Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors to drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups.
Andersen, Anette; Holstein, BjØrn E
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare associations of childhood and adult socioeconomic position with cardiovascular risk factors measured in adulthood. To estimate the effects of adult socioeconomic position after adjustment for childhood circumstances. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey, using the relative index of inequality method to compare socioeconomic differences at different life stages. SETTING: The Whitehall II longitudinal study of men and women employed in London offices of the Civil S...
Brunner, E.; Shipley, M. J.; Blane, D.; Smith, G. D.; Marmot, M. G.
In a national cohort comprising 1.5 million Danes born from 1966 to 1992, we studied the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) from 1981 to 2007 using information about household income and parental educational levels at the persons 15th birthday. The association between childhood SES and MS was evaluated using MS incidence rate ratios with 95 confidence intervals obtained in log-linear Poisson regression analyses. We found no strong association between childhood SES and MS but did observe a tendency toward a reduced risk of MS among children from households with more highly educated parents, particularly mothers. Children whose mothers had a secondary (rate ratio 0.95, 95 confidence interval: 0.86, 1.04) or higher (rate ratio 0.86, 95 confidence interval: 0.76, 0.97) education had reduced risks of MS (5 and 14, respectively) compared with children of mothers with a basic education (P for trend 0.02). Results were practically unchanged in an analysis restricted to persons aged 1529 years, among whom the possible effect of own SES on MS risk is considered limited. Overall, SES in childhood seems of no major importance for the subsequent risk of MS; however, offspring of well-educated mothers may be at a slightly reduced risk of MS.
Nielsen, N. M.; Jorgensen, K. T.
Abstract Background Few studies have examined socioeconomic disparities in health and behavioral risk factors by gender in Asian countries and in South Korea, specifically. We investigated the relationship between socioeconomic position (education, income, and occupation) and subjective and acute and chronic health outcomes and behavioral risk factors by gender, and compared results from 1998 and 2005, in the Republic of Korea. Methods We examined data from a nationally representative stratif...
Ruger Jennifer; Kim Hak-Ju
Background: Dropout from child and adolescent psychotherapy is a common phenomenon which can have negative consequences for the individual later in life. It is therefore important to gain insight on dropout risk factors. Objective: Several potential risk factors [ethnic minority status, a lower socioeconomic status (SES), and higher problem…
de Haan, Anna M.; Boon, Albert E.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Hoeve, Machteld; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.
In the European Union, there are 180,000 new cases of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer cases per year--more than half of whom will die of the disease. Socioeconomic inequalities in UADT cancer incidence are recognised across Europe. We aimed to assess the components of socioeconomic risk both independently and through their influence on the known behavioural risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption and diet.
Conway, D I
Demographic and clinical risk factors are important in guiding vaccination policy for pneumococcal pneumonia. We present data on these variables from a population-based surveillance network covering adult bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) in the Delaware Valley region from 2002?2004. Surveillance data were used with U.S. Census data and a community health survey to calculate stratified incidence rates. Missing data were handled using multiple imputation. Overall adult rates of adult B...
Flory, Jh; Joffe, M.; Fishman, No; Edelstein, Ph; Metlay, Jp
Full Text Available Background: Not only the expand development of knowledge for reducing risk factors, but also the improvement in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and socioeconomic inequalities could affect cancer incidence, diagnosis stage, and mortality. The aim of this study was investigation the relationships between family levels of socioeconomic status and distribution of breast cancer risk factors. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study has conducted on 526 patients who were suffering from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2008 to December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family levels of socioeconomic status has filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS19. Results: The mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41. According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between family socioeconomic status and patient's age at diagnosis of breast cancer (p value 0.001. In the multiple logistic regressions, the relationship between excellent socioeconomic status and number of abortions was significant (p value> 0.007. Furthermore, the relationships between moderate and good socioeconomic statuses and smoking were significant (p value=0.05 and p value=0.02, respectively. Conclusion: The results have indicated that among those patients having better socioeconomic status, age at cancer diagnosis, number of pregnancies and duration of breast feeding was lower, and then number of abortions was more than the others. According to the results of this study, it was really important to focus on family socioeconomic status as a critical and effective variable on breast cancer risk factors among the Iranian women.
Background Not only the expand development of knowledge for reducing risk factors, but also the improvement in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and socioeconomic inequalities could affect cancer incidence, diagnosis stage, and mortality. The aim of this study was investigation the relationships between family levels of socioeconomic status and distribution of breast cancer risk factors. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study has conducted on 526 patients who were suffering from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2008 to December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family levels of socioeconomic status has filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS19. Results The mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41). According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between family socioeconomic status and patient's age at diagnosis of breast cancer (p value 0.001). In the multiple logistic regressions, the relationship between excellent socioeconomic status and number of abortions was significant (p value> 0.007). Furthermore, the relationships between moderate and good socioeconomic statuses and smoking were significant (p value=0.05 and p value=0.02, respectively). Conclusion The results have indicated that among those patients having better socioeconomic status, age at cancer diagnosis, number of pregnancies and duration of breast feeding was lower, and then number of abortions was more than the others. According to the results of this study, it was really important to focus on family socioeconomic status as a critical and effective variable on breast cancer risk factors among the Iranian women.
Mohaghegh, Pegah; Yavari, Parvin; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Abadi, Alireza; Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Shormeij, Zeinab
The evaluation of the gender-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors across socioeconomic position (SEP) categories may unravel mechanisms involved in the development of coronary heart disease. Using a sample of 1704 community dwellers of a Portuguese urban center aged 40 years or older, assessed in 1999–2003, we quantified the age-standardized prevalence of nine established cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, sedentariness...
Alves, Lui?s; Azevedo, Ana; Silva, Susana; Barros, Henrique
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined socioeconomic disparities in health and behavioral risk factors by gender in Asian countries and in South Korea, specifically. We investigated the relationship between socioeconomic position (education, income, and occupation and subjective and acute and chronic health outcomes and behavioral risk factors by gender, and compared results from 1998 and 2005, in the Republic of Korea. Methods We examined data from a nationally representative stratified random sample of 4213 men and 4618 women from the 1998 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 8289 men and 8827 women from the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using General Linear Modeling and multiple logistic regression methods. Results Controlling for behavioral risk factors (smoking, drinking, obesity, exercise, and sleep, those in lower socioeconomic positions had poorer health outcomes in both self-reported acute and chronic disease and subjective measures; differences were especially pronounced among women. A socioeconomic gradient for education and income was found for both men and women for morbidity and self-reported health status, but the gradient was more pronounced in women. In 1998, the odds ratios (ORs of higher morbidity for illiterate vs. college educated females was 5.4:1 and 1.9:1 for females in the lowest income quintile vs. the highest. The OR for education decreased in 2005 to 2.9:1 and that for income quintiles remained the same at 1.9:1. The OR of lower self-reported health status for illiterate vs. college educated females was 2.9:1 and 1.6:1 for females in the lowest income quintile vs. the highest in 1998, and 3.3:1 and 2.3:1 in 2005. Conclusions Among Korean adults, men and women in lower socioeconomic position, as denoted by education, income, and somewhat less by occupation, experience significantly higher levels of morbidity and lower self-reported health status, even after controlling for standard behavioral risk factors. Disparities were more pronounced for women than for men. Efforts to reduce health disparities in South Korea require attention to the root causes of socioeconomic inequality and gender differences in the impact of socioeconomic position on health.
Many demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral risk factors predict mortality in the United States. However, very few population-based longitudinal studies are able to investigate simultaneously the impact of a variety of social factors on mortality. We investigated the degree to which demographic characteristics, socioeconomic variables and major health risk factors were associated with mortality in a nationally-representative sample of 3,617 U.S. adults from 1986-2005, using data from the ...
Lantz, Paula M.; Golberstein, Ezra; House, James S.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.
International and interethnic differences in prostate cancer incidence suggest an environmental aetiology, and lifestyle and socio-economic factors have been studied, but with divergent results. Information on a cohort of 22,895 Norwegian men aged 40 years and more was obtained from a health examination and two self-administered questionnaires. Information on incident cases of prostate cancer was made available from the Cancer Registry. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to calculate incidence rate ratios as estimates of the relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Reported P-values are two-sided. During a mean follow-up of 9.3 years, 644 cases were diagnosed. Risk was elevated among men in occupations of high compared to low socio-economic status (RR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.05-1.61), and among men with high education compared to the least educated (RR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.11-2.19). A RR of 1.56 (95% CI 0.97-2.44) suggests a higher risk among divorced or separated men, compared with married men. We also found indications of a weak negative association with leisure-time physical activity (RR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.03 for high vs low activity), a weak positive association with increasing number of cigarettes (P = 0.046), while alcohol consumption was not related to the risk of prostate cancer. These results show that high socio-economic status is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer, and that divorced or separated men might be at higher risk than married men. Data from this study also indicate that high levels of physical activity may reduce prostate cancer risk. PMID:10755415
Lund Nilsen, T I; Johnsen, R; Vatten, L J
Background: Lung and upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer risk are associated with low socioeconomic circumstances and routinely measured using area socioeconomic indices. We investigated effect of country of birth, marital status, one area deprivation measure and individual socioeconomic variables (economic activity, education, occupational social class, car ownership, household tenure) on risk associated with lung, UADT and all cancer combined (excluding non melanoma skin cancer). ...
Sharpe, Katharine H.; Mcmahon, Alex D.; Raab, Gillian M.; Brewster, David H.; Conway, David I.
Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in po...
Tamayo Teresa; Christian Herder; Rathmann Wolfgang
Study Objective: To evaluate whether socioeconomic status (SES) has a role in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients' decision to accept continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. Design: Cross-sectional study; patients were recruited between March 2007 and December 2007. Setting: University-affiliated sleep laboratory. Patients: 162 consecutive newly diagnosed (polysomnographically) adult OSAS patients who required CPAP underwent attendant titration and a 2-week adaptation period. Results: 40% (n = 65) of patients who required CPAP therapy accepted this treatment. Patients accepting CPAP were older, had higher apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and higher income level, and were more likely to sleep in a separate room than patients declining CPAP treatment. More patients who accepted treatment also reported receiving positive information about CPAP treatment from family or friends. Multiple logistic regression (after adjusting for age, body mass index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and AHI) revealed that CPAP purchase is determined by: each increased income level category (OR, 95% CI) (2.4; 1.2–4.6), age +1 year (1.07; 1.01–1.1), AHI ( ? 35 vs. < 35 events/hr) (4.2, 1.4–12.0), family and/or friends with positive experience of CPAP (2.9, 1.1–7.5), and partner sleeps separately (4.3, 1.4–13.3). Conclusions: In addition to the already known determinants of CPAP acceptance, patients with low SES are less receptive to CPAP treatment than groups with higher SES. CPAP support and patient education programs should be better tailored for low SES people in order to increase patient treatment initiation and adherence. Citation: Simon-Tuval T; Reuveni H; Greenberg-Dotan S; Oksenberg A; Tal A; Tarasiuk A. Low socioeconomic status is a risk factor for CPAP acceptance among adult OSAS patients requiring treatment. SLEEP 2009;32(4):545–552. PMID:19413149
Simon-Tuval, Tzahit; Reuveni, Haim; Greenberg-Dotan, Sari; Oksenberg, Arie; Tal, Asher; Tarasiuk, Ariel
Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The primary aim of this work is the study of breast cancer disparity among Chinese women in urban vs. rural regions and its associations with socioeconomic factors. Data on breast cancer incidence were obtained from the Chinese cancer registry annual report (2005–2009). The ten socioeconomic factors considered in this study were obtained from the national population 2000 census and the Chinese city/county statistical yearbooks. Student’s T test was used to assess disparities of female breast cancer and socioeconomic factors in urban vs. rural regions. Pearson correlation and ordinary least squares (OLS) models were employed to analyze the relationships between socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence. It was found that the breast cancer incidence was significantly higher in urban than in rural regions. Moreover, in urban regions, breast cancer incidence remained relatively stable, whereas in rural regions it displayed an annual percentage change (APC) of 8.55. Among the various socioeconomic factors considered, breast cancer incidence exhibited higher positive correlations with population density, percentage of non-agriculture population, and second industry output. On the other hand, the incidence was negatively correlated with the percentage of population employed in primary industry. Overall, it was observed that higher socioeconomic status would lead to a higher breast cancer incidence in China. When studying breast cancer etiology, special attention should be paid to environmental pollutants, especially endocrine disruptors produced during industrial activities. Lastly, the present work’s findings strongly recommend giving high priority to the development of a systematic nationwide breast cancer screening program for women in China; with sufficient participation, mammography screening can considerably reduce mortality among women. PMID:25688556
Fei, Xufeng; Wu, Jiaping; Kong, Zhe; Christakos, George
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to improve understanding of the relationships between contextual socioeconomic characteristics and coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence in France. Several authors have suggested that CHD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol, overweight, tobacco consumption) may partly mediate associations between socioeconomic environmental variables and CHD. Studies have assessed the overall mediating role of CHD risk factors, but have never investigat...
Silhol, Romain; Zins, Marie; Chauvin, Pierre; Chaix, Basile
Full Text Available Introduction : Studying the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in low socioeconomic groups is of great importance. People who are under the supervisioin and care of Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation are the most deprived in Iran. The present survey aimed at investigating the prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors among the citizens who are under the supervision of Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation (IKRF. Mathrials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 1008 individuals protected by the IKRF in Birjand in 2008 through multi-stage, random sampling Demographic were recorded. Furthermore, blood pressure, waist circumference, weight and height were measured by two trained nurses. Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS and serum lipids were measured within 12 hours of overnight fasting. Chi-square and T-test were used for data analysis at the significant level of 0.05 using SPSS software (version 15. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 39±16.8 years and the most common risk factor proved to be dyslipidemia (72%. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia was 43/2% and 12.7% respectively. Obesity was detected in 32.1% . The prevalence of hypertension (HTN and diabetes mellitus (DM appeared to be 13.1% and 6.3% respectively. Smoking was distinguished in 9.8 % of the participants. The prevalence of high Cholestrol (P=0.001,high LDL(p=0.01,low HDL(P
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Calcular la mortalidad por diabetes sacarina durante el período del 2001 al 2011 en la República de Panamá por provincias o comarcas indígenas, y determinar su relación con los factores de riesgo biológicos y socioeconómicos de aparición de la enfermedad. MÉTODOS: Se escogieron del Registr [...] o Nacional de Mortalidad de Panamá del 2001 al 2011 los casos en los cuales la diabetes constituyó la principal causa de muerte. Se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad brutas y ajustadas desglosadas por sexo, edad y zona geográfica. Mediante análisis de regresión lineal se determinó la relación entre la mortalidad por diabetes y los factores de riesgo socioeconómicos y biológicos y se calculó un índice de salud compuesto con base en cada tipo de factores de riesgo en cada provincia o comarca indígena de Panamá. RESULTADOS: Las tasas de mortalidad por diabetes no aumentaron en los hombres ni las mujeres del 2001 al 2011. De los factores de riesgo biológicos, el exceso de peso exhibió la asociación más fuerte con la mortalidad por diabetes y el factor de riesgo socioeconómico que presentó una mayor asociación con la mortalidad fue un ingreso mensual inferior a US$ 100. Las puntuaciones más altas del índice de salud compuesto desde el punto de vista socioeconómico se obtuvieron en una provincia que es rural en su mayor parte y en zonas con poblaciones indígenas. Las puntuaciones más altas con los factores biológicos se observaron en las provincias urbanas y rurales y en las que contaban con el porcentaje más alto de personas ancianas. CONCLUSIONES: Las disparidades regionales de la asociación entre la mortalidad por diabetes sacarina y los factores de riesgo de padecer la enfermedad reafirman la composición heterogénea de la población de Panamá y la distribución desigual de los factores determinantes de riesgo biológicos y sociales en el país y ponen en evidencia la necesidad de diversificar las estrategias de manejo de esta importante causa de discapacidad y muerte, en función de las zonas geográficas en Panamá. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality from diabetes mellitus (DM) for the period 2001-2011 in the Republic of Panama, by province/indigenous territory, and determine its relationship with biological and socioeconomic risk factors. METHODS: Cases for the years 2001-2011 with DM listed as the principal cau [...] se of death were selected from Panama's National Mortality Registry. Crude and adjusted mortality rates were generated by sex, age, and geographic area. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between DM mortality and biological and socioeconomic risk factors. A composite health index (CHI) calculated from biological and socioeconomic risk factors was estimated for each province/indigenous territory in Panama. RESULTS: DM mortality rates did not increase for men or women during 2001-2011. Of the biological risk factors, being overweight had the strongest association with DM mortality. Of the socioeconomic risk factors, earning less than US$ 100 per month had the strongest association with DM mortality. The highest socioeconomic CHI scores were found in a province that is predominantly rural and in areas with indigenous populations. The highest biological CHI scores were found in urban-rural provinces and those with the highest percentage of elderly people. CONCLUSIONS: Regional disparities in the association between DM mortality and DM risk factors reaffirm the heterogeneous composition of the Panamanian population and the uneven distribution of biological and social determinant risk factors in the country and point to the need to vary management strategies by geographic area for this important cause of disability and death in Panama.
Jorge A., Motta; Luis G., Ortega-Paz; Carlos A., Gordón; Beatriz, Gómez; Eva, Castillo; Víctor, Herrera Ballesteros; Manuel, Pereira.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES on physiological (lipid profile, obesity indices and behavioral (dietary habits, physical activity cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Istanbul. Design Cross sectional study. Setting One private school and two public schools from different SES districts in Istanbul. Participants 510 randomly selected children aged 12 and 13 years old (257 boys, 253 girls. Results The prevalence of overweight (15.2% and the energy intake (p Conclusion The findings of the current study revealed a coexistence of both overweight and higher energy intake in middle/ high SES children, as well as a coexistence of underweight and lower physical activity levels in low SES children. These observations should guide the public health policy in developing appropriate intervention strategies to efficiently tackle these health and social issues early in life.
Social disadvantage across the life course is associated with a greater risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and with established CHD risk factors, but less is known about whether novel CHD risk factors show the same patterns. The Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development was used to investigate associations between occupational socioeconomic position during childhood, early adulthood and middle age and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), endothelial function (E-selectin, tissue-plasminogen activator), adipocyte function (leptin, adiponectin) and pancreatic beta cell function (proinsulin) measured at 60-64 years. Life course models representing sensitive periods, accumulation of risk and social mobility were compared with a saturated model to ascertain the nature of the relationship between social class across the life course and each of these novel CHD risk factors. For interleukin-6 and leptin, low childhood socioeconomic position alone was associated with high risk factor levels at 60-64 years, while for C-reactive protein and proinsulin, cumulative effects of low socioeconomic position in both childhood and early adulthood were associated with higher (adverse) risk factor levels at 60-64 years. No associations were observed between socioeconomic position at any life period with either endothelial marker or adiponectin. Associations for C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, leptin and proinsulin were reduced considerably by adjustment for body mass index and, to a lesser extent, cigarette smoking. In conclusion, socioeconomic position in early life is an important determinant of several novel CHD risk factors. Body mass index may be an important mediator of these relationships. PMID:25437893
Jones, Rebecca; Hardy, Rebecca; Sattar, Naveed; Deanfield, John E; Hughes, Alun; Kuh, Diana; Murray, Emily T; Whincup, Peter H; Thomas, Claudia
Social disadvantage across the life course is associated with a greater risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and with established CHD risk factors, but less is known about whether novel CHD risk factors show the same patterns. The Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development was used to investigate associations between occupational socioeconomic position during childhood, early adulthood and middle age and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), endothelial function (E-selectin, tissue-plasminogen activator), adipocyte function (leptin, adiponectin) and pancreatic beta cell function (proinsulin) measured at 60–64 years. Life course models representing sensitive periods, accumulation of risk and social mobility were compared with a saturated model to ascertain the nature of the relationship between social class across the life course and each of these novel CHD risk factors. For interleukin-6 and leptin, low childhood socioeconomic position alone was associated with high risk factor levels at 60–64 years, while for C-reactive protein and proinsulin, cumulative effects of low socioeconomic position in both childhood and early adulthood were associated with higher (adverse) risk factor levels at 60–64 years. No associations were observed between socioeconomic position at any life period with either endothelial marker or adiponectin. Associations for C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, leptin and proinsulin were reduced considerably by adjustment for body mass index and, to a lesser extent, cigarette smoking. In conclusion, socioeconomic position in early life is an important determinant of several novel CHD risk factors. Body mass index may be an important mediator of these relationships. PMID:25437893
Jones, Rebecca; Hardy, Rebecca; Sattar, Naveed; Deanfield, John E.; Hughes, Alun; Kuh, Diana; Murray, Emily T.; Whincup, Peter H.; Thomas, Claudia
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and Germany. Methods We combined datasets from two population based studies, one in Germany ('Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study', and one in the Czech Republic ('Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE Study'. Participation rates were 56% in the HNR and 55% in the HAPIEE study. The subsample for this particular analysis consists of 11,554 men and women from nine German and Czech towns. Census based information on social characteristics of 326 neighbourhoods were collected from local administrative authorities. We used unemployment rate and overcrowding as area-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES. The cardiovascular risk factors obesity, hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity were used as response variables. Regression models were complemented by individual-level social status (education and relevant covariates. Results Smoking, obesity and low physical activity were more common in deprived neighbourhoods in Germany, even when personal characteristics including individual education were controlled for. For hypertension associations were weak. In the Czech Republic associations were observed for smoking and physical inactivity, but not for obesity and hypertension when individual-level covariates were adjusted for. The strongest association was found for smoking in both countries: in the fully adjusted model the odds ratio for 'high unemployment rate' was 1.30 [95% CI 1.02–1.66] in the Czech Republic and 1.60 [95% CI 1.29–1.98] in Germany. Conclusion In this comparative study, the effects of neighbourhood deprivation varied by country and risk factor; the strongest and most consistent effects were found for smoking. Results indicate that area level SES is associated with health related lifestyles, which might be a possible pathway linking social status and cardiovascular disease. Individual-level education had a considerable influence on the association between neighbourhood characteristics and risk factors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. Methods This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver from January 1, 2006 to September 17, 2009. To identify an indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality, we used hierarchical logistic regression to model SGA by area-level variables from the Canadian census. We then modelled SGA by area-level average income plus established maternal risk factors for SGA and calculated population attributable SGA risk percentages (PAR% for each variable. Associations of maternal risk factors for SGA with average income were investigated to identify those that might contribute to SGA inequality. Finally, we estimated crude reductions in the percentage and absolute differences in SGA risks between highest and lowest average income quintiles that would result if interventions on maternal risk factors successfully equalized them across income levels or eliminated them altogether. Results Average income produced the most linear and statistically significant indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality with 8.9% prevalence of SGA in the lowest income quintile compared to 5.6% in the highest. The adjusted PAR% of SGA for variables were: bottom four quintiles of height (51%, first birth (32%, bottom four quintiles of average income (14%, oligohydramnios (7%, underweight or hypertension, (6% each, smoking (3% and placental disorder (1%. Shorter height, underweight and smoking during pregnancy had higher prevalence in lower income groups. Crude models assuming equalization of risk factors across income levels or elimination altogether indicated little potential change in relative socioeconomic SGA inequality and reduction in absolute SGA inequality for shorter height only. Conclusions Our findings regarding maternal height may indicate trans-generational aetiology for socioeconomic SGA inequalities and/or that adult height influences social mobility. Conditions affecting foetal and childhood growth might be viable targets to reduce absolute socioeconomic SGA inequality in future generations, but more research is needed to determine whether such an approach is appropriate.
The health disparities literature has identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental…
Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Evans, Gary W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Windle, Michael; Simons, Ronald L.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Philibert, Robert A.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of psychological factors such as traumata and childhood adversities for the future risk of type 2 diabetes or obesity is too small to draw conclusions. Thus, more population-based longitudinal studies and international standards to assess psychosocial factors are needed to clarify the mechanisms leading to the observed health disparities.
Socioeconomic factors may play a role in the development of arthrofibrosis following total knee arthroplasty. Using manipulation following total knee arthroplasty as a surrogate for stiffness, this multicenter case-control study found that African American and young patients (<45 years of age) had twice the odds for manipulation compared with Caucasian and older-age patients. PMID:23102415
Springer, Bryan D; Odum, Susan M; Nagpal, Vijay S; Lombardi, Adolph V; Berend, Keith R; Kim, Raymond H; Dennis, Douglas A
Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES), urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference), blood pressure, fasting plasma glu...
Delisle Hélène; Agueh Victoire; Fayomi Benjamin; Sodjinou Roger
Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher than in the rest of the country. To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socioeconomic levels in north-west Mexico
A study on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 250 male and female adult subjects 20 years of age and over, pertaining to different socio-economic levels is being conducted in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Measurements of weight, height, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test, blood levels of total of cholesterol, tryglicerides, LDL and HDL-cholesterol are being obtained. Body composition is being determined by deuterium dilution and infrared spectroscopy, air displacement plethysmography, skinfold thickness and bio-electrical impedance. Physical activity by questionnaire and diet by non-consecutive multiple 24 h recalls (to account for seasonal and inter-individual variability), will provide information on lifestyle and diet. At present, analysis of 141 subjects has been completed. Preliminary results showed high levels of overweight, 55% with BMI>25, and obesity, 17% with BMI>30. Subjects with abnormal glucose levels had significantly higher weight (p<0.008), larger waist/hip ratio (p<0.003), higher % body fat (p<0.01), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.01; p<0.009 respectively) than normal subjects, after adjusting for sex and age. Serum tryglicerides were significantly higher in obese subjects with central adiposity than non-obese subjects. Body composition by deuterium dilution was determined by infrared spectroscopy and by air displacement plethysmography in a preliminary pilot study. Finally, a physical activity questionnaire was tested in two groups of subjects with different lifestyles. (author)
Background: Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In Northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher the in the rest of the country. Objective: To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socio-economic levels in north-west Mexico. Methods: Non probabilistic sample selection by invitation was used to recruit subjects, completing quotas by age groups, gender and socio-economic status. The study included 350 men and women, 20-84 years pertaining to low and high income groups from the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. All subjects were measured for body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, skinfolds, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure SBP, DBP). Body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio were calculated. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 12 hour fast was performed and blood samples were taken for analysis of insulin, leptin, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. In 273 of the 350 subjects physical activity was studied by questionnaire. Activity was calculated as in categories of low, medium and high intensity and expressed as hours/day with respect to occupational and recreational activities. Physical activity level (PAL) was also calculated from the questionnaires. Body composition was investigated in more detail by air displacement plethysmography (densitometry) and by deuterium dilution in 200 subjects. Diet by 24 hour non-consecutive recalls in another sub-group of 135 male and female subjects. Statistical analysis was performed using NCSS statistical software using ANCOVA and regression procedures. Result: High levels of overweight (BMI >25) and obesity BMI>30) were found in this population group with 65 and 23.4% of them being in these categories respectively. After adjusting for sex and age, results showed that subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance levels had significantly higher weight (p0,120. In terms of body composition percent body fat by BL4 showed the best relationship to insulin sensitivity with the same index. Conclusions: Total body fat and regional fat distribution rather than body size may be a better alternative to assess risk levels for Type 2 diabetes and CVD. For population studies, this has to rely on appropriate field methods such as BIA. However, this has to be validated by recognised methodology such as deuterium dilution, DEXA or body density determinations that can provide the necessary information for specific predictive equation development. Work in Progress: Body composition by deuterium dilution determined by IR spectroscopy and plethysmography to validate BL4 are still in progress bt preliminary results show that either method can be used for validation purposes. Diet and physical activity data analysis will be completed by recruiting 50 mores subjects. Further analysis combining all possible risk indicators through multiple regression procedures are still pending as well as HOAL4 calculations. Take Home Message: The anthropometric evaluation of regional fat distribution and total body fat by BL4 might be an important field technique for type 2 diabetes and C VD risk assessment. Intervention studies that may use the findings in this study for this population would be warranted. (author)
IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the Californ...
Joel Gittelsohn, Phd; Min Kyung Ahn, Mhs; Hee-soon Juon, Phd
Risk factors for breast cancer in a cohort of women who participated in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and its followup epidemiologic survey were examined. The analytic cohort consisted of 122 breast cancer cases and 7,304 noncases, with a median followup time of 10 years. We found no appreciable increase in risk among women who reported their onset of menarche as occurring before the age of 13 compared with those reporting onset at ages 13 and older. Breast cancer risk was progressively elevated with increasing age at first live birth (test for trend, P less than 0.007). The number of children born to a woman did not influence risk, but the data suggested an increased risk for nulliparous women. A family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative was the strongest predictor of risk for this cohort of women, with relative risks of 2.2 and 2.4 associated with a mother or sister affected with breast cancer, compared with women having no family history. The age of natural menopause had little influence on breast cancer risk, and the data suggested a slight protective effect of early surgical menopause. Higher education (compared with less than a high school education) was associated with an increased risk in this cohort of women (relative risk (RR) = 2.1; 95 percent confidence interval (CI) = 0.9-5.1). These results (a) confirm the importance of some well-recognized risk factors for breast cancer in a cohort of women, followed prospectively for 10 years, and perhaps more importantly, (b) uniquely provide risk estimates on a probability sample of women in the United States. PMID:2493661
Carter, C L; Jones, D Y; Schatzkin, A; Brinton, L A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aims were to determine the pace of change in cardiovascular risk factors by age, gender and socioeconomic groups from 1994 to 2008, and quantify the magnitude, direction and change in absolute and relative inequalities. Methods Time trend analysis was used to measure change in absolute and relative inequalities in risk factors by gender and age (16-54, ? 55 years, using repeated cross-sectional data from the Health Survey for England 1994-2008. Seven risk factors were examined: smoking, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, raised cholesterol, consumption of five or more daily portions of fruit and vegetables, and physical activity. Socioeconomic group was measured using the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007. Results Between 1994 and 2008, the prevalence of smoking, high blood pressure and raised cholesterol decreased in most deprivation quintiles. However, obesity and diabetes increased. Increasing absolute inequalities were found in obesity in older men and women (p = 0.044 and p = 0.027 respectively, diabetes in young men and older women (p = 0.036 and p = 0.019 respectively, and physical activity in older women (p = 0.025. Relative inequality increased in high blood pressure in young women (p = 0.005. The prevalence of raised cholesterol showed widening absolute and relative inverse gradients from 1998 onwards in older men (p = 0.004 and p ? 0.001 respectively and women (p ? 0.001 and p ? 0.001. Conclusions Favourable trends in smoking, blood pressure and cholesterol are consistent with falling coronary heart disease death rates. However, adverse trends in obesity and diabetes are likely to counteract some of these gains. Furthermore, little progress over the last 15 years has been made towards reducing inequalities. Implementation of known effective population based approaches in combination with interventions targeted at individuals/subgroups with poorer cardiovascular risk profiles are therefore recommended to reduce social inequalities.
The social and economic characteristics of geographic areas are associated with their suicide rates. The extent to which these ecological associations are due to the characteristics of the people living in the areas (compositional effects) or the influence of the areas themselves on risk (contextual effects) is uncertain. Denmark's Medical Register on Vital Statistics and its Integrated Database for Longitudinal Labour Market Research were used to identify suicides and 20 matched controls per case in 25-60-year-old men and women between 1982 and 1997. Individual and area (municipality) measures of income, marital and employment status were obtained. There were 9011 suicides and 180,220 controls. Individual-level associations with these risk factors were little changed when controlling for contextual effects. In contrast, ecological associations of increased suicide risk with declining area levels of employment and income and increasing proportions of people living alone were much attenuated after controlling for compositional effects. We found no consistent evidence that associations with individual-level risk factors differed depending on the areas' characteristics (cross-level interactions). This analysis suggests the ecological associations to be attributed to characteristics of the residents rather than area influences on risk
Agerbo, Esben; Sterne, J.A.
Risk factors for breast cancer in a cohort of women who participated in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and its followup epidemiologic survey were examined. The analytic cohort consisted of 122 breast cancer cases and 7,304 noncases, with a median followup time of 10 years. We found no appreciable increase in risk among women who reported their onset of menarche as occurring before the age of 13 compared with those reporting onset at ages 13 and older. Brea...
Carter, C. L.; Jones, D. Y.; Schatzkin, A.; Brinton, L. A.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the rise of diet-related chronic diseases. People with higher SES and those with a longer exposure to the urban environment are priority target groups for interventions focusing on environmental risk factors that are amenable to change in this population. Lifestyle interventions would appear appropriate, with particular emphasis on physical activity.
To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile) were found to ha...
Issler Roberto M.S.; Giugliani Elsa R.J.; Kreutz Guilherme T.; Meneses Clarice F.; Justo Elisa B.; Kreutz Valerie M.; Pires Milton
Dengue is a peri-urban mosquito-transmitted disease, ubiquitous in the tropics and the subtropics. The geographic distribution of dengue and its more severe form, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), have expanded dramatically in the last decades and dengue is now considered to be the world's most important arboviral disease. Recent demographic changes have greatly contributed to the acceleration and spread of the disease along with uncontrolled urbanization, population growth and increased air travel, which acts as a mechanism for transporting and exchanging dengue viruses between endemic and epidemic populations. The dengue vector and virus are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity and precipitation that influence mosquito biology, abundance and habitat and the virus replication speed. In order to control the spread of dengue and impede epidemics, decision support systems are required that take into account the multi-faceted array of factors that contribute to increased dengue risk. Due to availability of seasonal climate forecasts, that predict the average climate conditions for forthcoming months/seasons in both time and space, there is an opportunity to incorporate precursory climate information in a dengue decision support system to aid epidemic planning months in advance. Furthermore, oceanic indicators from teleconnected areas in the Pacific and Indian Ocean, that can provide some indication of the likely prevailing climate conditions in certain regions, could potentially extend predictive lead time in a dengue early warning system. In this paper we adopt a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling framework for dengue in Thailand to support public health decision making. Monthly cases of dengue in the 76 provinces of Thailand for the period 1982-2012 are modelled using a multi-layered approach. Explanatory variables at various spatial and temporal resolutions are incorporated into a hierarchical model in order to make spatio-temporal probabilistic predictions of dengue. Potential risk factors considered include altitude, land cover, proximity to road/rail networks and water bodies, temperature and precipitation, oceanic indicators, intervention activities, air traffic volume, population movement, urbanisation and sanitation indicators. In order to quantify unknown or unmeasured dengue risk factors, we use spatio-temporal random effects in the model framework. This helps identify those available indicators which could significantly contribute to a dengue early warning system. We use this model to quantify the extent to which climate indicators can explain variations in dengue risk. This allows us to assess the potential utility of forecast climate information in a dengue decision support system for Thailand. Taking advantage of lead times of several months provided by climate forecasts, public health officials may be able to more efficiently allocate intervention measures, such as targeted vector control activities and provision of medication to deal with more deadly forms of the disease, well ahead of an imminent dengue epidemic.
Rodo, X.; Lowe, R.; Karczewska-Gibert, A.; Cazelles, B.
The purpose of this study was to examine socio-economic differences in the risk of hospitalisation among children aged 0-5 years in Denmark from 1985 to 2004. All children born between 1985 and 2004 (n=1,278,286) were followed for hospital admissions for infectious diseases from the 29th day of life until the children reached the age of 6 years or the end of 2004, whichever came first. Information on parental socio-economic position (education, labour market attachment and household income) was gathered through record linkage with administrative registries. Infections were grouped into upper respiratory, lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, ear and fever infections. The data were analysed using Cox regression. Children of parents on sick leave or early retirement had an increased risk of being hospitalised with an infection compared with children of employed parents. A clear inverse educational gradient in risk of offspring hospitalisation was also found. From 1985 to 2004 the inverse associations between parental education and risk of hospitalisation grew stronger, whereas the comparatively weaker association between household income and risk of offspring hospitalisation decreased in magnitude. The association between socio-economic status and hospitalisation was strongest for lower respiratory, gastrointestinal and ear infections. This study documented a socially patterned hospitalisation of pre-school children in Denmark. Future studies should investigate possible explanations for the increased risk among children from families with low socio-economic status.
