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Sample records for socioeconomic risk factors

  1. Socioeconomic disparities in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    Wielgosz, A T; Spasoff, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Despite a general decline in mortality rates in recent decades, these rates are substantially higher among lower socioeconomic groups. To determine target groups for preventive health promotion programs, the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic group in Canadian adults aged 20 to 69 years was examined through comparison of estimates from the 1978-79 Canada Health Survey, the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey and the labour force smoking surveys of 1975 and 1983. Lev...

  2. [Socioeconomic class as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases].

    Meier, Ch; Ackermann-Liebrich, U

    2005-09-01

    It's been known for a long time, that certain diseases are more frequent in lower socioeconomic classes. But knowledge about the nature of this association, its main risk factors and how to improve health outcomes in lower social groups is still limited. Social class has been defined by different indicators by e.g. occupation and job position or the highest school qualification achieved. For international comparisons different classifications such as "The Registrar General's Social Class Classification " or the "International Standard Classification of Education" have been used. Several European Studies show a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors including smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia in lower socioeconomic classes. But this studies also show that all socioeconomic groups have access to medical services. The Data from the Swiss Health Survey show the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases by three levels of education: Behaviouralfactors such as smoking, obesity and physical inactivity are more commonly present in the lower socioeconomic groups. People with a lower educational level visit their GP more often, whereas people with a higher level of educational consult specialists more frequently. Medical services are often used to check of blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol. An indication of state of health may be shown by medication and treatment for cardiovascular disease which is more prevalent in lower socioeconomic groups. The present discussion of explanations of the poorer state of health in lower socioeconomic groups goes beyond the classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that after the correction for risk factors a correlation remains between social class and state of health. It is believed, that psychosocial factors such as self-esteem, control in the workplace or coping-strategies play an additional important role

  3. When does cardiovascular risk start? Past and present socioeconomic circumstances and risk factors in adulthood

    Brunner, E; Shipley, M J; Blane, D.; Smith, G.D.; Marmot, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare associations of childhood and adult socioeconomic position with cardiovascular risk factors measured in adulthood. To estimate the effects of adult socioeconomic position after adjustment for childhood circumstances. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey, using the relative index of inequality method to compare socioeconomic differences at different life stages. SETTING: The Whitehall II longitudinal study of men and women employed in London offices of the Civil S...

  4. Socioeconomic Factors in Childhood and the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

    Nielsen, N. M.; Jorgensen, K. T.; Bager, P.;

    2013-01-01

    In a national cohort comprising 1.5 million Danes born from 1966 to 1992, we studied the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) from 1981 to 2007 using information about household income and parental educational levels at the persons 15th...... birthday. The association between childhood SES and MS was evaluated using MS incidence rate ratios with 95 confidence intervals obtained in log-linear Poisson regression analyses. We found no strong association between childhood SES and MS but did observe a tendency toward a reduced risk of MS among...... children from households with more highly educated parents, particularly mothers. Children whose mothers had a secondary (rate ratio 0.95, 95 confidence interval: 0.86, 1.04) or higher (rate ratio 0.86, 95 confidence interval: 0.76, 0.97) education had reduced risks of MS (5 and 14, respectively) compared...

  5. Associations between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population in China.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In developed countries socioeconomic status has been proven to be an important factor in the progression of cardiovascular disease. The present article reports the results of a cross-sectional assessment to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in a Chinese urban population. METHODS: In 1996, a behavioural risk factor survey was carried out in Tianjin, the third largest city in China. A sample of 4000 people aged 15-69 years, st...

  6. Socioeconomic inequalities in coronary heart disease risk in older age: contribution of established and novel coronary risk factors

    RAMSAY, S E; Morris, R. W.; Whincup, P. H.; Papacosta, O.; Rumley, A; Lennon, L; Lowe, G.; Wannamethee, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence on socioeconomic inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) and their pathways in the elderly is limited. Little is also known about the contributions that novel coronary risk factors (particularly inflammatory/hemostatic markers) make to socioeconomic inequalities in CHD. Objectives: To examine the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in CHD in older age, and the contributions (relative and absolute) of established and novel coronary risk factors. Methods: A population...

  7. Socioeconomic factors associated with risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in Europe.

    Conway, D I

    2010-02-01

    In the European Union, there are 180,000 new cases of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer cases per year--more than half of whom will die of the disease. Socioeconomic inequalities in UADT cancer incidence are recognised across Europe. We aimed to assess the components of socioeconomic risk both independently and through their influence on the known behavioural risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption and diet.

  8. SOCIOECONOMIC RISK FACTORS FOR GYNECOLOGIC DISEASES OF MARRIED RURAL WOMEN IN ZHEJIANG PROVINCE

    2001-01-01

    The authors investigated socioeconomic factors associated with prevalent gynecologic diseases in data provided by participants in Women's Health and Health Education Study Program. In 1997, 1515 Zhejiang married rural women aged 15-49 years completed health questionnaires given them by trained medical students who interviewed them at their homes. Single factor and multiple factors analysis were used to determine the relationship between socioeconomic factors and gynecologic morbidity. The data obtained in this study showed that the gynecologic morbidity of the studied married rural women had certain relationship to age, abortion times, postnatal consultation visits and other socioeconomic factors. The finding would be helpful for understanding the current reproductive health of married rural women and preventing gynecologic diseases by controlling the risk factors.

  9. Risk Factors for Suicidal Attempts Among Lower Socioeconomic Rural Population of Telangana Region

    Kosaraju, Sandeep Krishna Murthy; Vadlamani, Lakshmi Naresh; Mohammed Bashir, Mohammed Shakeel; Kalasapati, Lokesh Kumar; Rao, G. L. V. Chalapathi; Rao, G. Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicide is an act of intentionally causing one's own death. Number of suicidal incidences is proportional to attempted suicide cases hence if attempt cases are reduced, number of suicidal death can also be decreased and for that purpose risk factors should be identified and reduced. Therefore, this study is planned to identify risk factors among lower socioeconomic rural population of surrounding areas of Hyderabad in India. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study in w...

  10. Risk factors for suicidal attempts among lower socioeconomic rural population of Telangana region

    Sandeep Krishna Murthy Kosaraju; Lakshmi Naresh Vadlamani; Mohammed Shakeel Mohammed Bashir; Lokesh Kumar Kalasapati; G. L. V. Chalapathi Rao; G Prasad Rao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicide is an act of intentionally causing one′s own death. Number of suicidal incidences is proportional to attempted suicide cases hence if attempt cases are reduced, number of suicidal death can also be decreased and for that purpose risk factors should be identified and reduced. Therefore, this study is planned to identify risk factors among lower socioeconomic rural population of surrounding areas of Hyderabad in India. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study in w...

  11. Educational Aspiration-Expectation Discrepancies: Relation to Socioeconomic and Academic Risk-Related Factors

    Boxer, Paul; Goldstein, Sara E.; DeLorenzo, Tahlia; Savoy, Sarah; Mercado, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether disconnection between educational aspirations and expectations is associated with socioeconomic status, academic performance, academic risk-related behaviors and related psychosocial factors in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of early adolescents from a public middle school (N = 761). Results suggest that…

  12. Socioeconomic Status, Negative Affect, and Modifiable Cancer Risk Factors in African American Smokers

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Costello, Tracy J.; Businelle, Michael S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of co-occurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment, and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had a...

  13. Socioeconomic disparities in behavioral risk factors and health outcomes by gender in the Republic of Korea

    Ruger Jennifer

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined socioeconomic disparities in health and behavioral risk factors by gender in Asian countries and in South Korea, specifically. We investigated the relationship between socioeconomic position (education, income, and occupation and subjective and acute and chronic health outcomes and behavioral risk factors by gender, and compared results from 1998 and 2005, in the Republic of Korea. Methods We examined data from a nationally representative stratified random sample of 4213 men and 4618 women from the 1998 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 8289 men and 8827 women from the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using General Linear Modeling and multiple logistic regression methods. Results Controlling for behavioral risk factors (smoking, drinking, obesity, exercise, and sleep, those in lower socioeconomic positions had poorer health outcomes in both self-reported acute and chronic disease and subjective measures; differences were especially pronounced among women. A socioeconomic gradient for education and income was found for both men and women for morbidity and self-reported health status, but the gradient was more pronounced in women. In 1998, the odds ratios (ORs of higher morbidity for illiterate vs. college educated females was 5.4:1 and 1.9:1 for females in the lowest income quintile vs. the highest. The OR for education decreased in 2005 to 2.9:1 and that for income quintiles remained the same at 1.9:1. The OR of lower self-reported health status for illiterate vs. college educated females was 2.9:1 and 1.6:1 for females in the lowest income quintile vs. the highest in 1998, and 3.3:1 and 2.3:1 in 2005. Conclusions Among Korean adults, men and women in lower socioeconomic position, as denoted by education, income, and somewhat less by occupation, experience significantly higher levels of morbidity and lower self-reported health status, even after

  14. Socioeconomic and occupational risk factors for venous thromboembolism in Sweden: a nationwide epidemiological study.

    Zöller, Bengt; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-05-01

    Our aims were to investigate possible associations between hospitalisation for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and socioeconomic and occupational factors. A nationwide database was constructed by linking Swedish census data to the Hospital Discharge Register (1990-2007). Hospital diagnoses of VTE were based on the International Classification of Diseases. Standardised incidence ratios were calculated for different socioeconomic and occupational groups. A total of 43063 individuals aged >20 years were hospitalised for VTE. Individuals with >12 years of education were at lower risk for VTE. Blue-collar workers, farmers, and non-employed individuals had higher risks for VTE, and white collar workers and professionals lower risks. In males and/or females, risks for VTE were increased for assistant nurses; farmers; miners and quarry workers; mechanics, iron and metalware workers; wood workers; food manufacture workers; packers; loaders and warehouse workers; public safety and protection workers; cooks and stewards; home helpers; building caretakers; and cleaners. Decreased risks were observed for technical, chemical, physical, and biological workers; physicians; dentists; nurses; other health and medical workers; teachers, religious, juridical, and other social science-related workers; artistic workers; clerical workers; sale agents; and fishermen, whalers and sealers. High educational level and several occupations requiring high levels of education were protective against VTE, while the risks for VTE were increased for farmers, blue-collar workers and non-employed individuals. The mechanisms are unknown but it might involve persistent psychosocial stress related to low socioeconomic and occupational status. PMID:21868069

  15. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and socioeconomic variables in a nation undergoing epidemiologic transition

    Rasiah, Rajah; Yusoff, Khalid; Mohammadreza, Amiri; Manikam, Rishya; Tumin, Makmor; Chandrasekaran, Sankara Kumar; Khademi, Shabnam; Bakar, Najmin Abu

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) related deaths is not only the prime cause of mortality in the world, it has also continued to increase in the low and middle income countries. Hence, this study examines the relationship between CVD risk factors and socioeconomic variables in Malaysia, which is a rapidly growing middle income nation undergoing epidemiologic transition. Methods Using data from 11,959 adults aged 30 years and above, and living in urban and rural areas between 2007 and 20...

  16. Socioeconomic status, negative affect, and modifiable cancer risk factors in African-American smokers.

    Kendzor, Darla E; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Mazas, Carlos A; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Costello, Tracy J; Businelle, Michael S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of cooccurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African-Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African-American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had at least one cancer risk factor in addition to smoking. Univariate ordinal logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, unemployment, lower positive affect, and greater negative affect were associated with having a greater number of cancer risk factors. Multivariate analyses yielded similar findings. A structural equation modeling approach indicated that stress/negative affect may function as one pathway linking SES and modifiable cancer risk factors among African-American smokers and that gender has a direct effect on modifiable cancer risk factors. Thus, risk patterns identified within each gender group may guide the development of multiple risk factor interventions for African-American smokers. Stress and negative affect may be an important treatment target within behavioral interventions for African-American smokers of low SES. PMID:18842995

  17. Risk factors for suicidal attempts among lower socioeconomic rural population of Telangana region

    Sandeep Krishna Murthy Kosaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is an act of intentionally causing one′s own death. Number of suicidal incidences is proportional to attempted suicide cases hence if attempt cases are reduced, number of suicidal death can also be decreased and for that purpose risk factors should be identified and reduced. Therefore, this study is planned to identify risk factors among lower socioeconomic rural population of surrounding areas of Hyderabad in India. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study in which all the suicide attempt cases reported at Bhaskar Medical College and General Hospital were included. The study period was from January 2013 to July 2013. They were undergone a detailed psychiatric interview, including their demographic details, and complete suicide risk assessment was done using Beck′s suicide intent scale. Results: It was found that females in the age group of 20-30 years, uneducated, married and daily laborers by occupation had higher incidence of suicidal attempts. Depressive disorder is the most common associated psychiatric disorder in both the genders, followed by alcohol use related problems. Family disputes are the other major risk factors. Most common mode for attempt was organophosphorous poisoning followed by ingestion of calotropis. Conclusion: Risk of suicide attempt is almost equal in terms of medium and high category of suicide assessment scale in both genders. We suggest that all individuals with alcohol related disorders must be screened for suicidal ideation so that appropriate methods can be adopted to reduce the risk.

  18. Socioeconomic position in childhood and adult cardiovascular risk factors, vascular structure, and function: cardiovascular risk in Young Finns study

    Kivimäki, M; Davey Smith, G.; Juonala, M; Ferrie, J. E.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Elovainio, M; Pulkki-Råback, L; Vahtera, J.; Leino, M.; Viikari, J. S. A.; Raitakari, O. T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) with adult cardiovascular risk factors, vascular structure, and vascular function in a contemporary population of young adults. Design: Population based prospective cohort study with baseline assessment in 1980. Setting: Finland. Participants: 856 men and 1066 women whose childhood SEP was determined by parental occupational status (manual, lower non-manual, upper non-manual) at age 3–18 years. Mai...

  19. The Analysis of Socio-Economic and Demographic Factors Effecting the Risk Taking Behaviour of Individual Investors

    Sarac, Mehmet; Mehmet Burak KAHYAOGLU

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 financial crisis are quite noteworthy in terms of exposing the volatility in the risk appetite of the global markets. The instantaneous and collective movements of the investors’ risk preferences have attracted the attentions to the concept of risk, which is one of the fundamental criteria of the investment decisions. Personal characteristics, socio-economic and psychological factors determine the risk level that investors take by effecting their risk perceptions. The purpose of this...

  20. Urban-Rural Disparity of Breast Cancer and Socioeconomic Risk Factors in China

    Fei, Xufeng; Wu, Jiaping; Kong, Zhe; Christakos, George

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The primary aim of this work is the study of breast cancer disparity among Chinese women in urban vs. rural regions and its associations with socioeconomic factors. Data on breast cancer incidence were obtained from the Chinese cancer registry annual report (2005–2009). The ten socioeconomic factors considered in this study were obtained from the national population 2000 census and the Chinese city/county statistical yearb...

  1. Is high socioeconomic status a risk factor for multiple sclerosis? A systematic review.

    Goulden, R; Ibrahim, T; Wolfson, C

    2015-06-01

    High socioeconomic status (SES) is generally associated with better health outcomes, but some research has linked it with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). The evidence for this association is inconsistent and has not previously been systematically reviewed. A systematic review of cohort and case-control studies in any language was conducted looking at the association between MS and SES. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for articles in all languages published up until 23 August 2013. Twenty-one studies from 13 countries were included in the review. Heterogeneity of study settings precluded carrying out a meta-analysis, and a qualitative synthesis was performed instead. Five studies, all from more unequal countries, reported an association between high SES and MS. Thirteen studies reported no evidence of an association, and three studies reported an association with low SES. These 16 studies largely came from more egalitarian countries. The evidence for an association between high SES and increased MS risk is inconsistent but with some indication of a stronger effect in countries and time periods with higher inequality. Firm conclusions are hampered by the failure of most studies to control for other important risk factors for MS. PMID:25370720

  2. A low socio-economic status is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in high risk Hong Kong Chinese

    To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age

  3. Socioeconomic status and risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    Pedersen, Line Merete Blak; Jacobsen, Søren; Klarlund, Mette;

    2006-01-01

    To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association.......To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association....

  4. Socioeconomic status and trends in risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the Danish MONICA population, 1982-1992

    Osler, M; Gerdes, L U; Davidsen, M;

    2000-01-01

    The decline in cardiovascular mortality in Denmark during the 1980s has been greatest in the highest socioeconomic groups of the population. This study examines whether the increased social inequality in cardiovascular mortality has been accompanied by a different trend in cardiovascular risk...... factors in different educational groups....

  5. Socioeconomic status and stroke incidence in the US elderly: the role of risk factors in the EPESE study.

    Avendano, Mauricio; Kawachi, Ichiro; Lenthe, Frank J van; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Mackenbach, Johan P; Bos, G A M van den; Fay, Martha E; Berkman, Lisa F

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study assesses the effect of socioeconomic status on stroke incidence in the elderly, and the contribution of risk factors to stroke disparities. METHODS: Data comprised a sample of 2812 men and women aged 65 years and over from the New Haven cohort of the Established Po

  6. Socioeconomic status and stroke incidence in the US elderly - The role of risk factors in the EPESE study

    M. Avendano; I. Kawachi; F. van Lenthe; H.C. Boshuizen; J.P. Mackenbach; G.A.M. van den Bos; M.E. Fay; L.F. Berkman

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose - This study assesses the effect of socioeconomic status on stroke incidence in the elderly, and the contribution of risk factors to stroke disparities. Methods - Data comprised a sample of 2812 men and women aged 65 years and over from the New Haven cohort of the Established

  7. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    Tamayo Teresa; Christian Herder; Rathmann Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in po...

  8. Urban-rural disparity of breast cancer and socioeconomic risk factors in China.

    Xufeng Fei

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The primary aim of this work is the study of breast cancer disparity among Chinese women in urban vs. rural regions and its associations with socioeconomic factors. Data on breast cancer incidence were obtained from the Chinese cancer registry annual report (2005-2009. The ten socioeconomic factors considered in this study were obtained from the national population 2000 census and the Chinese city/county statistical yearbooks. Student's T test was used to assess disparities of female breast cancer and socioeconomic factors in urban vs. rural regions. Pearson correlation and ordinary least squares (OLS models were employed to analyze the relationships between socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence. It was found that the breast cancer incidence was significantly higher in urban than in rural regions. Moreover, in urban regions, breast cancer incidence remained relatively stable, whereas in rural regions it displayed an annual percentage change (APC of 8.55. Among the various socioeconomic factors considered, breast cancer incidence exhibited higher positive correlations with population density, percentage of non-agriculture population, and second industry output. On the other hand, the incidence was negatively correlated with the percentage of population employed in primary industry. Overall, it was observed that higher socioeconomic status would lead to a higher breast cancer incidence in China. When studying breast cancer etiology, special attention should be paid to environmental pollutants, especially endocrine disruptors produced during industrial activities. Lastly, the present work's findings strongly recommend giving high priority to the development of a systematic nationwide breast cancer screening program for women in China; with sufficient participation, mammography screening can considerably reduce mortality among women.

  9. Dynamics of socioeconomic risk factors for neglected tropical diseases and malaria in an armed conflict.

    Thomas Fürst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Armed conflict and war are among the leading causes of disability and premature death, and there is a growing share of civilians killed or injured during armed conflicts. A major part of the civilian suffering stems from indirect effects or collateral impact such as changing risk profiles for infectious diseases. We focused on rural communities in the western part of Côte d'Ivoire, where fighting took place during the Ivorian civil war in 2002/2003, and assessed the dynamics of socioeconomic risk factors for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs and malaria. METHODOLOGY: The same standardized and pre-tested questionnaires were administered to the heads of 182 randomly selected households in 25 villages in the region of Man, western Côte d'Ivoire, shortly before and after the 2002/2003 armed conflict. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was no difference in crowding as measured by the number of individuals per sleeping room, but the inadequate sanitation infrastructure prior to the conflict further worsened, and the availability and use of protective measures against mosquito bites and accessibility to health care infrastructure deteriorated. Although the direct causal chain between these findings and the conflict are incomplete, partially explained by the very nature of working in conflict areas, the timing and procedures of the survey, other sources and anecdotal evidence point toward a relationship between an increased risk of suffering from NTDs and malaria and armed conflict. CONCLUSION: New research is needed to deepen our understanding of the often diffuse and neglected indirect effects of armed conflict and war, which may be worse than the more obvious, direct effects.

  10. Association of educational, occupational and socioeconomic status with cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians: a cross-sectional study.

    Rajeev Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine correlation of multiple parameters of socioeconomic status with cardiovascular risk factors in India. METHODS: The study was performed at eleven cities using cluster sampling. Subjects (n = 6198, men 3426, women 2772 were evaluated for socioeconomic, demographic, biophysical and biochemical factors. They were classified into low, medium and high socioeconomic groups based on educational level (15 yr formal education, occupational class and socioeconomic scale. Risk factor differences were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalence (% of risk factors in men and women was overweight or obesity in 41.1 and 45.2, obesity 8.3 and 15.8, high waist circumference 35.7 and 57.5, high waist-hip ratio 69.0 and 83.8, hypertension 32.5 and 30.4, hypercholesterolemia 24.8 and 25.3, low HDL cholesterol 34.1 and 35.1, high triglycerides 41.2 and 31.5, diabetes 16.7 and 14.4 and metabolic syndrome in 32.2 and 40.4 percent. Lifestyle factors were smoking 12.0 and 0.5, other tobacco use 12.7 and 6.3, high fat intake 51.2 and 48.2, low fruits/vegetables intake 25.3 and 28.9, and physical inactivity in 38.8 and 46.1%. Prevalence of > = 3 risk factors was significantly greater in low (28.0% vs. middle (23.9% or high (22.1% educational groups (p = 3 major cardiovascular risk factors.

  11. Risk factors in road crossing among elderly pedestrians and readiness to adopt safe behavior in socio-economic comparison.

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Sapir-Lavid, Yael; Perlman, Amotz

    2016-08-01

    This research examines the Health Promotion Behavior (HPB) models regarding elderly pedestrians' behaviors and attitudes. We studied cognitive-psychological variables, such as risk estimation, self-efficacy and demographic variables and compared elderly pedestrians' attitudes and behaviors in a city with higher socio-economic level (Tel Aviv) versus a city with low socio-economic level (Beer Sheva). We expected to find more problematic behaviors among elderly pedestrians in the low socio-economic city compared to the high socio-economic city, and also less feeling of self-efficacy, and lessened awareness of the risks, that leads to lessened willingness to adopt preventive behaviors. The research was conducted in two studies. The first study was based on observations on 2591 pedestrians in six similar crosswalks in both cities. It revealed that pedestrians in the high socio-economic city demonstrated safer road crossing patterns than in the low socio-economic city and that elderly pedestrians reveal safer crossing patterns than younger pedestrians. We found an interaction of location and age due to greater gap of safe behaviors of elderly and young pedestrians in the high socio-economic city than in the low socio-economic city. In Tel Aviv elderly adhere to the crossing rules much more than the young while in Beer Sheva elderly and young people are almost similar in their crossing patterns. The second study used questionnaires that have been completed by 143 elderly in both cities. The questionnaires referred to (a) demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, education, socio-economic level, (b) variables related to the affiliation to the main culture such as migration, date of migration, knowledge in Hebrew (local language) and connectivity to media and (c) cognitive as well as psychological variables related to the decline to adopt healthy behaviors based on Schwarzer and Fuchs (1995). This part also indicated that elderly in Tel Aviv have higher

  12. Socioeconomic Impact on the Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Wallonia, Belgium: A Population-Based Study

    Sylvie Streel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Monitoring the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs and their determinants is important to develop appropriate recommendations to prevent cardiovascular diseases in specific risk groups. The NESCaV study was designed to collect standardized data to estimate the prevalence of CRFs in relation to socioeconomic parameters among the general adult population in the province of Liège, Wallonia, Belgium. Methods. A representative stratified random sample of 1017 subjects, aged 20–69 years, participated in the NESCaV study (2010–2012. A self-administered questionnaire, a clinical examination, and laboratory tests were performed on participants. CRFs included hypertension, dyslipidemia, global obesity, abdominal obesity, diabetes, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Covariates were education and subjective and objective socioeconomic levels. Data were analyzed by weighted logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of hypertension, abdominal obesity, global obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity was higher in subjects with low education and who considered themselves “financially in need.” Living below poverty threshold also increased the risk of global and abdominal obesity, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Conclusion. The study shows that socioeconomic factors impact the prevalence of CRFs in the adult population of Wallonia. Current public health policies should be adjusted to reduce health inequalities in specific risk groups.

  13. School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents: risk factors differ between socio-economic groups

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups. METHODS: The study population was a random sample of 1453 Danish 15-year-old students. The outcome measure was drunkenness 10 times or more, as a lifetime measure. Predictor variables comprised five aspects of well-being at school. Socio-economic position (SEP...... autonomy in decision-making was associated with drunkenness, OR = 2.74 (1.06-7.08), whereas poor school satisfaction was associated with drunkenness among boys from intermediate SEP, OR = 2.26 (0.98-5.22). Weak Parental Support in school-related matters, OR = 3.92 (1.16-13.24), and disliking school, OR = 9...

  14. Investigating the spatial variability in incidence of coronary heart disease in the Gazel cohort: the impact of area socioeconomic position and mediating role of risk factors.

    Silhol, Romain; Zins, Marie; Chauvin, Pierre; Chaix, Basile

    2011-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to improve understanding of the relationships between contextual socioeconomic characteristics and coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence in France. Several authors have suggested that CHD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol, overweight, tobacco consumption) may partly mediate associations between socioeconomic environmental variables and CHD. Studies have assessed the overall mediating role of CHD risk factors, but have never investigat...

  15. Male Factors and socioeconomic indicators correlate with the risk of spontaneous abortion

    Olsen, Jørn; Basso, Olga; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    No less than 10% of clinically recognised pregnancies end as spontaneous abortions and the recurrence risk is high. Due to lack of data and appropriate study design only little is known about preventable causes of miscarriage. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of paternal and...... personal identification numbers and information stored in several population registers. Change of partner reduced the recurrence risk of spontaneous abortion substantially (OR = 0.59; 95 CI 0.52-0.67), but also changes in social status or job reduced the recurrence risk significantly. Changing the...... municipality of residence to a low risk area (based upon the geographical distribution of spontaneous abortions) reduced the risk of spontaneous abortion in both cohorts. A paternal effect on the recurrence risk of spontaneous abortion cannot be ruled out but environmental factors also play a role....

  16. Systolic Blood Pressure, Socioeconomic Status, and Biobehavioral Risk Factors in a Nationally Representative U.S Young Adult Sample

    Brummett, Beverly H.; Babyak, Michael A; Siegler, Ilene C.; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Elder, Glen H.; Williams, Redford B.

    2011-01-01

    In the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a US longitudinal study of over 15,000 young adults, we examined the extent to which socioeconomic status is linked to systolic blood pressure, and whether biobehavioral risk factors mediate the association. Over 62% of the participants had systolic blood pressure >120 mmHg and 12% with systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg. Over 66% were classified as at least overweight (Body Mass Index>25 kg/m2), with over 36% meeting criteria for at lea...

  17. Child mental health in socioeconomically disadvantaged contexts: risk and protective factors

    Thelma Simões Matsukuraa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to identify and compare different situations of risk or protection in the socio-emotional development of children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged contexts. Seven (7 children aged eight to ten and their respective parents participated in the present survey. The children were 2nd to 5th grade students at an elementary public school in the countryside of Sao Paulo state. The subjects involved in this survey were divided into two different groups: one composed of children evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ – with clinical symptoms (Group with Clinical Symptoms of Mental Health - GSC; the other group was composed of children that did not present clinical symptoms (Group with Typical Development - GDT and their parents. Two different interview scripts were used for data collection: one answered by the children and the other responded by the parents. Data analysis was based on the technique of Collective Subject Discourse (CSD. The results showed similarities and differences between the GSC and GDT groups. Regarding the similarities, all the children have rules and responsibilities, and all the parents seek assistance in the care of their children by means of social, health and educational services. Concerning the differences, children in the GSC group refer to school in a negative way and have less support from their parents in school activities. It is worth mentioning that studies of this nature can contribute to the debate on public policies and practices aimed at this population.

  18. Socioeconomic status and trends in risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the Danish MONICA population, 1982-1992

    Osler, M; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Davidsen, Mette;

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: The decline in cardiovascular mortality in Denmark during the 1980s has been greatest in the highest socioeconomic groups of the population. This study examines whether the increased social inequality in cardiovascular mortality has been accompanied by a different trend in...... cardiovascular risk factors in different educational groups. DESIGN: Data from three cross sectional WHO MONICA surveys conducted in 1982-84, 1987, and 1991-92, were analysed to estimate trends in biological (weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure, and serum lipids) and behavioural (smoking, physical...... most educated groups. In fact, the prevalence of heavy smoking increased in the least educated women. There was no significant interaction for the remaining biological and behavioural risk factors between time of examination and educational level, indicating that the trend was the same in the different...

  19. Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis

    Geater Alan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ≥ 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.

  20. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients - risk and prognosis

    Omland, Lars Haukali Hvass; Osler, Merete; Jepsen, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection.......It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection....

  1. Association of Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Acculturation, and Environmental Factors with Risk of Overweight Among Adolescents in California, 2003

    Joel Gittelsohn, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the California Health Interview Survey 2003, we estimated the prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight, combined as a single measure (AROW, body mass index ≥85th percentile. We used logistic regression models to examine associations between AROW and risk factors.ResultsTwenty-nine percent of California adolescents were AROW. The prevalence of AROW differed significantly by sex and race. Boys were more likely than girls to be AROW (33% vs 25%. American Indians/Pacific Islanders/others (39% were at highest risk, followed by Hispanics (37%, blacks (35%, whites (23%, and Asians (15%. For boys, older age, Hispanic or American Indian/Pacific Islander/other race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and longer residence in the United States were significantly associated with AROW. For girls, Hispanic or black race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and poor dietary habits were significantly associated with AROW.ConclusionThe high prevalence of AROW among California adolescents in most racial/ethnic groups indicates the need for culturally specific and appropriate interventions to prevent and treat overweight.

