anna Jeli X.; Benek, Marcelina B. X.

2014-01-01

117

Residue levels, persistence and effectiveness of imazalil against a resistant strain of penicillium digitatum when applied in combination with heat and sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Green and blue molds, respectively caused by Penicillium digitatum Sacc., and P. italicum Wehmer, are the most important postharvest diseases of citrus fruit Postharvest management of these pathogens is mainly based on the application of thiabendazole (TBZ) or imazalil (IMZ) fungicides. However, their intensive and prolonged use has led to the selection of TBZ- IMZ-resistant strains of these pathogens and to a reduction of TBZ and IMZ effectiveness to control postharvest decay. However, while TBZ may become completely ineffective against TBZ-resistant strains of P. digitatum, reduction of IMZ efficacy is only partial, and an effective control of decay can still be achieved by increasing its concentration, heating the treatment-solution and/or combining IMZ with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) or other food additives or natural salts. In this study, 'Desiderio' and 'Nova' mandarins were inoculated with spores of a sensitive strain of P. digitatum to IMZ and TBZ (PDs) or with a strain of P. digitatum with double resistance to both fungicides (PDr) and immersed in IMZ or TBZ emulsions at increasing concentrations up to 1000 mg/L or in IMZ (25, 200 or 400 mg/L), SBC (0.5, 1 or 2%) or IMZ + SBC emulsions either at 20 or 40 degrees C. IMZ was superior to TBZ to control decay of 'Desiderio' mandarins incited by PDs and was also effective to control decay in fruit inoculated with PDr, while TBZ even at the highest rate was completely ineffective. In 'Desiderio' mandarins inoculated with PDs, a complete control of decay was achieved with 25 mg/L IMZ but in fruit inoculated with PDr, 25 mg/L IMZ were ineffective to control decay despite in combination with SBC at 2% a synergistic effect was detected. In contrast, a good control of decay was achieved with 400 mg/L IMZ. In 'Nova' mandarins after 1 week of incubation at 20 degrees C decay incidence in fruit dipped in 400 mg/L at 20 degrees C or 200 mg/L IMZ at 40 degrees C was almost completely inhibited, while the addition of SBC at 0.5, 1 or 2% did not improve treatments performance in fruit inoculated with PDs. However, when 'Nova' mandarins were inoculated with PDr, SBC showed a modest but significant control of decay and in combination with IMZ either at 400 mg/L and 20 degrees C or 200 mg/L and 40 degrees C, significantly improved decay control. SBC did not affect IMZ residue load in 'Valencia' oranges, whereas dipping the fruit in 400 mg/L IMZ at 20 degrees C produced similar IMZ residue load as dips at 200 mg/L IMZ at 40 degrees C. In all cases, residue levels of IMZ never exceeded 2 mg/kg, which is about 40% of the maximum residue limits (MRLs) allowed in European countries. Thus, despite the selection of IMZ-resistant strains of P. digitatum, IMZ continues to be highly effective to control green mold of citrus fruit at concentrations leaving on fruit surface residue levels below the MRLs. PMID:25145234

D'Aquino, S; Angioni, A; Suming, D; Palma, A; Schirra, M

2013-01-01

118

The radiation induced chemistry of uranyl cation in aqueous carbonate –bicarbonate solutions as followed by NMR spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Alpha radiation induced formation of hydrogen peroxide in carbonate ?bicarbonate media was followed by 13C NMR using dissolved [233UO2(13CO3)3]4- as the alpha source (Dalpha= 12.1 Gy/hr). Between the pH region between 5.9 and 11.6 hydrogen peroxide causes a varied speciation of the uranyl carbonates that is a function of the uranium, carbonate and the hydrogen peroxide concentrations. It is shown that the speciation of the peroxy carbonates (or other species) formed in solution by titration with hydrogen peroxide are common to those formed by hydrogen peroxide generated by radiolysis. The radiolysis experiment was carried out above pH = 9.96 to minimize the loss of 13CO2 over a 2800 hr period. Radiolytic generation of hydrogen peroxide was followed by formation of a uranyl peroxy carbonate complex and complex formation accelerated for about 1200 hours. Complex formation was observed to terminate at a concentration between 1x10-4 and 5x10-4 M. It is assumed that either a steady state H2O2 production rate was established in solution or that some limiting feature of the experiment was responsible for slowing the yield of product.

McNamara, Bruce K.; Snow, Lanee A.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Sinkov, Sergei I.; Cho, Herman M.; Friese, Judah I.

2006-05-01

119

The radiation induced chemistry of uranyl cation in aqueous carbonate ?bicarbonate solutions as followed by NMR spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alpha radiation induced formation of hydrogen peroxide in carbonate ?bicarbonate media was followed by 13C NMR using dissolved [233UO2(13CO3)3]4- as the alpha source (Dalpha= 12.1 Gy/hr). Between the pH region between 5.9 and 11.6 hydrogen peroxide causes a varied speciation of the uranyl carbonates that is a function of the uranium, carbonate and the hydrogen peroxide concentrations. It is shown that the speciation of the peroxy carbonates (or other species) formed in solution by titration with hydrogen peroxide are common to those formed by hydrogen peroxide generated by radiolysis. The radiolysis experiment was carried out above pH = 9.96 to minimize the loss of 13CO2 over a 2800 hr period. Radiolytic generation of hydrogen peroxide was followed by formation of a uranyl peroxy carbonate complex and complex formation accelerated for about 1200 hours. Complex formation was observed to terminate at a concentration between 1x10-4 and 5x10-4 M. It is assumed that either a steady state H2O2 production rate was established in solution or that some limiting feature of the experiment was responsible for slowing the yield of product

120

Severe neurologic impairment in mice with targeted disruption of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (Slc4a5 gene).  

Science.gov (United States)

The choroid plexus lining the four ventricles in the brain is where the majority of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced. The secretory function of the choroid plexus is mediated by specific transport systems that allow the directional flux of nutrients and ions into the CSF and the removal of toxins. Normal CSF dynamics and chemistry ensure that the environment for neural function is optimal. Here, we report that targeted disruption of the Slc4a5 gene encoding the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 results in significant remodeling of choroid plexus epithelial cells, including abnormal mitochondrial distribution, cytoskeletal protein expression, and ion transporter polarity. These changes are accompanied by very significant abnormalities in intracerebral ventricle volume, intracranial pressure, and CSF electrolyte levels. The Slc4a5(-/-) mice are significantly more resistant to induction of seizure behavior than wild-type controls. In the retina of Slc4a5(-/-) mice, loss of photoreceptors, ganglion cells, and retinal detachment results in visual impairment assessed by abnormal electroretinogram waveforms. Our findings are the first demonstration of the fundamental importance of NBCe2 in the biology of the nervous system. PMID:21705333

Kao, Liyo; Kurtz, Lisa M; Shao, Xuesi; Papadopoulos, Marios C; Liu, Li; Bok, Dean; Nusinowitz, Steven; Chen, Bryan; Stella, Salvatore L; Andre, Mark; Weinreb, Josh; Luong, Serena S; Piri, Natik; Kwong, Jacky M K; Newman, Debra; Kurtz, Ira

2011-09-16

121

Use of sodium bicarbonate to promote weight gain, maintain body temperature, normalize renal functions and minimize mortality in rodents receiving the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple method to reduce adverse effects of the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin on animal health is described. Animals receiving normal saline (0.9% NaCl) s.c. prior to once weekly injections of cisplatin (3 mg/kg i.p.×3 or 4 weeks) exhibited failure of weight gain, lowered body temperature, elevations in creatinine and ketone levels and increased kidney weight ratios. By contrast, rats treated with sodium bicarbonate (4% NaHCO3 in saline s.c.) prior to cisplatin (3 mg/kg i.p.×3 or 4 weeks) exhibited normal weight gain, body temperature, creatinine and ketone levels, as well as normal kidney weight ratios (over 16 or 28 days, respectively). Cisplatin-induced neuropathy (i.e. mechanical and cold allodynia) developed equivalently in both groups. Our studies suggest that NaHCO3 pretreatment promotes animal health and minimizes weight loss, body temperature dysregulation and signs of renal toxicity (i.e. increases in creatinine and kidney weight ratio) following repeated cisplatin treatment without altering the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. PMID:23570729

Guindon, Josée; Hohmann, Andrea G

2013-06-01

122

21 CFR 520.2261a - Sulfamethazine sodium drinking water solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Sulfamethazine sodium drinking water solution. 520.2261a Section 520...Sulfamethazine sodium drinking water solution. (a) Sponsors. See...5-percent sulfamethazine sodium solution. (b) Related tolerances...symptoms, but not to exceed a total of 5 consecutive days...

2010-04-01

123

Prevenção de nefrotoxicidade por contraste com solução de bicarbonato: resultados preliminares e revisão da literatura / Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by use of bicarbonate solution: preliminary results and literature review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A incidência da nefropatia por contraste tem aumentado simultaneamente ao aumento da sua utilização com fins diagnósticos e de intervenção terapêutica. A sua incidência na população geral é baixa, porém aumenta exponencialmente em pacientes com fatores de risco como diabetes e doença ren [...] al prévia. Várias estratégias têm sido utilizadas na tentativa de prevenir a nefropatia por contraste. Hidratação com solução fisiológica, contraste de baixa osmolalidade ou iso-osmolar e infusão de bicarbonato de sódio são consideradas como as mais eficazes. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar a literatura pertinente sobre prevenção de nefropatia do contraste e estudar, de forma inicial, a eficácia da hidratação a base de bicarbonato de sódio a 1,3% comparada à hidratação a base de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% na prevenção da nefrotoxicidade do contraste em pacientes de alto risco para o seu desenvolvimento. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a literatura por meio de busca sistemática no banco de dados PubMed usando as palavras-chave bicarbonato, nefrotoxicidade, contraste e insuficiência renal aguda e, adicionalmente, foram estudados 27 pacientes, portadores de diabetes mellitus e/ou doença renal crônica prévia e diagnosticados com algum tipo de câncer. RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes desenvolveu nefropatia do contraste, caracterizada como aumento de 0,5 mg/ dL e/ou de 25% na creatinina basal. CONCLUSÃO: A revisão de literatura sugere fortemente que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio é eficaz na prevenção de nefropatia por contraste. Em relação ao estudo randomizado e controlado o soro fisiológico e o bicarbonato de sódio apresentaram eficácia similar quanto à prevenção de nefrotoxicidade do contraste. No entanto, o pequeno número de pacientes não permite conclusões definitivas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy has increased simultaneously with the increase in contrast medium use in diagnostic and interventional procedures. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in the general population is low, but increases exponentially in patients with [...] risk factors, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Several strategies have been used in order to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. The most efficient strategies are saline hydration (0.9% or 0.45%), use of low-or iso-osmolality contrast medium, and sodium bicarbonate infusion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the pertinent literature and to assess the efficacy of hydration with 1.3% sodium bicarbonate compared with hydration with 0.9% saline solution in preventing contrastinduced nephropathy in high-risk patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed by using the following keywords: bicarbonate, nephropathy, contrast medium, and acute kidney failure. In addition, 27 patients with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, diagnosed with some kind of cancer were randomized for study. RESULTS: None of the patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy characterized as a 0.5 mg/ dL-increase and/or a relative 25%-increase in baseline creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review strongly suggested that sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. Regarding the randomized study, saline solution and bicarbonate solution had similar efficacy in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. However, the small number of patients does not allow definite conclusions.

Ricardo Gonçalves da, Silva; Nelson Gonçalves da, Silva; Fabiano, Lucchesi; Emmanuel A, Burdmann.

2010-09-01

124

Prevenção de nefrotoxicidade por contraste com solução de bicarbonato: resultados preliminares e revisão da literatura Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by use of bicarbonate solution: preliminary results and literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A incidência da nefropatia por contraste tem aumentado simultaneamente ao aumento da sua utilização com fins diagnósticos e de intervenção terapêutica. A sua incidência na população geral é baixa, porém aumenta exponencialmente em pacientes com fatores de risco como diabetes e doença renal prévia. Várias estratégias têm sido utilizadas na tentativa de prevenir a nefropatia por contraste. Hidratação com solução fisiológica, contraste de baixa osmolalidade ou iso-osmolar e infusão de bicarbonato de sódio são consideradas como as mais eficazes. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho é revisar a literatura pertinente sobre prevenção de nefropatia do contraste e estudar, de forma inicial, a eficácia da hidratação a base de bicarbonato de sódio a 1,3% comparada à hidratação a base de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% na prevenção da nefrotoxicidade do contraste em pacientes de alto risco para o seu desenvolvimento. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a literatura por meio de busca sistemática no banco de dados PubMed usando as palavras-chave bicarbonato, nefrotoxicidade, contraste e insuficiência renal aguda e, adicionalmente, foram estudados 27 pacientes, portadores de diabetes mellitus e/ou doença renal crônica prévia e diagnosticados com algum tipo de câncer. RESULTADOS: Nenhum dos pacientes desenvolveu nefropatia do contraste, caracterizada como aumento de 0,5 mg/ dL e/ou de 25% na creatinina basal. CONCLUSÃO: A revisão de literatura sugere fortemente que o uso de bicarbonato de sódio é eficaz na prevenção de nefropatia por contraste. Em relação ao estudo randomizado e controlado o soro fisiológico e o bicarbonato de sódio apresentaram eficácia similar quanto à prevenção de nefrotoxicidade do contraste. No entanto, o pequeno número de pacientes não permite conclusões definitivas.INTRODUCTION: The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy has increased simultaneously with the increase in contrast medium use in diagnostic and interventional procedures. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in the general population is low, but increases exponentially in patients with risk factors, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Several strategies have been used in order to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. The most efficient strategies are saline hydration (0.9% or 0.45%, use of low-or iso-osmolality contrast medium, and sodium bicarbonate infusion. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the pertinent literature and to assess the efficacy of hydration with 1.3% sodium bicarbonate compared with hydration with 0.9% saline solution in preventing contrastinduced nephropathy in high-risk patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed by using the following keywords: bicarbonate, nephropathy, contrast medium, and acute kidney failure. In addition, 27 patients with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, diagnosed with some kind of cancer were randomized for study. RESULTS: None of the patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy characterized as a 0.5 mg/ dL-increase and/or a relative 25%-increase in baseline creatinine. CONCLUSIONS: The literature review strongly suggested that sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. Regarding the randomized study, saline solution and bicarbonate solution had similar efficacy in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. However, the small number of patients does not allow definite conclusions.

Ricardo Gonçalves da Silva

2010-09-01

125

Zirconium sulfate interaction with sodium carbonate in solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zirconium sulfate interaction with sodium carbonate is studied in aqueous solution. By pH-metry and infrared spectroscopy it is stated that depending on the carbonate concentration Zr(OH)2x(CO3)22-, ZrOH(CO3)33- and Zr(CO3)44- compounds can be formed in sulfatocarbonate solutions. pH range in which soluble carbonate complexes exist also depends on the concentration of sodium carbonate. Calculated is the fourth stability constant

126

Observation of Radiolytic Field Alteration of the Uranyl Cation in Bicarbonate Solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Auto radiolysis of uranium (VI) carbonate solutions between pH 5.9 and 7.2 is shown to alter the uranium speciation over relatively short periods of time and was followed by 13C NMR and visible spectrophotometry, using dissolved [(233UO2)3(CO3)6]6- both as the radiolysis source (D 14.9 Gy/hr) and as a trap for the newly formed hydrogen peroxide. The speciation is different than the uranyl mixed peroxy carbonate species that have been reported for higher pH carbonate solutions. Direct addition of hydrogen peroxide to solutions of the uranyl-carbonate trimer is shown to reproduce the 13C, 17O NMR signatures of the complex(es) formed by radiolysis, but additionally a variety of new complexes are revealed. Ratios of H2O2/trimer 2O2/trimer >1.5 resulted in formation of stable higher order peroxo carbonate complexes. The 13C, 17O NMR signatures and visible spectra of these complexes are described here. Rigorous characterization of the species is an ongoing effort. (authors)

127

Np(V)/Np(IV) in concentrated carbonate/bicarbonate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 1.5 M Na2CO3 solution of Np(V) is electrolysed to Np(IV) at -2.0 V/SHE. -1g(H+) is decreased from 10.4 to 7.2 by bubbling CO2 in these solutions, where Np(IV) spectra can be interpreted with the only lost of one CO32- anion from the Np(IV) limiting complex. From these spectral changes, the following parameters are fitted: 20.5 ± 2.1, 8.44 ± 0.9 and 28.9 ± 2.9 l/mol./cm for the Np(CO3)56- molar absorptivity at 823, 990 and 1013 nm respectively, and 54.5 ± 5.5, 40.6 ± 4.1 and 8.53 ± 0.9 for the Np(CO3)44- ones, and log((Np(CO3)56-) / ((Np(CO3)44-)(CO32-))) = 1.47 ± 0.08, 1.63 ± 0.05, 1.80 ± 0.04, 1.79 ± 0.10 and 2.21 ± 0.03 at the half point reaction in initially 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 M Na2CO3 solutions. These values are extrapolated to 0 ionic strength by using the Specific Interaction Theory (SIT). The redox potential of 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na2CO3 solutions of Np(V) and Np(IV) mixtures, is stable usually after three hours at T from 5 to 60 deg C, and then for up to three weeks at 21.5 deg C. At 25 deg C, its values are 0.247, 0.234, 0.244 and 0.228 V/SEH in 0.3, 0.6, 1 and 1.5 M Na2CO3 solutions. When the tonic strength is equal to 0: E = 0.52 ± 0.1 V/SEH and ?S/F = -1.1 ± 0.7 mV. deg C-1. Assuming this potential is controlled by the NpO2(CO3)35- + 2 CO2 + e- ? Np(CO3)56- equilibrium, the formation constant of the limiting complex is deduced by using published values of the other needed equilibria: log ?5deg = 38 ± 4. Qualitative results on the preparation and on the spectra of Np(IV) are used to explain the apparent contradictions between some published results. (authors). 39 refs., figs., tabs

128

Preparation of submicron strontium sodium zirconate powder in alkaline solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Synthesis of fine-crystal zirconate containing strontium and sodium cations from aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide under atmospheric pressure was considered. It is shown that strontium zirconate with sodium partial substitution for strontium was prepared by crystallization from alkaline solution at temperatures from 115 to 130 deg C under atmospheric pressure. Conditions of zirconate phase formation were determined. The compound features the perovskite structure. The compound loses water in the range of 100-850 deg C, retaining the perovskite structure with decreased lattice parameters

129

Radioiodine volatilization from reformulated sodium iodide I-131 oral solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By changing the pH and adding buffers, antioxidants, and stabilizers to a sodium iodide (I-131) oral solution, a reduced radioiodine volatilization was claimed by a commercial supplier of radiopharmaceuticals. This study compares the airborne radioactivity volatilized from the reformulated sodium iodide solution with that which became airborne from a previous formulation. Air samples were obtained from the fume hood's exhaust stack during initial venting, and from the breathing zones of physicians and technologists administering the solution to the patient. Analysis of the air samples indicates significant reduction in the airborne radioiodine following initial venting of the solution vial and during patient administration. Additionally, there has been a decline in the I-131 thyroid burdens for occupationally exposed personnel handling the reformulated sodium iodide solutions

130

Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of sodium sulfides. Chapter 8  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To study the radiolysis of the aqueous solutions of sodium sulphide, use was made of infrared spectroscopy, mass-spectrometry and iodometric titration. During the ?-irradiation of the aqueous solutions of sodium sulphide one can observe the appearance of various stable sulphur-containing products. Data are discussed on the radiolysis in a nitrous environment, on oxygen bubbling, at varying radiation doses, pH and temperature values. Consideration is also given to the low-temperature radiolysis of the aqueous solutions of sodium sulphide by the EPR method. In the radiolysis of both crystalline and glassy solutions of Na2S there appear an ion-radical S- and a radical SO2-

131

Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions was studied. Chromatographic separation and quantitative determination were performed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-DAD detection. During the stability study, poly(vinylchloride) minibags were filled with a solution containing 5 mg of ceftiofur sodium or cefquinome sulphate and diluted to 0.2 mg/mL with suitable intravenous solution depending on the test conditions. The solutions for the study were protected from light and stored at room temperature (22°C), refrigerated (6°C), frozen (-20°C) for 30 days, and then thawed at room temperature. A comparison of results obtained at 22°C and 6°C for the same intravenous solutions showed that temperature as well as components of solutions and their concentration had an influence on the stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate. It was found that ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate dissolved in intravenous solutions used in this study may be stored at room temperature and at 6°C for up to 48 h. PMID:25025091

Do?ha?, Agnieszka; Jeli?ska, Anna; B?benek, Marcelina

2014-01-01

132

A Substrate Access Tunnel in the Cytosolic Domain Is Not an Essential Feature of the Solute Carrier 4 (SLC4) Family of Bicarbonate Transporters*  

Science.gov (United States)

Anion exchanger 1 (AE1; Band 3; SLC4A1) is the founding member of the solute carrier 4 (SLC4) family of bicarbonate transporters that includes chloride/bicarbonate AEs and Na+-bicarbonate co-transporters (NBCs). These membrane proteins consist of an amino-terminal cytosolic domain involved in protein interactions and a carboxyl-terminal membrane domain that carries out the transport function. Mutation of a conserved arginine residue (R298S) in the cytosolic domain of NBCe1 (SLC4A4) is linked to proximal renal tubular acidosis and results in impaired transport function, suggesting that the cytosolic domain plays a role in substrate permeation. Introduction of single and double mutations at the equivalent arginine (Arg283) and at an interacting glutamate (Glu85) in the cytosolic domain of human AE1 (cdAE1) had no effect on the cell surface expression or the transport activity of AE1 expressed in HEK-293 cells. In addition, the membrane domain of AE1 (mdAE1) efficiently mediated anion transport. A 2.1-? resolution crystal structure of cd?54AE1 (residues 55–356 of cdAE1) lacking the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal disordered regions, produced at physiological pH, revealed an extensive hydrogen-bonded network involving Arg283 and Glu85. Mutations at these residues affected the pH-dependent conformational changes and stability of cd?54AE1. As these structural alterations did not impair functional expression of AE1, the cytosolic and membrane domains operate independently. A substrate access tunnel within the cytosolic domain is not present in AE1 and therefore is not an essential feature of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters. PMID:24121512

Shnitsar, Volodymyr; Li, Jing; Li, Xuyao; Calmettes, Charles; Basu, Arghya; Casey, Joseph R.; Moraes, Trevor F.; Reithmeier, Reinhart A. F.

2013-01-01

133

A substrate access tunnel in the cytosolic domain is not an essential feature of the solute carrier 4 (SLC4) family of bicarbonate transporters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anion exchanger 1 (AE1; Band 3; SLC4A1) is the founding member of the solute carrier 4 (SLC4) family of bicarbonate transporters that includes chloride/bicarbonate AEs and Na(+)-bicarbonate co-transporters (NBCs). These membrane proteins consist of an amino-terminal cytosolic domain involved in protein interactions and a carboxyl-terminal membrane domain that carries out the transport function. Mutation of a conserved arginine residue (R298S) in the cytosolic domain of NBCe1 (SLC4A4) is linked to proximal renal tubular acidosis and results in impaired transport function, suggesting that the cytosolic domain plays a role in substrate permeation. Introduction of single and double mutations at the equivalent arginine (Arg(283)) and at an interacting glutamate (Glu(85)) in the cytosolic domain of human AE1 (cdAE1) had no effect on the cell surface expression or the transport activity of AE1 expressed in HEK-293 cells. In addition, the membrane domain of AE1 (mdAE1) efficiently mediated anion transport. A 2.1-? resolution crystal structure of cd?54AE1 (residues 55-356 of cdAE1) lacking the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal disordered regions, produced at physiological pH, revealed an extensive hydrogen-bonded network involving Arg(283) and Glu(85). Mutations at these residues affected the pH-dependent conformational changes and stability of cd?54AE1. As these structural alterations did not impair functional expression of AE1, the cytosolic and membrane domains operate independently. A substrate access tunnel within the cytosolic domain is not present in AE1 and therefore is not an essential feature of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters. PMID:24121512

Shnitsar, Volodymyr; Li, Jing; Li, Xuyao; Calmettes, Charles; Basu, Arghya; Casey, Joseph R; Moraes, Trevor F; Reithmeier, Reinhart A F

2013-11-22

134

Residue levels and efficacy of fludioxonil and thiabendazole in controlling postharvest green mold decay in citrus fruit when applied in combination with sodium bicarbonate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The curative and protective activity of sodium bicarbonate (SBC) at 1% alone or in combination with fludioxonil (FLU), thiabendazole (TBZ), or FLU and TBZ together, between 50 and 600 mg/L, was evaluated on fruit of different citrus species and cultivars. Fruits were either artificially inoculated with a resistant (TBZ-r) or sensitive (TBZ-s) strain of Penicillium digitatum or not inoculated and incubated at 20 °C and 90% relative humidity (RH) for 7 days (incubated fruit) or stored at 1.5 °C for 21 days plus 7 days of simulated marketing conditions at 20 °C and 60% RH. The effectiveness of these treatments was related with treatment-induced changes of epicuticular wax morphology, the mode of distribution of SBC, TBZ, and FLU on the fruit surface, and FLU and TBZ fruit residue levels. SBC alone showed a weak activity against both strains of P. digitatum. Both TBZ and FLU were very effective at all rates used, and their activity markedly increased when combined together or with SBC, even at concentrations of 50-150 mg/L. Fruit treated with SBC either alone or in combination with TBZ and/or FLU increased weight loss, although no treatment damage was detected. Residue levels of TBZ generally increased when TBZ was combined with FLU and/or SBC, whereas those of FLU slightly increased only in treatment where FLU was combined with TBZ and SBC. Initial residues of TBZ and FLU when applied at 600 mg/L were around 2 and 1 mg/kg, respectively, several times below the lowest MRLs set by most important citrus-producing countries. In treatments with SBC or SBC plus TBZ or FLU, SEM observation of the fruit surface showed a smoothing of cuticular wax platelets' surface, whereas ESEM micrographs showed irregular spots of salt deposits of roundish to irregular shape. The apparently uneven distribution of SBC or SBC plus TBZ or FLU or SBC plus TBZ and FLU on fruit might in part reduce the potential beneficial effects of SBC or of fungicide-SBC mixtures. PMID:23256745

D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Schirra, Mario

2013-01-16

135

Do Intravenous N-Acetylcysteine and Sodium Bicarbonate Prevent High Osmolal Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury? A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Background N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), singly or combined, inconsistently prevent patients exposed to radiographic contrast media from developing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Objective We asked whether intravenous isotonic saline and either NaHCO3 in 5% dextrose or else a high dose of NAC in 5% dextrose prevent CI-AKI in outpatients exposed to high-osmolal iodinated contrast medium more than does saline alone. Methods This completed prospective, parallel, superiority, open-label, controlled, computer-randomized, single-center, Brazilian trial (NCT01612013) hydrated 500 adult outpatients (214 at high risk of developing CI-AKI) exposed to ioxitalamate during elective coronary angiography and ventriculography. From 1 hour before through 6 hours after exposure, 126 patients (group 1) received a high dose of NAC and saline, 125 (group 2) received NaHCO3 and saline, 124 (group 3) received both treatments, and 125 (group 4) received only saline. Results Groups were similar with respect to age, gender, weight, pre-existing renal dysfunction, hypertension, medication, and baseline serum creatinine and serum cystatin C, but diabetes mellitus was significantly less prevalent in group 1. CI-AKI incidence 72 hours after exposure to contrast medium was 51.4% (257/500), measured as serum creatinine > (baseline+0.3 mg/dL) and/or serum cystatin C > (1.1· baseline), and 7.6% (38/500), measured as both serum creatinine and serum cystatin C > (baseline+0.3 mg/dL) or > (1.25 · baseline). CI-AKI incidence measured less sensitively was similar among groups. Measured more sensitively, incidence in group 1 was significantly (p<0.05) lower than in groups 2 and 3 but not group 4; adjustment for confounding by infused volume equalized incidence in groups 1 and 3. Conclusion: We found no evidence that intravenous isotonic saline and either NaHCO3 or else a high dose of NAC prevent CI-AKI in outpatients exposed to high osmolal iodinated contrast medium more than does saline alone. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01612013. PMID:25254489

Inda-Filho, Antonio Jose; Caixeta, Adriano; Manggini, Marcia; Schor, Nestor

2014-01-01

136

BY THE MECHANOACTIVATION OF SOLUTION OF THE SODIUM SILICATE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mixing of cement by the mechanoactivation of the sodium liquid glass solution resulted in increasing of the heat stability and the compressive and flexural strengths of cement stone and reducing of the water adsorption. These data point to compacting of cement stone structure.

Fedosov Sergey Viktorovich

2012-09-01

137

Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin), Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets Efeitos do Coccídeostático lonóforo (Monensina ou Salinomicina), Bicarbonato de Sódio ou Potássio, ou Ambos, e Dissalicitato-Metileno de Bacitracina em Dietas para Frangos de Corte  

OpenAIRE

Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20%) or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14%) was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg) or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg) in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg), three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each) were tested with o...

Dm, Hooge; Kr, Cummings; Jl, Mcnaughton

2000-01-01

138

Ionization of methyl orange in aqueous sodium chloride solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Thermodynamic ionization constant of methyl orange in the temperature range (278.15 to 333.15 K). ? Influence of sodium chloride on the ionization of methyl orange. ? Pitzer interaction coefficients for methyl orange (sodium salt). ? Ionic strength dependence of the stoichiometric ionization constant. - Abstract: Ionization constants of sodium 4?-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4-sulphonate (methyl orange) were determined by means of spectrophotometric measurements in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions with molalities up to 2 mol·kg?1 at temperatures between 278.15 K and 333.15 K. The temperature dependence of the thermodynamic acidity constant shows a slight curvature in accordance with published data. The influence of sodium chloride on the methyl orange deprotonation was assessed by the measurement of stoichiometric acidity constants in this ionic medium. The Pitzer theory, widely used in the evaluation of the excess free energy of non-ideal electrolyte solutions, was applied to the computation of the activity coefficients of the chemical species involved in the equilibria and a good fit of those equations to the experimental data was observed, at all temperatures under consideration.

139

Lead sulphate leaching by sodium chloride solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Bioleaching treatment of complex multi-metallic Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au mineral concentrates leds to the formation, besides easily soluble zinc and cooper sulphates, of hardly soluble lead (II sulfate (PbSO4 sludge. To determine the leaching parameters of PbSO4 with NaCl in the bioleaching residue, lead sulphate solution was synthetically prepared. The effect of process parameters, namely NaCl concentration, solid:liquid phase ratio, processing time, temperature and Cl ions was examined. It was found that 100% Pb by leaching can be achieved with NaCl concentration of 250 g/dm3, time 20 min, temperature 353 K and solid:liquid phase ratio =1:20.

Coni? Vesna T.

2013-01-01

140

Sodium bicarbonate as prevention of metabolic acidosis in sheep submitted to experimental ruminal acidosis / Bicarbonato de sódio como preventivo da acidose metabólica em ovinos submetidos à acidose ruminal experimental  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito preventivo do bicarbonato de sódio sobre a acidose sistêmica em decorrência da acidose ruminal, a qual foi induzida pelo fornecimento de concentrado após jejum prolongado. Foram utilizados 14 ovinos, divididos em três grupos experimentais: grupo controle [...] (Cg), contendo quatro ovinos, submetidos a jejum sem desenvolvimento de acidose ruminal; grupo não tratado (NTg), contendo cinco ovinos submetidos a acidose ruminal sem tratamento preventivo; e grupo tratado (Tg), contendo cinco ovinos, submetidos a acidose ruminal e tratados preventivamente com bicarbonato de sódio. Foram realizadas avaliações do pH ruminal e hemogasometria arterial, durante 48 horas após o fornecimento do concentrado. Houve redução do pH ruminal em todos os grupos, sendo que o Cg apresentou a redução apenas às 24 horas. Notou-se redução do pH arterial, bicarbonato e excesso de base em todos os grupos, indicando acidose metabólica sistêmica; no entanto, o NTg apresentou o quadro mais grave. Conclui-se que o bicarbonato de sódio possui efeito preventivo da acidose metabólica sistêmica, reduzindo a sua gravidade em ovinos submetidos à acidose ruminal. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of sodium bicarbonate on systemic acidosis due to ruminal acidosis, which was induced by ingestion of concentrate after prolonged fasting. Fourteen sheep were divided into three experimental groups: control group (Cg), with four sheep, subm [...] itted to fasting without development of ruminal acidosis; no-treated group (NTg), with five sheep with rumen acidosis without preventive treatment; and treated group (Tg), with five sheep with rumen acidosis and preventively treated with sodium bicarbonate. Assessments of ruminal pH and arterial hemogasometry were performed for 48 hours after ingestion of the concentrate. There was a reduction in the ruminal pH in all groups, whereas the Cg showed a reduction only after 24 hours. A reduction in the arterial pH, bicarbonate and base excess in all groups was also noted, indicating systemic metabolic acidosis, but the NTg presented the greatest alteration. It is concluded that sodium bicarbonate prevents systemic metabolic acidosis, reducing its severity in sheep subjected to ruminal acidosis.

Luciane M., Laskoski; Lívia S., Muraro; Marinho S., Santana Júnior; Mariana B., Carvalho; Silvio H., Freitas; Renata G.S., Dória; Marcelo D., Santos; Rosangela Locatelli, Dittrich.

2014-09-01

141

On the texturization of monocrystalline silicon with sodium carbonate solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The texturization of monocrystalline silicon wafers using sodium carbonate solution has been investigated. This etching process has been evaluated in terms of the surface morphology and the reflectance value. The results show that for low concentration of sodium carbonate the increase of texturing time decreases the reflectance value because of the change in morphology from hillocks to pyramidal; on the contrary for intermediate and high concentrations the increase of time has a detrimental effect on texturization because it increases both the pyramid sizes and their non-uniform distribution. However, a good cell performance could be obtained by etching at high concentrations and short times. (author)

Vallejo, B.; Gonzalez-Manas, M.; Martinez-Lopez, J.; Caballero, M.A. [Departamento de Cristalografia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain)

2007-05-15

142

Mutual diffusion of sodium hyaluranate in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Binary diffusion coefficients for the systems containing sodium hyaluronate. • Influence of the aggregation on diffusion of the sodium hyaluronate in the aqueous media. • Estimation of the thermodynamic and mobility factors from mutual diffusion. -- Abstract: The Taylor dispersion technique has been used for measuring mutual diffusion coefficients of sodium hyaluronate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K, and concentrations ranging from (0.00 to 0.50) g · dm?3. The results are interpreted on the basis of Nernst, and Onsager and Fuoss theoretical equations. From the diffusion coefficient at infinitesimal concentration, the limiting ionic conductivity and the tracer diffusion coefficient of hyaluronate ion were estimated. These studies have been complemented by molecular mechanics calculations

143

Cryoscopic studies of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, potassium tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Freezing temperature lowerings of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate were determined. These values and those taken from the literature for potassium tartrate were used in the determination of the osmotic and activity coefficients in the studied systems, via the numerical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation

144

Cryoscopic studies of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, potassium tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Freezing temperature lowerings of aqueous solutions of tartaric acid, sodium hydrogen tartrate, sodium dihydrogen citrate, potassium dihydrogen citrate, disodium hydrogen citrate, sodium citrate and potassium citrate were determined. These values and those taken from the literature for potassium tartrate were used in the determination of the osmotic and activity coefficients in the studied systems, via the numerical integration of the Gibbs-Duhem equation.

Apelblat, Alexander. E-mail: apelblat@bgumail.bgu.ac.il; Manzurola, Emanuel

2003-08-01

145

In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate / Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicar [...] bonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme). A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pela determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM). Os resultados mostraram que a solução teste inibiu o crescimento de microrganismos Gram-negativos e Gram-positivos da saliva dos voluntários, bem como das linhagens padrão na CIM de 1:20, enquanto que a CIM da diluição de clorexidina 0.12% contra as mesmas bactérias foi de 1:80. Desta forma, apesar de o enxaguatório bucal testado apresentar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro superior à do placebo, esta foi inferior à da Clorexidina. Abstract in english Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in compa [...] rison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis). Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.