Biering-SØrensen, Sofie; SØndergaard, Grethe
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: investigar a associação de fatores de risco obstétricos, demográficos, socioeconômicos e psicossociais com a presença de risco ao desenvolvimento infantil nas faixas etária de um a dezoito meses de idade. MÉTODO: a amostra inicial foi constituída de 182 díades mãe-bebê e final de 58 díades [...] . A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio da análise da interação mãe-bebê feita com base no Protocolo de Indicadores de Risco ao Desenvolvimento Infantil e de uma entrevista que investigou aspectos socioeconômicos, demográficos, obstétricos e psicossociais na primeira etapa da pesquisa. Os dados foram organizados em uma planilha eletrônica e posteriormente convertidos para os aplicativos computacionais para análise estatística. RESULTADOS: os fatores de risco significantes para as quatro fases do protocolo foram, na faixa de zero a quatro meses o estado civil da mãe e o número de filhos; na faixa de quatro a oito meses o número de consultas pré-natal e a renda per capita; na faixa de oito a doze meses o planejamento da gestação; e na faixa de doze a dezoito meses o histórico de depressão materna, a idade da mãe e a profissão da mãe. CONCLUSÃO: a pesquisa demonstrou que as condições socioeconômicas, obstétricas, psicossociais e demográficas podem oferecer risco ao desenvolvimento infantil. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to investigate obstetric, demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors of mother-child dyads for the occurrence of changes in the Risk Indicators for Child Development (IRDI) in children age groups from zero to 18 months. METHOD: the sample consisted of 182 mother-infant dyads. [...] Data collection occurred through the analysis of mother-infant interaction ??based on the Risk Indicators for Child Development (IRDI) Protocol and on an interview which investigated socio-economic, demographic, obstetric and psychosocial aspects in the first stage of the procedures. Data were organized into an electronic spreadsheet and then converted to computer software for statistical analisys. RESULTS: the significant risk factors for the four phases of IRDI were, in the range of zero to four months, the mother's marital status and number of children; in the range of four to eight months, the number of prenatal visits and per capita income; in the range of eight to twelve months, pregnancy planning; and in the range of twelve to eighteen months, maternal depression history, the mother's age and profession. CONCLUSION: the study demonstrated that the environment and the situations in which the mother-infant dyad is part of, may hinder or facilitate the development of the infant.
Anelise Henrich, Crestani; Felipe, Mattana; Anaelena Bragança de, Moraes; Ana Paula Ramos de, Souza.
Does IQ explain socio-economic differentials in total and cardiovascular disease mortality? Comparison with the explanatory power of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Vietnam Experience Study
The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance in this well-documented association.
Batty, G David; Shipley, Martin J
Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.
Issler Roberto M.S.
The objective was to examine the relationship between injury rates and socioeconomic factors for children in Hamilton County, Ohio, using small-area analysis. The subjects were county residents less than 15 years old who were hospitalized or died of injuries between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 1995; they were identified through a population-based trauma registry. The census tract was the unit of analysis; the rate of injury per 100,000 population was the dependent variable. Risk factors...
Pomerantz, Wendy J.; Dowd, M. Denise; Buncher, C. Ralph
This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)
Full Text Available Background: Child vaccinations are one of most cost effective health programs that have weakened a number of child morbidity and mortality rate all over the world. Pakistan is considered one of the major country of the world, where people especially children are bound by many harmful infectious diseases like polio, hepatitis, viral infections etc. The effectiveness of routine childhood immunization programs relies on multiple factors. Socio-economic determinants have the potential to affect immunization programs. The purpose of the present study was to determine the association between socio-economic factors and polio vaccination coverage among children inPakistan. Methods: The study used data from the Pakistandemographic health survey (PDHS 2006-07 N 10023. The study focused on respondents who had births in last five years. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the association between variables. Spss version 20 was used for data analysis. A number of socioeconomic variables were used in chi square & binary logistic regression model to check out their association with polio vaccination coverage. Results: Study shows that most dominant factors associated with polio vaccination coverage were region that is NWFP OR 3.48 (odd ratio with 95% confidence interval (C-I 2.06 & 3.13 & Punjab OR 2.54 (C-I 2.062 & 3.131, residence urban OR 1.626 (C-I 1.451 & 1.822, sex of child male OR 1.125 (C-I 1.008 & 1.256, age of mother 25 - 34 years OR 1.11 (C-I 0.978 & 1.276, wealth index rich OR 2.98 (C-I 2.55 & 3.48, age of child 4 - 5 years OR 1.17 (C-I 0.899 & 1.538, mother’s education higher OR 2.06 (C-I 1.776 & 2.411, father’s education higher OR 1.399 (C-I 1.221 & 1.203 ,father’s occupation professional OR 1.27 (C-I 0.929 & 1.737. Conclusion: In developing countries like Pakistan most of the children remain unvaccinated because of many socio-economic constraints. Poor marginalized people have a low awareness regarding the importance of polio vaccine. Along with social hierarchies, educational attainment of parents is a strong indicator of defining awareness level regarding vaccination.
Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas having widely different disparity patterns, in which each area is characterised by six deprivation domains (Income, Health, Geographical Access to Services, Housing, Physical Environment, and Community Safety). Traditional health statistical studies tend to use one global model to describe the whole population for macro-analysis. In this paper, we combine linked educational and deprivation data across small areas (median population of 1500), then use a local modelling technique, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, to predict area educational outcomes at ages 7 and 11. We define two new metrics, "Micro-impact of Domain" and "Contribution of Domain", to quantify the variations of local impacts of multidimensional factors on educational outcomes across small areas. The two metrics highlight differing priorities. Our study reveals complex multi-way interactions between the deprivation domains, which could not be provided by traditional health statistical methods based on single global model. We demonstrate that although Income has an expected central role, all domains contribute, and in some areas Health, Environment, Access to Services, Housing and Community Safety each could be the dominant factor. Thus the relative importance of health and socioeconomic factors varies considerably for different areas, depending on the levels of each of the other factors, and therefore each component of deprivation must be considered as part of a wider system. Childhood educational achievement could benefit from policies and intervention strategies that are tailored to the local geographic areas' profiles. PMID:25409038
Zhou, Shang-Ming; Lyons, Ronan A; Bodger, Owen G; John, Ann; Brunt, Huw; Jones, Kerina; Gravenor, Mike B; Brophy, Sinead
Full Text Available Using register-based data on Finnish first marriages that were intact at the end of 1990 (about 2.1 million marriage-years and followed up for divorce in 1991-1993 (n = 21,204, this research explored the possibility that the effect of spouses' socioeconomic position on divorce risk varies according to duration of marriage. The comparatively high divorce risks for spouses with little formal education and for spouses in manual worker occupations were found to be specific to marriages of relatively short duration. In contrast, such factors as unemployment, wife's high income, and living in a rented dwelling were found to increase divorce risk at all marital durations.
Factores de riesgo de fallecer en domicilio por neumonía, de niños chilenos de estratos socioeconómicos bajos, Santiago de Chile (1990-1994 Risk factors for home deaths due to pneumonia among low socioeconomic level Chilean children
Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is the main cause of late infant mortality in Chile. Over 60% of these deaths occur at home. The lack of hospital beds and the inadequate outpatient management are contributing factors. Aim: To assess risk factors for home deaths due to pneumonia in Chilean children. Patients and methods: The clinical and environmental histories of 53 (39 male children that died due to pneumonia in their homes were analyzed. The cause of death was confirmed by necropsy with histopathological studies in all cases. These cases were compared with 88 control children of similar age, gender, socioeconomic status and living in the same geographical area of Metropolitan Santiago. Results: Fifty four percent of deceased children were of less than 3 months of age and only 3 cases and their controls were above1 year old. Identified risk factors for death were malnutrition with an odds ratio of 30.6 (CI 3.9-64.8, p< 0.001, low birth weight with an odds ratio of 5 (CI 1.8-14.1, p< 0.001, previous admissions to hospitals with an odds ratio of 5.79 (CI 2-17.1, p< 0.001, congenital malformations (mainly cardiac with an odds ratio of 8.4 (CI 2-39.9, p= 0.001 and a history of bronchial obstruction with an odds ratio of 5.68 (p< 0.001. Identified maternal risk factors were smoking with an odds ratio of 4.13 (CI 1.6-10.7 p< 0.001 and being a teenager with an odds ratio of 4.3 (CI 1.7-11, p<0.001. Malnutrition, low birth weight, history of previous hospital admissions and having a teenager or smoker mother were considered as independent risk factors using a stepwise analysis. Conclusions: Chilean low income children have identifiable risk factors for death at their homes due to pneumonia, that can be preventively managed. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 627-32
Leonardo Véjar E
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW; Gross domestic product (GDP per capita by purchasing power parity (current international $; computed tomography (CT for cancer diagnosis. Data include 52 countries. The statistical analysis is carried out by correlation, ANOVA and an econometric modeling based on a multiple regression model of the breast cancer incidence on two explanatory variables. Results: Partial correlation is higher: rbreast cancer, GDP ? CT=60.3% (sign.0.00. The estimated relationship shows an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 0.05% for a GDP increase of 1% and an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 3.23% for a CT increase of 1%. ANOVA confirms that incidence of breast cancer is higher across richer countries, ceteris paribus.Conclusions: Empirical evidence shows that the breast cancer tends to be higher across richer countries, measured by GDP per capita and number of Computed Tomography. The main determinants of these findings can be due to several socio-economic factors, mainly localized in richer countries. In addition, this research may provide an alternative interpretation to the theory of Oh et al. (2010 on the influence of latitude on breast cancer, focusing on socio-economic factors rather than biologic root causes.
Anees B. Chagpar
Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…
Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.
Full Text Available Lars Haukali Omland,1 Merete Osler,2 Peter Jepsen,3,4 Henrik Krarup,5 Nina Weis,6 Peer Brehm Christensen,7 Casper Roed,1 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Niels Obel1 On behalf of the DANVIR Cohort Study1Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Research Center for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 6Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 7Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, DenmarkBackground and aims: It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection or a prognostic factor following infection.Methods: From Danish nationwide registries, we obtained information on three markers of SES: employment, income, and education. In a case control design, we examined HCV infected patients and controls; conditional logistic regression was employed to obtain odds ratios (ORs for HCV infection for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity, and substance abuse. In a cohort design, we used Cox regression analysis to compute mortality rate ratios (MRRs for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity level, age, substance abuse, and gender.Results: When compared to employed persons, ORs for HCV infection were 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24–3.26 for disability pensioners and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.83–2.72 for the unemployed. When compared to persons with a high income, ORs were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.34–2.01 for low income persons and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.02–1.40 for medium income persons. The OR was 1.35 (95% CI: 1.20–1.52 for low education (no more than basic schooling. When compared to employed patients, MRRs were 1.71 (95% CI: 1.22–2.40 for unemployed patients and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.63–3.08 for disability pensioners. When compared to high income patients, MRRs were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.05–2.05 for medium income patients and 1.64 (95% CI: 1.13–2.34 for low income patients. Educational status was not associated with mortality.Conclusion: Low SES was associated with an increased risk of HCV infection and with poor prognosis in HCV infected patients.Keywords: survival, socioeconomic status, risk factor, prognosis
The topic of suicide has long been an important socioeconomic issue studied in many countries. Suicides inject an atmosphere of unrest into society, and media attention furthers that social uneasiness. From the viewpoint of economics and management, suicide is a waste of human resource: it decreases the labor force in society and deteriorates…
Ying, Yung-hsiang; Chang, Koyin
Pelvic pain is a primary symptom of women referred for hysterectomy. This study identified risk factors for purchase of prescribed analgesics before and after hysterectomy and examined purchase changes after hysterectomy, specifically focusing on socioeconomic effects.
Daugbjerg, Signe Bennedbæk; Brandsborg, Birgitte
To investigate whether sex-specific associations exist between migraine, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. We distinguished between the subtypes migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). In 2002, a questionnaire containing validated questions to diagnose migraine and questions on lifestyle and socioeconomic factors was sent to 46,418 twin individuals residing in Denmark. 31,865 twin individuals aged 20-71 were included. The twins are representative of the Danish population with regard to migraine and other somatic diseases and were used as such in the present study. An increased risk of migraine was significantly associated with lower level of schooling and education, retirement, unemployment, and smoking. A decreased risk of migraine was significantly associated with heavy physical exercise and intake of alcohol. Direct comparison between the subtypes showed a decreased risk of MA compared to MO in subjects with low education or weekly intake of alcohol. The risk of MA was increased compared to MO in unemployed or retired subjects. Direct comparison between sexes showed a decreased risk of migraine for men compared to women in subjects who were low educated, unemployed or studying. The risk was increased for men compared to women in subjects with heavy physical exercise, intake of alcohol, and body mass index >25. Migraine was associated with several lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Most associations such as low education and employment status were probably due to the negative effects of having migraine while others such as smoking were risk factors for migraine. PMID:21390550
Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Olesen, Jes
To investigate whether sex-specific associations exist between migraine, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. We distinguished between the subtypes migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). In 2002, a questionnaire containing validated questions to diagnose migraine and questions on lifestyle and socioeconomic factors was sent to 46,418 twin individuals residing in Denmark. 31,865 twin individuals aged 20-71 were included. The twins are representative of the Danish population with regard to migraine and other somatic diseases and were used as such in the present study. An increased risk of migraine was significantly associated with lower level of schooling and education, retirement, unemployment, and smoking. A decreased risk of migraine was significantly associated with heavy physical exercise and intake of alcohol. Direct comparison between the subtypes showed a decreased risk of MA compared to MO in subjects with low education or weekly intake of alcohol. The risk of MA was increased compared to MO in unemployed or retired subjects. Direct comparison between sexes showed a decreased risk of migraine for men compared to women in subjects who were low educated, unemployed or studying. The risk was increased for men compared to women in subjects with heavy physical exercise, intake of alcohol, and body mass index >25. Migraine was associated with several lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Most associations such as low education and employment status were probably due to the negative effects of having migraine while others such as smoking were risk factors for migraine.
Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer
To investigate whether sex-specific associations exist between migraine, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. We distinguished between the subtypes migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). In 2002, a questionnaire containing validated questions to diagnose migraine and questions on lifestyle and socioeconomic factors was sent to 46,418 twin individuals residing in Denmark. 31,865 twin individuals aged 20-71 were included. The twins are representative of the Danish population with regard to migraine and other somatic diseases and were used as such in the present study. An increased risk of migraine was significantly associated with lower level of schooling and education, retirement, unemployment, and smoking. A decreased risk of migraine was significantly associated with heavy physical exercise and intake of alcohol. Direct comparison between the subtypes showed a decreased risk of MA compared to MO in subjects with low education or weekly intake of alcohol. The risk of MA was increased compared to MO in unemployed or retired subjects. Direct comparison between sexes showed a decreased risk of migraine for men compared to women in subjects who were low educated, unemployed or studying. The risk was increased for men compared to women in subjects with heavy physical exercise, intake of alcohol, and body mass index >25. Migraine was associated with several lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Most associations such as low education and employment status were probably due to the negative effects of having migraine while others such as smoking were risk factors for migraine.
Le, Ngoc Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer
The environmental risk factors related to the breast tumors (lumps) are essential in order to build strategies to decrease cancer incidence and mortality among different socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. A case control study of 70 cases and 52 controls were classified into high, middle and low socioeconomic classes. The results revealed significant increased risk of breast tumors among working females, having positive family history, married with lower mean parity, with higher consumption of fatty meals, lesser meat intake. Non significant risk factors were the social class, exposure to ionizing radiation, non lactating. wearing tight bra, consumption of vegetables and fruits, oral contraceptive pill users and exposure to outdoor air pollution or indoor pollution as floors and wall paintings. In conclusion, this study highlights the positive life style for egyptian women so they can prevent some of the environmental risks of breast tumors. Increasing the awareness of breast diseases and regular examination remains the corner stone for early detection management of breast lumps.
... Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and free of ... as possible. Share: The Normal Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...
Abstract Background Low birth weight (LBW) is a public health problem linked to lack of equity in populations. Despite efforts to decrease the proportion of newborns with LBW, success has been quite limited. In recent years, studies focused on explaining how social factors influence this problem have shown that populations with greater inequities have a greater proportion of newborns with LBW. Methods The objective was to describe socioeconomic factors related to LBW adjusted by demographic, ...
Villa-Barragán Juan; Flores-Hernández Sergio; Constantino-Casas Patricia; Torres-Arreola Laura P; Rendón-Macías Enrique
... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Risk Factors Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Certain groups ... way to protect yourself against meningococcal disease. Some risk factors include: Age Meningococcal disease is more commonly diagnosed ...
The present study explored both socioeconomic and climatic factors to obtain a more comprehensive view of the asymmetric regional suicide death rate during 1998-2006 in Taiwan. The annual suicide death rate, population and meteorological data from 19 cities/counties in Taiwan were analysed by multiple regression. Five socioeconomic (sex ratio, no spouse, aged, unemployment and low income) and three climatic (temperature, rainfall and sunshine) factors were identified as significant, explaining 59.0% of the variance in the total suicide death rate. 'Without spouse' and 'aged' were associated with the highest risk, while 'low income with financial aids' was strongly protective. The most influential climatic factor was 'temperature,' which was negatively correlated with suicide. 'Sunshine' was positively associated with suicide. The socioeconomic and climatic factors contributed 52.7% and 6.8%, respectively, to the variance of the total suicide death rate. Limitations of the study included the fact that no individual events were considered, the study was of relatively short duration and it was confined to the territory of Taiwan. Socioeconomic factors outweighed climatic factors in explaining regional differences in the suicide death rate in Taiwan. Temperature weighed more than sunshine. 'Thermotherapy' seems more clinically relevant than the popular light therapy, at least in Taiwan. PMID:20483166
Objective: Socio-economic status (SES) is strongly correlated with hypertension. But SES has several components, including income and correlations in cross-sectional data need not imply SES is a risk factor. This study investigates whether wages—the largest category within income—are risk factors. Methods: We analysed longitudinal, nationally representative US data from four waves (1999, 2001, 2003 and 2005) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The overall sample was restricted to emplo...
Leigh, J. Paul; Du, Juan
Full Text Available To achieve maximum returns consistent with an investor’s appetite for risk, the correct identification and estimation of all relevant risk factors in a portfolio are necessary. In this paper, we identify the role of foreign currency as an important risk factor from an international investor’s point of view.
J. H. Witte
... Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Heart Disease Risk Factors Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... put people at a higher risk for developing heart disease. All persons can take steps to lower their ...
Family history and socioeconomic risk factors for non-syndromic cleft lip and palate: A matched case-control study in a less developed country Factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos para labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en México: estudio de casos y controles pareado
Full Text Available
Introduction. From an epidemiological point of view, non-syndromic orofacial clefts are the most common oral congenital deformities worldwide.
Objective. Family histories were traced and socioeconomic risk factors were identified for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.
Material and methods. A case-control study was carried out with 208 cases of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and matched by age and sex with 416 controls. Cases were patients attending a referral clinic from 2002 through 2004 in Campeche, Mexico. A questionnaire was administered to collect sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables as well as familial background relevant to non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Conditional logistic regression models were used; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Results. In the multivariate model, the following risk factors were identified: 1 low socioeconomic status; 2 birth in the southern region of Campeche state; 3 home delivery or delivery in a publicly funded hospital; 4 occurrence of prior non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate cases in the father's or mother's family: 5 having a sibling with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate; 6 the proband having another malformation, and 7 a history of infections during pregnancy. Prenatal care consisting of vitamin supplementation was a protective factor for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (odds ratio=0.29.
Conclusions. A "social gradient in health" was seen to link oral malformation with diet components, and several socioeconomic and socio-demographic factors broadly encompassed in low socioeconomic status. Further characterization of risk factors will guide the assemblage of a pro-active counseling and prevention program for families at risk for non-syndromic cleft lip and cleft palate.
Introducción. Desde el punto de vista epidemiológico, las hendiduras faciales son las deformidades orales más comunes alrededor del mundo.
Objetivo. Identificar los factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos relacionados con la presencia de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome.
Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de casos y controles en el que se incluyeron 208 casos con diagnóstico de labio, paladar hendido o ambos no asociados a un síndrome, los cuales fueron pareados por edad y sexo con 416 controles. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes quirúrgicos atendidos durante el periodo 2002-2004 en el programa estatal de labio o paladar hendido de Campeche, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario en el que se recogió información sobre variables sociodemográficas y socioeconómicas, así como sobre antecedentes hereditarios de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en la familia. Debido a que el diseño fue pareado, el análisis se hizo con regresión logística condicionada.
Resultados. En el modelo multivariado para labio o paladar hendido no asociado a un síndrome se identificaron de forma significativa (p<0,05 los siguientes factores de riesgo: nivel socioeconómico bajo (razón de momios, RM=2,02, nacimiento en el sur del estado (RM=3,96, nacimiento en casa (RM=2,51 o nacimiento en hospital público (RM=4,08, antecedentes heredofamiliares paternos (RM=5,38, antecedentes heredofamiliares maternos (RM=4,11, tener otro hijo con labio o paladar hendido en la familia (RM=46,02, presentar algún otro defecto congénito asociado (RM=8,20 e infección en el embarazo (RM=2,90, y como factor protector, el cuidado prenatal y el uso de vitaminas (RM=0,29.
Conclusiones. El mayor riesgo en nuestra muestra para labio, paladar hendido o ambos, no asociados a un síndrome, radica en las variables relaci
Juan J. Villalobos-Rodelo
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors play a complex role in determining the risk of campylobacteriosis. Understanding the spatial interplay between these factors and disease risk can guide disease control programs. Historically, Poisson and negative binomial models have been used to investigate determinants of geographic disparities in risk. Spatial regression models, which allow modeling of spatial effects, have been used to improve these modeling efforts. Geographically weighted regression (GWR takes this a step further by estimating local regression coefficients, thereby allowing estimations of associations that vary in space. These recent approaches increase our understanding of how geography influences the associations between determinants and disease. Therefore the objectives of this study were to: (i identify socioeconomic determinants of the geographic disparities of campylobacteriosis risk (ii investigate if regression coefficients for the associations between socioeconomic factors and campylobacteriosis risk demonstrate spatial variability and (iii compare the performance of four modeling approaches: negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR. Methods Negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR modeling techniques were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic factors and geographic disparities in campylobacteriosis risk. The best fitting models were identified and compared. Results Two competing four variable models (Models 1 & 2 were identified. Significant variables included race, unemployment rate, education attainment, urbanicity, and divorce rate. Local Poisson GWR had the best fit and showed evidence of spatially varying regression coefficients. Conclusions The international significance of this work is that it highlights the inadequacy of global regression strategies that estimate one parameter per independent variable, and therefore mask the true relationships between dependent and independent variables. Since local GWR estimate a regression coefficient for each location, it reveals the geographic differences in the associations. This implies that a factor may be an important determinant in some locations and not others. Incorporating this into health planning ensures that a needs-based, rather than a “one-size-fits-all”, approach is used. Thus, adding local GWR to the epidemiologists’ toolbox would allow them to assess how the impacts of different determinants vary by geography. This knowledge is critical for resource allocation in disease control programs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The socioeconomic and sociodemographic situation are important components for the design and assessment of malaria control measures. In malaria endemic areas, however, valid classification of socioeconomic factors is difficult due to the lack of standardized tax and income data. The objective of this study was to quantify household socioeconomic levels using principal component analyses (PCA to a set of indicator variables and to use a classification scheme for the multivariate analysis of children Methods In total, 1,496 children presenting to the hospital were examined for malaria parasites and interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. The information of eleven indicators of the family's housing situation was reduced by PCA to a socioeconomic score, which was then classified into three socioeconomic status (poor, average and rich. Their influence on the malaria occurrence was analysed together with malaria risk co-factors, such as sex, parent's educational and ethnic background, number of children living in a household, applied malaria protection measures, place of residence and age of the child and the mother. Results The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the proportion of children with malaria decreased with increasing socioeconomic status as classified by PCA (p Conclusions The socioeconomic situation is significantly associated with malaria even in holoendemic rural areas where economic differences are not much pronounced. Valid classification of the socioeconomic level is crucial to be considered as confounder in intervention trials and in the planning of malaria control measures.
Family history and socioeconomic risk factors for non-syndromic cleft lip and palate: A matched case-control study in a less developed country / Factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos para labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en México: estudio de casos y controles pareado
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción. Desde el punto de vista epidemiológico, las hendiduras faciales son las deformidades orales más comunes alrededor del mundo. Objetivo. Identificar los factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos relacionados con la presencia de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome. [...] Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de casos y controles en el que se incluyeron 208 casos con diagnóstico de labio, paladar hendido o ambos no asociados a un síndrome, los cuales fueron pareados por edad y sexo con 416 controles. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes quirúrgicos atendidos durante el periodo 2002-2004 en el programa estatal de labio o paladar hendido de Campeche, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario en el que se recogió información sobre variables sociodemográficas y socioeconómicas, así como sobre antecedentes hereditarios de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en la familia. Debido a que el diseño fue pareado, el análisis se hizo con regresión logística condicionada. Resultados. En el modelo multivariado para labio o paladar hendido no asociado a un síndrome se identificaron de forma significativa (p Abstract in english Introduction. From an epidemiological point of view, non-syndromic orofacial clefts are the most common oral congenital deformities worldwide. Objective. Family histories were traced and socioeconomic risk factors were identified for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Material and [...] methods. A case-control study was carried out with 208 cases of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and matched by age and sex with 416 controls. Cases were patients attending a referral clinic from 2002 through 2004 in Campeche, Mexico. A questionnaire was administered to collect sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables as well as familial background relevant to non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Conditional logistic regression models were used; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results. In the multivariate model, the following risk factors were identified: 1) low socioeconomic status; 2) birth in the southern region of Campeche state; 3) home delivery or delivery in a publicly funded hospital; 4) occurrence of prior non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate cases in the father´s or mother´s family: 5) having a sibling with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate; 6) the proband having another malformation, and 7) a history of infections during pregnancy. Prenatal care consisting of vitamin supplementation was a protective factor for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (odds ratio=0.29). Conclusions. A “social gradient in health” was seen to link oral malformation with diet components, and several socioeconomic and socio-demographic factors broadly encompassed in low socioeconomic status. Further characterization of risk factors will guide the assemblage of a pro-active counseling and prevention program for families at risk for non-syndromic cleft lip and cleft palate.
Gladys, Acuña-González; Carlo E, Medina-Solís; Gerardo, Maupomé; Mauricio, Escoffie-Ramírez; Jesús, Hernández-Romano; María de L, Márquez-Corona; Arturo J, Islas-Márquez; Juan J, Villalobos-Rodelo.
Objective. To describe the distribution of food insecurity (FI) in Mexico, from the perspective of food access and consumption, and its relationship with diverse socioeconomic factors and nutritional status. Materials and methods. Information from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (Ensanut 2012), National Income - Expense in Households Survey 2008 (ENIGH 2008), and from the National Council for Poverty Evaluation (Coneval) was gathered for this study. Food insecurity (FI) measurement was conducted by applying the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) and its relation with socioeconomic, dietetic, and nutritional variables. Results. In Mexico one out of three households suffers food insecurity in moderate or severe degree. FI not only increases the malnutrition risk in children but also contributes to the great incidence of diabetes, overweight and obesity in adults, principally in women. Conclusion. To improve structural agents and factors that impact in FI in Mexico is imperative, due to the consequences that it has in the country's development. PMID:25649457
Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A
Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of women in developed countries, and its incidence is rising among pre- and postmenopausal women. In developed and numerous developing countries endometrial cancer, as well as other types of female cancers are an ever-increasing threat that may be explained, among other reasons, by increased life expectancy and changes in lifestyle factors. Endometrial cancer is more common in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. Through a review of the literature it was found that the risk of endometrial cancer is positively correlated with older age, early menarche & late menopause, obesity, family history of endometrial cancer (especially among close relatives), radiation exposure, and infertility particularly in the presence of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Long-term use of unopposed oestrogens for hormone replacement therapy also increases the risk of endometrial cancer. Caucasians have a higher incidence of endometrial cancer than African or Asian women. Obese women were found to be at high risk for developing endometrial cancer, while diabetes, hypertension, and geographical and socioeconomic factors are still inconclusive. Finally, smoking is considered as a protective factor against endometrial cancer due to its anti- estrogenic effect. PMID:24313431
Ali, Aus Tariq
Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.
Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.
Abstract Background Risk factors are often considered individually, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of combinations of multiple behavioural risk factors and their association with socioeconomic determinants. Methods Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the associations between socioeconomic factors and multiple risk factors from data in the Scottish Health Survey 2003. Prevalence of five key risk - smoking, alcohol, diet, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity, and th...
Brewster David H; Fischbacher Colin; Stockton Diane; Harding Oliver; Lawder Richard; Chalmers Jim; Finlayson Alan; Conway David I
A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG)
Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855
Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J
Previous longitudinal studies have demonstrated the importance of measuring stability of risk factors over time to correct for attenuation bias. The present aim was to assess the stability of scores for eight psychometric scales over a 2-yr. period and whether stability differed by socioeconomic position. Baseline data were collected during 2003–2004 from 1,007 men and women ages 45 to 69 years. Follow-up data were collected in 2006 from a total of 795 men and women. Analysis showed that st...
Lundberg, Johanna; Karlsson, Nadine; Kristenson, Margareta
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Low birth weight (LBW is a result of preterm birth or intrauterine growth retardation, and in both cases is the strongest single factor associated with perinatal and neonatal mortality. It is considered that socioeconomic factors, as well as mothers bad habits, play the most significant role in the development of LBW, which explains notable number of researches focused on this particular problem. The aim of this study was to characterize socioeconomic factors, as well as smoking habits of the mothers, and their connection with LBW. Methods. The questionnaire was carried out among mothers of 2 years old children (n = 956, born after 37 gestational weeks. The characteristics of mothers who had children with LBW, defined as < 2 500 g, (n = 50, were matched with the characteristics of mothers who had children ? 2 500 g, (n = 906. For defining risk factors, and protective factors as well, we used univariant and multivariant logistic modeles. Results. As significant risk factors for LBW in an univariant model we had education level of the mothers, smoking during pregnancy, smoking before pregnancy, the number of daily cigarettes, the number of cigarettes used during pregnancy, paternal earnings and socioeconomic factors. In a multivariant model the most significant factors were socioeconomic factors, education level of the mothers, paternal earnings and mothers smoking during pregnancy. Conclusion. Smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors have great influence on LBW. Future studies should be carried out in different social groups, with the intention to define their influence on LBW and reproduction, as well. This should be the proper way of adequate health breeding planning for giving up smoking, the prevention of bad habits and melioration of mothers and children health, as the most vulnerable population.
Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United Kingdom has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy in Europe and in contrast to the decline in the rate of teenage pregnancy, recorded in the remaining countries of Western Europe, this figure has remained relatively stable, especially in adolescents aged 16 years and below. In Greece, according to National Statistics Office, in 2007, we had 3.129 births by teenagers under 18, with 75 births by teenagers under 15. The main factors contributing to the incidence of teenage pregnancy are socioeconomic factors, the family, the education and the sexual behavior of teenagers. Conclusions.It is necessary the state, through the health services and the education programs, to provide modern sex education in schools, as well as programs of prevention and health education in primary health care. The cooperation of these authorities is essential, to better address the extent and consequences of teenage pregnancy.
BACKGROUND: Good sleep quality is essential for recovery. The risk factors of sleep disorders have been extensively investigated, but there is sparse information on the association of socioeconomic factors with a person's sleep quality. The aim of the present analysis is to investigate this association, taking particularly the effect of health confounders into consideration. METHODS: The data were extracted from the cross-sectional QUEBEB Study. In total, the study sample consisted of 3281 participants (1817 women and 1464 men, aged 16-72 years). Here socioeconomic status (SES) was collected from the baseline survey taken in 2004. Sleep quality for the same participants was measured with in-depth personal interviews in 2006 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, together with other relevant characteristics (e.g. anxiety, depression and health status). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: People living in an urban environment with a high or medium SES have a greater probability of good sleep quality (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.14; odds ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.69) than persons with a low SES. Anxiety and depression, but also health status, are also associated with sleep quality and can influence in part the socioeconomic levels seen in sleep quality. CONCLUSION: SES and sleep quality are associated. However, there are important additional determinants that influence the level of association between SES and sleep quality. Several factors, such as anxiety, depression and health status, are associated with poorer sleep quality, but at the same time, these factors occur more often within lower social classes.
Anders, Markus P; Breckenkamp, Jürgen
Although research has established the impact of early stress, including stressful life contexts, and early resources, such as educational attainment, on various adolescent health outcomes, previous research has not adequately investigated "integrative models" incorporating both stress and resource mediational pathways to explain how early socioeconomic adversity impacts physical health outcomes, particularly in early life stages. Data on early childhood/adolescent stress and socioeconomic resources as well as biomarkers indicating physical health status in young adulthood were collected from 11,798 respondents (54 % female) over a 13-year period from youth participating in the National Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Physical health risk in young adulthood was measured using a composite index of nine regulatory biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Heterogeneity in stress and socioeconomic resource pathways was assessed using latent class analysis to identify clusters, or classes, of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectories. The influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk, as measured by biomarkers, was estimated, and the role of stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes as linking mechanisms was assessed. There was evidence for the influence of early socioeconomic adversity on young adults' physical health risk directly and indirectly through stress and socioeconomic resource trajectory classes over the early life course. These findings suggest that health models should be broadened to incorporate both stress and resource experiences simultaneously. Furthermore, these findings have prevention and intervention implications, including the importance of early socioeconomic adversity and key intervention points for "turning" the trajectories of at-risk youth. PMID:25376472
Wickrama, Kandauda K A S; Lee, Tae Kyoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Kwon, Josephine A
Study objective: To study geographical differences in mortality and disability and sosio-economic status in Oslo, Norway. Setting: A total of 25 local authority districts within the city of Oslo. Design: Analysis of age adjusted mortality rates aged 0-74 in the period 1991-1994, and cross sectional data on disability pensioners aged 50-66 and socio-economic indicators (low education, single parenthood, unemployment, high income) in 1994. Main outcome measures: The levels of correlation between the health outcomes (mortality and disability) and sosio-economic exposure variables. Main results: The geographical patterns of mortality and disability display substantial similarities and show strong linear correlation with area measures of socio-economic deprivation. The ratios between the highest and lowest area mortality rates were 3.3 for men and 2.1 for women, while the high-low ratios of disability were 7.0 for men and 3.8 for women. For women deprivation measures are better correlated with disability than mortality. While disability and mortality display similar correlations with deprivation measures for men. Conclusions: The social gradients in health are substantial in Oslo. Further ecological analysis of cause specific morbidity and mortality and the distribution of risk factors ought to be done to identify problem areas suitable for interventions. However, to understand the mechanisms and the relative importance of each etiological factor, studies based on individuological factor, studies based on individual data have to be performed
The use of socioeconomic factors in mapping tuberculosis risk areas in a city of northeastern Brazil / Uso de factores socioeconómicos en la localización de áreas con riesgo de tuberculosis en una ciudad del nordeste de Brasil
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish En Brasil, el reto de satisfacer las necesidades de los residentes en zonas pobres ha generado discusiones sobre la sustitución del actual abordaje de la vigilancia epidemiológica por un sistema integrado de vigilancia de la salud pública. Este nuevo abordaje debería sustituir el tradicional enfoque [...] en los individuos de alto riesgo por un método destinado a identificar las poblaciones de alto riesgo y las zonas en las que viven. Dada la magnitud del problema de la tuberculosis en Brasil, elegimos esta enfermedad como un ejemplo de cómo se podría concebir este nuevo sistema integrado de vigilancia de la salud pública. Se reunieron los datos de varias fuentes y la información geográfica para crear un indicador del riesgo de tuberculosis en Olinda, ciudad del estado de Pernambuco. Con el fin de estratificar el espacio urbano de Olinda y de buscar una asociación entre el gradiente del riesgo de tuberculosis y la incidencia media de la enfermedad entre 1991 y 1996, se aplicaron dos métodos diferentes: 1) un "índice social de pobreza", y 2) un análisis de componentes principales seguido de un análisis por grupos. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron una asociación entre la pobreza y la aparición de la tuberculosis y también señalaron grupos y zonas prioritarias que requerían intervención. Se recomienda un seguimiento que debería incluir el tratamiento de los casos de tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia positiva, la identificación de los contactos de estos individuos y el control de los casos resistentes a múltiples fármacos, todo ello en coordinación con los servicios de salud locales. Abstract in english In Brazil the challenge of meeting the needs of those living in deprived areas has generated discussions on replacing the existing approach to epidemiological surveillance with an integrated public health surveillance system. This new approach would supplant the traditional focus on high-risk indivi [...] duals with a method for identifying high-risk populations and the areas where these persons live. Given the magnitude of the problem that tuberculosis (TB) poses for Brazil, we chose that disease as an example of how such a new, integrated public health surveillance system could be constructed. We integrated data from several sources with geographic information to create an indicator of tuberculosis risk for Olinda, a city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. In order to stratify the urban space in Olinda and to check for an association between the resulting TB risk gradient and the mean incidence of the disease between 1991 and 1996, we applied two different methods: 1) a "social deprivation index" and 2) principal component analysis followed by cluster analysis. Our results showed an association between social deprivation and the occurrence of TB. The results also highlighted priority groups and areas requiring intervention. We recommend follow-up that would include treating acid-fast bacilli smear-positive pulmonary TB cases, tracing of these persons' contacts, and monitoring of multidrug-resistant cases, all in coordination with local health services.