  2. Socioeconomic factors and the risk of anencephaly in a Mexican population: a case-control study.

    Blanco Muñoz, Julia; Lacasaña, Marina; Borja Aburto, Victor Hugo; Torres Sánchez, Luisa Elvira; García García, Ana María; López Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to evaluate the association between socioeconomic level (as measured by maternal education, maternal occupation, and monthly family income) and anencephaly. METHODS: The authors conducted a case-control study using data from the Epidemiological Surveillance System Register for Neural Tube Defects for three states of the Mexican Republic: Puebla, Guerrero and the State of Mexico. Mothers of 151 cases of infants born with anencephaly and mothers of 151 control ...

  3. Novel coronary heart disease risk factors at 60–64 years and life course socioeconomic position: the 1946 British birth cohort

    Jones, Rebecca; Hardy, Rebecca; Sattar, Naveed; Deanfield, John E; Hughes, Alun; Kuh, Diana; Murray, Emily T.; Whincup, Peter H.; Thomas, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Social disadvantage across the life course is associated with a greater risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and with established CHD risk factors, but less is known about whether novel CHD risk factors show the same patterns. The Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development was used to investigate associations between occupational socioeconomic position during childhood, early adulthood and middle age and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), endo...

  4. Tracking and prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors across socio-economic classes: A longitudinal substudy of the European Youth Heart Study

    Bai Charlotte N; Andersen Lars B; Møller Niels C; Wedderkopp Niels; Kristensen Peter L; Froberg Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The highest prevalence of several cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, smoking and low physical activity level is observed in adults of low socioeconomic status. This study investigates whether tracking of body mass index and physical fitness from childhood to adolescence differs between groups of socioeconomic status. Furthermore the study investigates whether social class differences in the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness exist or deve...

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk factors among children of different socioeconomic status in Istanbul, Turkey: Directions for public health and nutrition policy

    Keskin Yasar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES on physiological (lipid profile, obesity indices and behavioral (dietary habits, physical activity cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Istanbul. Design Cross sectional study. Setting One private school and two public schools from different SES districts in Istanbul. Participants 510 randomly selected children aged 12 and 13 years old (257 boys, 253 girls. Results The prevalence of overweight (15.2% and the energy intake (p Conclusion The findings of the current study revealed a coexistence of both overweight and higher energy intake in middle/ high SES children, as well as a coexistence of underweight and lower physical activity levels in low SES children. These observations should guide the public health policy in developing appropriate intervention strategies to efficiently tackle these health and social issues early in life.

  6. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany

    Erbel Raimund

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and Germany. Methods We combined datasets from two population based studies, one in Germany ('Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study', and one in the Czech Republic ('Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE Study'. Participation rates were 56% in the HNR and 55% in the HAPIEE study. The subsample for this particular analysis consists of 11,554 men and women from nine German and Czech towns. Census based information on social characteristics of 326 neighbourhoods were collected from local administrative authorities. We used unemployment rate and overcrowding as area-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES. The cardiovascular risk factors obesity, hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity were used as response variables. Regression models were complemented by individual-level social status (education and relevant covariates. Results Smoking, obesity and low physical activity were more common in deprived neighbourhoods in Germany, even when personal characteristics including individual education were controlled for. For hypertension associations were weak. In the Czech Republic associations were observed for smoking and physical inactivity, but not for obesity and hypertension when individual-level covariates were adjusted for. The strongest association was found for smoking in both countries: in the fully adjusted model the odds ratio for 'high unemployment rate' was 1.30 [95% CI 1.02–1.66] in the Czech Republic and 1.60 [95% CI 1.29

  7. Association of childhood and adult socioeconomic indicators with cardiovascular risk factors and its modification by age : the CARLA Study 2002-2006

    Werdan Karl; Tiller Daniel; Kluttig Alexander; Schumann Barbara; Haerting Johannes; Greiser Karin H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors is widely known, although the role of different SES indicators is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of different SES indicators for cardiovascular disease risk factors in a middle and old aged East German population. Methods Cross-sectional data of an East German population-based cohort study (1779 men and women aged 45 to 83) were used to assess th...

  8. Investigating maternal risk factors as potential targets of intervention to reduce socioeconomic inequality in small for gestational age: a population-based study

    Hayward Irene

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. Methods This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver from January 1, 2006 to September 17, 2009. To identify an indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality, we used hierarchical logistic regression to model SGA by area-level variables from the Canadian census. We then modelled SGA by area-level average income plus established maternal risk factors for SGA and calculated population attributable SGA risk percentages (PAR% for each variable. Associations of maternal risk factors for SGA with average income were investigated to identify those that might contribute to SGA inequality. Finally, we estimated crude reductions in the percentage and absolute differences in SGA risks between highest and lowest average income quintiles that would result if interventions on maternal risk factors successfully equalized them across income levels or eliminated them altogether. Results Average income produced the most linear and statistically significant indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality with 8.9% prevalence of SGA in the lowest income quintile compared to 5.6% in the highest. The adjusted PAR% of SGA for variables were: bottom four quintiles of height (51%, first birth (32%, bottom four quintiles of average income (14%, oligohydramnios (7%, underweight or hypertension, (6% each, smoking (3% and placental disorder (1%. Shorter height, underweight and smoking during pregnancy had higher prevalence in lower income groups. Crude models assuming equalization of risk factors across income levels or elimination altogether indicated little potential change in relative

  9. Role of socio-economic and reproductive factors in the risk of multiple sclerosis

    Magyari, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    children reduced the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) in women but not in men. Childbirths reduced the risk of MS by about 46% during the following 5 years. Even pregnancies terminated early had a protective effect on the risk of developing MS suggesting a temporary immunosuppression during pregnancy. Our......The incidence of multiple sclerosis is increasing in Danish women. Their risk of developing multiple sclerosis has more than doubled in 25 years while it has remained virtually unchanged for men. The explanation for these epidemiological changes should be sought in the environment as they are too...... rapid to be explained by gene alterations. We investigated the effect of numerous biological social physical and chemical environmental exposures in different periods of life. These data were available from population-based registries and were used in a case-control approach. This study database...

  10. Tracking and prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors across socio-economic classes: A longitudinal substudy of the European Youth Heart Study

    Bai Charlotte N

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest prevalence of several cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, smoking and low physical activity level is observed in adults of low socioeconomic status. This study investigates whether tracking of body mass index and physical fitness from childhood to adolescence differs between groups of socioeconomic status. Furthermore the study investigates whether social class differences in the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness exist or develop within the age range from childhood to adolescence. Methods In all, 384 school children were followed for a period of six years (from third to ninth grade. Physical fitness was determined by a progressive maximal cycle ergometer test and the classification of overweight was based on body mass index cut-points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Socioeconomic status was defined according to The International Standard Classification of Occupation scheme. Results Moderate and moderately high tracking was observed for physical fitness and body mass index, respectively. No significant difference in tracking was observed between groups of socioeconomic status. A significant social gradient was observed in both the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness in the 14–16-year-old adolescents, whereas at the age of 8–10 years, only the prevalence of low physical fitness showed a significant inverse relation to socioeconomic status. The odds of both developing and maintaining risk during the measurement period were estimated as bigger in the group of low socioeconomic status than in the group of high socioeconomic status, although differences were significant only with respect to the odds of developing overweight. Conclusion The results indicate that the fundamental possibilities of predicting overweight and low physical fitness at an early point in time are the same for different groups of socio-economic status. Furthermore, the observed

  11. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    Tamayo Teresa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of

  12. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels

    A study on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 250 male and female adult subjects 20 years of age and over, pertaining to different socio-economic levels is being conducted in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Measurements of weight, height, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test, blood levels of total of cholesterol, tryglicerides, LDL and HDL-cholesterol are being obtained. Body composition is being determined by deuterium dilution and infrared spectroscopy, air displacement plethysmography, skinfold thickness and bio-electrical impedance. Physical activity by questionnaire and diet by non-consecutive multiple 24 h recalls (to account for seasonal and inter-individual variability), will provide information on lifestyle and diet. At present, analysis of 141 subjects has been completed. Preliminary results showed high levels of overweight, 55% with BMI>25, and obesity, 17% with BMI>30. Subjects with abnormal glucose levels had significantly higher weight (p<0.008), larger waist/hip ratio (p<0.003), higher % body fat (p<0.01), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.01; p<0.009 respectively) than normal subjects, after adjusting for sex and age. Serum tryglicerides were significantly higher in obese subjects with central adiposity than non-obese subjects. Body composition by deuterium dilution was determined by infrared spectroscopy and by air displacement plethysmography in a preliminary pilot study. Finally, a physical activity questionnaire was tested in two groups of subjects with different lifestyles. (author)

  13. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels

    Background: Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In Northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher the in the rest of the country. Objective: To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socio-economic levels in north-west Mexico. Methods: Non probabilistic sample selection by invitation was used to recruit subjects, completing quotas by age groups, gender and socio-economic status. The study included 350 men and women, 20-84 years pertaining to low and high income groups from the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. All subjects were measured for body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, skinfolds, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure SBP, DBP). Body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio were calculated. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 12 hour fast was performed and blood samples were taken for analysis of insulin, leptin, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. In 273 of the 350 subjects physical activity was studied by questionnaire. Activity was calculated as in categories of low, medium and high intensity and expressed as hours/day with respect to occupational and recreational activities. Physical activity level (PAL) was also calculated from the questionnaires. Body composition was investigated in more detail by air displacement plethysmography (densitometry) and by deuterium dilution in 200 subjects. Diet by 24 hour non-consecutive recalls in another sub-group of 135 male and female subjects. Statistical analysis was performed using NCSS statistical software using ANCOVA and regression procedures. Result: High levels of overweight (BMI >25) and obesity BMI>30) were found in this population group with 65 and

  14. Association of Socioeconomic Position and Demographic Characteristics with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors and Healthcare Access among Adults Living in Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    G. M. Hosey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD is increasing in low-to-middle income countries. We examined how socioeconomic and demographic characteristics may be associated with CVD risk factors and healthcare access in such countries. Methods. We extracted data from the World Health Organization’s STEPwise approach to surveillance 2002 cross-sectional dataset from Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM. We used these data to estimate associations for socioeconomic position (education, income, and employment and demographics (age, sex, and urban/rural with CVD risk factors and with healthcare access, among a sample of 1638 adults (25–64 years. Results. In general, we found significantly higher proportions of daily tobacco use among men than women and respondents reporting primary-level education (12 years. Results also revealed significant positive associations between paid employment and waist circumference and systolic blood pressure. Healthcare access did not differ significantly by socioeconomic position. Women reported significantly higher mean waist circumference than men. Conclusion. Our results suggest that socioeconomic position and demographic characteristics impact CVD risk factors and healthcare access in FSM. This understanding may help decision-makers tailor population-level policies and programs. The 2002 Pohnpei data provides a baseline; subsequent population health surveillance data might define trends.

  15. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    Delisle Hélène; Agueh Victoire; Fayomi Benjamin; Sodjinou Roger

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES), urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference), blood pressure, fasting plasma glu...

  16. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adult from different socio-economic levels. Highlights and achievements

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher than in the rest of the country. To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socioeconomic levels in north-west Mexico

  17. Unveiling soil degradation and desertification risk in the Mediterranean basin: a data mining analysis of the relationships between biophysical and socioeconomic factors in agro-forest landscapes

    Salvati, L.; Kosmas, C.; Kairis, O.; Karavitis, C.; Hessel, R.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Soil degradation and desertification processes in the Mediterranean basin reflect the interplay between environmental and socioeconomic drivers. An approach to evaluate comparatively the multiple relationships between biophysical variables and socioeconomic factors is illustrated in the present stud

  18. Do factors in the psychosocial work environment mediate the effect of socioeconomic position on the risk of myocardial infarction? Study from the Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies

    Andersen, I; Burr, H; Kristensen, T S;

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether the effect of socioeconomic position on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by differential exposure or differential susceptibility to psychosocial work environment....

  19. Do Behavioral Risk Factors for Prediabetes and Insulin Resistance Differ across the Socioeconomic Gradient? Results from a Community-Based Epidemiologic Survey

    May H. Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine whether behavioral risk factors associated with diabetes (diet, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, and sleep duration are also related to both prediabetes and insulin resistance (IR, we used data from Boston Area Community Health (BACH Survey (2010–2012, n=3155. Logistic and linear regression models were used to test the association of lifestyle factors with prediabetes status, insulin resistance, and prediabetes or insulin resistance. All regression models were stratified by education and income levels (to examine whether risk factors had differential effects across socioeconomic factors and adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and smoking status. We found that large waist circumference was consistently associated with higher levels of insulin resistance (IR and increased odds of prediabetes. While the association between large waist circumference and IR was consistent across all levels of SES (P<0.001, the association between large waist circumference and prediabetes was only statistically significant in the highest socioeconomic strata with odds ratios of 1.68 (95% CI 1.07–2.62 and 1.88 (95% CI 1.22–2.92 for postgraduate degree and income strata, respectively. There was no association between diet, physical activity, sleep duration, and the presence of multiple risk factors and prediabetes or IR within SES strata.

  20. Combining individual and ecological data to determine compositional and contextual socio-economic risk factors for suicide

    Agerbo, Esben; Sterne, J.A.; Gunnell, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    ) measures of income, marital and employment status were obtained. There were 9011 suicides and 180,220 controls. Individual-level associations with these risk factors were little changed when controlling for contextual effects. In contrast, ecological associations of increased suicide risk with declining...... area levels of employment and income and increasing proportions of people living alone were much attenuated after controlling for compositional effects. We found no consistent evidence that associations with individual-level risk factors differed depending on the areas' characteristics (cross......The social and economic characteristics of geographic areas are associated with their suicide rates. The extent to which these ecological associations are due to the characteristics of the people living in the areas (compositional effects) or the influence of the areas themselves on risk...

  1. Combining individual and ecological data to determine compositional and contextual socio-economic risk factors for suicide

    Agerbo, Esben; Sterne, J.A.; Gunnell, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    ) measures of income, marital and employment status were obtained. There were 9011 suicides and 180,220 controls. Individual-level associations with these risk factors were little changed when controlling for contextual effects. In contrast, ecological associations of increased suicide risk with declining...... area levels of employment and income and increasing proportions of people living alone were much attenuated after controlling for compositional effects. We found no consistent evidence that associations with individual-level risk factors differed depending on the areas' characteristics (cross......The social and economic characteristics of geographic areas are associated with their suicide rates. The extent to which these ecological associations are due to the characteristics of the people living in the areas (compositional effects) or the influence of the areas themselves on risk...

  2. Association of childhood and adult socioeconomic indicators with cardiovascular risk factors and its modification by age: the CARLA Study 2002-2006

    Werdan Karl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of socioeconomic status (SES on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors is widely known, although the role of different SES indicators is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of different SES indicators for cardiovascular disease risk factors in a middle and old aged East German population. Methods Cross-sectional data of an East German population-based cohort study (1779 men and women aged 45 to 83 were used to assess the association of childhood and adulthood SES indicators (childhood SES, education, occupational position, income with cardiovascular risk factors. Adjusted means and odds ratios of risk factors by SES indicators with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated by linear and logistic regression models, stratified by sex. The interaction effect of education and age on cardiovascular risk factors was tested by including an interaction term. Results In age-adjusted models, education, occupational position, and income were statistically significantly associated with abdominal obesity in men, and with smoking in both sexes. Men with low education had a more than threefold risk of being a smoker (OR 3.44, CI 1.58-7.51. Low childhood SES was associated with higher systolic blood pressure and abdominal obesity in women (OR 2.27, CI 1.18-4.38 for obesity; a non-significant but (in terms of effect size relevant association of childhood SES with smoking was observed in men. In women, age was an effect modifier for education in the risk of obesity and smoking. Conclusions We found considerable differences in cardiovascular risk factors by education, occupational position, income, and partly by childhood social status, differing by sex. Some social inequalities levelled off in higher age. Longitudinal studies are needed to differentiate between age and birth cohort effects.

  3. Socio-economic status and lifestyle factors are associated with achalasia risk: a population-based case-control study.

    Coleman, Helen G; Gray, Ronan T.; Lau, Kar W.; McCaughey, Conall; Coyle, Peter V.; Murray, Liam J; Johnston, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between various lifestyle factors and achalasia risk.METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Northern Ireland, including n= 151 achalasia cases and n = 117 age- and sex-matched controls. Lifestyle factors were assessed via a face-to-face structured interview. The association between achalasia and lifestyle factors was assessed by unconditional logistic regression, to produce odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).RESULTS: Ind...

  4. Socioeconomic Factors and Childhood Overweight in Europe

    Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke; Lanfer, A.;

    2013-01-01

    What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient....... Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi......-centre study with highly standardized study protoco. The strength of association between SES and overweight and obesity varies across European regions. In our study, the SES gradient is correlated with the regional mean income and the country-specific Human development index indicating a strong influence not...

  5. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    Delisle Hélène

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the

  6. Environmental and socio-economic change in Thailand: quantifying spatio-temporal risk factors of dengue to inform decision making

    Rodo, X.; Lowe, R.; Karczewska-Gibert, A.; Cazelles, B.

    2013-12-01

    Dengue is a peri-urban mosquito-transmitted disease, ubiquitous in the tropics and the subtropics. The geographic distribution of dengue and its more severe form, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), have expanded dramatically in the last decades and dengue is now considered to be the world's most important arboviral disease. Recent demographic changes have greatly contributed to the acceleration and spread of the disease along with uncontrolled urbanization, population growth and increased air travel, which acts as a mechanism for transporting and exchanging dengue viruses between endemic and epidemic populations. The dengue vector and virus are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity and precipitation that influence mosquito biology, abundance and habitat and the virus replication speed. In order to control the spread of dengue and impede epidemics, decision support systems are required that take into account the multi-faceted array of factors that contribute to increased dengue risk. Due to availability of seasonal climate forecasts, that predict the average climate conditions for forthcoming months/seasons in both time and space, there is an opportunity to incorporate precursory climate information in a dengue decision support system to aid epidemic planning months in advance. Furthermore, oceanic indicators from teleconnected areas in the Pacific and Indian Ocean, that can provide some indication of the likely prevailing climate conditions in certain regions, could potentially extend predictive lead time in a dengue early warning system. In this paper we adopt a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling framework for dengue in Thailand to support public health decision making. Monthly cases of dengue in the 76 provinces of Thailand for the period 1982-2012 are modelled using a multi-layered approach. Explanatory variables at various spatial and temporal resolutions are incorporated into a hierarchical model in order to make spatio

  7. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; A Rogvi, Sofie; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Per Kragh; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  8. Association between migraine, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors

    Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel;

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether sex-specific associations exist between migraine, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. We distinguished between the subtypes migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). In 2002, a questionnaire containing validated questions to diagnose migraine and questions on ...

  9. Does IQ explain socio-economic differentials in total and cardiovascular disease mortality? Comparison with the explanatory power of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Vietnam Experience Study

    Batty, G David; Shipley, Martin J; Dundas, Ruth;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance in this...

  10. Time trends in socio-economic factors and risk of hospitalisation with infectious diseases in pre-school children 1985-2004

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Søndergaard, Grethe; Vitting Andersen, Karen;

    2012-01-01

    of life until the children reached the age of 6 years or the end of 2004, whichever came first. Information on parental socio-economic position (education, labour market attachment and household income) was gathered through record linkage with administrative registries. Infections were grouped into upper......The purpose of this study was to examine socio-economic differences in the risk of hospitalisation among children aged 0-5 years in Denmark from 1985 to 2004. All children born between 1985 and 2004 (n=1,278,286) were followed for hospital admissions for infectious diseases from the 29th day...

  11. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua

    Jorge Bacallao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”.

  12. Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua

    Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463

  13. Risk Denial and Socio-Economic Factors Related to High HIV Transmission in a Fishing Community in Rakai, Uganda: A Qualitative Study.

    Muhamadi Lubega

    Full Text Available In Kasensero fishing community, home of the first recorded case of HIV in Uganda, HIV transmission is still very high with an incidence of 4.3 and 3.1 per 100 person-years in women and men, respectively, and an HIV prevalence of 44%, reaching up to 74% among female sex workers. We explored drivers for the high HIV transmission at Kasensero from the perspective of fishermen and other community members to inform future policy and preventive interventions.20 in-depth interviews including both HIV positive and HIV negative respondents, and 12 focus-group discussions involving a total of 92 respondents from the Kasensero fishing community were conducted during April-September 2014. Content analysis was performed to identify recurrent themes.The socio-economic risk factors for high HIV transmission in Kasensero fishing community cited were multiple and cross-cutting and categorized into the following themes: power of money, risk denial, environmental triggers and a predisposing lifestyle and alcoholism and drug abuse. Others were: peer pressure, poor housing and the search for financial support for both the men and women which made them vulnerable to HIV exposure and or risk behavior.There is a need for context specific combination prevention interventions in Kasensero that includes the fisher folk and other influential community leaders. Such groups could be empowered with the knowledge and social mobilization skills to fight the negative and risky behaviors, perceptions, beliefs, misconceptions and submission attitudes to fate that exposes the community to high HIV transmission. There is also need for government/partners to ensure effective policy implementation, life jackets for all fishermen, improve the poor housing at the community so as to reduce overcrowding and other housing related predispositions to high HIV rates at the community. Work place AIDS-competence teams have been successfully used to address high HIV transmission in similar

  14. Risk Factors

    ... Depression has been found to be a risk factor for development of heart disease. Depression occurs in up to 20% of people with ... and has been found to be a risk factor also for subsequent heart attack, the ... Fortunately, depression in patients with heart disease responds well to ...

  15. Risk factors

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  16. Socioeconomic Factors and Asthma Control in Children

    Cope, Shannon F.; Ungar, Wendy J.; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between socioeconomic factors and asthma control in children, as defined by the Canadian Pediatric Asthma Consensus Guidelines. Patients and Methods Cross-sectional data from a completed study of 879 asthmatic children between the ages of 1 and 18 residing in the Greater Toronto Area were used. The database included data on demographics, health status, asthma control, and health-related quality of life. Stepwise forward modeling multiple regression was used to investigate the impact of socioeconomic status on asthma control, based on six control parameters from the 2003 Canadian Pediatric Asthma Consensus Guidelines. Results Only 11% of patients met the requirements for acceptable control, while 20% had intermediate control, and 69% had unacceptable asthma control. Children from families in lower income adequacy levels had poorer control. Conclusions Disparities in asthma control between children from families of different socio-economic strata persist, even with adjustment for utilization of primary care services and use of controller medications. PMID:18615669

  17. Socio-economic Development of Ukraine in the Context of Strategic Risk

    Anatoliy Stepanenko; Alla Omelchenko

    2014-01-01

    The essence and fundamental peculiarities of the strategic risks and their role in socio-economic development are revealed. It is shown that Ukrainian economics face the long-term system calls, the character and quality of which is defined by the combination of profound factors raising considerable strategic risks within socio-economic development of the state. Three groups of risks are analysed: geo-economical, geo-political and geo-ecological. The strategic risks are distinguished within ea...

  18. Breast cancer and socio-economic factors

    Anees B. Chagpar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW; Gross domestic product (GDP per capita by purchasing power parity (current international $; computed tomography (CT for cancer diagnosis. Data include 52 countries. The statistical analysis is carried out by correlation, ANOVA and an econometric modeling based on a multiple regression model of the breast cancer incidence on two explanatory variables. Results: Partial correlation is higher: rbreast cancer, GDP  CT=60.3% (sign.0.00. The estimated relationship shows an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 0.05% for a GDP increase of 1% and an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 3.23% for a CT increase of 1%. ANOVA confirms that incidence of breast cancer is higher across richer countries, ceteris paribus.Conclusions: Empirical evidence shows that the breast cancer tends to be higher across richer countries, measured by GDP per capita and number of Computed Tomography. The main determinants of these findings can be due to several socio-economic factors, mainly localized in richer countries. In addition, this research may provide an alternative interpretation to the theory of Oh et al. (2010 on the influence of latitude on breast cancer, focusing on socio-economic factors rather than biologic root causes.

  19. IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON DIFFERENTIATION OF LAW

    Petrov, Dmitriy

    2014-01-01

    The article considers socio-economic prerequisites of differentiation in law. The origins of the notion «differentiation of law» are analyzed. Differentiation of law is determined by both external (socio-economic) and internal (special legal) factors, but external factors play a crucial role in the process of differentiation.

  20. Behavioral and socioeconomic risk factors associated with probable resistance to ceftriaxone and resistance to penicillin and tetracycline in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Shanghai.

    Trecker, Molly A; Waldner, Cheryl; Jolly, Ann; Liao, Mingmin; Gu, Weiming; Dillon, Jo-Anne R

    2014-01-01

    Globally, incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is once again the highest of the bacterial sexually transmitted infections. The bacterium can produce serious complications in those infected, and emerging resistance to third generation cephalosporins could usher in an era of potentially untreatable gonorrhea. This research aimed to identify risk factors for antibiotic resistant gonorrhea infection among clients at a Shanghai sexually transmitted infection clinic over two time periods, 2004-2005 and 2008-2011. Demographic and risk factor behavior data, and biological samples for antimicrobial resistance analysis, were collected. Statistical models were built to identify risk factors associated with probable resistance to ceftriaxone and resistance to penicillin and tetracycline. High levels of ciprofloxacin resistance (98%) in our sample precluded examining its risk factors; all isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. Overall (Pminimum inhibitory concentrations to ceftriaxone. Male gender (P = 0.03) and alcohol use (P = 0.02) were associated with increased odds of overall tetracycline resistance. Male gender was associated with increased odds of chromosomally-mediated tetracycline resistance (P = 0.04), and alcohol use was associated with increased odds of plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance (P = 0.02). Additionally, individuals in middle-salary categories were found to have lower odds of plasmid-mediated resistance to tetracycline compared with those in the lowest salary category (P≤0.02). This study is one of the first to use multilevel analysis to consider the association between risk factors for gonorrhea infections and mechanisms of resistance to individual antibiotics. Such information is urgently needed to combat the growing threat of untreatable gonorrhea. PMID:24586792

  1. Behavioral and Socioeconomic Risk Factors Associated with Probable Resistance to Ceftriaxone and Resistance to Penicillin and Tetracycline in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Shanghai

    Trecker, Molly A.; Waldner, Cheryl; Jolly, Ann; Liao, Mingmin; Gu, Weiming; Dillon, Jo-Anne R.

    2014-01-01

    Globally, incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is once again the highest of the bacterial sexually transmitted infections. The bacterium can produce serious complications in those infected, and emerging resistance to third generation cephalosporins could usher in an era of potentially untreatable gonorrhea. This research aimed to identify risk factors for antibiotic resistant gonorrhea infection among clients at a Shanghai sexually transmitted infection clinic over two time periods, 2...

  2. A Study of Suicide and Socioeconomic Factors

    Ying, Yung-hsiang; Chang, Koyin

    2009-01-01

    The topic of suicide has long been an important socioeconomic issue studied in many countries. Suicides inject an atmosphere of unrest into society, and media attention furthers that social uneasiness. From the viewpoint of economics and management, suicide is a waste of human resource: it decreases the labor force in society and deteriorates…

  3. Behavioral and socioeconomic risk factors associated with probable resistance to ceftriaxone and resistance to penicillin and tetracycline in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Shanghai.

    Molly A Trecker

    Full Text Available Globally, incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is once again the highest of the bacterial sexually transmitted infections. The bacterium can produce serious complications in those infected, and emerging resistance to third generation cephalosporins could usher in an era of potentially untreatable gonorrhea. This research aimed to identify risk factors for antibiotic resistant gonorrhea infection among clients at a Shanghai sexually transmitted infection clinic over two time periods, 2004-2005 and 2008-2011. Demographic and risk factor behavior data, and biological samples for antimicrobial resistance analysis, were collected. Statistical models were built to identify risk factors associated with probable resistance to ceftriaxone and resistance to penicillin and tetracycline. High levels of ciprofloxacin resistance (98% in our sample precluded examining its risk factors; all isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. Overall (P<0.001, chromosomal (P<0.001, and plasmid-mediated (P = 0.01 penicillin resistance decreased from the first to second period of the study. For tetracycline, chromosomal resistance decreased (P = 0.01 and plasmid-mediated resistance increased (P<0.001 between the first and second periods of study. In multi-level multivariable regression models, male gender (P = 0.03 and older age (P = 0.01 were associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations to ceftriaxone. Male gender (P = 0.03 and alcohol use (P = 0.02 were associated with increased odds of overall tetracycline resistance. Male gender was associated with increased odds of chromosomally-mediated tetracycline resistance (P = 0.04, and alcohol use was associated with increased odds of plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance (P = 0.02. Additionally, individuals in middle-salary categories were found to have lower odds of plasmid-mediated resistance to tetracycline compared with those in the lowest salary category (P≤0

  4. Risk factors.

    Robbins, Catherine J; Connors, K C; Sheehan, Timothy J; Vaughan, James S

    2005-06-01

    Minimize surprises on your financial statement by adopting a model for integrated risk management that: Examines interrelationships among operations, investments, and financing. Incorporates concepts of the capital asset pricing model to manage unexpected volatility PMID:17240669

  5. UNIVERSITIES AND INCUBATORS: KEY FACTORS DRIVING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Liane Mahlmann Kipper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic diversification is an utterly important factor for regions that are directly or indirectly related to any productive mechanisms and seek to strengthen their foundations for the generation of jobs and income. Within this context, to invest in business preparation and maturation, especially in the ones related to the technological area, turns out to be an interesting mean of diversifying a regional economy that is facing the risk of stagnation. This study considers the importance of the role taken on by universities and their incubators in driving entrepreneurship and supporting the creation of new companies and the innovative capacity of a country through knowledge transfer amongst universities and companies, generating benefits and socioeconomic progress in a country. It also conducts a case study on a company of the information technology area, recently incubated and whose major objective consists in becoming part of this economic diversification basis.