Juliana Rico, Pires; Carlos, Rossa Junior; Antonio Carlos, Pizzolitto.

2007-12-01

146

In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi realizada pela determinação da Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM. Os resultados mostraram que a solução teste inibiu o crescimento de microrganismos Gram-negativos e Gram-positivos da saliva dos voluntários, bem como das linhagens padrão na CIM de 1:20, enquanto que a CIM da diluição de clorexidina 0.12% contra as mesmas bactérias foi de 1:80. Desta forma, apesar de o enxaguatório bucal testado apresentar atividade antimicrobiana in vitro superior à do placebo, esta foi inferior à da Clorexidina.

Juliana Rico Pires

2007-12-01

147

Measurements of the viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 liquid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adding UO2 produces an increase of viscosity of borax and sodium metaborate. For temperatures below 9200C the measurements with the borax-UO2 solution show a phase separation. Contrary to borax the sodium metaborate solutions indicate a well defined melting point. At temperatures slightly below the melting point a solid phase is formed. The tested sodium-borates-UO2 mixtures are in liquid form. (DG)

148

Study of sodium borohydride solubility in aqueous ammonia solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study was made on NaBH4 solubility in aqueous-ammonia mixtures in NH3 concentration range of 10-35 mass% at temperatures of 22, -5 and -9 deg C. Crystallization fields of nonsolvated sodium borohydride and its dihydrate NaBH4 · 2H2O were determined. Metastable region oversaturated solutions, coexisting either with NaBH4 · 2H2O, or with NaBH4 · H2O, depending on ammonia temperature and concentration was established in the system. Solubility of sodium borohydride in aqueous ammonnia increases with growth of temperature and ammonia content in the solution in the whole analyzed temperature and concentation range

149

Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution  

OpenAIRE

In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH)3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT) and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

Pavlovi? Ljubica J.; A?imovi?-Pavlovi? Zagorka; Andri? Ljubiša D.; Prsti? Aurel

2002-01-01

150

Kinetics of gibbsite leaching in sodium hydroxide aqueous solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to study the kinetics and mechanism of the reaction, laboratory leaching was carried out with industrially produced gibbsite ?-Al(OH3 in aqueous solutions containing an excess of sodium hydroxide. The results obtained reaction temperature, duration and base concentration varied. The basic kinetic parameters were determined from: the reaction rate constant k=8.72·107 exp (-74990/RT and the process activation energy in the range Ea=72.5-96.81 kJ/mol.

Pavlovi? Ljubica J.

2002-01-01

151

Aggregation behavior of sodium fusidate in aqueous solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the freezing point depression and pNa measurements for aqueous solutions of sodium fusidate. At concentrations lower than 0.011 mol kg(-1), sodium fusidate behaves as a strong 1:1 electrolyte. At higher concentrations, sodium fusidate self-aggregates. To analyze the results two hypotheses on the monomer concentration are presented and discussed. The first one accepts that the monomer concentration, C(A), is constant and equal to 0.023 mol kg(-1). This concentration corresponds to a break point in the plot of the freezing point depression vs total sodium fusidate concentration, C(A)t. The second hypothesis accepts that C(A) increases with C(A)t following a leveling-off curve. Measurements of hydrodynamic radii and comparison with similar systems, such as sodium taurocholate, strongly support the second hypothesis. The results indicate that at concentrations lower than 0.08 mol kg(-1) the aggregation number increases from 2 to 3. Above this concentration, both the aggregation number and the fraction of bound counterions remain constant, with average values of 3.13 +/- 0.10 and 0.31 +/- 0.05, respectively. Such results indicate that for trimers only one Na+ counterion is involved per aggregate. We propose that this counterion shields the repulsion between the two nearest carboxylate groups which, according to a disklike model in which the monomers are packed with that group alternatively oriented up and down, should hold together. Values for the formation equilibrium constant of aggregates are also calculated. Its dependence with the aggregation number allows the determination of the reversible transfer of a free surfactant ion together with the associated counterions from the bulk solution to the aggregate, the resulting value being w(0) = -4.2k(B)T. PMID:9120815

Coello, A; Meijide, F; Rodríguez Núñez, E; Vázquez Tato, J

1994-06-01

152

Magnetite stability in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Magnetite (Fe3O4) is shown to transform to a sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate compound in concentrated, alkaline sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures via 1/3 Fe3O4(s) + 133 Na+ + 2 HPO+4 left-reversible Na4Fe(OH)(PO4)2·31NaOH(s) + 13H+ + 16H2(g). The thermodynamic equilibrium for this reaction was defined in the system Na2OP2O5-Fe3O4-H2O for Na/P molar ratios between 2.1 and 3. Quantitative chemical, infrared and Moessbauer spectroscopic, and X-ray diffraction analysis are employed to verify that the precipitated solid was a single phase having the non-whole number stoichiometric Na/P ratio = 2.15 ± 0.02. On the basis of observed reaction threshold values for sodium phosphate concentration and temperature, the standard entropy (S0) and free energy of formation (?G01) for sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate were calculated to be 729.2 J/(mol-K) and -3550.3 Kh/mol, respectively

153

Sodium tetraphenylborate solution stability: A long term study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium tetraphenylborata (NaTPB) is a specialty chemical required for the In Tank Precipitation Process (ITP). It precipitates cesium, aiding in the decontamination of high level radioactive waste solutions. Long term stability of aqueous alkaline solutions of NATPB has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the relative stabilities of NATPB solutions exposed to varying temperatures and copper concentrations over an extended period of time. Additionally, vendor-supplied samples, incubated at 40{degree}C, were stored for more than a year without decomposing. Collected data demonstrates that in the absence of elevated copper concentrations, NATPB solutions will remain stable for periods of 1 to 2 years (at a minimum) at maximum expected operating conditions (<40{degree}C). Additionally, biuret, (H{sub 2}NCO){sub 2}NH, was tested as an additive to prevent copper-induced decomposition without success.

Barnes, M.J.

1992-06-11

154

Sodium tetraphenylborate solution stability: A long term study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sodium tetraphenylborata (NaTPB) is a specialty chemical required for the In Tank Precipitation Process (ITP). It precipitates cesium, aiding in the decontamination of high level radioactive waste solutions. Long term stability of aqueous alkaline solutions of NATPB has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the relative stabilities of NATPB solutions exposed to varying temperatures and copper concentrations over an extended period of time. Additionally, vendor-supplied samples, incubated at 40[degree]C, were stored for more than a year without decomposing. Collected data demonstrates that in the absence of elevated copper concentrations, NATPB solutions will remain stable for periods of 1 to 2 years (at a minimum) at maximum expected operating conditions (<40[degree]C). Additionally, biuret, (H[sub 2]NCO)[sub 2]NH, was tested as an additive to prevent copper-induced decomposition without success.

Barnes, M.J.

1992-06-11

155

Interaction of hafnium sulfate with sodium carbonate in solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The processes of hafnium sulfate complexing with sodium carbonate in aqueous solutions are studied using the methods of pH-metry and IR spectroscopy of aqueous solutions and solid phases. It is shown that in the range of pH>7 complexes of the compositions Hf(CO3)44- and HfOH(CO3)33- are present in solutions. At the ratio Na2CO3:Hf>=7 formation of the complexes with the ratio CO32-:Hf>4, containing bi- and monodentate carbonate ion% is possible. The stability constant of Hf(CO3)44- complex is calculated on the basis of pH-metry data, lgK4=10.1+-0.8

156

Crevice Corrosion of 321 Stainless Steel in Sodium Chloride Solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electrochemical techniques have been applied to study the crevice corrosion behaviour of stabilized 321 stainless steel in both 0.5, 1 and 2 M sodium chloride solutions at 25 and 80 degree . This type of stainless steel enjoys a good corrosion resistance especially in the heat affected zone (Haz) of welds. In this investigation the crevice corrosion of 321 stainless steel was studied in both bulk solution environments as well as in chloride solutions simulating those formed inside crevices. A metal-to-nonmetal crevice assembly, in which disc type specimens were faced to a PTFE crevice former, is used for bulk solution tests. Crevice-free specimens of solutions formed inside crevices (known as the critical crevice solutions, CCS). Cyclic potentiodynamic technique was used in evaluating the electrochemical corrosion performance of the alloy in bulk (0.5 and 1 M Nacl) environment. This revealed that both chloride ion concentration and temperature have a marked effect on the electrochemical parameters generally used for the evaluation of the crevice corrosion susceptibility. This included the corrosion potential. E corr. The passivity breakdown potential, Eb, and the protection potential, E p

157

Electrochemical behavior of lithium in lithium hydroxide solution with sodium nitrite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The electrochemical behavior of lithium in lithium hydroxide solution with sodium nitrite has been investigated in this paper. The results show that the hydrogen evolution rate decreases with increasing sodium nitrite concentration. Through potentiostatic polarization and scanning electron microscope (SEM), we found that the current efficiency keeps nearly unchanged with sodium nitrite introduction to the solutions. The porosity of the lithium surface film decreased due to the precipitation of LiOH promoted by sodium nitrite.

158

Potentiometric monitoring of sodium borohydride in aqueous solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Platina, paládio, ouro, cádmio, níquel e nióbio imersos em soluções alcalinas de borohidreto de sódio são caracterizados por respostas de eléctrodo que permitem monitorizar o conteúdo em borohidreto presente num dado meio aquoso. Descreve-se uma técnica de titulação potenciométrica relativamente sim [...] ples e precisa que pode ser aplicada para a análise de soluções de borohidreto. Abstract in english Platinum, palladium, gold, cadmium, nickel and niobium immersed in sodium borohydride alkaline solutions are characterised by electrode responses that allow monitoring the borohydride present in aqueous media. A simple and relatively precise potentiometric titration technique is described and applie [...] d for the analysis of borohydride solutions.

Diogo M. F., Santos; César A. C., Sequeira.

2008-12-01

159

Aggregation behavior of sodium lignosulfonate in water solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lignosulfonate is a type of macromolecular surfactant widely used as interfacial additive in various industrial fields and it is produced during chemical pulping process. In this paper, we present a new effective method for measurement of the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of sodium lignosulfonate (SL) in water solution, with which a value of 0.38 g L(-1) was obtained. Through the determination of CAC and observation by DLS, the state and dynamics of the formation of the SL micelles were disclosed. The results showed that SL was the state of individual molecules when its mass concentration was less than CAC; the individual SL molecules started to aggregate above CAC and thus micelles formed and grew with increasing SL concentration. The SL solution was quickly frozen and the structures of SL molecules or micelles were observed by ESEM, revealing that the spherical micelles were the main form of SL in the solution. Based on the results, the spherical hollow vesicular structure is proposed as a model of the aggregated micelles of SL in the solution. PMID:21077665

Qiu, Xueqing; Kong, Qian; Zhou, Mingsong; Yang, Dongjie

2010-12-01

160

Speciation and chemical activities in superheated sodium borate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The system H2O-B2O3-Na2O has been studied experimentally at 277 degrees and 317 degrees C. The activities of water and boric acid have been determined at mole ratios Na/B from 0 to 1.5, and total dissolved solids 3 to 80 weight percent. The activity of boric acid has been fitted to within experimental error using a speciation model with eight complex species. This model is consistent with the model previously published by Mesmer et al. The electrolyte properties of the liquid are modelled using the Pitzer-Simonson Model of very concentrated electrolyte solutions. The calculated values of water activity agree with experiment, and the activity of NaOH and pOH have also been calculated. These data will allow prediction of the composition and chemical behavior of sodium borate liquids that may accumulate in the superheated crevices within a steam generator. A modified form of the model is provided for use with MULTEQ. The potassium borate system also was briefly studied at 317 degrees C, and is adequately described by a model with five complex species. The potassium borate liquid is more alkaline at K/B = 1 than a sodium borate liquid at the same mole ratio, but pOH in the two systems is the same at lower mole ratios

161

Visco-Elastic Properties of Sodium Hyaluronate Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Sodium Hyaluronate (NaHA) is a member of the glycosaminoglycans and is present in the human organism as part of the synovial fluid and the vitreous body. HA is mainly commercialized as sodium or potassium salt. It can be extracted from cockscombs or can be produced by bacterial fermentation ensuring a low protein content. Because of its natural origin and toxicological harmlessness, NaHA is used to a great extent for pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. In medical applications, NaHA is already being used as a component of flushing and stabilizing fluids in the treatment of eye cataract and as a surrogate for natural synovial fluid. Another growing domain in the commercial utilization of NaHA is the field of skin care products like dermal fillers or moisturizers. In this spectrum, NaHA is used in dilute over semidilute up to concentrated (0solutions. In order to optimize NaHA samples for their specific utilization and to find new applications, it is of great interest to understand its viscoelastic behavior. We therefore present in this contribution the results of a comprehensive investigation of the viscous and elastic material functions of different NaHA samples. This includes, besides shear flow and oscillatory experiments, the performance of rheo-optical measurements in order to determine the elastic component in the range of low shear rates and low concentrations.

Kulicke, Werner-Michael; Meyer, Fabian; Bingöl, Ali Ö.; Lohmann, Derek

2008-07-01

162

The effects of temperature and pH on the dissolution and passivation processes of copper in carbonate-bicarbonate solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foram feitos estudos eletroquímicos de eletrodos de cobre policristalino em soluções de carbonato-bicarbonato, analisando os efeitos da temperatura e do pH, cobrindo uma extensa faixa de composições eletrolíticas num intervalo de 5-65 °C. As condições hidrodinâmicas do sistema também foram considera [...] das. Os resultados são explicados com base numa modificação das características do filme decorrente dos efeitos de agitação da solução e das temperaturas elevadas. Nestas situações, forma-se uma camada menos hidratada, reduzindo o processo de dissolução. A força iônica torna-se um fator adicional que afeta o estado geral do sistema. Abstract in english Electrochemical studies of polycrystalline copper electrodes in carbonate-bicarbonate solutions analyzing both temperature and pH effects were carried out, covering a wide range of electrolyte composition in the 5-65 °C range. Hydrodynamic conditions were also considered. The results are explained o [...] n the basis of a modification of the characteristics of the film through solution stirring and high temperature. In this situation, a less hydrated passive layer is obtained, reducing the dissolution process. The ionic strength becomes an additional factor that affects the general state of the system.

S.B., Ribotta; M.E., Folquer.

163

Radiolysis of sodium p-cumenesulfonate in aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The reactions of hydrated electron eaq?, hydrogen atom (H) and CO2? (reducing species) as well as Cl2?, Br2?, N3?, OH, O?, SO4? radicals (oxidizing species) with sodium p-cumenesulfonate (SCS) in aqueous solution below minimum hydrotrope concentration have been studied by the method of steady-state and pulse radiolysis. The spectra of transient intermediates, leading to the final products, are presented. The rate constants for the reduction or oxidation reaction of the SCS are also given. The fate of the primary products of the SCS reaction produced during the pulse radiolysis under reductive or oxidative conditions is discussed. - Highlights: ? We determined the minimum hydrotrope concentration (MHC) for SCS. ? We analyzed the SCS reactions with oxidizing and reducing species. ? The rate constants for the oxidation and reduction of SCS were given

164

The relevance of the CO2 partial pressure of sodium bicarbonate solutions for the mass cultivation of the microalga Spirulina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O meio de cultivo na base de bicarbonato de sódio usado para produzir a microalga Spirulina em massa e preparado seguinte ZARROUK¹ é meta-estável em contato com a atmosfera. Este fato causa uma grande perda de CO2. Com cálculos e experiências foi determinada a relação entre a pressão parcial de CO2 [...] de soluções de bicarbonato de sódio e o pH da solução. Com pH 10.2 existe um equilíbrio com a concentração de CO2 no ar e desta maneira não há perda de CO2. Abstract in english It is demonstrated by experiments and calculations that the medium used for growing the microalga Spirulina (prepared according to ZARROUK¹ with a resulting pH of 8.7) is highly meta-stable in contact with the atmosphere and is thus loosing considerable amounts of CO2. This economic problem can be a [...] voided by raising the pH of the culture medium to 10.2 where its partial pressure of CO2 corresponds to the partial pressure of CO2 in the atmosphere. The pH shift has practically no influence on the growth of the algae.

Daniel de, Alava; Paulo Corrêa de, Mello; Klaus, Wagener.

165

Stability of penta- and hexavalent americium in the solutions of sodium peroxydisulfate and sodium bromate at intensive internal ?-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spectrometric method has been used for studying the dependence of the rates of radiolytic reduction of Am(5) and (6) on the initial concentration of sodium persulfate and bromate, Am(5) and (6), acidity, and the dose rate of inner alpha-irradiation of the solutions. The high dose rates of inner alpha-irradiation of solutions (up to 3.25x1021 eV/lxmin-250Ci/l) have been attained with the aid of curium isotopes. The stability of americium (6) ions towards the action of ionizing radiation in solutions of sodium persulfate and bromate has been shown to be considerable lower than that of americium (5). The chemical difference has been shown in radiolytic behaviour between Am(5) and Am(6) ions in solutions of sodium persulfate and bromate. The equations have been derived showing the dependence of the rates of Am(6) and Am(5) reduction of different variables

166

Sodium silicate solutions from dissolution of glasswastes. Statistical analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has studied the solubility process of four different waste glasses (with different particle sizes, 125 µm in alkaline solutions (NaOH and NaOH/Na?CO? and water as a reference and under different conditions of solubility (at room temperature, at 80°C and a mechano-chemical process. Have established the optimal conditions of solubility and generation of sodium silicates solutions, and these were: the smaller particle size (Se ha estudiado el proceso de solubilidad de cuatro diferentes residuos vítreos (con distintas granulometrías, 125 µm en disoluciones alcalinas de NaOH y NaOH/Na?CO? y agua como medio de referencia y bajo distintas condiciones de solubilidad (a temperatura ambiente, a 80°C y con un proceso mecano-químico. Se han establecido las condiciones óptimas de solubilidad y generación de disoluciones de silicato sódico, y estas son: menor tamaño de partícula del residuo vítreo (inferior a 45 µm, con la disolución de NaOH/Na?CO? y tratamiento térmico a 80°C durante 6 horas de agitación. El análisis estadístico realizado a los resultados obtenidos da importancia a las variables estudiadas y a las interacciones de las mismas. A través de ²?Si RMN MAS se ha confirmado la formación, tras los procesos de disolución, de un silicato monomérico, apto para su utilización como activador en la preparación de cementos y hormigones alcalinos.

Torres-Carrasco, M.

2014-05-01

167

Sodium sulfate as an eluant for concentrated solution of pertechnetate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fission molybdenum-99 based technetium-99m chromatography generators are the most widely employed generator systems in the field of diagnostic nuclear medicine. In the first week these generators provide high specific volume activity Na99mTcO4, but in the second week the radioactive concentration of the eluate (99mTc) becomes 17% of that at the beginning of the first week. Low specific volume activity limits the clinical procedures (e.g. 99mTc-DTPA for lung ventilation scanning, 99mTc-sestamibi for myocardial perfusion studies, 99mTc-ECD for brain imaging and 99mTc-red cells for testicles) that can be performed at the beginning of the second week. To overcome such limitations sodium sulfate was used as an eluant, which provides>80% of 99mTc radioactivity in 2 ml solution, while 0.9% NaCl provides only 40-45% 99mTc in first 2 ml solution. PMID:18280744

Mushtaq, A; Haider, I

2008-08-01

168

[Gas analysis in bicarbonate dialysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The acid-base abnormalities in uremic patients on hemodialysis are well known. There is less awareness of the fact that during bicarbonate dialysis patients are simultaneously exposed to the four fundamental acid-base disorders. Attempts at compensation involving the respiratory system persist in the hours following hemodialysis. Furthermore, several landmark publications in addition to more recent papers clearly show that bicarbonate HD is only able to compensate for uremic acidosis through the elimination of surplus CO2 from dialysate via the lungs. The artificial kidney and lungs of the patient work together to ensure the efficiency of hemodialysis. Dialysate is a more acidic solution than the patient's blood and contains, in addition to oxygen and bicarbonate, at least twice the CO2 concentration of blood. The high dialysance of CO2 allows for its rapid diffusion from the dialysate to the blood compartment and can be a clinically relevant issue in patients with co-morbidities, especially respiratory disease. In such circumstances, hemodialysis may cause iatrogenic respiratory acidosis which, if not recognized, can require ventilatory assistance and advanced life support. Checking for such problems in a real life setting, such as an outpatient hemodialysis unit, is an important part of the nephrologists day-to-day work. PMID:24402628

Marano, Marco

2013-01-01

169

Use of hypertonic solutions of sodium chloride in hypergranulating wounds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to verify the efficiency of hypertonic solution (NaCl/20% on the hypergranulation due to the constant hypergranulating wound beds treated in venous ulcers in the daily clinic practice, which delays and disables cells epithelization. Methodology: clinical case study, performed in an outpatient’s clinic of Médio Vale do Paraíba, from February to March 2008. MCT, 60 years old, female, white skin, systematic arterial hypertension controlled, with wounds on the middle part and region of distal third of the left leg. Dressings were made with prior sterilization sores of sodium chloride to 0.9%, which was applied compress of gauze soaked with hypertonic solution (NaCl 20% was applied on the region presenting hypergrantulation tissue and immediately occluded with dry gauze and fixed with crepe bandage and adhesive tapes. Results: on February 13, 2008, the first wound on the middle part of the left leg measured 3,5 x 2,3 inches (9x6 cm and 2,7 9 inches (7 cm of hypergranulation, and the second wound on the region of distal third of the left leg measured 5,5 x 5,1 inches (14x13 cm and 5,1 inches (13 cm of hypergranulation. After 22 days, the first wound measured 1,5 x 1,5 inches (4X4 cm and 1,5 inches (4 cm of hypergranulation and the second wound measured 4,3 x 3,9 inches (11X10 cm and 2,3 inches (6 cm of hypergranulation. Conclusion: the healing process presented a satisfactory evolution after applying hypertonic solution (NaCl/20% improving the characteristic of the wound bed and diminishing the area where hypergranulation was present.

Bruno de Assis Quelemente, Ana Beatriz Pinto da Silva Morita, Angelo Teixeira Balbi

2009-04-01

170

Componentry, constructive and process solutions of sodium vapour precipitation problem  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sodium vapour trap for periodic operation (SVT) is installed to present of sodium vapour emissions after response of safety valve on tanks with sodium and to provide protection from sodium vapour during planned argon blowing from tanks. It is recommended that SVT be placed directly above tanks with sodium. But the main problem of BN-600 and BN-800 componentry (grouping) is the lack of premises. So, the recommended placement is impossible. The principal scheme of SVT piping BN-800. Argon purification from sodium vapor is carried out by air refrigerating. Refrigerating degree is regulated by control valve on the air delivery pipe to SVT. There is montejus tank in the scheme of SVT piping for liquid sodium drainage that is condensed in SVT. Sodium drainage pipe is combined with argon delivery pipe (line E). There are two main problems with the present construction of SVT based on operation experience of BN-600: 1. The horizontal pipeline 'Ar+Na' before the SVT entrance is a dangerous section of this piping. Electric heating of this pipeline is always 'on'. Inspite of this, sodium vapour condenses before SVT. It means that the pipeline becomes progressively clogged up. 2. Two substances (argon with sodium vapour and liquid sodium) are moving towards each other in one pipeline (line E). This is the most probable place of clogging by sodium, especially branch-pipe in the connection point of line E with SVT. Sodium cruds turn into solid state in the process of argon deliverylid state in the process of argon delivery pipe clogging.In most cases solid scrubs melting temperature exceeds 400-500C depending on chemical composition of crud (for example caustic soda - 1200C). It means that it is almost impossible to heat the pipeline to restore its passability. The only measure in this case is the change of pipe section during BN stop. The first problem can be solved by: - Increasing the diameter (which was DN40 in the project of BN-600, and is DN80 in BN-800); - Increasing the temperature of electric heating; - Minimizing pipeline lengths; The second problem can only be solved by changing SVT design: The principal scheme of SVT piping that is optimal in the lack of premises. Argon delivery pipeline is separated from sodium drainage pipeline. Drainage clogging is less probable in such SVT design

171

Uptake of ozone to mixed sodium bromide/ citric acid solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea-salt solution - air interfaces play an important role in the chemistry of the marine boundary layer. The reaction of ozone (O3) with bromide is of interest in the context of formation of photolabile halogens (Br2, BrCl) in the marine boundary layer. Recent experiments have suggested that the bromide oxidation rate is related to the surface concentration of bromide [1] and inversely related to the gas phase concentration of O3, an indication for a precursor mediated reaction at the surface [2]. So far, the effect of organics (such as those occurring at the ocean surface or in marine aerosols) on the reaction of O3 with bromide aerosols has not been studied yet. In our study we investigate the uptake kinetics of O3 to a mixed solution of sodium bromide (NaBr) and citric acid (CA), which represents highly oxidized organic compounds present in the environment, with a well-established coated wall flow tube technique, which leads to exposure of the film to O3 allowing the heterogeneous reactions to take place and the loss of O3 being measured. The results indicate that the uptake of O3 to the films with the higher bromide concentrations (0.34M and 4M) is independent of the gas phase concentration and roughly consistent with uptake limited by reaction in the bulk. For the lower bromide concentration (84mM), however, we observe a trend of the uptake coefficient to decrease with increasing O3 concentration, indicating an increasing importance of a surface reaction. In an attempt to constrain the kinetic data, we employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to get insight into the surface composition of the aqueous solution - air interface. Previous XPS studies have shown that halide ion concentrations are enhanced at the aqueous solution air interface [3-4], which likely promotes the surface reactions of bromide or iodide with O3. A first XPS study of ternary solutions of KI with butanol indicated the importance of specific interactions of the cation with the alcohol headgroup [5]. In this study we would like to go one step further and look into the effect of a more complex organic compound, CA. We used ambient pressure XPS on a vacuum liquid microjet. The continuously refreshed free-flowing aqueous filament under vacuum permits photoelectron spectroscopy measurements from volatile aqueous interfaces in absence of beam damage [6]. Measurements were made at the SIM beam line of the Swiss Light Source (SLS) at the Paul Scherrer Institute. The ability to tune the photon energy (150-2000 eV) is crucial to get precise component ratios as a function of photoelectron kinetic energy and thus probe depth, thus allowing to determine relative concentrations of citric acid and bromide at the surface and in the bulk, respectively. REFERENCES [1] Clifford and Donaldson, J. Phys. Chem. A, 111, 9809-9814, (2007). [2] Oldridge and Abbatt, J. Phys. Chem. A, 115, 2590-2598, (2011). [3] S. Ghosal et al., Science 307, 563 (2005). [4] M.A. Brown et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 10, 4778 (2008). [5] M. Krisch et al., J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 13497 (2007). [6] M.A. Brown et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3, 231 (2012).

Lee, Ming-Tao; Steimle, Emilie; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Kato, Shunsuke; Lampimäki, Markus; Brown, Matthew; van Bokhoven, Jeroen; Nolting, Frithjof; Kleibert, Armin; Türler, Andreas; Ammann, Markus

2013-04-01

172

The vapour pressures over saturated aqueous solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of DL-2-aminobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, sodium-D-gluconate, sodium hippurate, and potassium magnesium-L-aspartate were determined over the (278 to 322) K temperature range. The determined vapour pressures were used to obtain the water activities, the molar enthalpies of vaporization, and the osmotic coefficients of sodium-D-gluconate

173

Maximizing adhesion of auxin solutions to stem cuttings using sodium cellulose glycolate  

Science.gov (United States)

Auxin solutions prepared with sodium cellulose glycolate (SCG; a thickening agent, also known as sodium carboxymethylcellulose) and applied to stem cuttings using a basal quick-dip extend the duration of exposure of cuttings to the auxin and have previously been shown to increase root number and/or ...

174

Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women? / ¿Modifica el agua mineral bicarbonatada rica en sodio la sensibilidad a la insulina de las mujeres postmenopáusicas?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudiar los efectos de la ingesta de 0.5L de dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2), junto con una comida estándar, sobre los cambios en la insulina y la glucosa postprandial; y determinar si los posibles efectos varían en función de la resistencia a la insulina eva [...] luada a través del modelo homeostático (HOMA). Métodos: 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas sanas participaron en un estudio triple cruzado aleatorizado, en el que bebieron 2 aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2) y un agua mineral débil (LMW) junto con una comida estándar rica en grasa. Se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas y postprandiales a los 30, 60 y 120 min. Se determinó glucosa, insulina, colesterol y triglicéridos en suero. La resistencia a la insulina fue estimada a través del HOMA y la sensibilidad a la insulina se calculó mediante el índice de sensibilidad cuantitativa a la insulina (QUICKY). Resultados: Los niveles de glucosa no presentaron cambios. Los valores de HOMA y QUICKY presentaron una fuerte correlación inversa (r = -1,000; p Abstract in english Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2), with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Methods [...] : In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW) with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY). Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p

S., Schoppen; F. J., Sánchez-Muniz; A. M.ª, Pérez-Granados; J. A., Gómez-Gerique; B., Sarriá; S., Navas-Carretero; M.ª Pilar, Vaquero.

2007-10-01

175

Avaliação de procedimentos de extração dos óxidos de ferro pedogênicos com ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio / Evaluation of pedogenic iron oxide extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Em 20 amostras hematíticas e goethíticas de horizontes B latossólicos, uma de B plíntico, uma de B incipiente e uma de saprolito, foram avaliados dois procedimentos de extração de óxidos de ferro pedogênicos (Fe d) por ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio (DCB). O procedimento a 80 ºC (DCB80) extr [...] aiu aproximadamente 90 % do Fe d na primeira extração e praticamente a totalidade do mesmo na segunda extração, sendo mais efetivo que o procedimento a temperatura ambiente (DCB20), o qual teve sua eficiência reduzida com o aumento da substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita. A substituição isomórfica de Fe3+ por Al3+ na goethita determinada por DCB80 superestimou os valores determinados por DRX conforme aumentaram as extrações. Em amostras hematíticas, esta estimativa foi prejudicada pela presença de maghemita que dissolveu juntamente com a hematita. Abstract in english Pedogenic iron oxides (Fe d) were quantified in 22 hematitic and goethitic soil samples (19 from oxic horizons; one from a plinthic horizon; one from a cambic horizon; one from saprolite) by use of two extraction procedures with sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB). Approximately ninety perce [...] nt of the Fe d content was extracted at the first extraction by the DCB80 procedure. This procedure was more effective at extracting Fe d than the DCB20, whose efficiency decreased with increasing Al3+-substitution in goethite. Compared with the DRX analysis, Al3+-substitution in goethite determined by the DCB80 procedure was superestimated. Maghemite masked Al3+-substitution estimates in hematite from hematitic samples.

A. V., Inda Junior; N., Kämpf.

1139-11-01

176

Factors Affecting Dissolution Resistance of AC Anodizing Al in Sodium Carbonate Solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were performed to determine the effect of different factors on the properties and so the dissolution resistance of the anodic film of Al. Conductance and thermometric measurements were applied to evaluate the dissolution rate. The effect of applied AC voltage concentration of sodium carbonate solution, the anodization time and the temperature of sodium carbonate solutions show a parallel increase in the dissolution resistance of studied Al in hydrochloride acid. The results show that films formed by sodium carbonate solution were of porous type and have pronounced high resistance. Scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffraction further examined the films. The anodic and cathodic behavior and the effect of the scanning rate on the polarization of Al in sodium carbonate solution were studied. The regression analysis was applied to all results. (Author)

177

Interaction of ammonium perrhenate with sodium thiosulfate in sulfuric-acid solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Interaction of ammonium perrhenate with sodium thiosulfate in sulfuric-acid solution is studied in a wide range of component ratios. It is established that the medium mainly affects the rate of sodium thiosulfate decomposition to elemental sulphur and sulphur dioxide. Simultaneous increase of thiosulfate and rhenium concentrations in the initial solutions results in their less complete interaction. Composition of solid phases depends but slightly on the acid nature.

Sadykov, V.G.; Koval, L.B.; Chaus, I.S.; Starchenko, A.P. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Obshchej i Neorganicheskoj Khimii)

1982-02-01

178

Separation of cesium from a nuclear waste solution by precipitation with sodium hexanitrocobaltate and tungstophosphoric acid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Separation of Cs-137,134 from a low-active nuclear power plant waste solution by precipitation with sodium hexanitrocobaltate and tungstophosphoric acid was studied. The waste solution was highly alkaline (pH 13.0) and its total salt content was high (20 w-%). Sodium and potassium ion concentrations were 2.7 and 0.24 mol/l, respectively. The effects of the amounts of the precipitants, pH, temperature and carrier on the precipitation were investigated in laboratory experiments. Precipitation rates were measured. In pilot plant experiments a decontamination factor higher than 100 was obtained when 50 kg of sodium hexanitrocobaltate or 6 kg of tungstophosphoric acid per cubic metre of waste solution was used. Volume reduction factors of about 25 in the precipitations with sodium hexanitrocobaltate and >100 with tungstophosphoric acid were obtained. (orig.)

179

Bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of sodium hypochlorite and sodium dichloroisocyanurate solutions in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

The antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) were evaluated and compared in vitro. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of NaOCl and NaDCC were tested for Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus salivarius, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus mutans. The cytotoxic effect was assessed by using human fibroblast tissue culture. Survival rate was assessed by a protein determination method. Results showed that the minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration values of NaOCl and NaDCC for the tested bacteria were in a similar range. NaDCC in concentrations higher than 0.02%, and NaOCl in concentrations higher than 0.01% were lethal to fibroblasts. In conclusion it seems that both agents were very effective in killing bacteria, and their cytotoxicity to fibroblasts in tissue culture was similar. PMID:11485267

Heling, I; Rotstein, I; Dinur, T; Szwec-Levine, Y; Steinberg, D

2001-04-01

180

21 CFR 173.325 - Acidified sodium chlorite solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...immersion of the intact carcass in a prechiller or chiller tank; (ii) In a prechiller or chiller solution for application to the intact carcass...carcass parts; (iv) In a prechiller or chiller solution for application to poultry...

2010-04-01

181

Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO3) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO3 solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO3 solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO3 solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO3 solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO3, which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary pressure and tortuosity. The higher the temperature, the more significant the salinity driven fluid flow

182

Dependence of cesium sorption from sodium chloride solution on nature of compensative zeolite cation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Investigated is cesium sorption with the method of radioactive indicators under dynamic conditions out of solutions of sodium chloride on crionite, clinoptilolite and zeolite NaX. It is shown that the biggest amount of cesium is sorbed on zeolites where the exchange cation is placed different from the competitive cation in the solution. On erionite and clinoptilolite, in this case

183

Study on the utilization of a sodium-sulfuric acid solution for the uranium minerals' leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Argentine uranium minerals have been leached at bench scale with a different agent trying to reduce sulfuric acid consumption. The leaching agent was a sodium sulfate-sulfuric acid solution and the ore was from Sierra Pintada (San Rafael - Mendoza). The work was performed in stirred vessel at atmospheric pressure. The influence of different variables, pH, temperature, oxidant agent, sodium sulfate concentration and time, in the sulfuric acid consumption and the uranium yield was studied. (Author)

184

The solubility of uranium(IV) hydrous oxide in sodium hydroxide solutions under reducing conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solubility of hydrous UO2 in sodium hydroxide solutions containing sodium dithionite and/or Zn metal powder as reductants has been measured. The results provide no firm evidence for any amphoteric behavior of U(IV) but do set an upper limit of K -23 for the hypothetical reaction: U4+(aq) + 5H2OU(OH)5- + 5H+. The results provide no evidence for such a reaction. (author)

185

Diffusion of sodium alginate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Mutual diffusion coefficients of sodium alginate in aqueous solutions. • Influence of the thermodynamic and kinetic factors on the variation of the mutual diffusion coefficients. • Estimation of the hydrodynamic radius of ion alginate. - Abstract: Taylor dispersion technique was used for measuring mutual diffusion coefficients of sodium alginate aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K, by using as carrier stream solution both pure water and solutions of this polyelectrolyte at a slightly different concentration. The limiting values found at infinitesimal ionic strength, D0, were determined by extrapolating to c ? 0. These studies were complemented by molecular mechanics calculations. From the experimental data, it was possible to estimate both the limiting conductivity and the tracer diffusion coefficient values for the alginate anion, and the hydrodynamic radius of the sodium alginate (NaC6H7O6), as well as to discuss the influence of the kinetic, thermodynamic and viscosity factors on the diffusion of sodium alginate in aqueous solutions at finite concentrations. Thus, the aim of our innovative research is to contribute to a better understanding of the structure and the thermodynamic behavior of these polymeric systems in solution and supplying the scientific and technological communities with data on these important parameters in solution transport processes

186

Tetraethylammonium bicarbonate trihydrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the title compound, C8H20N+·CHO3?·3H2O, the bicarbonate anion, which has a small mean deviation from the plane of 0.0014?Å, fully utilises its three O and one H atom to form various O—H...O hydrogen bonds with the three water molecules in the asymmetric unit, generating a hydrogen-bonded layer, which extends along (10overline{1}. The tetraethylammonium cations, as the guest species, are accommodated between every two neighboring layers, constructing a sandwich-like structure with an interlayer distance of 7.28?Å.