Wayner V., Souza; Ricardo, Ximenes; Maria F. M., Albuquerque; Tiago M., Lapa; José L., Portugal; Maria L. C., Lima; Celina M. T., Martelli.
The use of socioeconomic factors in mapping tuberculosis risk areas in a city of northeastern Brazil Uso de factores socioeconómicos en la localización de áreas con riesgo de tuberculosis en una ciudad del nordeste de Brasil
Full Text Available In Brazil the challenge of meeting the needs of those living in deprived areas has generated discussions on replacing the existing approach to epidemiological surveillance with an integrated public health surveillance system. This new approach would supplant the traditional focus on high-risk individuals with a method for identifying high-risk populations and the areas where these persons live. Given the magnitude of the problem that tuberculosis (TB poses for Brazil, we chose that disease as an example of how such a new, integrated public health surveillance system could be constructed. We integrated data from several sources with geographic information to create an indicator of tuberculosis risk for Olinda, a city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. In order to stratify the urban space in Olinda and to check for an association between the resulting TB risk gradient and the mean incidence of the disease between 1991 and 1996, we applied two different methods: 1 a "social deprivation index" and 2 principal component analysis followed by cluster analysis. Our results showed an association between social deprivation and the occurrence of TB. The results also highlighted priority groups and areas requiring intervention. We recommend follow-up that would include treating acid-fast bacilli smear-positive pulmonary TB cases, tracing of these persons' contacts, and monitoring of multidrug-resistant cases, all in coordination with local health services.En Brasil, el reto de satisfacer las necesidades de los residentes en zonas pobres ha generado discusiones sobre la sustitución del actual abordaje de la vigilancia epidemiológica por un sistema integrado de vigilancia de la salud pública. Este nuevo abordaje debería sustituir el tradicional enfoque en los individuos de alto riesgo por un método destinado a identificar las poblaciones de alto riesgo y las zonas en las que viven. Dada la magnitud del problema de la tuberculosis en Brasil, elegimos esta enfermedad como un ejemplo de cómo se podría concebir este nuevo sistema integrado de vigilancia de la salud pública. Se reunieron los datos de varias fuentes y la información geográfica para crear un indicador del riesgo de tuberculosis en Olinda, ciudad del estado de Pernambuco. Con el fin de estratificar el espacio urbano de Olinda y de buscar una asociación entre el gradiente del riesgo de tuberculosis y la incidencia media de la enfermedad entre 1991 y 1996, se aplicaron dos métodos diferentes: 1 un "índice social de pobreza", y 2 un análisis de componentes principales seguido de un análisis por grupos. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron una asociación entre la pobreza y la aparición de la tuberculosis y también señalaron grupos y zonas prioritarias que requerían intervención. Se recomienda un seguimiento que debería incluir el tratamiento de los casos de tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia positiva, la identificación de los contactos de estos individuos y el control de los casos resistentes a múltiples fármacos, todo ello en coordinación con los servicios de salud locales.
Wayner V. Souza
The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Full Text Available Systemic hypertension is a common disease in the population and is one of the most important risk factors whose prevalence reaches 28% in U.S.A, 44% in Europe, so that in 2025, it is estimated that hypertensive persons will reach 1.56 billion worldwide. In our country, the overall prevalence was 44.92%, mainly higher in males (50.17% than females (41.11%. We conducted an assessment of social and psychological factors in association with medical and biological routine quantification in a group of 80 hypertensives newly diagnosed, compared with a control group. Questionnaires were for studying the marital status, education level, quantifying the number of working hours per day, the level of physical training and professional socio-familial stress, smoking, alcohol consumption, after which patients were tested to assess the psychometric anxiety and depression using the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. The results may support an increased risk of hypertension in individuals who are undergoing to social and family stress, working over 10 hours/day and who record mild or moderate levels of anxiety and depression at evaluation tests. These data support the implementation of complex programs to decrease the risk of hypertension by working professionals in the medical, social and psychological fields of expertise.
This study investigated socioeconomic and cultural factors that interplay with racial differences in adult literacy. African-American adults were shown to have statistically significantly higher book and periodical reading practices than European-Americans when income was controlled, demonstrating the important relationship between socioeconomic…
Holt, Janet K.; Smith, M. Cecil
Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru) and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic inform...
Pereira, Latife; Zamudio, Roxana; Soares-souza, Giordano; Herrera, Phabiola; Cabrera, Lilia; Hooper, Catherine C.; Cok, Jaime; Combe, Juan M.; Vargas, Gloria; Prado, William A.; Schneider, Silvana; Kehdy, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Berg, Douglas E.
... known as "Crypto") Parasites Home Share Compartir Epidemiology & Risk Factors Crypto lives in the intestine of infected humans ... Commerically Bottled-Water and Other Beverages Diagnosis Epidemiology & Risk Factors Treatment Biology Prevention & Control Child Care Facilities Prevention ...
The purpose of this study was to examine interrelationship and causal linkages between socioeconomic and environmental variables in OECD countries. To aid this study, a LISREL modelling tool was implemented. The findings of the study indicated that gross public debt increases with deterioration in air quality in North America, Asia and the Pacific, Central, Eastern and Atlantic regions of Western Europe. Energy consumption contributes to deterioration of air quality in all regions. Eco...
Mariam, Yohannes; Barre, Mike; Urquhart, Lynda; Decivita, Paul
Full Text Available Objective: Substance abuse amongst youth has been growing in developed and developing nations, including Turkey. This growth is related to a number of factors, not the least of which are forces associated with development, globalization, and youth culture. The identification of risk factors for youth substance abuse for particular populations is an important approach to the development of prevention and intervention strategies. Methods: We analyzed the data from a survey of 31,272 youth ages 14 to 18 years enrolled in high schools in Istanbul that covered the use of various substances as well as a number of demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, psychopathological, and psychosocial risk factors. Our data consisted of answers to similar questions that were asked in European School Survey Project (ESPAD, Youth in Europe (YIE, and Monitoring of the Future Survey and the National Household Survey in USA. We used binary logistic regression analyses to generate risk profiles for each of the following categories of lifetime use: tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, other illicit drugs, and multiple (two or more other illicit drugs. Results: We identified statistically significant risk profiles for these different substance categories. All the different risk factor categories contributed variably to the use of gateway drugs (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicits, but the multiple use of other illicit drugs was associated primarily with a narrower set of psychopathological (suicidality, irritability, and antisocial problems and psychosocial variables (family substance abuse and peer in?uence. Conclusions: These risk profiles share some commonality with those found amongst other populations. However, these unique risk profiles for Turkish youth can be useful in developing primary and secondary preventive interventions to address the growing substance use and abuse problems. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, focusing on time trends and risk factors of substance use in youth of emerging countries including Turkey, are needed.
andres j. pumariega
Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.
Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu
Full Text Available Imane Cherkaoui Dekkaki,1 Said Ettair,1 Toufik Meskini,1 Nabil Khalloufi,2 Nezha Mouane,1 Amina Barkat21Unité de Pédagogie et de Recherche en Nutrition, 2CRECET, Université Mohammed V, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Rabat, Souissi, Rabat, MoroccoObjectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and the socioeconomic risk factors among children enrolled in primary public schools in Rabat, Morocco.Methods: Twenty-three schools were randomly selected. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2010. The survey was conducted on the basis of two questionnaires for both parents and children. The references used were from the World Health Organization, 2007.Results: Our study focused on a sample of 1569 children whose average age was 9.7 ± 0.95 years. The prevalence of underweight among girls and boys was 43.1%, while that of stunting was 18.2%. The majority of the children in our population come from a low socioeconomic level. While 59% of fathers are laborers, 85% of mothers are unemployed.Conclusion: In our study, we demonstrated that child malnutrition is strongly linked to a low socioeconomic level. These observations suggest that besides income, schooling and food quality may also be important factors that can affect growth. Educational programs, whether held in schools or informally, such as literacy or parenting classes, are valuable complements to other nutrition sustaining activities.Keywords: underweight, stunting, malnutrition, children, low socioeconomic level
Cherkaoui Dekkaki I
An attempt is made to put the risk factor of nuclear energy in proper perspective in comparison with other sources of energy, particularly, coal and hydel. Risk factor which draws considerable public attention is radioactive release from nuclear power plants (NPPs) and consequent environmental impacts and radiation exposure of both plant personnel and public leading to biological effects which may even affect progeny. So far as design, construction and operation of Indian NPPs are concerned, a defence in depth approach is followed. This is illustrated by describing some major components of the approach followed in the case of Madras Atomic Power Station. They are uninterrupted power supply, reactor shutdown, adequate cooling at all times, multiple barriers to prevent release of fission products to the public domain, multi-layered safety analyses, explicit safety clearances, operator training and qualification, and radiation monitoring. Data collected for all operating Indian NPPs indicate that radiation exposure of plant personnel and public, and radioactivity release (both atmospheric and aquatic) are well below permissible levels recommended by ICRP. Increase in environmental radiation level is also found to be insignificant (4-6 mrem/year at the site boundary of NPPs) when compared to the variations in natural background. Accidents and waste effluents in the case of NPPs are several orders of magnitude less than those from coal-fired plants. Continued release of COcoal-fired plants. Continued release of CO2 and SO2 from coal fired power plants is leading to greenhouse effect and acid rain respectively. Apprehension about leakage of radioactive wastes from containers is also out of proportion. Control and surveillance exercised over release of radioactive waste is more stringent than those over chemicals. (M.G.B.)
Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level Nível de pobreza e estado de saúde das crianças: um estudo de fatores de risco em população urbana de baixo nível socioeconômico
To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile) were found to ha...
Issler, Roberto M. S.; Giugliani, Elsa R. J.; Kreutz, Guilherme T.; Meneses, Clarice F.; Justo, Elisa B.; Kreutz, Valerie M.; Milton Pires
Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.
Arma?, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; St?nciugelu, I.
It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there istion, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer
We assess whether there is evidence of an association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and HIV risk-relevant behavior among lower income heterosexual men and women in San Francisco. Respondents residing in low income areas with high heterosexual AIDS case burden in San Francisco were recruited through long-chain referral in 2006–2007. Risk measures included unprotected vaginal intercourse, concurrency and exchange sex. SEP was defined as household annual income, per capita income, and e...
Arnold, Michael P.; Fisher, H. Raymond; Mcfarland, Willi
A number of students in the urban and rural areas of N-W.F.P (Pakistan) and control group were collected to examine the various socio-economic factors which affect our education system. A logistic regression was applied to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. The response variable for the study is literate (illiterate) person(s) and the risk factors are Father literacy [FE], Father income[FI] Parents’ attitude towards education[PA], Mother literacy [ME], Present examination ...
Uddin, Salah; Rahman, Atta Ur
Objectives. To assess early growth characteristics and socioeconomic factors of children in relation to body mass index (BMI) and presence of overweight among four-year-old children. Methods. Two Child Health Centres (CHC) participated in the study. They were selected to obtain two populations of children featuring divergent socio-economic characteristics. Growth data registered at the CHCs from birth to the 4-year check-up were recovered. Overweight was defined by the BMI cut-offs establishe...
Amp Rild, Staffan M.; Amp Rgen Thorn, J.; Maria Johansson; Maria Waller
Genetic factors are clearly important in the etiology of schizophrenia, but the environment in which an individual's genes find expression is also crucial to the development of the illness. In this review of environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, we consider risks operating prenatally and perinatally, during childhood, and then later in life prior to illness onset. Some of these risk factors have been well documented, for example, early hazards causing fetal growth retardation or hypox...
Dean, Kimberlie; Murray, Robin M.
The aim of this dissertation was to analyse the effect of socio-economic factors on poverty in Nyakallong. Nyakallong is a former Black township in the Free State Province of South Africa. The effect of the socio economic factors on poverty was analysed using an econometric model. The analysis was based on data collected by the researcher and three fieldworkers who conducted a survey of 412 households in Nyakallong in 2009. To calculate poverty rates and the effect of socio-economic factors, ...
Ramphoma, Sefako Samuel
Purpose. It is unclear whether sociocultural and socioeconomic factors are directly linked to type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese ethnic minority children and adolescents. This study examines the relationships between sociocultural orientation, household social position, and type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese African-American (n = 43) and Latino-American (n = 113) children and adolescents. Methods. Sociocultural orientation was assessed using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interest...
Hasson, Rebecca E.; Adam, Tanja C.; Pearson, Jay; Davis, Jaimie N.; Spruijt-metz, Donna; Goran, Michael I.
The prevalence rate of obesity in the United States has been persistently high in recent decades, and disparities in obesity risks are routinely observed. Both individual and contextual factors should be considered when addressing health disparities. This study examines how Latino-white spatial segregation is associated with the risk of obesity for Latinos and whites, whether neighborhood socioeconomic resources, the built environment, and subcultural orientation serve as the underlying mecha...
Wen, Ming; Maloney, Thomas N.
What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient. Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi-centre study with highly standardized study protoco. The strength of association between SES and overweight and obesity varies across European regions. In our study, the SES gradient is correlated with the regional mean income and the country-specific Human development index indicating a strong influence not only of the family but also of region and country on the overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To assess the association between different macro- and micro-level socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight. Methods Data from the IDEFICS baseline survey is used to investigate the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic factors, like socioeconomic status (SES), and the prevalence of childhood overweight. Differences and similarities regarding this relationship in eight European regions (located in Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden) are explored. 11?994 children (50.9% boys, 49.1% girls) and their parents were included in the analyses. Results In five of the eight investigated regions (in Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Spain and Sweden), the prevalence of childhood overweight followed an inverse SES gradient. In the other three regions (in Cyprus, Hungary and Italy), no association between SES and childhood overweight was found. The SES-overweight association in a region was best explained by the country-specific human development index and the centre-specific mean income. For the investigated association between other socioeconomic factors and overweight, no clear pattern could be found in the different regions. Conclusion The association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight was shown to be heterogeneous across different European regions. Further research on nationwide European data is needed to confirm the results and to identify target groups for prevention.
Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke
Uses data from the Rochester Youth Development Study of urban youth (N=615) to identify early risk factors for the likelihood of becoming a teen father. Results show that teen fatherhood is related to a variety of risk factors, such as social class, educational performance, precocious sexual activity, and drug use. (RJM)
Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Howard, Gregory J.
Full Text Available ... of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, causes a greatly increased risk of breast cancer. Zora and her relatives who carry the gene also have an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Interviewer: When there was a specific gene identified for breast cancer, what was the reaction of your family? ...
Socioeconomic status could potentially impact on which type of rheumatic diagnosis a patient receives. We determined whether different socioeconomic status is a risk factor for being diagnosed with spondyloarthritis (SpA) or chronic pain. In a nested case-control study, we identified two sets of adult cases diagnosed with (i) SpA (n = 1,194) and (ii) chronic pain (n = 3,730) during 2010-2012 in Skåne region, Sweden. We randomly sampled controls matched for age and sex. Level of education, marital status, and income were identified in national registers 4 years before inclusion. We also studied health-care utilization, prescribed pharmaceuticals, and work status. We used conditional logistic regressions and included socioeconomic variables and geographic area in the models. Low (odds ratio [OR] 1.69 95 % CI 1.50-1.91) or moderate education (OR 1.43 95 % CI 1.30-1.57), and low (OR 1.40 95 % CI 1.25-1.57) or moderate income (OR 1.24 95 % CI 1.10-1.38) were associated with a chronic pain diagnosis. For a SpA diagnosis, moderate income (OR 1.25 95 % CI 1.04-1.50) was the only significant factor identified. Both case groups had a larger proportion that did not work (P pain diagnosis. This association may reflect a true higher incidence of chronic pain and/or increased consultation propensity for such pain in people with socioeconomic status. We found no such association for SpA. PMID:24825253
Jöud, Anna; Petersson, Ingemar F; Jordan, Kelvin P; Löfvendahl, Sofia; Grahn, Birgitta; Englund, Martin
Mosquito-borne Sindbis virus (SINV) causes rash-arthritis syndrome in Finland. Major outbreaks with approximately 7-year cycles have caused substantial burden of illness. Forest dwelling grouse are suspected to be amplifying hosts, with the infection transmitted to humans by mosquito bites. SINV infection surveillance data for 1984–2010 were used to create a negative binomial hurdle model, with seasonality, long-term cycles, climatic, ecological and socioeconomic variables. Climatic factors during early summer and amount of snow in April described the occurrence and incidence of SINV infections. Regulated water shore and hatch-year black grouse density described the occurrence, while population working in agriculture, agricultural land(negative) and income (negative) described the incidence of the disease. The prediction for 2009 was 85 cases (95% prediction interval 2-1187), while the actual occurrence was 106. We identified novel and known risk factors. The prevention of SINV infections in regulated water areas by infected mosquito populations should be targeted. PMID:23158410
Jalava, K; Sane, J; Ollgren, J; Ruuhela, R; Rätti, O; Kurkela, S; Helle, P; Hartonen, S; Pirinen, P; Vapalahti, O; Kuusi, M
Most hydrological studies do not account for the socio-economic influences on eco-hydrological processes. However, socio-economic developments often change the water balance substantially and are highly relevant in understanding changes in hydrological responses. In this study a multi-disciplinary approach was used to study the cascading impacts of socio-economic drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on the eco-hydrological regime of the Lake Naivasha Basin. The basin has recently experienced substantial LULC changes exacerbated by socio-economic drivers. The simplified cascade models provided insights for an improved understanding of the socio-ecohydrological system. Results show that the upstream population has transformed LULC such that runoff during the period 1986-2010 was 32% higher than during the period 1961-1985. Cut-flower export volumes and downstream population growth explain 71% of the water abstracted from Lake Naivasha. The influence of upstream population on LULC and upstream hydrological processes explained 59% and 30% of the variance in lake storage volumes and sediment yield respectively. The downstream LULC changes had significant impact on large wild herbivore mammal species on the fringe zone of the lake. This study shows that, in cases where observed socio-economic developments are substantial, the use of a cascade-modeling approach, that couple socio-economic factors to eco-hydrological processes, can greatly improve our understanding of the eco-hydrological processes of a catchment.
Odongo, V. O.; Mulatu, D. W.; Muthoni, F. K.; van Oel, P. R.; Meins, F. M.; van der Tol, C.; Skidmore, A. K.; Groen, T. A.; Becht, R.; Onyando, J. O.; van der Veen, A.
This article reports on an exploratory analysis of potential associations between snakebite incidence and environmental and socioeconomic variables in Rio de Janeiro from 1990 to 1996. Specific geographic locations in the State of Rio de Janeiro, the percentage of working children aged 10 to 14 years, illiteracy, low income, the proportion of households in agricultural areas, the proportion of crops such as beans, coffee, banana, and sugar cane, the proportion of the population working in farming activities, fallow arable land areas, natural and secondary forests, and total swine population appeared as risk factors for snakebites. PMID:15300290
Bochner, Rosany; Struchiner, Claudio José
Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors for periodontal disease, such as smoking, diabetes and obesity, and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, are relatively common and can be expected to affect most patients with periodontal disease seen in clinics and dental practices. Hence, risk factor identification and management has become a key component of care for periodontal patients. PMID:23574464
Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S
We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling f...
Deater-deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann
Full Text Available Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals.
Rodney R. Dietert
Tens of millions of individuals around the world use decentralized content distribution systems, a fact of growing social, economic, and technological importance. These sharing systems are poorly understood because, unlike in other technosocial systems, it is difficult to gather large-scale data about user behavior. Here, we investigate user activity patterns and the socioeconomic factors that could explain the behavior. Our analysis reveals that (i) the ecosystem is heterogeneous at several levels: content types are heterogeneous, users specialize in a few content types, and countries are heterogeneous in user profiles; and (ii) there is a strong correlation between socioeconomic indicators of a country and users behavior. Our findings open a research area on the dynamics of decentralized sharing ecosystems and the socioeconomic factors affecting them, and may have implications for the design of algorithms and for policymaking. PMID:25288755
Gavaldà-Miralles, Arnau; Choffnes, David R; Otto, John S; Sánchez, Mario A; Bustamante, Fabián E; Amaral, Luís A N; Duch, Jordi; Guimerà, Roger
Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an aggregated large-scale analysis due to their large between- and within-village heterogeneity. Specific information of both the infection risk and potential predictors might be needed to obtain any existing association. The presented soil-transmitted helminth infection risk estimates for Cambodia can be used for guiding and evaluating control and elimination efforts. PMID:25205492
Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope
Heart disease remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in women in the United States and worldwide. This review highlights known and emerging risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women. Traditional Framingham risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, as well as lifestyle habits such as unhealthy diet and sedentary lifestyle are all modifiable. Health care providers should be aware of emerging cardiac risk factors in women such as adverse pregnancy outcomes, systemic autoimmune disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, and radiation-induced heart disease; psychosocial factors such as mental stress, depression, anxiety, low socioeconomic status, and work and marital stress play an important role in IHD in women. Appropriate recognition and management of an array of risk factors is imperative given the growing burden of IHD and need to deliver cost-effective, quality care for women. PMID:25453985
Mehta, Puja K; Wei, Janet; Wenger, Nanette K
Although modifiable risk factors have been included in previous models that estimate or project breast cancer risk, there remains a need to estimate the effects of changes in modifiable risk factors on the absolute risk of breast cancer.
Petracci, Elisabetta; Decarli, Adriano
Climate variability and change has direct impacts on agriculture. Despite continual adaptation to climate as well as gains in technology innovation and adoption, agriculture is still vulnerable to changes in temperature and precipitation expected in coming decades. Generally, researchers use two major methodologies to understand the vulnerability of agro-ecosystems to climate change: process-based crop models and empirical models. However, these models are not yet designed to capture the influence of socioeconomic systems on agro-ecosystem processes and outcomes.. However, socioeconomic processes are an important factor driving agro-ecological responses to biophysical processes (climate, topography and soil), because of the role of human agency in mediating the response of agro-ecosystems to climate. We have developed a framework that integrates socioeconomic and biophysical characteristics of agro-ecosystems using cluster analysis and GIS tools. This framework has been applied to the U.S. Southeast to define unique socio-ecological domains for agriculture. The results demonstrate that socioeconomic characteristics are an important factor influencing agriculture production. These results suggest that the lack of attention to socioeconomic conditions and human agency in agro-ecological modeling creates a potential bias with respect to the representation of climate change impacts.
Surendran Nair, S.; Preston, B. L.; King, A. W.; Mei, R.; Post, W. M.
OBJECTIVE--To determine which social and clinical factors are associated with healing in patients with venous ulceration. DESIGN--Patients were questioned about social factors at their first visit to a community ulcer clinic. They were treated by high compression bandage system and were interviewed again after 12 weeks. SETTING--Community leg ulcer clinics held in health centres throughout Riverside Health Authority in London. PATIENTS--All patients referred to five community leg ulcer clinic...
Franks, P. J.; Bosanquet, N.; Connolly, M.; Oldroyd, M. I.; Moffatt, C. J.; Greenhalgh, R. M.; Mccollum, C. N.
In studies of the SAT, correlations of SAT scores, high school grades, and socioeconomic factors (SES) are usually obtained using a university as the unit of analysis. This approach obscures an important structural aspect of the data: The high school grades received by a given institution come from a large number of high schools, all of which have…
Zwick, Rebecca; Greif Green, Jennifer
Risk Factor Frequency for Learning Disabilities in Low Socioeconomic Level Preschool Children in Mexico City / Frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico en la Ciudad de México / Frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem em pré-escolares com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese, Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este estudo objetivou identificar a frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem (DA) em crianças com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México. A escala de inteligência Wechsler, desenho da figura humana e o teste gestáltico visomotor de Bender foram utilizados. A idade méd [...] ia do grupo masculino foi de 5,6±0,9 anos e do grupo feminino 5,4±0,5 anos. O quociente intelectual total (QI-T) foi de 98±12 no grupo masculino e 99±12,2 no grupo feminino. No teste de Bender, os meninos apresentaram idade mental e visomotora um ano abaixo da idade cronológica, enquanto que as meninas apresentaram idade mental e visomotora 7-8 meses abaixo do normal. As características de alto risco que apresentaram maior frequência, tanto nos meninos como nas meninas, no teste do desenho de figura humana, foram: autoisolamento 25%, timidez 22,4 e controle interno deficiente 22%. Concluindo, alta frequência de fatores de risco para DA foi encontrada em crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico. É importante destacar a importância de se identificar pré-escolares em risco de DA. Abstract in spanish Nuestro objetivo fue identificar la frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje (PA) en niños de bajo nivel socioeconómico de la Ciudad de México. Se utilizaron las pruebas de inteligencia de Wechsler, Gestáltica Visuomotora de Bender y del Dibujo de la figura humana. La edad prom [...] edio en el grupo masculino fue 5,6±0,9 años, del femenino fue 5,4±0,5. En los hombres, el cociente intelectual total (CI-T) fue 98±12,2, en mujeres fue 99±12,2. En la prueba de Bender, los hombres mostraron una edad mental y visuomotora un año menor que la cronológica, las mujeres tuvieron una edad mental y visuomotora 7-8 meses por debajo de la norma. En la Prueba de la figura humana, los hombres y mujeres mostraron mayor frecuencia de: auto-aislamiento 25%, timidez 22,4% y controles internos pobres 22%. En conclusión encontramos una alta frecuencia de factores de riesgo en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico, destacamos la importancia de identificar a los preescolares propensos a tener problemas de aprendizaje (PA). Abstract in english The objective was to identify the frequency of risk factors for Learning Disabilities (LD) in low socioeconomic level children in Mexico City. We studied children by means of: Wechsler, Bender-Gestalt, and Human drawing tests. Average age of male subjects was 5.6±0.9 years, while that of the female [...] group was 5.4±0.5 years. In male subjects, average Total intelligence quotient (T-IQ) score was 98±12.2 while, in the female group, this was 99±12.2. On the Bender-Gestalt test, male subjects had a mental and visual-motor average age of
Elizabeth, Zambrano-Sánchez; María del Consuelo, Martínez-Wbaldo; Adrián, Poblano.
Risk Factor Frequency for Learning Disabilities in Low Socioeconomic Level Preschool Children in Mexico City Frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico en la Ciudad de México Frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem em pré-escolares com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México
Full Text Available The objective was to identify the frequency of risk factors for Learning Disabilities (LD in low socioeconomic level children in Mexico City. We studied children by means of: Wechsler, Bender-Gestalt, and Human drawing tests. Average age of male subjects was 5.6±0.9 years, while that of the female group was 5.4±0.5 years. In male subjects, average Total intelligence quotient (T-IQ score was 98±12.2 while, in the female group, this was 99±12.2. On the Bender-Gestalt test, male subjects had a mental and visual-motor average age of Nuestro objetivo fue identificar la frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje (PA en niños de bajo nivel socioeconómico de la Ciudad de México. Se utilizaron las pruebas de inteligencia de Wechsler, Gestáltica Visuomotora de Bender y del Dibujo de la figura humana. La edad promedio en el grupo masculino fue 5,6±0,9 años, del femenino fue 5,4±0,5. En los hombres, el cociente intelectual total (CI-T fue 98±12,2, en mujeres fue 99±12,2. En la prueba de Bender, los hombres mostraron una edad mental y visuomotora un año menor que la cronológica, las mujeres tuvieron una edad mental y visuomotora 7-8 meses por debajo de la norma. En la Prueba de la figura humana, los hombres y mujeres mostraron mayor frecuencia de: auto-aislamiento 25%, timidez 22,4% y controles internos pobres 22%. En conclusión encontramos una alta frecuencia de factores de riesgo en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico, destacamos la importancia de identificar a los preescolares propensos a tener problemas de aprendizaje (PA.Este estudo objetivou identificar a frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem (DA em crianças com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México. A escala de inteligência Wechsler, desenho da figura humana e o teste gestáltico visomotor de Bender foram utilizados. A idade média do grupo masculino foi de 5,6±0,9 anos e do grupo feminino 5,4±0,5 anos. O quociente intelectual total (QI-T foi de 98±12 no grupo masculino e 99±12,2 no grupo feminino. No teste de Bender, os meninos apresentaram idade mental e visomotora um ano abaixo da idade cronológica, enquanto que as meninas apresentaram idade mental e visomotora 7-8 meses abaixo do normal. As características de alto risco que apresentaram maior frequência, tanto nos meninos como nas meninas, no teste do desenho de figura humana, foram: autoisolamento 25%, timidez 22,4 e controle interno deficiente 22%. Concluindo, alta frequência de fatores de risco para DA foi encontrada em crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico. É importante destacar a importância de se identificar pré-escolares em risco de DA.
The number of suicides in Japan has substantially increased during its low growth period. The main argument of Durkheim’s (1951) seminal work in the field of sociology is that suicide is under influences of not only individual traits but also of the society one belongs to. ?Recently it was found that the effect of socio-economic variables on suicide rates depends on gender. This paper attempts to examine the difference of socio-economic factors on suicide between males and females. ...
Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for children and adolescents between the ages of 1 and 18 in the United States, accounting for more deaths than the next 20 causes of mortality combined. It is estimated that pediatric injury accounts for more than $50 billion in annual losses from medical care costs, future wages, and quality of life. Despite these numbers, much remains to be learned about the behavioral risks for pediatric unintentional injury. This article reviews behavioral risk factors for pediatric unintentional injury risk, with a particular focus on four broad areas. First, we discuss the effects of demographic risk factors, including gender, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity. Second, we present information about child-specific risk factors, including temperament, personality, psychopathology, and cognitive development. Third, we discuss the influence of parents and other primary caregivers on childhood injury risk, with a particular focus on the effects of supervision and parenting quality and style. Finally, we discuss the role of peers on child injury risk. We conclude with a discussion of the ways in which the material reviewed has been translated into injury prevention techniques, with a focus on how pediatricians might use knowledge about etiological risk to prioritize safety counseling topics. We also present thoughts on four priorities for future research: injury risk in diverse nations and cultures; developmental effects of injury; the influence of multiple risk factors together on injury risk; and translation of knowledge about risk for injury into intervention and prevention techniques. PMID:17565295
Schwebel, David C; Gaines, Joanna
This study sought to evaluate the association between socioeconomic variables and the quality of life of elderly hypertensive patients treated under the Family Health Program in the city of Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. An analytical cross study was conducted in a representative sample of 294 elderly hypertensive patients. Data were collected using a questionnaire on socioeconomic characteristics and quality of life (MINICHAL). The data were analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney and Kuskall-Wallis tests. The results showed that marital status, religion and education affect the quality of life of elderly hypertensive patients in a statistically significant way. Elderly hypertensive patients who were single/divorced/widowed, evangelical, spiritualist and belonging to other religious bodies, illiterate achieved lower scores in terms of quality of life. For the remaining variables, there was no statistical association. The conclusion, drawn is that socioeconomic factors such as marital status, education and religion influence the quality of life of elderly hypertensive patients. PMID:25119088
Andrade, João Marcus Oliveira; Rios, Lorena Roseli; Teixeira, Larissa Silva; Vieira, Fernanda Silva; Mendes, Danilo Cangussu; Vieira, Maria Aparecida; Silveira, Marise Fagundes
Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are being developed internationally for cross-sectoral assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. These are five scenarios that include both qualitative and quantitative information for mitigation and adaptation challenges to climate change. In this study, we quantified scenarios for the risk of hunger in the 21st century using SSPs, and clarified elements that influence future hunger risk. There were two primary findings: (1) risk of hunger in the 21st-century greatly differed among five SSPs; and (2) population growth, improvement in the equality of food distribution within a country, and increases in food consumption mainly driven by income growth greatly influenced future hunger risk and were important elements in its long-term assessment.
Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko
Full Text Available This study adopted a survey design. Questionnaire was administered on 215 respondents in Ibadan metropolis selected randomly. The objectives of the study are to examined the influence of some socio-economic factors on solid waste generation and disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. The nature and composition of solid waste generated, methods of disposal and relationship that exist between the socio-economic characteristics of the people and solid waste generation and disposal were also identified. Data for this study were obtained through the administration of questionnaire and review of existing literature. The information obtained from the field was analyzed using frequency and correlation matrix. The finding showed that the composition of waste generated in Ibadan Metropolis was a reflection of variation of socio-economic factors of the people. Also, socio-economic factors such as income, age, education, occupation and building types had greater influence on the choice of method of disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. It was recommended therefore that effective solid waste management can be achieved through the adoption of urban renewal strategy on the chaotic areas, provision of sizable fund by the government and proper education to the people among others.
Kayode, A. M.
... About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention We can’t control some risk factors for ... as well. NIA Information on Risk Factors and Prevention Brain Health Resource Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease: What Do ...
... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors? Coronary heart disease risk factors are ... Grand Opportunity" Exome Sequencing Project 10/14/2014 Heart Disease Risk Factors 10/14/2014 All of Our ...
The incidence of claimed risk factors for breast cancer was studied in 162 patients suffering this entity and in a control group of women with similar sociocultural level and age. Late menopause and sterility or first child born after age of 30 were the only factors more frequent in breast cancer patients. PMID:6680779
Pérez-López, F; Urcia, M A
Abstract Background: Little is known about the etiologic factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype. Methods: Orthoptists reviewed ophthalmologic records for Danish National Birth Cohort children examined for strabismus in hospital ophthalmology departments or by ophthalmologists in private practice. Information on perinatal characteristics was obtained from national registers. We ...