  6. Hypnotics and mortality-partial confounding by disease, substance abuse and socioeconomic factors?

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Hendriksen, C.; Vass, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    ) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: When covariates were entered one at a time, the changes in HR estimates showed that psychiatric disease, socioeconomic position and substance abuse reduced the excess risk by 17-36% in the low user group and by 45-52% in the high user group. Somatic disease...... this study point at psychiatric disease, substance abuse and socioeconomic position as potential confounding factors partly explaining the association between use of hypnotics and all-cause mortality....

  7. Is socioeconomic status a risk factor for children´s overweight and obesity? - Mun-SI Portugal, A Community Based Program

    Rito, Ana; Doroana, Érica; Garcia, Rita; Alves, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    MUN-Si (www.mun-si.com) is an on-going Portuguese community-based program at local level which aims to promote lifestyles changes in the long-term particularly to children and families that do not have adequate resources. The objective of this study was to address the association between socioeconomic (SE) indicators and children´s nutritional status (NS) of the two rounds of the MUN-SI NS surveys (2009 and 2011). A total of 2726 children (round 1 (R1) = 1126; round 2 (R2)= 1600) aged betwee...

  8. Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors

    ... cancer? Next Topic What causes endometrial cancer? Endometrial cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that affects your ... to obesity, which is a well-known endometrial cancer risk factor. Many scientists think this is the main way ...

  9. Risk Factors and Prevention

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  10. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  11. The Socio-economic Risk Factors Analysis of Violence on Women in Wuhan and Shenzhen%武汉市和深圳市妇女伤害的社会经济危险因素分析

    韩煊; 赵广英; 王春丽; 沈敏; 洪琦; 刘筱娴

    2015-01-01

    目的:对妇女伤害的社会经济因素进行分析,寻找危险因素,为减少妇女伤害的发生提供指导。方法:对834名16-59岁妇女进行问卷调查,并对调查结果进行分析。结果:经济伤害、精神伤害和性伤害保护因素均为居住在武汉( b =-0�93、b=-1.41、b=-1.29)。不同婚姻状况造成妇女经济伤害的风险依次为已婚>离婚>丧偶>单身(b=-0.20)。躯体伤害的危险因素为流动人口(b=0.51)。结论:对妇女进行性健康教育,完善社会支援,提高妇女的社会经济地位,有利于减少妇女伤害的发生。%Objective:Analyze socio-economic factors of violence on women to find the risk factors and provide guidance to reduce the oc⁃currence of violence on women. Methods:Surveying 834 women aged 16 to 59 with a questionnaire Results:Living in Wuhan was protective fac⁃tors of economic, mental and sexual violence on women(b= -0. 93,b= -1. 41,b= -1. 29). Non-local population was risk factor of physical violence on women(b=0. 51). The risk order of different marital status causing economic violence on women was as follows:Married> Divorce> Widowed> Single (b = -0. 20). Conclusion:Constructing sexual health education for women, etc. These may help to improve the socio-economic status of women and reduce the occurrence of violence on women.

  12. Socioeconomic factors related to attendance at a Type 2 diabetes screening programme

    Dalsgaard, E.M.; Lauritzen, T.; Christiansen, T.;

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing, and screening of high-risk populations is recommended. A low attendance rate has been observed in many Type 2 diabetes screening programmes, so that an analysis of factors related to attendance is therefore relevant. This paper analyses the...... association between socioeconomic factors and attendance for Type 2 diabetes screening. METHODS: Persons aged 40-69 years (n = 4603) were invited to participate in a stepwise diabetes screening programme performed in general practitioners' offices in the county of Aarhus, Denmark in 2001. The study was...... population-based and cross-sectional with follow-up. The association between screening attendance in the high-risk population and socioeconomic factors was analysed by odds ratio. RESULTS: Forty-four percent of the estimated high-risk population attended the screening programme. In those with known risk for...

  13. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients – risk and prognosis

    Oml

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lars Haukali Omland,1 Merete Osler,2 Peter Jepsen,3,4 Henrik Krarup,5 Nina Weis,6 Peer Brehm Christensen,7 Casper Roed,1 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Niels Obel1 On behalf of the DANVIR Cohort Study1Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Research Center for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 6Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 7Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, DenmarkBackground and aims: It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection or a prognostic factor following infection.Methods: From Danish nationwide registries, we obtained information on three markers of SES: employment, income, and education. In a case control design, we examined HCV infected patients and controls; conditional logistic regression was employed to obtain odds ratios (ORs for HCV infection for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity, and substance abuse. In a cohort design, we used Cox regression analysis to compute mortality rate ratios (MRRs for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity level, age, substance abuse, and gender.Results: When compared to employed persons, ORs for HCV infection were 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24–3.26 for disability pensioners and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.83–2.72 for the unemployed. When compared to persons with a high income, ORs were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.34–2.01 for low income persons and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.02–1.40 for

  14. Socioeconomic factors in the transfer of technology

    We have developed a model of the process of technology transfer applicable to research efforts in nuclear medicine. Through this model, it has been shown there are significant components of the technology transfer process that are not adequately investigated in the development of new nuclear medicine procedures. An increase in theory building could serve to decrease the need for relatively inefficient speculative research and feasiblity studies and, therefore, could decrease the total cost of nuclear medicine research components of the technology transfer process. The major deficit in nuclear medicine research relates to the routine implementation of procedures before adequate evaluation. There is obviously a need for better evaluation of procedures before their widespread implementation. This research should be undertaken by those investigators who are attempting to implement new technology in medicine. Physicians must temper their enthusiasm for new procedures until adequate evaluative data are available. More investigators must become concerned with the evaluation of research to complement the number of investigations involved in speculative research and feasibility studies. It also becomes apparent that, if we do not consciously develop the theory building and evaluative research components of technology transfer in nuclear medicine, we risk not having funds available for further research necessary for the development of new diagnostic modalities

  15. The effect of environmental factors on breast lumps of Egyptian women in different socioeconomic levels

    The environmental risk factors related to the breast tumors (lumps) are essential in order to build strategies to decrease cancer incidence and mortality among different socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. A case control study of 70 cases and 52 controls were classified into high, middle and low socioeconomic classes. The results revealed significant increased risk of breast tumors among working females, having positive family history, married with lower mean parity, with higher consumption of fatty meals, lesser meat intake. Non significant risk factors were the social class, exposure to ionizing radiation, non lactating. wearing tight bra, consumption of vegetables and fruits, oral contraceptive pill users and exposure to outdoor air pollution or indoor pollution as floors and wall paintings. In conclusion, this study highlights the positive life style for egyptian women so they can prevent some of the environmental risks of breast tumors. Increasing the awareness of breast diseases and regular examination remains the corner stone for early detection management of breast lumps.

  16. Socioeconomic status, sunlight exposure, and risk of malignant melanoma: the Western Canada Melanoma Study.

    Gallagher, R P; Elwood, J M; Threlfall, W J; Spinelli, J J; Fincham, S; Hill, G B

    1987-10-01

    In a study of 261 male melanoma patients and age-and sex-matched controls, a strong positive univariate association between socioeconomic status, as determined by usual occupation, and risk of melanoma was detected. This association, however, was substantially explained by host constitutional factors and occupational, recreational, and vacation sunlight exposure. The study demonstrated an increased risk of melanoma in draftsmen and surveyors and a reduced risk of melanoma in construction workers and individuals employed in the finance, insurance, and real estate industry even after control for the effect of host factors and sunlight exposure. PMID:3116308

  17. Adverse Psychosocial, socioeconomic, and developmental processes and risk of inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus in later life

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters

    Introduction: Identifying risk factors for inflammation and type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at different times over life could help to inform on prevention strategies aimed at reducing the later monetary and human cost associated with T2DM and inflammatory mediated diseases. Aim: The overall...... objective of the thesis was to explore socioeconomic, psychosocial and developmental risk factors in relation to inflammation and T2DM. In terms of developmental risk factors I addressed how body weight within and across generations is associated with inflammation in late middle aged men...... and if there are socioeconomic differentials in these effects. To address psychosocial risk factors, I studied if the accumulation of major life events in childhood, adult private and work life were associated with T2DM and furthermore if there was evidence of differential vulnerability to these effects by socioeconomic...

  18. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715

  19. Socioeconomic and Ecological Factors Influencing Aedes aegypti Prevalence, Abundance, and Distribution in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Dhar-Chowdhury, Parnali; Haque, C. Emdad; Lindsay, Robbin; Hossain, Shakhawat

    2016-01-01

    This study examined household risk factors and prevalence, abundance, and distribution of immature Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and their association with socioeconomic and ecological factors at urban zonal and household levels in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During the 2011 monsoon, 826 households in 12 randomly selected administrative wards were surveyed for vector mosquitoes. Results revealed that the abundance and distribution of immature Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and pupae...

  20. Heart disease - risk factors

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000106.htm Heart disease - risk factors To use the sharing features on ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. Changing ...

  1. Global flood risks under changing climate and socioeconomic conditions

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Ward, Philip; Bouwman, Arno; Ligtvoet, Willem; van Beek, Rens; Winsemius, Hessel

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide major flood events result in both economic losses and large numbers of casualties. Recent global scale studies indicate that in many regions of the world discharge extremes are likely to increase under changing climate conditions. However, few studies have so far examined how these changes in climate conditions may affect flood risk (defined here as the probability of a flood multiplied by the consequences). In the current study we investigate the impacts of changing climate and socioeconomic conditions on flood extents and depths, and also assess the potential impacts on flood risk. The study is conducted on a global scale, thereby indicating in which regions of the world flood risk is likely to change most. To assess global food risk under changing conditions, we combined socio-economic data from the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE) framework of the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) with high resolution maps of inundation depth (1 km). To this end, projections from a number of GCMs were bias-corrected and used to force the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB which simulates (amongst other variables) global maps with daily flood volumes on a 0.5 degree resolution. These time series were used to derive flood volume maps for multiple return periods, which were downscaled to inundation depth maps at 1 km resolution using a 1 km resolution DEM. Finally, these high resolution flood maps were combined with spatial datasets on future GDP and population density from the IMAGE model. Results are presented on both the global scale and at the country level. We believe that the obtained flood extend and flood risk maps can assist development agencies in planning climate adaptation investments that aim to reduce flood risks.

  2. Sexual health and socioeconomic-related factors in Spain

    Ruiz Muñoz, Dolores, 1978-; Wellings, Kaye; Castellanos Torres, Esther; Álvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos; Casals Cases, Mariona; Pérez, Glòria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to describe sexual health in Spain according to three important indicators of the World Health Organization definition and explore the influence of socioeconomic factors. Methods: We performed a population-based cross-sectional study of sexually active people aged 16-44 years residing in Spain in 2009 (2365 women and 2532 men). Three main aspects of sexual health were explored: sexual satisfaction, safe sex, and sexual abuse. The independent variables...

  3. Socio-economic factors influencing small ruminant breeding in Kenya

    Verbeek, E; Kanis, E.; Bett, R.C.; Kosgey, I.S.

    2006-01-01

    In order to design an effective small ruminant (i.e., goats and sheep) breeding program in Kenya and other areas with similar production circumstances, it is important to understand the socio-economic factors applying to the relevant production system. Information on these was obtained from a questionnaire carried out on both smallholders and pastoral/ extensive farmers in seven selected districts. From the 458 responding households, 18% kept only goats, 34% kept only sheep, and 48% kept both...

  4. Diet, risk of obesity and socioeconomic circumstances of individuals in the UK: A seemingly unrelated approach

    Damilola Olajide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Understanding the link between diet, risk of obesity and the underlying socioeconomic circumstances of the individual is useful for health promotion and improvement interventions. In this study, we examined the socioeconomic factors that jointly affect food consumption choices and risk of obesity. We analyse the National Dietary and Nutrition Survey (2000/01 of adults aged 19-64 years living in private households in the UK, using a health production framework. We used information on the complete food history on individuals in the previous week to create eight common food groups. We estimated a system of linear risk of obesity (as measured by Body Mass Index and eight diet equations with error terms that are correlated across equations for a given individual, but are uncorrelated across individuals, using the seemingly unrelated regression method. Our findings indicate that the socioeconomic factors (e.g. income and education associated with sources of healthy eating differ. While increasing household purchasing power may be more effective for increasing consumption of healthier foods such as fruit and vegetables, more knowledge and information about healthy eating may be more effective for cutting down on consumption of less healthy foods (e.g. preserves and savoury foods. An understanding of these different healthy eating contexts is essential for the development of effective targeted food based policies aimed at reducing the risk of obesity. Link to Appendix

  5. Are childhood socio-economic circumstances related to coronary heart disease risk? Findings from a population-based study of older men

    Ramsay, S. E.; Whincup, P H; Morris, R W; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S. G.

    2007-01-01

    Background The independent influence of childhood social circumstances on health in later life remains uncertain. We examined the extent to which childhood socioeconomic circumstances are related to the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in older British men, taking account of adult social class and behavioural risk factors.Methods A socio-economically representative sample of 5552 British men (52-74 years) with retrospective assessment of childhood socio-economic circumstances (father's oc...

  6. Epidemiological & Risk Factors In Childhood Bronchial Asthma

    Singh Harmesh; Soni R.K; Gill P J S

    1998-01-01

    Research question: What are the epidemiological and risk factors associated with asthma in children. Objective: To determine epidemiological and risk factors in childhood bronchial asthma. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting Hospital based. Participants: Children suffering from bronchial asthma and their parents/ attendants. Sample size: 235 children. Study variables: Age, sex place of residence, socio-economic status, age of onset of asthma, no of siblings, fuel used for cooking, smoking,...

  7. Association of Socioeconomic Factors and Sedentary Lifestyle in Belgrade’s Suburb, Working Class Community

    KONEVIC, Slavica; Martinovic, Jelena; Djonovic, Nela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sedentary lifestyle represents a growing health problem and considering that there is already a range of unhealthy habits that are marked as health risk factors and the increasing prevalence of sedentary lifestyle worldwide, we aimed to investigate association of sedentary way of living in suburb, working class local community with socioec-onomic determinants such as educational level, occupation and income status.Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, 1126 indepe...

  8. Research on cultural and socioeconomic factors in criminal violence.

    Messner, S F

    1988-12-01

    This article has discussed two particularly influential approaches to the explanation of the role of social factors in criminal violence. One of these approaches emphasizes cultural orientations and the other, socioeconomic deprivation. The cultural perspective depicts criminal violence as the outcome of normal processes of social learning. Certain groups allegedly endorse values that are supportive of violent behavior. Consequently, well-socialized members of these groups are predisposed to employ violence as a means for dealing with common, interpersonal disputes. One variant of the cultural approach, the "thesis of a subculture of violence," has been used to explain the high rates of criminal violence that have been widely observed for certain sociodemographic groups in society. A similar type of argument has been formulated to account for high levels of homicide in the southern part of the United States. In this latter argument, a "regional culture of violence" has been hypothesized. Both of these arguments describe values supportive of violence as being deviant from the dominant values of society. A third cultural approach attributes violent behavior to values favorable to violence that are part of the dominant culture. The research pertaining to these cultural arguments is best described as inconclusive. In general, stronger support for the cultural perspective can be found in the qualitative evidence in comparison with the quantitative data. This may reflect the difficulties in devising truly satisfactory, quantitative measures of cultural orientations. The cultural approach nevertheless continues to be regarded by many as a useful way of explaining the social distribution of violent crime largely because of the supportive qualitative evidence and the rather compelling logic of the substantive arguments. The socioeconomic approach offers a slightly different explanation for violent crime. The key causal factors here are not so much positive cultural

  9. Socioeconomic factors and complete edentulism in north karnataka population.

    Nagaraj, E; Mankani, N; Madalli, P; Astekar, D

    2014-03-01

    Complete edentulism is the terminal outcome of a multifactorial process involving biological factors and patient related factors. Tooth loss associated with periodontal disease and caries has an apparent impact on an individual's quality of life, and has been associated with lower levels of satisfaction with life and a lower morale. The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. The distribution and prevelance of complete edentulism between developed and less developed countries may be associated with a complex interrelationship between cultural, individual, attitude, behavior, dental attendance, etiopathogenesis of edentulism, access to care and socioeconomic factors. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. In order to plan for future oral health care provisions for the society, collecting epidemiological data on oral health particularly related to prosthodontics and its related issues are very important. PMID:24604994

  10. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact. PMID:26059537

  11. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AND ADOPTION OF ENERGY CROPS

    Haluk Gedikoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study analyzes the socio-economic factors that impact farmers’ willingness to grow switchgrass and miscanthus in Missouri and Iowa. The results of the current study show that current level of farmers’ willingness to grow for either crop is low. Hence, there are barriers to accomplishing the goal of producing 21 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuel by 2022. It is also found that currently growing energy crops is more attractive to small farms as a source of crop diversification, rather than an alternative crop production system in the big scale by large farms.

  12. Principal component analysis of socioeconomic factors and their association with malaria in children from the Ashanti Region, Ghana

    Adu-Sarkodie Yaw

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The socioeconomic and sociodemographic situation are important components for the design and assessment of malaria control measures. In malaria endemic areas, however, valid classification of socioeconomic factors is difficult due to the lack of standardized tax and income data. The objective of this study was to quantify household socioeconomic levels using principal component analyses (PCA to a set of indicator variables and to use a classification scheme for the multivariate analysis of children Methods In total, 1,496 children presenting to the hospital were examined for malaria parasites and interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. The information of eleven indicators of the family's housing situation was reduced by PCA to a socioeconomic score, which was then classified into three socioeconomic status (poor, average and rich. Their influence on the malaria occurrence was analysed together with malaria risk co-factors, such as sex, parent's educational and ethnic background, number of children living in a household, applied malaria protection measures, place of residence and age of the child and the mother. Results The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the proportion of children with malaria decreased with increasing socioeconomic status as classified by PCA (p Conclusions The socioeconomic situation is significantly associated with malaria even in holoendemic rural areas where economic differences are not much pronounced. Valid classification of the socioeconomic level is crucial to be considered as confounder in intervention trials and in the planning of malaria control measures.

  13. The Ecology of Young Children's Behaviour and Social Competence: Child Characteristics, Socio-Economic Factors and Parenting

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Using a longitudinal, UK representative sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, the present study examined the effects of socio-economic factors on mother- and teacher-rated behaviour, and the unique and cumulative contribution of both risk and protective factors inherent in children's proximal and distal influences to behaviour during the…

  14. Socioeconomic factors relating to diabetes and its management in India.

    Shrivastava, Usha; Misra, Anoop; Gupta, Rajeev; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is an escalating problem in India and has major socioeconomic dimensions. Rapid dietary changes coupled with decreased levels of physical activity have resulted in increases in obesity and diabetes in rural and semi-urban areas, as well as in urban-based people living in resettlement colonies. Increasing risk has also been recorded in those who suffered from poor childhood nutrition and in rural-to-urban migrants. Social inequity manifests in disparities in socioeconomic status (SES), place of residence, education, gender, and level of awareness and affects prevention, care, and management. All these population subsets have major socioeconomic challenges: low levels of awareness regarding diabetes and prevention, inadequate resources, insufficient allotment of healthcare budgets, and lack of medical reimbursement. Unawareness and delays in seeking medical help lead to complications, resulting in many-fold increased costs in diabetes care. These costs plunge individuals and households into a vicious cycle of further economic hardship, inadequate management, and premature mortality, resulting in more economic losses. At the societal level, these are massive losses to national productivity and the exchequer. Overall, there is an immediate need to strengthen the healthcare delivery system to generate awareness and for the prevention, early detection, cost-effective management, and rehabilitation of patients with diabetes, with a focus on people belonging to the lower SES and women (with a particular focus on nutrition before and during pregnancy). Because of an enhanced awareness campaign spearheaded through the National Program on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes and Stroke (NCPCDS) initiated by Government of India, it is likely that the level of awareness and early detection of diabetes may increase. PMID:26019052

  15. Dietary and socio-economic factors in relation to Helicobacter pylori re-infection

    Miroslaw Jarosz; Ewa Rychlik; Magdalena Siuba; Wioleta Respondek; Malgorzata Ry(z)ko-Skiba; Iwona Sajór; Sylwia Gugala; Tomasz Bla(z)ejczyk; Janusz Ciok

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine if dietary and socio-economic factors contribute to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) re-infection.METHODS: The population of patients consisted of subjects in whom H py/or/infection had been successfully treated in the past. Patients were divided into two groups;I-examined group (111 persons with Hpy/or/re-infection) and Ⅱ-control group (175 persons who had not been re-infected). The respondents were interviewed retrospectively on their dietary habits and socio-economic factors.RESULTS: A statistically significant lower frequency of fermented dairy products (P < 0.0001), vegetables (P = 0.02), and fruit (P = 0.008) consumption was noted among patients with H pylori re-infection as compared to those who had not been re-infected.CONCLUSION: High dietary intake of probiotic bacteria, mainly lactobacillus, and antioxidants, mainly vitamin C (contained in fruit and vegetables), might decrease the risk of Hpylori re-infection.

  16. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    ... factors can affect a person’s chance of getting cancer of the pancreas. Most of these are risk factors for exocrine ... Chronic pancreatitis, a long-term inflammation of the pancreas, is linked with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (especially in smokers), but most people with pancreatitis ...

  17. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh

    Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

  18. Association between migraine, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Le, Ngoc Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel;

    2011-01-01

    risk of migraine was significantly associated with lower level of schooling and education, retirement, unemployment, and smoking. A decreased risk of migraine was significantly associated with heavy physical exercise and intake of alcohol. Direct comparison between the subtypes showed a decreased risk...... of MA compared to MO in subjects with low education or weekly intake of alcohol. The risk of MA was increased compared to MO in unemployed or retired subjects. Direct comparison between sexes showed a decreased risk of migraine for men compared to women in subjects who were low educated, unemployed......To investigate whether sex-specific associations exist between migraine, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. We distinguished between the subtypes migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). In 2002, a questionnaire containing validated questions to diagnose migraine and questions on...

  19. Socioeconomic differences in risk of myocardial infarction 1971-1994 in Sweden

    Hallqvist, J; Lundberg, Mats; Diderichsen, Finn;

    1998-01-01

    The general trend in incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) in the Stockholm area changed from increasing to decreasing around 1980. The objective of this study is to examine time trends in incidence in major socioeconomic strata, relative risk between socioeconomic groups and population risk at...

  20. Mortality and socio-economic differences in Denmark: a competing risks proportional hazard model.

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Svarer, Michael

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores how mortality is related to such socio-economic factors as education, occupation, skill level and income for the years 1992-1997 using an extensive sample of the Danish population. We employ a competing risks proportional hazard model to allow for different causes of death. This method is important as some factors have unequal (and sometimes opposite) influence on the cause-specific mortality rates. We find that the often-found inverse correlation between socio-economic status and mortality is to a large degree absent among Danish women who die of cancer. In addition, for men the negative correlation between socio-economic status and mortality prevails for some diseases, but for women we find that factors such as being married, income, wealth and education are not significantly associated with higher life expectancy. Marriage increases the likelihood of dying from cancer for women, early retirement prolongs survival for men, and homeownership increases life expectancy in general. PMID:15722260

  1. FACTORS OF RISE OF LEVEL OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ENTERPRISES OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Zorina, O.

    2014-01-01

    In the article the analysis of factors, which affects socio-economic development of railway transport of Ukraine, is definite, priority of basic factors affecting socio-economic development of railway transport of Ukraine is offered, and the spheres of influence of external environment on development of railway transport are selected, the factors of rise of level of socio-economic development of enterprises of railway transport are grounded, influence of social factors on the change of level ...

  2. Socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk in rural indian adolescents: evidence from the Andhra Pradesh children and parents study (APCAPS)

    Kinra, S.; Johnson, M; Kulkarni, B; Rameshwar Sarma, K.V.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Smith, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined association between socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents to investigate whether childhood socio-economic position is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease, independently of adult behaviours. Study design and methods Participants (n = 1128, 46% girls, aged 13–18 years) were members of a birth cohort (Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study or APCAPS) established to investigate long-term effects of a pregnancy and chil...

  3. Socioeconomic factors and adolescent pregnancy outcomes: distinctions between neonatal and post-neonatal deaths?

    Flick Louise H

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young maternal age has long been associated with higher infant mortality rates, but the role of socioeconomic factors in this association has been controversial. We sought to investigate the relationships between infant mortality (distinguishing neonatal from post-neonatal deaths, socioeconomic status and maternal age in a large, retrospective cohort study. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked birth-death certificate data for Missouri residents during 1997–1999. Infant mortality rates for all singleton births to adolescent women (12–17 years, n = 10,131; 18–19 years, n = 18,954 were compared to those for older women (20–35 years, n = 28,899. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for all potential associations. Results The risk of infant (OR 1.95, CI 1.54–2.48, neonatal (1.69, 1.24–2.31 and post-neonatal mortality (2.47, 1.70–3.59 were significantly higher for younger adolescent (12–17 years than older (20–34 years mothers. After adjusting for race, marital status, age-appropriate education level, parity, smoking status, prenatal care utilization, and poverty status (indicated by participation in WIC, food stamps or Medicaid, the risk of post-neonatal mortality (1.73, 1.14–2.64 but not neonatal mortality (1.43, 0.98–2.08 remained significant for younger adolescent mothers. There were no differences in neonatal or post-neonatal mortality risks for older adolescent (18–19 years mothers. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors may largely explain the increased neonatal mortality risk among younger adolescent mothers but not the increase in post-neonatal mortality risk.

  4. Implications of family socioeconomic level on risk behaviors in child-youth obesity

    Villagran Pérez Sergio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Socioeconomical status may indirectly affect the obesity prevalence. This study gathers together dietary behaviour, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle in relation to the family socioeconomic status in a sample of Spanish children. Design: Population-based cross-sectional study of 3-16 years children. Methods: Questionnaires about dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyles, and direct anthropometric measures. Criteria of physical activity recommended was > 5METs (metabolic equivalence during 60 min/day, and sedentary lifestyle as 120 min/day of sedentary activities, using obesity criteria from the ENKID study. We derived a single "family socioeconomic level" indicator (FSEL from the level of studies, professional category and work situation of both parents. Results: 1620 children were studied. 59.5% met the physical activity recommendations. Boys with the higher FSEL quartile tend to do more physical activity. In girls, physical activity increases with the age and degree of overweight. 57.7% of boys and 48.1% of girls were found to be sedentary, with a lower rate in families with higher FSEL. Higher FSEL quartile was related to healthy dietary habits such as having breakfast, 5 meals per day and less snacking. The FSEL was related also to the consumption of whole grains, dairy products and fruits, but not to vegetables, meat or fish. The greatest risk of excess weight was found in girls > 6 years old, with a low FSEL, sedentary habits, that snack frequently and eat few proteins. Discussion: Family socioeconomic status seems to determine the level of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and dietary behavior. The elaboration of a simple socioeconomic indicator may be useful to study factors involved in child obesity.

  5. Risk factors for neoplasms

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG)

  6. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    ... for example), unusual symptoms such as headaches or short-term memory loss can be investigated with your family history in mind. Click here to view our webinars on Causes and Risk Factors of Brain Tumors. Additional information ...

  7. Understanding the relative importance of global dengue risk factors.

    Lowe, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted viral infection of major international public health concern. Global environmental and socio-economic change has created ideal conditions for the global expansion of dengue transmission. Innovative modelling tools help in understanding the global determinants of dengue risk and the relative impact of environmental and socio-economic factors on dengue transmission and spread. While climatic factors may act as a limiting factor on the global scale, other processes may play a dominant role at the local level. Understanding the spatial scales at which environmental and socio-economic factors dominate can help to target appropriate dengue control and prevention strategies. PMID:26311416

  8. Risk Factors of Cholangiocarcinoma

    Tyson, Gia L.; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2011-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy after hepatocellular cancer. It accounts for approximately 10–25% of all hepatobiliary malignancies. There are considerable geographic and demographic variations in the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma. There are several established risk factors for CC including parasitic infections, primary sclerosing cholangitis, biliary-duct cysts, hepatolithiasis, and toxins. Other less-established, potential risk factors include infla...

  9. Does childhood socioeconomic status influence adult health through behavioural factors?

    van de Mheen, Dike; Stronks, Karien; Looman, Caspar; Mackenbach, Johan

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS: Data were obtained from the baseline of a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands (13 854 respondents, aged between 25 and 74). Childhood socioeconomic group was indicated by occupation of the father, and adult health was ind...

  10. ABORTION IN RELATION TO SOME SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS

    A.Majd

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available The data for this study has been collected from a questionnaire examining the relationship between birth weight of the new born and some physical and socio-economic characteristics of the mother. Between Dec.1975 to Jan.1976, 1553 women who had referred to two hospitals in Tehran for labor: 981 to Farah Maternity and 572 to Firoozgar Hospital have been interviewed. The results of the study have indicated that women who had referred to Firoozgar Hospital, were older, more literate, had higher per capita income, used more contraceptives and had fewer pregnancies, all these figures are statistically significant. Regression analysis indicates that factors such as age of the mother, literacy, household income, husband's job position are not significant towards increase of abortion rate amongst these women, but when these factors are fixed and place of reference is analyzed this variable becomes significant, increase of abortion, which have not been considered in this study. Parity regardless of the above factors increases abortion rate and for each increase in the number of pregnancy, mean number of abortion is increased by 0.09.

  11. Young adolescents' wellbeing and health-risk behaviours: gender and socio-economic differences.

    Bergman, M M; Scott, J

    2001-04-01

    In this paper we use the 1994-1997 Youth Surveys of the British Household Panel Study to examine the wellbeing of young adolescents. We conceptualize wellbeing as a multi-dimensional construct and we develop and test models of gender and age differences. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we find clear gender differences in self-esteem, self-efficacy, unhappiness and worries. We confirm that wellbeing and some health-risk behaviours (fighting and smoking) are linked. We test models that examine how family structure, father's occupation, tenure, and household income, affect adolescent wellbeing. While socio-economic factors affect health-risk behaviours and also adolescents' reported worries, they have little impact on other aspects of youth wellbeing. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:11437479

  12. Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan

    Takano Takehito

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.