Heping Li

2011-08-01

187

The influence of low oxygen and contaminated sodium environments on the fatigue behavior of solution treated AISI 316 stainless steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of air and sodium environments on the fatigue properties of solution treated AISI 316 steel was studied by predictive methods and by conducting tests in air, in high temperature sodium, or following pre-exposure to sodium. The sodium environments studied included contaminated sodium or the products of sodium/water flames possibly typical of fast reactor fault conditions, and low oxygen sodium more appropriate to normal plant operation. Generally, fatigue properties were reduced by contaminated sodium or the products of sodium/water flames and improved by low oxygen sodium when compared with similar tests conducted in air. However, complex effects were observed with respect to crack initiation. The experimental results are discussed and generally follow trends predicted by physically based fatigue models. (author)

188

Critical role of bicarbonate and bicarbonate transporters in cardiac function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bicarbonate is one of the major anions in mammalian tissues and extracellular fluids. Along with accompanying H(+), HCO3 (-) is generated from CO2 and H2O, either spontaneously or via the catalytic activity of carbonic anhydrase. It serves as a component of the major buffer system, thereby playing a critical role in pH homeostasis. Bicarbonate can also be utilized by a variety of ion transporters, often working in coupled systems, to transport other ions and organic substrates across cell membranes. The functions of HCO3 (-) and HCO3 (-)-transporters in epithelial tissues have been studied extensively, but their functions in heart are less well understood. Here we review studies of the identities and physiological functions of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchangers and Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporters of the SLC4A and SLC26A families in heart. We also present RNA Seq analysis of their cardiac mRNA expression levels. These studies indicate that slc4a3 (AE3) is the major Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger and plays a protective role in heart failure, and that Slc4a4 (NBCe1) is the major Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporter and affects action potential duration. In addition, previous studies show that HCO3 (-) has a positive inotropic effect in the perfused heart that is largely independent of effects on intracellular Ca(2+). The importance of HCO3 (-) in the regulation of contractility is supported by experiments showing that isolated cardiomyocytes exhibit sharply enhanced contractility, with no change in Ca(2+) transients, when switched from Hepes-buffered to HCO3 (-)- buffered solutions. These studies demonstrate that HCO3 (-) and HCO3 (-)-handling proteins play important roles in the regulation of cardiac function. PMID:25225601

Wang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Yamei; Vairamani, Kanimozhi; Shull, Gary E

2014-08-26

189

Additive action on boehmite precipitation in sodium aluminate solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Precipitation of boehmite (Al(2)O(3)·H(2)O) instead of gibbsite (Al(2)O(3)·3H(2)O) from sodium aluminate liquor can be an energy saving option for alumina production. Gibbsite is stable at precipitation temperature lower than 90 °C. Thus when boehmite is precipitated below 90 °C it is always accompanied with a gibbsite phase. However, the addition of certain organic additives favours precipitation of a monophase product i.e. boehmite at a temperature lower than 90 °C. At a temperature as low as 60 °C additives like tartaric acid, xylose and glucose could favour the precipitation of single phase boehmite precipitation. The role of the additive is proposed to be complete inhibition of gibbsite formation and facilitation of boehmite nucleation through different extent of complex formation by multidentate ligands. PMID:20733994

Dash, Barsha; Tripathy, B C; Bhattacharya, I N; Mishra, B K

2010-10-14

190

Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Sodium Bicarbonate/Carbonate Buffer in an Open Aqueous Carbon Dioxide System and Corollary Electrochemical/Chemical Reactions Relative to System pH Changes  

Science.gov (United States)

The International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) experienced a number of chemical changes driven by system absorption of CO2 which altered the coolant’s pH. The natural effects of the decrease in pH from approximately 9.2 to less than 8.4 had immediate consequences on system corrosion rates and corrosion product interactions with specified coolant constituents. The alkalinity of the system was increased through the development and implementation of a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer that would increase coolant pH to 9.0 – 10.0 and maintain pH above 9.0 in the presence of ISS cabin concentrations of CO2 up to twenty times higher than ground concentrations. This paper defines how a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer works in an open carbon dioxide system and summarizes the analyses performed on the buffer for safe and effective application in the on-orbit system. The importance of the relationship between the cabin environment and the IATCS is demonstrated as the dominant factor in understanding the system chemistry and pH trends before and after addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. The paper also documents the corollary electrochemical and chemical reactions the system has experienced and the rationale for remediation of these effects with the addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer.

Stegman, Thomas W.; Wilson, Mark E.; Glasscock, Brad; Holt, Mike

2014-01-01

191

Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO/sub 3/) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10/sup -6/M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO/sub 3/ and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar/sup 1/, Ile/sup 8/)-Angiotensin II(10/sup -6/M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium.

Chatsudthipong, V.; Chan, Y.L.

1986-03-01

192

CHLORIDEDETERMINATION IN HIGH IONIC STRENGTH SOLUTION OF AMMONIUM ACETATE USING NEGATIVE ION ELECTRON SPRAY IONIZATION (HPLC/MS)  

Science.gov (United States)

A precise ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of chloride in high ionic strength ammonium acetate solutions (10-5 M-5 M) using sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate as eluent. Negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was used for q...

193

Hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio na prevenção de nefropatia induzida por contraste em pacientes diabéticos: subanálise de ensaio clínico multicêntrico / Sodium-bicarbonate to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy in diabetic patients: a sub-analysis of a multicenter clinical trial  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Nefropatia induzida por contraste (NIC) está associada a piores desfechos intra-hospitalar e a longo prazo. Estudos recentes sugerem que hidratação com bicarbonato de sódio possa ser útil na sua prevenção; no entanto, essa medida de prevenção de NIC não foi, ainda, avaliada em pacientes [...] diabéticos. MÉTODO: Subanálise de um estudo multicêntrico envolvendo 301 pacientes com creatinina sérica > 1,2 mg/dl ou depuração de creatinina endógena (DCE) Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with worse clinical outcomes both at short and long-term follow-up. Recent evidence indicates that intravenous hydration with sodium-bicarbonate may reduce the incidence of CIN. However, this strategy has not been reported in diabetic pati [...] ents. METHODS: Sub-analysis of a multicenter study involving 301 patients with serum creatinine > 1,2 mg/dL or creatinine clearance 0,5 mg/dL), and the average change in creatinine and creatinine clearance 48 hours after the procedure. A total of 87 diabetic patients were analyzed. RESULTS: There was no difference between groups regarding baseline characteristics, contrast volume used, baseline creatinine levels and creatinine clearance. Eight patients presented CIN: 4 (9.8%) in the bicarbonate group and 4 (8.9%) in the saline group (p = 0.9). The average change in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: Intravenous hydration with sodium-bicarbonate did not reduce the incidence of CIN in diabetic patients undergoing coronary angiography or percutaneous coronary intervention as compared to hydration with normal saline.

Vitor Osório, Gomes; Camila, Tabajara; Patrícia, Hickmann; Juan Carlos, Perez-Alva; Fábio, Brito Jr.; Breno, Almeida; Valter, Lima; Bruno, Machado; Airton, Arruda; José Eduardo T. de, Paula; Ricardo, Lasevitch; Paulo, Caramori.

194

Effect of radioactive chromate on the corrosion and polarisation of mild steel in sodium chloride solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Corrosion tests of mild steel in 0.01% sodium chloride containing radioactive chromate and non-radioactive chromate have been carried out. It has been observed that the labelled sodium chromate has a deleterious effect on the inhibitive action of non-radioactive chromate. The effect of radioactive chromate on the potentiostatic polarization of m.s. in sodium chloride solution containing non-radioactive sodium chromate has also been studied. It is observed that both the cathodic and the anodic polarisation of the metal is diminished in the presence of radioactive chromate. The behaviour of the system in the presence of radioactive chromate is attributed both to the action of depolarisers produced by radiolysis of water and to the effect of gamma radiation on the metal. (author)

195

Inhibition of copper corrosion in sodium chloride solution by the self-assembled monolayer of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research highlights: DDTC is of low toxicity. DDTC SAM had good corrosion inhibition effects on copper in 3% NaCl solution. DDTC SAM was chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms. - Abstract: Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on copper surface has been investigated by SERS and EDS and the results show that DDTC SAM is chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms with tilted orientation. Corrosion inhibition ability of DDTC SAM was measured in 3% NaCl solution using electrochemical methods. The impedance results indicate that the maximum inhibition efficiency of DDTC SAM can reach 99%. Quantum chemical calculations show that DDTC has relatively small {Delta}E between HOMO and LUMO and large negative charge in its two sulfur atoms, which facilitates the formation of a DDTC SAM on copper surface.

Liao, Q.Q., E-mail: liaoqq1971@yahoo.com.c [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Yue, Z.W.; Yang, D. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Wang, Z.H. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Li, Z.H. [Department of Chemistry, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ge, H.H. [Key Lab of Shanghai Colleges and Universities for Electric Power Corrosion Control and Applied Electrochemistry, Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Energy - Saving in Heat Exchange Systems, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 200090 (China); Li, Y.J. [Department of Chemistry, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2011-05-15

196

Inhibition of copper corrosion in sodium chloride solution by the self-assembled monolayer of sodium diethyldithiocarbamate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research highlights: ? DDTC is of low toxicity. ? DDTC SAM had good corrosion inhibition effects on copper in 3% NaCl solution. ? DDTC SAM was chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms. - Abstract: Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on copper surface has been investigated by SERS and EDS and the results show that DDTC SAM is chemisorbed on copper surface by its S atoms with tilted orientation. Corrosion inhibition ability of DDTC SAM was measured in 3% NaCl solution using electrochemical methods. The impedance results indicate that the maximum inhibition efficiency of DDTC SAM can reach 99%. Quantum chemical calculations show that DDTC has relatively small ?E between HOMO and LUMO and large negative charge in its two sulfur atoms, which facilitates the formation of a DDTC SAM on copper surface.

197

Effect of sodium selenite-enriched reperfusion solutions on rat cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiac surgery often generates oxidative stress leading to ischemia reperfusion injury (I-R). Antioxidants have been shown to prevent this injury and have been added to cardioplegic solutions to assist in recovery. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of sodium selenite in protecting against ischemia reperfusion injury and investigated the mechanisms behind this protection. Hearts from male Wistar rats were subjected to ischemia reperfusion using the Langendorf model. Krebs-Henseleit perfusion solutions were supplemented with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 10 microM sodium selenite. Hearts were perfused for 30 min and then subjected to 22.5 min of global ischemia followed by 45 min reperfusion. Heart rate, ischemic contracture, end diastolic pressure, and developed ventricular pressure were monitored. At the completion of the experiment, hearts were homogenized and tissue extracts were assayed for glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and thioredoxin reductase (Thx-Red) activity. Sodium selenite, at a concentration of 0.5 microM, demonstrated a protective effect on the recovery of cardiac function following I-R, as evidenced by a lower end diastolic pressure and enhanced recovery of rate pressure product. There was no beneficial effect observed in hearts perfused with 0.1 microM sodium selenite-supplemented buffer, whereas poorer functional recovery was observed in hearts perfused with 10 microM sodium selenite-supplemented buffer. The beneficial effect of sodium selenite was not mediated through increased activity of GSH-Px or Thx-Red. This study demonstrates that the addition of sodium selenite to reperfusion solutions, at an optimal concentration of 0.5 microM, assists in cardiac recovery following ischemia reperfusion. PMID:17206002

Lymbury, Robyn; Venardos, Kylie; Perkins, Anthony V

2006-01-01

198

Does bicarbonated mineral water rich in sodium change insulin sensitivity of postmenopausal women? ¿Modifica el agua mineral bicarbonatada rica en sodio la sensibilidad a la insulina de las mujeres postmenopáusicas?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of drinking 0.5 L of two sodium-rich bicarbonated mineral waters (BMW-1 and 2, with a standard meal, on postprandial insulin and glucose changes. And to determine, if the effects vary depending on insulin resistance, measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA. Methods: In a 3-way randomized crossover study, 18 healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodiumrich BMWs and a low-mineral water (LMW with a standard fat-rich meal. Fasting and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60 and 120 min. Serum glucose, insulin, cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined. Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA and insulin sensitivity was calculated by quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKY. Results: Glucose levels did not change. HOMA and QUICKY values were highly inversely correlated (r = -1,000; p Objetivo: Estudiar los efectos de la ingesta de 0.5L de dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2, junto con una comida estándar, sobre los cambios en la insulina y la glucosa postprandial; y determinar si los posibles efectos varían en función de la resistencia a la insulina evaluada a través del modelo homeostático (HOMA. Métodos: 18 mujeres postmenopáusicas sanas participaron en un estudio triple cruzado aleatorizado, en el que bebieron 2 aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio (BMW-1 y 2 y un agua mineral débil (LMW junto con una comida estándar rica en grasa. Se tomaron muestras de sangre en ayunas y postprandiales a los 30, 60 y 120 min. Se determinó glucosa, insulina, colesterol y triglicéridos en suero. La resistencia a la insulina fue estimada a través del HOMA y la sensibilidad a la insulina se calculó mediante el índice de sensibilidad cuantitativa a la insulina (QUICKY. Resultados: Los niveles de glucosa no presentaron cambios. Los valores de HOMA y QUICKY presentaron una fuerte correlación inversa (r = -1,000; p < 0,0001. Las concentraciones de insulina mostraron un efecto significativo en el tiempo (p < 0,0001 y una interacción agua x tiempo significativa (p < 0,021. A los 120 min los niveles de insulina fueron significativamente inferiores con BMW1 respecto a LMW (p = 0,022. Las concentraciones postprandiales de insulina mostraron patrones significativamente distintos según el tipo de agua que se bebía dependiendo de los n-tiles del HOMA (p = 0,016. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren un aumento de la sensibilidad a la insulina tras el consumo de las dos aguas minerales bicarbonatadas ricas en sodio. Este efecto es más marcado en las mujeres que tienen unos valores de HOMA más altos. Este tipo de aguas deberían ser consideradas como parte de una dieta saludable con objeto de prevenir la resistencia a la insulina y las enfermedades cardiovasculares.

S. Schoppen

2007-10-01

199

Efecto de levaduras antagónicas y bicarbonato de sodio sobre Penicillium expansum Link en dos variedades de manzana / Efect of antagonic yeasts and sodium bicarbonate on Penicillium expansum Link in two apple varieties  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El uso de fungicidas químicos para el control de Penicillium expansum Link en manzanas en poscosecha no es del todo aceptado, por lo que se trabaja con microorganismos antagónicos como las levaduras que al tener una efectividad limitada se combinan con sustancias de origen natural para elevar su efe [...] cto antagónico. Con este propósito, se usaron cepas de levaduras, en combinación con bicarbonato de sodio (BCS) para el control de P. expansum en manzanas (Malus domestica Borkh) 'Golden Delicious' y 'Red Delicious'. Se trataron con tres concentraciones de BCS (0, 2 y 4% p/v) y se inocularon con una concentración conocida de diez levaduras antagónicas, por separado, en heridas donde posteriormente se colocó una suspensión de esporas de P. expansum (1 x 10(4) UFC), midiéndose el diámetro de la lesión y la incidencia después de 10 días de incubación. 'Red Delicious' resultó menos sensible a P. expansum que 'Golden Delicious' (diámetro de lesión de 1.52 vs. 2.01 cm). Las levaduras con mayor poder antagónico sobre el hongo fueron 22-218, 8-121 y 26-224 (Torulaspora spp) que redujeron el desarrollo del hongo en 89, 81.8 y 84.3%, respectivamente a los 10 días de incubación. El BCS 4% no inhibió el crecimiento del hongo, pero a 2% potenció el efecto antagónico de las levaduras 23-61 y 3-5241 en 26.4 y 23.1%, respectivamente. La levadura 22-218 fue la más sobresaliente contra P. expansum en 'Golden Delicious' reduciendo 99.5% el diámetro de la lesión; mientras que las levaduras 22-224 y 8-121 lo fueron en 'Red Delicious' disminuyendo un 91.7 y 91.0%, respectivamente. Abstract in english As the use of chemical fungicides to control postharvest diseases of apple as Penicillium expansum Link is not entirely accepted, antagonist microorganisms as yeasts are employed. However, due to their limited effectiveness they are proposed to be combined with substances of natural origin. To evalu [...] ate the efficacy of different strains of antagonistic yeasts in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) to control P. expansum, 'Golden Delicious' and 'Red Delicious' apples were treated with three levels of SBC and inoculated with a given concentration of ten antagonistic yeasts separately in wounds where a spore suspension of P. expansum (1 x 10(4) UFC), was then placed. Lesion diameter and incidence were measured after ten days of incubation. 'Red Delicious' was less susceptible to P. expansum than 'Golden Delicious' (diameter lesion of 1.52 cm vs 2.01 cm). Yeasts with the highest antagonist capacity on P. expansum were 22-218, 8-121 y 26-224 (Torulaspora spp) reducing the development of fungus in 89, 81.8 y 84.3% respectively. SBC did not reduce the development of fungus, but at 2% it enhanced the antagonistic effect of yeasts 23-61 and 3-5241 in 26.4 y 23.1% respectively. Yeast 22-218 showed the major antagonism against P. expansum in 'Golden Delicious' diminishing the lesion diameter at 0.1 cm, while yeasts 22-224 and 8-121 did in 'Red Delicious' diminishing injury in 91.7 and 91% respectively.

L., Soto-Muñoz; R. A., Martínez-Peniche.

2009-08-01

200

Chloride and bicarbonate transport in rat resistance arteries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

1. The role of chloride and bicarbonate in the control of intracellular pH (pHi) was assessed in segments of rat mesenteric resistance arteries (internal diameter about 200 microns) by measurements of chloride efflux with 36Cl-, of pHi with the pH-sensitive dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5 (and-6)-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) and of membrane potential with intracellular electrodes. 2. The main questions addressed were whether the previously demonstrated sodium-coupled uptake of bicarbonate in these arteries was also coupled to chloride efflux, and whether sodium-independent Cl(-)-HCO3- exchange was present and played a role in regulation of pHi. 3. The 36Cl- efflux was unaffected by acidification induced by an NH4Cl pre-pulse in the presence as well as in the absence of bicarbonate. This was also true in sodium-free media and in vessels depolarized by high potassium. 4. The membrane potential was unaffected by the acidification associated with wash-out of NH4Cl, and the net acid extrusion during recovery of pHifrom the acidification was not affected significantly by depolarization. 5. In the absence of bicarbonate, omission of extracellular chloride caused no change in pHi, but reduced 36Cl- efflux. By contrast, in the presence of bicarbonate, omission of chloride caused an increase in pHi but no change in 36Cl- efflux. Furthermore, the anion transport inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) inhibited the increase in pHi seen in the presence of bicarbonate and reduced the 36Cl- efflux in the presence of bicarbonate. 6. The presence of bicarbonate had no significant effect on the rate of recovery of pHi or the rate of increase of intracellular acid equivalents after an NH4Cl induced alkalinization; also the buffering power was not significantly different in the absence and presence of bicarbonate. Moreover these parameters were not significantly affected by DIDS, although DIDS as previously demonstrated reduced the rate of recovery of pHi from acidification. 7. The membrane potential was not significantly affected by the alkalinization associated with addition of NH4Cl and the rate of recovery of pHi from the alkalinization was not affected by depolarization. 8. The effects of NH4Cl and PCO2 on 36Cl- efflux were complex and could not easily be explained by the changes in pHi.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Aalkjær, Christian; Hughes, A

1991-01-01

201

Electrochemical Evaluation of Stainless Steels in Acidified Sodium Chloride Solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results of an investigation in which several 300-series stainless steels (SS): AISI S30403 SS (UNS S30403), AISI 316L SS (UNS S31603), and AISI 317L SS (LINS S31703), as well as highly-alloyed: SS 254-SMO (UNS S32154), AL-6XN (N08367) and AL29-4C (UNS S44735), were evaluated using DC electrochemical techniques in three different electrolyte solutions. The solutions consisted of neutral 3.55% NaCl, 3.55% NaCl in 0.1N HCl, and 3.55% NaCl in 1.0N HCl. These solutions were chosen to simulate environments that are less, similar, and more aggressive, respectively, than the conditions at the Space Shuttle launch pads. The electrochemical test results were compared to atmospheric exposure data and evaluated for their ability to predict the long-term corrosion performance of the subject alloys. The electrochemical measurements for the six alloys indicated that the higher-alloyed SS 254-SMO, AL29-4C, and AL-6XN exhibited significantly higher resistance to localized corrosion than the 300-series SS. There was a correlation between the corrosion performance of the alloys during a two-year atmospheric exposure and the corrosion rates calculated from electrochemical (polarization resistance) measurements.

Calle, L. M.; MacDowell, L. G.; Vinje, R. D.

2004-01-01

202

Some studies on self -diffusion of sulphate ions in sodium sulphate solutions by radiotracer technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of temperature, concentration of supporting electrolyte and gel concentration on self-diffusion of sulphate ions in sodium sulphate aqueous solution was studied following the boundary conditions of 'zone' diffusion by radio-tracer technique. The diffusion coefficients are found to increase with temperature and decrease with concentration of supporting electrolyte and gel concentration. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

203

Molecular interaction studies of glycylglycine in aqueous sodium halide solutions at 303, 308 and 313k  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity have been measured for glycylglycine in aqueous sodium halide (NaF, NaCl, NaBr mixture (0.5m at 303, 308 and 313K. Using the experimental values, the adiabatic compressibility, hydration number, apparent molal compressibility, apparent molal volume, limiting apparent molal compressibility, limiting apparent molal volume and their constants (SK, SV, transfer volumes at infinite dilution and viscosity B-coefficient of Jones-Dole equation were calculated. These parameters have been interpreted the molecular interactions in terms of solute-co-solute and solute-solvent interaction present in the given solutions.

R. Palani

2010-12-01

204

The radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions of sodium 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 60Co ?-radiolysis of aqueous solutions of sodium 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonate has been studied in acidic, unbuffered, and alkaline conditions and with addition of N2O and 2-propanol. Mechanisms are proposed to account for the yields of H2O2 and hydroxylated anthraquinone sulfonates. In neutral solution, in the absence of O2, the OH and e- adducts undergo preferential cross termination. Reduction of the OH adduct leads to dehydration and regeneration of the quinone. (author)

205

Stability Test of Ampicillin Sodium Solutions in the Accufuser® Elastomeric Infusion Device Using HPLC: UV Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The stabilities of two kinds of solutions (30 mg/mL of Ampicillin sodium in 0.9% NaCl in water (NS, normal saline and in sterile water (SW in the intravenous elastomeric infusion device (Accufuser® were evaluated based on recommended solutions and storage periods. The injectable NS- and SW-Ampicillin solutions in the Accufuser® device were stored and evaluated at controlled temperature (room temperature, 25? ± 2? and cold temperature, 4? ± 2? during 7 days. Effects of the periods of storage (from 0 to 7 days and the temperatures of storage (RT and CT on the physico-chemical appearances and concentrations of active compounds were determined. The visual clarity, pH, and concentrations of Ampicillin were determined by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-ultraviolet (UV detection. The results showed that the amount of Ampicillin in studied solutions gradually decreased with time. The Ampicillin in NS, which was stored in CT, was relatively stable, retaining 94% of its original amount up to 7 days. The solution that showed least stability was Ampicillin in SW, which was stored in RT, retaining 80% of its original amount. Generally, solutions that were stored in CT were more stable than the solutions that were stored in RT. No significant changes in physical appearance or color of the solutions were observed during the study. Particles were not detected in any solution samples. In summary, two kinds of solutions of Ampicillin sodium, in NS and SW, showed different chemical stabilities with time in intravenous infusion device without any significant physical changes and retained about 94% vs 89% and 83% vs 80% of initial concentrations after 7 days in CT and RT, respectively. We suggest that 30 mg/mL of Ampicillin sodium in NS solution in an Accufuser® infusion device which is stored in CT can be applicable for 7 days in clinical situations.

Min A Kang

2012-10-01

206

Pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In previous work on the 60Co ?-radiolysis of aqueous tetraphenylborate (TPB-) solutions carried out in this laboratory, it was found that several organic products, including benzene, phenol and biphenyl, are produced with substantial yield. However, the reaction mechanism was not established. In the present study, reactions initiated by OH· radicals, N3· radicals and e-aq in aqueous TPB- solutions were studied by pulse radiolysis using a 600 keV Febetron electron accelerator. The lack of reactivity between TPB- and e-aq was demonstrated by directly monitoring the transient optical absorbance of e-aq. Concerning the reaction with OH·, two schemes were considered: (1) electron transfer from B(C6H5)4- to OH·; or (2) OH· addition to B(C6H5)4-. Comparison of observed transient absorption spectra with expectations based on the two different schemes suggests that OH· addition is the dominant reaction pathway under conditions of N2O saturation, with an experimentally determined second-order rate constant of 6.2 x 109 M-1 s-1. A mechanism based on an initial first-order self-decomposition of the OH· adduct, (C6H5)3BC6H>)3BC6H5OH·-, with measured rate constant of 4 x 104s-1 is proposed. Kinetic modeling on the proposed mechanistic scheme gives good agreement with our experimental results. (author)

207

Pulse radiolysis of aqueous solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In previous work on the {sup 60}Co {gamma}-radiolysis of aqueous tetraphenylborate (TPB{sup -}) solutions carried out in this laboratory, it was found that several organic products, including benzene, phenol and biphenyl, are produced with substantial yield. However, the reaction mechanism was not established. In the present study, reactions initiated by OH{sup {center_dot}} radicals, N{sub 3}{sup {center_dot}} radicals and e{sup -}{sub aq} in aqueous TPB{sup -} solutions were studied by pulse radiolysis using a 600 keV Febetron electron accelerator. The lack of reactivity between TPB{sup -} and e{sup -}{sub aq} was demonstrated by directly monitoring the transient optical absorbance of e{sup -}{sub aq}. Concerning the reaction with OH{sup {center_dot}}, two schemes were considered: (1) electron transfer from B(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 4}{sup -} to OH{sup {center_dot}}; or (2) OH{center_dot} addition to B(C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 4}{sup -}. Comparison of observed transient absorption spectra with expectations based on the two different schemes suggests that OH{center_dot} addition is the dominant reaction pathway under conditions of N{sub 2}O saturation, with an experimentally determined second-order rate constant of 6.2 x 10{sup 9} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. A mechanism based on an initial first-order self-decomposition of the OH{sup {center_dot}} adduct, (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 3}BC{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH{sup {center_dot}-}, with measured rate constant of 4 x 10{sup 4}s{sup -1} is proposed. Kinetic modeling on the proposed mechanistic scheme gives good agreement with our experimental results. (author).

Crawford, C.L.; Gholami, M.R.; Bhave, R.N.; Hanrahan, R.J. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1994-09-01

208

Direct rotating ring-disk measurement of the sodium borohydride diffusion coefficient in sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of borohydride anion and solution kinematic viscosity for a large panel of NaOH + NaBH{sub 4} electrolytic solutions relevant for use as anolyte in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC). The diffusion coefficients have been measured by the transit-time technique on gold rotating ring-disk electrodes, and verified using other classical techniques reported in the literature, namely the Levich method and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on a gold RDE, or chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk. The agreement between these methods is generally good. The diffusion coefficients measured from the RRDE technique are however ca. twice larger than those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ca. 3 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaBH{sub 4} at 25 deg. C in the present study vs. ca. 1.6 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} in 1 M NaOH + 0.02 M NaBH{sub 4} at 30 deg. C in the literature, as measured by chronoamperometry at a gold microsphere), which is thoroughly discussed. Our measurements using chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk showed that such technique can yield diffusion coefficient values below what expected. The origin of such finding is explained in the frame of the formation of both a film of boron-oxide(s) at the surface of the (static) gold microdisk and the generation of H{sub 2} bubbles at the electrode surface (as a result of the heterogeneous hydrolysis at Au), which alter the access to the electrode surface and thus prevents efficient measurements. Such film formation and H{sub 2} bubbles generation is not so much of an issue for rotating electrodes thanks to the convection of electrolyte which sweeps the electrode surface. In addition, should such film be present, the transit-time determination technique on a RRDE displays the advantage of not being very sensible to its presence: the parameter measured is the time taken by a perturbation generated the disk to reach the ring trough a distance several orders of magnitude bigger than the film thickness, thus minimizing its effect.

Chatenet, M. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: Marian.Chatenet@phelma.grenoble-inp.fr; Molina-Concha, M.B. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); El-Kissi, N. [Laboratoire de Rheologie, UMR 5520 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1301 rue de la piscine, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Parrour, G.; Diard, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physico-chimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces, LEPMI, UMR 5631 CNRS/Grenoble-INP/UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP75, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

2009-07-15

209

Direct rotating ring-disk measurement of the sodium borohydride diffusion coefficient in sodium hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents the experimental determination of the diffusion coefficient of borohydride anion and solution kinematic viscosity for a large panel of NaOH + NaBH4 electrolytic solutions relevant for use as anolyte in Direct Borohydride Fuel Cells (DBFC). The diffusion coefficients have been measured by the transit-time technique on gold rotating ring-disk electrodes, and verified using other classical techniques reported in the literature, namely the Levich method and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy on a gold RDE, or chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk. The agreement between these methods is generally good. The diffusion coefficients measured from the RRDE technique are however ca. twice larger than those previously reported in the literature (e.g. ca. 3 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 in 1 M NaOH + 0.01 M NaBH4 at 25 deg. C in the present study vs. ca. 1.6 x 10-5 cm2 s-1 in 1 M NaOH + 0.02 M NaBH4 at 30 deg. C in the literature, as measured by chronoamperometry at a gold microsphere), which is thoroughly discussed. Our measurements using chronoamperometry at a gold microdisk showed that such technique can yield diffusion coefficient values below what expected. The origin of such finding is explained in the frame of the formation of both a film of boron-oxide(s) at the surface of the (static) gold microdisk and the generation of H2 bubbles at the electrode surfacub>2 bubbles at the electrode surface (as a result of the heterogeneous hydrolysis at Au), which alter the access to the electrode surface and thus prevents efficient measurements. Such film formation and H2 bubbles generation is not so much of an issue for rotating electrodes thanks to the convection of electrolyte which sweeps the electrode surface. In addition, should such film be present, the transit-time determination technique on a RRDE displays the advantage of not being very sensible to its presence: the parameter measured is the time taken by a perturbation generated the disk to reach the ring trough a distance several orders of magnitude bigger than the film thickness, thus minimizing its effect.

210

Intraventricular injections of tachykinin NK3 receptor agonists suppress the intake of "salty" tastes by sodium deficient rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraventricular injections of the tachykinin NK3 receptor (NK3-R) agonist, senktide, suppress the ingestion of hypertonic (0.5 M) NaCl by decreasing the initial lick rate and accelerating the decay in lick rate in sodium deficient rats. The present experiment examined whether the effects of intraventricular injections of senktide on lick rate were selective for NaCl solution, or if the ability of NK3-R agonists to inhibit intake generalizes other sodium-containing solutions. The effects of lateral ventricular injections of isotonic saline or senktide (200 ng) on intake and lick rate of 0.5 M solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium acetate (Na acetate), sodium bicarbonate (Na bicarbonate), and monosodium glutamate (MSG) were measured in sodium deficient rats. Compared to saline injection, senktide injection had no effect on the lick rate or intake of Na bicarbonate. In contrast, intraventricular injection of senktide suppressed the intake of NaCl, Na acetate, and MSG compared to saline injection. Senktide injection accelerated the decay in lick rate for NaCl, Na acetate and MSG, but only suppressed the initial lick rate for NaCl and Na acetate. The results show that activation of NK3-R in sodium deficient rats suppresses the intake of tastes that are classified as "salty" tasting and that the decrease in intake reflects effects on the initial lick rate, the decay in lick rate, or both. PMID:16154648

Flynn, Francis W

2006-01-01

211

Concentration of rhenium from dilute sodium chloride solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The conditions for the desorption of rhenium from the anion exchange resin Dowex 1-x8 by HNO3, HCl, H2SO4 and NaOH were determined. The solution (5.0´10-3 mol dm-3 Re in 0.15 mol dm-3 NaCl was passed through a column containing 0.10 g of the resin. The total sorbed amount of rhenium was 0.20 g/g of the resin. It was then eluted by the corresponding eluent in the concentration range up to about 3.0 mol dm-3. The highest elution efficiency and the most favourable elution profile were found with 3.0 mol dm-3 HNO3. Over 77 % of the sorbed rhenium was found in the first 5 ml of the eluate. Practically all the rhenium was recovered with 20 ml of the acid. Under the given experimental conditions, HCl and H2SO4 were less favourable while NaOH was not applicable, due to very low efficiency of rhenium elution.

DRAGOLJUB M. LUKIC

2008-03-01

212

Chemical demineralization/desulphurization of high sulphur coal using sodium hydroxide and acid solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Demineralization and desulphurization of high sulphur coal from Assam (Makum Coal fields), India was investigated using aqueous sodium hydroxide followed by hydrochloric acid treatment. Compared to the alkali and acid alone, successive treatments with the alkali and acid resulted in significant removal of mineral matters and sulphur from the coal. Demineralization and desulphurization were found to increase with the increase in alkali concentration. Alkali treatment resulted in formation and precipitation of sodium aluminosilicate, which subsequently undergoes decomposition and solubilization in presence of acid. It is possible to remove 43-50% of the ash, total inorganic sulphur and around 10% organic sulphur from the coal by treatment with 16% sodium hydroxide solution followed by 10% hydrochloric acid. 27 refs., 4 tabs.