Torp-pedersen, Tobias Emil; Boyd, Heather Allison; Poulsen, Gry; Haargaard, Birgitte; Wohlfahrt, J.; Melbye, M.; Holmes, Jonathan M.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals. The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI) in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months wer [...] e included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals). The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.
Chaiana, Piovesan; Renata Saraiva, Guedes; Luciano, Casagrande; Thiago Machado, Ardenghi.
Cigarette smoking has long been a target of public health intervention because it substantially contributes to morbidity and mortality. Individuals in different-sex marriages have lower smoking risk (i.e., prevalence and frequency) than different-sex cohabiters. However, little is known about the smoking risk of individuals in same-sex cohabiting unions. We compare the smoking risk of individuals in different-sex marriages, same-sex cohabiting unions, and different-sex cohabiting unions using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1997-2010 National Health Interview Surveys (N = 168,514). We further examine the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and psychological distress in the relationship between union status and smoking. Estimates from multinomial logistic regression models reveal that same-sex and different-sex cohabiters experience similar smoking risk when compared to one another, and higher smoking risk when compared to the different-sex married. Results suggest that SES and psychological distress factors cannot fully explain smoking differences between the different-sex married and same-sex and different-sex cohabiting groups. Moreover, without same-sex cohabiter's education advantage, same-sex cohabiters would experience even greater smoking risk relative to the different-sex married. Policy recommendations to reduce smoking disparities among same-sex and different-sex cohabiters are discussed. PMID:25346559
Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Brown, Dustin
OBJECTIVE--To examine prospectively the relationship of childhood socioeconomic status and risk of cardiovascular disease in middle aged women. DESIGN--A prospective cohort of women with 14 years follow up data (1976-90). SUBJECTS--A total of 117,006 registered female nurses aged 30 to 55 years in 1976 and free of diagnosed coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Incident fatal coronary heart disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and stroke (fatal an...
Gliksman, M. D.; Kawachi, I.; Hunter, D.; Colditz, G. A.; Manson, J. E.; Stampfer, M. J.; Speizer, F. E.; Willett, W. C.; Hennekens, C. H.
Full Text Available Gianfranco Damiani,1 Eleonora Salvatori,1 Giulia Silvestrini,1 Ivana Ivanova,2 Luka Bojovic,3 Lanfranco Iodice,1 Walter Ricciardi1 1Department of Public Health, Università Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; 2ERAWEB Project, Faculty of Medicine, Saints Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Skopje, Macedonia; 3ERAWEB Project, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia Purpose: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Among these diseases, heart failure (HF and acute myocardial infarction (AMI are the most common causes of hospitalization. Therefore, readmission for HF and AMI is receiving increasing attention. Several socioeconomic factors could affect readmissions in this target group, and thus, a systematic review was conducted to identify the effect of socioeconomic factors on the risk for readmission in people aged 65 years and older with HF or AMI.Methods: The search was carried out by querying an electronic database and hand searching. Studies with an association between the risk for readmission and at least one socioeconomic factor in patients aged 65 years or older who are affected by HF or AMI were included. A quality assessment was conducted independently by two reviewers. The agreement was quantified by Cohen’s Kappa statistic. The outcomes of studies were categorized in the short-term and the long-term, according to the follow-up period of readmission. A positive association was reported if an increase in the risk for readmission among disadvantaged patients was found. A cumulative effect of socioeconomic factors was computed by considering the association for each study and the number of available studies.Results: A total of eleven articles were included in the review. They were mainly published in the United States. All the articles analyzed patients who were hospitalized for HF, and four of them also analyzed patients with AMI. Seven studies (63.6% were found for the short-term outcome, and four studies (36.4% were found for the long-term outcome. For the short-term outcome, race/ethnicity and marital status showed a positive cumulative effect on the risk for readmission. Regarding the educational level of a patient, no effect was found.Conclusion: Among the socioeconomic factors, mainly race/ethnicity and marital status affect the risk for readmission in elderly people with HF or AMI. Multidisciplinary hospital-based quality initiatives, disease management, and care transition programs are a priority for health care systems to achieve better coordination. Keywords: chronic conditions, cardiovascular disease (CVD, re-hospitalization, disparities, older patients, socioeconomic factors
The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples` perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain.
Kunreuther, H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Wharton School of Finance and Commerce; Slovic, P. [Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States); Nigg, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Desvousges, W.H. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)
The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples' perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain
Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that affects the individualin various ways. Many risk factors have been suggested in the emergenceof the illness. The aim of this study is to identify the potential risk factors forschizophrenia considering the characteristics of patients.Methods: The study included 164 patients diagnosed with schizophreniaaccording to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, FourthEdition (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and a control group consisting of a matchingnumber of healthy people. The subjects were given questionnaire formson potential risk factors (prenatal and postnatal, sociodemographic, illnessrelatedinformation. Student’s t-test, chi-square test and logistic regressionanalysis were used to evaluate the data.Results: Significant differences were identified between the patient group andhealthy control group in terms of: for the mother- use of medication , history ofinflammatory disease, or a psychical or physical trauma during pregnancy;-for the patient- being born in hospital, prolonged delivery, growth during childhood,relatives with a history of schizophrenia, and school history. Among thesubtypes of schizophrenia, significant differences were identified in terms ofeducational level, birth rank and school history.Conclusion: Identification of the potential risk factors for schizophrenia and ofsubjects at risk will provide important individual and social advantages, such associal health, health expenses and protection of individuals and society from theadverse effects of schizophrenia. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2010; 47: 230-6
Burçin N. AKAL
Objective: Socio-economic status (SES) is strongly correlated with hypertension. But SES has several components, including income and correlations in cross-sectional data need not imply SES is a risk factor. This study investigates whether wages—the largest category within income—are risk factors. Methods: We analysed longitudinal, nationally representative US data from four waves (1999, 2001, 2003 and 2005) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The overall sample was restricted to employed persons age 25–65 years, n?=?17?295. Separate subsamples were constructed of persons within two age groups (25–44 and 45–65 years) and genders. Hypertension incidence was self-reported based on physician diagnosis. Our study was prospective since data from three base years (1999, 2001, 2003) were used to predict newly diagnosed hypertension for three subsequent years (2001, 2003, 2005). In separate analyses, data from the first base year were used to predict time-to-reporting hypertension. Logistic regressions with random effects and Cox proportional hazards regressions were run. Results: Negative and strongly statistically significant correlations between wages and hypertension were found both in logistic and Cox regressions, especially for subsamples containing the younger age group (25–44 years) and women. Correlations were stronger when three health variables—obesity, subjective measures of health and number of co-morbidities—were excluded from regressions. Doubling the wage was associated with 25–30% lower chances of hypertension for persons aged 25–44 years. Conclusions: The strongest evidence for low wages being risk factors for hypertension among working people were for women and persons aged 25–44 years. PMID:22262559
Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…
Food insecurity is the situation where people do not have access to sufficient, stable and safe food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. The objective of this study was to determine the status of food security in the Adana metropolitan area by using, for the first time in Turkey, Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSS). Household’s food security levels and socio-economic factors affecting the food security were analyzed using the...
Ozlem Esturk; Necat Oren, M.
Abstract Aim Aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of demographic factors (DGF) and socio-economic status (SES) on survival after pancreatic cancer resection in a German setting. Methods Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and pancreaticoduodenectomy were identified from our pancreatic resection database (1989-2008). DGF, SES, survival and tumor-related information were obtained from hospital records, a registry office questionnaire, and t...
Kuhn, Y.; Koscielny, A.; Glowka, T.; Hirner, A.; Kalff, J. C.; Standop, J.
Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006). The analysis i...
This study assessed the associations between potential socio-economic and lifestyle factors with sexual dissatisfaction and gender disparities in north-eastern France. In total 6216 subjects (randomly selected subjects completed a postal questionnaire gathering socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, living alone, income, tobacco use, alcohol abuse (Deta questionnaire), heath status, fatigue, sleep disorders, diseases, depression/sadness and sexual dissatisfaction. Data were analyzed u...
Anquetil, M.; Baumann, Miche?le
OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between preterm birth and socioeconomic and psychological factors, smoking, and alcohol, and caffeine consumption. DESIGN--Prospective study of outcome of pregnancy. SETTING--District general hospital in inner London. PARTICIPANTS--1860 consecutive white women booking for delivery; 1513 women studied after exclusion because of multiple pregnancy and diabetes, refusals, and loss to follow up. MEASUREMENTS--Gestational age was determined from ultrasound and ma...
Peacock, J. L.; Bland, J. M.; Anderson, H. R.
The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-i...
The objective of the study was to identify the socio-economic and institutional factors which influence the level of awareness of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects and in so doing to highlight the policy implications for the stakeholders when designing clean development mechanism projects among smallholder farmers. Findings shows that 23% of the farmers were correctly aware of the project and the results of the ordered logit model indicate that age, gender, education level, group mem...
Ayuya, Oscar I.; Lagat, Job K.; Mironga, John M.
To develop an effective waste management strategy for a given region, it is important to know the amount of waste generated and the composition of the waste stream. Past research has shown that the amount of waste generated is proportional to the population and the average mean living standards or the average income of the people. In addition, other factors may affect the amount and composition of waste. These are climate, living habits, level of education, religious and cultural beliefs, and social and public attitudes. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in a suburban municipal area in Sri Lanka to determine the solid waste generation rate and waste composition based on field surveys and to determine the related socio-economic factors. A database was developed that included information on the quantity and composition of waste generated in a sample of households in the study area over a time period. The collected data was analysed to relate waste generation and composition data to various socio-economic factors. Over 400 sample households were selected for the study using a stratified random sampling methodology based on municipal wards and property values. A technique that considers both the number of households in a particular income group (property value range) and the standard deviation of property values within a given income group was used to determine the appropriate sample size for each municipal ward. Through category and regression analyses, the quantities of waste and waste composition were related to several socio-economic factors. The paper describes the basis for the sample selection, the methodology adopted for data collection, the socio-economic parameters used for the analysis, and the relationships developed from the analysis. PMID:17450419
Bandara, Nilanthi J G J; Hettiaratchi, J Patrick A; Wirasinghe, S C; Pilapiiya, Sumith
Background: Exclusive breast-feeding has irrefutably been established as the best form of nourishment for neonatal and early infantile age groups. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the socio-economic factors in a developing country like India, which influence maternal motivation and willingness to donate breast milk and to make policy changes to promote the same. Methods: Ours is a retrospective study carried out over a period of 1 year in Cama and Albless hospital in Mu...
Katke, Rajshree D.; Saraogi, Mohit R.
... your risk Heart Health and Stroke Other possible heart disease risk factors Related information Depression fact sheet Stress ... Return to top More information on Other possible heart disease risk factors Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart ...
According to the definition given by the European Chemicals Agency1 , socio-economic analysis (SEA) is a method to evaluate what costs and benefits an action will create for society by comparing what will happen if this action is implemented as compared to the situation where it is not. The analysis typically attempts to include also those effects that are indirect or incompletely reflected by market transactions.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic factors influencing adoption of artisanal fisheries resources conservation measures based on the perspectives of Artisanal fishers in Delta, Rivers and Bayelsa states, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The study was conducted for a period of one year (January 2008 to Decmber 2008. With the aid of well-structured questionnaires the desired information were collected and analyzed. A total sample size of 1,200 respondents within the study area, were selected using random sampling technique. Logistic regression technique was used to determine the impact of the independent variables on willingness to adopt fisheries conservation measures. The regression analysis result show that eleven (11 independent variables (Public Enlightenment, Regulatory pressure, Environmental stewardship, Severity of pollutants, Economic circumstances, Institutional Support, Information access, Highest Education, Fishing Experience, Legal Structure and Age were factors that influence willingness to adopt conservation measures by the fishers. However, the level of influence was found to vary differently in the three states studied depending on the socioeconomic and educational status and other peculiarities of each of the state. Generally, based on the result of the logit analysis of the perspectives of the artisanal fisher respondents, it is therefore inferred that the willingness to adopt fisheries resources conservation measures in the Niger Delta by the Artisanal Fishers, is significantly a function of the studied demographic, socioeconomic, psychological, institutional and environmental factors as specified by the eleven variables.
This article investigates how socio-economic factors and incentives affect farmers’ investment behaviour. The motivation is a need for a better quantitative knowledge of investment behaviour in order to support farmers’ investment decisions through extension services and public investment support schemes. Data from a questionnaire survey among 208 Danish pig producers are analysed by use of logistic regression and the relationships between socio-economic factors, investment incentives and farmers’ investment behaviour are empirically revealed. The results show that the farmers who rank economic incentives as the most important when making investments are those who yield the best financial results. Off-farm income and partial productivity were also higher on these farms. As hypothesised, young farmers with a large production are more likely to invest in real assets than others. No cross sectional trends relating the incentives for making investments to the investment propensity were identified. One important policy implication of the results is that improved knowledge of the socio-economic factors and their influence on investment behaviour and incentives may reduce the deadweight loss associated with many governmental investment programmes.
Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Lund, Mogens
Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006-2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients) in body mass index (BMI) and HPA were estimated by couples' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses' BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI???30, overweight: 30?>?BMI???25) was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women's husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women's husbands (OR?=?0.69 (95% CI?=?0.53-0.89)). Men's unemployment status was associated with wives' greater odds of obesity (OR?=?1.31 (95% CI?=?1.01-1.71)). HPA was associated with men's employment status and income level, but not with women's. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors. PMID:25332834
Chen, Hsin-Jen; Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Youfa
Full Text Available Introduction: eating disorders (ED are characterized by the excessive worry aboutphysical appearance. They have high incidence in young population with more frequencyin women than in men.Objective: to identify the risk factors for ED.Methods: thematic review of publications in which are described and evaluated thedifferent risk factors to develop ED. It was done an electronic search since 1984 to2011, in english and spanish, in which were included all the methods of publications.There were reviewed the summaries to find the complete articles that treated about riskfactors associate with the development of the ED.Results: there were found 48203 about ED. 96 tried specifically about risk factors. 35(36.4% complete articles were obtained and the review was done with them.Conclusion: principal risk factors are: To be an adolescent, woman, to have distortedperception of the corporal image and the use of diet to lose weight. Rev.cienc.biomed.2012;3(2:300-305
The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and sk...
Lobato, M. I.; Belmonte-de-abreu, P.; Knijnik, D.; Teruchkin, B.; Ghisolfi, E.; Henriques, A.
Full Text Available The present study was designed as a hospital-based, group-matched, case-control investigation into the risk factors associated with age-related cataract in central India. The study included 262 cases of age-related cataract and an equal number of controls. A total of 21 risk factors were evaluated: namely, low socioeconomic status (SES, illiteracy, marital status, history of diarrhoea, history of diabetes, glaucoma, use of cholinesterase inhibitors, steroids, spironolactone, nifedipine, analgesics, myopia early in life, renal failure, heavy smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, hypertension, low body mass index (BMI, use of cheaper cooking fuel, working in direct sunlight, family history of cataract, and occupational exposure. In univariate analysis, except marital status, low BMI, renal failure, use of steroids, spironolactone, analgesics, and occupational exposure, all 14 other risk factors were found significantly associated with age-related cataract. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the significance of low SES, illiteracy, history of diarrhoea, diabetes, glaucoma, myopia, smoking, hypertension and cheap cooking fuel. The etiological role of these risk factors in the outcome of cataract is confirmed by the estimates of attributable risk proportion. The estimates of population attributable risk proportion for these factors highlight the impact of elimination of these risk factors on the reduction of cataract in this population.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to cause adverse health effects. We investigated the relationships between children's VOC exposure and socioeconomic and human activity factors with passive personal samplers, questionnaires, and time-activity diaries (TAD). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS 9.1, and the results were organized using SigmaPlot 8.0 software. Chemicals such as benzene, toluene, 2-butanone, ethylbenzene, xylene, chloroform, n-hexane, heptane, and some kinds of decanes, which are known to adversely affect public health, were identified in measured samples. These were mainly emitted from outdoor sources (e.g., vehicular traffic) or indoor sources (e.g., household activities such as cooking and cleaning) or both. We concluded that region was the most important socioeconomic factor affecting children's VOC exposure, and the significant compounds were n-hexane (p = 0.006), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (p = 0.001), benzene (p = 0.003), toluene (p = 0.002), ethylbenzene (p = 0.020), m-, p-xylene (p = 0.014), dodecane (p = 0.003), and hexadecane (p = 0.001). Parental education, year of home construction and type of housing were also slightly correlated with personal VOC exposure. Only the concentration of o-xylene (p = 0.027) was significantly affected by the parental education, and the concentrations of benzene (p = 0.030) and 2-butanone (p = 0.049) by the type of housing. Also, tridecane (p = 0.049) and n-hexane (p = 0.033) were significantly associated with the year of home construction. When household activities such as cooking were performed indoors, children's VOC concentrations tended to be higher, especially for n-hexane, chloroform, heptane, toluene (p < 0.05), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, benzene, dodecane, and hexadecane (p < 0.01). However, smoking had a significant effect for only dodecane, and cleaning had no impact on any VOC concentrations. Considering both socioeconomic and personal behavioral factors simultaneously, socioeconomic factors such as region had a greater effect on children's VOC exposures than indoor activities. From this study, we can suggest that socioeconomic factors as well as environmental factors should be considered when formulating environmental policy to protect children's health. PMID:20145896
Byun, Hyaejeong; Ryu, Kyongnam; Jang, Kyungjo; Bae, Hyunjoo; Kim, Dongjin; Shin, Hosung; Chu, Jangmin; Yoon, Chungsik
Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between socioeconomic position in middle age and risk of subsequent, short-term weight gain is unknown. We therefore assessed this association in a prospective population based cohort study in Norfolk, UK. Methods We analysed data on 14,619 middle-aged men and women (aged between 40–75 at baseline with repeated objective measures of weight and height at baseline (1993–1997 and follow up (1998–2000. Results During follow up 5,064 people gained more than 2.5 kg. Compared with the highest social class, individuals in the lowest social class had around a 30% greater risk of gaining more than 2.5 kg (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.11–1.51; p for trend = 0.002. This association remained statistically significant following adjustment for sex, age, baseline BMI, smoking, and follow up time (OR 1.25; CI 1.07–1.46; p for trend Conclusion Individuals of low socioeconomic position are at greatest risk of gaining weight during middle age, which is not explained by classical correlates of socioeconomic position and risk factors for obesity.
Luben Robert N
Background The association between socioeconomic position in middle age and risk of subsequent, short-term weight gain is unknown. We therefore assessed this association in a prospective population based cohort study in Norfolk, UK. Methods We analysed data on 14,619 middle-aged men and women (aged between 40–75 at baseline) with repeated objective measures of weight and height at baseline (1993–1997) and follow up (1998–2000). Results During follow up 5,064 people gained more than 2.5 kg. Compared with the highest social class, individuals in the lowest social class had around a 30% greater risk of gaining more than 2.5 kg (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.11–1.51; p for trend = 0.002). This association remained statistically significant following adjustment for sex, age, baseline BMI, smoking, and follow up time (OR 1.25; CI 1.07–1.46; p for trend <0.001). We also found no material difference between unadjusted models and those including all confounders and potential mediators. Conclusion Individuals of low socioeconomic position are at greatest risk of gaining weight during middle age, which is not explained by classical correlates of socioeconomic position and risk factors for obesity. PMID:18400100
Purslow, Lisa R; Young, Elizabeth H; Wareham, Nicholas J; Forouhi, Nita; Brunner, Eric J; Luben, Robert N; Welch, Ailsa A; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bingham, Shelia A; Sandhu, Manjinder S
Adolescence is a key period for studying the development of depression, with studies in Europe and North America showing a pattern of elevated risk that begins in early adolescence and continues to increase as adolescents age. Few studies have examined the course of adolescent depression and associated risk factors in low and middle-income countries. This longitudinal cohort study examined depression symptom trajectories and risk factors in a sample of socio-economically disadvantaged adolesc...
Stapinski, Lexine A.; Montgomery, Alan A.; Heron, Jon; Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna; Araya, Ricardo
Diseases probably have their roots in a complex chain of environmental and behavioural events which are shaped by broader socioeconomic determinants. Most studies of sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries have been carried out in industrialized countries, but such reports from low- and middle-income countries have been published in recent years. World Health Organization international collaborative studies and other international studies of social factors in dental caries using the same methodology provide empirical evidence of social inequality in oral health across countries and across oral health care systems. The paper highlights the challenges to dental public health practice, particularly the importance of risk assessment in estimating the potential for prevention. In future public health programmes, systematic risk factor assessment may therefore be instrumental in the planning and surveillance of oral health promotion and oral disease intervention programmes.
Petersen, Poul Erik
Full Text Available The malaria cases were increasing in Mamuju district. Several factors influence of the malaria prevention specifically socioeconomic and access to health services. The objectives of the study were to find out socioeconomic determinants, access to health services and behaviour towards prevention of malaria in Mamuju district, West Sulawesi. The design study was cross sectional. The population of this study was the residence in Mamuju District, number sample 739 respondents taken by random sampling and data analysis by using Chi-square and logistic regression in a 5%. Results of the study reveal that 51% of respondents have done malaria control in the Mamuju District. Socioeconomic factors like education (p = 0.000, income (p = 0.004, knowledge (p = 0.000 and attitude (p = 0.000 were significant to prevent malaria. Variables that are not related were employed (p = 0.060 and access to health services (p = 0.223. Logistic regression analysis showed that behavior; knowledge and attitude most impact for prevention of malaria in the district Mamuju. This research recommended the dissemination of health information about malaria prevention to the public through various media both of print and written media also counseling.
Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to develop statistical model that can predict the probability of breast cancer in Southern Karnataka using the breast cancer occurrence data during 2007-2011. Independent socio-economic variables describing the breast cancer occurrence like age, education, occupation, parity, type of family, health insurance coverage, residential locality and socioeconomic status of each case was obtained. The models were developed as follows: i) Spatial visualization of the Urban- rural distribution of breast cancer cases that were obtained from the Bharat Hospital and Institute of Oncology. ii) Socio-economic risk factors describing the breast cancer occurrences were complied for each case. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis in a SPSS statistical software and relations between the occurrence of breast cancer across the socio-economic status and the influence of other socio-economic variables were evaluated and multinomial logistic regression models were constructed. iii) the model that best predicted the occurrence of breast cancer were identified. This multivariate logistic regression model has been entered into a geographic information system and maps showing the predicted probability of breast cancer occurrence in Southern Karnataka was created. This study demonstrates that Multinomial logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that predict the probability of breast cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka.
Madhu, B.; Ashok, N. C.; Balasubramanian, S.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are responsible for around 20% of all deaths worldwide (approximately 14 million) and are the principal cause of death in all developed countries, accounting for 50% of all deaths. Variations in the annual per capita death rates in different countries are well documented. Less well known are seasonal variations in death rates, with the highest levels occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon is referred to as excess winter mortality. CVD-related deaths account for the majority of excess winter deaths (up to 70% in some countries), while about half of the remaining are due to increases in respiratory diseases. Paradoxically, CVD mortality increases to a greater extent with a given fall in temperature in regions with warm winters. While much of the indirect evidence points to the notion that cold is somehow involved in explaining excess winter deaths, the mechanism by which seemingly mild exposure to cold ambient conditions can increase the risk of death remains unclear. The strong indirect epidemiological evidence coupling cold climate to mortality may be related to indoor rather than outdoor climatic conditions (e.g., cold/damp houses versus arm/dry houses) coupled with a plethora of factors including health status, ageing-related deterioration in physiological and behavioral thermoregulation, toxicology, and socioeconomic factors
Full Text Available Aim: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a chronic lung disease that develops in premature infants who were treated with oxygen and positive pressure ventilation. Although there are recent advances in neonatal care, it has been still the most common long term complication in preterm infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate infants who developed BPD throughout the clinical course of hospitalisation and to determine BPD frequency and also the risk factors associated with BPD.Materials and Method: A total of 276 infants who admitted to neonatal intensive care unit between January 2005 and January 2006 were included to this study. The infants with and without BPD were compared according to characteristic features and risk factors.Results: The mean gestational age and birth weight of all infants were 31±3.1(range, 24-36 weeks, and1607±610 (range, 500-4000 gram, respectively. BPD was diagnosed in 30% (84/276 of all infants. The mean gestational age and birth weight of infants with BPD were 30±3 (range, 24-36 weeks, and 1171±423 (range, 530-3700 gram, respectively. The 36% (31/84 of infants were smaller than 28 gestational age and 41.9% (26/84 were smaller than 1000 gram. Gestational age and birth weight were found to be the most important risk factors for development of BPD, and BPD risk increased as the gestational age and birth weight decreased. The duration of mechanical ventilation in infants with BPD and without BPD were found to be 40±4.3 days and, 17±2 days, respectively and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. Similarly, the duration of oxygen therapy was found to be statistically higher in infants with BPD compared with the infants without BPD (p<0.05. Also, respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis in mother, prolonged total parenteral nutrition, and frequent blood transfusion were also other risk factors that were significantly associated with development of BPD. Conclusion: The risk for BPD is multifactorial. It was observed that the most important risk factors for BPD were prematurity, low birth weight, mechanical ventilation and prolonged oxygen therapy. Preventing small gestational age and low birth weight prematurity, decreasing the duration of mechanical ventilation and also to give minimum oxygen supply in premature infants. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 66-71
The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with a high risk to health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight, overweight and obese subjects of low, middle or high socioeconomic status (SES) differ with regard to their health behavior, health, quality of life, and the use of medical care. Data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS) 2006/07, comprising 3 groups of 1,077 individuals, each of whom were...
Burkert, Nathalie T.; Ra?sky, E?va; Großscha?dl, Franziska; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Freidl, Wolfgang
Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.
SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelo [...] pmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.
M.I., Lobato; P., Belmonte-de-Abreu; D., Knijnik; B., Teruchkin; E., Ghisolfi; A., Henriques.
Full Text Available The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.
The interplay between banks and the macroeconomy is of key importance for financial and economic stability. We analyze this link using a Factor Augmented Vector Autoregressive Model (FAVAR) which extends a standard VAR for the U.S. macroeconomy with a set of factors summarizing conditions in the banking sector. We use the model to analyze bank risk, bank returns, and bank lending. We take data of more than 2,000 commercial banks from the U.S. Call Reports. We assess the importance of common v...
Prieto, Esteban; Buch, Claudia M.; Eickmeier, Sandra
Full Text Available Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemiological investigations have been valuable in confirming both the increasing incidence of asthma and the differences in prevalence in certain population groups. The observance of this phenomenon has led to much speculation and a lot of attempts to identify the reasons behind the rising prevalence. Risk factors. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for the development of childhood asthma and provided insight into natural history of disease and prognosis. Factors ranging from increased numbers of immunizations to increased air pollution have been suggested, but subsequent analysis has failed to provide the supporting evidence to implicate most of these possibilities. The concept known as the hygiene hypothesis has gained some support from epidemiological studies. Conclusion. The development of asthma as well as its severity are affected by numerous factors and their interactions can be explained by the heterogeneous nature of this disease.
Non-communicable diseases, above all cardiovascular disease (CVD), are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in Europe. CVD has been shown to have its roots in childhood, although the clinical manifestations do not become evident until several decades later. The adolescent CVD risk profile has been shown to predict the extent of the atherosclerotic process in adulthood, even if the nature of the effects of biological and lifestyle factors, and their interactions,...
Hurtig Wennlo?f, Anita
Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most...
Dietert, Rodney R.; Dietert, Janice M.; Dewitt, Jamie C.
Purpose Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Among these diseases, heart failure (HF) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are the most common causes of hospitalization. Therefore, readmission for HF and AMI is receiving increasing attention. Several socioeconomic factors could affect readmissions in this target group, and thus, a systematic review was conducted to identify the effect of socioeconomic factors on the risk for readmission in people aged 65 years and older with HF or AMI. Methods The search was carried out by querying an electronic database and hand searching. Studies with an association between the risk for readmission and at least one socioeconomic factor in patients aged 65 years or older who are affected by HF or AMI were included. A quality assessment was conducted independently by two reviewers. The agreement was quantified by Cohen’s Kappa statistic. The outcomes of studies were categorized in the short-term and the long-term, according to the follow-up period of readmission. A positive association was reported if an increase in the risk for readmission among disadvantaged patients was found. A cumulative effect of socioeconomic factors was computed by considering the association for each study and the number of available studies. Results A total of eleven articles were included in the review. They were mainly published in the United States. All the articles analyzed patients who were hospitalized for HF, and four of them also analyzed patients with AMI. Seven studies (63.6%) were found for the short-term outcome, and four studies (36.4%) were found for the long-term outcome. For the short-term outcome, race/ethnicity and marital status showed a positive cumulative effect on the risk for readmission. Regarding the educational level of a patient, no effect was found. Conclusion Among the socioeconomic factors, mainly race/ethnicity and marital status affect the risk for readmission in elderly people with HF or AMI. Multidisciplinary hospital-based quality initiatives, disease management, and care transition programs are a priority for health care systems to achieve better coordination. PMID:25653510
Damiani, Gianfranco; Salvatori, Eleonora; Silvestrini, Giulia; Ivanova, Ivana; Bojovic, Luka; Iodice, Lanfranco; Ricciardi, Walter
Abstract Background Extreme heat events are the number one cause of weather-related fatalities in the United States. The current system of alert for extreme heat events does not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature derived from thermal remote ...
Luber George C; Wilson Jeffrey S; Johnson Daniel P
... what causes childhood leukemia? What are the risk factors for childhood leukemia? A risk factor is anything that affects your ... including leukemias. There are a few known risk factors for childhood leukemia. Genetic risk factors Genetic risk factors are those ...
The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG)
Objectives Breast cancer incidence rates are rising in Qatar. Although the Qatari government provides subsidised healthcare and screening programmes that reduce cost barriers for residents, breast cancer screening (BCS) practices among women remain low. This study explores the influence of socioeconomic status on BCS among Arab women in Qatar. Setting A multicentre, cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted with 1063 Arab women (87.5% response rate) in Qatar from March 2011 to July 2011. Women who were 35?years or older and had lived in Qatar for at least 10?years were recruited from seven primary healthcare centres and women's health clinics in urban and semiurban regions of Qatar. Associations between socioeconomic factors and BCS practice were estimated using ?2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results Findings indicate that less than one-third of the participants practised BCS appropriately, whereas less than half of the participants were familiar with recent BCS guidelines. Married women and women with higher education and income levels were significantly more likely to be aware of and to practise BCS than women who had lower education and income levels. Conclusions Findings indicate low levels of awareness and low participation rates in BCS among Arab women in Qatar. Socioeconomic factors influence these women's participation in BCS activities. The strongest predictors for BCS practice are higher education and higher income levels. Recommendations Additional research is needed to explore the impact of economic factors on healthcare seeking behaviours in the Middle Eastern countries that have a high national gross domestic product where healthcare services are free or heavily subsidised by the government; promotion of BCS and intervention strategies in these countries should focus on raising awareness about breast cancer, the cost and benefit of early screening for this disease, particularly among low-income women. PMID:25613951
Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Khater, Al-Hareth; Al Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al-Meer, Nabila; Abdulmalik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Chaudhry, Sofia; Fung, Tak
Full Text Available For generations communities in the Western Pacific have employed a range of resource management techniques (including periodic reef closures, gear restrictions, entry limitations, and the protection of spawning aggregations to limit marine resource use. Localized control over marine resources, commonly known as customary marine tenure (CMT, is the legal and cultural foundation for many of these practices. Because of their perceived potential to meet both conservation and community goals, these traditional resource management techniques are being revitalized by communities, governments, and NGOs as an integral part of national and regional marine conservation plans in the Pacific. However, the viability of conservation strategies built on a foundation of marine tenure may be in question, as it remains unclear whether marine tenure systems will be able to withstand the profound social and economic changes sweeping the Pacific region. Numerous studies have suggested that changes in marine tenure are attributed to social and economic factors, however, specific relationships between socioeconomic conditions and marine tenure are still not well understood. This paper examines the social and economic characteristics of 21 coastal communities in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, and explores the characteristics of the communities that employ exclusive marine tenure to answer the following questions: Which socioeconomic factors are related to the presence of CMT regimes? How might socioeconomic factors influence the ability of communities to employ or maintain CMT regimes? Distance to market, immigration, dependence on fishing, and conflicts were found to be related to the presence of highly exclusive marine tenure systems. Exploring these relationships will help conservation practitioners better understand how future social changes may influence the foundation of conservation and development projects.
Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and sass. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)
In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to initiate the process of choosing a location to permanently store high-level nuclear waste from the designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only location to be studied as a candidate site for such a repository. The original acts and its amendments had established the grant mechanism by which the state of Nevada could finance an investigation of the potential socioeconomic impacts that could result from the installation and operation of this facility. Over the past three years, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM or RW) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved grant requests by Nevada to perform this investigation. This report is intended to update and enhance a literature review conducted by the Human Affairs Research Center (HARC) for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project that dealt with the psychological and sociological processes underlying risk perception. It provides addition information on the HARC work, covers a subsequent step in the impact-estimation process, and translates risk perception into decisions and behaviors with economic consequences. It also covers recently developed techniques for assessing the nature and magnitude of impacts caused by environmental changes focusing on those impacts caused by changes in perceived risks
... World Health Organization National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Risk Factors & Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this Page Children at Risk Adults at Risk Transmission Anyone can get pneumococcal ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study aims to follow this effort and to explore the association between health, socioeconomic background, school-related factors, social support and adolescents' sense of coherence and educational aspirations among adolescents from different educational tracks and to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the role of educational aspirations in the social reproduction of health inequalities. We expect that socioeconomic background will contribute to the development of educational aspirations, but this association will be modified by available social and individual resources, which may be particularly favourable for the group of adolescents who are on lower educational tracks, since for them such resources may lead to gaining a higher educational level. Methods We collected data on the socioeconomic background (mother's and father's education and employment status, doubts about affordability of future study, school-related factors (school atmosphere, school conditions, attitudes towards school, perceived social support, sense of coherence (manageability, comprehensibility, meaningfulness and the self-rated health of a national sample of Slovak adolescents (n = 1992, 53.5% females, mean age 16.9 years. We assessed the association of these factors with educational aspirations, overall and by educational tracks (grammar schools, specialised secondary schools, vocational schools. Results We found statistically significant associations with educational aspirations for the factors parental educational level, father's unemployment, doubts about the affordability of future study, school atmosphere, attitude towards school, social support from the father and a sense of coherence. Social support from the mother and friends was not associated with educational aspiration, nor was self-rated health. Besides affinity towards school, the determinants of educational aspirations differed among adolescents on different educational tracks. Educational aspirations of grammar school students were associated with father's education, while the aspirations of their peers on lower educational tracks had a stronger association with mother's education and perceived social support from father and friends. Moreover, a sense of coherence contributes to the reporting of educational aspiration by students on different educational tracks. Conclusions Characteristics of the school environment, the family and the individual adolescent are all associated with the level of educational aspiration, but in a different way for different educational tracks. Interventions aimed at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in health via the educational system should, therefore, take this variation and the rather pivotal role of the father into account.
This paper defines a risk-stability index (RSI) that takes into account the extreme dependence structure and the conditional probability of joint failure (CPJF) among risk factors in a portfolio. In combination, both the RSI and CPJF provide a valuable tool for analyzing risk from complementary perspectives; thereby allowing the measurement of (i) common distress of risk factors in a portfolio, (ii) distress between specific risk factors, and (iii) distress to a portfolio related to a specifi...
Macular Degeneration Prevention & Risk Factors On this page, you will find the following: Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration Heredity & ... Back to top Protecting Eye Health and Possible Prevention against Macular Degeneration These suggestions may help protect ...