  13. The impact of socioeconomic factors on 30-day mortality following elective colorectal cancer surgery: A nationwide study

    Frederiksen, B L; Osler, M; Harling, H;

    2009-01-01

    We investigated postoperative mortality in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) in electively operated colorectal cancer patients, and evaluated whether social inequalities were explained by factors related to patient, disease or treatment. Data from the nationwide database of Danish Colorectal.......58-0.93). Differences in comorbidity and to a lesser extent lifestyle characteristics accounted for the excess risk of postoperative death among low-SES patients.......We investigated postoperative mortality in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) in electively operated colorectal cancer patients, and evaluated whether social inequalities were explained by factors related to patient, disease or treatment. Data from the nationwide database of Danish Colorectal...

  14. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855

  15. Does childhood socioeconomic status influence adult health through behavioural factors?

    H. van de Mheen (Dike); K. Stronks (Karien); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS: Da

  16. Land Use Change and Its Determinant Factors in Northern Laos: Spatial and Socio-economic Analysis

    Southavilay Boundeth; Teruaki Nanseki; Shigeyoshi Takeuchi; Tetsuo SATHO

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use areoften associated with policy implementation and socio-economic factors. The objective of this study was to interpret the patterns of land use and changes in land cover with a watershed area, especially focusing on the detection of change of agricultural land. The socio-economic factors contributing to land change was also analyzed. This study adopted both spatial and socio-economic analysis with remote sensing and logistic regression model. Land use maps of the study ar...

  17. Environmental and socio-economic risk modelling for Chagas disease in Bolivia

    Paula Mischler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurately defining disease distributions and calculating disease risk is an important step in the control and prevention of diseases. Geographical information systems (GIS and remote sensing technologies, with maximum entropy (Maxent ecological niche modelling computer software, were used to create predictive risk maps for Chagas disease in Bolivia. Prevalence rates were calculated from 2007 to 2009 household infection survey data for Bolivia, while environmental data were compiled from the Worldclim database and MODIS satellite imagery. Socio-economic data were obtained from the Bolivian National Institute of Statistics. Disease models identified altitudes at 500-3,500 m above the mean sea level (MSL, low annual precipitation (45-250 mm, and higher diurnal range of temperature (10-19 °C; peak 16 °C as compatible with the biological requirements of the insect vectors. Socio-economic analyses demonstrated the importance of improved housing materials and water source. Home adobe wall materials and having to fetch drinking water from rivers or wells without pump were found to be highly related to distribution of the disease by the receiver operator characteristic (ROC area under the curve (AUC (0.69 AUC, 0.67 AUC and 0.62 AUC, respectively, while areas with hardwood floors demonstrated a direct negative relationship (-0.71 AUC. This study demonstrates that Maxent modelling can be used in disease prevalence and incidence studies to provide governmental agencies with an easily learned, understandable method to define areas as either high, moderate or low risk for the disease. This information may be used in resource planning, targeting and implementation. However, access to high-resolution, sub-municipality socio-economic data (e.g. census tracts would facilitate elucidation of the relative influence of poverty-related factors on regional disease dynamics.

  18. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors as predictors of low birth weight in term pregnancies in Niš

    Stojanović Miodrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Low birth weight (LBW is a result of preterm birth or intrauterine growth retardation, and in both cases is the strongest single factor associated with perinatal and neonatal mortality. It is considered that socioeconomic factors, as well as mothers bad habits, play the most significant role in the development of LBW, which explains notable number of researches focused on this particular problem. The aim of this study was to characterize socioeconomic factors, as well as smoking habits of the mothers, and their connection with LBW. Methods. The questionnaire was carried out among mothers of 2 years old children (n = 956, born after 37 gestational weeks. The characteristics of mothers who had children with LBW, defined as < 2 500 g, (n = 50, were matched with the characteristics of mothers who had children ≥ 2 500 g, (n = 906. For defining risk factors, and protective factors as well, we used univariant and multivariant logistic modeles. Results. As significant risk factors for LBW in an univariant model we had education level of the mothers, smoking during pregnancy, smoking before pregnancy, the number of daily cigarettes, the number of cigarettes used during pregnancy, paternal earnings and socioeconomic factors. In a multivariant model the most significant factors were socioeconomic factors, education level of the mothers, paternal earnings and mothers smoking during pregnancy. Conclusion. Smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors have great influence on LBW. Future studies should be carried out in different social groups, with the intention to define their influence on LBW and reproduction, as well. This should be the proper way of adequate health breeding planning for giving up smoking, the prevention of bad habits and melioration of mothers and children health, as the most vulnerable population.

  19. Socio-economic factors influencing sustainable water supply in Botswana.

    Lado, C

    1997-01-01

    This study examined water use patterns in Botswana, and socioeconomic and political factors that influence sustainable water supply, and discusses water conservation and high sustainable levels of supply and demand; the market structure and its prices, costs, and subsidies; and sustainable water supplies. Data were obtained from unpublished workshop papers on integrated water resource management from seminars conducted in 1994, at the University of Botswana's Department of Environmental Science. Rainfall varied by location. Evaporation is about 4 times the average annual precipitation, which leads to continual water deficiency. Water supplies are based on ground and surface water in the ratio of 2:1. Groundwater is only partly renewable. Surface water is renewable only under the circumstance of sufficient rain and maintained storage capacity. Conservation of water is affected by the high rates of evaporation, few suitable dam sites, high temporal variability of runoff and large surface water storage capacity, the constraints of semi-arid environments, the normally critical water balance, rapid population growth and concentrations in urban areas, economic conditions, and the general increase in living conditions. The governments need to strengthen control over non-market water use and to provide sufficient incentives for efficient water use. Water prices should increase in order to reflect the total economic value, regardless of the political consequences. There are needs to protect water catchment areas and to clarify ownership of water resources. Control of demand should include prioritizing water consumption. PMID:12348506

  20. Financial capability, money attitudes and socioeconomic status: risks for experiencing adverse financial events

    von Stumm, Sophie; Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The risk of experiencing adverse financial events (e.g. bankruptcy) depends on the world economy and on individual differences in financial and psychological variables. Analysing data from 109,472 British survey respondents, this study reports the risks associated with financial capabilities, money attitudes, and socio-economic status for suffering negative financial outcomes. The results show that (1) socio-economic status is associated with financial capabilities but not with money attitude...

  1. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management

    Mehta, Puja K.; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to established risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman’s risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger wome...

  2. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    ... Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Heart Disease Risk Factors Recommend ... Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke File Formats Help: How do ...

  3. EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS ON CONSUMPTION OF SELECTED FOOD NUTRIENTS

    Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of socioeconomic and demographic factors on the consumption of food energy, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, phosphorus, and iron are examined. Socioeconomic and demographic factors analyzed are urbanization, region, race, ethnicity, sex, employment status, food stamp participation, household size, weight, height, age, and income. Several of these factors significantly affect consumption of certain nutrients. Income is an important factor affect...

  4. Risk factors for presbycusis in a socio-economic middle-class sample Estudo de fatores de risco para presbiacusia em indivíduos de classe sócio-econômica média

    Cláudia Simônica de Sousa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Presbycusis, or the aging ear, involves mainly the inner ear and the cochlear nerve, causing sensorineural hearing loss. Risk factors include systemic diseases and poor habits that cause inner ear damage and lead to presbycusis. Correct identification of these risk factors is relevant for prevention. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence and to identify the risk factors of presbycusis in a sample aged over 40 years. Study design: a retrospective case series. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: medical records of 625 patients were evaluated. Presbycusis was identified using pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and impedance testing of all patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of presbycusis was 36.1%; the mean age was 50.5 years ranging from 40 to 86 years; 85.5% were male and 14.5% werf female. Age, the male gender, diabetes mellitus, and hereditary hearing loss were identified as risk factors. Cardiovascular diseases, smoking and consumption of alcohol were not confirmed as risk factors, although these have often been mentioned as risk factors for presbycusis. CONCLUSION: Notwithstanding the idea that presbycusis has multiple risk factors, this study identified few risk factors for this disease.A presbiacusia é consequência de lesões histopatológicas da orelha interna e nervo coclear e leva à deficiência auditiva sensório-neural. Fatores de risco como doenças sistêmicas e hábitos inadequados são agravantes para presbiacusia. A identificação destes fatores é relevante para sua prevenção. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência da presbiacusia e correlacionar eventuais fatores de risco numa amostra populacional. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de série de casos com amostragem aleatória de 625 prontuários de indiv��duos sem e com presbiacusia determinada por avaliação audiológica convencional. Foi feita a análise da associação da presbiacusia com fatores de risco pré-estabelecidos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência da presbiacusia foi de 36

  5. Association between obesity and socioeconomic factors and lifestyle

    Grujić Vera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and it is a manifestation of the epidemics of a sedentary lifestyle and excessive energy intake. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population of the Province of Vojvodina, Serbia, and to examine the association between obesity and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Methods. A cross-sectional study conducted in the Province of Vojvodina in 2006 involved 3 854 participants aged 20 years and over (1 831 men and 2 023 women. The study was a countinuation of the baseline study conducted in 2000 (n = 2 840, 1 255 men and 1 585 women. The main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (Body Mass Index - BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, sociodemographic factors, including nutrition habits - having breakfast everyday and television watching frequency. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in both sexes in 2006 was 57.4% (35.7% were overweight and 21.7% obese. The prevalence of overweight was higher in men (41.1% than in women (30.9% (p < 0.001 while obesity was higher in women (23.1% as compared to men (20.2% (p = 0.035. For both sexes, overweight rates were highest at the age 60-69 (men 44.8% and women 39.1% while obesity rates were peaked to men aged 50-59 (25.1% and women aged 60-69 years (37.8%. Increasing ageing, males, rural population, single examinees, lower educational level, improved income, examinees that never/sometimes have breakfast and frequently watch TV were associated with obesity. Conclusions. The population of Vojvodina, with 23.1% obese women and 20.2% obese men is one of severely affected European populations. High prevalence of obesity requires urgent public health action. Healthy lifestyle, balanced nutrition with low energy intake and increased physical activity have to be promoted within a prevention strategy and obesity management.

  6. 社会经济状况对北京市急性心肌梗死患者心血管疾病危险因素分布和临床治疗的影响%Effects of socioeconomic status on the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors and clinical treatments of patients with acute myocardial infarction in Beijing

    冯齐; 张新全; 胡大一; 杨进刚; 孙艺红; 卢长林; 张守彦; 宋莉; 张清潭; 武东

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of socioeconomic status on the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors and clinical treatments of patients with acute myocardial infarction in Beijing.Methods In Beijing, a prospective, muhi-center, registration study was carried out which including 800 patients who were consecutively hospitalized for ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction within 24 hours after event attack in 19 different hospitals in Beijing between November, 2005 and December, 2006.Indicators of socioeconomic status included self-reported personal income (<500, 500-2000,>2000 RMB/month), educational attainment (≤ 12 and > 12 years) and status of medical insurance (yes/no).According to categories of education, patients were categorized into two groups of lower socioeconomic status and higher socioeconomic status. Differences of cardiovascular risk factors and clinical treatments were compared across the two groups respectively. Results Proportion of diabetes and hyperlipidemia in patients with higher socioeconomic status was much higher than that of patients with lower socioeconomic status (P<0.05, P<0.01 respectively). Patients with lower socioeconomic status were more likely to be smokers (P <0.05). The rates of receiving coronary angiography and PTCA were much lower in patients with lower socioeconomic status. Medical insurance and income were the most important two socioeconomic factors determining the use of PTCA. Conclusion Compared to patients with lower socioeconomic status,patients with higher socioeconomic status had higher rates of hyperlipidemia and diabetes but lower smoking rate among cardiovascular risk factors. The rates of receiving interventional therapies were much lower in patients with lower socioeconomic status.%目的 评估社会经济状况对北京市急性心肌梗死患者心血管疾病危险因素分布和临床治疗的影响.方法 数据来源于前瞻性、多中心、注册研究.包括2005年11

  7. Breast cancer risk factors.

    Kamińska, Marzena; Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  8. Breast cancer risk factors

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  9. Breast cancer risk factors

    Marzena Kamińska; Tomasz Ciszewski; Karolina Łopacka-Szatan; Paweł Miotła; Elżbieta Starosławska

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neopla...

  10. Neonatal Stroke : Risk Factors

    2005-01-01

    Neonatal stroke refers to cerebrovascular events between 28 weeks of gestational age and 28 days postnatal and includes thromboembolic cerebral infarction and all kinds of intracranial haemorrhage. Neonatal stroke may contribute to severe neurological deficit, such as cerebral palsy and even death. International reports suggest the incidence to be approximately 1/4000 live births per year (1). There are several etiological hypothesises regarding risk factors, such as maternal, obstetrical...

  11. Socioeconomic and Ecological Factors Influencing Aedes aegypti Prevalence, Abundance, and Distribution in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Dhar-Chowdhury, Parnali; Haque, C Emdad; Lindsay, Robbin; Hossain, Shakhawat

    2016-06-01

    This study examined household risk factors and prevalence, abundance, and distribution of immature Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and their association with socioeconomic and ecological factors at urban zonal and household levels in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. During the 2011 monsoon, 826 households in 12 randomly selected administrative wards were surveyed for vector mosquitoes. Results revealed that the abundance and distribution of immature Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and pupae-per-person indices did not vary significantly among the zones with varied socioeconomic status. Of 35 different types of identified wet containers, 30 were infested, and among the 23 pupae-positive container types, nine were defined as the "most productive" for pupae including: disposable plastic containers (12.2% of 550), sealable plastic barrels (12.0%), tires (10.4%), abandoned plastic buckets (9.6%), flower tub and trays (8.5%), refrigerator trays (6.5%), plastic bottles (6.4%), clay pots (4.9%), and water tanks (1.6%). When the function of the containers was assessed, ornamental, discarded, and household repairing and reconstruction-related container categories were found significantly associated with the number of pupae in the households. The purpose of storing water and income variables were significant predictors of possession of containers that were infested by vector mosquitoes. PMID:27022149

  12. Strong regional links between socio-economic background factors and disability and mortality in Oslo, Norway

    Study objective: To study geographical differences in mortality and disability and sosio-economic status in Oslo, Norway. Setting: A total of 25 local authority districts within the city of Oslo. Design: Analysis of age adjusted mortality rates aged 0-74 in the period 1991-1994, and cross sectional data on disability pensioners aged 50-66 and socio-economic indicators (low education, single parenthood, unemployment, high income) in 1994. Main outcome measures: The levels of correlation between the health outcomes (mortality and disability) and sosio-economic exposure variables. Main results: The geographical patterns of mortality and disability display substantial similarities and show strong linear correlation with area measures of socio-economic deprivation. The ratios between the highest and lowest area mortality rates were 3.3 for men and 2.1 for women, while the high-low ratios of disability were 7.0 for men and 3.8 for women. For women deprivation measures are better correlated with disability than mortality. While disability and mortality display similar correlations with deprivation measures for men. Conclusions: The social gradients in health are substantial in Oslo. Further ecological analysis of cause specific morbidity and mortality and the distribution of risk factors ought to be done to identify problem areas suitable for interventions. However, to understand the mechanisms and the relative importance of each etiological factor, studies based on individual data have to be performed

  13. Predicting harsh discipline in at-risk mothers: the moderating effect of socioeconomic deprivation severity

    Pereira, Mariana Monteiro de Aguiar; Negrão, Mariana; Soares, Isabel; Mesman, Judi

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage is an important predictor of maternal harsh discipline, but few studies have examined risk mechanisms for harsh parenting within disadvantaged samples. In the present study, parenting stress, family conflict, and child difficult temperament are examined as predictors of maternal harsh discipline among a group of 58 mothers from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds and their young children between the ages of 1- to 4-years-old. Maternal harsh discipline was me...

  14. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  15. Risk Parity Portfolios with Risk Factors

    Roncalli, Thierry; Weisang, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Portfolio construction and risk budgeting are the focus of many studies by academics and practitioners. In particular, diversification has spawn much interest and has been defined very differently. In this paper, we analyze a method to achieve portfolio diversification based on the decomposition of the portfolio's risk into risk factor contributions. First, we expose the relationship between risk factor and asset contributions. Secondly, we formulate the diversification problem in terms of ri...

  16. Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from 222 120 individuals

    Kivimaki, M.; Virtanen, M; Kawachi, I; Nyberg, ST; Alfredsson, L; Batty, GD; Bjorner, JB; Borritz, M; Brunner, EJ; Burr, H; Dragano, N.; Ferrie, JE; Fransson, EI; Hamer, M.; Heikkila, K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Methods We identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (c...

  17. Socioeconomic status and overweight prevalence in polish adolescents: the impact of single factors and a complex index of socioeconomic status in respect to age and sex.

    Joanna Kowalkowska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex.This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards.The odds ratio (OR for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P < 0.05 by Polish standards and 0.22 (95%CI:0.05-0.95; P < 0.05 by international standards, in comparison to the reference group (low SESI. In total girls who had mothers with higher education level, the OR adjusted for age was 0.44 (95%CI:0.21-0.90; P <0.05 by Polish standards and 0.35 (95%CI:0.15-0.81; P < 0.05 by international standards, in comparison to the reference group (maternal elementary education. The other single SES factors were not significant for overweight prevalence.The relationship between socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls.

  18. Sleep complaints in the Brazilian population: Impact of socioeconomic factors

    Hirotsu, Camila; Bittencourt, Lia; Garbuio, Silverio; Andersen, Monica Levy; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    National surveys are relevant for the study of sleep epidemiology since they can provide specific data about sleep in large dimension with important implications for the health system. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep complaints among the Brazilian population using a randomized cluster sample according to region and socioeconomic class. For this, a 3-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select Brazilian subjects of both genders older than 16 year...

  19. Residential segregation of blacks in Virginia cities :assessing socioeconomic factors

    Ji, Weidong

    1993-01-01

    Using data from the 1990 Census of Population and Housing, the relationship between socioeconomic status and residential distribution was examined for the black population in four Virginia cities, Lynchburg, Roanoke, Norfolk, and Richmond. Three indexes were employed to measure degrees of segregation at the census tract level. These indexes were, dissimilarity, interaction, and isolation. The dissimilarity index is a measure of the evenness of residential distribution ...

  20. Rate of Missing Socioeconomic Factors in the 4th KNHANES

    Park, Hyun Ah

    2012-01-01

    This study is to assess how missing values in socioeconomic status (SES) variables were handled in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine (KJFM) article using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data and to estimate the rate of missing SES variables from the 4th KNHANES. We searched all original articles published in the KJFM from 2007 to 2011 and identified those that used KNHANES as their primary source of data. None of the 11 articles which presented KNHANES...

  1. Socioeconomic context in area of living and risk of myocardial infarction: results from Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP)

    Kölegård Stjärne, M; Diderichsen, F; Reuterwall, C; Hallqvist, J

    2002-01-01

    ; class structure, social exclusion and poverty. Among men, there were increased relative risks of similar magnitudes (1.28 to 1.33) in the more deprived areas according to all three dimensions of the socioeconomic context. However, when adjusting for individual exposures, the poverty factor had the......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse if socioeconomic characteristics in area of living affect the risk of myocardial infarction in a Swedish urban population, and to evaluate to what extent the contextual effect is confounded by the individual exposures. DESIGN: A population based case-referent study...... (SHEEP). SETTING: Cases (n=1631) were all incident first events of myocardial infarction during 1992-1994. The study base included all Swedish citizens aged 45-70 years, living in Stockholm metropolitan area during these years. The social context of all metropolitan parishes (n=89) was determined by...

  2. What Are the Risk Factors?

    ... Links Stay Informed Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from your cell phone Research has found several risk factors that may increase your chances of getting lung ...

  3. Multidimensional health modeling: Association between socioeconomic and psychosocial factors and health in Latvia

    Irina, Mozhaeva

    2009-01-01

    This research aims at estimating association between socioeconomic and psychosocial factors on the one hand and health in Latvia on the other hand. While information on association between socioeconomic determinants of population health in Latvia is scarce, effect of psychosocial resources on individual health in this country hasn’t been estimated before. We find empirical support for the association between different psychosocial factors and physical health in Latvia. This paper proposes ...

  4. Association between migraine, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether sex-specific associations exist between migraine, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. We distinguished between the subtypes migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). In 2002, a questionnaire containing validated questions to diagnose migraine and questions on lifestyle and socioeconomic factors was sent to 46,418 twin individuals residing in Denmark. 31,865 twin individuals aged 20–71 were included. The twins are representative of the Danish population wit...

  5. The Influence of Socio-Economic Factors upon Public Health on the Example of Podkarpackie Voivodship

    Kretowicz Paweł

    2010-01-01

    This study concentrates on intraregional disparities in health and spatial distribution of socio-economic factors that may affect health outcomes. The example of Podkarpackie voivodship rural and urban areas provides viable evidence for at least the partial importance of socio-economic variables in explaining intraregional health disparities. A total of eight factors that influence hospitalization rate were distinguished for urban and rural areas. Global regression models were created using t...

  6. Impacts of socioeconomic factors on monthly electricity consumption of China's sectors

    Jing-Li Fan; Bao-Jun Tang; Hao Yu; Yun-Bing Hou; Yi-Ming Wei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report 4 sets of 8 multivariate regression equations, introducing the socioeconomic factors for the estimation models of monthly electricity consumption in the primary, secondary, tertiary industry, and the household sectors, to study the quantitative effects of socioeconomic factors (electricity real price, activity level, income, holiday, etc.). The results demonstrate that the price elasticity of electricity demand in the household and the secondary industry sectors is si...

  7. Socio-Economic Factors, Food Habits and Phosphorus Levels in Patients on Hemodialysis

    Santoro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Hyperphosphoremia is one of the most important risk factors for morbidity and mortality for chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, and also, for the general population. Excessive dietary intake of phosphate (P is one of the key factors. In particular, P in its inorganic form, which is contained in food additives, is more readily absorbed. Unfortunately, these food additives are mostly present in convenience so called “fast foods” (pre-cooked, soft drinks, which represent the typical food consumed by our hemodialysis (HD population, composed by elderly people, mostly low-socio economic class, who often live alone. Objectives We performed an observational retrospective multicenter study to find any association between social, cultural and economic situation, as well as food habits, and P levels in a cohort of patients on HD. Secondarily; we also examined the association between the fast food consumption and increased P levels, as well as patient compliance for P binding products. Patients and Methods To explore the association between socio-economic factors and serum P levels, we enrolled 100 patients on periodic HD treatment from three different units. Information on social, cultural, economic, diet habits, therapy for hyperphosphoremia and hematological and clinical parameters had been collected through specific questionnaires, administered by a physician. Results Results showed serum P level was reduced in patients who live alone compared to patients in family (P = 0.04, in self-sufficient (P = 0.05 and in patients belonging to middle-upper class, versus low-class (P = 0.003. Fast foods intake correlates with increase in P serum levels (P = 0.002, whilst the same correlation was not found for cheese intake. Our data show that socio-economic status and food habits are useful predictors of P serum levels. Conclusions In conclusion, dietary counseling of patients on HD is mandatory. Interventions that consider the socio-economic

  8. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  9. Socioeconomic position and the risk of preterm birth--a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bjørk, Christina; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2008-01-01

    mediating role of selected individual level risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain) were estimated, using Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Mothers with <10 years of education had an elevated risk of preterm birth compared with...... mediate the association. METHODS: The hazard ratios (HR) of preterm birth associated with five different measures of socioeconomic position and three degrees of preterm birth were analysed in a dataset of 75 890 singleton pregnancies (1996-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. This, and the...

  10. Multiple risk behaviour in adolescence and socio-economic status: findings from a UK birth cohort

    Kipping, Ruth R.; Smith, Michèle; Heron, Jon; Hickman, Matthew; Campbell, Rona

    2014-01-01

    Background. Patterns of risk behaviour during teenage years may vary by socio-economic status (SES). We aimed to examine possible associations between individual and multiple risk behaviours and three measures of SES in mid-adolescence. Methods. The sample (n = 6406) comprised participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK birth cohort. Thirteen risk behaviours spanning sexual health, substance use, self-harm, vehicle-related injury, criminality and physical inact...

  11. Spatiotemporal analysis of the relationship between socioeconomic factors and stroke in the Portuguese mainland population under 65 years old.

    Oliveira, André; Cabral, António J R; Mendes, Jorge M; Martins, Maria R O; Cabral, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Stroke risk has been shown to display varying patterns of geographic distribution amongst countries but also between regions of the same country. Traditionally a disease of older persons, a global 25% increase in incidence instead was noticed between 1990 and 2010 in persons aged 20-≤64 years, particularly in low- and medium-income countries. Understanding spatial disparities in the association between socioeconomic factors and stroke is critical to target public health initiatives aiming to mitigate or prevent this disease, including in younger persons. We aimed to identify socioeconomic determinants of geographic disparities of stroke risk in people negative binomial global regression models were used to explore determinants of disease risk. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) represents a distinctive approach, allowing estimation of local regression coefficients. Models for both study periods were identified. Significant variables included education attainment, work hours per week and unemployment. Local Poisson GWR models achieved the best fit and evidenced spatially varying regression coefficients. Spatiotemporal inequalities were observed in significant variables, with dissimilarities between men and women. This study contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between stroke and socioeconomic factors in the population <65 years of age, one age group seldom analysed separately. It can thus help to improve the targeting of public health initiatives, even more in a context of economic crisis. PMID:26618315

  12. Stroke - risk factors

    ... Risk of stroke goes up with age. Your gender. Men have a higher risk of getting heart disease than women, except in older adults. Your genes and race. If your parents had a stroke, you are at higher risk. ...

  13. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry; Haargaard, Birgitte; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Holmes, Jonathan M; Melbye, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  14. Early modifiable risk factors for childhood and adolescent mental health

    Leung, Cherry

    2015-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent mental health is a major public health concern. Childhood behavioral problems and low self-esteem can predispose children to future depression. Mental health issues often emerge in adolescence making examination of potential early modifiable risk factors for these three mental health indicators crucial. Potential risk factors for mental health issues often reflect findings from Western settings where confounding by low socioeconomic position may occur, making it diffi...

  15. Intake of wholegrain products is associated with dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric and socio-economic factors in Denmark

    Egeberg, Rikke; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Olsen, Anja;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between wholegrain products intake and other dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric and socio-economic factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, with data on diet, lifestyle and socio-economic factors obtained from questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were...... collected by trained professionals. Multiple linear and principal components regression analyses were used in statistical analyses. SETTING: Part of the Diet, Cancer and Health study, a prospective cohort study to evaluate the aetiological role of diet on cancer risk, conducted in the greater Copenhagen...... identified by principal components analysis yielded similar results. Also, wholegrain products intake was positively associated with cycling, taking dietary supplements and high school education, and negatively associated with intake of alcohol, BMI and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Intake of wholegrain products...

  16. Association between socioeconomic factors and sleep quality in an urban population-based sample in Germany

    Anders, Markus P; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good sleep quality is essential for recovery. The risk factors of sleep disorders have been extensively investigated, but there is sparse information on the association of socioeconomic factors with a person's sleep quality. The aim of the present analysis is to investigate this assoc...... quality. Several factors, such as anxiety, depression and health status, are associated with poorer sleep quality, but at the same time, these factors occur more often within lower social classes....... from the baseline survey taken in 2004. Sleep quality for the same participants was measured with in-depth personal interviews in 2006 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, together with other relevant characteristics (e.g. anxiety, depression and health status). Multiple logistic regression...... analyses were performed. RESULTS: People living in an urban environment with a high or medium SES have a greater probability of good sleep quality (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.14; odds ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.69) than persons with a low SES. Anxiety and depression...

  17. Factors associated with educational aspirations among adolescents: cues to counteract socioeconomic differences?

    Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Tavel, Peter; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Abel, Thomas, 1968-; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2010-01-01

    Our study aims to follow this effort and to explore the association between health, socioeconomic background, school-related factors, social support and adolescents' sense of coherence and educational aspirations among adolescents from different educational tracks and to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the role of educational aspirations in the social reproduction of health inequalities. We expect that socioeconomic background will contribute to the development of educational ...

  18. Some Socio-economic Factors affecting Solid Wastes Generation and Disposal in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria

    Kayode, A. M.; Omole, F. K.

    2011-01-01

    This study adopted a survey design. Questionnaire was administered on 215 respondents in Ibadan metropolis selected randomly. The objectives of the study are to examined the influence of some socio-economic factors on solid waste generation and disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. The nature and composition of solid waste generated, methods of disposal and relationship that exist between the socio-economic characteristics of the people and solid waste generation and disposal were also identified...

  19. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  20. Role Models and the Psychological Characteristics That Buffer Low-Socioeconomic-Status Youth from Cardiovascular Risk

    Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…

  1. Mental Disorders and Socioeconomic Status: Impact on Population Risk of Attempted Suicide in Australia

    Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The population attributable risk (PAR) of mental disorders compared to indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) for attempted suicide was estimated for Australia. For mental disorders, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide was for anxiety disorders (males 28%; females 36%). For SES, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide in males was for…

  2. Socioeconomic risk moderates the link between household chaos and maternal executive function.

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-06-01

    We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling for other measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., verbal ability), and 2) this link would be strongest in the most socioeconomically distressed or lowest-socioeconomic status households. The diverse sample included 153 mothers from urban and rural areas who completed a questionnaire and a battery of cognitive executive function tasks and a verbal ability task in the laboratory. Results were mixed for Hypothesis 1, and consistent with Hypothesis 2. Two-thirds of the variance overlapped between household chaos and maternal executive function, but only in families with high levels of socioeconomic risk. This pattern was not found for chaos and maternal verbal ability, suggesting that the potentially deleterious effects of household chaos may be specific to maternal executive function. The findings implicate household chaos as a powerful statistical predictor of maternal executive function in socioeconomically distressed contexts. PMID:22563703

  3. Musculoskeletal diseases and subsequent onset of need of help to mobility among nondisabled old people. Is the relationship influenced by socio-economic, psychosocial and behavioral factors

    Avlund, Kirsten; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Schroll, Marianne; Osler, Merete; Christensen, Ulla

    2000-01-01

    Social medicine, musculoskeletal diseases, changes, mobility, ageing, functional ability, socio-economic factors, psychosocial factors, behavioral factors......Social medicine, musculoskeletal diseases, changes, mobility, ageing, functional ability, socio-economic factors, psychosocial factors, behavioral factors...