Mukherjee, S.; Borthakur, P.C. [Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Jorhat (India). Material Science Division

2001-11-30

213

On interaction of cadmium and indium nitrate mixture with sodium tungstate in aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interaction of the mixture of cadmium and indium nitrates with sodium tungstate in aqueous solution is studied using the methods of ''residual concentrations'', pH potentiometry and conductometry. Independent on the ratio of components in the initial solution a mixture of coprecipitated normal tungstates of cadmium and indium is formed in the system. Heat treatment of the precipitates at 800 deg C for 50 hrs with subsequent hardening results in the formation of solid solutions on the basis of normal cadmium and indium tungstates

214

Production of I-125 radioisotope in sodium iodide solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application: The Radioisotope Iodine-125 has rather long half-life, and high dose range of Gamma radiation. It will be used in two cases,in our radioisotope production department: 1-To label Radioimmunoassay Kits (RIA): T3, T4 and TSH for INVITRO investigation of Thyroid glands, in our Nuclear Medical Center in IRAN. We just started to set up Hot cell facilities and in cell equipment to supply Iodine-125 for our Radioimmunoassay Group.In this section. The above Iodine-125 will be used for labelling of their Radioimmunoassay products for Thyroid functions and also for screening of newborns for Thyroid deficiency. 2-We have also just start, the make and supply particular granules of Iodine-125 by Silver coated Iodine-125 directly and also indirectly, on the Palladium, coated Silver Wire to be used in Brachytherapy applications. Production: After filling Target with 15 g of natural Xe gas by excellent technology and closed in leak-tight allowing reactor irradiation. The target is irradiated in a nuclear reactor for 3 weeks optimally at a thermal neutron flux around ?= 1*1014 n.cm-2.s-1.After transferring irradiated target to hot cell, The aluminium capsule is opened by putting it into the punching apparatus and pushing the needle into the bottom of the aluminium capsule by turning the handle counter-clockwise. When the needle punches the aluminium. The Xe gas is released into the chimney and the I-125 radioisotope is adsorbed on the inside wall of the aluminium capsule. After this the opened aluminium capsule is pulled off from the needle by turning the handle clockwise. The opened capsule is ready to distillation. Preparation of the distillation oven and equipment: on the first occasion the oven should be heated two-times up to 550 oC for two hours each to eliminate potential contamination. After it the radioactive aluminium capsule is put into the oven and vacuum is started. This is followed by switching on the heating. The distillation is followed through 120 minutes at a temperature of 550 oC. Solutions of the required radioactive concentration are dispensed to portions into ampoules. If sterile product is required ampoules should be autoclaved for 30 minutes at a temperature of 120 oC. (author)

215

Effect of peroxodisulfate on uranium leaching with ammonium bicarbonate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, uranium leaching from ore material using acid solution and bicarbonate in a presence peroxodisulfate ion was examined. For experiments two different tips of leaching methods were used: leaching in static and dynamic conditions. The determination of uranium concentrations in product solutions were analyzed by titrimetric (by ammonia vanadate solution method. The maximum yield of uranium leached with ammonium bicarbonate in a presence of ammonium peroxodisulfate (5 g/L was only 33%, which is half the corresponding value obtained by sulfuric acid (65%.

Nurbek Nurpeisov

2013-05-01

216

Investigation of Cs(I) adsorption on densely crosslinked poly(sodium methacrylate) from aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a crosslinked copolymer bearing sodium methacrylate functional groups has been proposed to remove Cs(I) ions from aqueous solutions. For this purpose, the crosslinked copolymer of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDM) and methacrylic acid (MA) containing 25% MA as weight percentage was synthesized by using benzoyl peroxide (BPO)-N,N-dimethyl aniline initiator system. The available carboxyl groups in copolymer were converted to the groups of sodium methacrylate using 2 N NaOH. The adsorption behavior of cesium ions on the densely crosslinked poly(sodium methacrylate) from aqueous solutions were investigated by the technique of ICP-MS measurements of cesium ions in solutions. Batch adsorption method was used to analyze the Cs(I) adsorption as a function of parameters such as the amount of adsorbent, contact time, pH of solution, initial Cs(I) concentration and temperature. The adsorption data were evaluated by the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherms. The adsorption cavity and free energy change were calculated by using D-R isotherm. The adsorption data obtained from experimental results have been tested by the fractional power, the Elovich, the pseudo-first order and the pseudo-second order kinetic models. (author)

217

Thermometric quantitative selective analysis of sodium methoxide in methanol industrial solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O metóxido de sódio é usado como reagente ou como catalisador em muitos processos industriais como, por exemplo, na síntese de fármacos e de biodiesel. O presente trabalho apresenta um novo e seletivo método analítico quantitativo termométrico para a determinação de metóxido de sódio em soluções de [...] metanol na presença de íons hidróxido. Para fins de comparação com o método Karl-Fischer, os dois procedimentos foram aplicados a quatro diferentes soluções de metóxido de sódio em metanol, inclusive em presença de hidróxido de sódio, e os resultados foram comparados estatisticamente mostrando total concordância. Abstract in english Sodium methoxide is used as a reagent or a catalyst in many industrial processes such as, for example, pharmaceuticals and biodiesel syntheses. This work presents a new and selective quantitative analytical thermometric method for sodium methoxide determination in methanol solutions in the presence [...] of hydroxide ions. For comparative purposes with the Karl-Fischer procedure, these two methods were applied to four different solutions of sodium methoxide in methanol, including in presence of sodium hydroxide, and the results were compared statistically showing total agreement.

Flavio A., Bastos; Sabir, Khan; Eduardo H., Simões; Carlos A., Teixeira; Matthieu, Tubino.

1380-13-01

218

Structure of sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles in solutions of H2O and D2O  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sizes of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles in mixtures of H2O and D2O have been measured at several different ionic strengths and temperatures. The changes in micelle size due to H2O/D2O substitution are greatest at high ionic strength. Electrical conductivity and light scattering measurements indicate that head group repulsions between surfactant molecules, as well as intermicellar interactions, are the same in H2O and D2O solutions. The conclusion is that a small difference in the strength of hydrophobic bonds between H2O and D2O is responsible for the dramatic changes in micelle size. In addition the critical micelle concentrations of a homologous series of sodium alkyl sulfates in H2O and D2O and for SDS in solutions containing various ratios of H2O/D2O are reported. 34 references, 6 figures, 5 tables

219

Thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of sodium ibuprofen at 293.15-318.15 K  

Science.gov (United States)

The enthalpies of solution and dilution of aqueous solutions of sodium ibuprofen (NaIBP) with concentrations of m < 1.4 mol/kg water are measured at 293.15, 298.15, 308.15, and 318.5 K using an isoperibolic calorimeter. The heat capacity of NaIBP in the temperature range of 273.15-528.15 K is measured using a DSC 204 F1 Phoenix differential scanning calorimeter (NETZSCH, Germany). The virial coefficients of the enthalpies of aqueous solutions of NaIBP are derived in terms of the Pitzer model, and the thermodynamic properties of both the solutions and the solution components are calculated over the range of compound solubility. The variation in these characteristics as a function of concentration and temperature is analyzed.

Manin, N. G.; Perlovich, G. L.

2015-04-01

220

Removal of Cesium from Aqueous Solutions by Sodium and Calcium Alginates  

OpenAIRE

Environmental pollution with radioactive materials poses a serious threat to public health. Among radioisotopes, cesium is one of the most dangerous elements which can be found in waste disposals of nuclear plants and similar facilities. Pure sodium and calcium alginic salts were investigated as adsorbents for removal of cesium ions from aqueous solution. It was found that both polysaccharides form complexes with the metal ions. Batch equilibrium experiments were...

Khotimchenko, Maksim Y.; Podkorytova, Elena A.; Kovalev, Valeri V.; Khozhaenko, Elena V.; Khotimchenko, Yuri S.

2014-01-01

221

Oxidation of activated carbon with aqueous solution of sodium dichloroisocyanurate: effect on ammonia adsorption  

OpenAIRE

An activated carbon has been oxidized with 1–10 wt% aqueous solutions of sodium dichlororisocyanurate (DCI) to introduce oxygen and chlorine surface groups by chemisorption; the formation of chlorine surface groups is important when the concentration of DCI is high, the modification of the microporosity being small. The range of stability of the groups is wide, from groups decomposing at high temperature to HCl to those groups decomposing simultaneously to HCl and CO at low temperature. The...

Molina Sabio, Miguel; Gonc?alves, Maraisa; Rodri?guez Reinoso, Francisco

2011-01-01

222

Chronoamperometric study of mild steel pitting in sodium sulfide aqueous solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mild steel samples were studied by chronoamperometry in sodium sulfide (Na[sub 2]S) aqueous solution. Pit nucleation and growth also were monitored by optical microscopy. The influence of variables such as temperature, polarization potential, surface roughness, the presence of electrochemically generated oxide layers, and the simultaneous presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH) was studied. The influence of each parameter on pit shape and growth was reviewed. Different reactions and competitive processes were proposed based on the experimental results.

Otero, T.F.; Achucarro, C. (Lab. de Electroquimica, San Sebastian (Spain). Dept. de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros)

1994-08-01

223

Small-angle neutron scattering studies of sodium butyl benzene sulfonate aggregates in aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aggregation behaviour of a hydrotrope, sodium n-butyl benzene sulfonate (Na-NBBS), in aqueous solutions is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Nearly ellipsoidal aggregates of Na-NBBS at concentrations well above its minimum hydrotrope concentration were detected by SANS. The hydrotrope seems to form self-assemblies with aggregation number of 36-40 with a substantial charge on the aggregate. This aggregation number is weakly affected by the hydrotrope concentration. (author)

224

On the influence of molecular structure on the conductivity of electrolyte solutions - sodium nitrate in water  

OpenAIRE

Theoretical calculations of the conductivity of sodium nitrate in water are presented and compared with experimental measurements. The method of direct correlation force in the framework of the interionic theory is used for the calculation of transport properties in connection with the associative mean spherical approximation (AMSA). The effective interactions between ions in solutions are derived with the help of Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics calculations on the Born-O...

Krienke, H.

2013-01-01

225

Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water ? surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation  

OpenAIRE

Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at very low concentrations. Sodium chloride increased the surface tension linearly as a function of the concentrati...

Vanhanen, J.; Hyva?rinen, A. -p; Anttila, T.; Viisanen, Y.; Lihavainen, H.

2008-01-01

226

The hydration of interstitial Portland cement phases in sodium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Formation of sulfoaluminate compounds was investigated by isothermal calorimetry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Tricalcium aluminate/gypsum mixtures with a molar ratio of 1:1 sulfate-to-aluminate were hydrated at constant temperatures from 30 to 90°C; in de-ionized water, in 200mM and in 500mM sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Hydration in de-ionized water produced ettringite and monosulfate as the dominant crystalline phases, regardless of temperature. Complex assemblages of phases formed in 200mM and 500mM sodium hydroxide including ettringite, monosulfate and U-phase, at all temperatures. Hydration of monosulfate and gypsum was also carried out at constant temperatures from 30° to 80°C using de-ionized water and 0.2M, 0.5M, and 1.0M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions. Ettringite was found to be the dominant crystalline phase over the entire temperature range and at all sodium hydroxide concentrations. A sodium-substituted monosulfate phase was formed as a hydration product in the 1.0M sodium hydroxide solution regardless of temperature. Sulfoaluminate compounds formed by tricalcium aluminate hydration in magnesium sulfate solution were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydration was carried out in 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions and isothermally at temperatures from 30 to 80°C. Monosulfate, ettringite, gypsum and a hydrogarnet phase (Ca3Al2O6·6H2O) were all observed as hydration products. Monosulfate and hydrogarnet were the only phases observed for hydration in 0.5 and 1.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Ettringite was the dominant crystalline phase after hydration in 3.0M solution, regardless of temperature. To investigate the rate of hydration, reactions at 60°C in 3.0M magnesium sulfate solution were quenched after 26 minutes, 73 minutes, 2.5 hours and 12 hours to establish the evolution of hydrated phases. Depending on hydration times ettringite, monosulfate, gypsum, hydrogarnet and residual tricalcium aluminate were observed. No crystalline magnesium-rich phases were detected by XRD. The products formed by hydration of tetracalcium aluminoferrite (Ca 2AlFeO5) and magnesium sulfate solutions were investigated by isothermal calorimetry, XRD and SEM analyses. Hydration reactions were carried out isothermally at temperatures from 25 to 80°C in 0.25M, 0.5M, 1.0M, 2.0M, and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Gypsum was the initial hydration product in all magnesium sulfate concentrations and was the only crystalline hydration product in 2.0M and 3.0M magnesium sulfate solutions. Monosulfate was the dominant crystalline phase produced over the entire temperature range when hydration was carried out in magnesium sulfate concentrations between 0.25M and 1.0M. No crystalline phases incorporating iron were observed regardless of magnesium sulfate concentration or temperature. Hydration in 1.0M MgSO 4 solution was more extensively investigated at 50°C. SEM observations indicated gypsum formed initially, consisting of fine particles (ettringite, and monosulfate were present at intermediate times. Monosulfate was the final crystalline hydration product. Amorphous solids produced include a calcium/iron-rich gel and a magnesium/aluminum/sulfate-rich phase. The calcium/iron-rich gel is the only iron-rich phase observed in the hydrated phase assemblage.

Clark, Boyd Arthur

227

Effect of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of {alpha}-calcium sulfate hemihydrate from flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a concentrated electrolyte solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum mainly composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate (DH) was used as a raw material to obtain alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate ({alpha}-HH) through dehydration in a Ca-Mg-K-Cl-solution medium at 95{sup o}C under atmospheric pressure. The effects of potassium sodium tartrate and sodium citrate on the preparation of alpha-HH in the electrolyte solution were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of potassium sodium tartrate (1.0 x 10{sup -2} - 2.5 x 10{sup -2}M) decreased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and increased the length/width (l/w) ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could yield unfavorable strength properties. Addition of sodium citrate (1.0 x 10{sup -5} - 2.0 x 10{sup -5}M) slightly increased the dehydration rate of FGD gypsum and decreased the l/w ratio of {alpha}-HH crystals, which could be beneficial to increase strength. However, it also led to a partial formation of anhydrite (AH) crystals. AH was also the only dehydration product when the concentration of sodium citrate increased to 1.0 x 10{sup -4}M. Therefore, sodium citrate rather than potassium sodium tartrate could be used as an additive in Ca-Mg-K-Cl electrolyte solutions if alpha-HH with a shorter l/w ratio is the desired product from FGD gypsum dehydration. The concentration of sodium citrate should be properly controlled to reduce the formation of AH.

Shen, Z.X.; Guan, B.H.; Fu, H.L.; Yang, L.C. [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

2009-12-15

228

Concentration- and pH-dependence of highly alkaline sodium silicate solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study two routes for the gelation of water glass have been investigated; the destabilization by a change in pH and by an increase in concentration through evaporation. Both methods produce optically transparent, highly viscous, homogeneous solutions. The structure and dynamics of the solutions along the two routes have been investigated with dynamic light scattering, (29)Si-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy, viscosity measurements and infrared spectroscopy. We find that the two routes are fundamentally different. Increasing the concentration of the sodium silicate system leaves the silica speciation apparently unchanged. Lowering the pH leads to condensation reactions, thus a change in the silica speciation. PMID:21272893

Nordström, Jonas; Nilsson, Erik; Jarvol, Patrik; Nayeri, Moheb; Palmqvist, Anders; Bergenholtz, Johan; Matic, Aleksandar

2011-04-01

229

Investigation into interaction of mixture of zinc and neodymium nitrates with sodium tungstates in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methods of residual concentrations, pH-potentiometry, and conductometry have been used for studying interaction between the mixture of zinc and neodymium nitrates with sodium tungstate in aqueous solutions. It has been established that independent of the ratio between the components the reaction product is a mixture of simultaneously precipitated zinc and neodymium orthotungstates. Thermal treatment of such mixtures at 650-700 deg C for 40 h and subsequent hardening yields solid solution of the structure ?-Eu2(WO4)3 within the concentration range 85-100 mol % of Nd2(WO4)3

230

Identification of a second substrate-binding site in solute-sodium symporters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The structure of the sodium/galactose transporter (vSGLT), a solute-sodium symporter (SSS) from Vibrio parahaemolyticus, shares a common structural fold with LeuT of the neurotransmitter-sodium symporter family. Structural alignments between LeuT and vSGLT reveal that the crystallographically identified galactose-binding site in vSGLT is located in a more extracellular location relative to the central substrate-binding site (S1) in LeuT. Our computational analyses suggest the existence of an additional galactose-binding site in vSGLT that aligns to the S1 site of LeuT. Radiolabeled galactose saturation binding experiments indicate that, like LeuT, vSGLT can simultaneously bind two substrate molecules under equilibrium conditions. Mutating key residues in the individual substrate-binding sites reduced the molar substrate-to-protein binding stoichiometry to ~1. In addition, the related and more experimentally tractable SSS member PutP (the Na(+)/proline transporter) also exhibits a binding stoichiometry of 2. Targeting residues in the proposed sites with mutations results in the reduction of the binding stoichiometry and is accompanied by severely impaired translocation of proline. Our data suggest that substrate transport by SSS members requires both substrate-binding sites, thereby implying that SSSs and neurotransmitter-sodium symporters share common mechanistic elements in substrate transport. PMID:25398883

Li, Zheng; Lee, Ashley S E; Bracher, Susanne; Jung, Heinrich; Paz, Aviv; Kumar, Jay P; Abramson, Jeff; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

2015-01-01

231

Density, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 solutions at high temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements have been performed of the density, of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient and of the viscosity of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO2 dissolved in each. The viscosity measurements have been performed for the solution of sodium tetraborate with UO2 and CeO2, and with CeO2 only as well. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The density measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 8250C to 13000C, the viscosity measurements in the temperature range 700-12500C with a modified Haake viscosity balance. The balance was previously calibrated at ambient temperature with a standard calibration liquid and at high temperatures, with data for pure borax available from the literature. (orig.)

232

Density, thermal expansion coefficient and viscosity of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO 2 and of sodium metaborate-UO 2 solutions at high temperatures  

Science.gov (United States)

Measurements have been performed of the density, of the volumetric thermal expansion coefficient and of the viscosity of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO 2 dissolved in each. The viscosity measurements have been performed for the solution of sodium tetraborate with UO 2 and CeO 2, and with CeO 2 only as well. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The density measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 825°C to 1300°C, the viscosity measurements in the temperature range 700-1250°C with a modified Haake viscosity balance. The balance was previously calibrated at ambient temperature with a standard calibration liquid and at high temperatures with data for pure borax available from the literature.

Donne, M. Dalle; Dorner, S.; Roth, A.

1983-10-01

233

Studies on sodium dodecylsulfate in aqueous and in aqueous amino acid solutions: Volumetric and viscometric approaches  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: The apparent molar volumes, ?v of glycine in water are positive and increase with increasing temperature. The positive values of ?v indicate that the solute–solvent interaction decreases as temperature increases (T = ?, 293.15; ?, 298.15; ?, 303.15; ? 308.15; ? 313.15 K). -- Highlights: • We investigate the interaction of SDS in water and aqueous glycine solution. • The data were analyzed by Masson, Laplace and Jones–Dole equations respectively. • The nature of solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions has been probed. • SDS acts as structure maker in aqueous glycine solution. -- Abstract: Physicochemical properties like density, ultrasound velocity and viscosity of aqueous solutions of glycine and SDS (sodium dodecylsulfate) in 0.1 m aqueous glycine solution as a function of concentration at different temperatures ranging from 293.15 K to 313.15 K have been determined. These data have been used to calculate apparent molar volume, isentropic compressibility and viscosity B-coefficient values of the studied solutions. The viscosity coefficients A and B have been determined from the Jones–Dole equation. The limiting apparent molar volumes (?v0) and experimental slopes (Sv) derived from the Masson equations have been interpreted in terms of solute–solute and solute–solvent interactions. From the volumetric and viscometric data, the structural effect of SDS in glycine solution has been discussed. The change in free energy, enthalpy and entropy of activation were calculated using the Nightingale and Benck, and Eyring equations. Glycine in aqueous solution exhibits structure-breaking behaviour. The results were explained in terms of structure making and structure breaking properties

234

In situ generation of hydrogen from water by aluminum corrosion in solutions of sodium aluminate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new process to obtain hydrogen from water using aluminum in sodium aluminate solutions is described and compared with results obtained in aqueous sodium hydroxide. This process consumes only water and aluminum, which are raw materials much cheaper than other compounds used for in situ hydrogen generation, such as hydrocarbons and chemical hydrides, respectively. As a consequence, our process could be an economically feasible alternative for hydrogen to supply fuel cells. Results showed an improvement of the maximum rates and yields of hydrogen production when NaAlO{sub 2} was used instead of NaOH in aqueous solutions. Yields of 100% have been reached using NaAlO{sub 2} concentrations higher than 0.65 M and first order kinetics at concentrations below 0.75 M has been confirmed. Two different heterogeneous kinetic models are verified for NaAlO{sub 2} aqueous solutions. The activation energy (E{sub a}) of the process with NaAlO{sub 2} is 71 kJ mol{sup -1}, confirming a control by a chemical step. A mechanism unifying the behavior of Al corrosion in NaOH and NaAlO{sub 2} solutions is presented. The application of this process could reduce costs in power sources based on fuel cells that nowadays use hydrides as raw material for hydrogen production. (author)

Soler, Lluis; Candela, Angelica Maria; Munoz, Maria; Casado, Juan [Centre Grup de Tecniques de Separacio en Quimica (GTS), Unitat de Quimica Analitica, Departament de Quimica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Campus UAB s/n, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Macanas, Jorge [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, UMR 5503 CNRS-INPT-UPS, Universite de Toulouse, Toulouse (France)

2009-07-01

235

Modelling of niobium sorption on clay minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sorption behaviour of niobium on kaolinite and illite minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions was evaluated with use of the mass distribution coefficient, Rd, obtained in batch sorption experiments. Very high distribution coefficient values, about 100 m{sup 3}/kg, were obtained for both minerals in the neutral pH range between 6 and 8. Values were somewhat lower at pH 5. In NaClO{sub 4} solution, the sorption of niobium starts to decrease at pH higher than 8. This is in agreement with the increase, with pH, in the proportion of anionic niobate species, which are presumed to be low or non-sorbing. A similar decrease was not observed in Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} solution, probably owing to the influence of Ca on niobium solution speciation and surface species. The surface complexation model was applied to model the Rd values. The model fitted well for the NaClO{sub 4} solution but only at pH below 9 for the Ca(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} solution. The discrepancy between the strong sorption of niobium in calcium-bearing solution at high pH and the calculated speciation is due in part to the non-inclusion of calcium niobate solution species and Ca-Nb compounds in the present NEA and other similar thermodynamic databases.

Ervanne, Heini; Hakanen, Martti; Lehto, Jukka [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Laboratory of Radiochemistry

2014-11-01

236

Modelling of niobium sorption on clay minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sorption behaviour of niobium on kaolinite and illite minerals in sodium and calcium perchlorate solutions was evaluated with use of the mass distribution coefficient, Rd, obtained in batch sorption experiments. Very high distribution coefficient values, about 100 m3/kg, were obtained for both minerals in the neutral pH range between 6 and 8. Values were somewhat lower at pH 5. In NaClO4 solution, the sorption of niobium starts to decrease at pH higher than 8. This is in agreement with the increase, with pH, in the proportion of anionic niobate species, which are presumed to be low or non-sorbing. A similar decrease was not observed in Ca(ClO4)2 solution, probably owing to the influence of Ca on niobium solution speciation and surface species. The surface complexation model was applied to model the Rd values. The model fitted well for the NaClO4 solution but only at pH below 9 for the Ca(ClO4)2 solution. The discrepancy between the strong sorption of niobium in calcium-bearing solution at high pH and the calculated speciation is due in part to the non-inclusion of calcium niobate solution species and Ca-Nb compounds in the present NEA and other similar thermodynamic databases.

237

Determination of trace amounts of tellurium in sodium hydroxide solution by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A radiochemical neutron activation analysis to determine tellurium in sodium hydroxide solution has been developed. Coprecipitation with Fe(OH)3 was applied to preconcentration of tellurium. After the irradiation the tellurium is separated by solvent extraction with 4-methyl-pentan-2-one (MIBK) and determined using 131Te isotope. The purification of iron carrier to be used for the coprecipitation and the separation efficiencies of principal elements in the chemical process of this method were studied. The result indicates that the method has a high sensitivity for the tellurium, and the detection limit is 0.04 ppb. The method is applicable to the non-radioactive tracer testing to measure the transfer of radiotellurium, a fission product, in the sodium coolant of the fast neutron reactor. (author)

238

Effect of sodium and potassium ions on cesium absorption from nuclear power plant waste solutions on synthetic zeolites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The separation of cesium from low-active waste solutions from a nuclear power plant by ion exchange using synthetic zeolites Zeolon 900 and Linde AW-500 was studied. The pH of the waste solutions was 6-13 and the concentrations of sodium and potassium ions were 8-2700 and 0.5-240 mmol/L, respectively. The distribution coefficient of cesium was determined as a function of pH and sodium and potassium ion concentration. Column breakthrough curves were contained and an empirical equation was derived to calculate the column performance at different sodium and potassium ion concentrations

239

Determination of potassium and sodium ions with diaphragm glow discharge plasma in aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present work, a new apparatus of diaphragm glow discharge emission spectroscopy was described for the determination of potassium and sodium ions in aqueous solution. The discharge was formed in a pin hole on a dielectric diaphragm interposed between two submerged graphite electrodes. Effects of pH and applied voltage on the determination have been examined. It was found that decreasing the solution pH and increasing the applied voltage were favorable for the determination performance. Limits of detection for Na and K were 0.002 and 0.05 mg L?1 under the optimum conditions, respectively. It demonstrates that the diaphragm glow discharge emission spectroscopy is a promising technique in measurements of metal ions in aqueous solution, because no optical interferences from the electrodes were found.

240

Reactions of rare earth flourides with sodium carbonate and hydroxide solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exchange interactions of sparingly soluble rare earth (RE) compounds such as fluorides, carbonates, and hydroxides in aqueous media are studied. The starting materials were fluorides of individual RE, obtained by precipitation with hydrofluoric acid from solutions of RE nitrates, which were prepared from the corresponding oxides of 99.9% and taken to the air-dry state, and also cp sodium carbonate and hydroxide. The solution compositions were determined by titration: NaOH and Na2CO3 with hydrochloric acid, and NaF with Th(NO3)4 solution. The equilibrium concentrations of NaF and naOH (or Na2CO3) in the systems studied at 90 degrees are given, which shows that in the La-Lu series the degree of conversion of RE fluorides into hydroxides increases, and into carbonates decreases

241

Luminescence of sodium atoms in aqueous solution during sonolysis in moving-single-bubble regime  

Science.gov (United States)

Emission from excited sodium atoms (Na 589 nm) under the conditions of single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) in the moving-bubble regime has been observed in aqueous NaCl solutions at concentrations within 2.5-6 mol/L. Atomic line emission in the gas phase was caused by the penetration of metal salt species inside the bubble, followed by the transition of Na atom to an excited state. Saturation with argon and a low temperature (from -10 to -15°C) of solution are factors that favor the SBSL of metal in solution of a nonvolatile salt. The results confirm the validity of the model of microdrop injection that explains the appearance of metal inside a bubble, its excitation, and subsequent atomic line emission during SBSL as related to deformations of the moving bubble.

Sharipov, G. L.; Abdrakhmanov, A. M.; Gareev, B. M.

2012-01-01

242

Interaction of ammonium perhenate with sodium thiosulfate in hydrochloric acid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study of the interaction in the system ammonium perrhenate-sodium thiosulfate-hydrochloric acid-water using the chemical and X-ray phase analyses in a wide range of component ratios has shown that in the system two main process occur: formation of rhenium sulphide and separation of elemental sulphur. The degree of rhenium precipitation mainly depends on the ratio of components and to a less degree - on the mass of precipitate and the presence of high concentrations of ammonium chloride in the initial solutions. Rhenium sulphide and elemental sulphur interact in the moment of separation

243

The distribution of n-caprylic acid between organic solvents and aqueous sodium sulfate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distribution of 14C-labelled n-caprylic acid between n-decane, benzene, isoamyl acetate, diisopropyl ketone, isoamyl alcohol and an aqueous 0.6 molar sodium sulfate solution was studied. The distribution constants and the dimerisation constants were determined for the reactions HRsub((w)) reversible HRsub((org)) and 2 HRsub((org)) reversible (HR)sub(2(org)), respectively. Both the effect of the solvent on the acid distribution and the importance of such studies for the interpretation of liquid-liquid extraction equilibria are discussed. (author)

244

Kinetics of radiation-induced inverse emulsion polymerization of sodium acrylate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The kinetics of inverse emulsion polymerization of sodium acrylate solution has been studied at 23-39 deg C with Cobalt-60 Gamma initiation dilatometrically. The conversion-time curves are generally S-shaped. For maximum rate of polymerization, the kinetic expression has been determined for the conditions investigated. The overall activation energy for polvmerization rate(Ea) is (16.7 kJ/mol) (23-39 deg C). The effects of dose rate, monomer concentration and emulsifier concentration on molecular weights of polymers have been examined. Discussions on nucleation mechanism and kinetics have been taken

245

Kinetic model for the 60Co-? ray initiated inverse emulsion polymerization of sodium acrylate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The conversion-time curves have been measured and treated quantitatively for the 60Co-? ray initiated inverse emulsion polymerization of aqueous sodium acrylate solutions on the basis of a monomer-droplet-nucleation mechanism. A method has been proposed to estimate the average number of polymerizing radicals in a droplet, n-bar, that characterizes the polymerization kinetics. For the system studied under the experimental conditions, the value of n-bar was derived as several hundreds, which is much larger than that for conventional emulsion polymerization. (author)

246

Removal of radioactive Cs from nonwoven cloth with less waste solution using aqueous sodium metasilicate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Remediation of nonwoven cloth contaminated with radioactive material such as 137Cs is important for the reuse of protective garments. Here, we report the effectiveness of aqueous sodium metasilicate prepared with a microbubble crushing process (SMC) in the removal of radioactive 137Cs from nonwoven cloth. The 137Cs removal ratio obtained using SMC was found to be 78%, and multiple washings at low SMC concentrations were effective. In addition, the volume of the waste solution could be reduced by neutralizing the SMC and using gelation to remove the radioactive material. (author)

247

Process of transformation of radioactive waste of metal sodium into soda solution by reaction with an alcohol followed by hydrolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reviews of the literature and of the laboratory tests are followed by a presentation of the results obtained during experiments carried out on a model with some ten grams of sodium contaminated by radioactive materials and on an industrial pre-pilot with several kilograms of non-contaminated sodium. Sodium is converted into alcoholate through the action of ethylcarbitol (CH3CH2OCH2CH2OCH2OH) on liquid sodium in suspension in xylene at 110 deg C. Once the reaction is complete, xylene is distillated and the alcoholate is in solution in an axcess of alcohol. Hydrolysis by water gives out the initial alcohol which is then extracted from the aqueous phase by toluene. All these operations are carried out in inert atmosphere (nitrogen). Sodium is thus converted into a sodium hydroxide aqueous solution with emission of hydrogen, the intermediate products (alcohol, xylene, toluene) being recyled. The process is reliable and recycling of organic products is favourable economically. The advantage of the method is to concentrate nearly all the radioactivity of the contaminated sodium in the aqueous phase, thus avoiding the dispersion of activity especially with the gaseous effluents. Finally, data are given allowing to consider the realization of a pilot with a weekly capacity of 100 kg of sodium, in semi-continuous operation

248

Removal of Cesium from Aqueous Solutions by Sodium and Calcium Alginates  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Environmental pollution with radioactive materials poses a serious threat to public health. Among radioisotopes, cesium is one of the most dangerous elements which can be found in waste disposals of nuclear plants and similar facilities. Pure sodium and calcium alginic salts were investigated as adsorbents for removal of cesium ions from aqueous solution. It was found that both polysaccharides form complexes with the metal ions. Batch equilibrium experiments were carried out to study the effect of contact time, initial concentration of the metal and pH of the media on the adsorption of cesium by alginate compounds. The equilibrium time was found to be 60 min for adsorption of cesium with various initial metal concentrations. Kinetic studies showed that reactions between alginates and cesium are corresponding to the pseudo-second order model. Langmuir model was found best fit within the whole range of pH values studied. The maximum adsorption capacity of calcium alginate and sodium alginate was found to be 63.69 and 80.64 mg g-1, respectively at pH 6.0. From these results it is clear that sodium alginate possesses more pronounced cesium binding capacity than calcium alginate.

Maksim Y. Khotimchenko

2014-01-01

249

Complex crystals formed in the aqueous solution of copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crystals of different crystal habits were separated from the copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide solution and the thermal changes of the composition of copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide complexes were studied by chemical analysis, thermal analysis and X-ray diffractometry. Granular and columnar crystals were determined to be copper(I) iodide and sodium iodide dihydrate by X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively. Needle crystal (A) which was separated from the solution at 250C was assumed to be Na2CuI3.6H2O. (A) was stable in its appearance in the air, but the X-ray diffraction pattern of (A) changed. Needle crystal (B) which was recrystallized at 100C from mother liquor after the separation of crystal (A) was assumed to be NaCuI2.4H2O. (B) was hygroscopic and decomposed to precipitate copper(I) iodide with moisture in the air. (A) and (B) were found to change by heating and or drying, respectively, as follows: Na2CuI3.6H2O ? (-2H2O, 800C) ? 2NaI.2H2O + CuI ? (-4H2O, 1600C) ? 2NaI + CuI ? (+1/2O2, 4500C) ? 2NaI + CuO + 1/2I2, NaCuI2.4H2O ? (-4H2O, Dried) ? NaI + CuI. (auth.)

250

On the refractive index of sodium iodide solutions for index matching in PIV  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Refractive index matching has become a popular technique for facilitating applications of modern optical diagnostic techniques, such as particle image velocimetry, in complex systems. By matching the refractive index of solid boundaries with that of the liquid, unobstructed optical paths can be achieved for illumination and image acquisition. In this research note, we extend previously provided data for the refractive index of aqueous solutions of sodium iodide (NaI) for concentrations reaching the temperature-dependent solubility limit. Results are fitted onto a quadratic empirical expression relating the concentration to the refractive index. Temperature effects are also measured. The present range of indices, 1.333-1.51, covers that of typical transparent solids, from silicone elastomers to several recently introduced materials that could be manufactured using rapid prototyping. We also review briefly previous measurements of the refractive index, viscosity, and density of NaI solutions, as well as prior research that has utilized this fluid. (orig.)

251

Inhibitory effect of some carbazides on corrosion of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dissolution of aluminium in hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions in the presence of semicarbazide, thiosemicarbazide and sym.diphenylcarbazide as corrosion inhibitors has been studied using thermometric, weight-loss and polarization methods. The three methods gave consistent results. The higher inhibition efficiency of these compounds in acidic than in alkaline madia may be due to the less negative potential of aluminium in hydrochloric acid solution, favouring adsorption of the additive. The adsorption of these compounds were found to obey Frumkin adsorption isotherm. Cathodic polarization measurements showed that these compounds are cathodic inhibitors and their adsorption in the double layer does not change the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction. The results are analysed in terms of both molecular and cationic adsorption. (orig.)

Fouda, A.S. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Madkour, L.H. [Tanta Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elshafei, A.A. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry; Elasklany, A.H. [El-Mansoura Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry

1995-06-01

252

Physicochemical properties and ion-solvent interactions in aqueous sodium, ammonium, and lead acetate solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Densities (?), viscosities (?) and refractive indices ( n D) of aqueous sodium acetate (SA), ammonium acetate (AA), and lead acetate (LA) solutions have been measured for different concentrations of salts at 302.15 K. Apparent molar volumes (?v) for studied solutions were calculated from density data, and fitted to Masson's relation and partial molar volume (?{v/o}) was determined. Viscosity data were fitted to Jones-Dole equation and viscosity A- and B-coefficients were determined. Refractive index and density data were fitted to Lorentz and Lorenz equation and specific refraction ( R D) were calculated. Behavior of various physicochemical properties indicated presence of strong ion-solvent interactions in present systems and the acetate salts structure maker in water.

Deosarkar, S. D.; Mendkudle, M. S.