... insomnia. Sleep Problems as a Risk Factor for Suicide As noted above, sleep problems are associated with ... disorders, both of which are risk factors for suicide (Wong & Brower, 2012). Overarousal, marked by agitation and ...
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate maternal beliefs, practices about causes and determinant factors on drowning and maternal socioeconomic correlated factors on child mortality from drowning. Methods: From March 2005 to March 2009, in a register-based cohort study and household survey, individual records utilizing drowning registry data of northern Iran were enrolled. Mothers (n=276 who responded to multiple questions in a household survey were included. The patterns, interrelationships and effects of socioeconomic correlated factors on child mortality were analyzed. Results: A significant difference in relation to mother's educational level and age and family income distribution was noticed. Participants in household survey also reported that establishment of a multi-sectorial collaboration, integration of public health messages into local television, additional rescue stations and lifeguard, hazard environment fencing, increasing adult supervision, more support on increasing swimming ability among the children were all effective on reducing of drowning death. Conclusion: Due to the high rate of drowning in children and lack of attention among olders, a greater emphasis should be placed on educating mothers to assist a better supervision on their children.
Full Text Available Violence against Women has become a global concern because this specific issue affects the life of women adversely. Domestic violence is most persistent form of Violence against Women. It is a severe violation of human rights. Many demographic, economic, psychological factors may be responsible for the domestic violence but social factors contain prime importance in this regard. Pakistani society is facing the trouble of increase in domestic violence because this issue is still under acknowledged and underreported. An exploratory study was conducted to probe the socio-economic factors behind domestic violence. Interview schedule was utilized as a tool to accumulate concerning data. A representative sample of (N=100 was collected through purposive and snowball sampling techniques. 56% of women indicated that they have faced physical violence and a huge majority i.e., 71% has faced psychological violence. The results suggest that women are more prone to bear and face domestic violence due to economic dependence.
Home » Kidney Info » 1 in 9 Adults Risk Factors for CKD When you have a risk factor, it means you are more likely to have a problem than someone who does ... to prevent or delay kidney failure. Kidney Disease Risk Factors You Can Change Diabetes Type 2 diabetes ...
Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…
Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
Abstract Background The widening socioeconomic gap in smoking during pregnancy remains a challenge to the Swedish antenatal care services. However, the influence of cultural factors in explaining the socioeconomic differences in smoking during pregnancy is not clear among the immigrant women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the development of smoking prevalence among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden followed the trajectory which could be expected from the stages of the glob...
Eek Frida; P-o, Ostergren; Moussa Kontie M; Kunst Anton E
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and ...
Santos Ana Paula Pires dos; Soviero Vera Mendes
The approaches for vulnerability and risk assessment have found different and often contrasting solutions by various schools of thought. The two most prominent communities in this field are: climate change adaptation (CCA), and disaster risk reduction (DRR). Although those communities have usually in common the aim of reducing socio-economic vulnerability and risk to natural hazards, they have usually referred to different definitions and conceptualizations. For example, the DRR community has always driven more emphasis on the concept of risk and vulnerability is considered as a physical/environmental input for the quantification of risk, while the CCA research stream, mainly under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), considered vulnerability as an output deriving from social conditions and processes such as adaptation or maladaptation. Recently, with the publication of the IPCC Special Report on extreme events and disasters (IPCC-SREX), the notions of vulnerability and risk are somehow integrated in order to jointly consider both climate change adaptation and disaster risk management. The IPCC-SREX indeed is expected to significantly contribute to find common language and methodological approaches across disciplines and, therefore, the opportunity emerges for proposing new operational solutions, consistent with the most recent evolution of concepts and terminology. Based on the development of the IPCC Report, the KULTURisk project developed an operational framework to support integrated assessment and decision support through the combination of contributions from diverse disciplinary knowledge, with emphasis on the social and economic dimensions. KIRAF (KULTURisk Integrated Risk Assessment Framework) is specifically aimed at comprehensively evaluate the benefits of risk mitigation measures with consideration of the dynamic context deriving from the consideration of climatic changes and their effects on natural disasters, within the policy framework of climate change adaptation (CCA). Three main innovations are proposed with respect to the current state of the art: (1) to include the social capacities of reducing risk, (2) to go beyond the estimation direct tangible costs, and (3) to provide an operational solution for decision support to assess risks, impacts and the benefits of plausible risk reduction measures, compatible with both the DRR and the CCA literatures. As stated above, the proposed framework is the inclusion of social capacities (adaptive and coping capacities) in the process of translating risk into a comprehensive cost matrix considering not only direct tangible costs (damages), but also the three other components deriving from the combination of tangible/intangible and direct/indirect costs. The proposed KIRAF approach is thus expected to provide: 1) an operational basis for multidisciplinary integration; 2) a flexible reference to deal with heterogeneous case studies and potentially various types of hazards; and 3) a means to support the assessment of alternative risk prevention measures including consideration of social and cultural dimensions.
Giupponi, Carlo; Gain, Animesh; Mojtahed, Vahid; Balbi, Stefano
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the connection between life expectancy according to sex and numerous factors on which its level depends on. Statistical analysis understood application of correlation and regression analysis for determining the connection strength of life expectancy and researched factors separately and then all factors together, as well as separately groups of health-medical and socio-economic factors. The analysis was carried out for a group of developed countries, medium developed, mixed group and Yugoslavia (now SCG on available data for the second half of the 20th century. Analysis results for Yugoslavia showed that the greatest influence on life expectancy of all factors together were setting aside funds for social security (p<0.05. If only health-medical factors are observed, then child mortality up to 5 years and tumor mortality are in question. With women, the greatest influence is with child mortality up to five years old among all factors (
Radivojevi? Biljana M.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding the cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chamorros residing in the United States. Methods The Chamorro Directory International and the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS were used to assess the health related practices and needs of a random sample of 228 Chamorros. Results Inactivity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in this Chamorro sample compared to the US average. Participants who were 50-and-older or unemployed were more likely to report hypertension, diabetes and inactivity, but they were also more likely to consume more fruits and vegetables than their younger and employed counterparts. Women were more likely to report hypertension and diabetes, whereas men were more likely to have elevated BMI and to have never had their blood cholesterol checked. Conclusion The study provides data that will help healthcare providers, public health workers and community leaders identify where to focus their health improvement efforts for Chamorros and create culturally competent programs to promote health in this community.
Wu Phillis L
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in human population. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in our country. The incidence of colorectal cancer increases in the fifth decade of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between colorectal cancer and potential risk factors. A case-control study of colorectal cancer was carried out between 1998 and 1999 in Clinical Center of Serbia, Center for Digestive Surgery. A total of 100 cases of newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer confirmed by histopathology and an equal number of controls, individually matched by gender and age (+/-5 years, were chosen from patients from the same hospital with no history of cancer at all. McNemar test and conditional logistic regression were used in the analysis. According to logistic regression analysis the following risk factors were independently related with the occurrence of colorectal cancer: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet rich in red meat and fat promote the carcinogenic process; food rich in vegetables, fruits, grains, vitamin C, physical activity, and oral contraceptive use inhibit the same process. A family history of cancer and long standing inflammatory bowel diseases also have significant role. There is convincing evidence that nutrition affects colorectal carcinogenesis in a complex fashion.
This article explores the socioeconomic factors affecting contraceptive use and method choice among women of urban slums using the nationally representative 2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey. Both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were applied to examine the relationship between a set of sociodemographic factors and the dependent variables. Overall, the contraceptive prevalence rate was 58.1%, of which 53.2% were modern methods. Women's age, access to TV, number of unions, nongovernmental organization membership, working status of women, number of living children, child mortality, and wealth index were important determinants of contraceptive use and method preference. Sex composition of surviving children and women's education were the most important determinants of contraceptive use and method choice. Programs should be strengthened to provide nonclinical modern methods free of cost among the slum dwellers. Doorstep delivery services of modern contraceptive methods may raise the contraceptive prevalence rate among the slum dwellers in Bangladesh. PMID:21914707
Kamal, S M Mostafa
How head lice infestations are managed by households is an important but generally neglected issue in head lice research. In the present study, we investigate actions taken against head lice by Norwegian households in association with socioeconomic status, family background, school-related variables and other key factors. Repeat questionnaires distributed to caretakers of the same elementary school children during a 2-year period enabled us to study both previous head lice management and any changes in this management through time. Households from 12 schools spanning the main socioeconomic variation found in Norway participated in the study. All students with active head lice infestation were treated in the four investigated periods. Most caretakers used a thorough head lice checking technique and informed others of own infestation. Checking frequency was low as most children were inspected less than monthly. The best determinant of increased checking frequency and thoroughness was personal experience with head lice. The increased awareness, however, seemed to be somewhat short-lived, as there was a decrease in checking frequency and thoroughness within 1 year after infestation. Personal experience with head lice also increased general knowledge related to the parasite. Parents born in developing countries checked their children for head lice more frequently, although less thoroughly, informed fewer contacts when infested, used pediculicides preventively more often and knew less about head lice than parents born in developed countries. Households with highly educated mothers had a lower checking frequency, but their knowledge and willingness to inform others was high. Single parents were more concerned about economic costs and kept children home from school longer while infested than other parents. As head lice management varied among socioeconomic groups and with parental background, differentiated advice should be considered in the control of head lice. The biannual focus on head lice during the 2 years of investigation increased checking thoroughness, while checking frequency remained unchanged. Based on the results, we suggest new head lice management guidelines for health authorities. PMID:24609236
Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Soleng, Arnulf; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Birkemoe, Tone
Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000–2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR, prevalence risk ratio (SRR, ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI. Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ? 1; p ? 0.42. However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely and unemployment rate (positively were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI = 0.76 (0.63–0.90, and 1.48 (1.26–1.74, respectively, and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI = 0.96 (0.93–0.99, and 1.06 (1.04–1.09, respectively. The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI = 0.58 (0.45–0.73, and SRR (95%CI = 0.91 (0.88–0.94. Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education being modified by individual-level education. Population-level interventions for communities defined by area-level socioeconomic disadvantage are needed to reduce cardiometabolic risks.
Anh D. Ngo
Non-participation in population studies is likely to be a source of bias in many types of epidemiologic studies, including those describing social disparities in health. The objective of this paper is to present a non-attendance analysis evaluating the possible impact of selection bias, when investigating the association between education level and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from the INTERGENE research programme including 3,610 randomly selected individuals aged 25-74 (1,908 women and 1,702 men), in West Sweden were used. Only 42% of the invited population participated. Non-attendance analyses were done by comparing data from official registries (Statistics Sweden) covering the entire invited study population. This analysis revealed that participants were more likely to be women, have university education, high income, be married and of Nordic origin compared to non-participants. Among participants, all health behaviours studied were significantly related to education. Physical activity, alcohol use and breakfast consumption were higher in the more educated group, while there were more smokers in the less educated group. Central obesity, obesity and hypertension were also significantly associated with lower education level. Weaker associations were observed for blood lipids, diabetes, high plasma glucose level and perceived stress. The socio-demographic differences between participants and non-participants indicated by the register analysis imply potential biases in epidemiological research. For instance, the positive association between education level and frequent alcohol consumption, may, in part be explained by participation bias. For other risk factors studied, an underestimation of the importance of low socioeconomic status may be more likely. PMID:20127393
Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Berg, Christina; Lissner, Lauren; Nunez, Leyla; Rosengren, Annika; Torén, Kjell; Thelle, Dag S
Death rates have been calculated by cause, age, sex and race for each county, state economic area, and other groups of counties of the USA for the period 1959 to 1976, data being obtained from official sources. Attention has been given to appropriate methods of using these rates for epidemiological study. Within the USA there are marked and consistent differences in death rates for middle-aged white males: low in the west central plains area and high in the south-east coastal plain. If the USA as a whole had rates as low as in the low-rate areas, there would be 160,000 fewer deaths per year under the age of 75. Coal- and metal-mining is strongly associated with high rates for middle-aged females as well as males. The residents of an area around a nuclear plant, after 22 years of exposure to low levels of radiation from this plant, do not show clear evidence of either decreased or increased risk, for various forms of cancer and other causes, as compared with rates for those living further away in the same states, or as compared with US rates. In the USA, persons living at higher elevations tend to have lower death rates. A number of factors may be hypothesized as being responsible for these lower rates, including the higher levels of background radiation at higher elevations. Many other factors also present evidence of being associated with differences in risk, including cigarette-smoking and various socio-economic or cultural variables. (author)variables. (author)
South America exhibits some of the higher rates of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobactericeae worldwide. This continent includes 12 independent countries with huge socioeconomic differences, where the ample access to antimicrobials, including counterfeit ones, coexists with ineffective health systems and sanitation problems, favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant strains. This work presents a literature review concerning the evolution and current status of antimicrobial resistance threats found among Enterobacteriaceae in South America. Resistance to ?-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides was emphasized along with description of key epidemiological studies that highlight the success of specific resistance determinants in different parts of the continent. In addition, a discussion regarding political and socioeconomic factors possibly related to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains in clinical settings and at the community is presented. Finally, in order to assess the possible sources of resistant bacteria, we compile the current knowledge about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in isolates in South American' food, food-producing animals and off-hospitals environments. By addressing that intensive intercontinental commerce and tourism neutralizes the protective effect of geographic barriers, we provide arguments reinforcing that globally integrated efforts are needed to decelerate the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains. PMID:24618111
Bonelli, Raquel Regina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer; Picão, Renata Cristina
Full Text Available Dzanga Ndoki is the main National Park located in Dzanga Sangha Complex Protected Area, Central African Republic. This study assesses socioeconomic factors and different NGOs involved in management of the park. A questionnaire survey was used to collect data in 8 villages around the park. Results on socioeconomic study showed that younger people aged of 20-25 (36.55% and between 25-30 (27. 81% are more dynamic in the forest than elderly ones (age >35 who represented (5.61%. Better education may help in conservation of the Dzanga Ndoki due to different employment. Admittedly, 39.27% of people had primary education, (6.4% had secondary level, (1.33% had higher education and 53.18% were illiterate. Employment and access to market are missing. Participative management has mostly focused on villages of Mossapoula and Yandoumbe. Ba Aka people (60.52% were not satisfied with the project. In addition, poor conditions of local people let them very dependent to forest resources (illegal hunting and gathering. This project is however unable to provide financial support to national NGOs and associations for local people.
Ngbo-Ngbangbo Louis Maxime
Full Text Available The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Ribeirão Preto, a rich Brazilian city, was significantly higher (21.4% than in São Luís (5.9%, a less developed city. To assess which variables explain the difference in prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, data from two birth cohorts were used, including 2846 puerperae from Ribeirão Preto, in 1994, and 2443 puerperae from São Luís, in 1997/98. In multivariable analysis, risk of maternal smoking during pregnancy was higher in São Luís for mothers living in a household with five or more persons (OR = 1.72, 95%CI = 1.12-2.64, aged 35 years or older (OR = 1.98, 95%CI = 0.99-3.96, who had five or more children (OR = 2.10, 95%CI = 1.16-3.81, and whose companion smoked (OR = 2.20, 95%CI = 1.52-3.18. Age of less than 20 years was a protective factor (OR = 0.55, 95%CI = 0.33-0.92. In Ribeirão Preto there was association with maternal low educational level (OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.30-3.65 and with a smoking companion (OR = 3.25, 95%CI = 2.52-4.18. Receiving prenatal care was a protective factor (OR = 0.24, 95%CI = 0.11-0.49. Mothers from Ribeirão Preto who worked outside the home were at a higher risk and those aged 35 years or older or who attended five or more prenatal care visits were at lower risk of smoking during pregnancy as compared to mothers from São Luís. Smoking by the companion reduced the difference between smoking rates in the two cities by 10%. The socioeconomic variables in the model did not explain the higher prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in the more developed city.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (? = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, literacy status, mass media exposure, wealth status, and child-death experience by mothers. All of these were strong predictors for CEB. It can be concluded that programs should aim to reduce fertility rates by focusing on these identified factors so that fertility as well as infant and maternal mortality and morbidity will be decreased and the overall well-being of the family maintained and enhanced.
Full Text Available The air quality in China, particularly the PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter level, has become an increasing public concern because of its relation to health risks. The distribution of PM2.5 concentrations has a close relationship with multiple geographic and socioeconomic factors, but the lack of reliable data has been the main obstacle to studying this topic. Based on the newly published Annual Average PM2.5 gridded data, together with land use data, gridded population data and Gross Domestic Product (GDP data, this paper explored the spatial-temporal characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations and the factors impacting those concentrations in China for the years of 2001–2010. The contributions of urban areas, high population and economic development to PM2.5 concentrations were analyzed using the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR model. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of PM2.5 concentrations in China remained stable during the period 2001–2010; high concentrations of PM2.5 are mostly found in regions with high populations and rapid urban expansion, including the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in North China, East China (including the Shandong, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces and Henan province. Increasing populations, local economic growth and urban expansion are the three main driving forces impacting PM2.5 concentrations.
Background: Detection of women at risk for dystocia will allow physicians to make preparations and treatment decisions that can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity. We aimed to determine the risk factors for dystocia in nulliparous women.
Alijahan, Rahele; Kordi, Masoumeh
Breast Cancer Risk and Environmental Factors For millions of women whose lives have been affected by breast cancer, the ... that early sexual maturation is associated with increased risk of breast cancer, and this may represent a critical period in ...
Domestic spousal violence against women in developing countries like India, is now beginning to be recognized as a widespread health problem impeding development. This study aimed to explore the risk and protective factors for lifetime spousal physical violence. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out in rural, urban and urban-slum areas across seven sites in India, among women aged 15-49 years, living with a child less than 18 years of age. The sample was selected using the probability proportionate to size method. Trained field workers administered a structured questionnaire to elicit information on spousal physical violence. The main hypothesized variables were social support, witnessed father beating mother and experience of harsh physical violence during childhood, alcohol abuse by spouse and socioeconomic variables. The outcome variables included three physical violence behaviours of hit, kick and beat. Odds ratios were calculated for risk and protective factors of violence using logistic regression. Of 9938 women surveyed, 26% reported experiencing spousal physical violence during the lifetime of their marriage. Adjusted odds ratios calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis suggest that women whose husbands regularly consumed alcohol (OR 5.6; 95% CI 4.7-6.6); who experienced dowry harassment (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.7-3.8); had reported experiencing harsh physical punishment during childhood (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8) and had witnessed their fathers beat their mothers (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.6-2.1), were at increased risk of spousal physical violence (beat, hit and kick). Higher socioeconomic status and good social support acted as protective buffers against spousal physical violence. The findings provide compelling evidence of the potential risk factors for spousal physical violence, which in turn could help in planning interventions. PMID:17349066
Jeyaseelan, L; Kumar, Shuba; Neelakantan, Nithya; Peedicayil, Abraham; Pillai, Rajamohanam; Duvvury, Nata
Abstract Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: ...
Rosewell Alexander; Addy Benita; Komnapi Lucas; Makanda Freda; Ropa Berry; Posanai Enoch; Dutta Samir; Mola Glen; Wy, Man Nicola; Zwi Anthony; Raina, Macintyre C.
There is a general acceptance that global changes associated with natural hazards and socioeconomic processes are occurring at a faster pace than ever, with deep implications in terms of risk exposure and environmental impact. The capacity of coastal areas to adapt and react to these changes will be a key factor in the future preservation of life standards and represents a great challenge for politicians, scientists and professionals at any level. Within the large scope of Theseus Project (EU 7th Framework Program), one of the main objectives is to design a tool to help decision makers in defining optimal strategies to minimize risks within a certain city or coastal area in a three-fold sense: economic losses, human damages and environmental impacts. The resulting software, the Theseus-DSS, links the most relevant physical processes (waves, sea-levels, hard and soft structures, coastal erosion and inland flooding) with the potential impact zones (marine and inland), considering their functions (ecosystems) and uses (economic units), and the dependence of this functions and uses upon the prevailing physical conditions. The new software tries to fill a gap among the existing tools, based on the following pillars: • Seamless integration of disciplines: physics, engineering, ecology, social sciences and economy. • Intermediate spatial scales (1- 10 km) and medium-to- long time spans (1-10 years). • Decision-making based on a balance between deterministic models and expert, discussion-based assumptions. The user of the Theseus-DSS will be able either to check the consequences of predefined scenarios at a particular study site, or to create user-defined scenarios, run them and compare the results with other scenarios. The results are expressed, locally and at an aggregate level, in the three aforementioned dimensions: economic losses (€/year), mean annual expected live losses (persons/year) and impact on habitats (null, low, medium and high).
Losada, I. J.; Garcia Alonso, E.; Mendez, F. J.; Zanuttigh, B.; Nicholls, R. J.; Thompson, R.; Vanderlinden, J. P.; Fernandez, F.; Ondiviela, B.; Diaz-Simal, P.; Bagli, S.
It is seen that primary school dropout among tribal students is generally high. Socioeconomic factors among others are also responsible for that. This study tried to find out the significant factors responsible for primary school dropout among the tribal students in Kamrup district of Assam. It is found that household income, household size and parent’s education are some of the significant factors having influence on school dropout. Some policy suggestions are also provided in conclusion.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ? 94 cm (men or ? 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are positively associated with overweight, while educational level and health related sports are negatively related to overweight in both genders. In men, alcohol consumption and smoking in the past are also among the lifestyle factors associated with overweight. This study also indicates that BMI and WC do not have the same discriminative function regarding different lifestyle factors.
Pakistani people belong to an ethnic group which has the highest rate of coronary artery disease. There are a number of risk factors for developing the coronary artery disease (CAD). Homocysteine, a sulphur containing amino acid, has been reported to be an independent risk factor for CAD. The present study was done to find out the role of hyperhomocysteinemia in the development of coronary artery disease in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out. There were 40 angiographically diagnosed male patients of coronary artery disease between 30 - 40 years of age taken as cases and 40 age, sex and socioeconomically matched healthy subjects with normal carotid doppler study taken as controls. Fasting venous blood from cases and controls was taken in E.D.T.A vacationers. Plasma was analyzed for homo-cysteine level by enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Mean plasma concentration of homocysteine in coronary artery disease patients i.e. cases was 13.5 +- 6.8 mu mol/L and was higher than the mean for controls (10.76 +- 2.27 mu mol/L) to a significant extent. Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia through inter-play with the classical cardiovascular risk factors may be aggravating the risk of coronary artery disease in Pakistani people. (author)
The subject of this thesis is the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cancer detection and outcome in the Netherlands. Both a description of and explanation for variation in incidence, detection, staging, treatment, survival and health-related quality of life of cancer by SES are given. The studies reported in this thesis can be placed both within the broader framework of research on socioeconomic inequalities in health as well as within the narrower framework of research on so...
Aarts, M. J.
Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as â€˜casesâ€? and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in â€˜controlâ€? group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.
Deswal B S
The purpose of this study is to examine the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype with causes of death [breast cancer (BC)-specific and non-BC-specific] among non-metastatic invasive BC patients. We identified 3,312 patients younger than 75 years (mean age 53.5 years; 621 [18.8 %] TNBC) with first primary BC treated at an academic medical center from 1999 to 2010. We constructed a census-tract-level socioeconomic deprivation index using the 2000 U.S. Census data and performed a multilevel competing-risk analysis to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of BC-specific and non-BC-specific mortality associated with neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and TNBC subtype. The adjusted models controlled for patient sociodemographics, health behaviors, tumor characteristics, comorbidity, and cancer treatment. With a median 62-month follow-up, 349 (10.5 %) patients died; 233 died from BC. In the multivariate models, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was independently associated with non-BC-specific mortality (the most- vs. the least-deprived quartile: HR = 2.98, 95 % CI = 1.33-6.66); in contrast, its association with BC-specific mortality was explained by the aforementioned patient-level covariates, particularly sociodemographic factors (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 0.71-1.87). TNBC subtype was independently associated with non-BC-specific mortality (HR = 2.15; 95 % CI = 1.20-3.84), while the association between TNBC and BC-specific mortality approached significance (HR = 1.42; 95 % CI = 0.99-2.03, P = 0.057). Non-metastatic invasive BC patients who lived in more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods were more likely to die as a result of causes other than BC compared with those living in the least socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods. TNBC was associated with non-BC-specific mortality but not BC-specific mortality. PMID:25234843
Lian, Min; Pérez, Maria; Liu, Ying; Schootman, Mario; Frisse, Ann; Foldes, Ellen; Jeffe, Donna B
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia. This study was conducted in 160 children with sickle cell anemia aged 3 to 12 years attending the Center for Hematology in Recife, Brazil . Data collection included interv [...] iews with guardians concerning social factors and oral examinations to determine the caries prevalence. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's chi-square tests at a 5% significance level. The caries prevalence was 55.0%. The dmft index was 2.12, and the DMFT index was 1.50. Income significantly influenced dmft; the mean dmft was 4.57 in children whose family income was less than the Brazilian minimum wage (BMW), whereas in children with a family income three times the BMW or higher, the mean dmft was 2.27. No statistically positive association was found between the educational level of parents and guardians and the caries indices. A statistically significant association was found between dental caries prevalence and family income.
Ana Cláudia Alves e, Luna; Maria José, Rodrigues; Valdenice Aparecida, Menezes; Kátia Maria Gonçalves, Marques; Fabiano Almeida dos, Santos.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia. This study was conducted in 160 children with sickle cell anemia aged 3 to 12 years attending the Center for Hematology in Recife, Brazil . Data collection included interviews with guardians concerning social factors and oral examinations to determine the caries prevalence. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's chi-square tests at a 5% significance level. The caries prevalence was 55.0%. The dmft index was 2.12, and the DMFT index was 1.50. Income significantly influenced dmft; the mean dmft was 4.57 in children whose family income was less than the Brazilian minimum wage (BMW, whereas in children with a family income three times the BMW or higher, the mean dmft was 2.27. No statistically positive association was found between the educational level of parents and guardians and the caries indices. A statistically significant association was found between dental caries prevalence and family income.
Ana Cláudia Alves e Luna
Diet, in all its complexity, is considered one of the major risk factors for cancer and is therefore a primary area of research within the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch. We work collaboratively with a wide range of researchers to conduct an integrated program that serves NCI as well as the extramural community.
Risk factors for disease consist of personal habits such as cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption, and bodily characteristics such as hypertension and high serum cholesterol. Progress in identifying, quantifying, and controlling risk factors is opening the way to the prevention of disease. (BB)
The role of leptin in humans is not yet precisely established. Nevertheless there is increasing evidence revealing that this molecule is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis as an independent risk factor. From another point of view, however, leptin is allready related to known traditional risk factors for accelerated atherogenesis, like obesity.
Efstratiadis, G.; Nikolaidou, C.; Vergoulas, G.
This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674
Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth
Full Text Available Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported information to meet study objectives. Around 32 % of females were either overweight or obese and the study subjects with a family history of maternal obesity and habit of limited snacking had higher odds for obesity. No associations were found between obesity and parental income and education status; and skipping breakfast and physical activity behaviours of the subjects. Maternal obesity could be a considerable risk factor for obesity in female subjects.
Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen
To observe the patterns of speech sounds and language disorders. To find out associated risk factors of speech sounds and language disorders. Background: Communication is the very essence of modern society. Communication disorders impacts quality of life. Patterns and factors associated with speech sounds and language impairments were explored. The association was seen with different environmental factors. Methodology: The patients included in the study were 200 whose age ranged between two and sixteen years presented in speech therapy clinic OPD Mayo Hospital. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire assessed the patient's bio data, socioeconomic background, family history of communication disorders and bilingualism. It was a descriptive study and was conducted through cross-sectional survey. Data was analysed by SPSS version 16. Results: Results reveal Language disorders were relatively more prevalent in males than those of speech sound disorders. Bilingualism was found as having insignificant effect on these disorders. It was concluded from this study that the socioeconomic status and family history were significant risk factors. Conclusion: Gender, socioeconomic status, family history can play as risk for developing speech sounds and language disorders. There is a grave need to understand patterns of communication disorders in the light of Pakistani society and culture. It is recommended to conduct further studies to determine risk factors and patterns of these impairments. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular disorder, posing a major public health challenge to population in epidemiological transition. The prevalence of hypertension increases with age and is more common in men as compared to women. But women loose this advantage after menopause due to estrogen deficiency. Objectives: 1. To assess the prevalence of hypertension and risk factors for hypertension among postmenopausal women in an urban community in Delhi. 2. To study association of risk factors with hypertension. Methodology: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted at Palam, an urbanized village in Delhi. A total 416 postmenopausal women were interviewed, examined and investigated. Results: Majority (78% of postmenopausal women were in the age group of 45-65 years. More than three fourth 342 (82.4% of women belonged to lower middle and upper lower socio-economic status. The prevalence of hypertension in these women was 39.6%, another one third (37% were pre-hypertensive. All women had one or more than one risk factor for hypertension. The most common risk factors were high salt intake (82.7%, low vegetable and fruit intake (64.2%, stress (53.2% and truncal obesity (36.1%. Risk factors like diabetes, obesity, smoking and physical inactivity were significantly more common in hypertensive as compared to non-hypertensive. Conclusion: Burden of hypertension among postmenopausal women in the present study was found to be high. Interventions integrating promotive, preventive and curative care for postmenopausal women should be provided to them.
Abstract This study examined associations between exposure to shift-work and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether the associations are explained by socio-economic circumstances, occupational factors or health behaviours. Biological risk factors for CVD were measured in 7,839 participants of the 1958 British birth cohort at age 45 years who were in paid employment. Regular (?1/week) shift-workers included 46% working evenings (1800–2200), 28% weekends, 13% ...
Thomas, Claudia; Power, Chris
... know what causes kidney cancer? What are the risk factors for kidney cancer? A risk factor is anything ... develop kidney cancer. Lifestyle-related and job-related risk factors Smoking Smoking increases the risk of developing renal ...
Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ? Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ? Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ? “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ? A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ? Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Sociantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.
Full Text Available El control del gasto público y las necesidades de recursos humanos, materiales y de capacitación del recurso humano médico y administrativo, tanto como los derechos de los usuarios de los servicios de salud, justifican el estudio de la distribución, los determinantes y la frecuencia de los servicios que estos reciben. En este contexto se plantea si existe alguna relación entre los factores socioeconómicos y el tipo de denuncia por la que consultan los usuarios de la Clínica Médico Forense. Del análisis estadístico realizado, se desprende que existen relaciones significativas entre los tipos de denuncia planteados y las variables: edad, sexo, estado civil, ocupación y nivel educativoThe control of the public finance and the need of human resources, materials and training of the human medical resource, justify the study of the distribution, determinants, and the frequency of the services that they receive. In this context, it is stand in this study, where or not a relation exists between the socio economical factors and the type of denounce that is made by the consultant of the Medical Forensic Clinic. From the statistical analysis made, it shows us significant relationships between the denounce made and these variables: age, sex, civil state, occupation, education level.
Grettchen Flores Sandí
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a form of pulmonary hypertension caused by obstruction and vascular remodelling of pulmonary arteries following pulmonary embolism. Risk factors that predispose patients to CTEPH include the size of the initial thrombus and numerous associated host or medical conditions. Haemostatic risk factors include elevated levels of factor VIII and phospholipid antibodies or intrinsic abnormalities in fibrinogen. Medical conditions that are associ...
Kim, N. H.; Lang, I. M.
The article's main goal is to study the relationship between subjective perception of own economic situation and objective measures of economic well-being -sources of income, home ownership, education level, and informal family transfers- among the elderly in two Latin American countries: Mexico and Costa Rica. The data come from two surveys about ageing: CRELES in Costa Rica and MHAS in Mexico. The most important dependent variables is derived from the answer to the question "How would you rate your current economic situation? in Costa Rica, and "Would you say that your current economic situation is…?" in Mexico. For both surveys, the answers were coded as a binary variable; code 0 represents the Excellent, Very Good, and Good categories, while the code 1 represents the Fair or Bad categories. The analysis finds that retirement pension income is an important factor for defining self-rated economic situation in both countries. In Costa Rica, spouse's income and home ownership are relevant predictors for the perception of well-being, while in Mexico, receiving transfer income is associated with this perception. PMID:25360057
The data of the 2,040 single births, born during 1987 at the "Saint Antoine" Hospital in Paris, were analysed in order to identify the impact of various biological, occupational, and socioeconomic factors on gestational age and birth weight. Birth weight is associated with the height of the mother and the weight gained during pregnancy. It is lower for mothers with preeclampsia during the current or previous pregnancies or with urogenital infections during the current pregnancy and for mothers with one or more induced abortions. Girls weigh less than boys. Parity has a positive relation to the baby's weight, while manual work seems to have a negative one. APGAR score and duration of the pregnancy are associated with the birth weight. Placenta previa, preeclampsia and urinary infections affect the gestational age. A short pause period in work is related to a shorter gestational age. Weight gain is associated with a prolonged duration of the pregnancy. Gestational age and birth weight are associated with the nationality of the mother, especially in some ethnic groups, and with marital status. PMID:9478328
Velonakis, E G; Maghiorakos, P; Tzonou, A; Barrat, J; Proteau, J; Ladopoulos, I
Full Text Available In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors [...] on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance.
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify the socio-economic and institutional factors which influence the level of awareness of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM projects and in so doing to highlight the policy implications for the stakeholders when designing clean development mechanism projects among smallholder farmers. Findings shows that 23% of the farmers were correctly aware of the project and the results of the ordered logit model indicate that age, gender, education level, group membership, existence of tree farming and contact with extension services was found to influence awareness level of smallholder forest Carbon projects. To assist the community to adapt to climate change and produce sufficiently on a sustainable basis and achieve the desired food security under climate change challenges, the study recommends policies to increase awareness of such agro-environmental initiatives and that of extension providers should distinguish their clientele anchored on vital demographic characteristics such as age and gender. If the probability of younger farmers to be aware this initiative is higher, extension communications should be directed to such age group, particularly during initial stages project information dissemination.
Oscar I. Ayuya
In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance. PMID:24510133
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with oral mucosa alterations in patients from Vale do Jequiti-nhonha, Brazil. The sample consisted of 511 patients of both genders. Questionnaires were used to obtain information about patient gender, age, race, systemic disease state, medication use, cigarette use and alcohol consumption. Physical examinations were then performed to identify lesions of the oral mucosa. Descriptive analyses, Chi-squared tests and logistic regressions were then used to analyze the results (p < 0.05, 95% CI. In this population, 84.9% (434/511 of patients were found to have alterations in their oral mucosa. The most common alterations were melanotic maculae (36.0%, linea alba (33.9%, traumatic ulcers (21.5%, Fordyce's granules (20.4%, coated tongue (12.5% and fissured tongue (10.0%. Melanotic maculae were more frequently observed in black patients, with an odds ration (OR of 7.51. Being female was a statistically significant predictive factor for having a visible linea alba (OR: 1.90 and a fissured tongue (OR: 2.11. No statistically significant association was found between the presence of oral lesions and systemic disease, medication use, alcohol use and smoking. The high observed prevalence of melanotic maculae and Fordyce's granules suggests that these alterations could be considered typical characteristics of the population of the Vale do Jequitinhonha. Coated tongue may be related to the socioeconomic deprivation in the region. Furthermore, the high prevalence of traumatic ulcers may be associated with the traumatic agents that caused patients to seek dental care.