  4. Genetic Risk Factors

    Full Text Available ... of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, causes a greatly increased risk of breast cancer. Zora and her relatives who carry the gene also have an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Interviewer: When there was a ...

  5. Sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries - international perspectives

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    Diseases probably have their roots in a complex chain of environmental and behavioural events which are shaped by broader socioeconomic determinants. Most studies of sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries have been carried out in industrialized countries, but such reports from low- and mi...

  6. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  7. An analysis of socio-economic factors on poverty in Nyakallong (Matjhabeng Municipality) / Sefako Samuel Ramphoma

    Ramphoma, Sefako Samuel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to analyse the effect of socio-economic factors on poverty in Nyakallong. Nyakallong is a former Black township in the Free State Province of South Africa. The effect of the socio economic factors on poverty was analysed using an econometric model. The analysis was based on data collected by the researcher and three fieldworkers who conducted a survey of 412 households in Nyakallong in 2009. To calculate poverty rates and the effect of socio-economic factors, ...

  8. Microalbuminuria: a Cardiovascular Risk Factor

    ERCAN, Ertuğrul

    2010-01-01

    Albumin is a protein which is charged negatively. By correcting for the daily excretion of creatinine, the albumin creatinin ratio implicates the daily excretion of albumin in spot urine. Albuminuria is a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and the general population. Urinary albumin excretion is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, even after adjustment for risk factors. Risk has been shown to increase continuously with inc...

  9. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  10. The Effects of Socioeconomic and Environmental Factors on the Incidence of Dengue Fever in the Pearl River Delta, China, 2013.

    Xiaopeng Qi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of dengue fever (DF occurred in Guangdong Province, China in 2013 with the highest number of cases observed within the preceding ten years. DF cases were clustered in the Pearl River Delta economic zone (PRD in Guangdong Province, which accounted for 99.6% of all cases in Guangdong province in 2013. The main vector in PRD was Aedes albopictus. We investigated the socioeconomic and environmental factors at the township level and explored how the independent variables jointly affect the DF epidemic in the PRD.Six factors associated with the incidence of DF were identified in this project, representing the urbanization, poverty, accessibility and vegetation, and were considered to be core contributors to the occurrence of DF from the perspective of the social economy and the environment. Analyses were performed with Generalized Additive Models (GAM to fit parametric and non-parametric functions to the relationships between the response and predictors. We used a spline-smooth technique and plotted the predicted against the observed co-variable value. The distribution of DF cases was over-dispersed and fit the negative binomial function better. The effects of all six socioeconomic and environmental variables were found to be significant at the 0.001 level and the model explained 45.1% of the deviance by DF incidence. There was a higher risk of DF infection among people living at the prefectural boundary or in the urban areas than among those living in other areas in the PRD. The relative risk of living at the prefectural boundary was higher than that of living in the urban areas. The associations between the DF cases and population density, GDP per capita, road density, and NDVI were nonlinear. In general, higher "road density" or lower "GDP per capita" were considered to be consistent risk factors. Moreover, higher or lower values of "population density" and "NDVI" could result in an increase in DF cases.In this study, we presented an

  11. Chronic migraine: risk factors, mechanisms and treatment.

    May, Arne; Schulte, Laura H

    2016-08-01

    Chronic migraine has a great detrimental influence on a patient's life, with a severe impact on socioeconomic functioning and quality of life. Chronic migraine affects 1-2% of the general population, and about 8% of patients with migraine; it usually develops from episodic migraine at an annual conversion rate of about 3%. The chronification is reversible: about 26% of patients with chronic migraine go into remission within 2 years of chronification. The most important modifiable risk factors for chronic migraine include overuse of acute migraine medication, ineffective acute treatment, obesity, depression and stressful life events. Moreover, age, female sex and low educational status increase the risk of chronic migraine. The pathophysiology of migraine chronification can be understood as a threshold problem: certain predisposing factors, combined with frequent headache pain, lower the threshold of migraine attacks, thereby increasing the risk of chronic migraine. Treatment options include oral medications, nerve blockade with local anaesthetics or corticoids, and neuromodulation. Well-defined diagnostic criteria are crucial for the identification of chronic migraine. The International Headache Society classification of chronic migraine was recently updated, and now allows co-diagnosis of chronic migraine and medication overuse headache. This Review provides an up-to-date overview of the classification of chronic migraine, basic mechanisms and risk factors of migraine chronification, and the currently established treatment options. PMID:27389092

  12. Socioeconomic Factors and Complete Edentulism in North Karnataka Population

    Nagaraj, E.; Mankani, N.; Madalli, P.; Astekar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Complete edentulism is the terminal outcome of a multifactorial process involving biological factors and patient related factors. Tooth loss associated with periodontal disease and caries has an apparent impact on an individual’s quality of life, and has been associated with lower levels of satisfaction with life and a lower morale. The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases a...

  13. Social Class Differences in Secular Trends in Established Coronary Risk Factors over 20 Years: A Cohort Study of British Men from 1978–80 to 1998–2000

    Ramsay, S. E.; Whincup, P. H.; Hardoon, S. L.; L. T. Lennon; Morris, R. W.; Wannamethee, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in the UK since the late 1970s has declined more markedly among higher socioeconomic groups. However, little is known about changes in coronary risk factors in different socioeconomic groups. This study examined whether changes in established coronary risk factors in Britain over 20 years between 1978-80 and 1998-2000 differed between socioeconomic groups.Methods and Findings: A socioeconomically representative cohort of 7735 British men aged...

  14. Risk Factors for Teenage Fatherhood.

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Howard, Gregory J.

    1997-01-01

    Uses data from the Rochester Youth Development Study of urban youth (N=615) to identify early risk factors for the likelihood of becoming a teen father. Results show that teen fatherhood is related to a variety of risk factors, such as social class, educational performance, precocious sexual activity, and drug use. (RJM)

  15. Genetic Risk Factors

    Full Text Available ... option for high-risk women is to take tamoxifen, a drug long used to treat cancer. Dr. ... Zora Brown's case, for example, if we had tamoxifen out -- would that have helped? She sure would ...

  16. Genetic Risk Factors

    Full Text Available ... women who believe that having prophylactic mastectomy may prevent them from having breast cancer. I have a niece who's had prophylactic mastectomy. Announcer: Another preventative option for high-risk women is to take ...

  17. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  18. The Relationship among Antibiotic Consumption, Socioeconomic Factors and Climatic Conditions

    Fawziah Marra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic consumption in human populations is one of the factors responsible for the emergence of resistant organisms. It is important to track population-based data on an ongoing basis, and to explore the determinants of regional variation in antibiotic consumption.

  19. Geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Cambodia: do socioeconomic factors improve predictions?

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an

  20. Are familial factors underlying the association between socioeconomic position and prescription medicine?

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gerster, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Osler, Merete; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although well established, the association between socioeconomic position and health and health behaviour is not clearly understood, and it has been speculated that familial factors, for example, dispositional factors or exposures in the rearing environment, may be underlying the...... was still strongly associated with income in the intrapair analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Familial factors seem to account for part of the observed social inequality in filling of prescription medicine....

  1. SOCIOECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC HEALTH OUTCOMES

    Morales, Leo S.; Lara, Marielena; Raynard S. Kington; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; Escarce, José J.

    2002-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of t...

  2. Socioeconomic Risk Moderates the Link between Household Chaos and Maternal Executive Function

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chen, Nan; Wang, Zhe; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    We examined the link between household chaos (i.e., noise, clutter, disarray, lack of routines) and maternal executive function (i.e., effortful regulation of attention and memory), and whether it varied as a function of socioeconomic risk (i.e., single parenthood, lower mother and father educational attainment, housing situation, and father unemployment). We hypothesized that: 1) higher levels of household chaos would be linked with poorer maternal executive function, even when controlling f...

  3. Genetic Risk Factors

    Full Text Available ... having prophylactic mastectomy may prevent them from having breast cancer. I have a niece who's had prophylactic mastectomy. Announcer: Another preventative option for high-risk women is to take tamoxifen, a drug long used to treat cancer. Dr. Dewitty: In ...

  4. Genetic Risk Factors

    Full Text Available ... them and their health so much. I do worry that they are at risk and I wish they weren't. Announcer: For women who have the BRCA I gene, the most radical option is a prophylactic mastectomy, where healthy breasts are removed. This is effective in preventing ...

  5. Fatores socioeconômicos e dietéticos de risco para a anemia em crianças de 6 a 59 meses de idade Socioeconomic and dietary risk factors for anemia in children aged 6 to 59 months

    Maria A. A. Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar, utilizando modelagem estatística, os fatores de risco da anemia em crianças de 6 a 59 meses de idade no estado de Pernambuco, contemplando aspectos socioeconômicos e da dieta. MÉTODOS: A amostra constou de 746 crianças de 6 a 59 meses do estado de Pernambuco, nas quais foram realizados dosagem de hemoglobina e inquérito dietético recordatório de 24 horas. Foi analisado o risco de anemia em relação às variáveis socioeconômicas e de consumo alimentar, utilizando modelos de análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: Os fatores de risco para a anemia foram: alta proporção de calorias do leite de vaca, baixa densidade de ferro não-heme, baixa idade e baixa escolaridade materna, destacando-se que as crianças com menos de 24 meses apresentaram risco 3,61 vezes maior de serem anêmicas em relação às demais. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo reforça a importância de se conhecer o consumo alimentar das crianças no país para melhor estabelecer a sua associação com a ocorrência da anemia. Os resultados revelaram que os fatores que mais explicaram o risco de anemia foram, com relação à dieta, a maior proporção de calorias do leite de vaca e menor densidade de ferro não-heme, além de idade menor de 24 meses e baixa escolaridade materna.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to use statistical modeling to identify risk factors for anemia in children aged 6 to 59 months in the state of Pernambuco, covering socioeconomic and dietary aspects. METHODS: The sample comprised 746 children aged between 6 and 59 months from the state of Pernambuco. Their hemoglobin was assayed and a 24-hour dietary recall performed. Risk of anemia was analyzed with relation to socioeconomic variables and to dietary intakes, using multivariate analysis models. RESULTS: The risk factors for anemia were: a high proportion of calories from cow's milk, low density of nonheme iron, low age and low maternal

  6. The impact of socio-economic factors and incentives on farmers' inestment behaviour

    Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Lund, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how socio-economic factors and incentives affect farmers’ investment behaviour. The motivation is a need for a better quantitative knowledge of investment behaviour in order to support farmers’ investment decisions through extension services and public investment support...

  7. Socio-Economic Factors in the Application of Information and Communication Technologies in Nigerian Print Media.

    Ehikhamenor, Fabian A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses information and communication technologies (ICT) in Nigerian print media and explores socioeconomic factors associated with the adoption and use of ICT by the media. Topics include ICT in the Third World; organizational goals; profitability; organizational communication; productivity; openness of workers to change; inflation; wages;…

  8. Linking Socioeconomic Status to Social Cognitive Career Theory Factors: A Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Analysis

    Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);…

  9. New Perspectives on the Correlation of SAT Scores, High School Grades, and Socioeconomic Factors

    Zwick, Rebecca; Greif Green, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    In studies of the SAT, correlations of SAT scores, high school grades, and socioeconomic factors (SES) are usually obtained using a university as the unit of analysis. This approach obscures an important structural aspect of the data: The high school grades received by a given institution come from a large number of high schools, all of which have…

  10. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals.

  11. Association of familial risk with oral health, quality of life and socioeconomic variables

    Fabio Antonio Villa Nova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the relation of familial risk with oral health, quality of life and socioeconomic variables. Methods: cross-sectional observational study encompassing 311 individuals (18 to 71 years old living in the catchment area of four Family Health Units located in two municipalities of São Paulo state. The participants were evaluated according to: (1 clinical situation (CPO-D and treatment necessity; (2 self-perception oral health (OHIP-14, (3 quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF; and (4 socioeconomic status. The Coelho Scale was used for assessing familial risk. Data were analyzed using a multilevel model formed by fixed components (represented by the studied variables and random components (represented by the neighborhoods and the variances in the different levels. Results: the participants’ average age was 36.7 years old (SD=13, and the average CPO-D was 12.9 (SD=7.0. The average of the Coelho´s Risk Scale among the volunteers was 2.67, with a standard error of 0.32. The participants with higher total risk score were older individuals (p=0.0486 who lived in houses with more residents (p<0.001, who wereless educated (p=0.0137, who did not own a vehicle (p=0.0048, and who had a higher OHIP-14 score (p=0.0130. Conclusion: the familial risk scale was positively associated with the socioeconomic variables, and the individuals with higher familial risk score had worse self-perception of their oral health. However, they did not perceive themselves as having worse general quality of life.

  12. Growth evaluation of a group of children enrolled in public schools in Rabat, Morocco: the role of socioeconomic factors

    Cherkaoui Dekkaki I

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Imane Cherkaoui Dekkaki,1 Said Ettair,1 Toufik Meskini,1 Nabil Khalloufi,2 Nezha Mouane,1 Amina Barkat21Unité de Pédagogie et de Recherche en Nutrition, 2CRECET, Université Mohammed V, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Rabat, Souissi, Rabat, MoroccoObjectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and the socioeconomic risk factors among children enrolled in primary public schools in Rabat, Morocco.Methods: Twenty-three schools were randomly selected. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2010. The survey was conducted on the basis of two questionnaires for both parents and children. The references used were from the World Health Organization, 2007.Results: Our study focused on a sample of 1569 children whose average age was 9.7 ± 0.95 years. The prevalence of underweight among girls and boys was 43.1%, while that of stunting was 18.2%. The majority of the children in our population come from a low socioeconomic level. While 59% of fathers are laborers, 85% of mothers are unemployed.Conclusion: In our study, we demonstrated that child malnutrition is strongly linked to a low socioeconomic level. These observations suggest that besides income, schooling and food quality may also be important factors that can affect growth. Educational programs, whether held in schools or informally, such as literacy or parenting classes, are valuable complements to other nutrition sustaining activities.Keywords: underweight, stunting, malnutrition, children, low socioeconomic level

  13. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    ... high cholesterol. “Those are the most common risk factors,” according to Steven J. Kittner, M.D., director of the Maryland Stroke Center at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore. “But ...

  14. Assessment of policies and socio-economic factors affecting pesticide use in the Philippines

    Tjornhom, Jessica D.

    1995-01-01

    A logit model was employed to determine the relative importance of socioeconomic factors influencing the misuse of pesticides on vegetables in Central Luzon, Philippines. The analysis revealed an increase in pesticide misuse associated with the following factors: a high value placed on advice from a chemical company representative; membership in a cooperative, village or farmers' association; and visits by a Department of Agriculture technician to discuss non-pesticide means of...

  15. Regional and geographical variations in infertility: effects of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors.

    Leke, R. J.; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K M

    1993-01-01

    Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomple...

  16. Creativity as a Factor for Socio-economic Development of Polish Regions

    Kola-Bezka, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to verify the hypothesis that creativity is an important factor for socio-economic development of Polish regions. The first part of the paper clarifies the idea of regional creativity, its factors and method of measurement. Following two parts present meth­odology and results of the research concerning creativity and development which uses multi­variate comparative analysis. The next one examines relationship between these phenomena. The research revealed that there is stron...

  17. Socio-economic Factors for Ensuring Accessibility to Higher Education in Latvia

    Daina Vasiļevska

    2014-01-01

    Abstract of the Doctoral Thesis The aim of the doctoral thesis “Socio-Economic Factors for Ensuring Accessibility to Higher Education in Latvia” is to explore, on the basis of scientific literature and statistical data analysis, the key socio-economic factors (or conditions) in accessibility to higher education and to assess the significance of their impact. In the first chapter, the author has analyzed the scientific literature on accessibility to higher education published over the last ...

  18. Association between sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic factors, diet and lifestyle among the Balearic Islands adolescents

    Bibiloni Maria del Mar; Pich Jordi; Córdova Alfredo; Pons Antoni; Tur Josep A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many different factors influenced food habits and physical activity patterns of adolescents in a complex interactive way. The aim of this study was to assess association between sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic factors, diet and lifestyle among the Balearic Islands adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n = 1961; 12–17 years old) was carried out. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents (IPAQ-A). Se...

  19. Prevalence of frailty and contributory factors in three Chinese populations with different socioeconomic and healthcare characteristics

    Woo, Jean; Zheng, Zheng; Leung, Jason; Chan, Piu

    2015-01-01

    Background Frailty predicts dependence and mortality, and is an important health indicator for aging populations. Comparing frailty prevalence between populations of the same ethnicity but different socioeconomic, lifestyle, health and social care systems, and environmental characteristics would address the role of these factors in contributing to frailty. Methods We compare frailty prevalence and contributory factors across three Chinese populations: Beijing rural, Beijing urban, and Hong Ko...

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  1. Risk factors for suicidal behavior

    Antonova A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

  2. Building a Complex Scorecard on the Basis of Assessment of Influence of Socio-economic Factors of Enterprise Development

    Verbitska Tetiana V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in building a complex scorecard used for assessment of influence of socio-economic factors of enterprise development. The article specifies such groups of socio-economic factors as factors of organisational and managerial impact; workers potential and their professional development; social protection of workers; labour protection and healthcare; and social infrastructure. Having analysed and compared concepts and approaches to assessment of enterprise activity, the article identifies that insufficient attention is paid to socio-economic indicators. That is why a scorecard is developed in the context of the said groups of factors, which gives a possibility to identify weaknesses in enterprise development and to direct measures on their elimination or minimisation on the basis of it. The proposed scorecard of assessment of socio-economic factors of enterprise development gives a possibility to, objectively and timely, monitor the socio-economic state of an enterprise, which allows maintaining the development trajectory.

  3. Associations of Motor Developmental Risks with the Socioeconomic Status of Preschool Children in North-Eastern Germany

    Annika Gottschling-Lang; Marco Franze; Wolfgang Hoffmann

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The study is part of the pilot project “children in preschools” and aims to detect developmental risks of preschool children in the context of their socioeconomic status (SES) as a base to initiate individual intervention strategies. Methods. The “Dortmund Developmental Screening for the Kindergarten” was used in 12 preschools in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (MWP) to detect early developmental risks in children aged 3 to 6 years (n=870). Socioeconomic data from n=530 parents were colle...

  4. Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children

    Chaiana Piovesan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals. The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.

  5. Human Leptospirosis and risk factors.

    Yanelis Emilia Tabío Henry; Yailín Palmero Dones; Elizabeth Cruz Pérez

    2010-01-01

    The human leptospirosis is a zoonosis of world distribution, were risk factors exist that have favored the wild and domestic animal propagation and so man. A descpitive investigation was made with the objective of determining the behavior of risk factors in outpatients by human leptospirosis in “Camilo Cienfuegos“ University General Hospital from Sncti Spíritus In the comprised time period betwen december 1 st and 3 st , 2008.The sample of this study was conformed by 54 risk persons that kee...

  6. Scenarios for the risk of hunger in the twenty-first century using Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are being developed internationally for cross-sectoral assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. These are five scenarios that include both qualitative and quantitative information for mitigation and adaptation challenges to climate change. In this study, we quantified scenarios for the risk of hunger in the 21st century using SSPs, and clarified elements that influence future hunger risk. There were two primary findings: (1) risk of hunger in the 21st-century greatly differed among five SSPs; and (2) population growth, improvement in the equality of food distribution within a country, and increases in food consumption mainly driven by income growth greatly influenced future hunger risk and were important elements in its long-term assessment. (letter)

  7. Overweight and obesity among 12-year-old children in Vestfold county, Norway: Prevalence and associated lifestyle-, socioeconomic-, hereditary-, and health factors

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children is increasing rapidly worldwide, and this poses as a major health concern. Identifying potential risk factors to which preventive strategies can be implemented is of importance. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight/obesity in 12-year-old children in Vestfold county, Norway, and to map associated lifestyle-, socioeconomic-, hereditary- and health factors. Methods: This was c...

  8. CONTRIBUTION OF SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS TO REPRODUCTIVE TRACT INFECTIONS AND INFERTILITY IN RURAL INDIA

    Minakeshi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to find out how socioeconomic, cultural, educational and religious factors play a role in causation of RTI/STD. STUDY DESIGN: This study was conducted at Gynae, OPD of Dist. Hospital Samba, Jammu, J&K. 200 patients coming for infertility check u p and treatment between Feb. 2013 to Jan. 2014 were included in the study. It was an observational cross - sectional study. A pretested, semi - structured questionnaire was administered which included information about demographic, socioeconomic profile, menstrual and sexual practices, obstetrics treatment and family history. Complaints suggestive of RTI/STI were noted. RESULTS: Maximum incidence of RTI/STI was observed in th e age group 25 – 30 years. RTI/STI was more in illiterate patients (64 as compared to literate patients (53 % . A negative correlation between income and prevalence of RTI was found. Prevalence of RTI was slightly more in patients from joint families (67 % as compared to women from nuclear families ( 33%. Similarly people living in Kutcha houses showed more prevalence of RTI ( 66% as compared to pucca houses ( 48%. Correlation between RTI and housing was not significant (p > 0.005 . Tap water supplied residents showed less prevalence of RTI 50% as compared to hand pump using residents 65%, however, correlation was not statistically significant (p > 0.05 . The incidence of RTI was 54% in daily bathers and among irregular bathers, the incidence was 66%. The prevalence of RTI was 54%in regular wearers of underwear whereas in irregular wearers the prevalence was 75%. Genital hygiene correlation, the prevalence of RTI in pad users was 42.8% whereas the prevalence in non – pad users was 61%. There was statistically significant correlation between the use of rag during menses and the prevalence of RTI. RTI was more prevalent (64.8 % in women sharing toilets with others while same was 45.6% in women among having separate toilet facilities. CONCLUSION

  9. Assessing Freshwater Ecosystem Service Risk over Ecological, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Gradients: Problem Space Characterization and Methodology

    Harmon, T. C.; Villamizar, S. R.; Conde, D.; Rusak, J.; Reid, B.; Astorga, A.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; London, S.; Velez, M.; Hoyos, N.; Escobar, J.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide are under increasing anthropogenic pressure at local (e.g., irrigation diversions, wastewater discharge) and global scales (e.g., climate change, global trading). The impact depends on an ecosystem's sensitivity, which is determined by its geophysical and ecological settings, and the population and activities in its surrounding watershed. Given the importance of ecosystem services, it is critical that we improve our ability to identify and understand changes in aquatic ecosystems, and translate them to risk of service loss. Furthermore, to inspire changes in human behavior, it is equally critical that we learn to communicate risk, and pose risk mitigation strategies, in a manner acceptable to a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Quantifying the nature and timing of the risk is difficult because (1) we often fail to understand the connection between anthropogenic pressures and the timing and extent of ecosystem changes; and (2) the concept of risk is inherently coupled to human perception, which generally differs with cultural and socio-economic conditions. In this study, we endeavor to assess aquatic ecosystem risks across an international array of six study sites. The challenge is to construct a methodology capable of capturing the marked biogeographical, socioeconomic, and cultural differences among the sites, which include: (1) Muskoka River watershed in humid continental Ontario, Canada; (2) Lower San Joaquin River, an impounded snow-fed river in semi-arid Central California; (3) Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, a tropical coastal lagoon in Colombia; (4) Senguer River basin in the semi-arid part of Argentina; (5) Laguna de Rocha watershed in humid subtropical Uruguay; and (6) Palomas Lake complex in oceanic Chilean Patagonia. Results will include a characterization of the experimental gradient over the six sites, an overview of the risk assessment methodology, and preliminary findings for several of the sites.

  10. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors?

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors? Coronary heart disease risk factors are ... high blood pressure, overweight and obesity, and others. Heart Disease Risk Factors 09/30/2011 This video—presented ...

  11. Psychological distress, health, and socio-economic factors in caregivers of terminally ill patients

    Nielsen, Mette Kjaergaard; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern; Jensen, Anders Bonde;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: At some point in life, most people become caregivers to a terminally ill relative. Previous studies have shown that many caregivers experience psychological distress and declining physical health, but these studies have predominantly been conducted in specialized palliative care settings....... Therefore, caregiver studies with a population-based approach are needed. We aimed to describe socio-economic characteristics, situational factors, pre-loss grief symptoms, depressive symptoms, caregiver burden, and health status in a general population of caregivers to terminally ill patients. METHOD: We...... conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study. Caregivers were systematically recruited through patients registered with drug reimbursement for terminal illness in 2012. Data on socio-economic characteristics was mainly obtained from Danish registries, whereas data on situational factors, distress...

  12. Behavioural, physical and socio-economic factors in household cooling energy consumption

    As global warming continues, the current trend implies that the uptake of air conditioning in the residential sector will go up, thus potentially increasing domestic cooling energy consumption. In this context, this paper investigates the significance of behavioural, physical and socio-economic parameters on cooling energy in order to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings. It demonstrates that such factors exert a significant indirect as well as direct influence on energy use, showing that it is particularly important to understand indirect relationships. An initial study of direct factors affecting cooling energy reveals that occupant behaviour is the most significant issue (related to choices about how often and where air conditioning is used). This is broadly confirmed by path analysis, although climate is seen to be the single most significant parameter, followed by behavioural issues, key physical parameters (e.g. air conditioning type), and finally socio-economic aspects (e.g. household income).

  13. Rebuilt risk: involuntary return, voluntary migration, and socioeconomic segregation in post-tsunami Aceh

    McCaughey, Jamie; Daly, Patrick; Mundzir, Ibnu; Mahdi, Saiful; Patt, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    In light of growing coastal populations and rising relative sea levels, understanding the consequences of infrequent, high-impact coastal hazards for human migration is a key ingredient for meeting the challenges of sustainable development. Using new quantitative and qualitative evidence from 1160 households and 121 village leaders, we examine longer-term migration in the city of Banda Aceh, Indonesia, following the devastating 2004 tsunami and an international aid response that offered most survivors only resettlement back in the tsunami-affected area. While many survivors wanted to return, some preferred to relocate further from the coast but did not have the chance to do so. Since that time, selective out-migration by those with the means and socioeconomic sorting of newcomers have led to a new socioeconomic segregation of the tsunami-affected parts of the city. More broadly, these findings suggest that short-distance socioeconomic sorting into and out from vulnerable areas may be an important migratory response to a newly recognized risk.

  14. Socioeconomic and nutritional factors account for the association of gastric cancer with Amerindian ancestry in a Latin American admixed population.

    Latife Pereira

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans, we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls and a very low African ancestry (<5%. We determined that higher Native American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group.

  15. Study on the water related disaster risks using the future socio-economic scenario in Asia

    Kiguchi, M.; Hatono, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, flood risks in the present and the end of the 21st century in Asia are estimated using a future socio-economic scenario. Using the runoff data of 7 GCMs (RCP 8.5) of CMIP5, the river discharge, inundation area, and inundation depth are calculated for the assessment of flood risk. Finally, the flood risk is estimated using a function of damage. The flood frequency in the end of the 21st century in Asia tends to increase. Inundation area in Japan, Taiwan, and Kyrgyz is almost unchanged. At the same time, that in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Myanmar reached about 1.4-1.6 times compared to present. Damage cost is largely influenced by economic growth, however, we show that it is important that we distinguish the influence of climate change from economic development and evaluate it when we think about an adaptation.

  16. A Study Of Risk Factors Of Diabetes Mellitus

    Banerjee P; Ghosh M M; Biswas R; Bhattacharya S K

    1993-01-01

    A case control study of risk factors of Diabetes Mellitus was carried out among 75 diabetic cases attending the clinic, and an equal number of matched controls from inpatients of the surgical department of R .G Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Diabetes Mellitus was found significantly higher among those persons having family history of similar illness, belonging to the socio-economic class (Kuppuwamiâ€s classification) and non-vegetarian dietary habit.

  17. A Study Of Risk Factors Of Diabetes Mellitus

    Banerjee P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A case control study of risk factors of Diabetes Mellitus was carried out among 75 diabetic cases attending the clinic, and an equal number of matched controls from inpatients of the surgical department of R .G Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Diabetes Mellitus was found significantly higher among those persons having family history of similar illness, belonging to the socio-economic class (Kuppuwami’s classification and non-vegetarian dietary habit.

  18. Adolescence, sexual behavior and risk factors to health

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demogr...

  19. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

    Peter A. EKUNWE; FIONA O. OGBEIDE

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets) in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. ...

  20. The Effect of Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors on Contraceptive Use and Induced Abortion in Turkey

    Ozlem Alpu; Gunseli Kurt

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the parameters of the heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model established for the induced abortion and the contraceptive use by using socioeconomic and demographic factors and their effects by eliminating the observed heteroscedasticity. Using a heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model and Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (1998) data on married women aged 15 through 49 years, we estimated the probabilities of their having an induced abortion, if induced ...

  1. Socioeconomic Determinants of Nutritional Status of Children in Lao PDR: Effects of Household and Community Factors

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-i...

  2. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Farmers’ Awareness of Clean Development Mechanism Projects: Case of Smallholder Forest Carbon Projects

    Oscar I. Ayuya; Job K. Lagat; John M. Mironga

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the socio-economic and institutional factors which influence the level of awareness of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects and in so doing to highlight the policy implications for the stakeholders when designing clean development mechanism projects among smallholder farmers. Findings shows that 23% of the farmers were correctly aware of the project and the results of the ordered logit model indicate that age, gender, education level, group mem...

  3. Socio-economic factors influencing milk donation in milk banks in India: an institutional study

    Rajshree D. Katke; Mohit R. Saraogi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breast-feeding has irrefutably been established as the best form of nourishment for neonatal and early infantile age groups. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze the socio-economic factors in a developing country like India, which influence maternal motivation and willingness to donate breast milk and to make policy changes to promote the same. Methods: Ours is a retrospective study carried out over a period of 1 year in Cama and Albless hospital in Mu...