2014-09-01

253

On the refractive index of sodium iodide solutions for index matching in PIV  

Science.gov (United States)

Refractive index matching has become a popular technique for facilitating applications of modern optical diagnostic techniques, such as particle image velocimetry, in complex systems. By matching the refractive index of solid boundaries with that of the liquid, unobstructed optical paths can be achieved for illumination and image acquisition. In this research note, we extend previously provided data for the refractive index of aqueous solutions of sodium iodide (NaI) for concentrations reaching the temperature-dependent solubility limit. Results are fitted onto a quadratic empirical expression relating the concentration to the refractive index. Temperature effects are also measured. The present range of indices, 1.333-1.51, covers that of typical transparent solids, from silicone elastomers to several recently introduced materials that could be manufactured using rapid prototyping. We also review briefly previous measurements of the refractive index, viscosity, and density of NaI solutions, as well as prior research that has utilized this fluid.

Bai, Kunlun; Katz, Joseph

2014-04-01

254

On the refractive index of sodium iodide solutions for index matching in PIV  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Refractive index matching has become a popular technique for facilitating applications of modern optical diagnostic techniques, such as particle image velocimetry, in complex systems. By matching the refractive index of solid boundaries with that of the liquid, unobstructed optical paths can be achieved for illumination and image acquisition. In this research note, we extend previously provided data for the refractive index of aqueous solutions of sodium iodide (NaI) for concentrations reaching the temperature-dependent solubility limit. Results are fitted onto a quadratic empirical expression relating the concentration to the refractive index. Temperature effects are also measured. The present range of indices, 1.333-1.51, covers that of typical transparent solids, from silicone elastomers to several recently introduced materials that could be manufactured using rapid prototyping. We also review briefly previous measurements of the refractive index, viscosity, and density of NaI solutions, as well as prior research that has utilized this fluid. (orig.)

Bai, Kunlun; Katz, Joseph [Johns Hopkins University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Baltimore, MD (United States)

2014-04-15

255

Composition of protective films on carbon steel in sodium nitrite solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The St.20 corrosion behaviour in naturally aerated solutions with sodium nitrite concentration from 0.05 to 10 g/l during 650 h is studied. It is shown that in all investigated solutions steel corrosion protection is ensured as specific polarization resistances Rsub(p) are sufficiently high: more than 32 kOhm x cm2. The composition of protective films is investigated by the method of IR-spectroscopy. IR-absorption spectrum data re confirmed by the element analysis of the films substance by which the presence of nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon and iron has been found. Judging by IR-spectra the films comprise complex compounds of the Fe(NH3)3(NO3)3 x yH2O - type. In the 0.75-10.00 g/l NaNO2 the films are more stable

256

Uso de bicarbonato e lactato-L para correção da acidose metabólica sistêmica em bovinos com acidose láctica ruminal aguda / Use of bicarbonate and lactate L for correction of systemic metabolic acidosis in cattle with acute rumen lactic acidosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram utilizados seis novilhos, providos de cânula ruminal, em delineamento experimental cross-over, para comparar a eficiência de soluções de bicarbonato de sódio e lactato-L de sódio na correção da acidose metabólica sistêmica (AMS), causada pela acidose láctica ruminal (ALR). Vinte horas após, qu [...] ando apresentavam intensa AMS, os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente e tratados com cinco litros de 150mMol/l de bicarbonato de sódio ou de lactato-L de sódio, infundidas por via intravenosa, nas quatro horas seguintes. Amostras de sangue, para hemogasometria, foram coletadas no decorrer da infusão a zero, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 e 8 horas. Ambos os tratamentos elevaram o pH sangüíneo já na primeira hora pós-infusão, corrigindo adequadamente a AMS. O tratamento com lactato-L de sódio aumentou as concentrações de bicarbonato, TCO2 e EAB sangüíneos já na segunda hora pós-infusão; com o bicarbonato essa elevação ocorreu a partir da terceira hora. Não houve diferenças entre tratamentos para pH sangüíneo, bicarbonato, TCO2 e excesso de base. Vinte e quatro horas após o tratamento todos os novilhos apresentaram plena recuperação. O lactato-L pode substituir o bicarbonato na correção da AMS em novilhos com ALR. Abstract in english The efficiency of sodium bicarbonate or l-lactate for correcting systemic metabolic acidosis (SMA) caused by rumen lactic acidosis (RLA) was evaluated using six rumen-cannulated steers in a cross-over experimental design. RLA was induced by administration of sucrose, intraruminally. Twenty hours lat [...] er when the animals developed an intense SMA, the steers were randomly distributed and treated intravenously either with 5l of 15 mMol/l sodium bicarbonate or L-lactate solution, infused throughout 4h. Blood samples were colleted throughout the infusion at zero, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8h, for blood gas analysis. After 1hour, both sodium bicarbonate and L-lactate solutions increased blood pH and corrected adequately the SMA. Blood bicarbonate, TCO2 and base excess concentrations were also increased at the 2nd hour with L-lactate and at the 3rd hour with bicarbonate. No differences between treatments were observed for blood pH, bicarbonate, TCO2 and base excess concentrations. Treated steers after twenty-four hours showed an effective clinical recovery. L-lactate can adequately replace bicarbonate in the correction of SMA in steers with RLA.

M.L.R., Leal; C.A., Maruta; E.L., Ortolani.

2007-08-01

257

Influence of hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose-sodium laurylsulfate interaction on rheological properties of the solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interactions between the polymers and surfactants in solution have widely been investigated because of their scientific and technological importance. These interactions can be utilized to modify the physicochemical properties of system in many food products, pharmaceutical formulations, personal care products, paints, pesticides, etc. Interaction between nonionic polymer - hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC and anionic surfactant - sodium laurylsulfate (SDS in solution has been investigated in this paper by rheological measurements. Rheological measurements are performed by rotational viscometer at 20°C and changes of rheological characteristics of HPMC solutions (0.5-1.5% with increasing SDS concentrations (0-4.0% were determined. The results of these investigations showed that viscosity of the solution is dependant on HPMC-SDS interaction. At particular SDS concentration viscosity increases, reach maximum and after that decreases until reach constant value. From the viscosity changes the characteristic concentrations of SDS, critical aggregation concentration (cac and polymer saturation point (psp, were determined. These concentrations are in linear relationships with HPMC concentrations. Rheological properties of the solution are strong influenced by HPMC-SDS interaction and exhibits more or less pronounced pseudoplastic behavior, which changes to Newtonian one after the psp has been reached.

Šaleti? Jelena V.

2004-01-01

258

2-Butyne-1,4-diol as a novel corrosion inhibitor for API X65 steel pipeline in carbonate/bicarbonate solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion of API 5L X65 is effectively reduced by the addition of the inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The techniques include weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS and AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-Butyne-1,4-diol acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of 2-butyne-1,4-diol obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. - Abstract: The inhibition effects of 2-butyne-1,4-diol on the corrosion susceptibility of grade API 5L X65 steel pipeline in 2 M Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/1 M NaHCO{sub 3} solution were studied by electrochemical techniques and weight loss measurements. The results indicated that this inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor, with a maximum percentage inhibition efficiency of approximately 92% in the presence of 5 mM inhibitor. Atomic force microscopy revealed that a protective film was formed on the surface of the inhibited sample. The adsorption of the inhibitor was found to conform to the Langmuir isotherm with the standard adsorption free energy of -21.08 kJ mol{sup -1}.

Sadeghi Meresht, E. [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, 1411713114, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahrabi Farahani, T., E-mail: tshahrabi34@modares.ac.ir [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, 1411713114, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neshati, J. [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, RIPI, 1485733111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-01-15

259

2-Butyne-1,4-diol as a novel corrosion inhibitor for API X65 steel pipeline in carbonate/bicarbonate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Corrosion of API 5L X65 is effectively reduced by the addition of the inhibitor. ? The techniques include weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, EIS and AFM. ? 2-Butyne-1,4-diol acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. ? The adsorption of 2-butyne-1,4-diol obeys Langmuir adsorption isotherm. - Abstract: The inhibition effects of 2-butyne-1,4-diol on the corrosion susceptibility of grade API 5L X65 steel pipeline in 2 M Na2CO3/1 M NaHCO3 solution were studied by electrochemical techniques and weight loss measurements. The results indicated that this inhibitor was a mixed-type inhibitor, with a maximum percentage inhibition efficiency of approximately 92% in the presence of 5 mM inhibitor. Atomic force microscopy revealed that a protective film was formed on the surface of the inhibited sample. The adsorption of the inhibitor was found to conform to the Langmuir isotherm with the standard adsorption free energy of ?21.08 kJ mol?1.

260

Analysis of Physicochemical Properties of Aqueous Sodium Glycinate (SG Solutions at Low Concentrations from 0.1-2.0 M  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sodium glycinate, a type of amino acid salt, is one of the potential solvent for carbon dioxide removal from various gas streams. In this study, physicochemical properties such as density, viscosity and refractive index of aqueous sodium glycinate at low concentrations were measured from 303.15 to 333.15 K. It was found that, the densities, viscosities and refractive indices of low concentrated sodium glycinate decrease with an increase in temperature, whereas with increasing the concentration in the solution, all three properties increase. The experimental data were correlated with respect to temperature and concentration by establishing the proper correlations.

M.S. Shaikh

2014-01-01

261

THE REACTION OF RAT KIDNEY TO ACUTE STRESS SOLUTION OF SODIUM CHLORIDE IN NORMAL AND OCCASIONAL ABUSE OF THYROID STATUS  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Objective: To study the effectiveness of osmoregulation of renal function in rats with occasional violation of thyroid status in the acute intragastric load of sodium chloride solutions. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on white male rats, thyroxine was administered once intraperitoneally, 50 mg/100 g body weight. Kidney function was studied in conditions induced diuresis after intragastric administration of stress testing water or 0.3%, 0.8%, 2% and 3% sodium c...

Dolomatov, Sergey; Kubyshkin, ?natoliy; Sataieva, Tatiana; Zukow, Walery

2013-01-01

262

Acrylamide copolymerization with the lithium, sodium, and potassium salts of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of cation nature in lithium, sodium and potassium salts of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propanesulfonic acid on kinetic regularities of their copolymerization with acrylamide in water and water-salt solutions at pH 9 and 50 deg C in the presence of initiating system of potassium peroxosulfate - sodium hydrosulfite has been studied. It is shown that the content of inorganic links increases in the series K+ + + and with increase in conversion during copolymerization

263

Clinical application of sodium hyaluronate,levarterenol and indicarmine solution in endoscopic submucosal dissection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective To assess the clinical value of sodium hyaluronate,levarterenol and indicarmine solution used in endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD.Methods Sixteen patients were involved in present study who were diagnosed as precancerous lesion or submucosal tumor in digestive tract by chromoendoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography from Nov,2010 to Feb,2011 at General Hospital of Shenyang Command.The injected solution was mixed with 0.2% indicarmine 10ml,levarterenol 10mg,sodium hyaluronate 20mg,and 0.9% normal saline 200ml.The liquid pad was formed under the submucosal layer by the injection of the mixture.Hybrid knife was employed to perform the injection,cutting and coagulation with no interruption during the procedure of ESD.Satisfactory degree was assessed,and the total solution volume,success rate,bleeding rate,perforation rate,operation duration,and length of stay in hospital were recorded.The recurrence and healing condition were observed at following-up.Results The length of lesion was 0.8~4.5cm with mean of 2.2cm.The operation duration was 45~240 min with an mean time of 95.4 min.The mean dosage of the mixed solution for submucosal injection was 102.4ml.Success rate of endoscopic submucosal dissection was 87.5%.The satisfactory degree was high.Intractable bleeding occurred in 2 cases with lateral spreading tumor(LST during the procedure,but it was controlled after high temperature coagulation without producing perforation.The dissection surface was covered by aluminum phosphate gel in all cases,and metal clips were applied in some cases for closure.The mean length of stay in hospital after ESD was 3.8 days.Conclusions The mixture of sodium hyaluronate,levarterenol,indicarmine and normal saline,when used for submucosal injection in ESD,is safe and satisfactory.

Fei GAO

2011-07-01

264

Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin), Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets / Efeitos do Coccídeostático lonóforo (Monensina ou Salinomicina), Bicarbonato de Sódio ou Potássio, ou Ambos, e Dissalicitato-Metileno de Bacitracina em Dietas para Frangos de Corte  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Pintos Peterson x Arbor Acres foram criados em camas usadas até 45 ou 46 dias de vida em três testes de aviário. Inoculações de coccídea foram dadas pela água na idade de 14 dias. O bicarbonato de sódio (BCS; 0.20%) ou bicarbonato de potássio (BCP; 0.14%) foi adicionado à dieta dos frangos contendo [...] monensina (MON; 110 mg/kg) ou salinomicina (SAL; 66 mg/kg) no Experimento 1. No Experimento 2, usando SAL (55 mg/kg), três tratamentos de dieta de bicarbonato (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; ou SBC + PBC 0.10% cada) foram testados com ou sem BMD R (55 mg/kg). Dietas que diferem em níveis de SAL, BMD R e SBC foram avaliados no Experimento 3. Interação benéfica foi encontrada entre ionóforos e bicarbonatos para a mortalidade (menor no caso de BCS ou BCP e MON) no Experimento 1. Para efeitos principais, no Experimento 1 BCP com MON ou SAL melhorou o peso corporal, a taxa de conversão de alimento e a mortalidade. SAL melhorou o peso, a taxa de conversão de alimento e a mortalidade comparado com MON. No Experimento 2, BCP com SAL melhorou o peso, arranhões devidos a lesão coccídea, taxa de conversão de alimento e mortalidade através de dois níveis de BMD R. O BCP e BCS foram ambos eficazes no Experimento 1, mas BCP foi aproximadamente 0 a 40% tão efetivo quanto o BCS, dependendo do parâmetro no Experimento 2. A metade de níveis de BCS mais BCP geralmente apresentava resultados intermediários entre o controle e o BCS. BCS com MON ou SAL diminuíram a mortalidade, os arranhões devidos a lesão coccídea e taxas de conversão de alimento (Experimentos 1 e 2), e aumentou o peso corporal (Experimento 2). No Experimento 3, BMD R em todos os alimentos melhorou o peso corporal e a conversão de alimento contra o alimento inicial apenas, e BCS com SAL e BMD R melhoraram todos os parâmetros de desempenho. Abstract in english Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20%) or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14%) was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg [...] /kg) or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg) in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg), three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each) were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg). Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON) in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2), and increased body weight (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.

DM, Hooge; KR, Cummings; JL, McNaughton.

2000-04-01

265

Study on applicability of liquid emulsion membrane for removal of uranium from acidic sodium sulfate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liquid Emulsion Membrane (LEM) is a very prominent technique to extract heavy metals from aqueous solutions using emulsion of a suitable solvent and a strip solution. Sodium sulfate solution is one of the effluents, coming out from the phosphoric acid based Rare Material Recovery plants. The effluent contains uranium in the range of 0 to 50 ppm. For treating this effluent and to recover uranium present in it, LEM has been tried using D2EHPA as carrier and phosphoric acid (42% P2O5) as strip solution. Kinetics of the process has been studied. Different sets of experiments have been performed for initial optimization of equilibrium and process parameters like carrier concentration, surfactant concentration, emulsification RPM, emulsification time, pertraction RPM, pertraction time, phase ratio and treatment ratio. Study shows more than 90% of uranium can be extracted with aqueous to organic ratio 10:1. Major work carried out is experimental. Reduction in surfactant quantity and carrier concentration has been significant outcome of the work. The emulsion is stable even at below 2% SPAN-80 surfactant. 2% surfactant gives best results in terms of extraction and stripping.10% of D2EHPA in Heavy Normal Paraffin (HNP) gives good results. 10 minutes time is required for pertraction to give more than 95% of extraction using 10% D2EHPA. Other optimum parameters which give best results are listed

266

Rough glass surface-mediated transition of micelle-to-vesicle in sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we report a micelle-to-vesicle transition in aqueous solution of the anionic single-tailed surfactant (STS) sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), with the mediation of a rough glass surface (RGS) in the absence of cosurfactants or additives. This transition produced a mixed solution of vesicles and micelles. Interestingly, the obtained SDBS vesicles in the solution displayed good stability during a long-term storage (at least 6 months at room temperature), exposure to high temperature (80 °C for 2 h), and freeze-thawing (-20 or -196 °C for 2 h to approximately 25 °C) after the RGS was removed. Our results confirmed that SDBS could adsorb on the RGS to form bilayers, in which the molecular packing parameter of SDBS was in the range of 1/2-1. The bilayer adsorption and the roughness of the solid surface played an important role in the vesicle formation. In addition, we propose a possible mechanism for the RGS-mediated transition of micelle-to-vesicle in SDBS solutions: SDBS micelles and molecules adsorb on the RGS to form curved bilayers; the curved bilayers detach from the RGS, and then close to form vesicles. PMID:25686019

Song, Ruiying; Du, Na; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Li, Haiping; Song, Shue; Hou, Wanguo

2015-03-01

267

Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

268

Bicarbonate/lactate- and bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids improve ex vivo peritoneal macrophage TNFalpha secretion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peritoneal macrophage (PMO) function was examined ex vivo after their in vivo exposure to either acidic, lactate-buffered solutions (PD4; 40 mM lactate, pH 5.2), bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution (TBL; 25 mM/15 mM bicarbonate/lactate, pH 7.3), or bicarbonate-buffered solution (TB; 38 mM bicarbonate, pH 7.3), containing either 1.36 or 3.86% glucose. Initial experiments demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) release (assessed by TNF-direct immunoassay [DIA]) from PMO isolated from the peritoneal cavities of patients exposed to conventional fluid (PD4 1.36% glucose) was lowest after 30 min of intraperitoneal dwell (3591+/-1200 versus 28,946+/-9359 for 240-min dwell [pg/ml], n=5, P < 0.05). Five patients were exposed on 3 successive days to PD4, TBL, and TB for 30-min acute dwells containing 1.36% glucose in the first week and 3.86% glucose during the second. PMO TNFalpha release was assessed after ex vitro exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure of PMO to TBL or TB (1.36% glucose) resulted in a significant increase in the generation of TNFalpha (pg/2 X 10(6) PMO) compared with PD4. TBL: 68,659+/-35,633, TB: 53,682+/-26,536 versus PD4 17,107+/-8996 (LPS 1.0 ng/ml, n=5 patients, P=0.043 versus PD4 for both). PMO that were recovered from PD4 and TB dwells (3.86% glucose) showed no significant difference in TNFalpha secretion (21,661+/-6934 and 23,923+/-9147, respectively). In contrast, exposure to TBL resulted in a significant increase (41,846+/-11,471) compared with PD4 (LPS 1.0 ng/ml, n=5 patients, P=0.043). These data demonstrate enhanced PMO function after in vivo exposure to bicarbonate- and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solutions. This response was sustained in TBL alone at the highest glucose concentrations. These results suggest that the newer solutions, and particularly bicarbonate/lactate, might improve host defense status in peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:9697673

MacKenzie, R K; Holmes, C J; Moseley, A; Jenkins, J P; Williams, J D; Coles, G A; Faict, D; Topley, N

1998-08-01

269

Effect of chilling, polyphosphate and bicarbonate on quality characteristics of broiler breast meat.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of tetrasodium pyrophosphate and sodium bicarbonate on colour and sensory attributes of pre- and post-chilled breast meat. 2. Three groups of 6 halves of breasts (pre-chill) immediately after slaughter were treated with 3% tetrasodium pyrophosphate, 3% sodium bicarbonate in 2% NaCl or 2% NaCl alone (control); the remaining 6 halves (post-chill) were stored overnight at 4 degrees C and then treated similarly. Both the pre- and post-chill samples were held at 4 degrees C for 24 h and pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, CIE colour values and sensory attributes were recorded. 3. Chilling had few effects on the meat characteristics measured in this study. 4. Treatment with phosphate and bicarbonate increased pH in both the pre- and post-chill groups. Treated breasts exhibited lower L* and higher a* value (more red) than controls. 5. A sensory evaluation study revealed improvements in colour and other sensory attributes of cooked broiler breast meat in all treated samples compared to the control. 6. The findings suggest that tetrasodium pyrophosphate and sodium bicarbonate, when injected post mortem, will have beneficial effects on several physico-chemical (pH, colour, WHC %, cooking loss) and sensory attributes of broiler meat. However, phosphate had a smaller effect than bicarbonate. PMID:16268102

Sen, A R; Naveena, B M; Muthukumar, M; Babji, Y; Murthy, T R K

2005-08-01

270

Effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation behaviour of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that magnesium biodegrades rapidly and non-uniformly during 27 h of immersion in four simulated body fluid solutions containing different concentrations of bicarbonate. The biodegradation rate first decreases and then increases with time. A small amount of bicarbonate in simulated body fluid has an inhibition effect on the Mg dissolution, while an overdose of bicarbonate addition activates the magnesium surface in the simulated body fluid. The interesting phenomena can be interpreted by a surface film model involving precipitation of calcium carbonate and further ionization of bicarbonate in the simulated body fluids, incorporation of calcium, carbonate and phosphate compounds in the surface film, and development of chloride-induced pitting corrosion damage on the magnesium with time

271

Effect of different ions on the anodic behaviour of alloy 800 chloride solutions at high temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The anodic behaviour and passivity breakdown of alloy 800 in sodium bicarbonate and sodium phosphate aqueous solutions were studied in the temperature range from 100 degrees C to 280 degrees C by means of electrochemical techniques. The effect of phosphate or bicarbonate additions on the pitting susceptibility and pitting morphology of the alloy in chloride solutions was also examined. Experiments were performed in the following solutions: 0.1M NaHCO3, at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C, 280 degrees C; 0.06M NaH2PO4 + 0.04M Na2HPO4, at 100 degrees C, 200 degrees C and 280 degrees C, and 0.1M NaCl with different additions of bicarbonate ion (0.02M, 0.05M and 0.1M) and phosphate ion (0.01M, 0.05M and 0.1M) at 100 degrees C and 280 degrees C. The anodic polarization curves of alloy 800 in deaerated 0.1M NaHCO3 and 0.06M NaH2PO4 + 0.04M Na2HPO4 solutions exhibited a similar shape at all the tested temperatures. No localized or generalized corrosion was detected on the metallic surface after polarization. The results obtained in chloride plus bicarbonate and chloride plus phosphate mixtures showed that the pitting potential of alloy 800 in chloride solutions was increased by the presence of bicarbonate or phosphate ions. In those solutions where the inhibitor concentration in the mixture is equal or higher than the chloride concentration , the behaviour of the alloy is similar to the one observed in the absence of chlorides. Changes in pitting morphology were found in phosphate containing solutions, while the pits found in bicarbonate containing solutions were similar to those formed in pure chloride solutions. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

272

Sodium Chloride interaction with solvated and crystalline cellulose : sodium ion affects the tetramer and fibril in aqueous solution  

CERN Document Server

Inorganic salts are a natural component of biomass which have a significant effect on the product yields from a variety of biomass conversion processes. Understanding their effect on biomass at the microscopic level can help discover their mechanistic role. We present a study of the effect of aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) on the largest component of biomass, cellulose, focused on the thermodynamic and structural effect of a sodium ion on the cellulose tetramer, and fibril. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a cellulose tetramer reveal a number of preferred cellulose-Na contacts and bridging positions. Large scale MD simulations on a model cellulose fibril find that Na+ perturbs the hydroxymethyl rotational state population and consequently disrupts the "native" hydrogen bonding network.

Bellesia, Giovanni

2013-01-01

273

EIS study on pitting corrosion of 7150 aluminum alloy in sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pitting corrosion behavior of 7150 aluminum alloy was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in the sodium chloride and hydrochloric acid solution. Based on EIS features and corrosion morphologies as well as corrosion potential, the process of pitting corrosion could be clearly divided into four stages: at the first stage, the Nyquist diagram was composed of two overlapping capacitive loops at the high-medial frequency and one inductive loop at the low frequency. At the second stage (metastable pits developing stage), there existed one small capacitive loop at the high frequency and one big capacitive loop at the medial frequency. At the third stage (stable pits developing stage), two time constants were more clearly distinguished, corresponding to two obvious capacitive loops. At the fourth stage, there appeared one capacitive loop, attributing to uniform corrosion. An equivalent circuit was designed to fit EIS, and the experimental results and the fitted results had good correspondence. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

Peng, G.S; Chen, K.H.; Fang, H.C.; Chao, H.; Chen, S.Y. [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Hunan (China)

2010-09-15

274

Shelf-life of a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution as determined by Arrhenius equation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Accelerated stability tests are indicated to assess, within a short time, the degree of chemical degradation that may affect an active substance, either alone or in a formula, under normal storage conditions. This method is based on increased stress conditions to accelerate the rate of chemical degradation. Based on the equation of the straight line obtained as a function of the reaction order (at 50 and 70 degrees C) and using Arrhenius equation, the speed of the reaction was calculated for the temperature of 20 degrees C (normal storage conditions). This model of accelerated stability test makes it possible to predict the chemical stability of any active substance at any given moment, as long as the method to quantify the chemical substance is available. As an example of the applicability of Arrhenius equation in accelerated stability tests, a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was analyzed due to its chemical instability. Iodometric titration was used to quantify free residual chlorine in the solutions. Based on data obtained keeping this solution at 50 and 70 degrees C, using Arrhenius equation and considering 2.0% of free residual chlorine as the minimum acceptable threshold, the shelf-life was equal to 166 days at 20 degrees C. This model, however, makes it possible to calculate shelf-life at any other given temperature. PMID:19466227

Nicoletti, Maria Aparecida; Siqueira, Evandro Luiz; Bombana, Antonio Carlos; Oliveira, Gabriella Guimarães de

2009-01-01

275

The study of LaNi5-type intermetallic compound behaviour in sodium borohydride alkaline solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Behaviour of intermetallic LaNi4.5T0.5 compounds (IMC) (T=Mn, Cr, Co, Al, Fe, Cu) in alkaline solutions of sodium borohydride (0.1; 1.0; 4.0 mol/l of NaOH) is investigated within 293-318 K temperature interval. IMC (T=Mn, Al) hydrogenation reaction occurrence with the production of LaNi4.5T0.5H4.5 composition hydride phases is ascertained. Kinetics of the catalytic hydrolysis of NaBH4 in the above mentioned alkaline solutions in the presence of IMC is studied using the gas volumetric method. For all the IMC studied this reaction has a zero order by NaBH4 and the first one by the IMC. It is ascertained that a partial substitution of T for nickel in LaNi5 produces a notable effect on the NaBH4 hydrolysis rate. An anomalous increase of NaBH4 hydrolysis rate with the growth of solution alkalinity in the presence of IMC is detected. 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

276

Photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer from aromatic amines to coumarin dyes in sodium dodecyl sulphate micellar solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

Photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer interaction between coumarin dyes and aromatic amines has been investigated in sodium dodecyl sulphate micellar solutions using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence quenching measurements. Steady-state fluorescence quenching of the coumarin dyes by the amine quenchers always shows a positive deviation from linear Stern-Volmer relationship, which arises due to the localized high quencher concentrations at the micellar Stern layer. In time-resolved fluorescence measurements, the analysis of the fluorescence decays following a micellar quenching kinetics model assuming a unified quenching constant (kq') per quencher occupancy does not give satisfactory results, especially for the higher quencher concentrations used. The observed fluorescence decays are, however, seen to fit reasonably well following a bi-exponential analysis for all the quencher concentrations used. The average fluorescence lifetimes of the coumarin dyes in the micellar solution as estimated from the bi-exponential decay analysis are seen to undergo a systematic reduction with the effective mean quencher concentrations. The bimolecular quenching constants (kq) thus estimated are seen to be much smaller than those reported in the homogeneous solutions (e.g., in acetonitrile), indicating that the electron transfer in the micellar media is inherently inefficient. Correlation of the observed kq values in the micellar solutions with the free-energy changes (?G0) for electron transfer reactions show an inversion in the observed rates as predicted by Marcus' outer sphere electron transfer theory at exergonicities more that ˜0.65 eV. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the Marcus inverted region observed for the electron transfer reactions in micellar solution.

Kumbhakar, Manoj; Nath, Sukhendu; Pal, Haridas; Sapre, Avinash V.; Mukherjee, Tulsi

2003-07-01

277

The influence of ultrasound frequency on the shape of the D-line of Na in the sonoluminescence spectra of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and sodium dodecylsulfate  

Science.gov (United States)

The multibubble sonoluminescence spectra of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and sodium dodecylsulfate saturated with argon were measured around the D-line of Na under irradiation with ultrasound with a frequency of 20 and 870 kHz. The Na line had a complex shape and incorporated two overlapping components: an asymmetrically broadened shifted band and a narrow unshifted doublet. The Na line in the spectra of the dodecylsulfate solution was notably narrower than the line in the NaCl solution spectra at both ultrasound frequencies. At the same time, the changes in the line shape observed upon the transition from one frequency to the other in these two solutions were similar. The line was narrower and had a prominent narrow component at a frequency of 870 kHz, and the line was broader with a dominant broad component at a frequency of 20 kHz. The results are discussed within the context of different dynamics of bubbles at high and low ultrasound frequencies.

Gordeychuk, T. V.; Kazachek, M. V.

2014-12-01

278

Dissociation of micelles and intermicellar concentrations of aqueous solutions of calcium and sodium decyl sulfates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Activities of the surfactant ions and the counterions were calculated from the electromotive forces of concentration cell with ion-exchange membranes for the aqueous solutions of calcium (Ca(DES)/sub 2/) and sodium (NaDes) decyl sulfates. Moreover, the mean activities and the activity coefficients were obtained. From these activities, the valence effects of the counterions on the dissolved state of micellar solutions were studied. The following results are reported. (1) The mean activities were not constant, but increased with the increase in the concentration of the 2 surfactants above the critical micellar concentration (CMC). (2) The CMCS were 6.4 for Ca(DES)/sub 2/ and 32.8 mmol dm/sup -3/ for NaDES, respectively. (3) For the mechanism of micelle formation, the phase separation model was set up in both cases. (4) From this model, the degrees of dissociation of the micelles were calculated as 0.12 for Ca(DES)/sub 2/ and 0.28 for NaDES, respectively. (5) The intermicellar concentrations of the Ca/sup 2 +/, the Na/sup +/, and the decyl sulfate (DES/sup -/) ions were calculated. 18 references.

Koshinuma, M.

1981-10-01

279

Intratesticular hypertonic sodium chloride solution treatment as a method of chemical castration in cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Castration of male calves is necessary for trading to facilitate handling and prevent reproduction. However, some methods of castration are traumatic and lead to economic losses because of infection and myiasis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of intratesticular injection (ITI) of hypertonic sodium chloride (NaCl; 20%) solution in male calf castration during the first weeks of life. Forty male calves were allocated to one of the following experimental groups: negative control-surgically castrated immediately after birth; positive control -intact males; G1-ITI from 1- to 5-day old; G2-ITI from 15- to 20-day old; and G3-ITI from 25- to 30-day old. Intratesticular injection induced coagulative necrosis of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules leading to extensive fibrosis. Testosterone secretion and testicular development were severely impaired in 12-month-old animals from G1 and G2 groups (P<0.05), in which no testicular structure and sperm cells were observed during breeding soundness evaluation. Rectal and scrotal temperatures were not affected by different procedures. In conclusion, ITI of hypertonic NaCl solution induces sterility and completely suppresses testosterone secretion when performed during the first 20 days of life. PMID:25149022

Neto, Olmiro Andrade; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Rovani, Monique T; Ilha, Gustavo F; Nóbrega, Janduí E; Mondadori, Rafael G; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q

2014-10-15

280

Passivity and passivity breakdown of a zinc electrode in aerated neutral sodium nitrate solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The passivation and pitting corrosion behaviour of a zinc electrode in aerated neutral sodium nitrate solutions was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry techniques, complemented by ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) examinations of the electrode surface. Measurements were conducted under different experimental conditions. The potentiodynamic anodic polarization curves do not exhibit active dissolution region due to spontaneous passivation. The passivity is due to the presence of thin film of ZnO on the anode surface. The passive region is followed by pitting corrosion as a result of breakdown of the passive film. SEM images confirmed the existence of pits on the electrode surface. The breakdown potential decreases with an increase in NO3- concentration and temperature, but increases with increasing potential scan rate. Addition of SO42- ions to the nitrate solution accelerates pitting corrosion, while addition of WO42- and MoO42- ions inhibits pitting corrosion. The chronopotentiometry measurements show that the incubation time for pitting initiation decreases with increasing NO3- concentration, temperature and applied anodic current density. Addition of SO42- ions decreases the rate of passive film growth and the incubation time, while the reverse ch the incubation time, while the reverse changes produced by addition of either WO42- or MoO42- ions

281

Effect of a surfactant on the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with a surfactant. Seventy single-rooted extracted human teeth were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days (37 °C). The groups were distributed according to the irrigation solution used during root canal preparation: 5%, 2.5% and 1% NaOCl; 5%, 2.5% and 1% Hypoclean®, a solution containing a surfactant (cetrimide) associated with NaOCl. Three microbiological samples were collected from each tooth: S1 - before instrumentation; S2 - immediately after instrumentation; and S3 - after a seven-day period. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test with 5% significance level. The results showed that immediately after root canal preparation (S2), E. faecalis was eliminated in all the experimental groups. However, after 7 days (S3), only the groups in which Hypoclean was used, remained contamination-free, including Hypoclean associated with 1% NaOCl, while the root canals irrigated with 1% NaOCl only, presented the highest percentage of bacterial growth. In conclusion, the addition of surfactant increased the antimicrobial activity of 1% NaOCl to levels similar to 5% NaOCl. PMID:25517777

Bolfoni, Marcos Rodolfo; Ferla, Marcelo dos Santos; Sposito, Otávio da Silva; Giardino, Luciano; Jacinto, Rogério de Castilho; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldes

2014-10-01

282

Dispersion stability of functionalized graphene in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The colloidal stability of functionalized graphene sheets (FGSs) in aqueous sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solutions of different concentrations was studied by optical microscopy and ultraviolet-visible light absorption after first dispersing the FGSs ultrasonically. In up to ?10 ?M SDS solutions, FGSs reaggregated within a few minutes, forming ramified structures in the absence of SDS and increasingly compact structures as the amount of SDS increased. Above ?10 ?M, the rate of reaggregation decreased with increasing SDS concentration; above ?40 ?M, the suspensions were colloidally stable for over a year. The concentration of ?40 ?M SDS lies 2 orders of magnitude below the critical surface aggregation concentration of ?1.8 mM SDS on FGSs but above the concentration (?18 ?M) at which SDS begins to form a monolayer on FGSs. Neither surface micelle nor dense monolayer coverage is therefore required to obtain stable aqueous FGS dispersions. We support our experimental results by calculating the van der Waals and electrostatic interaction energies between FGSs as a function of SDS concentration and show that the experimentally observed transition from an unstable to a stable dispersion correlates with a transition from negative to positive interaction energies between FGSs in the aggregated state. Furthermore, our calculations support experimental evidence that aggregates tend to develop a compact structure over time. PMID:24188504

Hsieh, Andrew G; Korkut, Sibel; Punckt, Christian; Aksay, Ilhan A

2013-12-01

283

Precipitation of UO2 in sodium carbonate solutions by electrolytic hydrogen and catalyzed by Ni-Raney - Bibliography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report proposes abstracts and short versions of a set of documents (studies, patents) dealing with the precipitation of uranium (notably in its oxide form, UO2) in solutions of sodium carbonate. The main objective is to identify the interest of a chemical reduction by electrolytic hydrogen. The author makes a distinction between the most relevant documents and those relatively relevant ones

284

Efeito alcalinizante de soluções eletrolíticas intravenosas com concentrações elevadas de lactato de sódio infundidas em bezerros sadios / Alkalinizing effect of intravenous electrolyte solutions with high sodium lactate concentrations infused in healthy calves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de investigar o potencial alcalinizante de soluções eletrolíticas com concentrações elevadas de lactato de sódio em bezerros sadios, foram idealizadas seis soluções contendo 28, 56 e 84mEq/L de lactato (L28, L56 e L84) ou de bicarbonato (B28, B56 e B84), com concentrações de sódio, de [...] potássio e de cálcio semelhantes às da solução de Ringer com lactato (SRL). As soluções contendo bicarbonato de sódio foram utilizadas como padrão para comparação. Seis bezerros receberam, por via intravenosa, todas as seis soluções, uma a cada vez, com intervalo de quatro a cinco dias entre as infusões, em volume correspondente a 10% do peso corporal, durante cinco horas (20mL/kg/h). Amostras de sangue venoso e de urina foram coletadas antes de iniciar a infusão, na metade do volume, ao término e duas horas e meia após o término da infusão. Determinaram-se concentração de proteína plasmática total, pH sanguíneo e urinário, pCO2, HCO3 -, BE, concentração plasmática e urinária de lactato L e concentrações séricas e urinárias de Na+, K+, Cl- e creatinina. A solução L28, idêntica à SRL, provocou discreto incremento da reserva alcalina e, consequentemente, produziu efeito alcalinizante insuficiente para a correção de estados de acidose metabólica. A solução L84, além de provar-se segura, provocou o maior aumento da reserva alcalina, equivalente à B84, e, assim, produziu efeito capaz de corrigir o grau moderado de acidose metabólica. Abstract in english The alkalinizing effects of electrolyte solutions with high concentration of sodium lactate were evaluated in healthy calves. Six solutions were formulated containing 28, 56 and 84mEq/L of lactate (L28, L56 and L84) or bicarbonate (B28, B56 and B84), and sodium, potassium and calcium concentrations [...] similar to the lactated Ringer's solution (LRS). The solutions containing sodium bicarbonate were used as a standard for comparison. Six calves received all six solutions intravenously, one at a time, with an interval of four to five days between the infusions, in a volume corresponding to 10% of body weight, during five hours (20mL/kg/h). Venous blood and urine samples were taken prior to the beginning of the infusion, at a half volume, at the end and two and a half hours after the end of the infusion. Total plasma protein concentration, urinary and blood pH, blood pCO2, HCO3 - and BE, plasma and urine L lactate concentration and serum and urine Na+, K+, Cl- and creatinine concentrations were measured. The L28 solution, equal to LRS, caused a slight increase in the alkaline reserve, producing an alkalinizing effect insufficient for correction of metabolic acidosis states. The L84 solution was safe and produced the greater increase in the alkaline reserve, equivalent to B84 solution, and suitable for correcting a moderate degree of metabolic acidosis.