Raquel Gonçalves Vieira-Andrade
Full Text Available As adoptin and maintenance of healthy eating behaviours is an important factor for Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD prevention , this research was conducted to determin dietetic risk factors in relation to IHD. This is a case – control study conducted in fall 2003 in Tehran Heart Center and Tehran Shahid Rajaii hospital. 100 subjects with IHD, as cases and 100 controls with no cardiovascular disease in their medical history, participated in the study.Nutritional data was collected by Food Frequencey Quastionnaire. Some important risk factors including hypertention, hyperlipidemia,diabetes, Body Mass Index (BMI and physical activity were evaluated. There was a positive association between IHD and consumption of fats and a negative association between IHD and consumption of fruits and vegetables.The most important factors were low intake of fish and high intake of fried foods that increased the risk of disease 13.96 and 54.65 times, respectively. Also 73% of patients had high risk diet while only 17% of controls had high risk diet. High risk diet increased the risk of cardiovascular diseases approximately 20 times. The main dietetic risk factors in this study were : low intake of fish, fruits and vegetables and lower consumption of oiles; while hydrogenated fats with undesirable trans-fatty acid content, were the main source of dietary fat, in case group. Therefore; community-based educational programmes are nesseary to promote healty nutrition.
Full Text Available Introduction: Anthropometric indices are used for assessing the nutrition status of people and societies. The indices determine the growth of the child’s nutrition status, his socioeconomic status and his quality of life. This research aims to study the anthropometric indices of elementary school children in the Iranian city of Piranshahr using the Body Mass Index (BMI and waist circumference in the first six months of 2011. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study, 1803 students aged between 7 and 11 in Piranshahr were studied. Multi-stage cluster sampling was used. The research setting was an elementary school in Piranshahr. Demographic data were collected through interviews and record in questionnaires. A Secca stadiometer was used to measure the height of each student standing without shoes (accuracy of 0.1 centimeter. The weight was measured using a spring scale with an accuracy of 0.1 kilogram with the least possible clothes on. The weight was divided by the square of height (square meter to calculate BMI. To determine overweight and obesity, BMI percentiles of Center for Disease Control (CDC were used. In order to use appropriate tests, the normality and equality of variances were measured by Leven and K-S tests, respectively. Results: The study found that 231 children (12.8% were at risk of overweight and 96 children (5.3% were overweight. Conclusion: There was a meaningful difference between boys and girls in terms of nutrition status of BMI, father’s higher education level, shortness, abdominal obesity and family history of obesity, and father’s jobs (P
To assess the usefulness of routinely collected socioeconomic variables from the U.S. census in predicting burn incidence rates, burn rates and 25 socioeconomic variables were analyzed at the level of census tracts for the Boston Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. The burn rates were based on data collected during the National Burn Demonstration Project and consisted of patients who sustained burns between July 1, 1978, and June 30, 1979, and who required inhospital care. Analysis of the...
Locke, J. A.; Rossignol, A. M.; Boyle, C. M.; Burke, J. F.
The authors investigated the association between socioeconomic position and stage of breast cancer at the time of diagnosis in a nationwide Danish study. All 28?765 women with a primary invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 1983 and 1999 were identified in a nationwide clinical database and information on socioeconomic variables was obtained from Statistics Denmark. The risk of being diagnosed with a high-risk breast cancer, that is size >20?mm, lymph-node positive, ductal histology/hi...
Dalton, S. O.; Du?ring, M.; Ross, L.; Carlsen, K.; Mortensen, P. B.; Lynch, J.; Johansen, C.
Coronary heart disease and other manifestations of atherosclerosis are leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Canada. Despite favourable trends in recent years, we should try to reduce cardiovascular events further. Physicians must translate current knowledge into public health policies and management strategems for individual patients. Patients are best served by a comprehensive risk management approach, involving nonpharmacological (mainly lifestyle) changes and drug therapy.
Carruthers, S. G.
By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452
Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N
Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death after cardiac disease and cancer in the developed countries. In patients older than 65 years old, ischemic stroke is one of the main causes of disability. They are also responsible for approximately 4.5 million deaths each year globally.The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the modifiable risk factors related to the development of ischemic stroke.The method ?f this study included bibliographic research from both reviews and researches from literature, mainly of the last 8 years. The words used in pub med data base, referred to the modifiable risk factors related to the development of ischemic stroke.Results: In the majority of research studies, responsible risk factors for ischemic stroke are classified according to their ability of modification, in modifiable and non–modifiable risk factors. Some of the modifiable risk factors have been fully documented whereas some others need further research. The main modifiable risk factor is hypertension because on the one hand it promotes atherosclerosis and, on the other hand, leads to deteriorative changes and constrictions of small brain vessels. Atrial fibrillation is the most significant risk factor for ischemic stroke, since it is responsible for more than 50% of thromboembolic cases. Also, patients with diabetes mellitus are in higher risk for developing ischemic stroke compared to healthy population, whereas the danger is increasing in insuline-depented individuals. Increase of lipids in blood and disorders of cholesterol are responsible for atherosclerosis in coronary vessels and carotid. More in detail, carotid stenosis >50% in individuals over than 65 years old consist a significant risk factor for ischemic stroke. Though, the relation of smoking to ischemic stroke is still not fully understood, however smokers are in high risk for developing ischemic stroke for the reason that smoking is significantly related to atherosclerosis. Furthermore, blood diseases and mainly sickle-cell disease is responsible for ischemic stroke because the progressive narrowing of blood vessels prevents oxygen from reaching the brain and other tissues.Conclusions: As it is supported by published evidence, the main modifiable risk factors for stroke are hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, carotid stenosis, smoking and sickle-cell disease. Taking into account that these factors are modifiable and consequently predictable, the organization of educational programs in individuals of high risk is a matter of great importance.
Full Text Available The purpose of the studies reviewed here is to consider the risk factors associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. In order to abstract general features meta-analysis is utilized as the review tool.
This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. ...
Hilbert, A.; Pike, Km; Goldschmidt, Ab; Wilfley, DE; Fairburn, Cg; Dohm, Fa; Walsh, Bt; Striegel Weissman, R.
The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), the world's largest telephone survey, tracks health risks in the United States. Information from the survey is used to improve the health of the American people. Since the early 1980s, BRFSS data have been used to identify e...
Data from 2,000 Norwegian 16-year-old ninth graders were used to study the importance of socioeconomic factors and sex differences in an educational system with mainstreaming, no ability grouping, little acceleration, and no retention in grade. Analysis illustrates how sex and socioeconomic differences may be mediated in an egalitarian society.…
Undheim, Johan Olav; Nordvik, Hilmar
We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569
Thornberry, Terence P; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L; Smith, Carolyn A; Ireland, Timothy O
Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of ...
Gotsadze George; Djibuti Mamuka; Mataradze George; Zoidze Akaki
Background: Emerging issues in HIV prevention include the importance of considering underlying social and economic factors at the community and individual level. We examined the associations between individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) on HIV prevalence in young people in a high HIV prevalence country. Methods: The study re-analysed data from the Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, a cross- sectional nationally representative survey conduc...
Full Text Available The Hypertensive´s syndrome in pregnancy, represent the major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the country. That are so many risk factors for you unleashment and it can happen before pregnancy or arise in your course. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the bibliographic production around the maternal risk factors associated with Hypertensive´s syndromes in pregnancy. Were analyzed 09 articles from national and international journals obtained through the LILACS database, between 2001 to 2010. Between the maternal risk factors for the development of Hypertensive´s syndrome in pregnancy were appointed chronic hypertension, preeclampsia, and gestational hypertension and prior gestational hypertension. The family history of hypertension, overweight and obesity; the tobaccoism; low socioeconomic status, stress / emotional conflicts and improper prenatal care. Emphasize the importance of early identification and intervention of risk factors in the prenatal, seeking a better maternal and fetal prognosis.
R. C. Bortoli
Within the last decades severe flooding events occurred in many parts of Europe. Especially in 2002, Upper Austria was seriously affected. Beside the natural variability of precipitation events the increase of losses is strongly connected with socio-economic developments. Especially the increase of settlement areas and the specific values of such modern settlement areas in flood prone areas induced this increase of losses. The presented case study was initiated to analyse different consequences of the currently observed socio-economic trend and further socio-economic projections within the watershed of the so-called Ottnanger Redl in Upper Austria, a watershed which was affected by the event in 2002. The temporal dimension of this change in damage potential is analysed for the 1990s, current conditions and future scenarios (Statistics Austria). Beside the socio-economic development the common structural vulnerability but also the positive effect of legislation and standards concerning flood-adapted constructions are considered. The hydrological-hydraulic is realized based on a scaled scenario approach. Therefore, documented precipitation events at rain gauges are considered for precipitation run-off simulations. To include further events the gauged events are scalled in their intensity. The hydrological loads of these scenarios are considered within different 2D hydraulic simulations; representation of past, current and future settlement structure. Based on the current settlement structure and its transfer in an asset value database, the past structure of the 1990s is reconstructed with remote sensing methods. The future structure (different pragmatic scenarios) in contrast is estimated on the basis of the current situation, socio-economic projections of Statistics Austria, land-use planes and local development concepts of the individual communities and in cooperation with the Regional Government of Upper Austria. The monetary evaluation is conducted with visualized verified building footprints, high resolved building characteristics on address level, building cross cubature analyses based on LiDAR data and monetary evaluation guidelines for different sectors and building functionalities of the Oberösterreichische Versicherung (regional insurance companies). Furthermore, this monetary evaluation approach is crosschecked with further approaches. First, to analyse the flood risk situation under past, current and future socio-economic situations for the different hydraulic loads without any measures to reduce current vulnerability, common flood vulnerability approaches (loss ratio) are considered. In a next step, the introduced legislation and standards in Upper Austria concerning flood adapted constructions is implemented within the applied vulnerability approaches. Thus, the effect of flood adapted construction measures as well as different settlement scenarios on the risk situation can be analysed. The stochastic nature of flood events is furthermore considered within a Monte-Carlo based evaluation routine. The results of the study show exemplarily the positive effect of object-based measures to reduce the susceptibility of the elements at risk and, furthermore, demonstrate the consequences of different settlement scenarios on the flood risk situation within the study area. As the project is still in progress, the contribution will introduce the general framework and highlight some first results.
Huttenlau, Matthias; Reiss, Julia; Achleitner, Stefan; Plörer, Manuel; Hofer, Michael; Weingraber, Felix
... know what causes testicular cancer? What are the risk factors for testicular cancer? A risk factor is anything ... testicular cancer and body weight. Unproven or controversial risk factors Prior injury or trauma to the testicles and ...
Abstract Background Ambient air pollution and malnutrition, particularly anemia, are risk factors for pneumonia, a leading cause of death in children under five. We simultaneously assessed these risk factors in Quito, Ecuador. Methods In 2005, we studied two socioeconomically similar neighborhoods in Quito: Lucha de los Pobres (LP) and Jaime Roldos (JR). LP had relatively high levels of air pollution (annual median PM2.5 = 20.4 ?g/m3; NO2 = 29.5 ?g/m3) compared to JR (annual median PM2.5 = ...
Harris Aaron M; Sempértegui Fernando; Estrella Bertha; Narváez Ximena; Egas Juan; Woodin Mark; Durant John L; Naumova Elena N; Griffiths Jeffrey K
Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. PMID:25767405
English, Fred A; Kenny, Louise C; McCarthy, Fergus P
Atherosclerosis begins during childhood. From childhood, a strong relation has been shown between the prevalence and extent of the asymptomatic atherosclerosis lesions and cardiovascular risk factors such as elevation in body mass index, blood pressure and plasma lipid concentrations. These risk factors depend not only on the subjects' genetic predisposition, but also on environmental parameters, particularly diet. The Committee on Nutrition reviewed the scientific basis of dietary recommendations for children that could reduce the risk factors and thereby, reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in later life: the effects of prenatal nutrition; the beneficial consequences of breast-feeding on later levels of cholesterolemia, blood pressure and corpulence; the role of dietary lipids on plasma lipid concentration, of salt and potassium on blood pressure, and of lifestyle on corpulence. PMID:19944575
Girardet, J-P; Rieu, D; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Ghisolfi, J; Goulet, O; Rigo, J; Turck, D; Vidailhet, M
Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%-8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. PMID:25767405
English, Fred A; Kenny, Louise C; McCarthy, Fergus P
Relación entre el Nivel Socioeconómico y Hábitos de Vida, con el Fibrinógeno y el Factor von Willebrand en Venezolanos Sanos y con Cardiopatía Isquémica / Relation between Socioeconomic Levels and Life Style with Fibrinogen and von Willebrand Factor in Venezuela.
Full Text Available Estudios epidemiológicos en Europa, EEUU y Japón, han revelado una relación inversa entre la concentración de fibrinógeno y del factor von Willebrand con el nivel socioeconómico. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la relación entre el fibrinógeno y el factor von Willebrand con el nivel s [...] ocioeconómico, los hábitos tabáquicos, alcohólicos, actividad física y la edad, en una población venezolana aparentemente sana de 978 hombres y 968 mujeres (grupo control), y en 172 hombres y 78 mujeres con Enfermedad Cardiovascular Isquémica. Se consideró factor de riesgo comportamiento para niveles altos de fibrinógeno y factor von Willebrand, la presencia de uno o más de los siguientes hábitos: ser fumador o ex-fumador de menos de 5 años, no ingerir alcohol o ingerirlo en exceso, y el tener una actividad física muy limitada. En los controles, la edad tuvo un efecto significativo y positivo sobre las dos variables hemostáticas, en ambos sexos. En relación al efecto del nivel socioeconómico, se observó una tendencia en ambas variables de mostrar las concentraciones más altas en los niveles más bajos, sólo significativa en las mujeres. En cambio, el factor de riesgo comportamiento no tuvo un efecto significativo sobre ninguna de las dos variables. En los pacientes, la edad no tuvo efecto sobre ninguna de las variables, el factor de riesgo comportamiento tuvo un efecto significativo positivo sólo sobre el fibrinógeno de los hombres, y el nivel socioeconómico sólo tuvo efectos significativos en la concentración de fibrinógeno de las mujeres: valores altos en niveles socioeconómicos bajos. Se recomienda continuar con estos estudios para entender mejor la relación entre el nivel socioeconómico, las variables hemostáticas y la incidencia de Enfermedad Cardiovascular Isquémica. Abstract in english Previous studies in Europe, USA and Japan have revealed an inverse relationship between socioeconomic levels and fibrinogen concentration. Similar results have been reported in a smaller number of studies for concentrations of von Willebrand factor. In this opportunity we present results on the rela [...] tionship between smoking, drinking, physical activity, age and socioeconomic level on fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor concentrations in a Venezuelan sample. The Control population consisted of 978 men and 968 women. Patients with Coronary Heart Disease were 172 males and 78 females. The presence of one or more of the following conditions: smoking or less than 5 years of having quit, non drinkers or drinking in excess, and a reduced physical activity, was considered a health related risk factor for high levels of these two haemostatic variables. Our results indicate that in Controls, the socioeconomic level had a significant effect on fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor levels, only in women: those of lower socioeconomic levels had the highest concentrations. This difference was maintained when age was taken into account. Health related behaviors had no significant effect on either variable. In Patients, age had no effect on either variable. The health behavior risk factor had a significant effect only on fibrinogen of male patients, and socioeconomic level had a significant effect only on the fibrinogen of female patients. More studies in Venezuela are recommended, in order to increase our knowledge on the relationship between socioeconomic levels, haemostatic markers and the occurrence of Coronary Heart Disease.
Álvaro, Rodríguez-Larralde; Mercedes E, Mijares; Elena, Nagy; Raul, Espinosa; Elena, Ryde; María P., Diez-Ewald; Enrique, Torres; Enriqueta, Coll-Sangrona; Elsy, Rodríguez- Roa; Zoila, Carvajal; Ulf, Lundberg; Gilberto, Campos; Amparo, Gi; Carmen L, Arocha-Piñango.
Background Most studies of total hip arthroplasty (THA) focus on the effect of the type of implant on the clinical result. Relatively little data are available on the impact of the patient’s preoperative status and socioeconomic factors on the clinical results following THA. Questions/purposes We determined the relative importance of patient preoperative and socioeconomic status compared to implant and technique factors in predicting patient outcome as reflected by scores on commonly utilized rating scales (eg, Harris Hip Score, WOMAC, SF-12, degree of patient satisfaction, or presence or severity of thigh pain) following cementless THA. Methods All patients during the study period were offered enrollment in a prospective, randomized study to receive either a titanium, tapered, proximally coated stem; or a Co-Cr, cylindrical, extensively coated stem; 102 patients were enrolled. We collected detailed patient data preoperatively including diagnosis, age, gender, insurance status, medical comorbidities, tobacco and alcohol use, household income, educational level, and history of treatment for lumbar spine pathology. Clinical evaluation included Harris Hip Score, SF-12, WOMAC, pain drawing, and UCLA activity rating and satisfaction questionnaire. Implant factors included stem type, stem size, fit in the canal, and stem-bone stiffness ratios. Minimum 2 year followup was obtained in 95% of the enrolled patients (102 patients). Results Patient demographics and preoperative status were more important than implant factors in predicting the presence of thigh pain, dissatisfaction, and a low hip score. The most predictive factors were ethnicity, educational level, poverty level, income, and a low preoperative WOMAC score or preoperative SF-12 mental component score. No implant parameter correlated with outcome or satisfaction. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors and preoperative status have more impact on the clinical outcome of cementless THA than implant related factors. Level of Evidence Level I, prospective, randomized clinical trial. See the guidelines online for a complete description of level of evidence. PMID:20717856
Allen Butler, R.; Rosenzweig, Seth; Myers, Leann
The article reports the effects of several socioeconomic and environmental indicators on the nutritional status (stunting, underweight, and wasting) of a sample of 802 children aged 12-35.9 months in urban and rural areas of southern Brazil. Of the social variables studied, family income and father's education level were the two risk factors that showed the strongest associations with nutritional status. The mother's education level, employment status of the head of the family, number of sibl...
Victora, Cesar G.; Vaughan, J. Patrick; Kirkwood, Betty R.; Martines, Jose? Carlos; Barcelos, Lucio B.
Studies presented in this thesis focused on the relationship between the presence of coronary heart disease and intra-abdominal fat, and the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and the presence of metabolic syndrome, incidence of type 2 diabetes and recurrence of vascular events in high-risk patients. In addition, two risk factor management strategies in patients with clinical manifest vascular disease were evaluated. We demonstrated that waist circumference had the strongest ...
Brouwer, B. G.
The role of material, psychosocial and behavioral factors in mediating the association between socioeconomic position and allostatic load (measured by cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory markers).
Lower socioeconomic position (SEP), both accumulated across the life course and at different life-stages, has been found to be associated with higher cumulative physiological burden, as measured by allostatic load. This study aimed to identify what factors mediate the association between SEP and allostatic load, as measured through combining cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory markers. We explored the role of material, psychological and behavioral factors, accumulated across two periods in time, in mediating the association between SEP and allostatic load. Data are from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study, with respondents followed over five waves of data collection from ages 35 to 55 (n=999). Allostatic load was measured by summing nine binary biomarker scores ('1'=in the highest-risk quartile) measured when respondents were 55years old (wave 5). SEP was measured by a person's accumulated social class over two periods All mediators and SEP were measured at baseline in 1987 and 20years later and combined to form accumulated measures of risk. Material mediators included car and home ownership, and having low income. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used as the psychosocial mediator. Behavioral mediators included smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet. Path analysis using linear regressions adjusting for sex were performed for each of the potential mediators to assess evidence of attenuation in the association between lower SEP and higher allostatic load. Analyses by mediator type revealed that renting one's home (approximately 78% attenuation) and having low income (approx. 62% attenuation) largely attenuated the SEP-allostatic load association. GHQ did not attenuate the association. Smoking had the strongest attenuating effect of all health behaviors (by 33%) with no other health behaviors attenuating the association substantially. Material factors, namely home tenure and income status, and smoking have important roles in explaining socioeconomic disparities in allostatic load, particularly when accumulated over time. PMID:25459100
Robertson, Tony; Benzeval, Michaela; Whitley, Elise; Popham, Frank
The role of material, psychosocial and behavioral factors in mediating the association between socioeconomic position and allostatic load (measured by cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory markers)
Lower socioeconomic position (SEP), both accumulated across the life course and at different life-stages, has been found to be associated with higher cumulative physiological burden, as measured by allostatic load. This study aimed to identify what factors mediate the association between SEP and allostatic load, as measured through combining cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory markers. We explored the role of material, psychological and behavioral factors, accumulated across two periods in time, in mediating the association between SEP and allostatic load. Data are from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study, with respondents followed over five waves of data collection from ages 35 to 55 (n = 999). Allostatic load was measured by summing nine binary biomarker scores (‘1’ = in the highest-risk quartile) measured when respondents were 55 years old (wave 5). SEP was measured by a person’s accumulated social class over two periods All mediators and SEP were measured at baseline in 1987 and 20 years later and combined to form accumulated measures of risk. Material mediators included car and home ownership, and having low income. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used as the psychosocial mediator. Behavioral mediators included smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet. Path analysis using linear regressions adjusting for sex were performed for each of the potential mediators to assess evidence of attenuation in the association between lower SEP and higher allostatic load. Analyses by mediator type revealed that renting one’s home (approximately 78% attenuation) and having low income (approx. 62% attenuation) largely attenuated the SEP–allostatic load association. GHQ did not attenuate the association. Smoking had the strongest attenuating effect of all health behaviors (by 33%) with no other health behaviors attenuating the association substantially. Material factors, namely home tenure and income status, and smoking have important roles in explaining socioeconomic disparities in allostatic load, particularly when accumulated over time. PMID:25459100
Robertson, Tony; Benzeval, Michaela; Whitley, Elise; Popham, Frank
Abstract Background Childhood obesity levels are rising with estimates suggesting that around one in three children in Western countries are overweight. People from lower socioeconomic status and ethnic minority backgrounds are at higher risk of obesity and subsequent CVD and diabetes. Within this study we examine the prevalence of risk factors for CVD and diabetes (obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension) and examine factors associated with the presence of these risk factors in school ch...
Brophy Sinead; Thomas Non; Rees Anwen; Knox Gareth; Williams Rhys
Venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, occurs at an annual incidence of about 1 per 1000 adults. Rates increase sharply after around age 45 years, and are slightly higher in men than women in older age. Major risk factors for thrombosis, other than age, include exogenous factors such as surgery, hospitalization, immobility, trauma, pregnancy and the puerperium and hormone use, and endogenous factors such as cancer, obesity, and inherited and acquired disorde...
Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of "environmental investment" to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) "population in mining sector" and "coverage of green space in built-up area" were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. PMID:22575095
Zhao, Juanjuan; Chen, Shengbin; Wang, Hua; Ren, Yin; Du, Ke; Xu, Weihua; Zheng, Hua; Jiang, Bo
Background and objective The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [G-3] brachy) were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01). Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status. PMID:24765243
Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus H.; Kirkby, Nikolai; Twetman, Svante; Heitmann, Berit L.; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Paster, Bruce J.; Fiehn, Nils-Erik
Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.
A primary goal of California's higher education system is to provide capable students access to higher education regardless of the high school they attended, their ethnicity, their gender, or their socioeconomic status. Overall, college-going rates declined between 1985 and 2005. The percentage of public high school graduates going to community…
California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2006
Full Text Available Road construction projects are considered as the most important governmental issues since there are normally heavy investments required in such projects. There is also shortage of financial resources in governmental budget, which makes the asset allocation more challenging. One primary step in reducing the cost is to determine different risks associated with execution of such project activities. In this study, we present some important risk factors associated with road construction in two levels for a real-world case study of rail-road industry located between two cities of Esfahan and Deligan. The first group of risk factors includes the probability and the effects for various attributes including cost, time, quality and performance. The second group of risk factors includes socio-economical factors as well as political and managerial aspects. The study finds 21 main risk factors as well as 193 sub risk factors. The factors are ranked using groups decision-making method called linear assignment. The preliminary results indicate that the road construction projects could finish faster with better outcome should we carefully consider risk factors and attempt to reduce their impacts.
Full Text Available In the rural part of our country the use of traditional biomass was common and as a result of this, women who light the fire and bake bread and cook meals as well as children around them are exposed to the smoke that come out . The aim of this study was to to determine possible risk factors and associated conditions of COPD in women. The study was prospective and case-controlled. Fifty-two female patients with COPD followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital Department of Respiratory Medicine were included in this study. All cases were enrolled between December 2000 and October 2003. Fifty-four female non COPD subjects were chosen as the control group. These control subjects who did not have lung diseases were randomly selected in different outpatient clinics in the same hospital. Age, place of residence, comorbid conditions, cigarette smoking (active and passive, occupational exposure, air pollution, socio-economic status, education level, passive smoking in childhood, the fuel used for heating, cooking and baking bread and its duration were questioned. Results from this study suggest that exposure to cooking smoke, low education level, living in rural area, baking bread at home were associated risk factors with COPD among women.
Full Text Available Introduction. The rates of suicide are two to three times higher in men than in women in all communities. This “gender paradox” can be explained by various factors, such as more impulsive nature of men and their choice of more efficient (more lethal methods to commit suicide. This study was aimed at finding the correlation between the gender and other suicidal factors. Material and Methods. The study sample consisted of persons who committed suicide on the territory of Kragujevac in the period from 1996 to 2001. This study was based on the records kept by the Ministry of the Interior as well as by the Psychiatric Clinic of the Clinical Centre ”Kragujevac”. Data for weather were obtained from the Serbian Meteorological Institute reports. Results. During the analyzed period 121 suicides were committed on the territory of Kragujevac. The gender structure showed that within persons who committed suicide there were 78.5% men and 21.5% women (p<0.01. As for diseases which had existed before suicide, women suffered from the underlying psychic disorder in 65.3%, while 50.5% of men had both a psychic disorder and addiction problem. Hanging was the most frequently used method by both men and women (57.9% and 65.4%, respectively; and home was chosen as the place to commit suicide by 49.5% men and 42.3% women. Both men and women had a behaviour disorder before suicide, in 75.8% and 88.4% of the cases, respectively, (p<0.01. The dominating motive was a disease in 17.9% of men, whereas family problems prevailed in 11.5% of women (p<0.01. Conclusion. There is a statistically important difference between men and women considering pre-suicidal behaviour, suicidal motive and suicidal frequency.
Vaginal cuff dehiscence and evisceration are rare but serious complications of pelvic surgery, specifically hysterectomy. The data on risks of vaginal cuff dehiscence are variable and there is no consensus on how to manage this complication. In our review, we present a summary of the risk factors, presenting symptoms, precipitating events, and management options for patients who present with vaginal cuff dehiscence after pelvic surgery. In addition, we provide a review of the current literatu...
Cronin, Beth; Sung, Vivian W.; Matteson, Kristen A.
Preoperative identification of the risk factors for surgical site infection and patient risk stratification are essential for deciding whether surgery is appropriate, educating patients on their individual risk of complications, and managing postoperative expectations. Early identification of these factors is also necessary to help guide both patient medical optimization and perioperative care planning. Several resources are currently available to track and analyze healthcare-associated infections, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network. In addition, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons are exploring collaborative opportunities for the codevelopment of a hip and/or knee arthroplasty national quality measure for periprosthetic joint infection. PMID:25808971
Florschutz, Anthony V; Fagan, Ryan P; Matar, Wadih Y; Sawyer, Robert G; Berrios-Torres, Sandra I
Full Text Available Problem Statement: Abdominoplasty has become an increasingly popular procedure. Risk factors affecting wound complications of abdominoplasty are not adequately defined in literature. Identification of these risk factors is crucial for better patient?s selection and counseling. The objectives of this study were to determine wound complication rate following abdominoplasty and to examine the relationship of a set of possible risk factors with the incidence of complications. Approach: We studied 116 patients (107 women and 9 men who underwent abdominoplasty at Jordan University Hospital, between June 1997 and June 2007. Data were collected from patients? medical records and analyzed to determine types and rates of surgical wound complications. Fourteen possible risk factors were investigated using logistic regression analysis to evaluate their relationship with the occurrence of wound complications. Risk factors examined were: age, sex, body mass index, parity number, smoking history, history of diabetes mellitus, previous gastroplasty for morbid obesity, previous abdominal surgical scars, type of abdominoplasty, plication of recti, hernia repair, operative time and operative blood loss. Results: A total of 29 patients (two males and 27 females (25% had wound complications. The most common complication was seroma. It was encountered in 15 cases (12.9%. Six patients (5.2% had wound infection. Partial skin necrosis was encountered in four cases (3.4 %. Two patients (1.7% developed wound dehiscence and two patients (1.7% had hematoma. The only factors significantly increased the complication rate were: increased body mass index (p = 0.002 and history of smoking (p = 0.004. Conclusions and Recommendations: This study confirms the adverse effect of overweight and cigarette smoking on the incidence of wound complication rate following abdominoplasty. We recommend that overweight patients and smokers undergoing abdominoplasty should be adequately counseled and informed about the increased risks. In addition, prophylactic measures should be properly taken to decrease wound complication rate in these groups of patients.
Samir K. Jabaiti
Risk factors for male breast cancer were investigated in a case-control study of 21 cases and 82 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone-related diseases in the Greater Milan area between 1988 and 1994. More educated men tended to be at higher risk of breast cancer, with a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-9.4]. The OR was 3.2 (95% CI 1.1-9.6) for those in the higher social class. Men with no offspring were at higher risk than f...
D Avanzo, B.; La Vecchia, C.
Purpose: To determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on quality of life (QoL) after treatment in patients with head and neck carcinoma (HNC). Patients and Methods: The study population included 50 HNC patients seen in their control examinations after radiotherapy during a 2-month interval and who were willing to complete the Short-Form 36 QoL questionnaire. Socioeconomic, demographic, and tumor- and treatment-related factors were analyzed for their effect on physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: All patients received radiotherapy, and 33 patients (66%) underwent surgery for the primary tumor and/or neck disease. Chemotherapy was given in 9 patients (18%). Mean PCS and MCS were 47.9 (range, 24.8-59.3) and 46.7 (range, 22-63.3) for the whole patient population. There was no significant factor affecting PCS. Education level of 'middle school or higher,' perceived economic status of 'medium or higher,' social security status of not being 'absent or minimally covered,' and unilateral type of neck surgery were found to increase MCS significantly. According to separate linear regression analyses performed for three socioeconomic variables, the most significant factor for MCS was social security status compared with education level and perceived economic status. It was the only parameter that retained its significance when all five parameters were combined in a linear regression model. Concombined in a linear regression model. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that educational status, perceived economic status, and social security status showed a significant effect on the QoL of HNC patients after radiotherapy. When all variables were taken into account, only 'social security status' remained significant
Background Erysipelas is a common infection that often recurs, but the impact of specific risk factors for reoccurrence remains elusive. In the present study we aimed at clarifying predisposing conditions for reoccurrence. Methods Medical records were reviewed from all patients ?18 years of age diagnosed with erysipelas at the Department of Infectious Diseases at Skåne University Hospital, Sweden, from January 2007 to February 2011. 502 patients were included, of which 357 were single episode erysipelas and 145 had recurrent erysipelas. These two groups were compared regarding underlying conditions and clinical presentation. Results Erysipelas in the lower limbs had the greatest propensity of recurrence. The associations between underlying conditions and recurrence were largely depending on the site of erysipelas. Overall, the most prominent risk factor for recurrence was lymphedema and other conditions causing a chronic impairment of the defence against microbes. Conditions temporarily disrupting the skin barrier (e.g. a local wound or toe web intertrigo), although likely being risk factors for erysipelas per se, did not seem to predispose to repeated episodes. Individuals with recurrent erysipelas tended to seek medical attention earlier, and were less likely to be hospitalized or receive intravenous antibiotics, but there was no evidence of any difference in inflammatory reaction when taking confounding factors into account. Conclusions In this large cross-sectional study of over 500 patients with erysipelas, lymphedema was the most prominent risk factors for recurrence although the distribution of predisposing conditions varies depending on the site of erysipelas. PMID:24884840
OBJECTIVE--To determine the rate of pregnancy and outcome in teenagers in areas of different socioeconomic conditions, and to assess the implication for achievement of government and local targets in reducing unwanted pregnancies in teenagers. DESIGN--Records of pregnancies were obtained from hospital discharge files and rates of live and still births and abortions calculated for each postcode sector. Postcodes were grouped by categories of deprivation and by local government district. SETTIN...
Abstract Background Consumption of illegal drugs is a public health problem in Mexico, and the prison population is a vulnerable group with higher rates of prevalence than in the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the main socioeconomic variables associated with drug consumption in the prison population. Methods Utilizing data from the Second Incarcerated Population Survey carried out by the Centre of Research and Teaching of Economics (CIDE) in Mexico, a logisti...
Nevárez-Sida Armando; Constantino-Casas Patricia; Castro-Ríos Angélica
A higher mortality rate in areas with increased socioeconomic deprivation has been found in many studies. Results are difficult to compare, however, because different indicators of area deprivation have been used. USA-based studies mostly use income to measure area deprivation, whereas UK-based studies often use unemployment and occupational level, but never income. Little is known of the relative discriminatory power of these and other indicators. The aim of this study is to examine the rela...
Reijneveld, S. A.; Verheij, R. A.; Bakker, D. H.
Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.
Full Text Available A prevalência de infecções com helmintos Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale e Strongyloides stercoralis foi examinada em 632 pessoas em diferentes comunidades na Região de Esmeraldas no Equador. Estas comunidades foram divididas em dois grupos conforme a área na qual re [...] sidem, o que reflete diferentes circunstâncias sócio- econômicas. Intentou-se correlacionar os tiposde infecção com a raça e os grupos sanguíneos ABO. Nestes grupos raciais estão incluídos negros, ameríndios Chachi, e mestiços. Notou-se a prevalência de infecções nas áreas sócio-econômicasmais baixas. Não se encontrou nenhuma relação com a infecção helmíntica e raça ou grupo sanguíneo depois de controlar-se o status sócio- econômico. Abstract in english Prevalence of infection with the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis was examinedin 632 residents of communities in Esmeraldas province of Ecuador. These communities were divided into two groups according to area of hab [...] itation which reflected different socioeconomic circumstances. Attempts were made to correlate infection status with race and ABO blood group phenotype. The racial groups included blacks, Chachi amerindians, and mixed-race mestizos. Greater prevalences of infection were seen in the area oflower socioeconomic status. No racial or blood group associations with helminth infection were seen controlling for socioeconomic status.
Philip J., Cooper; Angel Guevara, E.; Ronald H., Guderian.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Methods A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Results: Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%, with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age Conclusion Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use.
de Souza Luiz
Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...
Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona
... know what causes bladder cancer? What are the risk factors for bladder cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your chance of getting ... disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. ...
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Background and Objectives: Economic adverse conditions are acknowledged as having a major impact on the exacerbation of mental disorders and suicides. The severity of current European crisis and the local unrelenting spending is affecting largely the economy of Greece. Methods: The aim of this study [...] was to explore changes in suicides and their possible association with macroeconomic and behavioural factors. Data for the period 1990-2011 were drawn mainly from the Hellenic Statistical Authority and Eurostat. Suicide mortality rates were correlated with economic and behavioural factors. Results: Suicide mortality rates were increased by 55.8% between 2007 and 2011 while the total mortality was increased by 1.1% only. Significantly increasing trends in public debt, unemployment rates, consumption of daily units of antidepressants as well as divorces per 1000, homicides per 100,000 and persons with HIV per 100,000 were also observed. Suicides have been found to bear strong correlation with unemployment (r. 0.64). Significant associations were also found between suicide mortality and the percentage of public debt as percentage of GDP, the incidence of infections from HIV and homicides. Conclusions: People suffering from income and job losses, living in a demoralized social state caused by severe austerity measures and restrictive health policies, are exposed to risks for developing depression or commit suicide.
Michael G., Madianos; Tatiana, Alexiou; Athanasios, Patelakis; Marina, Economou.