  4. Effects on birth weight of smoking, alcohol, caffeine, socioeconomic factors, and psychosocial stress.

    Brooke, O G; Anderson, H R; Bland, J M; Peacock, J L; Stewart, C. M.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effects of smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and socio-economic factors and psychosocial stress on birth weight. DESIGN--Prospective population study. SETTING--District general hospital in inner London. PARTICIPANTS--A consecutive series of 1860 white women booking for delivery were approached. 136 Refused and 211 failed to complete the study for other reasons (moved, abortion, subsequent refusal), leaving a sample of 1513. Women who spoke no English, bo...

  5. Socioeconomic factors affecting tree species abundance and composition in Gondar, Ethiopia

    Bekele, Maru Shete

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated if there is variation in the frequency of tree species maintained at household level, and the socioeconomic factors that can explain its variation. Data were collected from 156 randomly selected households in 2009 in Ambober village of Gondar district, Ethiopia. Farm visits and recording, observation, group discussion and interview were the methods used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using mean, independent samples test, one way analysis of variance, and multip...

  6. Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Adoption of Fisheries Conservation Measures in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    J.A. Akankali; A. Chindah

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic factors influencing adoption of artisanal fisheries resources conservation measures based on the perspectives of Artisanal fishers in Delta, Rivers and Bayelsa states, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The study was conducted for a period of one year (January 2008 to Decmber 2008). With the aid of well-structured questionnaires the desired information were collected and analyzed. A total sample size of 1,200 respondents wit...

  7. The Socioeconomic Factors and the Indigenous Component of Tuberculosis in Amazonas

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of tuberculosis prevention and control services throughout Amazonas, high rates of morbidity and mortality from tuberculosis remain in the region. Knowledge of the social determinants of tuberculosis in Amazonas is important for the establishment of public policies and the planning of effective preventive and control measures for the disease. To analyze the relationship of the spatial distribution of the incidence of tuberculosis in municipalities and regions of Amazonas to the socioeconomic factors and indigenous tuberculosis component, from 2007 to 2013. An ecological study was conducted based on secondary data from the epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis. A linear regression model was used to analyze the relationship of the annual incidence of tuberculosis to the socioeconomic factors, performance indicators of health services, and indigenous tuberculosis component. The distribution of the incidence of tuberculosis in the municipalities of Amazonas was positively associated with the Gini index and the population attributable fraction of tuberculosis in the indigenous peoples, but negatively associated with the proportion of the poor and the unemployment rate. The spatial distribution of tuberculosis in the different regions of Amazonas was heterogeneous and closely related with the socioeconomic factors and indigenous component of tuberculosis. PMID:27362428

  8. Inequality of obesity and socioeconomic factors in Iran: a systematic review and meta- analyses

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Peykari, Niloofar; Qorbani, Mostafa; Larijani, Bagher; Farzadfar, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic status and demographic factors, such as education, occupation, place of residence, gender, age, and marital status have been reported to be associated with obesity. We conducted a systematic review to summarize evidences on associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight in Iranian population. Methods: We systematically searched international databases; ISI, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, and national databases Iran-medex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID). We refined data for associations between socioeconomic factors and obesity/overweight by sex, age, province, and year. There were no limitations for time and languages. Results: Based on our search strategy we found 151 records; of them 139 were from international databases and the remaining 12 were obtained from national databases. After removing duplicates, via the refining steps, only 119 articles were found related to our study domains. Extracted results were attributed to 146596 person/data from included studies. Increased ages, low educational levels, being married, residence in urban area, as well as female sex were clearly associated with obesity. Conclusion: Results could be useful for better health policy and more planned studies in this field. These also could be used for future complementary analyses. PMID:26793632

  9. Impact of socioeconomic factors on nutritional status in primary school children

    Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)

  10. Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Adoption of Fisheries Conservation Measures in Niger Delta, Nigeria

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic factors influencing adoption of artisanal fisheries resources conservation measures based on the perspectives of Artisanal fishers in Delta, Rivers and Bayelsa states, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The study was conducted for a period of one year (January 2008 to Decmber 2008. With the aid of well-structured questionnaires the desired information were collected and analyzed. A total sample size of 1,200 respondents within the study area, were selected using random sampling technique. Logistic regression technique was used to determine the impact of the independent variables on willingness to adopt fisheries conservation measures. The regression analysis result show that eleven (11 independent variables (Public Enlightenment, Regulatory pressure, Environmental stewardship, Severity of pollutants, Economic circumstances, Institutional Support, Information access, Highest Education, Fishing Experience, Legal Structure and Age were factors that influence willingness to adopt conservation measures by the fishers. However, the level of influence was found to vary differently in the three states studied depending on the socioeconomic and educational status and other peculiarities of each of the state. Generally, based on the result of the logit analysis of the perspectives of the artisanal fisher respondents, it is therefore inferred that the willingness to adopt fisheries resources conservation measures in the Niger Delta by the Artisanal Fishers, is significantly a function of the studied demographic, socioeconomic, psychological, institutional and environmental factors as specified by the eleven variables.

  11. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  12. Families' Social Backgrounds Matter: Socio-Economic Factors, Home Learning and Young Children's Language, Literacy and Social Outcomes

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…

  13. Yucca Mountain socioeconomic project report on the 1987 risk perception telephone surveys

    Kunreuther, H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Wharton School of Finance and Commerce; Slovic, P. [Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States); Nigg, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Desvousges, W.H. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1987-09-01

    The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples` perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain.

  14. Yucca Mountain socioeconomic project report on the 1987 risk perception telephone surveys

    The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples' perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain

  15. The relations between musculoskeletal diseases and mobility among old people: Are they influenced by socio-economic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors?

    Avlund, Kirsten; Osler, Merete; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Christensen, Ulla; Schroll, Marianne

    2000-01-01

    Social medicin, musculoskeletal diseases, mobility, physical activity, social relations, well-being, socio-economic factors......Social medicin, musculoskeletal diseases, mobility, physical activity, social relations, well-being, socio-economic factors...

  16. Who is at higher risk of hypertension? Socioeconomic status differences in blood pressure among Polish adolescents: a population-based ADOPOLNOR study

    Kaczmarek, Maria; Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Barbara; Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Siwińska, Aldona

    2015-01-01

    In Poland, there is no data on parental socioeconomic status (SES) as a potent risk factor in adolescent elevated blood pressure, although social differences in somatic growth and maturation of children and adolescents have been recorded since the 1980s. This study aimed to evaluate the association between parental SES and blood pressure levels of their adolescent offspring. A cross-sectional survey was carried out between 2009 and 2010 on a sample of 4941 students (2451 boys and 2490 girls) ...

  17. Building a Complex Scorecard on the Basis of Assessment of Influence of Socio-economic Factors of Enterprise Development

    Verbitska Tetiana V.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in building a complex scorecard used for assessment of influence of socio-economic factors of enterprise development. The article specifies such groups of socio-economic factors as factors of organisational and managerial impact; workers potential and their professional development; social protection of workers; labour protection and healthcare; and social infrastructure. Having analysed and compared concepts and approaches to assessment of enterprise activity, th...

  18. Biophysical and Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Forest Transitions at Multiple Spatial and Temporal Scales

    Patricia Adame

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest transitions (FT occur when socioeconomic development leads to a shift from net deforestation to reforestation; these dynamics have been observed in multiple countries across the globe, including the island of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. Starting in the 1950s, Puerto Rico transitioned from an agrarian to a manufacturing and service economy reliant on food imports, leading to extensive reforestation. In recent years, however, net reforestation has leveled off. Here we examine the drivers of forest transition in Puerto Rico from 1977 to 2000 at two subnational, nested spatial scales (municipality and barrio and over two time periods (1977-1991 and 1991-2000. This study builds on previous work by considering the social and biophysical factors that influence both reforestation and deforestation at multiple spatial and temporal scales. By doing so within one analysis, this study offers a comprehensive understanding of the relative importance of various social and biophysical factors for forest transitions and the scales at which they are manifest. Biophysical factors considered in these analyses included slope, soil quality, and land-cover in the surrounding landscape. We also considered per capita income, population density, and the extent of protected areas as potential factors associated with forest change. Our results show that, in the 1977-1991 period, biophysical factors that exhibit variation at municipality scales (~100 km² were more important predictors of forest change than socioeconomic factors. In this period, forest dynamics were driven primarily by abandonment of less productive, steep agricultural land in the western, central part of the island. These factors had less predictive power at the smaller barrio scale (~10 km² relative to the larger municipality scale during this time period. The relative importance of socioeconomic variables for deforestation, however, increased over time as development pressures on available land

  19. Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Knowledge on Tuberculosis among Adults in Ethiopia

    Gelaw, Sifrash Meseret

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ethiopia is among highly tuberculosis affected countries. This might be related to low level of awareness on the disease in the population. The objective of the study was to determine the level of tuberculosis knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with it. Methods. The 2011 Ethiopia health and demographic survey data were used. Overall tuberculosis knowledge score was computed to evaluate the outcome variable. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify independent socioeconomic factors associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Results. The overall tuberculosis knowledge was low, 44.05% (95% CI: 42.05–46.24%) among women and 32.3% (95% CI: 30.34–34.32%) among men. Rural women (AOR = 1.22) and youth, no formal education (women: AOR = 3.28, men: AOR = 7.42), attending only primary education (women: AOR = 1.95, men: AOR = 3.49), lowest wealth quintiles (women: AOR = 1.4, Men: AOR = 1.28), unskilled female manual workers (AOR = 4.15), female agricultural employee (AOR = 2.28), and lack of access to media (women: AOR = 1.52, men: AOR = 1.71) are significantly associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Conclusion. The level of tuberculosis knowledge among adults in Ethiopia is low and varied by socioeconomic groups. Tuberculosis control programs should consider appropriate strategies for tuberculosis education, promotion, communication, and social mobilization to address the rural women, youths, the poor, less educated people, and unskilled workers. PMID:26949546

  20. Risk factors for eating disorders

    Monterrosa-Castro Álvaro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: eating disorders (ED are characterized by the excessive worry aboutphysical appearance. They have high incidence in young population with more frequencyin women than in men.Objective: to identify the risk factors for ED.Methods: thematic review of publications in which are described and evaluated thedifferent risk factors to develop ED. It was done an electronic search since 1984 to2011, in english and spanish, in which were included all the methods of publications.There were reviewed the summaries to find the complete articles that treated about riskfactors associate with the development of the ED.Results: there were found 48203 about ED. 96 tried specifically about risk factors. 35(36.4% complete articles were obtained and the review was done with them.Conclusion: principal risk factors are: To be an adolescent, woman, to have distortedperception of the corporal image and the use of diet to lose weight. Rev.cienc.biomed.2012;3(2:300-305

  1. Detecting Risk Factor of Diseases

    Zvárová, Jana

    1995-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1/2 (1995), s. 203-212. ISSN 0208-5216. [Seminar on Statistics and Clinical Practice. Warsaw, 20.06.1994-23.06.1994] Keywords : risk factors * genetics * association * epidemilogy * measures of association * screening * genetics

  2. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...

  3. [Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors].

    Tal, Roy; Pavlovsky, Lev; David, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease which may dramatically affect patients' lives. This chronic disease is characterized by a protracted course of alternating remissions and relapses. In recent years, the attention of researchers has focused on the association between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease risk factors. This review summarizes the literature on this topic with an emphasis on research conducted in Israel. PMID:23316664

  4. Socioeconomic Disadvantage in Childhood and Later Risk of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses: National Register-Based Studies

    Wicks, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this thesis was to analyse the association between various types of indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and the risk of later developing schizophrenia and other psychoses. Furthermore, the importance of socioeconomic disadvantage was explored in relation to immigration, school performance, and an indicator of genetic liability for psychosis. Methods: The study populations were based on register linkages of several Swedish registers. They were identified in...

  5. Estimating the relationship between rate of time preferences and socio-economic factors in Russia

    Tatiana Kossova; Elena Kossova; Maria Sheluntcova

    2012-01-01

    Rate of time preferences reflect an individual’s opinion on how to distribute consumption over time. In this paper we examine various socio-economic factors that are related to rate of time preferences in Russia. The data are obtained from a survey from the Yuri Levada Analytical Center that was conducted in 2011. Our findings suggest that time preferences of men and women should be analyzed separately in Russia. Factors such as age, income, educational level, the size and structure of a hous...

  6. Socioeconomic, psychiatric and materiality determinants and risk of postpartum depression in border city of ilam, Western iran.

    Taherifard, Pegah; Delpisheh, Ali; Shirali, Ramin; Afkhamzadeh, Abdorrahim; Veisani, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Background. Postpartum depression (PPD) is considered as one of the mood disturbances occurring during 2-3 months after delivery. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of PPD and its associated risk factors in border city of Ilam, western Iran. Methods. Through a descriptive cross-sectional study in 2011, overall, 197 women who attended Obstetrics & Gynecology clinics postpartumly in the border city of Ilam, western Iran, were randomly recruited. A standard questionnaire that was completed by a trained midwife through face to face interviews was used for data gathering. Results. Mean age ± standard deviations was 27.9 ± 5.2 years. Prevalence of PPD was estimated to be 34.8% (95% CI: 27.7-41.7). A significant difference was observed among depression scores before and after delivery (P ≤ 0.001). Type of delivery (P = 0.044), low socioeconomic status (P = 0.011), and women having low educational level (P = 0.009) were the most important significant risk factors associated with PPD. The regression analysis showed that employed mothers compared to housekeepers were more at risk for PPD (adjusted OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22-2.28, P = 0.003). Conclusions. Prevalence of PPD in western Iran was slightly higher than the corresponding rate from either national or international reports. PMID:23984055

  7. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  8. Gender Inequalities in Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors Among Indonesian Urban Population.

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Gender is an important determinant of health. We conducted a study to examine hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking behavior among adults aged >15 years in urban Indonesia. We compared the prevalence, predicted socioeconomic factors, the gender inequalities, and the contributing factors to the inequalities. Women had a higher risk of obesity and hypercholesterolemia and raised blood pressure in later life (Pgender inequalities in hypertension, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia can be accounted for by disparities in socioeconomic factors between men and women, particularly involvement in paid work. However, the inequalities were also accounted for by different effects of the socioeconomic factors in men and women. Gender is interlinked with socioeconomic and biological factors in determining health. This emphasizes the need of gender responsive policies to control and prevent chronic disease. PMID:26733115

  9. Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people

    SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

  10. Other Possible Heart Disease Risk Factors

    ... your risk Heart Health and Stroke Other possible heart disease risk factors Related information Depression fact sheet Stress ... Return to top More information on Other possible heart disease risk factors Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart ...

  11. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk factors. ...

  12. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control

    ... disease: Know your risk Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease risk factors you can control Did you know? ... overall health. Return to top More information on Heart disease risk factors you can control Read more from ...

  13. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Karoline Kragelund Nielsen

    Full Text Available Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP, i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP, increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP.The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India.Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for significant risk factors and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed.HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP. Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health centre a doubling of income corresponded to an 80% increased risk of HIP (OR 1.80, 95%CI 1.10-2.93; p = 0.019, whereas it was not significantly associated with HIP among women attending the other health centres. The performance of the individual risk factors and the constructed scoring variable differed substantially between the three health centres, but none of them were good enough to discriminate between those with and without HIP.The findings highlight the importance of socio-economic circumstances and intergenerational risk transmission in the occurrence of HIP as well as the need for universal screening.

  14. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    Kragelund Nielsen, Karoline; Damm, Peter; Kapur, Anil; Balaji, Vijayam; Balaji, Madhuri S.; Seshiah, Veerasamy; Bygbjerg, Ib C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP), i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of HIP. Objective The aims of this observational study were to examine the role of potential risk factors for HIP, and to investigate whether any single or accumulated risk factor(s) could be used to predict HIP among women attending GDM screening at three centres in urban, semi-urban and rural Tamil Nadu, India. Methodology Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for significant risk factors and a risk factor scoring variable was constructed. Results HIP was prevalent in 18.9% of the study population (16.3% GDM; 2.6% DIP). Increasing age and BMI as well as having a mother only or both parents with diabetes were significant independent risk factors for HIP. Among women attending the rural health centre a doubling of income corresponded to an 80% increased risk of HIP (OR 1.80, 95%CI 1.10–2.93; p = 0.019), whereas it was not significantly associated with HIP among women attending the other health centres. The performance of the individual risk factors and the constructed scoring variable differed substantially between the three health centres, but none of them were good enough to discriminate between those with and without HIP. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of socio-economic circumstances and intergenerational risk transmission in the occurrence of HIP as well as the need for universal screening. PMID:26991305

  15. Is adolescent pregnancy a risk factor for low birth weight?

    Alzira Maria D'avila Nery Guimarães

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether adolescent pregnancy is a risk factor for low birth weight (LBW babies. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of mothers and their newborns from a birth cohort in Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected consecutively from March to July 2005. Information collected included socioeconomic, biological and reproductive aspects of the mothers, using a standardized questionnaire. The impact of early pregnancy on birth weight was evaluated by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We studied 4,746 pairs of mothers and their babies. Of these, 20.6% were adolescents (< 20 years of age. Adolescent mothers had worse socioeconomic and reproductive conditions and perinatal outcomes when compared to other age groups. Having no prenatal care and smoking during pregnancy were the risk factors associated with low birth weight. Adolescent pregnancy, when linked to marital status "without partner", was associated with an increased proportion of low birth weight babies. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescence was a risk factor for LBW only for mothers without partners. Smoking during pregnancy and lack of prenatal care were considered to be independent risk factors for LBW.

  16. Socioeconomic-related Risk and STI Infection among African-American Adolescent Females

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Brown, Jennifer L.; Brody, Gene; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Virtually no studies have examined the potential role that chronic stress, particularly the stress associated with socioeconomic (SES) strain, may play on STI risk. This study examined the association between SES-related risk at baseline to STI acquisition and reinfection over 36 months of follow-up. Methods 627 African-American female adolescents, ages 14–20 years, recruited from sexual health clinics in Atlanta, GA participated in a randomized controlled HIV prevention trial, and returned for at least 1 follow-up assessment. Following baseline assessment, 6 waves of data collection occurred prospectively over 36 months. Chronic SES-related risk was assessed as a sum of yes-no exposure to seven risk indicators. Laboratory confirmed tests for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrheoea were performed at each follow-up. Results In multivariable regression analysis, SES-related risk significantly predicted STI acquisition over 36 months (AOR = 1.22) and STI reinfection (AOR = 1.16) above and beyond other known correlates of STI. Discussion Findings demonstrate that SES-related risk was predictive of both STI acquisition and reinfection among young African-American females. They are consistent with propositions that some health disparities observed in adulthood may be linked to earlier chronically stress-inducing life experiences, particularly experiences associated with low SES conditions. Although various explanations exist for the observed connection between SES-related risk and subsequent STI acquisition and/or reinfection across 36 months of follow-up, these findings highlight the need for further research to elucidate the exact pathway(s) by which SES-related risk influences later STI acquisition in order to refine STI prevention interventions for this population. PMID:24974317

  17. Multinomial Logistic Regression Predicted Probability Map To Visualize The Influence Of Socio-Economic Factors On Breast Cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka

    Madhu, B.; Ashok, N. C.; Balasubramanian, S.

    2014-11-01

    Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to develop statistical model that can predict the probability of breast cancer in Southern Karnataka using the breast cancer occurrence data during 2007-2011. Independent socio-economic variables describing the breast cancer occurrence like age, education, occupation, parity, type of family, health insurance coverage, residential locality and socioeconomic status of each case was obtained. The models were developed as follows: i) Spatial visualization of the Urban- rural distribution of breast cancer cases that were obtained from the Bharat Hospital and Institute of Oncology. ii) Socio-economic risk factors describing the breast cancer occurrences were complied for each case. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis in a SPSS statistical software and relations between the occurrence of breast cancer across the socio-economic status and the influence of other socio-economic variables were evaluated and multinomial logistic regression models were constructed. iii) the model that best predicted the occurrence of breast cancer were identified. This multivariate logistic regression model has been entered into a geographic information system and maps showing the predicted probability of breast cancer occurrence in Southern Karnataka was created. This study demonstrates that Multinomial logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that predict the probability of breast cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka.

  18. Association of smoking and drinking with socioeconomic factors: A comparative study based on bivariate probit model analysis

    OSHIO, Takashi; Kobayashi, Miki

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the differences between smoking and drinking in regard to their associations with socioeconomic factors among about 7,000 Japanese workers. Using microdata from nationwide surveys in Japan, we estimated bivariate probit models to jointly explore how smoking and drinking are related to a wide variety of socioeconomic factors. We found that only educational attainment is consistently and negatively associated with both smoking and drinking for both genders. The associ...

  19. Perception of Farmers Towards Small Scale Feed Mill in Terms of Socio-economic Factors in Sindenreng Rappang Regency

    rohani, st; Irmasusanti; A.R Siregar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze farmers??? perception towards small scale feed mill in terms of socio-economic factors. The study was conducted with purposive sampling. Data were analyzed descriptively and likert scale analysis. The results showed that the perception of farmer laying on the socio-economic factors of the small scale feed mill is quite good and positive to support the sustainability of small and medium scale enterprise.

  20. Association between Dental Caries and Socioeconomic Factors in Schoolchildren - A Multilevel Analysis.

    Engelmann, Janessa Luiza; Tomazoni, Fernanda; Oliveira, Marta Dutra Machado; Ardenghi, Thiago M

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between dental caries, socioeconomic individual and contextual factors in 12-years-old children. A representative sample of 1,134 children enrolled in public schools from Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, was obtained from a multistage random sampling. Four calibrated dentists examined participants at schools. Data about dental caries (DMF-T index) and dental plaque (present or absent) were assessed. Children's parents or guardians answered questions regarding their demographics and socioeconomic status. Context variables were also collected from official publications of the city. Data analyses were performed using multilevel logistic regression models. Caries prevalence in this sample (DMF-T≥1) was 49.9% (95%CI: 45.05% - 54.77%), and mean DMF-T was 1.15 (95%CI: 1.01-1.29) with 0.068 standard error. Children of the 3rd and 2nd tertile of income represented by the rich and intermediate categories, showed, respectively, a 50% (OR 0.50: CI95 % 0.35-0.71) and 39% (OR 0.61: CI95% 0.45-0.82) lower chance to present untreated caries compared with the poorest portion of the sample represented by the 1st tertile of income. Regarding the context covariates, children from lower income neighborhood presented a higher chance for having untreated dental caries compared with their counterpart (OR 1.70: CI95% 1.19 to 2.43). Inequalities in the distribution of dental caries continue affecting children from poorer socioeconomic profiles. There is need for planning public interventions for oral health promotion that take into account individual and contextual socioeconomic characteristics. PMID:27007350

  1. Cold - an underrated risk factor for health

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are responsible for around 20% of all deaths worldwide (approximately 14 million) and are the principal cause of death in all developed countries, accounting for 50% of all deaths. Variations in the annual per capita death rates in different countries are well documented. Less well known are seasonal variations in death rates, with the highest levels occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon is referred to as excess winter mortality. CVD-related deaths account for the majority of excess winter deaths (up to 70% in some countries), while about half of the remaining are due to increases in respiratory diseases. Paradoxically, CVD mortality increases to a greater extent with a given fall in temperature in regions with warm winters. While much of the indirect evidence points to the notion that cold is somehow involved in explaining excess winter deaths, the mechanism by which seemingly mild exposure to cold ambient conditions can increase the risk of death remains unclear. The strong indirect epidemiological evidence coupling cold climate to mortality may be related to indoor rather than outdoor climatic conditions (e.g., cold/damp houses versus arm/dry houses) coupled with a plethora of factors including health status, ageing-related deterioration in physiological and behavioral thermoregulation, toxicology, and socioeconomic factors

  2. Socioeconomic position and risk of short-term weight gain: Prospective study of 14,619 middle-aged men and women

    Luben Robert N

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between socioeconomic position in middle age and risk of subsequent, short-term weight gain is unknown. We therefore assessed this association in a prospective population based cohort study in Norfolk, UK. Methods We analysed data on 14,619 middle-aged men and women (aged between 40–75 at baseline with repeated objective measures of weight and height at baseline (1993–1997 and follow up (1998–2000. Results During follow up 5,064 people gained more than 2.5 kg. Compared with the highest social class, individuals in the lowest social class had around a 30% greater risk of gaining more than 2.5 kg (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.11–1.51; p for trend = 0.002. This association remained statistically significant following adjustment for sex, age, baseline BMI, smoking, and follow up time (OR 1.25; CI 1.07–1.46; p for trend Conclusion Individuals of low socioeconomic position are at greatest risk of gaining weight during middle age, which is not explained by classical correlates of socioeconomic position and risk factors for obesity.

  3. Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Customary Marine Tenure in the Indo-Pacific

    Joshua Cinner

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available For generations communities in the Western Pacific have employed a range of resource management techniques (including periodic reef closures, gear restrictions, entry limitations, and the protection of spawning aggregations to limit marine resource use. Localized control over marine resources, commonly known as customary marine tenure (CMT, is the legal and cultural foundation for many of these practices. Because of their perceived potential to meet both conservation and community goals, these traditional resource management techniques are being revitalized by communities, governments, and NGOs as an integral part of national and regional marine conservation plans in the Pacific. However, the viability of conservation strategies built on a foundation of marine tenure may be in question, as it remains unclear whether marine tenure systems will be able to withstand the profound social and economic changes sweeping the Pacific region. Numerous studies have suggested that changes in marine tenure are attributed to social and economic factors, however, specific relationships between socioeconomic conditions and marine tenure are still not well understood. This paper examines the social and economic characteristics of 21 coastal communities in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, and explores the characteristics of the communities that employ exclusive marine tenure to answer the following questions: Which socioeconomic factors are related to the presence of CMT regimes? How might socioeconomic factors influence the ability of communities to employ or maintain CMT regimes? Distance to market, immigration, dependence on fishing, and conflicts were found to be related to the presence of highly exclusive marine tenure systems. Exploring these relationships will help conservation practitioners better understand how future social changes may influence the foundation of conservation and development projects.

  4. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Dietert, Rodney R.; Janice M. Dietert; DeWitt, Jamie C.

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most...

  5. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    Srinivasa Rao; Vidyullatha; Subbalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cere...

  6. Merging Remote Sensing and Socioeconomic Data to Improve Disaster Risk Assessment

    Yetman, G.; Chen, R. S.; Huyck, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Natural disasters disproportionately impact developing country economies while also impacting business operations for multi-national corporations that rely on supplies and manufacturing in affected areas. Understanding natural hazard risk is only a first step towards preparedness and mitigation—data on facilities, transportation, critical infrastructure, and populations that may be exposed to disasters is required to plan for events and properly assess risks. Detailed exposure data can be used in models to predict casualty rates, aggregate estimates of building damage or destruction, impacts on business operations, and the scale of recovery efforts required. These model outputs are useful for disaster preparedness planning by national and international organizations, as well as for corporations and the reinsurance industry seeking to better understand their risk exposure. Many of these data are lacking for developing countries. Rapid assessment in areas with minimal data for disaster modeling is possible by combing remote sensing data, sample data on construction methods, facility and critical infrastructure data, and economic and demographic census information. This presentation focuses on the methods used to fuse the physical and socioeconomic data by presenting the results from two projects. The first project seeks to improve earthquake risk assessments in Asia using for the reinsurance industry, while the second project builds an integrated exposure database across five countries in Africa for use by international development organizations.

  7. On the impact of socio-economic factors on power load forecasting

    Michiardi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a public dataset of electricity consumption collected over 3,800 households for one year and half. We show that some socioeconomic factors are critical indicators to forecast households' daily peak (and total) load. By using a random forests model, we show that the daily load can be predicted accurately at a fine temporal granularity. Differently from many state-of-the-art techniques based on support vector machines, our model allows to derive a set of heuristic rule...

  8. Socioeconomic and demographic factors are associated with dietary patterns in a cohort of young Brazilian adults

    Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro Machado; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; Kac, Gilberto; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify the main dietary patterns among young adults and to investigate the association of socioeconomic and demographic factors, and social mobility with dietary patterns. Methods Data from the fourth follow-up of the 1978/79 Ribeirão Preto birth cohort study, Brazil, were used. A total of 2,061 young adults, whose mothers gave sociodemographic information at birth in 1978–79, provided sociodemographic and dietary data through a validated food ...

  9. Depression Symptom Trajectories and Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents in Chile

    Stapinski, Lexine A; Montgomery, Alan A.; Heron, Jon; Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna; Araya, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period for studying the development of depression, with studies in Europe and North America showing a pattern of elevated risk that begins in early adolescence and continues to increase as adolescents age. Few studies have examined the course of adolescent depression and associated risk factors in low and middle-income countries. This longitudinal cohort study examined depression symptom trajectories and risk factors in a sample of socio-economically disadvantaged adolesc...