J.R.C., Junqueira; M.R.S., Balarin; K.K.M.C., Flaiban; D.S., Barbosa; J.A.N., Lisboa.

2015-02-01

285

A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously  

OpenAIRE

A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified ...

Wook Jae Yoo; Hyeok In Sim; Sang Hun Shin; Kyoung Won Jang; Seunghyun Cho; Joo Hyun Moon; Bongsoo Lee

2014-01-01

286

Interaction of sodium monoborate and boric acid with some mono- and disaccharides in aqueous solutions (from data on isomolar solutions method)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interaction of sodium monoborate Na[B(OH)4] and boric acid with D-glucose, D-fructose, D-saccharose and D-lactose in aqueous solution depending on the solution total concentration is studied through the method of isomolar solutions with application of conductometry and polarimetry. It is shown by the D-glucose and D-fructose examples that the method of isomolar solutions leads to results compatible with the data obtained by other methods and it may be applied to other saccharides

287

Evaluation of analgesic efficacy of bromfenac sodium ophthalmic solution 0.09% versus ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution 0.5% following LASEK or Epi-LASIK  

OpenAIRE

Xiao Jing Wang, Sze H Wong, Roshan Givergis, Emil W Chynn Park Avenue LASEK, New York, NY, USA Background: To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of bromfenac sodium ophthalmic solution 0.09% compared with ketorolac tromethamine ophthalmic solution 0.5% in laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK) or epithelial keratomileusis (epi-LASEK), sometimes referred to as epi-LASIK. Methods: Eighty eyes (from 40 patients, 18 men and 22 women) undergoing bilateral simultaneous LASEK or epi-LASEK were randomi...

Xj, Wang; Sh, Wong; Givergis R; Ew, Chynn

2011-01-01

288

Crystallochemical aspects of thermodynamic prehistory effect on the type of temperature-composition phase diagrams for sodium niobate-lithium and sodium niobate-potassium solid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One compared composition (x)-temperature (T) phase diagrams of crystals derived for the first time with the available x-T-diagrams of ceramics of sodium niobate-lithium (I) and sodium niobate-potassium (II) ferroelectric solid solutions that was prepared following various routes (standard burning, hot pressing). It was determined that in I system thermodynamic history (in particular, production conditions) affected substantially type of phase x-T-diagrams within the whole range of the perovskite phase stability, while in II system the mentioned effect manifested itself most essentially at low content of potassium (x ? 0.15). The obtained results are related with low values of t tolerance factor for compositions of solid solutions properties of which are critical as to thermodynamic history. Low (? 0.9-0.93) values of t show the porosity of structure of compositions within the mentioned concentration range of I and II systems responsible for occurrence of rather equitable competing structure instabilities (polar and rotation ones), as well as, possibility of coexistence of substitutional and interstitial solid solutions

289

Photoreduction of bicarbonate catalyzed by supported cadmium sulfide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadmium sulfide supported on silica (CdS-chi/SiO2, chi = 4, 11, 17, 25%) and zinc sulfide (CdS-chi/ZnS, chi = 5, 10, 20, 30%) was prepared by impregnation with cadmium sulfate and subsequent addition of sodium sulfide. The specific surface areas of the silica and zinc sulfide supported powders are in the range o f 188-280 and 95-104 m2 g(-1), respectively. After sonication of an aqueous suspension of CdS-17/SiO2 the particle size distribution exhibited two maxima at 22 and 57 microm. In the presence of sodium sulfite the supported cadmium sulfides photocatalyze the reduction of bicarbonate to formate, formaldehyde, and oxalate. Upon polychromatic irradiation (lambda > or = 290 nm) the C1-products formate and formaldehyde were obtained in concentrations of 30-130 microM whereas the C2-product oxalate reached only 1-8 microM. Formaldehyde is not formed through reduction of intermediate formate whereas oxalate is produced via oxidation of the latter. The linear increase of oxalate concentration with coverage can be rationalized by the assumption that dimerization of the intermediate carbon dioxide radical anion does not occur on the cadmium sulfide but in solution or on the silica surface. For zinc sulfide supported samples the coverages of 10, 20, and 30% do not change the photocatalytic activity significantly whereas a loading of 5% induces a 40-fold and 16-fold increase as compared to unmodified cadmium and zinc sulfide, respectively. This strong enhancement suggests that in CdS-05/ZnS the efficiency of charge separation is strongly improved through interparticle electron transfer. The results demonstrate that both silica and zinc sulfide supports increase the photocatalytic activity of cadmium sulfide through the presence of a recently found electronic semiconductor-support interaction (SEMSI effect). Additionally, the low coverage sample CdS-05/ZnS combines this novel effect with the higher charge separation efficiency of a coupled semiconductor system. PMID:12661963

Kisch, Horst; Lutz, Peter

2002-04-01

290

tlpA gene expression is required for arginine and bicarbonate chemotaxis in Helicobacter pylori  

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Full Text Available About half of the human population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastritis, peptic ulcer and progression to gastric cancer. Chemotaxis and flagellar motility are required for colonization and persistence of H. pylori in the gastric mucus layer. It is not completely clear which chemical gradients are used by H. pylori to maintain its position. TlpA, a chemotaxis receptor for arginine/ bicarbonate, has been identified. This study aimed to find out whether tlpA gene expression is required for the chemotactic response to arginine/bicarbonate. Wild-type motile H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 43504, a strain having an interrupted tlpA gene, were used. Also, a tlpA-knockout mutant of H. pylori 700392 (H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat was produced by homologous recombination. Expression of tlpA was assessed by a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR assay. Chemotaxis was measured as a Relative Chemotaxis Response (RCR by a modified capillary assay. H. pylori 700392 presented chemotaxis to arginine and sodium bicarbonate. H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat showed neither tlpA gene expression nor chemotaxis towards arginine and bicarbonate. Besides confirming that TlpA is a chemotactic receptor for arginine/bicarbonate in H. pylori, this study showed that tlpA gene expression is required for arginine/bicarbonate chemotaxis.

Oscar A Cerda

2011-01-01

291

The quantitative effect of 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine solution and 0.1% dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution on postsurgical blood-aqueous barrier.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anterior chamber fluorophotometry was performed after the oral administration of fluorescein sodium in patients undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens insertion before and after surgery. The administration of 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine solution (ketorolac solution) eye drops before and after surgery decreased the breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier as compared with 0.1% dexamethasone sodium phosphate solution (dexamethasone solution) eye drops at each period, as measured by fluorophotometry. A single injection below Tenon's capsule of a short-acting corticosteroid had been given to each patient at the end of each surgical procedure. Slit-lamp observations of postoperative ocular inflammation were not different between treatment groups. Both ketorolac and dexamethasone solutions were well tolerated by patients. Ketorolac solution was more effective than dexamethasone solution in facilitating reestablishment of the blood-aqueous barrier after surgery, as measured by fluorophotometry, and was equal to dexamethasone solution as observed by slit-lamp observations. This study suggests that ketorolac ophthalmic solution may be effective and safe as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent for topical use after cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation in place of topically administered corticosteroids. PMID:3355415

Flach, A J; Kraff, M C; Sanders, D R; Tanenbaum, L

1988-04-01

292

Decreasing Molybdenum Content in U3O8 of Bandar Abbas Uranium Plant by Stripping, Acidic Sodium Chloride Solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Molybdenum content in U3O8 is one of the difficulties in uranium oxide production plant, as contaminant. Several methods have been proposed for reducing Molybdenum from U3O8 process circuit. As a few changes in the process circuit of Bandar Abbas Uranium Plant were aimed, the loaded organic solvent containing uranium and molybdenum were stripped with acidic sodium chloride solution. The current 10% Sodium carbonate solution was substituted by 1.2 M NaCl + 0.02 M H2SO4 as a new strip solution. This method decreases Mo contents from 96.94 to 4.17 percent. With the proceeding precipitation and the calcination stages, the Molybdenum amounts in U3O8 was reduced from 6.4 to 0.14 percent.

293

Dissolution kinetics of UO2: Flow-through tests on UO2.00 pellets and polycrystalline schoepite samples in oxygenated, carbonate/bicarbonate buffer solutions at 25 degree C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The modelling of radionuclide release from waste forms is an important part of the performance assessment of a potential, high-level radioactive waste repository. Since spent fuel consists of UO2 containing actinide elements and other fission products, it is necessary to determine the principal parameters affecting UO2 dissolution and quantify their effects on the dissolution rate before any prediction of long term release rates of radionuclides from the spent fuel can be made. As part of a complex matrix to determine the dissolution kinetics of UO2 as a function of time, pH, carbonate/bicarbonate concentration and oxygen activity, we have measured the dissolution rates at 25 degrees C of: (1) UO2 pellets; (2) UO2.00 powder and (3) synthetic dehydrated schoepite, UO3.H2O using a single-pass flow through system in an argon-atmosphere glove box. Carbonate, carbonate/bicarbonate, and bicarbonate buffers with concentrations ranging from 0.0002 M to 0.02 M and pH values form 8 to 11 have been used. Argon gas mixtures containing oxygen (from 0.002 to 0.2 atm) and carbon dioxide (from 0 to 0.011 atm) were bubbled through the buffers to stabilize their pH values. 12 refs., 2 tabs

294

Sodium fire protection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

295

Adsorption characteristic of 137Cs from aqueous solution using PAN-based sodium titanosilicate composite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An organic-inorganic ion exchanger namely sodium titanosilicate-polyacrylonitrile (STS-PAN) composite was synthesized and used for the adsorption of 137Cs from a typical aqueous solution. The physicochemical behavior of the ion exchanger was specified with different techniques including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), specific surface analysis (BET), thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), scanning election microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and CHN elemental analysis. The thermal and gamma irradiation stability of the synthesized ion exchanger was investigated. It was observed that the ion exchanger is stable up to 275 deg C and against gamma irradiation up to 200 KGy. The effects of pH, contact time, ambient temperature, and presence of various cations on adsorption rate of STS-PAN were also studied and the optimum conditions obtained. In addition, thermodynamic parameters were evaluated during the adsorption. The values of the enthalpy and the Gibbs free energy suggest an endothermic and spontaneous process. Adsorption isotherm in batch experiment showed that the sorption data were successfully fitted with Langmuir model. Finally the adsorption dynamic capacity of the synthesized composite in a columnar experiment as well as its elution was evaluated. The complete breakthrough curve was generated at a feed rate of 15 bed volume per hour and sorbent capacities were lume per hour and sorbent capacities were obtained at 5 and 100% breakthrough. (author)

296

Kinetics and mechanism of sphalerite leaching by sodium nitrate in sulphuric acid solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interest for application of hydrometallurgical processes in a processing of complex sulphide ores and concentrates has increased in recent years. Their application provides better metal recoveries and reduced emission of gaseous and toxic ageneses in the environment. The kinetics and mechanism of sphalerite leaching from complex sulphide concentrate with sulphuric acid and sodium nitrate solution at standard conditions was presented in this paper. The influences of temperature and time on the leaching degree of zinc were investigated and kinetic analysis of the process was accomplished. With temperature increasing from 60 to 90°C, the zinc leaching increased from 25.23% to 71.66% after 2 hours, i.e. from 59.40% to 99.83% after 4 hours. The selected kinetic model indicated that the diffusion through the product layer was the rate-controlling step during the sphalerite leaching. The activation energy was determined to be 55 kJ/mol in the temperature range 60-90°C. XRD, light microscopy and SEM/EDX analyses of the complex concentrate and leach residue confirmed formation of elemental sulphur and diffusion-controlled leaching mechanism.

Soki? M.

2012-01-01

297

Zinc(II) oxide solubility and phase behavior in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at elevated temperatures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A platinum-lined, flowing autoclave facility is used to investigate the solubility/phase behavior of zinc(II) oxide in aqueous sodium phosphate solutions at temperatures between 290 and 560 K. ZnO solubilities are observed to increase continuously with temperature and phosphate concentration. At higher phosphate concentrations, a solid phase transformation to NaZnPO{sub 4} is observed. NaZnPO{sub 4} solubilities are retrograde with temperature. The measured solubility behavior is examined via a Zn(II) ion hydrolysis/complexing model and thermodynamic functions for the hydrolysis/complexing reaction equilibria are obtained from a least-squares analysis of the data. The existence of two new zinc(II) ion complexes is reported for the first time: Zn(OH){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}} and Zn(OH){sub 3}(H{sub 2}PO{sub 4}){sup 2{minus}}. A summary of thermochemical properties for species in the systems ZnO-H{sub 2}O and ZnO-Na{sub 2}O-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-H{sub 2}O is also provided. 21 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

Ziemniak, S.E.; Jones, M.E.; Combs, K.E.S.

1990-02-01

298

Passivation of chalcopyrite during the leaching with sulphuric acid solution in presence of sodium nitrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, the process of the chalcopyrite leaching in sulphuric acid solution was investigated. Sodium nitrate was used as oxidant in the leaching process. Chemical reactions of leaching and their thermodynamic possibilities are predicted based on the calculated Gibbs energies and analysis of E?pH diagrams. The negative values of the Gibbs energy show that all chemical reactions are thermodynamically feasible at atmospheric pressure and in a temperature range 25-90°C. At high electrode potential and low pH values, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions exist in water solutions. The increase of temperature reduces the probability of Fe3+ ion existence in the system. The chalcopyrite concentrate, enriched in the “Rudnik” flotation plant, with 27.08% Cu, 25.12% Fe, 4.15% Zn and 2.28% Pb was used in the work. XRD and DTA analysis of the concentrate reveals that the sample contains mainly the chalcopyrite with small amount of sphalerite. For the description of the reaction of leaching process the leach residuals, obtained at different conditions, were chosen for XRD, TG/DTA and SEM/EDX analyses. The elemental sulphur and chalcopyrite phases identified in leach residuals confirm our prediction that the elemental sulphur is formed during the leaching process. Accordingly, elemental sulphur is the main product of the reaction, while a minor amount of sulphide sulphur is oxidized to sulphate during the leaching. The sulphur formed during the reaction was precipitated at the particle surfaces, and slowed down the leaching rate in the final stage of leaching process. In the initial stage, the reaction rate was controlled by the surface reaction. The mechanism, latter has been changed into a diffusion controlled one.

Soki? Miroslav D.

2010-01-01

299

Controle da pinta-preta em tomateiro e da mancha-zonada em pepino por meio de bicarbonato de sódio e óleo vegetal Control of early blight on tomato and net spot on cucumber through application of sodium bicarbonate and vegetal oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram realizados dois ensaios, em condições de campo, na UNESP/ FCAV, Jaboticabal (SP. O primeiro (maio a outubro de 1993 teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de pulverizações semanais de bicarbonato de sódio (10 g/l, óleo vegetal 'Natur'l óleo (10 ml/l e iprodione (0,75 g/l, aplicados isoladamente ou em combinação dois a dois, no controle da pinta-preta (Alternaria solani em tomateiro, cultivar Jumbo AG-592. No segundo ensaio (março a junho de 1993, o objetivo foi determinar a eficiência de pulverizações semanais em diferentes doses de bicarbonato de sódio (5, 10 e 15 g/l comparadas ao benomil (0,5 g/l, no controle da mancha-zonada (Leandria momordicae em pepino híbrido 'Premier'. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições para ambos os experimentos. Foram utilizadas parcelas de 40 plantas distribuídas em 4 fileiras de 5,0 e 2,5 m de comprimento para os experimentos com pepino e tomate, respectivamente. As avaliações da severidade da doença foram feitas a cada quatorze dias (as cinco primeiras e a cada sete dias (as duas últimas e foram iniciadas 39 dias após o transplante do tomate. Para o pepino, foram realizadas cinco avaliações, iniciadas 28 dias após o transplante e repetidas a cada quatorze dias. Foram determinadas as curvas de progresso das doenças e a produtividade dentro de cada tratamento para cada cultura. Pela observação dos valores dos coeficientes de determinação das diferentes curvas epidemiológicas, concluiu-se que a quinta folha e a transformação logística se mostraram mais adequadas para o estudo epidemiológico da pinta-preta do tomateiro, enquanto a quarta folha e a transformação logística se mostraram mais adequadas para o estudo epidemiológico da mancha-zonada. Constatou-se o efeito positivo do iprodione no controle de pinta-preta, isolado ou quando misturado ao bicarbonato de sódio ou ao óleo vegetal, não havendo diferença estatística significativa entre iprodione e bicarbonato de sódio. Para a mancha-zonada o tratamento com benomil diminuiu a taxa de desenvolvimento da doença, enquanto que o bicarbonato de sódio não teve efeito. Os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho sugerem que o bicarbonato de sódio e óleo vegetal são substâncias que apresentam potencial para o controle da pinta-preta e mancha-zonada, necessitando porém, de novos estudos.Two experiments were carried out under field conditions at UNESP/FCAV, Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil. In the first experiment (from May to October, 1993 the efficiency of weekly sprays of sodium bicarbonate (1%, vegetal oil (1% and iprodione (0.075%, alone or in combination, were studied for the control of tomato early blight (Alternaria solani, using tomato cv. Jumbo AG-592. In the second experiment (March to June, 1993 the efficiency of weekly sprays of different doses of sodium bicarbonate (0.5, 1 and 1.5% were compared with benomyl (0.05%, on the control of cucumber net spot (Leandria momordicae, using cucumber cv. Premier. The experiments followed a randomised block design with four replications and forty plants distributed in four rows of 5.0 and 2.5 m long used respectively for cucumber and tomato. Disease severity on tomate was rated at 14 day intervals (the first five and at 7 day intervals (the last two, beginning 39 days after transplanting. Disease severity for cucumber net spot was rated five times, at 14 day intervals, beginning 28 days after transplanting. Disease progress curves for each treatment for each culture were determined. Fruit yield for each culture was also evaluated. Results showed that evaluation of disease severity in the fifth leaf and logistic transformation were most suitable for the study of tomato early blight epidemics. For cucumber net spot, evaluation in the fourth leaf and logistic transformation were the most suitable, as shown by the determination coefficient values. Both iprodione and sodium bicarbonate provided efficient early blight control, with no statistical differences between them. For cu

Juan Roberto Ramírez-Otárola Sarmiento

1999-07-01

300

Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water – surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation  

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Full Text Available Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at very low concentrations. Sodium chloride increased the surface tension linearly as a function of the concentration. Surface tensions of both binary solutions agreed well with the previous measurements. Succinic acid was found to lower the surface tension even if sodium chloride is present, indicating that succinic acid as a surface active compound tends to concentrate to the surface. An equation based on thermodynamical relations was fitted to the data. As a result, a surface tension parameterization of ternary solution was obtained over the whole concentration range. The parameterization can safely be used at temperatures from 10 to 30°C. These kinds of parameterizations are important for example in atmospheric nucleation models. To investigate the influence of surface tension on cloud droplet activation, the surface tension parameterization was included in an adiabatic air parcel model. Usually in cloud models the surface tension of pure water is used. Simulations were done for characteristic marine aerosol size distributions consisting of the considered ternary mixture. We found that by using the surface tension of pure water, the amount of activated particles is underestimated up to 8% if particles contain succinic acid and overestimated it up to 8% if particles contain only sodium chloride. The surface tension effect was found to increase with increasing updraft velocity.

H. Lihavainen

2008-04-01

301

A comparison study between sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium dodecyl sulfonate with respect to the thermodynamic properties, micellization, and interaction with poly(ethylene glycol) in aqueous solutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: Apparent molar volume against molality: o, {center_dot}, and {Delta}, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 293.15 K; x, {Delta}, and lozenge, respectively in water, (1 and 4) wt% PEG solution at 313.15 K. Research Highlights: > C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na(SDSn) was seen to interact with PEG more weakly than C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na(SDS). > The constraints on molecular mobility of SDS micelles are larger than those of SDSn. > Entropy change on micellization for SDSn is larger than those for SDS. > Micelle formation of SDS is less endothermic and more spontaneous than that of SDSn. > Micelles of SDS have smaller aggregation number than that of SDSn. - Abstract: The density, sound velocity, and conductivity measurements were performed on aqueous solutions of sodium dodecyl sulfate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na) or sodium dodecyl sulfonate (C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na) in the absence and presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) at different temperatures. Changes in the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities upon micellization were derived using a pseudophase-transition approach and the infinite dilution apparent molar properties of the monomer and micellar form of C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na and C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na were determined. Variations of the critical micelle concentrations (CMCs) of both surfactants in the solutions investigated with temperature were obtained from which thermodynamic parameters of micellization were estimated. It was found that at low temperature the micelle formation process is endothermic and therefore, this process must be entropically driven. However, upon increasing the temperature, the enthalpic factor becomes more significant and, at temperatures higher than 303.15 K the micellization is enthalpy driven. The interactions between C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 4}Na/C{sub 12}H{sub 25}SO{sub 3}Na and PEG were studied and it was found that sodium alkyl sulfonates were seen to interact more weakly than their sulfate analogues.

Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rsadeghi@uok.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahabi, Somayyeh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-09-15

302

Adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate at the surface of aqueous solutions of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) studied by neutron reflection  

OpenAIRE

The surface excess of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solutions of SDS and the polymer poly-(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) has been measured as a function of SDS and PVP concentrations using neutron reflection. Below the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) the adsorption of SDS is increased by the presence of PVP, indicating that the two components interact cooperatively at the surface. Between the CAC and the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant there is a slight dep...

Purcell, Ip; Lu, Jr; Thomas, Rk; Howe, Am; Penfold, J.

1998-01-01

303

Photocatalytic degradation of betamethasone sodium phosphate in aqueous solution using ZnO nanopowder  

Science.gov (United States)

The photocatalytic degradation of betamethasone sodium phosphate has been investigated in aqueous phase by using ultraviolet (UV) light and ZnO nanopowder. The effect of catalyst loading, irradiation time, pH, addition of oxidizers, effect of alcohol and anion presence on the reaction rate was ascertained and optimum conditions for maximum degradation were determined. The photocatalytic degradation of betamethasone sodium phosphate was strongly influenced by these parameters. The optimum amount of the photocatalyst used is 0.44 g/L. The efficiency of betamethasone sodium phosphate increases with the photo-degradation increase of the irradiation time.

Giahi, M.; Taghavi, H.; Habibi, S.

2012-12-01

304

Modification of the Two-Point Scaling Theory for the Description of the Phase Transition in Solution. Analysis of Sodium Octanoate Aqueous Solutions  

OpenAIRE

On the basis of conventional scaling theory, the two-point scaling theory was modified in order to describe the influence of composition on the partial molar heat capacity and volume during the micellization process. To verify the theory, isobaric heat capacities and densities of aqueous sodium octanoate solutions were measured over wide composition and temperature ranges and the modified approach was used to analyze the calculated partial molar heat capacities and volumes of the surfactant i...

Piekarski, Henryk; Wasiak, Micha?; Wojtczak, Leszek

2012-01-01

305

Ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water; surface tension and its influence on cloud droplet activation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Surface tension of ternary solution of sodium chloride, succinic acid and water was measured as a function of both composition and temperature by using the capillary rise technique. Both sodium chloride and succinic acid are found in atmospheric aerosols, the former being main constituent of marine aerosol. Succinic acid was found to decrease the surface tension of water already at very low concentrations. Sodium chloride increased the surface tension linearly as a function of the concentration. Surface tensions of both binary solutions agreed well with the previous measurements. Succinic acid was found to lower the surface tension even if sodium chloride is present, indicating that succinic acid, as a surface active compound, tends to concentrate to the surface. An equation based on thermodynamical relations was fitted to the data and extrapolated to the whole concentration range by using estimated surface tensions for pure compounds. As a result, we obtained an estimate of surface tensions beyond solubility limits in addition to a fit to the experimental data. The parameterization can safely be used at temperatures from 10 to 30°C. These kinds of parameterizations are important for example in atmospheric nucleation models. To investigate the influence of surface tension on cloud droplet activation, the surface tension parameterization was included in an adiabatic air parcel model. Usually in cloud models the surface tension of pure water is used. Simulations were done for characteristic marine aerosol size distributions consisting of the considered ternary mixture. We found that by using the surface tension of pure water, the amount of activated particles is underestimated up to 8% if particles contain succinic acid and overestimated it up to 8% if particles contain only sodium chloride. The surface tension effect was found to increase with increasing updraft velocity.

J. Vanhanen

2008-08-01

306

Effect of a Surfactant on the Antimicrobial Activity of Sodium Hypochlorite Solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de hipoclorito de sódio (NaOCl), associado a um tensoativo. Setenta dentes humanos monorradiculares extraídos foram inoculados com Enterococcus faecalis e incubados durante 21 dias (37 °C). Os grupos foram distribuídos de acordo [...] com a solução irrigadora utilizada no preparo do canal: hipoclorito de sódio a 5%, 2,5% e 1%; Hypoclean(r) a 5%, 2,5% e 1% - uma solução contendo um surfactante (cetrimida) associado com NaOCl. Três amostras microbiológicas foram coletadas de cada dente: S1 - antes de instrumentação; S2 - imediatamente após a instrumentação; e S3 - após um período de sete dias. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e teste de Tukey com 5% de nível de significância. Os resultados mostraram que imediatamente após o preparo do canal radicular (S2), o E. faecalis foi eliminado em todos os grupos experimentais. No entanto, após 7 dias (S3), apenas os grupos em que se utilizou Hypoclean permaneceram livres de contaminação, incluindo Hypoclean 1%, enquanto que os canais radiculares irrigados apenas com hipoclorito de sódio 1% apresentaram a mais elevada percentagem de crescimento bacteriano. Em conclusão, a adição de surfactante aumentou a atividade antimicrobiana de 1% de NaOCl a níveis semelhantes aos do NaOCl 5% . Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with a surfactant. Seventy single-rooted extracted human teeth were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days (37 °C). The groups were distributed according [...] to the irrigation solution used during root canal preparation: 5%, 2.5% and 1% NaOCl; 5%, 2.5% and 1% Hypoclean(r), a solution containing a surfactant (cetrimide) associated with NaOCl. Three microbiological samples were collected from each tooth: S1 - before instrumentation; S2 - immediately after instrumentation; and S3 - after a seven-day period. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test with 5% significance level. The results showed that immediately after root canal preparation (S2), E. faecalis was eliminated in all the experimental groups. However, after 7 days (S3), only the groups in which Hypoclean was used, remained contamination-free, including Hypoclean associated with 1% NaOCl, while the root canals irrigated with 1% NaOCl only, presented the highest percentage of bacterial growth. In conclusion, the addition of surfactant increased the antimicrobial activity of 1% NaOCl to levels similar to 5% NaOCl.

Marcos Rodolfo, Bolfoni; Marcelo dos Santos, Ferla; Otávio da Silva, Sposito; Luciano, Giardino; Rogério de Castilho, Jacinto; Fernanda Geraldes, Pappen.

2014-10-01

307

Thermochemistry of sodium iodide solutions in aqueous mixtures of ethylene glycol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enthalpies of sodium iodide dissolution in water-ethyleneglycol mixtures at 298.15 R were determined. Enthalpies in case of infinite dilution and enthalpies of transfer from water into a mixed solvent were calculated

308

Study of interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium copper, lead nitrates solutions with sodium oxalate solution with the aim of HTSC synthesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the aim of developing a new technique for HTSC oxides synthesis on the base of combined sedimentation of hydroxy salts and their heat treatment is studied interaction of bismuth, strontium, calcium, copper and lead nitrates with alkali solution of sodium oxalate. Conditions for total sedimentation of all five metals from the solution are found. The phase composition of interaction products is determined. It is established that they are high-dispersed homogeneous mixture of three phases of variable composition: twin hydroxalate of copper-bismuth, lead hydroxalate and twin oxalate of strontium-calcium. After heat treatment of the phases are obtained the HTSC oxides

309

Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux Enhancement with Tri Sodium Phosphate and Boric Acid Solution in the Tube  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a nuclear power plant, the cooling water is used to remove the decay heat and the safety system such as safety injection system (SIS) and cavity flooding system (CFS) has the cooling water including boric acid. During severe accident, tri sodium phosphate (TSP, Na3PO4·12H2O) is utilized to maintain pH in water within reactor containment. In this study, the purpose is to investigate the critical heat flux (CHF) characteristic of boric acid and TSP solution. In previous studies, Lee et al. and Jeong et al. have reported that boric acid and TSP solution can enhance CHF on a tube. This study examines CHF enhancement on a tube with mixture solution of boric acid and TSP as well as boric acid and TSP solution

310

Shelf-life of a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution as determined by arrhenius equation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Testes acelerados de estabilidade são indicados para avaliar, em um curto período de tempo, o grau de degradação química que poderá afetar uma substância química, isoladamente ou quando inserida em uma fórmula, sob condições normais de armazenamento. Este método está fundamentado na intensificação d [...] as condições de estresse para acelerar a velocidade de degradação química. Baseando-se na equação da reta obtida e na ordem de reação determinada (a 50 e 70 ºC) e usando a equação de Arrhenius, a velocidade de reação foi calculada para a condição de temperatura de 20ºC (condições normais de armazenamento). Este modelo de teste acelerado de estabilidade torna possível a predição da estabilidade química de qualquer substância, em qualquer tempo, desde que o método de quantificação da substância química esteja disponível. Como exemplo da aplicabilidade da equação de Arrhenius em teste acelerado de estabilidade, uma solução de hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5% foi analisada por ser quimicamente instável. A quantificação do cloro residual livre foi determinada através de titulação iodométrica. A partir dos dados obtidos decorrentes das amostras submetidas às temperaturas de 50 e 70 ºC e com o emprego da equação de Arrhenius, o tempo de prateleira obtido foi de 166 dias em temperatura de 20 ºC, considerando como limite inferior a concentração de 20 mg/mL de cloro residual livre. Este modelo, entretanto, possibilita o cálculo de tempo de prateleira em qualquer outra temperatura de interesse. Abstract in english Accelerated stability tests are indicated to assess, within a short time, the degree of chemical degradation that may affect an active substance, either alone or in a formula, under normal storage conditions. This method is based on increased stress conditions to accelerate the rate of chemical degr [...] adation. Based on the equation of the straight line obtained as a function of the reaction order (at 50 and 70 ºC) and using Arrhenius equation, the speed of the reaction was calculated for the temperature of 20 ºC (normal storage conditions). This model of accelerated stability test makes it possible to predict the chemical stability of any active substance at any given moment, as long as the method to quantify the chemical substance is available. As an example of the applicability of Arrhenius equation in accelerated stability tests, a 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution was analyzed due to its chemical instability. Iodometric titration was used to quantify free residual chlorine in the solutions. Based on data obtained keeping this solution at 50 and 70 ºC, using Arrhenius equation and considering 2.0% of free residual chlorine as the minimum acceptable threshold, the shelf-life was equal to 166 days at 20 ºC. This model, however, makes it possible to calculate shelf-life at any other given temperature.

Maria Aparecida, Nicoletti; Evandro Luiz, Siqueira; Antonio Carlos, Bombana; Gabriella Guimarães de, Oliveira.

311

Cation-coupled bicarbonate transporters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cation-coupled HCO3(-) transport was initially identified in the mid-1970s when pioneering studies showed that acid extrusion from cells is stimulated by CO2/HCO3(-) and associated with Na(+) and Cl(-) movement. The first Na(+)-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) was expression-cloned in the late 1990s. There are currently five mammalian NCBTs in the SLC4-family: the electrogenic Na,HCO3-cotransporters NBCe1 and NBCe2 (SLC4A4 and SLC4A5 gene products); the electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7 gene product); the Na(+)-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger NDCBE (SLC4A8 gene product); and NBCn2/NCBE (SLC4A10 gene product), which has been characterized as an electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter or a Na(+)-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger. Despite the similarity in amino acid sequence and predicted structure among the NCBTs of the SLC4-family, they exhibit distinct differences in ion dependency, transport function, pharmacological properties, and interactions with other proteins. In epithelia, NCBTs are involved in transcellular movement of acid-base equivalents and intracellular pH control. In nonepithelial tissues, NCBTs contribute to intracellular pH regulation; and hence, they are crucial for diverse tissue functions including neuronal discharge, sensory neuron development, performance of the heart, and vascular tone regulation. The function and expression levels of the NCBTs are generally sensitive to intracellular and systemic pH. Animal models have revealed pathophysiological roles of the transporters in disease states including metabolic acidosis, hypertension, visual defects, and epileptic seizures. Studies are being conducted to understand the physiological consequences of genetic polymorphisms in the SLC4-members, which are associated with cancer, hypertension, and drug addiction. Here, we describe the current knowledge regarding the function, structure, and regulation of the mammalian cation-coupled HCO3(-) transporters of the SLC4-family. PMID:25428855

Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Choi, Inyeong; Lee, Soojung

2014-10-01

312

A Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study on Micelle Structural Transition at Low concentration of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micellar Solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The micelle structural transition of 0.02 M sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar solution in addition of sodium chloride (NaCI) salt has been investigated using a Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) technique. The micelle progressively changed not just the shape but also the size by addition of salt from 0.02 M to 0.40 M. A nearly spherical micelle transforms into an ellipsoidal micelle as the major axis of micelle increases from 19.0 Angstrom to 27.3 Angstrom with a fixed minor axis of 16.7 Angstrom. The present of salt noticeable reduces the repulsion force between the charge head groups of SDS molecule that decreases the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Furthermore, it leads to decrease the free energy on micellization in which the molecules of SDS easily assembled to form a large size micelle. (author)

313

Effect of fluoride sodium mouthwash solutions on cpTI: evaluation of physicochemical properties  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os efeitos do fluoreto, o qual está presente em diferentes produtos de higiene oral, necessita de maiores investigações, pois pouco se sabe sobre seus efeitos na superfície do titânio, o qual possui amplo uso na implantodontia. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a superfície do titânio comercialmente pur [...] o (cpTi) após exposição a diferentes concentrações de fluoreto de sódio (NaF). A hipótese testada neste estudo foi que diferentes concentrações de NaF aplicadas em diferentes intervalos de tempo seriam capazes de afetar diferentemente a superfície do titânio. Os tratamentos realizados foram: GA (controle): imersão em água destilada; GB: imersão diária por 3 min em NaF a 0,05%; GC: imersão diária por 3 min em NaF a 0,2%; GD: imersão quinzenal por 3 min em NaF a 0,05%; e GE: imersão quinzenal por 3 min em NaF a 0,2%. O tempo do experimento foi de 60 dias. A análise da rugosidade foi efetuada inicialmente e a cada 15 dias. Após 60 dias foi realizada análise de corrosão e polarização anódica. As amostras foram analisadas em MEV. Os dados de rugosidade foram analisados por ANOVA e não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre grupos e entre tempos. Os dados de corrosão (i corr) foram analisados pelo teste de Mann-Whitney e foram encontradas diferenças significantes entre GA e GC, GC e GB, GC e GD, GC e GE. A MEV evidenciou que a superfície do titânio exposto ao NaF apresentou corrosão variando de acordo com a concentração. Com base nos dados encontrados conclui-se que o uso de solução NaF a 0,05% em cpTi é seguro, enquanto a solução NaF 0,2% para uso diário deve ser cuidadosamente avaliada. Abstract in english The effects of fluoride, which is present in different oral hygiene products, deserve more investigation because little is known about their impact on the surface of titanium, which is largely used in Implantology. This study evaluated the surface of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) after exposure [...] to different concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF). The hypothesis tested in this study was that different concentrations of NaF applied at different time intervals can affect the titanium surface in different ways. The treatments resulted in the following groups: GA (control): immersion in distilled water; GB: immersion in 0.05% NaF for 3 min daily; GC: immersion in 0.2% NaF for 3 min daily; GD: immersion in 0.05% NaF for 3 min every 2 weeks; and GE: immersion in 0.2% NaF for 3 min every 2 weeks. The experiment lasted 60 days. Roughness was measured initially and every 15 days subsequently up to 60 days. After 60 days, corrosion analysis and anodic polarization were done. The samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The roughness data were analyzed by ANOVA and there was no significant difference among groups and among time intervals. The corrosion data (i corr) were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test, and significant differences were found between GA and GC, GB and GC, GC and GD, GC and GE. SEM micrographs showed that the titanium surface exposed to NaF presented corrosion that varied with the different concentrations. This study suggests that the use of 0.05% NaF solution on cpTi is safe, whereas the 0.2% NaF solution should be carefully evaluated with regard to its daily use.