Bleeding from gastric varices (GVs) is generally considered more severe than that from esophageal varices (EVs) but occurs less frequently. We review the risk factors for bleeding EVs and GVs. GVs were divided into 2 groups: cardiac varices (CVs, Lg-c) and fundal varices (FVs), i.e., varices involving the fundus alone (Lg-f) or varices involving both the cardia and fundus (Lg-cf). Elevated pressure in the portal vein is a risk factor for bleeding EVs. The portal pressure in patients with GVs and a gastrorenal shunt is lower than that in patients with EVs. The large size of varices is a risk factor for bleeding EVs. Red color signs are elevated red areas that are important for predicting the risk of variceal bleeding, and red wale markings, dilated venules oriented longitudinally on the mucosal surface, have been considered to be the sign with the highest risk. Red color signs are rare in FVs, possibly because of the pronounced thickness of the mucosal layer. Bleeding EVs are not associated with use of antiulcer drugs or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Although, in patients with bleeding GVs, "occasional" use of an oral NSAID is an important step leading to variceal hemorrhage, especially from FVs, even if the mucosa is protected by antiulcer drugs. Constipation, vomiting, severe coughing, and excessive consumption of alcohol may precipitate rupture of EVs. PMID:23995567
Yoshida, Hiroshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Yoshioka, Masato; Hirakata, Atsushi; Kawano, Youichi; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Tetsuya; Ueda, Junji; Uchida, Eiji
Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…
Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather
Heat stress in cattle results in millions of dollars in lost revenue each year due to production losses, and in extreme cases, death. Death losses are more likely to result from the animals vulnerable to heat stress. A study was conducted to determine risk factors for heat stress in feedlot heifer...
Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…
Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa
The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…
MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.
Full Text Available Introduction. This study was aimed at investigating the vascular risk factors associated with the first stroke. It highlighted unfavorable trends in stroke mortality in the region gravitating towards the general hospital in Doboj. Material and Methods. The study included all patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of first stroke and their main vascular risk factors were explored, both in terms of their importance in the occurrence of stroke, and in terms of gender and age lines. The research results were statistically processed, analyzed and commented on. Results. The most common risk factor for the first stroke included hypertension (70%, smoking (35%, heart diseases (28%, diabetes mellitus (28%, hyperlipoproteinemia (26%, atrial fibrillation (18.5% and immoderate consumption of alcohol (17%. Conclusion. The presence of vascular risk factors in the majority of patients is important, and at least one of them was present in 80% of patients. Alcohol consumption, smoking and hyperlipoproteinemia were significantly more freqeunt in men, and atrial fibrillation was more frequent in women. Arterial hypertension, heart disease and diabetes mellitus were present in both sexes without a significant difference.
Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were defined: never smoking (in their lifetime), history of experimental smoking (ever tried but not within the last 30 days), and current smoking (at least 1 day during the last 30 days). Risk factors for experimentally starting and not continuing smoking were identified as gender, perceived health status, and friend-related stress. School type, academic performance, alcohol use, perception of harm of smoking, and close friends' smoking increased the risk of progressing from never smoking to the history of experimental smoking and current smoking. Our findings may be valuable in school health care settings in planning cessation programs. PMID:24051583
Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa
Background: Violence against children is a deep-rooted social problem in India. The problem is also related to economic as well as cultural beliefs and practices. The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and nature of violence experienced by the children in families in Tripura, India and its relationship with socio-economic factors. Methods: A group of 320 children (160 males and 160 females) studying in Class VIII and IX and aged between 14-19 participated in the study af...
Subhasis Modak; Sibnath Deb
Neoplasm of the cervix, especially squamous cell cancer, is one of the most common malignancy of female genital organs. It etiology is complex; however, human papilloma virus (mostly HPV type 18, 16 and 45) infection seems to be the most important one. Other risk factors include: early sexual initiation, multiple pregnancies and labors, concomitant infections (Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhea, HSV2 - herpes simplex virus) of the genital tract, AIDS, immunosuppressive therapy, smoking and low socioeconomic status. The incidence of cervical cancer is particularly high in developing countries, while in countries where government founding for the prevention and health education is high, the diseases is significantly less likely to occur. The incidence and mortality rate of the cervical cancer can be substantially reduced by systematic screening cytological examinations. For such reason a liquid-based cytology is currently preferred. Implementation of HPV vaccines decrease the risk of infection, but effect on rate of the cervical cancer has to be confirmed in long-time prospective clinical and epidemiological studies. PMID:23009008
Mocarska, Agnieszka; Staros?awska, Elzbieta; Zelazowska-Cie?li?ska, Iwonna; ?osicki, Marek; Stasiewicz, Dominika; Kieszko, Dariusz; Burdan, Franciszek
Food insecurity (FI) is associated with higher-risk sexual behavior in some studies. However, the overlap between FI and socioeconomic status (SES) has been poorly described. The study objectives were to: (1) determine the relationship between household FI and four dimensions of SES among sexually active Tanzanian women in farming households: expenditures, assets, flooring material of the home, and land ownership; and (2) determine whether FI is associated with higher-risk sexual behavior and relationship power. In male-headed households, FI was associated with assets, flooring material, and land ownership but not expenditures. There was no association between FI and the four dimensions of SES in female-headed households. Among women in male-headed households, but not female household heads themselves, severe FI was associated with a non-significant increase in the likelihood of being in a relationship because of material goods [adjusted prevalence ratio (PRa) = 1.76, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.81, 3.81] and was inversely associated with being able to ask partners to use condoms (PRa = 0.47, 95 % CI 0.25, 0.88). There was not a strong association between food security and relationship power. Our findings suggest that the association between FI and HIV risk behavior may differ depending on the type of household. PMID:24097335
McCoy, Sandra I; Ralph, Lauren J; Njau, Prosper F; Msolla, Mbette Mshindo; Padian, Nancy S
Full Text Available Introducción: La situación socioeconómica puede afectar indirectamente las cifras de obesidad. Este trabajo recoge hábitos alimenticios, actividad física y sedentarismo y su relación con el nivel socioeconómico familiar en población infantojuvenil española. Diseño: Estudio transversal de base poblac [...] ional en escolares de 3-16 años. Métodos: Encuesta de hábitos alimentarios, actividad física y sedentarismo con mediciones antropométricas directas. Se consideró actividad física adecuada si alcanzaba > 5METs (equivalentes metabólicos) durante 60 min/día, y sedentarismo 120 min/día de actividades sedentarias. Utilizamos los criterios de obesidad del estudio ENKid. Se confeccionó un indicador del "nivel socioeconómico de la familia" (FSEL) con el nivel de estudios, categoría profesional y situación laboral de ambos padres. Resultados: Se estudiaron 1.620 niños. El 59,5% cumplían las recomendaciones de actividad física. En los niños es mayor la actividad física en el cuartil superior de FSEL, aumentando en las niñas con la edad y el sobrepeso. El 57,7% de varones y el 48,1% de niñas eran sedentarios, disminuyendo en familias con mayores FSEL. El cuartil superior de FSEL se asoció con hábitos alimenticios saludables: desayunos, 5 comidas y menor picoteo. El FSEL se asoció al consumo de cereales, lácteos y frutas, pero no al de verduras, carne o pescado. Obtuvimos mayor riesgo de sobrepeso en niñas > 6 años, FSEL bajos, sedentarismo, picoteos y menores ingestas proteicas. Discusión: El nivel socioeconómico familiar parece condicionar actividad física, sedentarismo y alimentación infantil. La elaboración de un indicador simple del FSEL familiar puede ser útil para el estudio de factores que intervienen en la obesidad infantil. Abstract in english Introduction: Socioeconomical status may indirectly affect the obesity prevalence. This study gathers together dietary behaviour, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle in relation to the family socioeconomic status in a sample of Spanish children. Design: Population-based cross-sectional study o [...] f 3-16 years children. Methods: Questionnaires about dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyles, and direct anthropometric measures. Criteria of physical activity recommended was > 5METs (metabolic equivalence) during 60 min/day, and sedentary lifestyle as 120 min/day of sedentary activities, using obesity criteria from the ENKID study. We derived a single "family socioeconomic level" indicator (FSEL) from the level of studies, professional category and work situation of both parents. Results: 1620 children were studied. 59.5% met the physical activity recommendations. Boys with the higher FSEL quartile tend to do more physical activity. In girls, physical activity increases with the age and degree of overweight. 57.7% of boys and 48.1% of girls were found to be sedentary, with a lower rate in families with higher FSEL. Higher FSEL quartile was related to healthy dietary habits such as having breakfast, 5 meals per day and less snacking. The FSEL was related also to the consumption of whole grains, dairy products and fruits, but not to vegetables, meat or fish. The greatest risk of excess weight was found in girls > 6 years old, with a low FSEL, sedentary habits, that snack frequently and eat few proteins. Discussion: Family socioeconomic status seems to determine the level of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and dietary behavior. The elaboration of a simple socioeconomic indicator may be useful to study factors involved in child obesity.
Villagran Pérez, Sergio; José Pedro, Novalbos-Ruiz; Amelia, Rodríguez-Martín; José Manuel, Martínez-Nieto; Alfonso María, Lechuga-Sancho.
Full Text Available This study analyzes the socio-economic factors that influence people’s decision to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana. Using a well structured interview schedule, a random sample of 98 people from Elmina in the central region of Ghana was selected for the study. Results from the descriptive statistics analysis of respondents identified fishing as a family business, minimum skills requirement and ready market for fish demand as factors that motivated majority of the people into fishing. Lack of storage facilities, access to credit, lack of government assistance and unpredictable changes in weather conditions on sea were the main constraints to fishing activities. Results from the logistic regression model indicated that household size and access to credit were significant factors that positively influenced people’s decision to become fishermen. The regression analysis further revealed that engaging in other income generating activity and being educated significantly reduces the probability to start fishing business.
Acquah Henry D.
Ejection greatly increases the risk of injury and fatality in a rollover crash. The purpose of this study was to determine the crash, vehicle, and occupant characteristics that affect the risk of ejection in rollovers. Information from real world rollover crashes occurring from 2000 – 2010 was obtained from the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) in order to analyze the effect of the following parameters on ejection risk: seatbelt use, rollover severity, vehicle type, seating position, roof crush, side curtain airbag deployment, glazing type, and occupant age, gender, and size. Seatbelt use was found to reduce the risk of partial ejection and virtually eliminate the risk of complete ejection. For belted occupants, the risk of partial ejection risk was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, light trucks and vans (LTVs), and larger occupants. For unbelted occupants, the risk of complete ejection was significantly increased in rollover crashes involving more roof inversions, LTVs, far side occupants, and higher levels of roof crush. Roof crush was not a significant predictor of ejection after normalizing for rollover severity. Curtain airbag deployment was associated with reduced rates of partial and complete ejection, but the effect was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small sample size (n = 89 raw cases with curtain deployments). A much greater proportion of occupants who were ejected in spite of curtain airbag deployment passed through the sunroof and other portals as opposed to the adjacent side window compared to occupants who were ejected in rollovers without a curtain airbag deployment. The primary factors that reduce ejection risk in rollover crashes are, in generally decreasing order of importance: seatbelt use, fewer roof inversions, passenger car body type, curtain airbag deployment, near side seating position, and small occupant size. PMID:23169130
Funk, James R.; Cormier, Joseph M.; Bain, Charles E.; Wirth, Jeffrey L.; Bonugli, Enrique B.; Watson, Richard A.
Full Text Available In 2005, the cause for almost 60.0% of the deaths in the world is chronic diseases. In the word each year, due to die 5.1 million people from tobacco use, 3.2 million people from physical inactivity, 2.8 million people from overweight or obesity, and 2.7 million people from inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables. The relationships between environmental, socio-economic, cultural and individual characteristics of the risk factors were multi-dimensional and complex. Today, socio-economic burden of disease and risk factors they bring to society are calculated and determined according to this policy. According to World Health Organization (WHO Global Health Risks report, tobacco use, being overweight or obese, insufficient physical activity, alcohol consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption were responsible one-third of deaths (34.4%, and 19.3% (excluded inadequate e fruits and vegetables consumption of the burden of DALYs in middle-income countries. According to Turkey the National Burden of Disease (NBD and WHO is preparing the Global Burden of Disease 2005, which is fundamental in the prevention of chronic diseases is life style risks that can be prevented, controlled, and changed. According to the NBD 2004 study, 79% of deaths were due to non-communicable diseases in our country. The primary risk factor for DALY is high blood pressure, and following 6 risk factors were related to behavior in our country. Smoking, being overweight or obese, alcohol consumption, insufficient fruits and vegetables consumption, inactive life, and high dietary fat and salt intake which are considered to be significant risk factors for chronic diseases are lifestyle behaviors. When adults visited to health facilities for any reason, their risky behavior can be evaluated. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 735-740
Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.
Connell, Paul P
Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?
Introduction Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. Results The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Conclusions Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender, discerning between real and perceived experiences of discrimination and considering potentially moderating factors such as coping strategy and internalization of racial stereotypes are important issues to address in future Canadian racial inequalities research of this kind. PMID:23061401
Full Text Available Aims: We looked for the factors which can be adjust in order to reduce the frequency and severity of diabetic retinopathy in Maramure? County, Romania. Methods: We done a cross-sectional study of 1269 persons with diabetes mellitus registered in the healthcare system in Maramure?. The signs of diabetic retinopathy were ascertained from retinal digital photographs. We analyzed different parameters: demographics (age, gender, smoking status, alcohol use, living areas, socioeconomic status; physical measurements (body mass index BMI, abdominal circumference; laboratory measurements (glycemic control, lipid profile, the degree of proteinuria diabetes characteristics (duration, type, other complications and characteristics of comorbid diseases.Results: The total number of patients with retinopathy was 246. From these 94 (38.2% have mild non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR 78 (31.7% have moderate NPDR, 52 (21.1% have severe NPDR and 22 (9.0% have proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR. Among our patients 3.2% had maculopathy (0.6% mild, 0.6% moderate and 2.0% severe. The risk factors associated with severity of retinopahy were: diabetes duration (p=0.000, HbA1c (p=0.005, presence of nephropathy (p=0.004, presence of polineuropathy (p=0.002. Risk factors associated with severity of maculopathy was presence of nephropathy (p=0.000.Conclusions: A positive correlation between diabetes duration and diabetes control and severity of retinopathy was found. Severity of retinopathy was higher in the presence of nephropathy and polineuropathy. Severity of maculopathy was higher in the presence of nefropathy.
Objective We investigated the role of state-level differences in modifiable cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in contributing to state disparities in cardiovascular mortality rates in the US. Methods Adults aged 45–74 in 2010 were examined. We constructed a CV risk index summarizing state-level exposure to current smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol abstinence, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and diabetes using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Outcomes were cardiovascular, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality. Linear regression was used to estimate associations between the CV risk index and mortality outcomes. Models accounted for state-level socioeconomic characteristics and other potential confounders. Results Risk factors were highly correlated at the state-level (Cronbach's alpha 0.85 (men) and 0.92 (women). Each +1SD difference in the cardiovascular risk index was associated with higher adjusted cardiovascular mortality rates by 41.0 (95%CI?=?26.3, 55.7) and 33.3 (95%CI?=?24.4, 42.2) deaths per 100,000 for men and women, respectively. The index accounted for 8% (men) and 11% (women) of the variation in state-level cardiovascular mortality. Comparable associations were also observed for coronary heart disease and stroke mortality. Conclusions CV risk factors were highly correlated at the state-level and were independently associated with state CV mortality, suggesting the utility of generalized CV risk reduction. PMID:25003975
Patel, Shivani A.; Narayan, K. M. Venkat; Ali, Mohammed K.; Mehta, Neil K.
Background Complementary strategies to shift risk factor population distributions and target high-risk individuals are required to reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine secular changes in glucose and CVD risk factors over 20 years during an individual and population-based CVD prevention program in Västerbotten County, Sweden. Methods Population-based health promotion intervention was conducted and annual invitation for individuals turning 40, 50, and 60 years to attend a health assessment, including an oral glucose tolerance test, biochemical measures, and a questionnaire. Data were collected between 1991 and 2010, analyzed in 2012 and available for 120,929 individuals. Linear regression modeling examined age-adjusted differences in CVD risk factor means over time. Data were direct-age-standardized to compare disease prevalence. Results Between 1991–1995 and 2006–2010, mean age-adjusted cholesterol (men=?0.53, 95% CI=?0.55, ?0.50 mmol/L; women=?0.48, 95% CI=?0.50, ?0.45 mmol/L) and systolic blood pressure declined (men=?3.06, 95% CI=?3.43, ?2.70 mm Hg; women=?5.27, 95% CI=?5.64, ?4.90 mm Hg), with corresponding decreases in the age-standardized prevalence of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Mean age-adjusted 2-hour plasma glucose (men=0.19, 95% CI=0.15, 0.23 mmol/L; women=0.08, 95% CI=0.04, 0.11 mmol/L) and BMI increased (men=1.12, 95% CI=1.04, 1.21; women=0.65, 95% CI=0.55, 0.75), with increases in the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes and obesity. Conclusions These data demonstrate the potential of combined individual- and population-based approaches to CVD risk factor control and highlight the need for additional strategies addressing hyperglycemia and obesity. PMID:24439344
Long, Gráinne H.; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Norberg, Margareta; Wennberg, Patrik; Lindahl, Bernt; Rolandsson, Olov; Griffin, Simon J.; Weinehall, Lars
Portopulmonary hypertension affects up to 6% of patients with advanced liver disease, but the predictors and biologic mechanism for the development of this complication are unknown. We sought to determine the clinical risk factors for portopulmonary hypertension in patients with advanced liver disease. We performed a multicenter case-control study nested within a prospective cohort of patients with portal hypertension recruited from tertiary care centers. Cases had a mean pulmonary artery pressure >25 mm Hg, pulmonary vascular resistance >240 dynes · second · cm?5, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ? 15 mm Hg. Controls had a right ventricular systolic pressure < 40 mm Hg (if estimable) and normal right-sided cardiac morphology by transthoracic echocardiography. The study sample included 34 cases and 141 controls. Female sex was associated with a higher risk of portopulmonary hypertension than male sex (adjusted odds ratio =2.90, 95% confidence interval 1.20-7.01, P = 0.018). Autoimmune hepatitis was associated with an increased risk (adjusted odds ratio = 4.02, 95% confidence interval 1.14-14.23, P = 0.031), and hepatitis C infection was associated with a decreased risk (adjusted odds ratio =0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.65, P =0.005) of portopulmonary hypertension. The severity of liver disease was not related to the risk of portopulmonary hypertension. Conclusion Female sex and autoimmune hepatitis were associated with an increased risk of portopulmonary hypertension, whereas hepatitis C infection was associated with a decreased risk in patients with advanced liver disease. Hormonal and immunologic factors may therefore be integral to the development of portopulmonary hypertension. PMID:18537192
Kawut, Steven M.; Krowka, Michael J.; Trotter, James F.; Roberts, Kari E.; Benza, Raymond L.; Badesch, David B.; Taichman, Darren B.; Horn, Evelyn M.; Zacks, Steven; Kaplowitz, Neil; Brown, Robert S.; Fallon, Michael B.
The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to assess the association between certain perinatal factors and the risk of childhood lymphatic and myeloid leukemia and infant leukemia. The five studies presented were all conducted in Sweden as population-based case-control studies. All cases were born and diagnosed between 1973-89 with leukemia up to the age of 16 years. A control was individually matched to each case. As Down’s syndrome entails a major risk for childhood leukemia, ch...
Full Text Available To assess the prevalence of selected risk factors for chronic disease and the association of these risk factors with sociodemographic variables, a cross sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of adults aged 40 years or more in the district of Shimoga. A sample of 992 subjects was selected from all the blocks of the district using the World Health Organizations STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. The study participants blood pressure was measured; their body mass index calculated and collected information on self-reported smoking status. The extent to which, being overweight, hypertension, smoking and various combinations of these risk factors were associated with the study participants education level, occupational category and economic status was measured. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 14 and multivariate logistic regression model to note the associations between the outcome variables and select demographic variables. Mean blood pressure levels were higher among men than among women and increased progressively with age. Sixty three percent of men were current smokers and 58% were current daily smokers; less than 1% of women smoked. Mean body mass index was 19.6 among men and 19.9 among women and only 3.5% of the population was overweight. Education level was inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertension among both men and women and with the prevalence of smoking among men. Hypertension was directly associated with socioeconomic status among men but inversely associated with socioeconomic status among women. India is experiencing an increase in the prevalence of many risk factors for chronic diseases and is in urgent need of interventions to reduce the prevalence of these risk factors and to deal with the chronic diseases to which they contribute.
Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent stroke is defined as a new cerebrovascular event which occurs after the stabilization of the previous stroke. Recurrence of stroke increases likelihood of disability-mortality associated with stroke. Systematic evaluation of stroke cases can help to reduce the risk of recurrence. Objective: In order to predict strokes which carry the risk of recurrence, we aimed to compare data related to risk factors, stroke type, etiology and disability-mortality rates associated with stroke. Material And Method: Patients with stroke who referred to Bak?rkoy Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases Training and Research State Hospital between June 1, 2002 and February 28, 2003 were recorded into the stroke database in a consecutive and prospective manner. Strokes were classified as ischemic/hemorrhagic and first/recurrent. For recurrent strokes, information about previous strokes was also recorded. Risk factors were classified as hypertension (HT, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation (AF, coronary artery disease (CAD, migraine, transient ischemic accident (TIA, family history of cerebrovascular accident (CVA, oral contraceptive use, PAD, congestive heart failure (CHF, other heart diseases, smoking cigarette and alcohol consumption. Disability-mortality rates associated with stroke were evaluated. All data were compared for first and recurrent strokes. Results: In our study, 631 patients were evaluated, 52.3% of whom were female and 47.7% male. Frequency of stroke was statistically high (p<0.001 in females over 70 years old. Recurrent strokes were of the same type. For the first and recurrent strokes, HT was the highest risk factor. AF frequency increased with age (p<0.001. The rate of disability-mortality was found high in strokes of undetermined and cardioembolic origin. Conclusion: Knowledge of etiologic group can help to predict recurrence of stroke and prevent death. We think that effective treatment of modifiable risk factors identified in stroke groups where recurrence is the highest, and prioritising the investigation of cardioembolic risk factors in elderly women are significant in terms of primary and secondary stroke prevention.
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women.
Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M. [Nijmegen, Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Epidemiology
The assessment of flood risk in urban areas is considered nowadays a crucial issue to be addressed by technicians and public authorities and requires the estimation of hazard, vulnerability and exposure. Each step of the risk assessment brings its uncertainties to the final result, thus the analysis of the sensitivity to the different contributors is required. Since the damages are generally evaluated through stage-damage functions one of the most important contribution is the estimated value of the water depth. Water depth is the outcome of hydraulic models that can be implemented with different modeling approaches and levels of spatial detail, thus providing flood depth maps that may differ in the extension of the inundated area and in the flood depth value. It is generally argued that 2D models are the most suitable to describe flood behavior in the urban environment although most of applications are carried out in small and sparse urban areas. In the historic cities a 2D model provides reliable results if the grid size is small enough to describe the street/building pattern, implying long simulation runs. Another contribution is given by monetary values assigned to the damage categories that may come from different proxy variables and may oscillate according to the real estate quotations. The risk assessment here presented is made possible thanks to a methodology based on the open data, both socio-economic and territorial, that are available in the web. In this work the risk assessment procedure and the sensitivity analysis are applied to the main cities located along the Arno river, Pisa and Florence (Italy) that are usually considered of broad interest for the importance of urban and cultural heritage. The risk is estimated accounting for structures, household contents, commercial and tertiary sectors which are the most representative of the studied areas. The evaluation and mapping of micro-scale flood risk is carried out in a GIS environment using open data aggregated to the census polygons. It results that, for a flood event of similar magnitude as the one of 1966, the flood risk analysis for the city of Florence estimates a total damage of about 6 billion euros without considering the damage to cultural heritage. This value is larger than the annual income of the whole municipality. The average flood risk per unit surface of territory (m2) is about 10 â¬/year for the historic centre in Florence and 4 â¬/year for Pisa. A discussion of the sensitivity analysis is also presented.
Arrighi, Chiara; Castelli, Fabio; Brugioni, Marcello; Franceschini, Serena; Mazzanti, Bernardo
The report includes a review of the current state-of-the-art of dry-cooling technology for industrial and power-generating facilities and an evaluation of its technical potential and cost for large nuclear power plants. Criteria are formulated for coarse screening of the arid regions of the Western United States to select a surrogate site for more detailed site-specific analyses. The screening criteria included seismic considerations, existing transportation facilities, institutional and jurisdictional constraints, waste heat dissipation effects, water requirements, and ecologic and socioeconomic considerations. The Galt site near Las Vegas, Nevada was selected for the surrogate site analysis to assess important issues related to the construction and operation of twelve dry-cooled nuclear power plants at an arid location remote from major load centers. The assessment covers geotechnical, atmospheric and hydrologic considerations, special aspects of transporting large equipment overland to the site from seaports, analyses of potential transmission routes to major load centers, local institutional and taxing provisions, and ecologic and socioeconomic impacts.
The report includes a review of the current state-of-the-art of dry-cooling technology for industrial and power-generating facilities and an evaluation of its technical potential and cost for large nuclear power plants. Criteria are formulated for coarse screening of the arid regions of the Western United States to select a surrogate site for more detailed site-specific analyses. The screening criteria included seismic considerations, existing transportation facilities, institutional and jurisdictional constraints, waste heat dissipation effects, water requirements, and ecologic and socioeconomic considerations. The Galt site near Las Vegas, Nevada was selected for the surrogate site analysis to assess important issues related to the construction and operation of twelve dry-cooled nuclear power plants at an arid location remote from major load centers. The assessment covers geotechnical, atmospheric and hydrologic considerations, special aspects of transporting large equipment overland to the site from seaports, analyses of potential transmission routes to major load centers, local institutional and taxing provisions, and ecologic and socioeconomic impacts
CKD is a national public health problem that afflicts persons of all segments of society. Although racial/ethnic disparities in advanced CKD including dialysis-dependent populations have been well established, the finding of differences in CKD incidence, prevalence, and progression across different socioeconomic groups and racial and ethnic strata has only recently started to receive significant attention. Socioeconomics may exert both interdependent and independent effects on CKD and its complications and may confound racial and ethnic disparities. Socioeconomic constellations influence not only access to quality care for CKD risk factors and CKD treatment but may mediate many of the cultural and environmental determinants of health that are becoming more widely recognized as affecting complex medical disorders. In this article, we have reviewed the available literature pertaining to the role of socioeconomic status and economic factors in both non-dialysis-dependent CKD and ESRD. Advancing our understanding of the role of socioeconomic factors in patients with or at risk for CKD can lead to improved strategies for disease prevention and management. PMID:25573507
Nicholas, Susanne B; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Norris, Keith C
Objectives: There is uncertainty about whether position in a socioeconomic hierarchy confers different mortality risks on men and women. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of gender differences in socioeconomic inequality in risk of death.
Mustard, C.; Etches, J.
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and associated socio-economic, behavioral and dietary factors in female university students from a public university in Florianopolis, SC. Body image was assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34) in a sample of 220 students. Nutritional status was investigated by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage (%BF). Socio-economic characteristics (age, monthly household income, and parental schooling) as well as energy intake and going on restrictive diets were also investigated. Factors associated with dissatisfaction with body image were analyzed by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 47.3% (95% CI 40.7; 53.9). Nutritional status by BMI and going on a diet to lose weight were the variables associated with body dissatisfaction. Results showed a high prevalence of indicators of rejection of their physical fitness among university students, which signals toward the need for nutritional education actions at universities in order to clarify and prevent abnormal eating attitudes among students. PMID:21180855
Costa, Larissa da Cunha Feio; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes
... causes acute myeloid leukemia? What are the risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects your ... to the cancer. There are some known risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Smoking The only proven lifestyle-related risk ...
This report summarizes progress to date in understanding the issue of risk perception and its implications for the suitability of the Hanford Site in eastern Washington as a location for an underground radioactive waste repository. It presents some observations about the causes, consequences and processes of risk perception gained from a review of the professional literature. It also contains an extensive working bibliography of useful reference materials, and a compilation of abstracts from selected articles that are felt to be of particular relevance to the BWIP licensing and institutional support efforts. 293 refs
Abstract Background The prevalence of hypertension is increasing in much of the South Asian region, including Nepal. This paper reports the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension and pre-hypertension among adult women in a rural community of Nepal. Methods Cross-sectional data on socioeconomic status (SES), lifestyle factors and blood pressure (BP) were collected from a cohort of 15,934 women in rural Nepal in 2006–08. Among a subsample (n?=?1679), anthropometry and biomarkers of c...
Khan Rumana J; Stewart Christine P; Christian Parul; Schulze Kerry J; Wu Lee; LeClerq Steven C; Khatry Subarna K; West Keith P
Abstract Purpose: This study was conducted in an attempt to identify the regional, geographic, climatic, socioeconomic, and other risk factors for microbial keratitis in south Nile Delta, Egypt. Methods: This is a prospective cross-sectional study that was carried out on 340 eyes of 340 patients with microbial keratitis attending at the outpatient clinic of Ophthalmology Department of Menoufia University Hospital during a period of three years between March 2010 and March 2013. Results: Epidemiological factors, lines of management, and follow-up results were recorded and statistically analyzed and there were regional variations in the prevalence, risk factors, and outcome in resistant corneal ulcers. Conclusion: Higher incidence of affections and complications has appeared in farmers, rural area residents, and illiterates which are considered the main predisposing factors for ulcer resistance. According to culture results, bacterial organisms (especially Staphylococcus aureus) were the main cause of resistant corneal ulcers. PMID:25398124
Mandour, Sameh S; Marey, Hatem M; Farahat, Hassan G
Full Text Available Hypertensive Diseases in Pregnancy (HDP are one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The cause of preeclampsia-eclampsia remains unknown and risk factors for the development of preeclampsia are less well defined. We conducted a case-control study on pregnant women presenting to Tabriz Al-Zahra and Taleghani hospitals from August 2003 to August, 2004. Patients were studied in 2 groups of cases (64 and controls (64. Maternal age and BMI in case group was significantly higher than control group. The difference of education, gravidity, smoking and history of abortion between case and control groups was not significant. Preeclampsia history and inadequate prenatal care in case group were significantly high. The difference of previous SGA newborn, birth interval and same paternity between case and control groups was not significant. Preeclampsia risk factors in multigravida women include: High maternal age and BMI, history of preeclampsia, positive past medical history and inadequate prenatal care.
Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is considered the most common form of male sexual dysfunction, and the prevalence of PE complaints range from 20% to 40% among sexually active men. Acquired PE, which occurs due to an underlying organic and/or psychological cause, may be a treatable condition. Recent evidence has suggested that certain medical conditions such as hyperthyroidism may cause PE. In addition to hyperthyroidism, the literature has also revealed several urologic risk factors that may predispose a man to acquired PE; these include erectile dysfunction, prostatic diseases and chronic pelvic pain syndrome, varicocele, monosymptomatic enuresis and circumcision. This review aims to provide a systematic analysis of the literature regarding these urological risk factors of acquired PE.
Full Text Available Several theoretical models have been occasionally proposed to account for the involvement of psychological factors in cancer genesis. Family environment and relations as well as certain personality traits were correlated to cancer onset. However, little is known in the case of acute leukemia. The present study examined family environment, state-trait anxiety, hostility and the direction of hostility as well as alexithymia in 41 acute leukemia patients and their first degree relatives (70. In accordance with previous findings, the present results showed that family cohesion, conflict and organization as well as guilt, state anxiety and alexithymia were significant risk factors for the development of the disease.
Full Text Available This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%. Ten patients (5.1% were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6% with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47 and < 18 (OR = 2.95 years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67, used drugs (OR = 1.53 and had an infection (OR = 1.87 during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68 and fathers (OR = 1.74 were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias.
Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In pa...
Tarlan B; Kiratli H
This study was undertaken to identify demographic, clinical, and social risk factors for early readmission in the veteran population. Readmissions within 30 days of discharge were considered "early." A randomly selected 50 percent sample of 6,317 veterans discharged consecutively from one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center (VAMC) was used to build a logistic regression model for early readmission. Of these patients, 22 percent had early readmissions. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) o...
Holloway, J. J.; Medendorp, S. V.; Bromberg, J.
Portopulmonary hypertension affects up to 6% of patients with advanced liver disease, but the predictors and biologic mechanism for the development of this complication are unknown. We sought to determine the clinical risk factors for portopulmonary hypertension in patients with advanced liver disease. We performed a multicenter case-control study nested within a prospective cohort of patients with portal hypertension recruited from tertiary care centers. Cases had a mean pulmonary artery pre...
Kawut, Steven M.; Krowka, Michael J.; Trotter, James F.; Roberts, Kari E.; Benza, Raymond L.; Badesch, David B.; Taichman, Darren B.; Horn, Evelyn M.; Zacks, Steven; Kaplowitz, Neil; Brown, Robert S.; Fallon, Michael B.
Background: The role of wildlife as a brucellosis reservoir for humans and domestic livestock remains to be properly established. The aim of this work was to determine the aetiology, apparent prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for brucellosis transmission in several Iberian wild ungulates. Methods: A multi-species indirect immunosorbent assay (iELISA) using Brucella S-LPS antigen was developed. In several regions having brucellosis in livestock, individual serum samples were ta...
Mun?oz Alvaro, Pilar Mari?a; Boadella, Mariana; Arnal Barrera, Maricruz; Miguel Lo?pez, Mari?a Jesu?s; Revilla Calavia, Miguel; Marti?nez, David; Vicente Ban?os, Joaqui?n; Acevero Lavandera, Pelayo; Oleaga Ruiz Escudero, Alvaro; Ruiz Fons, Jose? Francisco; Mari?n Alcala?, Clara Mari?a; Prieto Marti?n, Jose? Miguel; Fuente Garci?a, Jose? Jesu?s La; Barral, Marta; Barbera?n Pelegri?n, Montserrat
Lupus anticoagulant, concentrations of anticardiolipin antibodies, antithrombin III, plasminogen, (free) protein S, protein C, prothrombin, platelet counts, and bleeding times were determined in 74 lupus patients (58 with systemic lupus erythematosus; 16 with lupus-like disease) to establish the presence of risk factors for thrombosis in these patients. Of the variables evaluated, lupus anticoagulant had the strongest association with a history of thrombosis. Both positive anticardiolipin ant...
Hasselaar, P.; Derksen, R. H.; Blokzijl, L.; Hessing, M.; Nieuwenhuis, H. K.; Bouma, B. N.; Groot, P. G.
The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy.
Postolache, Teodor T.; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H.
Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionConnection of socioeconomic status measures (such as income and education and parental addiction to childhood leukemia are likely to vary with place and time. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between socioeconomic status and childhood leukemia.Materials and Methodsa case- control study conducted on 86 case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia age 0-14 years in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd and matched on age and sex to 188 healthy controls. Data was collected by interview using a questionnaire.Data analyzed by chi-square test. Odds ratio (Ors and 95% confidence intervals were used to measure the risk of childhood A.L.L associated with parental smoking, alcohol drinking & addiction.ResultsThere was a significant difference in parental education level (P-value=0, P-value=0.001, income status (P-value =0.001, father's job (0.002 between two groups. The risk of childhood A.L.L was associated with paternal smoking (P-value =0.001, OR=2.6, CI 95%, 1.5-4.5, alcohol drinking (P-value=0.003, OR=3.33, CI 95%, 2.7-3.9, addiction (P-value =0, OR=42.7, CI95%, 5.56-328.34.ConclusionThe results suggest that socioeconomic factors and paternal smoking and alcohol drinking are related to risk of childhood leukemia. It should be considered for planning support.