  10. School difficulties in immigrant adolescent students and roles of socioeconomic factors, unhealthy behaviours, and physical and mental health

    Chau Kénora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant students. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed risk for school difficulties among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income, WHO-Quality of life (measuring the four dimensions physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment, unhealthy behaviours (last-30-day uses of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs and no regular sports/physical activities, grade repetition, low school performance ( Results Grade repetition affected 14.8% of students, low school performance 8.2%, and school dropout ideation 3.9%. European immigrants had a higher risk for grade repetition only with a gender-age-adjusted odds ratio (OR of 2.44, vs. French students. This odds ratio decreased to 1.76 (contribution 47% with further adjustment for all confounders (family structure, father’s occupation, family income, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Non-European immigrants had a statistically higher risk for all grade repetition, low school performance, and school dropout ideation with ORs of 3.29, 3.02, and 3.42, respectively vs. French students. These odds ratios decreased to 1.76, 1.54, and 1.54, respectively (contributions 66%, 73%, and 78% with further adjustment for all confounders. Conclusions Compared with French students

  11. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG)

  12. Gender differences as factors in successful ageing: a focus on socioeconomic status.

    Park, Sang-Mi; Jang, Soong-Nang; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Over the past century, the population of Korea has aged rapidly as a result of decreasing fertility and mortality. Furthermore, the percentage of the population aged 65 and older is expected to double from 7% to 14% within 18 years, a much shorter doubling period than in most other developed countries. As Korean society ages, interest in healthy and successful ageing has increased. However, although previous studies have examined various determinants of successful ageing, such as socioeconomic status, gender differences have been neglected. This study investigated gender differences as factors in successful ageing among elderly men and women. Successful ageing has been defined as having high levels of physical and social functioning. Physical functioning includes having no difficulties with activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Social functioning is defined as participation in at least one of the following social activities: paid work, religious gatherings or volunteer service. Data for this study were obtained from a representative sample of 761 community-living individuals aged 65-84 years (340 males, 421 females); the respondents were interviewed face-to-face as part of the third wave of the Hallym Ageing Study (2007). Socioeconomic status appears to have a greater gender-specific effect on physical functioning than on social functioning. Especially for elderly men, a higher monthly individual income was significantly related to a higher level of physical functioning. Among elderly women, a higher level of education was associated with a higher level of physical functioning. In a major metropolis, elderly men had low social functioning and elderly women had low physical functioning. As Korea's population ages, successful ageing has received much attention. This study shows that policies promoting successful ageing must consider gender differences and associated socioeconomic factors. PMID:19703332

  13. Risk Factors Associated with Peritoneal-Dialysis-Related Peritonitis

    Julia Kerschbaum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Peritonitis represents a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD. The aim of this paper was to systematically collect data on patient-related risk factors for PD-associated peritonitis, to analyze the methodological quality of these studies, and to summarize published evidence on the particular risk factors. Methods. Studies were identified by searches of Pubmed (1990–2012 and assessed for methodological quality by using a modified form of the STROBE criteria. Results. Thirty-five methodologically acceptable studies were identified. The following nonmodifiable risk factors were considered valid and were associated with an increased risk of peritonitis: ethnicity, female gender, chronic lung disease, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, antihepatitis C virus antibody positivity, diabetes mellitus, lupus nephritis or glomerulonephritis as underlying renal disease, and no residual renal function. We also identified the following modifiable, valid risk factors for peritonitis: malnutrition, overweight, smoking, immunosuppression, no use of oral active vitamin D, psychosocial factors, low socioeconomic status, PD against patient’s choice, and haemodialysis as former modality. Discussion. Modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors analyzed in this paper might serve as a basis to improve patient care in peritoneal dialysis.

  14. Adherence to Airway Clearance Therapy in Pediatric Cystic Fibrosis: Socioeconomic Factors and Respiratory Outcomes

    Oates, Gabriela R.; Stepanikova, Irena; Gamble, Stephanie; Gutierrez, Hector H.; Harris, William T.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives The evidence linking socioeconomic status (SES) and adherence in cystic fibrosis (CF) is inconclusive and focused on medication uptake. We examined associations between SES, adherence to airway clearance therapy (ACT), and CF respiratory outcomes. Study Design Socioeconomic, clinical, and adherence data of CF patients (N = 110) at a single CF Center were evaluated in this cross-sectional observational study. SES was operationalized as maternal and paternal education and household income. Adherence to ACT was measured with utilization data from the high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) device over 4–6 weeks. Statistical modeling was used to test three hypotheses: (H1) Higher SES is associated with higher ACT adherence; (H2) Higher SES is associated with better respiratory outcomes; and (H3) ACT adherence mediates the relationship between SES and respiratory outcomes. Results In multinomial logistic regression, maternal college education, annual income >$50,000, and more adults in the household were independently related to better adherence (P $100,000, and lack of exposure to smoking were independently related to higher lung function (P < 0.05). Current adherence to ACT with HFCWO was not associated with lung function over 12 months. Conclusions SES is associated both with ACT adherence and respiratory outcomes in pediatric CF patients. However, the link between SES and respiratory outcomes in this study was not mediated by adherence to ACT with HFCWO. These data emphasize the importance of socioeconomic resources and household environment for CF health. Family socio-demographic profiles can help identify patients at increased risk for ACT nonadherence. PMID:26436321

  15. [Epidemiology of schizophrenic disorders, genetic and environmental risk factors].

    Szoke, Andrei

    2013-03-01

    Schizophrenia is a relatively common pathology with onset at adolescence or early adulthood, more frequent in men than women. By describing distribution of cases in different populations and the factors that influence this distribution, epidemiology contributes to our understanding of the disease. Several risk factors for schizophrenia have been uncovered both genetic and environmental. The environmental factors can act at individual level (obstetric complications, season of birth, urbanicity, childhood trauma, cannabis, migration) or at population/area levels (socio-economic level, social fragmentation and social capital, ethnic density, etc.). An integrative and dynamic model based on the "vulnerability-persistence-impairment" paradigm is useful in integrating the findings about the risk factors and their complex relationships. PMID:23687754

  16. Identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images; An annotated bibliography

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.; Hemphill, R.C.; Mohiudden, S.; Corso, J.

    1990-02-01

    In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to initiate the process of choosing a location to permanently store high-level nuclear waste from the designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only location to be studied as a candidate site for such a repository. The original acts and its amendments had established the grant mechanism by which the state of Nevada could finance an investigation of the potential socioeconomic impacts that could result from the installation and operation of this facility. Over the past three years, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM or RW) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved grant requests by Nevada to perform this investigation. This report is intended to update and enhance a literature review conducted by the Human Affairs Research Center (HARC) for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project that dealt with the psychological and sociological processes underlying risk perception. It provides addition information on the HARC work, covers a subsequent step in the impact-estimation process, and translates risk perception into decisions and behaviors with economic consequences. It also covers recently developed techniques for assessing the nature and magnitude of impacts caused by environmental changes focusing on those impacts caused by changes in perceived risks.

  17. Identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images

    In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to initiate the process of choosing a location to permanently store high-level nuclear waste from the designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only location to be studied as a candidate site for such a repository. The original acts and its amendments had established the grant mechanism by which the state of Nevada could finance an investigation of the potential socioeconomic impacts that could result from the installation and operation of this facility. Over the past three years, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM or RW) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved grant requests by Nevada to perform this investigation. This report is intended to update and enhance a literature review conducted by the Human Affairs Research Center (HARC) for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project that dealt with the psychological and sociological processes underlying risk perception. It provides addition information on the HARC work, covers a subsequent step in the impact-estimation process, and translates risk perception into decisions and behaviors with economic consequences. It also covers recently developed techniques for assessing the nature and magnitude of impacts caused by environmental changes focusing on those impacts caused by changes in perceived risks

  18. Socio-economic factors of bacillary dysentery based on spatial correlation analysis in Guangxi Province, China.

    Chengjing Nie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. METHODS: Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. RESULTS: The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other.

  19. Participatory Approach to Long-Term Socio-Economic Scenarios as Building Block of a Local Vulnerability and Risk Assessment Tool - The Case Study Lienz (East-Tyrol)

    Meyer, Ina; Eder, Brigitte; Hama, Michiko; Leitner, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Risks associated with climate change are mostly still understood and analyzed in a sector- or hazard-specific and rarely in a systemic, dynamic and scenario-based manner. In addition, socio-economic trends are often neglected in local vulnerability and risk assessments although they represent potential key determinants of risk and vulnerability. The project ARISE (Adaptation and Decision Support via Risk Management Through Local Burning Embers) aims at filling this gap by applying a participatory approach to socio-economic scenario building as building block of a local vulnerability assessment and risk management tool. Overall, ARISE aims at developing a decision support system for climate-sensitive iterative risk management as a key adaptation tool for the local level using Lienz in the East-Tyrol as a test-site City. One central building block is participatory socio-economic scenario building that - together with regionalized climate change scenarios - form a centrepiece in the process-oriented assessment of climate change risks and vulnerability. Major vulnerabilities and risks may stem from the economic performance, the socio-economic or socio-demographic developments or changes in asset exposition and not from climate change impacts themselves. The IPCC 5th assessment report underlines this and states that for most economic sectors, the impact of climate change may be small relative to the impacts of other driving forces such as changes in population growth, age, income, technology, relative prices, lifestyle, regulation, governance and many other factors in the socio-economy (Arent et al., 2014). The paper presents the methodology, process and results with respect to the building of long-term local socio-economic scenarios for the City of Lienz and the surrounding countryside. Scenarios were developed in a participatory approach using a scenario workshop that involved major stakeholders from the region. Participatory approaches are increasingly recognized as

  20. Prevalence of Obesity and Its Association with Socioeconomic Factors in Elderly Iranians from Razavi-Khorasan Province

    Mohsen Nematy; Ali Sakhdari; Parnian Ahmadi-Moghaddam; Maliheh Aliabadi; M. Kimiagar; Ilaty, A. A.; Azimi-Nezhad, M.; M.T. Shakeri; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M.; A Sahebkar; G Ferns

    2009-01-01

    There are few data regarding the prevalence of obesity and its socioeconomic determinants among elderly individuals, particularly in Iran. We wished to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in free-living elderly people and the relationship to nutritional and socioeconomic factors in the Razavi-Khorasan province of Iran. Free-living elderly persons (917 males/1045 females), aged ?60 years, were recruited using cluster sampling. Overweight and obesity were evaluated using body mas...

  1. Are time-trends of smoking among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden determined by cultural or socioeconomic factors?

    Eek Frida; Ostergren P-O; Moussa Kontie M; Kunst Anton E

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The widening socioeconomic gap in smoking during pregnancy remains a challenge to the Swedish antenatal care services. However, the influence of cultural factors in explaining the socioeconomic differences in smoking during pregnancy is not clear among the immigrant women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the development of smoking prevalence among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden followed the trajectory which could be expected from the stages of the glob...

  2. Socio-economic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    N. O. Anyoha; F. N. Nnadi; J. Chikaire; J. A. Echetama; C. O. Utazi; R. A. Ihenacho

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the socioeconomic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to determine socioeconomic characteristics of crop farmers in the area, determine farmers level of awareness of climate change in the area, ascertain effects of climate change in crop production, identify adaptation strategies adopted by the farmers in the area and determine socioeconomi...

  3. Socioeconomic factors differentiating maternal and child health-seeking behavior in rural Bangladesh: A cross-sectional analysis

    Becker Stan; Shah Nirali M; Amin Ruhul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There has been an increasing availability and accessibility of modern health services in rural Bangladesh over the past decades. However, previous studies on the socioeconomic differentials in the utilization of these services were based on a limited number of factors, focusing either on preventive or on curative modern health services. These studies failed to collect data from remote rural areas of the different regions to examine the socioeconomic differentials in health...

  4. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  5. Risk factors of teenage pregnancy

    Maria Siettou; Maria Saridi

    2011-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United King...

  6. Socioeconomic factors affecting patients′ utilization of primary care services at a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Abdulaziz M Alsubaie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary care services utilization is dependent on socioeconomic factors. It is proven that variation in socioeconomic factors result in discrepancies in the use of such services. Admittedly, research is limited on the socioeconomic factors affecting the utilization of primary care services in Saudi Arabia. Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the effect of the main socioeconomic factors affecting patients′ utilization of primary care services at a tertiary teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2014 in a primary care clinic of a tertiary teaching hospital in Riyadh city; subjects selected using a random consecutive sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire in Arabic was given to the participants to collect the data which comprised sociodemographic data, utilization measures, and health needs. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 358 subjects participated in the study. The main factors that best determine the utilization of primary health care clinic in a tertiary teaching hospital were the possession of a health insurance (P = 0.046, odds ratio [OR] = 8.333, and bad self-health-perception (P < 0.014, OR: 2.088. Chronic illness was also associated with higher utilization (OR = 2.003. Conclusion: Our results reveal that chronic health problems, self-health-perception, and health insurance are the most significant socioeconomic factors affecting the utilization of primary care services.

  7. Public safety risk management at socio-economic and / or historic-cultural significant dam sites

    Earle, Gordon D.; Ryan, Katherine; Pyykonen, Nicole K.; Pitts, Lucas [Otonabee Region Conservation Authority, Peterborough, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Lang Dam and adjoining gristmill, located near Peterborough are integral parts of the Lang Pioneer Village museum. Activities occurring within close proximity to the dam have led to safety issues. The owner (ORCA) has developed and implemented public safety management plans (PSMPs) for each of its water control structures, including the Lang Dam. ORCA gave special attention to the social, economic, aesthetic, historic and cultural dimensions associated the implementation of public safety management plans. These factors play a significant role in how well public safety measures (PSMs) are received by stakeholder groups and the general public. This paper reported the challenges of developing and implementing a PSMP for the Lang Dam, with the focus on property site-specific PSMS while preserving socio-economic and historic-cultural character and values. It was demonstrated that the dam owners, regulatory authorities, control agencies and preservationists need to come together to develop a holistic public safety management process.

  8. Parenting, Socioeconomic Status Risk, and Later Young Adult Health: Exploration of Opposing Indirect Effects via DNA Methylation

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Kim, Sangjin; Barton, Allen W.; Dogan, Meesha V.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 398 African American youth, residing in rural counties with high poverty and unemployment, were followed from ages 11 to 19. Protective parenting was associated with better health, whereas elevated socioeconomic status (SES) risk was associated with poorer health at age 19. Genome-wide epigenetic variation assessed in young adulthood…

  9. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  10. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  11. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    Hsin-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  12. Socio-economic, Biophysical, and Perceptional Factors Associated with Agricultural Adaptation of Smallholder Farmers in Gujarat, Northwest India

    Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to negatively impact many agricultural communities across the globe, particularly smallholder farmers who often do not have access to appropriate technologies to reduce their vulnerability. To better predict which farmers will be most impacted by future climate change at a regional scale, we use remote sensing and agricultural census data to examine how cropping intensity and crop type have shifted based on rainfall variability across Gujarat, India from 1990 to 2010. Using household-level interviews, we then identify the socio-economic, biophysical, perceptional, and psychological factors associated with smallholder farmers who are the most impacted and the least able to adapt to contemporaneous rainfall variability. We interviewed 750 farmers in 2011 and 2012 that span a rainfall, irrigation, socio-economic, and caste gradient across central Gujarat. Our results show that farmers shift cropping practices in several ways based on monsoon onset, which farmers state is the main observable rainfall signal influencing cropping decisions during the monsoon season. When monsoon onset is delayed, farmers opt to plant more drought-tolerant crops, push back the date of sowing, and increase the number of irrigations used. Comparing self-reported income and yields, we find that switching crops does not improve agricultural income, shifting planting date does not influence crop yield, yet increasing the number of irrigations significantly increases yield. Future work will identify which social (e.g. social networks), psychological (e.g. risk preference), and knowledge (e.g. information sources) factors are associated with farmers who are best able to adapt to rainfall variability.

  13. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi; Bretler, Ditte-Marie; Schmiegelow, Michelle Dalgas; Andersson, Charlotte; Azimi, Aziza; Gislason, Gunnar; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  14. Risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Mihajlović-Božić Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in human population. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in our country. The incidence of colorectal cancer increases in the fifth decade of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between colorectal cancer and potential risk factors. A case-control study of colorectal cancer was carried out between 1998 and 1999 in Clinical Center of Serbia, Center for Digestive Surgery. A total of 100 cases of newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer confirmed by histopathology and an equal number of controls, individually matched by gender and age (+/-5 years, were chosen from patients from the same hospital with no history of cancer at all. McNemar test and conditional logistic regression were used in the analysis. According to logistic regression analysis the following risk factors were independently related with the occurrence of colorectal cancer: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet rich in red meat and fat promote the carcinogenic process; food rich in vegetables, fruits, grains, vitamin C, physical activity, and oral contraceptive use inhibit the same process. A family history of cancer and long standing inflammatory bowel diseases also have significant role. There is convincing evidence that nutrition affects colorectal carcinogenesis in a complex fashion.

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors among Chamorros

    Wu Phillis L

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding the cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chamorros residing in the United States. Methods The Chamorro Directory International and the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS were used to assess the health related practices and needs of a random sample of 228 Chamorros. Results Inactivity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in this Chamorro sample compared to the US average. Participants who were 50-and-older or unemployed were more likely to report hypertension, diabetes and inactivity, but they were also more likely to consume more fruits and vegetables than their younger and employed counterparts. Women were more likely to report hypertension and diabetes, whereas men were more likely to have elevated BMI and to have never had their blood cholesterol checked. Conclusion The study provides data that will help healthcare providers, public health workers and community leaders identify where to focus their health improvement efforts for Chamorros and create culturally competent programs to promote health in this community.

  16. The socio-economic dimension of flood risk assessment: insights of KULTURisk framework

    Giupponi, Carlo; Gain, Animesh; Mojtahed, Vahid; Balbi, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The approaches for vulnerability and risk assessment have found different and often contrasting solutions by various schools of thought. The two most prominent communities in this field are: climate change adaptation (CCA), and disaster risk reduction (DRR). Although those communities have usually in common the aim of reducing socio-economic vulnerability and risk to natural hazards, they have usually referred to different definitions and conceptualizations. For example, the DRR community has always driven more emphasis on the concept of risk and vulnerability is considered as a physical/environmental input for the quantification of risk, while the CCA research stream, mainly under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), considered vulnerability as an output deriving from social conditions and processes such as adaptation or maladaptation. Recently, with the publication of the IPCC Special Report on extreme events and disasters (IPCC-SREX), the notions of vulnerability and risk are somehow integrated in order to jointly consider both climate change adaptation and disaster risk management. The IPCC-SREX indeed is expected to significantly contribute to find common language and methodological approaches across disciplines and, therefore, the opportunity emerges for proposing new operational solutions, consistent with the most recent evolution of concepts and terminology. Based on the development of the IPCC Report, the KULTURisk project developed an operational framework to support integrated assessment and decision support through the combination of contributions from diverse disciplinary knowledge, with emphasis on the social and economic dimensions. KIRAF (KULTURisk Integrated Risk Assessment Framework) is specifically aimed at comprehensively evaluate the benefits of risk mitigation measures with consideration of the dynamic context deriving from the consideration of climatic changes and their effects on natural disasters, within the

  17. Antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in South America: history, current dissemination status and associated socioeconomic factors.

    Bonelli, Raquel Regina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer; Picão, Renata Cristina

    2014-04-01

    South America exhibits some of the higher rates of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobactericeae worldwide. This continent includes 12 independent countries with huge socioeconomic differences, where the ample access to antimicrobials, including counterfeit ones, coexists with ineffective health systems and sanitation problems, favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant strains. This work presents a literature review concerning the evolution and current status of antimicrobial resistance threats found among Enterobacteriaceae in South America. Resistance to β-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides was emphasized along with description of key epidemiological studies that highlight the success of specific resistance determinants in different parts of the continent. In addition, a discussion regarding political and socioeconomic factors possibly related to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains in clinical settings and at the community is presented. Finally, in order to assess the possible sources of resistant bacteria, we compile the current knowledge about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in isolates in South American' food, food-producing animals and off-hospitals environments. By addressing that intensive intercontinental commerce and tourism neutralizes the protective effect of geographic barriers, we provide arguments reinforcing that globally integrated efforts are needed to decelerate the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains. PMID:24618111

  18. Prevalence and Outcomes of Food Insecurity and Its Relationship with Some Socioeconomic Factors

    Mahjoobeh Safarpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food insecurity can influence the individual physical and mental health. The present study aimed to investigate the food insecurity and some of its socioeconomic factors related to families having girl students at high school level in Bandar Anzali, located in the north of Iran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study held on 400 families having a 9-11 year old girl.To determine the demographic and individual features and food insecurity of the families, subject mothers were invited to an interview to complete the socio-economic and the 18-item USDA food security questionnaires. To determine the economic status, possession of 9 household items was questioned. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and multivariate logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of food insecurity in samples was 51%. Food insecurity was significantly associated to economic level of the family, the number of employed people and the number of children in the family, the education level of parents, and ownership of house. In households group with food insecurity , children's average weight is significantly lower than other groups. Conclusion: Food insecurity was severly affected by economic level, education and job status of parents.

  19. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  20. Virtual water trade patterns in relation to environmental and socioeconomic factors: a case study for Tunisia

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity is among the main problems faced by many societies. Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demands and supply. This study aims to analyze the changes in virtual water trade of Tunisia in relation to environmental and socio-economic factors such as GDP, irrigated land, precipitation, population and water scarcity. The water footprint is estimated using Aquacrop for six crops over the period 1981-2010 at daily basis and a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minutes. Virtual water trade is quantified at yearly basis. Regression models are used to investigate changes in virtual water trade in relation to various environmental and socio-economic factors. The explaining variables are selected in order to help understanding the trend and the inter-annual variability of the net virtual water import; GDP, population and irrigated land are hypothesized to explain the trend, and precipitation and water scarcity to explain variability. The selected crops are divided into three baskets. The first basket includes the two most imported crops, which are mainly rain-fed (wheat and barley). The second basket contains the two most exported crops, which are both irrigated and rain-fed (olives and dates). In the last basket we find the two highest economic blue water productive crops, which are mainly irrigated (tomatoes and potatoes). The results show the impact of each factor on net virtual water import of the selected crops during the period 1981-2010. Keywords: Virtual water, trade patterns, Aquacrop, Tunisia, water scarcity, water footprint.

  1. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal

    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (β = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal

  2. Area-Level Socioeconomic Characteristics, Prevalence and Trajectories of Cardiometabolic Risk

    Anh D. Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000–2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR, prevalence risk ratio (SRR, ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI. Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ≈ 1; p ≥ 0.42. However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely and unemployment rate (positively were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI = 0.76 (0.63–0.90, and 1.48 (1.26–1.74, respectively, and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI = 0.96 (0.93–0.99, and 1.06 (1.04–1.09, respectively. The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI = 0.58 (0.45–0.73, and SRR (95%CI = 0.91 (0.88–0.94. Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education

  3. Socioeconomic Status and Overweight Prevalence in Polish Adolescents: The Impact of Single Factors and a Complex Index of Socioeconomic Status in Respect to Age and Sex

    Joanna Kowalkowska; Lidia Wadolowska; Justyna Weronika Wuenstel; Małgorzata Anna Słowińska; Ewa Niedźwiedzka

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and ag...

  4. The Effect of Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors on Contraceptive Use and Induced Abortion in Turkey

    Ozlem Alpu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the parameters of the heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model established for the induced abortion and the contraceptive use by using socioeconomic and demographic factors and their effects by eliminating the observed heteroscedasticity. Using a heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model and Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (1998 data on married women aged 15 through 49 years, we estimated the probabilities of their having an induced abortion, if induced abortion have, of their using contraceptive methods. The results of the research show that induced abortion is perceived and used as a contraceptive method among the women in Turkey. This shows that it is the correct way to examine those two variables, induced abortion and contraceptive use, together.

  5. Socioeconomic Factors Affect Disparities in Access to Liver Transplant for Hepatocellular Cancer

    Linda L. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The incidence/death rate of hepatocellular cancer (HCC is increasing in America, and it is unclear if access to care contributes to this increase. Design/Patients. 575 HCC cases were reviewed for demographics, education, and tumor size. Main Outcome Measures. Endpoints to determine access to HCC care included whether an eligible patient underwent liver transplantation. Results. Transplant patients versus those not transplanted were younger (55.7 versus 61.8 yrs, P 35 (20.7% compared to Whites (6.4% and Asians (4.7%. Conclusions. Ethnic differences in access to transplant are associated with socioeconomic status and factors that can disqualify patients (advanced disease/morbid obesity. Efforts to overcome educational barriers and screening for HCC could improve access to transplant.

  6. All for one: Contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, executive functioning and social cognition to moral reasoning in childhood.

    Evelyn eVera-Estay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Moral reasoning (MR is a sociocognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Whereas past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning, theory of mind, empathy, and affect recognition, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative and combined contribution of these skills to MR. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the putative links between these factors in childhood, a period during which these skills are in maturation. The aim of this study was to explore what factors predict moral maturity in typically developing children (n=76, 47.4% males, M = 9.2, SD = 1.67 years, explore the potential moderating and mediating role of executive functions and social cognition in the relationship between age and MR maturity, and identify the specific contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, executive functioning and social cognition, using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (So-Moral. The results indicate that MR maturity was correlated with age, executive functioning (inhibition, verbal fluency, and attentional control and social cognition (theory of mind and affect recognition. Neither EF nor social cognition moderated the effect of age on MR maturity. However, verbal fluency and third-order false beliefs had a moderating role in this link. MR maturity in children was predicted by three variables from each of the three domains: age, verbal fluency and third order theory of mind. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underpinnings of MR during childhood, suggesting that MR is not reducible to general developmental factors such as age, but that higher order skills such executive functioning and social cognition also contribute to moral maturity. The findings have

  7. All for One: Contributions of Age, Socioeconomic Factors, Executive Functioning, and Social Cognition to Moral Reasoning in Childhood.

    Vera-Estay, Evelyn; Seni, Anne G; Champagne, Caroline; Beauchamp, Miriam H

    2016-01-01

    Moral reasoning (MR) is a socio-cognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning (EF), theory of mind (ToM), empathy, and affect recognition. However, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative and combined contribution of these skills to MR. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the putative links between these factors in childhood, a period during which these skills are in maturation. The aim of this study was to explore what factors predict moral maturity in typically developing children (n = 76, 47.4% males, M = 9.2, SD = 1.67 years), explore the potential moderating and mediating role of executive functions and social cognition in the relationship between age and MR maturity, and identify the specific contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, EF, and social cognition, using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (So-Moral). The results indicate that MR maturity was correlated with age, EF (inhibition, verbal fluency, and attentional control), and social cognition (ToM and affect recognition). Neither EF nor social cognition moderated the effect of age on MR maturity. However, verbal fluency and third-order false beliefs had a moderating role in this link. MR maturity in children was predicted by three variables from each of the three domains: age, verbal fluency, and third-order ToM. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underpinnings of MR during childhood, suggesting that MR is not reducible to general developmental factors such as age, but that higher order skills, such EF and social cognition also contribute to moral maturity. The findings have relevance for both typically developing and clinical populations in which

  8. The influence of financial incentives and other socio-economic factors on electric vehicle adoption

    Electric vehicles represent an innovation with the potential to lower greenhouse gas emissions and help mitigate the causes of climate change. However, externalities including the appropriability of knowledge and pollution abatement result in societal/economic benefits that are not incorporated in electric vehicle prices. In order to address resulting market failures, governments have employed a number of policies. We seek to determine the relationship of one such policy instrument (consumer financial incentives) to electric vehicle adoption. Based on existing literature, we identified several additional socio-economic factors that are expected to be influential in determining electric vehicle adoption rates. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we examined the relationship between those variables and 30 national electric vehicle market shares for the year 2012. The model found financial incentives, charging infrastructure, and local presence of production facilities to be significant and positively correlated to a country's electric vehicle market share. Results suggest that of those factors, charging infrastructure was most strongly related to electric vehicle adoption. However, descriptive analysis suggests that neither financial incentives nor charging infrastructure ensure high electric vehicle adoption rates. - Highlights: • This research analyzes electric vehicle adoption of 30 countries in 2012. • Financial incentives and charging infrastructure were statistically significant factors. • Country-specific factors help to explain diversity in national adoption rates. • Socio-demographic variables e.g., income and education level were not significant

  9. Regional and geographical variations in infertility: effects of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors.

    Leke, R J; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K M

    1993-07-01

    Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomplete without consideration of the sociocultural and environmental factors. The most cost-effective approach to solving the infertility problems in Africa is prevention and education. In Mexico, problems of reproductive health are associated with pregnancy in adolescents, sexually transmitted diseases and genitourinary neoplasms. Infertility affects 10% of couples, usually as a result of asymptomatic infection. Education, poverty, nutrition, and pollution are problems that must be tackled. The government has taken positive action in the State of São Paulo in Brazil, where gender discrimination is a major factor affecting women's health and reproductive outcomes. The implementation of new policies with adequate funding has resulted in marked improvements. PMID:8243409

  10. Prevalence of risk factors for fractures and use of DXA scanning in Danish women. A regional population-based study

    Rubin, Kathrine Hass; Abrahamsen, B; Hermann, A P;

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relationship between risk factors and use of DXA scans. Our study showed a relatively high use of DXA in low-risk women and the relatively low coverage in women with multiple risk factors. Moreover, distance to DXA clinics, age, and socio-economic factors are associated with the...... use of DXA. INTRODUCTION: To determine the relationship between risk factors for fracture and use of DXA scans in Danish women in relation to distance to DXA clinics and socio-economic factors. METHODS: From the Danish National Civil Register we randomly selected 5,000 women aged 40-90 years living in...... the region of Southern Denmark to receive a mailed questionnaire concerning risk factors for fractures. RESULTS: The respondents rate was 84% and 77% of the invited population were available for analysis. A total of 10.3% of the women without risk factors and only 36% of the women with three or more...

  11. The Essential Role of Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Research

    Gerring, Joan P.; Wade, Shari

    2012-01-01

    This article builds upon Traumatic Brain Injury Common Data Elements (TBI CDE) version 1.0 and the pediatric CDE Initiative by emphasizing the essential role of psychosocial risk and protective factors in pediatric TBI research. The goals are to provide a compelling rationale for including psychosocial risk and protective factors in addition to socioeconomic status (SES), age, and sex in the study design and analyses of pediatric TBI research and to describe recommendations for core common da...

  12. Incidence and risk factors for diabetes, hypertension and obesity after liver transplantation

    Lucilene Rezende Anastácio; Hélem de Sena Ribeiro; Livia García Ferreira; Agnaldo Soares Lima; Eduardo García Vilela; María Isabel Toulson Davisson Correia

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Metabolic disorders are widely described in patients after liver transplantation (LTx). Material and methods: Arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity incidence and risk factors were assessed in 144 post-LTx patients at least one year after transplantation (59% male; median age 54 y; median time since transplantation 4 y). Risk factors were assessed using logistic regression analysis according to demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle, clinical, anthropometric and dietetic var...

  13. High temperature and risk of hospitalizations, and effect modifying potential of socio-economic conditions: A multi-province study in the tropical Mekong Delta Region.