Marcelo Bighetti, Toniollo; Rodrigo, Galo; Ana Paula, Macedo; Renata Cristina Silveira, Rodrigues; Ricardo Faria, Ribeiro; Maria da Gloria Chiarello de, Mattos.

2012-10-01

314

The determination of cyclohexylamine in aqueous solutions of sodium cyclamate by electron-capture gas chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sensitive primary amine assay, capable of detecting 10 to the minus 11th g and utilizing the determination of the amine N-2,4-dinitrophenyl derivative by electron-capture gas chromatography is described. The method is exemplified by the determination of cyclohexylamine in sodium cyclamate.

Solomon, M. D.; Pereira, W. E.; Duffield, A. M.

1971-01-01

315

Bicarbonate-Regulated Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC represents a novel form of mammalian adenylyl cyclase structurally, molecularly, and biochemically distinct from the G protein-regulated, transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs. sAC possesses no transmembrane domains and is insensitive to classic modulators of tmACs, such as heterotrimeric G proteins and P site ligands. Thus, sAC defines an independently regulated cAMP signaling system within mammalian cells. sAC is directly stimulated by bicarbonate ion both in vivo in heterologously expressing cells and in vitro using purified protein. sAC appears to be the predominant form of adenylyl cyclase (AC in mammalian sperm, and its direct activation by bicarbonate provides a mechanism for generating the cAMP required to complete the bicarbonate-induced processes necessary for fertilization, including hyperactivated motility, capacitation, and the acrosome reaction. Immunolocalization studies reveal sAC is also abundantly expressed in other tissues which respond to bicarbonate or carbon dioxide levels suggesting it may function as a general bicarbonate/CO(2 sensor throughout the body.

Wuttke MS

2001-07-01

316

Controle da pinta-preta em tomateiro e da mancha-zonada em pepino por meio de bicarbonato de sódio e óleo vegetal / Control of early blight on tomato and net spot on cucumber through application of sodium bicarbonate and vegetal oil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram realizados dois ensaios, em condições de campo, na UNESP/ FCAV, Jaboticabal (SP). O primeiro (maio a outubro de 1993) teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de pulverizações semanais de bicarbonato de sódio (10 g/l), óleo vegetal 'Natur'l óleo (10 ml/l) e iprodione (0,75 g/l), aplicados isola [...] damente ou em combinação dois a dois, no controle da pinta-preta (Alternaria solani) em tomateiro, cultivar Jumbo AG-592. No segundo ensaio (março a junho de 1993), o objetivo foi determinar a eficiência de pulverizações semanais em diferentes doses de bicarbonato de sódio (5, 10 e 15 g/l) comparadas ao benomil (0,5 g/l), no controle da mancha-zonada (Leandria momordicae) em pepino híbrido 'Premier'. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições para ambos os experimentos. Foram utilizadas parcelas de 40 plantas distribuídas em 4 fileiras de 5,0 e 2,5 m de comprimento para os experimentos com pepino e tomate, respectivamente. As avaliações da severidade da doença foram feitas a cada quatorze dias (as cinco primeiras) e a cada sete dias (as duas últimas) e foram iniciadas 39 dias após o transplante do tomate. Para o pepino, foram realizadas cinco avaliações, iniciadas 28 dias após o transplante e repetidas a cada quatorze dias. Foram determinadas as curvas de progresso das doenças e a produtividade dentro de cada tratamento para cada cultura. Pela observação dos valores dos coeficientes de determinação das diferentes curvas epidemiológicas, concluiu-se que a quinta folha e a transformação logística se mostraram mais adequadas para o estudo epidemiológico da pinta-preta do tomateiro, enquanto a quarta folha e a transformação logística se mostraram mais adequadas para o estudo epidemiológico da mancha-zonada. Constatou-se o efeito positivo do iprodione no controle de pinta-preta, isolado ou quando misturado ao bicarbonato de sódio ou ao óleo vegetal, não havendo diferença estatística significativa entre iprodione e bicarbonato de sódio. Para a mancha-zonada o tratamento com benomil diminuiu a taxa de desenvolvimento da doença, enquanto que o bicarbonato de sódio não teve efeito. Os resultados obtidos no presente trabalho sugerem que o bicarbonato de sódio e óleo vegetal são substâncias que apresentam potencial para o controle da pinta-preta e mancha-zonada, necessitando porém, de novos estudos. Abstract in english Two experiments were carried out under field conditions at UNESP/FCAV, Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil. In the first experiment (from May to October, 1993) the efficiency of weekly sprays of sodium bicarbonate (1%), vegetal oil (1%) and iprodione (0.075%), alone or in combination, were studied [...] for the control of tomato early blight (Alternaria solani), using tomato cv. Jumbo AG-592. In the second experiment (March to June, 1993) the efficiency of weekly sprays of different doses of sodium bicarbonate (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) were compared with benomyl (0.05%), on the control of cucumber net spot (Leandria momordicae), using cucumber cv. Premier. The experiments followed a randomised block design with four replications and forty plants distributed in four rows of 5.0 and 2.5 m long used respectively for cucumber and tomato. Disease severity on tomate was rated at 14 day intervals (the first five) and at 7 day intervals (the last two), beginning 39 days after transplanting. Disease severity for cucumber net spot was rated five times, at 14 day intervals, beginning 28 days after transplanting. Disease progress curves for each treatment for each culture were determined. Fruit yield for each culture was also evaluated. Results showed that evaluation of disease severity in the fifth leaf and logistic transformation were most suitable for the study of tomato early blight epidemics. For cucumber net spot, evaluation in the fourth leaf and logistic transformation were the most suitable, as shown by the determination coefficient values. Both iprodione

Juan Roberto Ramírez-Otárola, Sarmiento; Katia C. K., Moretto; Manuel G. C., Churata-Masca.

1999-07-01

317

Extraction of DBP and MBP from actinides: application to the recovery of actinides from TBP-sodium carbonate scrub solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A flowsheet for the recovery of actinides from TBP-Na2CO3 scrub waste solutions has been developed, based on batch extraction data, and tested, using laboratory scale counter-current extraction techniques. The process, called the ARALEX process, utilizes 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2-EHOH) to extract the TBP degradation products (HDBP and H2MBP) from acidified Na2CO3 scrub waste leaving the actinides in the aqueous phase. Dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acids are attached to the 2-EHOH molecules through hydrogen bonds. These hydrogen bonds also diminish the ability of the HDBP and H2MBP to complex actinides and thus all actinides remain in the aqueous raffinate. Dilute sodium hydroxide solutions can be used to back-extract the dibutyl and monobutyl phosphoric acid esters as their sodium salts. The 2-EHOH can then be recycled. After extraction of the acidified carbonate waste with 2-EHOH, the actinides may be readily extracted from the raffinate with DHDECMP or, in the case of tetra- and hexavalent actinides, with TBP. The ARALEX process is relatively simple and involves inexpensive and readily available chamicals. The ARALEX process can also be applied to other actinide waste streams which contain appreciable concentrations of polar organic compounds that interfere with conventional actinide ion exchange and liquid-liquid extraction procedures. One such application is the removal of detergents from laundry or che removal of detergents from laundry or clean-up solutions contaminated with actinides

318

Enthalpic interactions of N-glycylglycine with xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions at T = 298.15 K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mixing enthalpies of N-glycylglycine with xylitol and their respective enthalpies of dilution in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions have been determined by using flow-mix isothermal microcalorimetry at the temperature of 298.15 K. These experimental results have been used to determine the heterotactic enthalpic interaction coefficients (hxy, hxxy, and hxyy) according to the McMillan-Mayer theory. It has been found that the heterotactic enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients hxy between N-glycylglycine and xylitol in aqueous sodium chloride and potassium chloride solutions are negative and become less negative with an increase in the molality of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. The results are discussed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.

319

Volumetric and isentropic compressibility behaviour of aqueous solutions of (polyvinylpyrrolidone + sodium citrate) at T = (283.15 to 308.15) K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The apparent specific volumes and isentropic compressibilities have been determined for polyvinylpyrrolidone in aqueous solutions of sodium citrate by density and sound velocity measurements at T = (283.15 to 308.15) K at atmospheric pressure. The results show a positive transfer volume of PVP from an aqueous solution to an aqueous sodium citrate solution. For low concentrations of PVP, the apparent specific volumes of PVP in water increased along with an increase in the polymer mass fraction, while in aqueous sodium citrate solutions decreased along with an increase in the polymer mass fraction. For high concentrations of PVP, the apparent specific volumes of PVP in water and in aqueous sodium citrate solutions were independent of the polymer mass fraction. The apparent specific isentropic compressibility of PVP is negative at T = (283.15 and 288.15) K, which imply that the water molecules around the PVP molecules are less compressible than the water molecules in the bulk solutions. The positive values of apparent specific isentropic compressibility at T = (298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K imply that the water molecules around the PVP molecules are more compressible than the water molecules in the bulk solutions. Finally, it was found that the apparent specific isentropic compressibility of PVP increases as the concentration of sodium citrate increases

320

Effect of abietic acid addition on anodic dissolution of zinc- cadmium- and thallium amalgams in sodium sulfate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of inversion voltametry with a stationary mercury drop electrode has been applied to investigate the effect of abietic acid (AA) on anodic oxidation of cadmium, zinc, thallium from their amalgams as well as from mixed cadmium-thallium and zinc-thallium amalgams against the background of 0.5 M sodium sulfate at 298 K. Constants of peak of analgam anodic oxidation in the background solution and with additions of different AA concentrations are calculated. It is established that AA has the inhibiting effect on the processes of oxidation of cadmium- and zinc amalgams and does not produce the inhibiting effect on the oxidation of thallium amalgam

321

In vitro bioactivity of soda lime borate glasses with substituted SrO in sodium phosphate solution  

OpenAIRE

Borate glasses with the basic composition 0.6B2O3·0.2Na2O·0.2CaO and SrO progressively substituting CaO were prepared and characterized for their bone-bonding ability. The obtained glasses were thermally treated and converted to their glass-ceramic derivatives. In this study, FTIR spectral analyses were done for the prepared glasses and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in a sodium phosphate solution for extended times. The appearance of two IR bands within the spectral range 550?...

Marzouk, Mohamed A.; Elbatal, Hatem A.

2014-01-01

322

Study on the behavior of corrosion of inconel 600 alloy in high-temperature sodium phosphate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In PWR power plants, secondary water had been initially treated by sodium phosphate. In the system, however, the wall thinning phenomenon occurred in the Inconel 600 alloy heat exchange tubes at the tube support plate crevice parts in the steam generator. This kind of troubles also occurred in the United States. But in United States, it was noted that most of them occurred just above the tube sheets where sludge was likely to deposit. We investigated the relationship between the thermo-hydraulic phenomenon and the area where the corrosion occurred, and they could confirm from the results of various kinds of experiments and analysis that the corrosion occurred in the zones where dry and wet phenomena occurred. On the other hand, they also investigated the relationship between the chemical properties of sodium phosphate solution (pH value, electrode potential at elevated temperatures and so forth) and the corrosion, and they made clear the corrosion mechanism of Inconel 600 Alloy. Based on the results of these studies, secondary water chemistry of the PWR nuclear power plants have converted from the sodium phosphate treatment to all volatile treatment, and they have been successful in preventing such corrosion troubles. In this paper, we report on the experimental result conducted in order to make clear the mechanism of the wall thinning phenomenon of Inconel 600 alloy. (author)

323

Effect of terbium(III) chloride on the micellization properties of sodium decyl- and dodecyl-sulfate solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of TbCl3 on the aggregation processes of the anionic surfactants sodium decyl sulfate (SDeS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been investigated. Electrical conductivity data, combined with Tb(III) luminescence measurements suggest that the formation of micelles involving TbCl3 and SDS occurs at concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (cmc) of the pure surfactants; the formation of these mixed aggregates was also monitored by light scattering, which indicates that the addition of TbCl3 to surfactant concentration at values below the pure surfactant cmc results in a much greater light scattering than that found with pure sodium alkylsulfate surfactant micelles. This phenomenon is dependent upon the alkyl chain length of the surfactant. With Tb(III)/DS-, complexes are formed with a cation/anion binding ratio varying from 3 to 6, which depends upon the initial concentration of Tb(III). This suggests that the majority of the cation hydration water molecules can be exchanged by the anionic surfactant. When the carbon chain length decreases, interactions between surfactant and Tb(III) also decrease, alterations in conductivity and fluorescence data are not so significant and, consequently, no binding ratio can be detected even if existing. The surfactant micellization is dependent on the presence of electrolyte in solution with apparent cmc being lower than the corresponding cmc value of pure SDS. PMID:17107684

Neves, A C S; Valente, A J M; Burrows, H D; Ribeiro, A C F; Lobo, V M M

2007-02-01

324

Comparison of human serum and bovine serum albumins on oxidation dynamics induced by talaporfin sodium photosensitization reaction with albumin rich conditions: solution experiments  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to understand extracellular-photosensitization reaction (PR) using talaporfin sodium, we studied comparison of oxidation dynamics of albumin and talaporfin sodium in solution system by visible and ultraviolet absorption spectrum measurements. Almost all talaporfin sodium particles may be bound to albumin in interstitial fluid, and this binding would affect the oxidation dynamics during this PR. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is commonly used in vitro study but its binding characteristics with talaporfin sodium are different from human serum albumin (HSA). PR was operated in a solution composed of 20 ?g/ml talaporfin sodium and 1.3 mg/ml HSA or BSA to simulate myocardial extracellular PR condition. Laser radiation of 662 nm was irradiated to this solution with irradiance of 0.29 W/cm2. Absorption spectra of these solutions were measured during the PR. We estimated oxidized ratio by absorption difference around 240 nm before and after the PR. Talaporfin sodium was oxidized 100% with HSA and BSA by the PR of 100 J/cm2 in radiant exposure. On the other hand, HSA and BSA were oxidized 60% and 94%, respectively in this radiant exposure. Q-band absorption peak of talaporfin sodium with HSA was shifted to 1 nm longer wavelength increasing radiant exposure up to 100 J/cm2. This longer wavelength shift would mean binding ratio of non-oxidized talaporfin sodium to non-oxidized HSA was increased with increasing radiant exposure. Therefore it would be possible that PR with talaporfin sodium bound to HSA might present efficient PDT than PR bound to BSA.

Kurotsu, Mariko; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Mei; Ogawa, Emiyu; Arai, Tsunenori

2014-02-01

325

Effect of Bicarbonate on the Mineralization of Methyldiethanolamine by using UV/H2O2  

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Full Text Available The presence of bicarbonate affects the degradation efficiency of effluents containing aqueous methyldiethanolamine (MDEA solution leaving the CO2 absorption/regeneration unit of natural gas processing units. In the present study the effect of bicarbonate at three different pH conditions of (acidic, neutral and alkaline simulated MDEA solution were conducted, by the addition of six different concentration of NaHCO3 (0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1, 0.125 and 0.15 M. The presence of bicarbonate increased the mineralization of MDEA when the reaction was conducted at neutral initial pH conditions, where as the MDEA mineralization was reduced when the reaction was conducted at alkaline pH condition.

Sabtanti Harimurti

2014-01-01

326

Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

1984-09-01

327

Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

328

Evaporation of a sodium chloride solution from a saturated porous medium with efflorescence formation  

OpenAIRE

Precipitation of sodium chloride driven by evaporation at the surface of a porous medium is studied from a combination of experiments, continuum simulations, pore network simulations and a simple efflorescence growth model on a lattice. The distribution of ions concentration maxima at the porous medium surface, which are seen as the incipient precipitation spots, is shown to be strongly dependent on the factors affecting the velocity field within the porous medium owing to the significance o...

Veran-tissoires, Ste?phanie; Prat, Marc

2014-01-01

329

Ruthenium (4) chloride complex interaction with formic acid and sodium formate in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using the methods of IR and electron spectroscopy and by measuring molar electric conductivity and magnetic susceptibility (NH4)2RuCl6 interaction with sodium formate and formic acid is studied. It is established that depending on conditions (heating, addition of concentrated HCl, concentration of formic acid) formation of carbonyl-chloride, carbonylformate-chloride or formate-chloride complexes of ruthenium (3) or ruthenium (2) takes place

330

Molecular dynamics simulations of the solution - air interface of aqueous sodium nitrate.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 111, ?. 16 (2007), s. 3091-3098. ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05ME798; GA MŠk LC512 Grant ostatní: NSF(US) CHE-0209719; NSF(US) CHE-0431312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : aqueous sodium nitrate * air-water interface * molecular dynamics simulation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.918, year: 2007

Thomas, J. L.; Roeselová, Martina; Dang, L. X.; Tobias, D. J.

2007-01-01

331

Measurements of density and of thermal expansion coefficient of sodium tetraborate (borax)-UO2 and of sodium metaborate-UO2 solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Measurements have been performed of the density and volumetric thermal expansion coefficient of liquid sodium tetraborate (borax) and of sodium metaborate both pure and with two different amounts of UO2 dissolved in each. These data are required for the design of core-catchers based on sodium borates. The measurements have been performed with the buoyancy method in the temperature range from 8500C to 13250C. The data for the pure borax and for the sodium metaborate agree reasonably well with the data from the literature, giving confidence that the measurements are correct and the new data for the salts with UO2 are reliable. (orig.)

332

Heat capacity and density of solutions of lithium and sodium nitrates in N-methylpyrrolidone at 298.15 K  

Science.gov (United States)

The heat capacity and density of solutions of lithium and sodium nitrates in N-methylpyrrolidone (MP) at 298.15 K are studied by calorimetry and densimetry. The standard partial molar heat capacities and volumes ( C¯ p,2° and V¯ 2°) of LiNO3 and NaNO3 in MP are calculated. The standard heat capacities C¯ p,i ° and volumes V¯ i ° of Li+ and Na+ ions in MP at 298.15 K are determined on the basis of a proposed scale of ionic contributions of C¯ p,2° and V¯ 2° values. The obtained data are discussed in relation to certain features of solvation in solutions of the investigated salts.

Novikov, A. N.

2013-09-01

333

In vitro bioactivity of soda lime borate glasses with substituted SrO in sodium phosphate solution  

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Full Text Available Borate glasses with the basic composition 0.6B2O3·0.2Na2O·0.2CaO and SrO progressively substituting CaO were prepared and characterized for their bone-bonding ability. The obtained glasses were thermally treated and converted to their glass-ceramic derivatives. In this study, FTIR spectral analyses were done for the prepared glasses and glass-ceramics before and after immersion in a sodium phosphate solution for extended times. The appearance of two IR bands within the spectral range 550–680 cm-1 after immersion confirms the formation of hydroxyapatite. X-ray diffraction studies and scanning electron microscope analysis supported the obtained infrared spectroscopy results. The solubility test (measurements of the weight loss in aqueous sodium phosphate solution was conducted for measuring the dissolution of both glassy and crystalline derivatives to find out the role of SrO. The corrosion behaviour of the glasses and glass-ceramics indicate the increase of weight loss with the increase of SrO content. Different suggested proposals were introduced to explain this abnormal behaviour.

Mohamed A. Marzouk

2014-09-01

334

Sodium solute symporter and cadherin proteins act as Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Ba toxin functional receptors in Tribolium castaneum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding how Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins interact with proteins in the midgut of susceptible coleopteran insects is crucial to fully explain the molecular bases of Bt specificity and insecticidal action. In this work, aminopeptidase N (TcAPN-I), E-cadherin (TcCad1), and sodium solute symporter (TcSSS) have been identified by ligand blot as putative Cry3Ba toxin-binding proteins in Tribolium castaneum (Tc) larvae. RNA interference knockdown of TcCad1 or TcSSS proteins resulted in decreased susceptibility to Cry3Ba toxin, demonstrating the Cry toxin receptor functionality for these proteins. In contrast, TcAPN-I silencing had no effect on Cry3Ba larval toxicity, suggesting that this protein is not relevant in the Cry3Ba toxin mode of action in Tc. Remarkable features of TcSSS protein were the presence of cadherin repeats in its amino acid sequence and that a TcSSS peptide fragment containing a sequence homologous to a binding epitope found in Manduca sexta and Tenebrio molitor Bt cadherin functional receptors enhanced Cry3Ba toxicity. This is the first time that the involvement of a sodium solute symporter protein as a Bt functional receptor has been demonstrated. The role of this novel receptor in Bt toxicity against coleopteran insects together with the lack of receptor functionality of aminopeptidase N proteins might account for some of the differences in toxin specificity between Lepidoptera and Coleoptera insect orders. PMID:23645668

Contreras, Estefanía; Schoppmeier, Michael; Real, M Dolores; Rausell, Carolina

2013-06-21

335

A fiber-optic sensor using an aqueous solution of sodium chloride to measure temperature and water level simultaneously.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

2014-01-01

336

Reactions of p- sodium styrene sulphonate with pulse radiolytically generated reducing radicals in aqueous solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transient species formed by reactions of e-aq., H atoms and CO2- with p -sodium styrene sulphonate (SSS) have been investigated by pulse radiolysis techniques. The absorption spectra of the transient formed by eaq- and H atom reaction with SSS were similar but the rate of reaction of H atom with SSS was slower than that of eaq- reaction. The reaction of anion with SSS was an order of magnitude faster than that of cation radical, indicating that initiation of polymerization of SSS by anionic species. (author)

337

Sodium thiosulfonate salts: molecular and supramolecular structural features and solution radiolytic properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three sodium thiosulfonate salts, NaMeS(2)O(2)·H(2)O, NaPhS(2)O(2) and NaMeC(6)H(4)S(2)O(2) have been prepared by the direct reaction of the sodium sulfinate salts with elemental sulfur, a clean, benign route that produces no by-products. The structures of the phenyl (which crystallised as a hydrate, NaPhS(2)O(2)·1.5H(2)O) and p-tolyl compounds were determined by X-ray crystallography. For the p-tolyl derivative, NaMeC(6)H(4)S(2)O(2), the unexpected coordination of the pendant sulfur atom was found, a feature not reported previously for thiosulfonate salts, and observed only in two of the more common thiosulfate salts. Intermolecular CH/? interactions are postulated to contribute to the driving force of sulfur coordination, otherwise a different orientation of the aromatic rings would be expected. For NaPhS(2)O(2)·1.5H(2)O, the water ligands and thiosulfonate anions each contribute three oxygen atoms to form a NaO(6) coordination sphere. The thiosulfonate and water oxygens bridge to other sodium atoms forming a three-dimensional layer structure consisting of sheets of NaPhS(2)O(2)·1.5H(2)O with a hydrophilic interior layer, comprising the sodium ions, water ligands and -S(2)O(2)(-) groups, and a hydrophobic exterior formed by the phenyl substituent. The structure is further stabilised by an extensive H-bonding network between the ligated water and the non-coordinating thiosulfonate sulfur atom forming part of the hydrophilic layer and by weak intermolecular edge-to-face CH/? interactions between the sheets. Investigation of the radical chemistry of the three salts using pulse radiolysis indicated that oxidation of NaMeS(2)O(2)·H(2)O involves formation of a sulfur-centred radical rather than hydrogen abstraction from the methyl substituent, whereas oxidation of the aromatic ring is the preferred pathway for the phenyl and p-tolyl derivatives. PMID:21968656

Fischmann, Adam J; Spiccia, Leone

2011-12-01

338

The thermodynamic properties of solutions of sodium chloride, water, and 1-propanol  

Science.gov (United States)

The temperature-concentration dependences of the activity coefficient of NaCl in aqueous solutions of 1-propanol at 298 and 318 K, solution ionic strength up to 3 m, and alcohol contents of 10-40 wt % were determined by the method of electromotive forces with ion-selective electrodes. The results were used to estimate interaction parameters in the Pitzer model. The Darken method was used to calculate the integral Gibbs energy of solutions.

Mamontov, M. N.; Konstantinova, N. M.; Veryaeva, E. S.; Uspenskaya, I. A.

2010-07-01

339

Efeito do bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento de vinhaça em AnSBBR operado a 55 e 35ºC Effect of the sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of vinasse in AnSBBR operated at 55 and 35ºC  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do bicarbonato de sódio (NaHCO3 no desempenho do reator anaeróbio batelada sequencial com biomassa imobilizada tratando vinhaça a 55 e a 35ºC. O reator foi preenchido com espuma de poliuretano e agitado a 300 rpm. A adaptação a 55ºC estendeu-se por 50 dias, tendo o reator sido alimentado com vinhaça (DQO de 0,3 a 1,0 g/L. Para a operação a 35ºC, procedeu-se inicialmente ao enriquecimento da população metanogênica, durante 21 dias, com substrato à base de etanol (2,5 gDQO/L. Posteriormente, cargas orgânicas volumétricas (COV de 0,85 a 5,70 gDQO/L.d foram aplicadas no reator a 55ºC, com suplementação de 1,2 a 0,4 gHCO3-/gDQO. A 35ºC, o reator foi submetido a COV de 2,85 a 36,0 gDQO/L.d com 0,4 a 0,2 gHCO3-/gDQO. A remoção de DQO variou de 43 a 78% a 55ºC e de 75 a 85% a 35ºC. A suplementação de alcalinidade mostrou-se essencial para a estabilidade do processo, sendo requerida em menor quantidade a 35ºC.The influence of the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating vinasse at 55 and 35ºC was evaluated. The reactor was filled with polyurethane foam and agitated at 300 rpm. The acclimatization period at 55ºC lasted 50 days, and the reactor was fed with vinasse (COD from 0.3 to 1.0 g/L. A previous enrichment of methanogenic population was provided for the reactor operated at 35ºC, feeding it with an ethanol based substrate (2.5 gCOD/L during 21 days. Further on, organic loading rates (OLR ranging from 0.85 to 5.70 gCOD/L.d were applied to the reactor at 55ºC, supplemented with 1.2 to 0.4 gHCO3-/gCOD. At 35ºC the reactor was subjected to OLR ranging from 2.85 to 36.0 gCOD/L.d with 0.4 to 0.2 gHCO3-/gCOD. COD removal ranged from 43 to 78% at 55ºC and from 75 to 85% at 35ºC. Alkalinity supplementation was found to be essential for process stability, but the amount required was lower at 35ºC.

Maria Magdalena Ribas Döll

2010-09-01

340

Efeito do bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento de vinhaça em AnSBBR operado a 55 e 35ºC / Effect of the sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of vinasse in AnSBBR operated at 55 and 35ºC  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência do bicarbonato de sódio (NaHCO3) no desempenho do reator anaeróbio batelada sequencial com biomassa imobilizada tratando vinhaça a 55 e a 35ºC. O reator foi preenchido com espuma de poliuretano e agitado a 300 rpm. A adaptação a 55ºC estendeu-se por 50 dias, tendo o reator si [...] do alimentado com vinhaça (DQO de 0,3 a 1,0 g/L). Para a operação a 35ºC, procedeu-se inicialmente ao enriquecimento da população metanogênica, durante 21 dias, com substrato à base de etanol (2,5 gDQO/L). Posteriormente, cargas orgânicas volumétricas (COV) de 0,85 a 5,70 gDQO/L.d foram aplicadas no reator a 55ºC, com suplementação de 1,2 a 0,4 gHCO3-/gDQO. A 35ºC, o reator foi submetido a COV de 2,85 a 36,0 gDQO/L.d com 0,4 a 0,2 gHCO3-/gDQO. A remoção de DQO variou de 43 a 78% a 55ºC e de 75 a 85% a 35ºC. A suplementação de alcalinidade mostrou-se essencial para a estabilidade do processo, sendo requerida em menor quantidade a 35ºC. Abstract in english The influence of the sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on the performance of an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating vinasse at 55 and 35ºC was evaluated. The reactor was filled with polyurethane foam and agitated at 300 rpm. The acclimatization period at 55ºC lasted 50 days, and the reacto [...] r was fed with vinasse (COD from 0.3 to 1.0 g/L). A previous enrichment of methanogenic population was provided for the reactor operated at 35ºC, feeding it with an ethanol based substrate (2.5 gCOD/L) during 21 days. Further on, organic loading rates (OLR) ranging from 0.85 to 5.70 gCOD/L.d were applied to the reactor at 55ºC, supplemented with 1.2 to 0.4 gHCO3-/gCOD. At 35ºC the reactor was subjected to OLR ranging from 2.85 to 36.0 gCOD/L.d with 0.4 to 0.2 gHCO3-/gCOD. COD removal ranged from 43 to 78% at 55ºC and from 75 to 85% at 35ºC. Alkalinity supplementation was found to be essential for process stability, but the amount required was lower at 35ºC.

Maria Magdalena Ribas, Döll; Eugenio, Foresti.

2010-09-01

341

Solubilization in aqueous solutions of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium dodecylsulphate studied by nuclear magnetic relaxation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2H and 14N nuclear magnetic relaxation time measurements have been used to study the dynamics of benzene and cyclohexane molecules solubilized in aqueous CTAB and SDS solutions and the effect of solubilization on the dynamics of the surfactant molecules in CTAB solutions. The rotational diffusion of cyclohexane molecules is found to be 2-3 times slower in the micelles than in the corresponding liquid hydracarbons. Benzene is found to be solubilized at sites close to the polar surface of the micelles both in CTAB and SDS solutions, but it is only in the case of CTAB solutions that benzene solubilization promotes the formation of long rodshaped aggregates. (orig.)

342

Nedocromil sodium ophthalmic solution 2% twice daily in patients with allergic conjunctivitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a multicenter, open-label evaluation, 1098 patients with ocular itching and a history of perennial or seasonal allergic conjunctivitis instilled one drop of nedocromil sodium 2% twice daily in each eye. Ocular symptoms, signs, and global improvement were assessed at baseline and 1 month; satisfaction scores, quality-of-life variables, and adverse events were also recorded. Significant improvements from baseline (Ptired eyes, dryness, gritty sensation, eye pain, foreign-body sensation, and light sensitivity. Physicians reported significant reductions (P<.0001) in bulbar conjunctival redness and swelling. Two thirds of patients (634/954) and three fourths of physicians (710/954) reported at least 75% improvement in overall condition after 1 month. The most common adverse events were burning (2.7%) and unpleasant taste (1.4%); headache (1.2%) and adverse events leading to discontinuation (1.3%) were rare. Patients reported significant improvement (P<.001) in their ability to perform daily activities; 65% were more satisfied with nedocromil than with their typical medication. Physicians would prescribe nedocromil again to 80% of the patients. Nedocromil sodium 2% twice daily was effective and safe for the treatment of symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis, significantly improving quality of life and producing high rates of user and physician satisfaction. PMID:12069370

Tauber, Joseph

2002-01-01

343

Attenuation coefficients of sodium chloride for 662 keV ?-radiation, measured in dilute solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technique developed for the direct measurement of linear attenuation and mass attenuation (or absorption) coefficients of dilute solutions of salts has been applied to the attenuation of 662 keV ?-emission from 137Cs in dilute NaCl solutions. (author)

344

Effects of hypertonic sodium chloride solution on the electrophysiologic alterations caused by bupivacaine in the dog heart  

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Full Text Available The effects of various hypertonic solutions on the intraventricular conduction, ventricular repolarization and the arrhythmias caused by the intravenous (iv injection of bupivacaine (6.5 mg/kg were studied in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized mongrel dogs. Hypertonic solutions, given iv 5 min before bupivacaine, were 7.5% (w/v NaCl, 5.4% (w/v LiCl, 50% (w/v glucose (2,400 mOsm/l, 5 ml/kg, or 20% (w/v mannitol (1,200 mOsm/l, 10 ml/kg. Bupivacaine induced severe arrhythmias and ventricular conduction and repolarization disturbances, as reflected by significant increases in QRS complex duration, HV interval, IV interval and monophasic action potential duration, as well as severe hemodynamic impairment. Significant prevention against ventricular electrophysiologic and hemodynamic disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias was observed with 7.5% NaCl (percent increase in QRS complex duration: 164.4 ± 21.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 74.7 ± 14.1% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in HV interval: 131.4 ± 16.1% in the non-pretreated group vs 58.2 ± 7.5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent increase in monophasic action potential duration: 22.7 ± 6.8% in the non-pretreated group vs 9.8 ± 6.3% in the pretreated group, P<0.05; percent decrease in cardiac index: -46 ± 6% in the non-pretreated group vs -28 ± 5% in the pretreated group, P<0.05. The other three hypertonic solutions were ineffective. These findings suggest an involvement of sodium ions in the mechanism of hypertonic protection.

Scalabrini A.