The relation between various risk factors and adenocarcinoma of the lung was evaluated in a case-control study. Subjects were selected from the Colorado Central Cancer Registry from 1979-1982 in the Denver metropolitan area. A total of 102 (50 males and 52 females) adenocarcinoma case interviews and 131 (65 males and 66 females) control interviews were completed. The control group consisted of persons with cancers of the colon and bone marrow. The risk estimates associated with cigarette smoking were significantly elevated among males (odds ratio (OR) = 4.49) and females (OR = 3.95) and were found to increase significantly (p less than 0.01) with increasing levels of cigarette smoking for both males and females. For adenocarcinoma in females, the age- and smoking-adjusted odds ratios at different levels of passive smoke exposure followed an increasing overall trend (p = 0.05). After additional adjustment for potential confounders, prior cigarette use remained the most significant predictor of risk of adenocarcinoma among males and females. Analysis restricted to nonsmoking females revealed a risk of adenocarcinoma of 1.68 (95% confidence interval (Cl) = 0.39-2.97) for passive smoke exposure of four or more hours per day. Neither sex showed significantly elevated risk for occupational exposures, although males bordered on significance (OR = 2.23, 95% Cl = 0.97-5.12). The results suggest the need to develop cell type-specific etiologic hypotheses.
Brownson, R.C.; Reif, J.S.; Keefe, T.J.; Ferguson, S.W.; Pritzl, J.A.
Anaemia is one of the major public health problems affecting more than half of school children along the coast in Tanzania. Due to the multiplicity of its causes it sometimes becomes difficult to find appropriate intervention measures. In order to assist schools in implementing appropriate public health measures for anaemia in Tanga Region of Tanzania risk factors were investigated in school children. A total of 845 schoolchildren age 7-14 years were randomly selected in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 20 randomly selected schools for inclusion in the investigations. Socio-economic, environmental and biological data were collected, as well as academic information, health care and feeding practices. Diagnosis of anaemia was based on haemoglobin concentration below 115 g/L determined by HemoCue meter. Serum Retinol was determined by High performance liquid chromatography and serum ferritin by an Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Urine from each child was tested for blood using a haematest reagent strip and those testing positive were examined microscopically by filtration method for Schistosoma haematobium ova. A faecal sample collected from them was also examined microscopically for ova and larvae of intestinal worms. To analyse variables associated with anaemia a stepwise multiple regression model was used. The prevalence of anaemia was 79.6%. Micronutrient deficiencies were highly prevalent. Iron deficiency (SF affecting 33%, vitamin A deficiency (SR 50% of children. About 10% of households had no latrines and multiple infection rank score was high especially in older age children. The risk of having anaemia was two times higher in children with iron deficiency (RR=2.1) and 49% higher in those with vitamin A deficiency. These deficiencies correlated significantly with the anaemia (Pfactors predicting for anaemia (r=0.318 and r2=0.101). We therefore conclude that high prevalence of infections and nutritional deficiencies are important risk factors for anaemia in this community. The high attributable fractions for hookworm, schistosomiasis, iron deficiency and vitamin A confirms that these are significant risk factors to be considered when designing public health measures for anaemia prevention in this community. PMID:19402580
Tatala, S R; Kihamia, C M; Kyungu, L H; Svanberg, U
The vascular hypothesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), first proposed by us in 1993, provides substantial evidence that suggests vascular risk factors (VRF) play a critical role in the development of cognitive decline and AD during aging. Cardiovascular and carotid artery disease, two major risk factors to AD, can conspire or independently induce chronic brain hypoperfusion (CBH) decades before any symptoms of cognitive impairment are expressed. The pathologic construct linking CBH to cognitive impairment and AD remains unclear but evidence shows that it may provide an opportunity to intervene in the prevention or delay of dementia onset. A preliminary randomized clinical study in cognitively healthy middle age individuals to undergo screening using carotid Doppler ultrasound, echocardiography and ankle-brachial index is proposed. These office tools are non-invasive, cost-effective, easily applied in one session and relatively accurate procedures with no inherent harmful effects. More importantly, ultrasound can help identify asymptomatic patients most likely to develop progressive cognitive decline due to persistent CBH secondary to progressive cardiovascular or carotid artery pathology. When these VRF are detected within the heart or carotid arteries, optimal medical treatment or management may be indicated to prevent or slow down further disease progression that fosters cognitive deterioration generated from such conditions. Secondary screening tools such as neuroimaging, neurocognitive testing and CSF markers may be used to confirm ultrasound findings. Prevention-by-detection of VRF and target treatment, if found effective, could significantly promote healthier mental and physical aging and lessen the socio-economic calamity anticipated from the growing prevalence of dementia. PMID:20385255
de la Torre, Jack C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between urbanicity and adolescent health is a critical issue for which little empirical evidence has been reported. Although an association has been suggested, a dichotomous rural versus urban comparison may not succeed in identifying differences between adolescent contexts. This study aims to assess the influence of locality size on risk behaviors in a national sample of young Mexicans living in low-income households, while considering the moderating effect of socioeconomic status (SES. Methods This is a secondary analysis of three national surveys of low-income households in Mexico in different settings: rural, semi-urban and urban areas. We analyzed risk behaviors in 15-21-year-olds and their potential relation to urbanicity. The risk behaviors explored were: tobacco and alcohol consumption, sexual initiation and condom use. The adolescents' localities of residence were classified according to the number of inhabitants in each locality. We used a logistical model to identify an association between locality size and risk behaviors, including an interaction term with SES. Results The final sample included 17,974 adolescents from 704 localities in Mexico. Locality size was associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, showing a similar effect throughout all SES levels: the larger the size of the locality, the lower the risk of consuming tobacco or alcohol compared with rural settings. The effect of locality size on sexual behavior was more complex. The odds of adolescent condom use were higher in larger localities only among adolescents in the lowest SES levels. We found no statically significant association between locality size and sexual initiation. Conclusions The results suggest that in this sample of adolescents from low-income areas in Mexico, risk behaviors are related to locality size (number of inhabitants. Furthermore, for condom use, this relation is moderated by SES. Such heterogeneity suggests the need for more detailed analyses of both the effects of urbanicity on behavior, and the responses--which are also heterogeneous--required to address this situation.
Gutiérrez Juan Pablo
Four factors are commonly considered to indicate "high risk" for child abuse/neglect: (1) low birth weight, (2) young maternal age, (3) mother with single marital status, and (4) low socioeconomic status (SES). These factors were investigated for Oahu, Hawaii, in four separate retrospective studies (using 100 abused cases and 100 controls), to evaluate their usefulness for screening at delivery. Data were obtained from a sample of 2,036 confirmed cases, during the period from 1977 to 1979. Contrary to many studies from mainland United States, low birth weight and single marital status were not associated with increased risk of child abuse/neglect. Single marital status in Hawaii may not be associated with increased risk because it does not have the same social and cultural connotations as it does on the mainland United States. This observation suggests a need to consider regional and cultural variations in investigating and screening for child abuse/neglect. PMID:6609172
Starbuck, G W; Krantzler, N; Forbes, K; Barnes, V
Full Text Available La multiplicidad de factores epidemiológicamente asociados a la esquizofrenia abarca uno de palpitante actualidad y gran complejidad: los procesos migratorios. Millones de personas en el mundo han migrado y migran, sometiéndose a experiencias diversas de racismo, discriminación, postergación socioec [...] onómica y, desde luego, al duelo migratorio. Se ha determinado que las vivencias de discriminación y el aislamiento social (vivir solo y en comunidades con baja densidad de la etnia del migrante) se hallan entre los más prominentes correlatos epidemiológicos de riesgo para desarrollar esquizofrenia. A partir de casos recientes e ilustrativos de nuestra casuística hospitalaria, revisamos la bibliografía pertinente y reflexionamos acerca de este fenómeno psicopatológico colectivo Abstract in english The multiplicity of epidemiological factors associated with schizophrenia encompasses one highly topical and very complex factor: the processes of migration. Millions of people worldwide have migrated and are migrating now, undergoing various experiences of racism, discrimination, socioeconomic post [...] ponement and, of course, the migratory mourning. It has been determined that the experiences of discrimination and social isolation (living alone and in communities with low density of migrant ethnicity) are among the most prominent epidemiological correlates of risk. From recent and illustrative cases from our hospital clinical casuistry, we review the relevant literature on this subject and then we reflect on this collective psychopathological phenomenon
Santiago A, Cabrera; Lizardo, Cruzado.
Abstract Objective: To identify risk factors for serum amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis in patients living in Germany. Methods: Clinical and genetic data were obtained from 71 patients with AA amyloidosis. SAA1 genotypes were analyzed in 231 individuals. Control groups comprised 45 patients with long-standing inflammatory diseases without AA amyloidosis and 56 age-matched patients without any inflammatory disease. Results: The most frequent underlying diseases of AA amyloidosis were familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) (n?=?24, 34%) and inflammatory rheumatic diseases (n?=?30, 42%). Patients without any known underlying disease (n?=?11, 16%) were considered as having idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Patients with FMF were significantly younger at disease onset and younger at diagnosis of AA amyloidosis compared with patients with rheumatic diseases. Patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis were older than patients with definite rheumatic diseases. Patients with FMF and high penetrance MEFV gene mutations had a relative risk of 1.73 for AA amyloidosis. Patients with FMF or a rheumatic disease and the SAA1 ?/? genotype had a relative risk of 4.86 and 2.53, respectively, for developing an AA amyloidosis. The prevalence of this risk genotype was 36% in German patients without an inflammatory disease, 92% in German patients with AA amyloidosis and 100% in German patients with idiopathic AA amyloidosis. Conclusions: Risk factors for AA amyloidosis are the presence of a hereditary autoinflammatory or chronic rheumatic disease, elevated C-reactive protein and SAA serum levels, a long delay of a sufficient therapy, an advanced age and the SAA1?/? genotype. PMID:25376380
Blank, Norbert; Hegenbart, Ute; Lohse, Peter; Beimler, Jörg; Röcken, Christoph; Ho, Anthony D; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Schönland, Stefan O
Full Text Available The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls. The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines. The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%, followed by fruits (17.8%, potatoes and grains (16.0%, energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%, and vegetables (11.8%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular.
Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the 1-year prevalences of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH), and identify their principal risk factors, in the general population of the Republic of Georgia. METHODS: In a community-based door-to-door survey, 4 medical residents interviewed all biologically unrelated adult members (>/=16 years) of 500 adjacent households in Tbilisi, the capital city, and 300 in rural Kakheti in eastern Georgia, using a previously validated questionnaire based on International Headache Society diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The target population included 1,145 respondents, 690 (60%) women, mean age 45.4 +/- 12.0 years. The 1-year prevalences were as follows: migraine 6.5% (95% confidence interval 5.0-7.9), probable migraine 9.2% (7.5-10.8), all migraine 15.6% (13.5%-17.7%), TTH 10.0% (8.2-11.7), probable TTH 27.3% (24.8-29.9), all TTH 37.3% (34.5%-40.1%). Female gender and low socioeconomic status were risk factors for migraine but not for TTH. Headache on >/=15 days/month was reported by 87 respondents, a prevalence of 7.6% (6.1-9.1). Female gender, low socioeconomic status, and frequent use (>/=10 days/month) of acute headache drugs were risk factors. The likely prevalence of medication overuse headache was 0.9% (0.3-1.4), of chronic migraine 1.4% (0.7-2.1), and of chronic TTH 3.3% (2.3-4.4), but caution is needed in interpreting these estimates. CONCLUSIONS: While the prevalences of migraine and tension-type headache are comparable with those in Europe and the United States, a remarkably high percentage of the population of Georgia have headache on >/=15 days/month. This study demonstrates the importance of socioeconomic factors in a developing country and unmasks the unmet needs of people with headache disorders.
Katsarava, Z; Dzagnidze, A
Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de dismenorrea y sus factores asociados en estudiantes de tres colegios de Lima de estratos socioeconómicos diferentes. Diseño: Estudio de tipo observacional, de corte transversal y comparativo. Institución: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participantes [...] : Adolescentes estudiantes de tres colegios. Intervenciones: Se realizó una encuesta anónima a 392 adolescentes de 3 colegios: Newton College (estrato A), De Jesús (estrato B) y Ciro Alegría (estrato C). Principales medidas de resultados: Presencia de dismenorrea. Resultados: La edad promedio de las adolescentes entrevistadas fue 14,8 ± 1,0 años e IMC 22,7 ± 12,9, con edad de menarquía a los 11,9 años. Los días promedio de sangrado menstrual fueron 4,9 días. El porcentaje de adolescentes con dismenorrea fue de 51,7%. El dolor menstrual duró en promedio 1,95 días. El ausentismo escolar fue señalado en 34,2%, 26,4% y 21,3%, en los estratos A, B y C, respectivamente. El antecedente materno tuvo un OR 1,85 (1,38 a 2,58) y p 0,0240, el ejercicio físico OR 0,93 (0,81 a 1,25) y p 0,7794, el consumo de pescado OR 0,96 (0,66 a 1,40) y p 0,0836, el consumo de tabaco OR 1,33 (0,68 a 2,60) y p 0,4207. El consumo de tabaco fue claramente mayor en el estrato A, casi 16% frente al 4% del estrato C. Conclusiones: La edad de la menarquía fue la misma de estudios nacionales. La duración del periodo menstrual fue 4,9 días, superior en un día a lo encontrado en mujeres adultas. Una de cada dos adolescentes presentó dismenorrea y el dolor menstrual duró en promedio dos días. Hubo ausentismo escolar en una de cada cuatro alumnas, por causa del dolor menstrual, mayor en el estrato social alto. La presencia de dismenorrea estuvo relacionada significativamente con el antecedente materno. El consumo de pescado, la actividad física y el hábito de fumar no estuvieron asociados a la presencia de dismenorrea. El consumo de tabaco fue elevado en los estratos sociales altos en comparación con los bajos. Abstract in english Objectives: To determine dysmenorrhea prevalence and associated factors in three Lima schools’ students from different socioeconomic strata. Design: Observational, cross-sectional and comparative study. Setting: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participants: Adolescent students. Interventio [...] ns: Anonymous survey to 392 teenagers from three schools: Newton College (stratum A), De Jesus (stratum B) and Ciro Alegría (stratum C). Main outcome measures: Dysmenorrhea. Results: Average age of adolescents was 14.8 ± 1.01 years, BMI was 22.7 ± 12.9 and menarche was reported occurring at age 11.9 years average. Average menstrual bleeding was 4.9 days. Percentage of adolescents with dysmenorrhea was 51.7%. Menstrual pain lasted 1.95 days average. School absenteeism was 34.2%, 26.4%, 21.3% in strata A, B and C respectively. Maternal history of dysmenorrhea had an OR = 1.85 (1.38-2.58) and p = 0.0240; fish consumption had an OR = 0.96 (0.66-1.40) and p = 0.0836; tobacco consumption had an OR = 1.33 (0.68-2.60) and p = 0.4207. Tobacco consumption was clearly higher in stratum A, almost 16% compared with 4% in stratum C. Conclusions: Age of menarche was similar to national studies. Duration of menstrual period was 4.9 days, higher in one day to that reported in adult women. One in two teenagers presented dysmenorrhea and menstrual pain lasted 2 days average. School absenteeism was one in each four students because of menstrual pain, mainly in high social status students. Presence of dysmenorrhea was significantly related to maternal history. Fish consumption, physical activity and smoking were not associated with dysmenorrhea. Tobacco consumption was high in social strata A compared with low strata.
José, Sandoval Paredes; Arnold, Madrid Jaramillo; Cindy, Sandoval Paz; Patricia, Paz Núñez.
... Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease Overweight and Obesity A healthy weight is important ... a woman is, the higher her risk for heart disease. Overweight also increases the risks for stroke, congestive ...
Several cardiovascular disease risk factors including, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and diabetes have been proposed as important modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia. These risk factors often co-occur and their aggregation is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and dementia. However, studies of composite measures of cardiovascular disease risk in relation to cognitive outcomes in non-elderly populations are scarce. The aim of this thesis was to...
... Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood cholesterol is another major risk factor for heart disease that you can do something about. The higher ...
Craniosynostosis is a relatively common congenital abnormality. The underlying etiology and most probable risk factors of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis are unknown. We conducted a study to identify the risk factors for craniosynostosis.
Ardalan, Maryam; H.Rafati, Ali
... stomach cancer? What are the risk factors for stomach cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your ... in the gene STK1 . A family history of stomach cancer People with first-degree relatives (parents, siblings, or ...
... duct cancer? What are the risk factors for bile duct cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... duct cancer. Certain diseases of the liver or bile ducts People who have chronic (long-standing) inflammation of ...
Acculturation, socioeconomic status, obesity and lifestyle factors among low-income Puerto Rican women in Connecticut, U.S., 1998-1999 Aculturación, clase social, obesidad y factores relacionados con el estilo de vida en mujeres puertorriqueñas de bajos ingresos residentes del estado de Connecticut, Estados Unidos, 1998-1999
OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of socioeconomic status and acculturation with obesity and lifestyle characteristics that may be risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease among low-income Puerto Rican women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1998 and 1999 by interviewing a convenience sample of 200 low-income Puerto Rican female caretakers of young children in Hartford, Connecticut, United States of America. Various recruitment methods were used to e...
Nurgül Fitzgerald; David Himmelgreen; Grace Damio; Sofia Segura-Pérez; Yu-Kuei Peng; Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
Social class differences in health are seen at all ages, with lower socioeconomic groups having greater incidence of premature and low birthweight babies, heart disease, stroke, and some cancers in adults. Risk factors including lack of breast feeding, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, and poor diet are clustered in the lower socioeconomic groups. The diet of the lower socioeconomic groups provides cheap energy from foods such as meat products, full cream milk, fats, sugars...
James, W. P.; Nelson, M.; Ralph, A.; Leather, S.
In 2012, the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification has launched a policy strategy called 'Zero Net Land Degradation' (ZNLD), which aims to prevent the degradation of productive land and restore already degraded land. In Europe, and especially in Mediterranean Europe, land degradation is a complex phenomenon affecting both depopulated, marginal agro-forest regions and affluent agricultural areas. In an effort to develop a ZNLD strategy in Italy we identified the socioeconomic variables associated with environmental conditions leading to a long-term (1960-2010) reduction in land sensitivity to degradation. Our results show an increase in ZNLD areas in the last ten years. Rural municipalities classified at ZNLD showed an economy based on services, an agriculture sector oriented towards quality productions and more sustainable cultivation practices, a balanced population structure and the prevalence of a mixed farmland/woodland land-use structure. These results may inform a country-scale ZNLD strategy targeting complex human-natural degradation processes in ecologically-fragile Mediterranean areas. PMID:25093305
Salvati, Luca; Carlucci, Margherita
Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL?4mm/?25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.
Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa
The purpose of this study is to identify the major risk factor domains for gang membership and the relationships of these risk factors to eighth grade students. The domains of risk factors include: individual characteristics, peer group influences, family conditions, school experiences and the community context, along with demographic information obtained from the Student Gang Survey items. Through logistic multiple regression, risk factors associated with school, peer, community-neighborhood...
James Martinez; Jeremy Tost; Larry Hilgert; Tracy Woodard-Meyers
To identify predictive factors of complete and age-appropriate vaccination status in Greece, we conducted a cross-sectional study, using stratified cluster sampling, among children attending the first year of the Greek Grammar school (about 6 years of age) and their parents/guardians. Almost 88% (N=3878) of pupils in the selected clusters (school classrooms) provided their vaccination booklet and their parents/guardians completed a questionnaire regarding beliefs and attitudes towards immunization. Belonging to a minority group, having other siblings and perceiving long distance to immunization site as a barrier were independent predictors of both incomplete and delayed vaccination status in the final logistic regression model. Maternal age >or=30 years and the perception that natural disease is preferable to vaccination were associated with complete vaccination, whereas paternal education of high school or higher was the other independent determinant of age-appropriate immunization. Socioeconomic factors rather than parental beliefs and attitudes towards immunization explained underimmunization. Further interventions are warranted to enhance vaccine coverage in high-risk groups identified in this study. PMID:20006570
Danis, K; Georgakopoulou, T; Stavrou, T; Laggas, D; Panagiotopoulos, T
La magnitud de la inseguridad alimentaria en México: su relación con el estado de nutrición y con factores socioeconómicos / Magnitude of food insecurity in Mexico: Its relationship with nutritional status and socioeconomic factors
Full Text Available Objetivo. Describir la distribución de la inseguridad alimentaria (IA) en México, desde la perspectiva del acceso a la alimentación y consumo, y su relación con diversos factores socioeconómicos y del estado de nutrición. Material y métodos. Se presenta información de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y [...] Nutrición 2012, de la Encuesta Nacional de Ingreso y Gasto en Hogares 2008, y del Consejo Nacional de Evaluación de la Política de Desarrollo Social. La medición de la inseguridad alimentaria se realizó mediante la Escala Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Seguridad Alimentaria y su relación con variables socioeconómicas, dietéticas y nutricionales. Resultados. En México uno de cada tres hogares padece IA moderada o severa. La IA aumenta el riesgo de desnutrición infantil; y de diabetes, sobrepeso y obesidad en adultos, principalmente en mujeres. Conclusión. Mejorar los factores y causas estructurales que influyen en la IA en México es imperante por las implicaciones que tiene para el desarrollo nacional. Abstract in english Objective. To describe the distribution of food insecurity (FI) in Mexico, from the perspective of food access and consumption, and its relationship with diverse socioeconomic factors and nutritional status. Materials and methods. Information from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (Ensan [...] ut 2012), National Income - Expense in Households Survey 2008 (ENIGH 2008), and from the National Council for Poverty Evaluation (Coneval) was gathered for this study. Food insecurity (FI) measurement was conducted by applying the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) and its relation with socioeconomic, dietetic, and nutritional variables. Results. In Mexico one out of three households suffers food insecurity in moderate or severe degree. FI not only increases the malnutrition risk in children but also contributes to the great incidence of diabetes, overweight and obesity in adults, principally in women. Conclusion. To improve structural agents and factors that impact in FI in Mexico is imperative, due to the consequences that it has in the country's development.
Teresa, Shamah-Levy; Verónica, Mundo-Rosas; Juan A, Rivera-Dommarco.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis ?2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.
Koci? Sanja S.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4, defecating in the open air (or river (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4 and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7; while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87. Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90 and 71% (95%CI 44–90%. Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea.
... know what causes vaginal cancer? What are the risk factors for vaginal cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is ...
... know what causes uterine sarcoma? What are the risk factors for uterine sarcoma? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is ...
... know what causes vulvar cancer? What are the risk factors for vulvar cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes a person's chance of ... disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is ...
... know what causes thymus cancer? What are the risk factors for thymus cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing the skin to strong sunlight ...
... causes chronic lymphocytic leukemia? What are the risk factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects a ... the cancer. There are very few known risk factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These include: Exposure to certain chemicals Family ...
... causes acute lymphocytic leukemia? What are the risk factors for acute lymphocytic leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects your ... cancer. There are only a few known risk factors for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Radiation exposure Being exposed to high levels ...
Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in rural area of Karimnagar among 410 participants. Various risk factors assessed were smoking and alcohol intake, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension and stress among participants. Results: The mean age of the participants was 56.41 ± 11.90 years. Male accounted for 55.6% of the total sample, 34.9% were illiterate and 70.7% belonged to an upper lower class. Presence of at least one risk factor was observed among 76.3% of participants. The prevalence of hypertension was 38.5% among participants, 24.6% were current smokers whereas 29.8% were current alcohol users. Stress was exhibited by 24.9% and 25.9% were physically inactive. A binary logistic regression analysis revealed that older age (p = 0.000, male gender (p = 0.001, illiteracy (p = 0.007 and lower socio-economic status (p = 0.001 were associated with the presence of at least one risk factor. Conclusion: High prevalence of risk factors among rural popula-tion warrants an immediate attention. There is a need for careful monitoring and control of non-communicable disease risk factors in rural area.
Trupti N Bodhare, Kanchi Venkatesh, Samir Bele, Gali Kashiram, Sujata Devi, Achanta Vivekanand
Full Text Available Background: Peripheral venous catheterisationis indispensable in modern practise of medicine.The indications of venous access should be weighedagainst the risk of complications, the commonest beingthrombophlebitis. Thrombophlebitis causes patientdiscomfort and the need for new catheter insertion andrisk of developing further widespread infections.Methodology: This observational study was conductedon adult patients admitted to the surgical and medicalward of a tertiary hospital in Negeri Sembilan Malaysiain 2011. Four researchers visited patients daily andexamined for signs of thrombophlebitis; warmth,erythema, swelling, tenderness or a palpable venouscord. Risks factors that were studied in this researchwere patient/s age and gender, duration of catheterization,use of catheter for infusion, size of catheter, site ofcatheter insertion and types of infusate. Thrombophlebitiswas graded using a scale adapted from Bhandari et al.(1979.Results: In total, 428 patients were recruited withan incidence rate of thrombophlebitis of 35.2%.Among those who developed thrombophlebitis, 65%had mild thrombophlebitis, 19% moderate and 8%severe thrombophlebitis. Results showed that femalepatients had a significant increased risk of developingthrombophlebitis. Also risk increased significantly withincreased duration of catheterization and usage of thecatheter for infusion. The age of a patient, types ofinfusate use, size of catheter and site of catheter insertiondid not significantly influence the development ofthrombophlebitis.Conclusion: The study showed that risk of developingthrombophlebitis is significantly increased amongfemale patients, and also with increased duration ofcatheterization and use of the peripheral venous catheterfor infusion. We recommended elective replacementof catheter every 72 hours and daily examination ofcatheters for signs of thrombophlebitis by a healthcarepersonnel.
Wilkinson Yoong Jian Tan
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for facial fractures in patients treated in the emergency department of a hospital. The medical charts of 1121 patients treated in an emergency ward over a three-year period were analyzed. The independent variables were gender, age, place of [...] residence (urban or rural area) and type of accident. The dependent variables were fractured mandible, zygoma, maxilla, nasal bone and more than one fractured facial bone. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test (a
Anne Margareth, Batista; Fernanda de Oliveira, Ferreira; Leandro Silva, Marques; Maria Letícia, Ramos-Jorge; Meire Coelho, Ferreira.
Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye
Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the commonest primary malignant cancer of the liver in the world. Given that the burden of chronic liver disease is expected to rise owing to increasing rates of alcoholism, hepatitis B and C prevalence and obesity-related fatty liver disease, it is expected that the incidence of HCC will also increase in the foreseeable future. This article summarizes the international epidemiology, the risk factors and the pathogenesis of HCC, including the roles of viral hepatitis, toxins, such as alcohol and aflatoxin, and insulin resistance.
Asmaa Ibrahim Gomaa, Shahid A Khan, Mireille B Toledano, Imam Waked, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs have remained a leading cause of mortality in Kazakhstan. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of CVD risk factors (RFs among the Kazakh population, and their ability to identify those CVD RFs. We interviewed 611 subjects aged 25–65 years using a structured self-administered questionnaire from April to July, 2008. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated to determine associations between CVD RFs and its correlations, such as socioeconomic status and level of knowledge of CVD RFs through a logistic regression model. Mean age of the respondents was 43.2 years, and 49.8% were male. Tobacco smoking, overweight (body mass index ? 25.0, hypertension (systolic blood pressure ? 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure ??? 90 mm Hg, and alcohol drinking were identified as important CVD RFs. Risk of overweight was greatest among the population aged 45–54 years, with an OR of 5.3 (95% CI=3.1–9.2. The overweight population was significantly associated with higher income (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1–2.4 and knowledge of RF (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.2–2.4, with p<0.05. Only 25.0% of respondents had good knowledge about CVD RFs. Alcohol drinking was inversely related to the level of knowledge about CVD RFs (OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5–0.9. We concluded that CVD RFs were very high among the Kazakh population, although their level of knowledge to identify those RFs was very low. Increasing knowledge about CVD RFs through awareness campaign activities can reduce CVD-related morbidity and mortality and ensure a better quality of life for the Kazakh population.
AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of school class on health behaviour among adolescents versus that of the family's socioeconomic status and individual factors among adolescents. METHODS: The material comprised 3,458 students in grades 8 and 9 in 244 school classes. Data were collected through questionnaires completed by the students and by their class teacher and information from the school physician. Multilevel analysis was used to indicate the relative significance of individual and school class characteristics. RESULTS: We find no consistent pattern between the mother's socioeconomic status and the included health behaviour measurements; however, adolescents from the lower socioeconomic groups had a higher risk of unhealthy dietary habits and adolescents whose mothers were unemployed had a significantly lower risk of drinking alcohol weekly versus all other adolescents. Not living with both biological parents, focusing on friends, and not being very academically proficient were associated with an increased risk of harmful health behaviour. Health behaviour varied substantially between school classes, especially for daily smoking, weekly alcohol consumption, and use of hashish and other euphoriants. Circumstances in the school class more profoundly influenced risk behaviour among adolescents (smoking, alcohol consumption, and use of hashish or other euphoriants) than their dietary habits (eating breakfast, frequent intake of fruit and vegetables, and frequent intake of soft drinks). CONCLUSIONS: The school class had the relatively strongest influence on adolescents' risk behaviour (smoking, alcohol intake, and use of hashish or other euphoriants), whereas family circumstances comprised the strongest influence on dietary habits. Udgivelsesdato: 2006-null
Johansen, Anette; Rasmussen, SØren
Abstract Background The Northern California county of Marin (MC) has historically had high breast cancer incidence rates. Because of MC's high socioeconomic status (SES) and racial homogeneity (non-Hispanic White), it has been difficult to assess whether these elevated rates result from a combination of established risk factors or other behavioral or environmental factors. This survey was designed to compare potential breast cancer risks and incidence rates for a sample of middle-aged MC wome...
Uratsu Connie S; Ereman Rochelle; Prebil Lee; Gordon Nancy P; Suzanne, Lea C.; Powell Mark
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and ...
Ana Paula Pires dos Santos; Vera Mendes Soviero
Abstract Background Dental caries (decay) is the most prevalent disease of childhood. It is often left untreated and can impact negatively on general health, and physical, developmental, social and learning outcomes. Similar to other health issues, the greatest burden of dental caries is seen in those of low socio-economic position. In addition, a number of diet-related risk factors for dental caries are shared risk factors for the development of childhood obesity. These include high and freq...
Scott Anthony; Gussy Mark; Gold Lisa; Smith Michael; Calache Hanny; Waters Elizabeth; de Silva-Sanigorski Andrea M; Lacy Kathleen; Virgo-Milton Monica
Full Text Available Introduction: Self-image is important in the behaviour and lifestyle of children and adolescents. Analysing the self-image they have and the factors that might influence their distortion, can be used to prevent problems of obesity and anorexia. The main objective of present publication was to analyse the risk factors that may contribute to self-image distortion.Material and Methods: A descriptive survey study was conducted among 659 children and adolescents in two social classes (low and medium-high, measuring height and weight, calculating BMI percentile for age and gender. Body image and self-perception were registered.Results: The percentage of overweight-obesity is higher in scholars (41.8% boys, 28.7% girls than in adolescents (30.1% and 22.2% respectively, with no difference between socioeconomic classes. The multinomial logistic regression analysis gives a risk of believing thinner higher (p=0.000 among boys OR=2.9(95%CI:1.43-3.37, school (p=0.000 OR=2.42(95%CI:1.56-3.76 and much lower (p=0.000 between normally nourished OR=0.08(95%CI:0.05-0.13, with no differences according to socioeconomic status. The risk of believing fatter is lower (p=0.000 between boys OR=0.28(95%CI:0.14-0.57, school(p=0.072 OR=0.54(95%CI:0.27-1.6, and much higher among underweight (p=0.000 OR=9x108 (95% CI:4x108-19x108.Conclusions: Are risk factors of believing thinner: males, being in a group of schoolchildren and overweight-obesity. Conversely, are risk factors of believing fatter: females, teen and above all, be thin.
Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant disease in Danish women, with 4,006 incident cases and 1,333 deaths in 2001. The incidence has increased since approximately 1960, while mortality has remained relatively stable. In the era before implementation of mammography screening, there was a 20% regional and a 50% socioeconomic difference in both incidence and mortality. Future trends in breast cancer incidence are determined by present risk factors, where particularly the high age at first birth and the increased prevalence of obesity are expected to push the trend upwards. PMID:17953869
Lynge, Elsebeth; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kroman, Niels; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Kvistgaard, Marianne Ewertz
Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that children exposed to adverse experiences are at increased risk for the development of depression, anxiety disorders and PTSD. A history of child abuse and maltreatment increases the likelihood of being subsequently exposed to traumatic events or of developing PTSD as an adult. The brain is highly plastic during early life and encodes acquired information into lasting memories that normally subserve adaptation. Translational studies in rodents showed that enduring sensitization of neuronal and neuroendocrine circuits in response to early life adversity are likely risk factors of life time vulnerability to stress. Hereby, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis integrates cognitive, behavioural and emotional responses to early-life stress and can be epigenetically programmed during sensitive windows of development. Epigenetic mechanisms, comprising reciprocal regulation of chromatin structure and DNA methylation, are important to establish and maintain sustained, yet potentially reversible, changes in gene transcription. The relevance of these findings for the development of PTSD requires further studies in humans where experience-dependent epigenetic programming can additionally depend on genetic variation in the underlying substrates which may protect from or advance disease development. Overall, identification of early-life stress associated epigenetic risk markers informing on previous stress history can help to advance early diagnosis, personalized prevention and timely therapeutic interventions, thus reducing long-term social and health costs.
To identify the risk factors associated with childhood asthma, in children attending Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad. The study included 398 age-matched children (200 asthmatic and 198 non-asthmatic). Information was collected concerning their familial history of atopy, birth weight, environment, breastfeeding, disease and treatment history. Odds ratio was calculated for determining the risk. The children were aged between 12 months and 8 years and 60% were male. The asthmatic children were hospitalized more frequently than the non-asthmatic children (p < 0.0001). Most of the asthmatic children lived in the urban areas of Hyderabad (odd ratio (OR) 16.7, 95% CI = 3.1-14.6, p < 0.0001), had a parental history of asthma (OR 26.8, 95% CI = 10.8-68.2, p < 0.0001) or allergic rhinitis (OR 4, 95% CI 1.2-13.4, p= 0.01), 38.5% had at least one person who smoked, and were weaned earlier than the non-asthmatic children (OR =12.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.4, p < 0.01). Childhood asthma was strongly associated with a family history of asthma and allergic rhinitis, the urban place of residence, having smokers as parents and early weaning from maternal breast milk. The results highlight the need to educate the parents about the risk of smoking and early weaning in the development of asthma. (author)
Full Text Available Post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE is characterized by persistently ele-vated hematocrit level 0 51%. This complication is reported to develop in 10-20% of renal allografts recipients, mostly 2 years after kidney transplantation. PTE is self-limited in 25% of the patients; however it may persist in patients with an increased susceptibility for thrombosis and potential fatal outcome. To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of PTE in our center, we reviewed the records of 235 patients who received renal allografts from 1999 to 2004. Polycythemia was found in 45 (19% patients. There was no significant correlation of polycythemia and age, history of hypertension, diabetes, pre-transplant hematocrit level, pre-transplant history of transfusion, graft?s function, and source of kidney. A significantly higher proportion of PTE patients were males, patients with history of polycystic kidney disease, and patients with glomerulonephritis. We conclude that PTE is an important complication of kidney transplantation. There are several risk factors that should be addressed to prevent this complication.