2003-01-01

345

Attenuation coefficients of 123 keV ?-radiation by dilute solutions of sodium chloride  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The linear attenuation and mass attenuation (or absorption) coefficients of the 123 keV ? radiation from 57Co by dilute solutions of NaCl were studied for varying concentrations. The mixture rule for the theoretical calculation of attenuation coefficients was developed for solutions. This study explores the validity of the expected exponential attenuation absorption law for ?-radiation in solutions and also provides an alternative method for the direct determination of linear and mass attenuation coefficients of soluble salts in solid form without obtaining them in pure crystalline form. (Author)

346

Exploring molecular insights into aggregation of hydrotrope sodium cumene sulfonate in aqueous solution: a molecular dynamics simulation study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrotropes are an important class of molecules that enhance the solubility of an otherwise insoluble or sparingly soluble solute in water. Besides this, hydrotropes are also known to self-assemble in aqueous solution and form aggregates. It is the hydrotrope aggregate that helps in solubilizing a solute molecule in water. In view of this, we try to understand the underlying mechanism of self-aggregation of hydrotrope sodium cumene sulfonate (SCS) in water. We have carried out classical molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous SCS solutions with a regime of concentrations. Moreover, to examine the effect of temperature change on SCS aggregation, if any, we consider four different temperatures ranging from 298 to 358 K. From the estimation of densities of different solutions we calculate apparent and partial molal volumes of the hydrotrope. The changes in these quantities increase sharply at a characteristic minimum hydrotrope concentration. The determination of molal expansibility at infinite dilution for different temperatures indicates the water structure breaking by SCS molecules, which is further confirmed by the calculations of water-water pair correlation functions. In comparison with typical surfactants in micelles, a slightly lower value of volumetric change upon aggregation per carbon atom suggests the formation of a more closely packed structure of hydrotrope aggregates. A close examination of different structural properties of hydrotrope solutions reveals that the hydrophobic interactions through their hydrophobic tails significantly contribute in hydrotrope aggregation,and the dehydration of hydrophobic tail at elevated temperatures is also visible. Remarkably, the aggregates have little or no impact on the average number of water-SCS hydrogen bonds. PMID:25602712

Das, Shubhadip; Paul, Sandip

2015-02-19

347

Investigation of sodium 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonate solubility in aqueous organic solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The solubilities of NTSNa in three binary solvent mixtures are experimental determined. ? The relative binary interaction parameters of the E-NRTL model are obtained. ? The root-mean-square deviations of solubility temperature vary from (0.20 to 1.35) K. - Abstract: The solubility of sodium 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonate (NTSNa) in binary solvent mixtures (methanol + water), (ethanol + water), and (2-methoxyethanol + water) was investigated over the temperature range from (288 to 344) K. The mole fraction of water in solvent mixtures ranged from 0 to 0.8. The solubility data are described by the electrolyte non-random two-liquid (E-NRTL) model. The E-NRTL binary interaction parameters are expressed as a function of temperature, and were obtained from the experimental data. The root-mean-square deviations of solubility temperature varied from (0.20 to 1.35) K.

348

One-step synthesis of silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles by electrooxidation of iron in sodium silicate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized successfully using a one-step electrochemical method. In this method, pure iron in a dilute aqueous sodium silicate solution that served as a silica precursor was electrooxidized. We show that the presence of silicate can significantly enhance the purity of the magnetite formed. Impurities in the form of FeOOH (found in the magnetite prepared in water) are not found. The magnetite nanoparticles produced by this method are nearly spherical with a mean size ranging from 6 to 10 nm, which is lower than the size of particles prepared in water, and this size range depends on the applied voltage and the sodium silicate concentration. The magnetite nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic properties with saturation magnetization ranging from 15 to 22 emu g?1, which is lower than the saturation magnetization of the Fe3O4 bulk materials (Ms = 92 emu g?1). This facile method appears to be promising as a synthetic route for producing silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles.

349

Phase transitions and electrical properties in the system of sodium-lithium-strontium niobate solid solutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One carried out precision X-ray diffraction analysis of solid solutions enabling to determine more precisely phase transitions within (Na, Li, Sr0.5)NbO3 ternary system. One determined relation between structural and electrophysical parameters of (Na, Li, Sr0.5)NbO3 solid solutions within component concentration wide range and interpreted in more detail the peculiarities of their electrophysical properties. One prepared compositions with low dielectric permittivity and high sensitivity to mechanical stress

350

Effect of solution pH on electrochemical oxidation of iodide ion at platinum electrode in sodium perchlorate solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In first several days during the severe accident of nuclear power plants, radioactive iodine-131 is one of the most hazardous volatile fission products which could be released from fuels of nuclear reactors. Due to its high radioactivity, high fission yield up to 2% and hazardous biological effects, many research groups have been studied the chemical behavior of iodine species. Iodine is reported to be released from the fuels as a cesium iodide form, CsI. And, as nuclear fuels are mostly placed in the water pool, it is easily dissolved in the water after released from the fuels. In water, iodide anion could be oxidized into molecular iodine. As the molecular iodine is a volatile species and the oxidizing rate is affected by many environmental facts such as pH, radiolysis products and temperature, the oxidation reaction of the iodide ion has been considered as an important chemical reaction related to the severe accident of nuclear power plants. In present work, the effect of the solution pH on the electrochemical oxidation of iodide anion was carried out using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) technique in different pH solutions. We confirmed that the electrochemical oxidation reaction of iodide into iodine at Pt electrode is independent on the solution pH

351

Evaluation of the dark pigment formation when mixing the sodium hypochlorite solution in different concentrations, with chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2%  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the dark pigment formation when mixing sodium hypochlorite solution in different concentrations, with chlorhexidine gluconate. Material and methods: 1 mL of sodium hypochlorite solution was mixed at concentrations of 0.5%, 1 to 1.5%, 2.5 to 3%, 4.5 to 5% with 1 mL of chlorhexidine at 0.2% in Petri dishes. After 5 minutes, the reading of the dishes was done. Results and conclusion: Through the results obtained, it can be observed that in all mixtures there was the formation of a dark pigment.

Luis Eduardo Duarte IRALA

2009-09-01

352

Synthesis, Optical and Thermal studies on novel nonlinear optical L–Histidine Sodium Thiosulphate crystal by solution growth technique  

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Full Text Available A semi organic non-linear optical single crystal of L–Histidine Sodium Thiosulphate has been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The lattice parameters of the grown crystals were identified using single crystal X-ray analysis. The functional groups present in the crystal were identified using FTIR analysis. Optical absorption studies have confirmed that the grown crystal possesses less absorption in the entire visible region and UV cut-off is found to be at 230 nm. Thermal stability of the grown crystal was identified from TG-DTA analysis. The mechanical properties of the grown crystals have been studied using Vickers micro hardness tester for different loads. The presence of second harmonic generation (SHG for the grown crystal was confirmed by Kurtz powder technique.

M. Radha Ramanan

2013-06-01

353

Formation of Rod Shape Secondary Aggregation of Copper Nanoparticles in Aqueous Solution of Sodium Borohydride with Stabilizing Polymer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Morphological variations of copper nanoparticles synthesized by the reduction of copper acetate with sodium borohydride in the presence of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) have been investigated. The results indicate that the specific rod shape secondary aggregation of copper nanoparticles are formed in the case that the oxygen is dissolved in the reacting solutions. Furthermore, it is also demonstrated that the copper nanorods with the aspect ratio of 2 - 20 and the average short axis length of 5 nm are synthesized in the weak oxidizing ambiance with a medium amount of PVP. The anomalous variations of copper nanoparticles are explained by the alignments of precursor copper ions and their reducing rates, which are modified by the density of resolved oxygen and the amount of PVP

354

Corrosion behaviour of injection moulded 316L and 17-4PH stainless steels in a sodium chloride solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, the corrosion resistance of 316L and 17-4PH PIM stainless steel has been investigated. The corrosion performance was analysed by ASTM B-117 salt spray tests, weight loss measurements and potentiodynamic polarisation tests carried out in 3% NaCl. Salt spray and weight loss results indicated that both steels had high corrosion resistance in sodium chloride. No signs of corrosion were seen on the surfaces of these steels, even after 30 days of exposure to a salt spray test or after 33 days immersed in 3% NaCl solution. The polarisation curves revealed similar corrosion behaviour for both steels, and low corrosion rates at the corrosion potential. However, a tendency to pitting was observed. (orig.)

Sobral, A.V.C.; Franco, C.V. [Dept. de Engenharia Quimica, Univ. Federal de Santa Catarina Florianopolis SC (Brazil); Ristow, W. Jr. [LUPATECH SA, Caxias do Sul-RS (Brazil); Correa, O.V.; Costa, I. [IPEN/CNEN-SP, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2001-07-01

355

O efeito protetor do bicarbonato de sodio na nefropatia induzida por contraste radiologico em ratos / Protective effect of sodium bicarbonate on radiological contrast medium-induced nephropathy in rats / Efecto protector del bicarbonato de sodio en nefropatia inducida por contraste radiologico en ratones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Contrastes radiológicos iodados - CI são causa de lesão renal aguda - LRA. Avaliar o efeito renoprotetor do bicarbonato de sódio (Bic) sobre a função renal (clearance de creatinina, Jaffé, Clcr-ml/min/100g) e o perfil oxidativo (excreção de peróxidos, PU e de malondealdeído urinários, FOX-2 e TBARs, [...] nmol/mgCr ) em ratos com CI. Ratos machos adultos Wistar, 250-300g, tratados 1x/dia, por 5 dias, foram divididos nos grupos: Salina (solução salina 0,9%, 3ml/kg/dia, intraperitoneal-i.p.); CI (ioxitalamato de meglumina e sódio, 3ml/kg, i.p); Bic+Salina (Bic 3ml/kg, i.p, 1 hora antes e 1 hora depois da Salina); Bic+CI (Bic 3ml/kg, i.p, 1 hora antes e 1 hora depois do CI). CI induziu LRA e o Bic confirmou seu efeito renoprotetor antioxidante (Clcr/TBARs/PU Salina: 0,59±0,03/0,11±0,02/1,29±0,24 vs Bic+Salina 0,58±0,03/0,13±0,02/1,32±0,64 vs CI 0,22±0,02A/0,19±0,02A/4,77±0, 24A vs Bic+CI 0,51±0,04B/0,13±0,3B/1,80± 0,04B, A/B p Abstract in spanish Contrastes radiológicos iodados - CI son causa de lesión renal aguda - LRA. Evaluar el efecto renoprotector del bicarbonato de sodio (Bic) en la función renal (clearance de creatinina, Jaffé, Clcr-ml/min/100g) y el perfil oxidativo (excreción de peróxidos, PU y de malondealdehido urinarios, FOX-2 e [...] TBARs, nmol/mgCr) en ratones con CI. Ratones machos adultos Wistar, 250-300g, tratados 1x/día durante 5 días, fueron divididos en grupos: Salina (solución salina 0,9%, 3ml/kg/día, intraperitoneal-i.p.); CI (ioxitalamato de meglumina y sodio, 3ml/kg, i.p); Bic+Salina (Bic 3ml/kg, i.p, 1 hora antes y 1 hora después de la Salina); Bic+CI (Bic 3ml/kg, i.p, 1 hora antes y 1 hora después del CI). CI indujo LRA y el Bic confirmó su efecto renoprotector antioxidante (Clcr/TBARs/PU Salina: 0,59±0,03/0,11±0,02/1,29±0,24 vs Bic+Salina 0,58±0,03/0,13±0,02/1,32±0,64 vs CI 0,22±0,02A/0,19±0,02A/ 4,77±0,24A vs Bic+CI 0,51±0,04B /0,13±0,3B/1,80±0,04B,A/B p Abstract in english Radiological iodinated contrasts (IC) agents cause acute kidney injury (AKI). To evaluate the renoprotective effect of sodium bicarbonate (Bic) on renal function (creatinine clearance {Clcr}, Jaffé, and Clcr mL·min-1?100 g-1) and the oxidative profile (peroxide excretion, urinary peroxides, urinary [...] malondialdehyde, FOX-2 expression, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance {TBARS; nmol/mg Cr}) in rats treated with an IC agent. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250 - 300 g were treated once daily for 5 days with one of the following treatments: saline (0.9%, 3 mL·kg-1?day-1intraperitoneally {i.p.}), IC agent (sodium and meglumine ioxitalamate, 3 mL/kg, i.p.), Bic + Saline (3-mL/kg Bic, i.p., 1 h before and after saline treatment), and Bic + IC (3-mL/kg Bic, i.p., 1 h before and after the IC treatment). The IC agent induced AKI, and the antioxidant renoprotective effect of Bic was confirmed (Clcr/TBARS/urinary peroxide: saline group, 0.59 ± 0.03/0.11 ± 0.02/1.29 ± 0.24; Bic + Saline group, 0.58 ± 0.03/0.13 ± 0.02/1.32 ± 0.64; IC group, 0.22 ± 0.02/0.19 ± 0.02/4.77 ± 0.24; Bic + CI group, 0.51 ± 0.04/0.13 ± 0.3/1.80 ± 0.04; p

Maria de Fatima Fernandes, Vattimo; Juliana Guareschi dos, Santos.

2013-06-01

356

Hydrogen generation from catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride solution using Cobalt-Copper-Boride (Co-Cu-B) catalysts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Co-Cu-B, as a catalyst toward hydrolysis of sodium borohydride solution, has been prepared through chemical reduction of metal salts, CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O and CuCl{sub 2}, by an alkaline solution composed of 7.5wt% NaBH{sub 4} and 7.5wt% NaOH. The effects of Co/Cu molar ratio, calcination temperature, NaOH and NaBH{sub 4} concentration and reaction temperature on catalytic activity of Co-Cu-B for hydrogen generation from alkaline NaBH{sub 4} solution have been studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm have been employed to understand the results. The Co-Cu-B catalyst with a Co/Cu molar ratio of 3:1 and calcinated at 400 C showed the best catalytic activity at ambient temperature. The activation energy of this catalytic reaction is calculated to be 49.6 kJ mol{sup -1}. (author)

Ding, Xin-Long; Yuan, Xianxia; Jia, Chao; Ma, Zi-Feng [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2010-10-15

357

Comparative permeability studies with radioactive and nonradioactive risedronate sodium from self-microemulsifying drug delivery system and solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The purpose of this work is to prepare a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) for risedronate sodium (RSD) and to compare the permeability with RSD solution. The solubility of RSD was determined in different vehicles. Phase diagrams were constructed to determine the optimum concentration of oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant. RSD SMEDDS was prepared by using a mixture of soybean oil, cremophor EL, span 80, and transcutol (2.02:7.72:23.27:61.74, w/w, respectively). The prepared RSD SMEDDS was characterized by droplet size value. In vitro Caco-2 cell permeability studies were performed for SMEDDS and solution of radioactive ((99?m)Tc-labeled RSD) and nonradioactive RSD. The experimental results indicated that RSD SMEDDS has good stability and its droplet size is between 216.68?±?3.79 and 225.26?±?7.65 during stability time. In addition, RSD SMEDDS has higher permeability value than the RSD solution for both radioactive and nonradioactive experiments. The results illustrated the potential use of SMEDDS for delivery of poorly absorbed RSD. PMID:25285358

Ilem-Ozdemir, Derya; Gundogdu, Evren; Ekinci, Meliha; Ozgenc, Emre; Asikoglu, Makbule

2014-10-01

358

Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate as a corrosion inhibitor of cold rolled steel in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphical abstract: Relationship between corrosion current density (icorr), inhibition efficiency (?p) and temperature with and without DDTC. (solid symbols: icorr, open symbols: ?p.) Highlights: ? DDTC can acts as a cathodic type inhibitor for CRS in HCl solution. ? The activation energy, Ea, increases with increasing the concentration of DDTC. ? The driving force for adsorption of DDTC on CRS is the increase in entropy. ? DDTC adsorbs on CRS surface probably by chemisorption and physisorption. ? Variation of DDTC results in different effect for time on inhibition efficiency. - Abstract: Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) as a corrosion inhibitor for cold rolled steel (CRS) in 0.5 M HCl solution was investigated by Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). All the data indicate that DDTC can inhibit the corrosion of CRS in HCl solution. Polarization data show that DDTC mainly acts as a good inhibitor though it can accelerate the anodic reaction somewhat. Adsorption of DDTC is found to follow the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that both physisorption and chemisorption probably occur in the adsorption process. SEM and FTIR results further validate that DDTC can adsorb on CRS surface.

359

Role of water structure on the high pressure micellization and phase transformations of sodium dodecanoate aqueous solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work is to study the micelle formation and possible subsequent transformations of sodium dodecanoate aggregates in aqueous solutions at pressures up to 700 MPa. This pressure range is much larger than in most available studies on surfactant solutions and allows for evaluating the possible effect of the low-density to high-density water transformation on the aggregative behavior of the surfactant. The speed-of-sound and attenuation coefficient were determined at 298.15 K as a function of pressure at concentrations up to 0.13 mol kg(-1) in water. The speed-of-sound behavior with concentration is maintained up to pressures around 350 MPa. The attenuation coefficient, initially insensitive to pressure, exhibits a sudden increase around 250 MPa, reaching a maximum around 350 MPa and a plateau above 500 MPa in the case of the highest studied surfactant concentrations. From the analysis of the changes observed in these properties, it was possible to extend the concentration-pressure phase diagram of sodium dodecanoate at constant temperature. Some peculiarities found were: (1) the critical micellar concentration reaches a maximum around 170 MPa, (2) the micellar phase disappears above 400 MPa, (3) a phase transformation starts around 250 MPa, setting the solubility limit of the surfactant at concentrations around 0.06 mol kg(-1) in this pressure region, and (4) further transformations occur between 350 and 500 MPa. We discuss in length the possibility that such transformations might be driven by structural changes linked to the so-called low-density-water to high-density-water transition. PMID:24903603

Hidalgo Baltasar, Eduardo; Taravillo, Mercedes; Sanz, Pedro D; Baonza, Valentín G; Guignon, Bérengère

2014-07-01

360

Nuclear spin relaxation of sodium cations in bacteriophage Pf1 solutions  

Science.gov (United States)

The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra for the I =3/2 Na23 cation dissolved into filamentous bacteriophage Pf1 solutions display line splittings and relaxation times consistent with an interaction between the Na23 nuclear quadrupole moment and the electric field gradient produced by the negatively charged Pf1 particles. The Na23 NMR line splittings and relaxation rates corresponding to magnetization recovery and single, double, and triple quantum coherence decays are measured in Pf1 solutions and compared to theoretical values. The deviation of the observed dc spectral density J(0) from the equal first harmonic J(?0) and second harmonic J(2?0) values as J(?0)=J(2?0)?J(0) in these solutions suggests that ion migration in the electric field gradient of the Pf1 particles produces an anisotropic relaxation mechanism. Correlation functions and thus spectral densities for this process are calculated from solutions to the Fokker-Planck equation for radial motion in an electric potential and used to estimate measured relaxation rates. Appropriate electric potentials are generated from the solutions to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation for a charged Pf1 particle in aqueous phase, functions that lead to theoretical estimates of NMR line splittings consistent with experimental observations.

Sobieski, D. N.; Krueger, N. R.; Vyas, S.; Augustine, M. P.

2006-12-01

361

Modification of the Two-Point Scaling Theory for the Description of the Phase Transition in Solution. Analysis of Sodium Octanoate Aqueous Solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of conventional scaling theory, the two-point scaling theory was modified in order to describe the influence of composition on the partial molar heat capacity and volume during the micellization process. To verify the theory, isobaric heat capacities and densities of aqueous sodium octanoate solutions were measured over wide composition and temperature ranges and the modified approach was used to analyze the calculated partial molar heat capacities and volumes of the surfactant in water. The results obtained indicate that the micellization process is subject to the scaling laws. The results were compared with those for other systems. Peculiar behavior of the critical indices was observed and correlated with the structure of the micelles. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10953-012-9795-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:22448076

Piekarski, Henryk; Wasiak, Micha?; Wojtczak, Leszek

2012-03-01

362

Radiolysis of concentrated solutions of sodium nitrate in D2O  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are presented from a comparative investigation of the radiolysis of concentrated solutions of NaNO3 in D2O under the effect of 60Co ?-rays and 14.1-MeV fast neutrons. It was shown that, just as for solutions based on H2O, The yields of NO2- by the indirect-action mechanism depend little on the type of radiation. At the same time, in neutron irradiation, the yield by the direct-action mechanism is twice as great as in ?-radiolysis. Pulsed radiolysis was used to measure the rate constant of the reaction of a solvated electron with the NO3minus ion in D2O. The determined value of kD2O, (5.1 ± 0.7) x 109 dm3/(molexsec), was found to be almost twofold less than the analogous value for solutions in light water

363

Measurements and modeling of deposition rates from a near supercritical aqueous sodium sulfate solution to a heated cylinder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Toxic organic wastes and mixed wastes, composed of toxic organic compounds and radioactive elements, are a major environmental management problem. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) shows promise for effective remediation of these wastes by destroying their organic constituents and, when necessary, concentrating their radioactive ingredients in forms suited to safe disposal. In the Supercritical Water oxidation process, organic compounds containing heteroatoms such as S, Cl or P are oxidized to the corresponding acid. In order to avoid corrosion, bases are therefore often injected into the reactor. The salts that are formed upon neutralization (sulfates, chlorides, phosphates, etc.) have low solubility in SCW and consequently precipitate as solid phases. These salts can form agglomerates and coat internal surfaces, leading to plugging of transport lines and inhibition of heat transfer. The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of salt deposition kinetics and nucleation phenomena in SCWO reactors. The authors provide experimental deposition rate data from a sodium sulfate-containing SCW stream to a heated cylinder and develop a predictive model which is buttressed by these data. They also discuss how the deposition rate is linked to the nucleation mechanism and what type of nucleation is most important in the experiments. For the experiments, the test section is a six-port chamber which is fashioned from a 1.91 cm (3/4 in.) diameter Swagelok cross. One cm (3/4 in.) diameter Swagelok cross. One port was used to mount a 5.08 mm diameter internally heated cylinder into the center of the chamber and the remaining ports provided fluid cross flow, visual observation capability and instrumentation access. Aqueous sodium sulfate solutions of 4 wt% salt concentration were pumped at about 250 bar through preheaters that brought the solution to a temperature close to that at which precipitation occurs. The heated cylinder raised the nearby solution above this temperature, thus limiting deposition almost exclusively to the heated cylinder. The rate of deposition was observed to be of order 0.1 gm/minute. Natural convection dominated transport at the conditions investigated and the observed deposition rates indicate that all the salt nucleated heterogeneously at the salt layer-solution interface

364

Effect of sodium phosphate salts on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) 6000 at different temperatures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Precise density, sound velocity, water activity, and phase diagram measurements have been carried out on polyethylene oxide (PEO) in aqueous solutions of sodium di-hydrogen phosphate, di-sodium hydrogen phosphate, and tri-sodium phosphate over a range of temperatures at atmospheric pressure. The experimental density and sound velocity data are used to calculate the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility as a function of temperature and concentration. It was found that both of the apparent specific volume and isentropic compressibility of PEO in aqueous solutions increase by increasing temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes. The results show that the slope of constant water activity lines increased with increasing the temperature and charge on the anion of electrolytes and the vapour pressure depression for an aqueous (PEO + sodium phosphate) system is more than the sum of those for the corresponding binary solutions. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and type of anion of salt on the salting-out effect of polyethylene oxide by sodium phosphate salts has been studied

365

The removal of sodium and cadmium ions from dilute aqueous solutions using foam separation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cationic metallic ions, Na+ and Cd2+, were flotated by using foam separation technique in a continuous flow system. Experiments were carried out mainly on the conditions such that the pH range was limited within 1.3 to 4.0 and collector (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, M.W.=348.48) concentration was stoichiometrically greater than that of the colligend (Cadmium). Surface excess of colligend was greatly influenced by the co-existing H+ ion under constant concentration of collector and colligend ions within a pH range less than 4.0, and in turn, only slightly by the co-existing collector concentration under constant concentration of H+ ion and colligend (pH=4.0). It was also established that a considerable difference between mono- and divalent cationic metallic ions for the affinity to neutralize the negatively charged surface on gas-liquid interface was observed and verified by use of Gouy-Chapman diffuse double-layer theory, except for high concentration range of the co-existing collector forming micellaneous metal-collector complexes. (auth.)

366

Red phosphorus oxidation by oxygen in alcohol solution of iodine and sodium nitrite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Red phosphorous is oxidized rapidly by oxygen at 50-70 deg C into tri-and dialkyl phosphates in the alcohol solution of I2 and NaNO2. The kinetics and mechanism are studied, optimal conditions of a new catalytic reaction are found. 48 refs.; 4 figs

367

Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium express H(+)/HCO(3)(-) transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps, have not been explored. Here we show that pancreatic ducts express functional gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+)-ATPases. We measured intracellular pH and secretion in small ducts isolated from rat pancreas and showed their sensitivity to H(+)-K(+) pump inhibitors and ion substitutions. Gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+) pumps were demonstrated on RNA and protein levels, and pumps were localized to the plasma membranes of pancreatic ducts. Quantitative analysis of H(+)/HCO(3)(-) and fluid transport shows that theH(+)-K(+) pumps can contribute to pancreatic secretion in several species. Our results call for revision of the bicarbonate transport physiology in pancreas, and most likely other epithelia. Furthermore, because pancreatic ducts play a central role in several pancreatic diseases, it is of high relevance to understand the role of H(+)-K(+) pumps in pathophysiology.

Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing

2011-01-01

368

The effect of hemodialysis solution buffer on the control of blood pressure and efficacy of hemodialysis in chronic hemodialysis patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The effect of kind of dialysis solution on the control of blood pressure and adequacy and efficacy of hemodialysis is a most debated and controversial issue.Methods: Twenty six chronic hemodialized patients in Ghaem hemodialysis center, Mashhad, Iran, in winter of the year 2004, enrolled this study for one month. The patients were dialyzed with bicarbonate buffer and were dialyzed in the next month with acetate. The kind of membranes and the dialysis machines were the same in both months. Systolic and diastolic pressures were measured before and after hemodialysis in at least three hemodialysis sessions, and he means recorded. The mean of the body weight were also recorded. In the same sessions of hemodialysis by measuring the urea, before and after hemodialysis, urea reduction ratio (URR, was also calculated. Statistical analysis was done with paired student t test for paired measurement, and independent t test for evaluating the effect of the kind of dialysate buffer on the measured parameters.Results: There were no significant statistical differences between acetate and bicarbonate dialysis solution buffers in the control of diastolic blood pressure. But use of acetate buffer resulted in more significant systolic blood pressure reduction compared with bicarbonate buffer (p=0.045. When adequacy of hemodialysis were compared between two kinds of buffers there were no significant statistical differences between them. When the effect of dialysate sodium concentration in the range utilized in two buffers, was evaluated on the systolic and diastolic pressure reduction, no significant differences, between two types of buffers attributable to the difference between dialysates sodium concentrations were found.Conclusion: Hemodialysis with both, acetate and bicarbonate buffers results in significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, weight and urea ratio. Use of acetate buffer is more significantly associated with systolic blood pressure reduction compared to bicarbonate buffer (p=0.045, this effect is independent of the dialysate buffer sodium concentration.

Garevani H

2007-11-01

369

Solubility of proline-leucine dipeptide in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions from T = (288.15 to 313.15) K  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solubility of proline-leucine dipeptide, in water and in aqueous sodium chloride solutions, was measured at T = (288.15, 298.15, 308.15 and 313.15) K as a function of electrolyte concentration m = (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1) mol . kg-1 of water. Solubility data has been evaluated from density measurements using a vibrating tube densimeter. It has been observed that sodium chloride renders the dipeptide proline-leucine more soluble in water. Salting-in coefficients and standard free energies of transfer of proline-leucine, from water to aqueous sodium chloride solutions, have been calculated from the solubility data. Standard enthalpies and entropies of transfer have also been estimated and interpreted in terms of electrostatic and hydrophobic perturbed domains in the hydration shells of the dipeptide and of the cation and anion of the salt, as a function of temperature and salt concentration

370

Rupture of mild steel passivity to carbon in neutral solutions containing sodium sulfate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The localized corrosion of mild steel in neutral buffered solutions containing Na2SO4 was studied using potentiostatic and potentiodynamic techniques complemented by scanning electron microscopy. The breakdown potential depends linearly on the logarithm of Na2SO4 concentration. The logarithm of the induction time for pitting initiation decreases linearly with the reciprocal of the applied potential until the inhibition potential region is reached. Open scircuit potential decay, measured during the induction time, shows that the apparent thickness of the passive oxide film decreases before pit growth. The pitting current density is close to the diffusion limiting current of iron dissolution through a FeSO4 film. Results suggest that two dimensional ferrous sulfate salt islands are formed before pitting, as it has been postulated for iron in halide containing solutions. (C.L.B.)

371

Inhibiting effect of acetonitrile on oxygen reduction on polycrystalline pt electrode in sodium chloride solution  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR was studied on the polycrystalline Pt electrode in 0.1 M NaCl electrolyte containing various amounts of acetonitrile (AcN. The state of the electrode surface was characterized by the cyclic voltammetry in oxygen free electrolytes, while ORR studies were performed on the polycrystalline Pt rotating disc electrode by the linear sweep voltammetry in oxygen saturated electrolytes. The acetonitrile is chemisorbed on Pt over a wide potential range, inhibiting both hydrogen adsorption and oxide formation. The extent of AcN chemisorption depends on its concentration in the solution. Initial potential of oxygen reduction is shifted negatively, while the ORR current is increasingly reduced with the increase of AcN concentration. Complete inhibition of ORR in the potential range of AcN and Cl-anion coadsorption is achieved for (0.1 M NaCl + 1 M AcN solution.

Marinovi? Vedrana M.

2012-01-01

372

Shear Thickening of an Aqueous Micellar Solution of Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide and Sodium Tosylate  

OpenAIRE

In this experimental study we give results concerning the shear thickening behavior exhibited by an aqueous cationic surfactant solution of CTAB in the presence of added NaTOS. We carefully investigate the rheological characteristics of this phenomenon corresponding to a shear induced state (SIS), the reproductibility and also the transient regimes. We show that with steady experiments there exist no hysteresis effect. Finally we give the evolution of the shear thickening characteristics agai...

Hartmann, V.; Cressely, R.

1997-01-01

373

Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium  

Science.gov (United States)

We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 ? m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 ? m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 ?V K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 ?V K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

2014-06-01

374

Operational characterization of a spray dryer for drying water, caustic soda and sodium chloride solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The spray drying of distilled water, 50 % w/w NaOH, 10 % w/w NaOH, and 25 % w/w NaCl solution was investigated. Operating conditions, dryer design and inherent properties of the liquids affected performance operational trends and degrees of dryness. The various phenomena observed indicated the difficulty in predicting the performance or suitability of any dryer for the purpose of drying a liquid without an investigative task. The maximum values of exit mass flow rate of dried liquid, dryer temperature, heat transfer coefficient, specific energy supplied and moisture content removed were 0.015 kgs-1 for 25 % w/w NaCl solution, 402.6 K, 4.85 Wm-2K-1, 1, 941, 937.04 Jkg-1 and 0.217 for distilled water respectively. The exit mass flow rates increases with specific energy supplied for all the liquids, except for 50 % w/w NaOH solution which decreases with specific energy supplied. The possibility of exploring, competing or improving quantitatively and qualitatively on the conventional mode of drying some of these liquids industrially seems promising, with the aim of overcoming their inherent and present challenges.

Olufemi B. A.

2012-02-01

375

The crevice corrosion behaviour of stainless steel in sodium chloride solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? There are three stages in crevice corrosion of 13Cr stainless steel in NaCl solution. ? The decrease of crevice thickness shortens the incubation period of crevice corrosion. ? The incubation period of crevice corrosion prolongs as the increase of the area ratio. ? Corrosion develops preferentially at crevice bottom and hydrogen reduction occurs inside the crevice. ? Crevice corrosion of 13Cr stainless steel in NaCl solution follows the passive dissolution mechanism. - Abstract: The crevice corrosion behaviour of 13Cr stainless steel in NaCl solution was investigated mainly by electrochemical noise measurements, considering the influences of the crevice opening dimension (a) and the area ratio of the electrode outside the crevice to the one inside the crevice (r). Results show that the increase of r value prolongs the incubation period of crevice corrosion, but crevice corrosion develops rapidly once the crevice corrosion occurs. The crevice corrosion develops preferentially at the crevice bottom and then spreads to the whole electrode surface. Proton could reduce on the uncorroded area and hydrogen bubbles form inside the crevice.

376

Strong enhancement of trace mercury removal from aqueous solution with sodium thiosulfate by in situ formed Mn-(hydr)oxides.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) on trace mercury removal from aqueous solution by in situ MnOx was investigated. Removal efficiency was studied at different molar ratios of Na2S2O3/Mn (0, 0.264, 0.593 and 1.582) and under changes in Mn dosage, reaction time and pH conditions. Additionally, the ionic strength and the mercury removal amount were examined to evaluate the efficiency of trace mercury removal. The results indicated that the presence of thiosulfate clearly improved removal of mercury from solution, and that increases in the ionic strength enhanced removal in a certain range of thiosulfate concentration. At neutral conditions, the mercury removal amount reached to maximum of 64 ?g/mg. It is proposed that the ability of thiosulfate to reduce some MnOx to Mn(2+) as well as transfer the uncharged mercury species to a negatively charged species [Formula: see text] improved trace mercury removal. The mechanism analysis revealed that ternary complexes or large aggregations may be formed because of surface complexation or electrostatic attraction. PMID:25086412

Lu, Xixin; Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Yaan; Ma, Jun

2014-11-15

377

Dispersion effect of sodium hexametaphosphate on the photocatalytic efficiency of a solution-combusted ZnO nanopowder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ZnO nanopowder was synthesized by using a unique method combusting a mixed water solution that contained an oxidant and a fuel. Zn(OH)2 powder was used as an oxidant (source material). Three kinds of fuels, glycine, carbohydrazide and urea, were respectively used to synthesize the ZnO nanopowder. Sodium hexametaphosphate was used as a dispersant to avoid aggregation of the ZnO nanoparticles in the solution. The zeta potential and the ion mobility of the dispersed ZnO nanoparticles were measured to evaluate the dispersion properties. The ZnO nanopowder synthesized with glycine showed highest zeta potential and ion mobility. A photocatalytic reaction was performed to evaluate the photocatalytic efficiency. The dispersion of the ZnO nanoparticles in waste water enhanced the Cu++ ion removal from the waste water. The Cu++ ions were completely removed in 15 h with dispersion. Without dispersion, however, they were not completely removed, not even in 35 h. This means that the dispersant changed even the extreme performance limit of the photocatalyst.

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Dispersion effect of sodium hexametaphosphate on the photocatalytic efficiency of a solution-combusted ZnO nanopowder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

ZnO nanopowder was synthesized by using a unique method combusting a mixed water solution that contained an oxidant and a fuel. Zn(OH){sub 2} powder was used as an oxidant (source material). Three kinds of fuels, glycine, carbohydrazide and urea, were respectively used to synthesize the ZnO nanopowder. Sodium hexametaphosphate was used as a dispersant to avoid aggregation of the ZnO nanoparticles in the solution. The zeta potential and the ion mobility of the dispersed ZnO nanoparticles were measured to evaluate the dispersion properties. The ZnO nanopowder synthesized with glycine showed highest zeta potential and ion mobility. A photocatalytic reaction was performed to evaluate the photocatalytic efficiency. The dispersion of the ZnO nanoparticles in waste water enhanced the Cu{sup ++} ion removal from the waste water. The Cu{sup ++} ions were completely removed in 15 h with dispersion. Without dispersion, however, they were not completely removed, not even in 35 h. This means that the dispersant changed even the extreme performance limit of the photocatalyst.

Park, Sung; Choi, Gil Rak; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Jae Chun [Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Jae [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-15

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Standard practice for exposure of metals and alloys by alternate immersion in neutral 3.5% Sodium Chloride solution  

CERN Document Server

1.1 This practice covers procedures for making alternate immersion stress corrosion tests in 3.5 % sodium chloride (NaCl) (). It is primarily for tests of aluminum alloys (Test Method G 47) and ferrous alloys, but may be used for other metals exhibiting susceptibility to chloride ions. It sets forth the environmental conditions of the test and the means for controlling them. Note 1 Alternate immersion stress corrosion exposures are sometimes made in substitute ocean water (without heavy metals) prepared in accordance with Specification D 1141. The general requirements of this present practice are also applicable to such exposures except that the reagents used, the solution concentration, and the solution pH should be as specified in Specification D 1141. 1.2 This practice can be used for both stressed and unstressed corrosion specimens. Historically, it has been used for stress-corrosion cracking testing, but is often used for other forms of corrosion, such as uniform, pitting, intergranular, and galvanic. ...