    Phung, Dung; Guo, Yuming; Nguyen, Huong T L; Rutherford, Shannon; Baum, Scott; Chu, Cordia

    2016-01-01

    The Mekong Delta Region (MDR) in Vietnam is highly vulnerable to extreme weather related to climate change. However there have been hardly any studies on temperature-hospitalization relationships. The objectives of this study were to examine temperature-hospitalization relationship and to evaluate the effects of socio-economic factors on the risk of hospitalizations due to high temperature in the MDR. The Generalized Linear and Distributed Lag Models were used to examine hospitalizations for extreme temperature for each of the 13 provinces in the MDR. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled risk for all causes, and for infectious, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases sorted by sex and age groups. Random-effects meta-regression was used to evaluate the effect of socio-economic factors on the temperature-hospitalization association. For 1°C increase in average temperature, the risk of hospital admissions increased by 1.3% (95% CI, 0.9-1.8) for all causes, 2.2% (95% CI, 1.4-3.1) for infectious diseases, and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.5-1.7) for respiratory diseases. However the result was inconsistent for cardiovascular diseases. Meta-regression showed population density, poverty rate, and illiteracy rate increased the risk of hospitalization due to high temperature, while higher household income, houses using safe water, and houses using hygienic toilets reduced this risk. In the MDR, high temperatures have a significant impact on hospitalizations for infectious and respiratory diseases. Our findings have important implications for better understanding the future impacts of climate change on residents of the MDR. Adaptation programs that consider the risk and protective factors should be developed to protect residents from extreme temperature conditions. PMID:27060418

  14. Association of coal, atomic energy, socio-economic and other environmental variables with the risk of dying

    Death rates have been calculated by cause, age, sex and race for each county, state economic area, and other groups of counties of the USA for the period 1959 to 1976, data being obtained from official sources. Attention has been given to appropriate methods of using these rates for epidemiological study. Within the USA there are marked and consistent differences in death rates for middle-aged white males: low in the west central plains area and high in the south-east coastal plain. If the USA as a whole had rates as low as in the low-rate areas, there would be 160,000 fewer deaths per year under the age of 75. Coal- and metal-mining is strongly associated with high rates for middle-aged females as well as males. The residents of an area around a nuclear plant, after 22 years of exposure to low levels of radiation from this plant, do not show clear evidence of either decreased or increased risk, for various forms of cancer and other causes, as compared with rates for those living further away in the same states, or as compared with US rates. In the USA, persons living at higher elevations tend to have lower death rates. A number of factors may be hypothesized as being responsible for these lower rates, including the higher levels of background radiation at higher elevations. Many other factors also present evidence of being associated with differences in risk, including cigarette-smoking and various socio-economic or cultural variables. (author)

  15. Risk factors for human brucellosis in northern Jordan.

    Abo-Shehada, M N; Abu-Halaweh, M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the risk factors of human brucellosis in Jordan. A case-control study was conducted involving 56 Jordanians who had been treated for brucellosis and at least 3 matched controls for each case (n = 247). Matching was for sex, age, locality (the same village) and socioeconomic standard. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. In all, 17 risk factors were examined related to: contact with various livestock, milk and milk product consumption, drinking-water treatment and disease awareness. Most variables were associated with brucellosis in the univariate analysis but the final logistic model included only 4: milking sheep and goats (OR 3.5), consumption of raw feta cheese made from sheep and goat milk (OR 2.8) and consumption of cows' milk (OR 0.4) and boiled feta cheese (OR 0.4). Small ruminant farmers need to be trained in safer milking practices and feta cheese making procedures. PMID:23516823

  16. Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins

    Amit Kumar Durra; Ashok Chacko; Biju George; Joseph Anjilivelil Joseph; Sukesh Chandran Nair; Vikram Mathews

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT).METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients with abdominal venous thrombosis were studied.The patients were divided into Budd-Chiari group (hepatic vein, IVC thrombosis) and splanchnic venous thrombosis group (portal, splenic, superior mesenteric veins) based on the veins involved. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilic risk factors were evaluated in all patients.RESULTS: Twenty patients had SVT, 14 had BCS,and 2 had mixed venous thrombosis. Ten patients (28%) had hereditary and 10 patients (28%) acquired thrombophilic risk factors. The acquired risk factors were significantly more common in the SVT group (SVT vs BCS:45% vs 7%,x2=5.7,P=0.02) while hereditary risk factors did not show significant differences between the two groups (SVT vs BCS: 25%vs 36%, x2=0.46,P=0.7). Multiple risk factors were present in one (7%) patient with BCS and in 3 patients (15%) with SVT. No risk factors were identified in 57% of patients with BCS and in 45% of patients with SVT.CONCLUSION: Hereditary and acquired risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of abdominal venous thrombosis. Acquired risk factors are significantly more common in SVT patients while hereditary factors are similar in both groups.

  17. Information Asymmetry as a Risk Factor

    Viktor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores information asymmetry as the cause of risks in decision making. The author describes the types of information asymmetry as a risk factor; describes the types of risk arising under different information asymmetries; describes the methods for minimizing such risks; brings to light the principal-agent issue; analyzes the principles of minimizing risks in the event of this issue arising; illustrates the application of special information models for minimizing risks in this iss...

  18. Risk Psychosocial Factors to School Dropout and Early Teenage Pregnancy

    Fabián Antonio Dávila Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the frequency and weight that psychosocial risk factors predispose to outcomes of early pregnancy and scholar dropout, a descriptive review was conducted. Materials and Meth­ods: A search and review of the results reported by observational studies in the PubMed data­base indexed from July 27, 2010 until July 25, 2013 was performed, restricting the search to studies in humans, Spanish or English written, not made in countries in Africa or Asia. Search was widened to LILACS database for the years 2006 to 2013 for Latinamerican countries. For inclusion, all case-control studies comparing different types of interventions and psychosocial risk factors in adolescents were eligible. Results: The review suggests violence experienced dur­ing adolescence, sexual abuse, belonging to a low socioeconomic status, low self-esteem, eating behavior disorders, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction, mental disorders, early initiation of sex, poor family ties, lack of access to information, and resources for family planning as main psychosocial factors related to early pregnancy and scholar dropout in adolescents. Conclusions: Both risk factors associated with pregnancy and scholar dropout were described, and interven­tions targeting the described risk factors could potentially contribute to the reduction of these outcomes were described.

  19. Association between sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic factors, diet and lifestyle among the Balearic Islands adolescents

    Bibiloni Maria del Mar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many different factors influenced food habits and physical activity patterns of adolescents in a complex interactive way. The aim of this study was to assess association between sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic factors, diet and lifestyle among the Balearic Islands adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n = 1961; 12–17 years old was carried out. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents (IPAQ-A. Sedentary behaviour was defined as Results The prevalence of sedentary behaviour was 37.1% (22.0% boys, 50.8% girls. Active boys consumed frequently breakfast cereals and fresh fruit; active girls yogurt, cheese, breakfast cereals, and fresh fruit; and sedentary girls high fat foods and soft drinks. Sedentary behaviour of girls was directly associated to age, and time spent on media screen and homework, and inversely related to adherence to Mediterranean diet, and body composition. Sedentary behaviour of boys was inversely related to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and the desire to remain the same weight. Conclusions The prevalence of sedentary behaviour among Balearic Islands adolescents is high, mainly among girls. Age, sex, parental educational and profession levels, body size dissatisfaction, and poor quality diet are important factors of physical activity practice among adolescents.

  20. Evaluation of socio-economic factors affecting the demand for health

    Abdosaleh Jafari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Individual health has been proved to be under the influence of various factors such as the use of health care services, diet, smoking and alcohol, physical environment, and health-related behaviors. Therefore, the main determinants of health are factors such as income, education, and access to health services, and systematic changes in these factors lead to socio-economic injustice in health. The present study was carried out through library and internet search. Medline and Google Scholar databases were also utilized. Combining Contents and Results: According to the present study, an increase in health input expenses would inevitably lead to aggravation of the health situation and decrease in income would result in the worst health status of the poor. Moreover, people with higher education use less health inputs; however, they enjoy higher status than those with lower educational levels. Conclusion: Health demand approach provides only a part of the information needed for policy-makers and decision-makers in health system. Theoretical and empirical analyses of the health claim could indicate that policy actions are likely to be more effective in overcoming barriers to health but are not capable of determining which one is likely to be more cost-effective . The demand for information about the health only provides the necessary tools about the benefits of special policy making decisions. So the tool should be combined with other techniques including cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses.

  1. The effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors on land-use changes: a study of Alberta, Canada.

    Ruan, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Feng; Dyck, Miles

    2016-08-01

    Various environmental and socioeconomic issues have been attributed to land-use changes, and therefore, the underlying mechanisms merit investigation and quantification. This study assesses a comprehensive series of land-use conversions that were implemented over a recent 12-year period in the province of Alberta, Canada, where rapid economic and population growth has occurred. Spatial autocorrelation models are applied to identify the comprehensive effects of environmental and socioeconomic factors in each conversion case. The empirical results show that the impacts of key environmental and socioeconomic factors varied in intensity depending on the type of land-use conversion involved. Overall, land suitability for agricultural uses, road density, elevation, and population growth were found to be significant predictors of land-use changes. High land suitability, low elevation, and moderate road density were associated with land conversion for agricultural purposes. PMID:27376846

  2. Associations of Motor Developmental Risks with the Socioeconomic Status of Preschool Children in North-Eastern Germany

    Annika Gottschling-Lang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The study is part of the pilot project “children in preschools” and aims to detect developmental risks of preschool children in the context of their socioeconomic status (SES as a base to initiate individual intervention strategies. Methods. The “Dortmund Developmental Screening for the Kindergarten” was used in 12 preschools in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (MWP to detect early developmental risks in children aged 3 to 6 years (n=870. Socioeconomic data from n=530 parents were collected by a standardised questionnaire. Results. Significant differences between the SES groups were identified especially in the field of fine motor skills (P<0.05. In gross motor development differences were not statistically significant. Prevalence rate of fine motor developmental risks ranges from 1.7% to 20.9%; the rate of gross motor developmental risks tops out at 14.4%. The prevalence rates are associated with age and sex. Conclusions. Fine motor skills in 3–6 years old preschool children are significantly associated with the socioeconomic status. In gross motor skills an association could not be identified. In this study, motor development was more affected by sex than by SES.

  3. The influence of socioeconomic factors on traditional knowledge: a cross scale comparison of palm use in northwestern South America

    Narel Y. Paniagua-Zambrana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored the power of 14 socioeconomic factors for predicting differences in traditional knowledge about palms (Arecaceae at the personal, household, and regional levels in 25 locations in the Amazon, Andes, and Chocó of northwestern South America. Using semistructured interviews, we gathered data on palm uses from 2050 informants in 53 communities and four countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia . We performed multilevel statistical analyses, which showed that the influence of each socioeconomic factor differed depending on whether the analysis was performed on the overall palm knowledge or on individual use categories. At the general palm knowledge level, gender was the only factor that had a significant association in all five subregions, and showed that men had more knowledge than women, and age had a positive significant association only in the lowlands. Most of the analyzed socioeconomic factors had a greater influence on the lowland ecoregions of the Amazon and Chocó, although there were mixed trends in these ecoregions. Our results show that there are no regional patterns in the predictive power of socioeconomic factors and that their influence on palm-use knowledge is highly localized. We can conclude that (1 conservation strategies of traditional knowledge of palm use in the region should be developed mainly at the local level, and (2 large-scale comparable ethnoecological studies are necessary to understand indigenous communities' livelihoods at different scales.

  4. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting to Juvenile Delinquency:A Study Conducted at Borstal Jails of Punjab

    Mudassar Javed; Zarqa Azhar; Haq Nawaz Anwar; Malik Muhammad Sohail

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to explore the socio-economic factors effecting juvenile delinquency. The research was conducted at Faisalabad and Bahawalpur Borstal jails of Punjab. The main objectives of the study were to find out the background characteristics of the Juveniles, to explore social factors that influence on juvenile delinquency and to identify the economic factors that influence on juvenile delinquency. Quantitative approach was used to find out appropriate results and simple random sampling...

  5. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... can increase your risk for developing high blood pressure. Age Blood pressure tends to rise with age. About 65 ...

  6. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  7. About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention

    ... Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention We can’t control some risk factors for ... Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease: What Do We Know? Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery ... Factors and Prevention News Summit sets the path ahead for Alzheimer's ...

  8. [General practitioner burnout: risk factors].

    Dagrada, H; Verbanck, P; Kornreich, C

    2011-09-01

    This paper aims to review current knowledge on risk factors leading to burn-out of general practitioners, who are particularly concerned by burn-out, as 50% of them are being more or less affected. This article is based on bibliographic research covering literature between 1975 and 2010, using PUB MED software, medical books and articles. 44 articles were selected as dealing well with the aspects of the burn-out reviewed here. It seems established that stress precedes burnout symptoms. Theories investigating relationships between stress and work are presented. Exogenic stress (load and organization of work, emotional interaction with the patient, constraints, lack of recognition, conflicts between private and professional life) interacts with endogenous stress (idealism, (too much) acute feeling of responsibility, mood disorder, difficulty in collaborating, character, personality). Burn-out symptoms would appear preferentially when these two stresses coexist. Despite the wealth of publications, there is still a lack of knowledge of the causes of burn-out, requiring therefore increased research efforts, in order to improve the implementation of preventive measures, beneficial to the doctors as well as to their patients. PMID:22034773

  9. Effortful control as a moderator of the relation between contextual risk factors and growth in adjustment problems

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Bush, Nicole R.; Long, Anna C.; KOVACS, ERICA A.; TRANCIK, ANIKA M.

    2008-01-01

    Effortful control was examined as a moderator of the relations of three domains of contextual risk factors to growth in internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample (N = 189) of children (8–12 years at Time 1). Socioeconomic, maternal, and environmental risk factors were examined as predictors of initial levels and growth in children’s adjustment problems across 3 years. The effects of the risk factors depended on children’s level of effortful control. For children lower in ...

  10. Caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia

    Ana Cláudia Alves e Luna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia. This study was conducted in 160 children with sickle cell anemia aged 3 to 12 years attending the Center for Hematology in Recife, Brazil . Data collection included interviews with guardians concerning social factors and oral examinations to determine the caries prevalence. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's chi-square tests at a 5% significance level. The caries prevalence was 55.0%. The dmft index was 2.12, and the DMFT index was 1.50. Income significantly influenced dmft; the mean dmft was 4.57 in children whose family income was less than the Brazilian minimum wage (BMW, whereas in children with a family income three times the BMW or higher, the mean dmft was 2.27. No statistically positive association was found between the educational level of parents and guardians and the caries indices. A statistically significant association was found between dental caries prevalence and family income.

  11. Socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults

    Barrington, Wendy E.; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Shirley A A Beresford; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteri...

  12. Psychosocial factors of coronary heart disease and quality of life among Roma coronary patients : a study matched by socioeconomic position

    Skodova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Ondusova, Daniela; Studencan, Martin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life (HRQL) differ between Roma and non-Roma coronary patients and to what degree socioeconomic status (SES) explains these differences. We included 138 patients out of 437 interviewed: 46 Roma, all with l

  13. Tobacco production in R.Macedonia as a result of the effect of natural and socio-economic factors

    Miceski, Trajko

    2006-01-01

    A great number of factors affect the production of tobacco, one of the most frequently represented agricultural-industrial crops in the Republic of Macedonia. They are of both natural and socio-economic origin, including: geographic area, relief, climate, soil, hydrography, labour, tradition, culture and also the existential needs and improving the family budget.

  14. Implications of family socioeconomic level on risk behaviors in child-youth obesity

    Villagran Pérez Sergio; José Pedro Novalbos-Ruiz; Amelia Rodríguez-Martín; José Manuel Martínez-Nieto; Alfonso María Lechuga-Sancho

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Socioeconomical status may indirectly affect the obesity prevalence. This study gathers together dietary behaviour, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle in relation to the family socioeconomic status in a sample of Spanish children. Design: Population-based cross-sectional study of 3-16 years children. Methods: Questionnaires about dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyles, and direct anthropometric measures. Criteria of physical activity recommended was...

  15. Social and Behavioral Risk Marker Clustering Associated with Biological Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease: NHANES 2001–2004

    Nicholas J. Everage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Social and behavioral risk markers (e.g., physical activity, diet, smoking, and socioeconomic position cluster; however, little is known whether clustering is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD risk. Objectives were to determine if sociobehavioral clustering is associated with biological CHD risk factors (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and diabetes and whether associations are independent of individual clustering components. Methods. Participants included 4,305 males and 4,673 females aged ≥20 years from NHANES 2001–2004. Sociobehavioral Risk Marker Index (SRI included a summary score of physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, smoking, and educational attainment. Regression analyses evaluated associations of SRI with aforementioned biological CHD risk factors. Receiver operator curve analyses assessed independent predictive ability of SRI. Results. Healthful clustering (SRI = 0 was associated with improved biological CHD risk factor levels in 5 of 6 risk factors in females and 2 of 6 risk factors in males. Adding SRI to models containing age, race, and individual SRI components did not improve C-statistics. Conclusions. Findings suggest that healthful sociobehavioral risk marker clustering is associated with favorable CHD risk factor levels, particularly in females. These findings should inform social ecological interventions that consider health impacts of addressing social and behavioral risk factors.

  16. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE ADOPTION OF E-COMMERCE BY COMSUMERS IN SINGAPORE

    M. Y. SIYAL; Chowdhry, B. S.; A. Q. RAJPUT

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years, a steady growth has been observed in the Internet-based commerce activities in Singapore and Asia-Pacific region. However, there has been very limited study that empirically investigates the socio-economic factors and their influence on the adoption of electronic commerce (e-commerce) by consumers in Singapore. This study seeks to fill some of the gaps in this area. Viewing such a medium as a form of new innovation, the five socio-economic characters namely gender, age...

  17. Abandonment of Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Socioeconomic Factors in Children and Adolescents: Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    Mendonça, Angela Marcia Cabral; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Sant’Anna, Clemax Couto

    2016-01-01

    Background Routine data on the use of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in children and adolescents are scarce in high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. Objective To describe the factors related to abandonment of IPT in children and adolescents with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) receiving routine care. Methods Retrospective (2005–2009) descriptive study of 286 LTBI cases with indication of IPT and serviced at a pediatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Survival analysis of the risk of abandonment of IPT over six months was performed, including multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Out of the 245 cases of LTBI included, 62 abandoned IPT (25.3%; 95% CI: 20%-31%). On multivariate analysis, the variables related to the IPT abandonment hazard ratio were the Human Development Index (HDI) (hazard ratio—HR: 0.004; 0.000–0.569) of the place of residence and the contact with adults that were not undergoing anti-TB treatment (HR: 7.30; 1.00–53.3). Conclusion This study reveals the relevance of the relation of abandonment of IPT to the socioeconomic conditions at the place of residence and poor adherence to the active TB treatment. Educational measures to stimulate preventive treatment of child contacts and curative treatment of index cases should target the full familial setting. PMID:27149514

  18. Prevalence and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking in people living with HIV by sex, in Recife, Brazil

    Joanna d’Arc Lyra Batista

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world. The prevalence of smoking is higher in people infected with HIV than in the general population. Although it is biologically plausible that smoking increases the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV/AIDS, few studies in developing countries have analyzed the determinants and consequences of smoking in HIV infected people. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify the socioeconomic factors associated with smoking and smoking cessation in patients with HIV by sex. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with baseline data, obtained from an ongoing prospective cohort study of patients with HIV attending two referral centers in Recife, Northeast Region of Brazil, between July 2007 and October 2009. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 28.9%. For both sexes, smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol drinking and marijuana use. Among women, smoking was associated with living alone, not being married and illiteracy; and among men, being 40 years or older, low income and using crack. Compared with ex-smokers, current smokers were younger and more likely to be unmarried, heavy drinkers and marijuana users. Conclusions: It is important to incorporate smoking cessation interventions for the treatment of heavy alcohol drinkers and marijuana users with HIV/AIDS, which may increase life expectancy and quality of life, as smoking is related to risk of death, relapse of tuberculosis, and non communicable diseases.

  19. Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009

    Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ► Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ► Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ► “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ► A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ► Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.

  20. What Are the Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    ... what causes gastrointestinal stromal tumors? What are the risk factors for gastrointestinal stromal tumors? A risk factor is ... disease like cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like ...

  1. Intestinal helminthiases in Ecuador: the relatíonship between prevalence, genetic, and socioeconomic factors

    Philip J. Cooper

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of infection with the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis was examinedin 632 residents of communities in Esmeraldas province of Ecuador. These communities were divided into two groups according to area of habitation which reflected different socioeconomic circumstances. Attempts were made to correlate infection status with race and ABO blood group phenotype. The racial groups included blacks, Chachi amerindians, and mixed-race mestizos. Greater prevalences of infection were seen in the area oflower socioeconomic status. No racial or blood group associations with helminth infection were seen controlling for socioeconomic status.

  2. Socioeconomic determinants of nutritional status of children in Lao PDR: effects of household and community factors.

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-intercepts was used for estimating the determinants of child anthropometric indices. The empirical results revealed that children from households in southern Laos and from ethnic minority groups were less-nourished. Level of education of parents, attitudes of mothers towards domestic violence, assets of household, local health services, and the condition of sanitation and water were considered to be important determinants of nutritional status of children. The pattern of growth-faltering in children by age was identified. Children aged 12-59 months were less-nourished than those aged 0-11 months. The empirical results were consistent with the collective household model which incorporates a decision-making process within the household. Since there is scarce evidence about the predictors of childhood undernutrition in Laos, the findings of this study will serve as a benchmark for future research. PMID:21957672

  3. Socio-economic factors affecting the conservation of natural woodlands in Central Riyadh Area - Saudi Arabia.

    Al-Subaiee, Faisal Sultan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to identify some socioeconomic factors affecting local people in central Riyadh area for the utilization of wood and other energy sources in cooking and heating in order to develop some recommendations for conserving woodlands. The study results revealed that gas is the most common energy source used for cooking with a mean usage level of 2.79 (SD = 0.58). On the other hand, wood ranked first for heating with the highest mean, usage level of 1.90 (SD = 1.06). However, electricity and gas as sources of energy for heating ranked second and third with mean usage level of 1.81 and 0.80 respectively. The study revealed that local people with the university education were significantly making higher use of electricity for both cooking and heating and those with no formal education ranked the highest on wood use for both cooking and heating. In addition, those living in traditional houses significantly used more wood for cooking than those living in villas and apartments. Also, local people with high income levels significantly were using more electricity for heating than others. The study recommended conducting extension and environmental awareness raising programs to enhance local residents' adoption of wood substitutes, promoting employment opportunities for unemployed locals, and subsidizing prices of alternative energy sources. PMID:27081355

  4. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Farmers’ Awareness of Clean Development Mechanism Projects: Case of Smallholder Forest Carbon Projects

    Oscar I. Ayuya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify the socio-economic and institutional factors which influence the level of awareness of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM projects and in so doing to highlight the policy implications for the stakeholders when designing clean development mechanism projects among smallholder farmers. Findings shows that 23% of the farmers were correctly aware of the project and the results of the ordered logit model indicate that age, gender, education level, group membership, existence of tree farming and contact with extension services was found to influence awareness level of smallholder forest Carbon projects. To assist the community to adapt to climate change and produce sufficiently on a sustainable basis and achieve the desired food security under climate change challenges, the study recommends policies to increase awareness of such agro-environmental initiatives and that of extension providers should distinguish their clientele anchored on vital demographic characteristics such as age and gender. If the probability of younger farmers to be aware this initiative is higher, extension communications should be directed to such age group, particularly during initial stages project information dissemination.

  5. Role of socio-economic factors in cataract surgery utilization in JIPMER Pondicherry

    Prasanna T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This study was conducted in JIPMER & Kurusukuppam, Pondicherry. Objectives : To identify the socioeconomic factors influencing the utilization of cataract surgery & to identify the persons motivating the patients to utilize these services. This was a case-control study; cases were patients (age group 50-70 years who were operated in JIPMER for senile cataract without complications and one control was selected for each case. Controls were also of the same age group residing at Kurusukuppam with complaints of dimness of vision and who had not undergone cataract surgery, selected by random sampling. Both the groups were interviewed using a pretested interview schedule. Results : Subjects who were literate and with high school education and more and with income more than Rs.1050 (class III utilized the cataract surgery services more. In majority of cases, motivation for getting operated comes from relatives. Peer groups who have undergone the surgery before, were the predominant sources of health information about the surgery. Higher income & higher education affect the utilization significantly. Relatives & Previously operated peers play an important role.

  6. Are good ideas enough? The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO commercialisation.

    Vàzquez-Salat, Núria

    2013-01-01

    In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance. PMID:24510133

  7. [Life style and occupational risk factors in bladder carcinoma].

    Bento, M J; Barros, H

    1997-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a useful model for the study of the relationship between lifestyle, occupation and cancer. In the present hospital based case-control study, performed in the north of Portugal, we evaluated the role of occupational exposure and the effect of different lifestyles as risk factors for bladder cancer. We inquired 98 incident cases of bladder cancer (70 men, 28 women) and 202 hospital controls (100 men, 102 women), selected based on the absence of cancer, urinary or lung diseases, and admitted for orthopedic or acute abdominal surgery. Demographic, and socio-economical variables were recorded. A detailed job history was obtained, and exposure to smoking, alcohol and coffee were assessed. Never married subjects and those with higher school degrees presented lower risk of bladder cancer. Smoking was significantly associated with cancer both in men (OR=2.7) and women (OR=5.7). Alcohol, in contrast, had a protective effect, even after adjusting for different confounders. In women, coffee and alcohol had a significant multiplicative effect. No particular industrial sector was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. However, those exposed to any of the substances usually considered as risk factors for bladder cancer presented higher risks (OR=1.7, 95% confidence intervals: 0.9-3.0). This study showed that lifestyles have an important role in the causality of bladder cancer, and that occupational exposure probably has less impact in the occurrence of the disease in the general population. PMID:9245175

  8. Homocysteine as risk factor for coronary artery disease in pakistan

    Pakistani people belong to an ethnic group which has the highest rate of coronary artery disease. There are a number of risk factors for developing the coronary artery disease (CAD). Homocysteine, a sulphur containing amino acid, has been reported to be an independent risk factor for CAD. The present study was done to find out the role of hyperhomocysteinemia in the development of coronary artery disease in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out. There were 40 angiographically diagnosed male patients of coronary artery disease between 30 - 40 years of age taken as cases and 40 age, sex and socioeconomically matched healthy subjects with normal carotid doppler study taken as controls. Fasting venous blood from cases and controls was taken in E.D.T.A vacationers. Plasma was analyzed for homo-cysteine level by enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Mean plasma concentration of homocysteine in coronary artery disease patients i.e. cases was 13.5 +- 6.8 mu mol/L and was higher than the mean for controls (10.76 +- 2.27 mu mol/L) to a significant extent. Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia through inter-play with the classical cardiovascular risk factors may be aggravating the risk of coronary artery disease in Pakistani people. (author)

  9. Associations of socioeconomic factors with inadequate dietary intake in food aid users in France (the ABENA study 2004–2005)

    Méjean, Caroline; Deschamps, V.; Bellin-Lestienne, C.; Oleko, A.; Darmon, Nicole; Serge, H.; Katia, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Few studies in Europe have examined the relationship of sociodemographic and economic factors with diet in deprived populations. We analysed the association between socioeconomic characteristics and consumption of different food groups in food aid users. Subjects/Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among food aid users in four urban French zones (n=1664). Associations of sociodemographic and economic factors and food aid use with frequency of consumption of t...

  10. Risk Factor Frequency for Learning Disabilities in Low Socioeconomic Level Preschool Children in Mexico City Frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico en la Ciudad de México Frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem em pré-escolares com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México

    Elizabeth Zambrano-Sánchez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify the frequency of risk factors for Learning Disabilities (LD in low socioeconomic level children in Mexico City. We studied children by means of: Wechsler, Bender-Gestalt, and Human drawing tests. Average age of male subjects was 5.6±0.9 years, while that of the female group was 5.4±0.5 years. In male subjects, average Total intelligence quotient (T-IQ score was 98±12.2 while, in the female group, this was 99±12.2. On the Bender-Gestalt test, male subjects had a mental and visual-motor average age of Nuestro objetivo fue identificar la frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje (PA en niños de bajo nivel socioeconómico de la Ciudad de México. Se utilizaron las pruebas de inteligencia de Wechsler, Gestáltica Visuomotora de Bender y del Dibujo de la figura humana. La edad promedio en el grupo masculino fue 5,6±0,9 años, del femenino fue 5,4±0,5. En los hombres, el cociente intelectual total (CI-T fue 98±12,2, en mujeres fue 99±12,2. En la prueba de Bender, los hombres mostraron una edad mental y visuomotora un año menor que la cronológica, las mujeres tuvieron una edad mental y visuomotora 7-8 meses por debajo de la norma. En la Prueba de la figura humana, los hombres y mujeres mostraron mayor frecuencia de: auto-aislamiento 25%, timidez 22,4% y controles internos pobres 22%. En conclusión encontramos una alta frecuencia de factores de riesgo en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico, destacamos la importancia de identificar a los preescolares propensos a tener problemas de aprendizaje (PA.Este estudo objetivou identificar a frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem (DA em crianças com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México. A escala de inteligência Wechsler, desenho da figura humana e o teste gestáltico visomotor de Bender foram utilizados. A idade média do grupo masculino foi de 5,6±0,9 anos e do grupo feminino 5,4±0,5 anos. O quociente

  11. School difficulties in immigrant adolescent students and roles of socioeconomic factors, unhealthy behaviours, and physical and mental health.

    Chau Kénora; Baumann Michèle; Kabuth Bernard; Chau Nearkasen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant students. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed risk for school difficulties among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. ...

  12. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  13. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  14. Vegetarian diet as a risk factor for tuberculosis in immigrant south London Asians.

    Strachan, D. P.; Powell, K. J.; Thaker, A.; Millard, F J; Maxwell, J D

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--In a previous retrospective study of tuberculosis in south London among Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent Hindu Asians were found to have a significantly increased risk for tuberculosis compared with Muslims. This finding has been further investigated by examining the role of socioeconomic and lifestyle variables, including diet, as risk factors for tuberculosis in Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent resident in south London. METHODS--Using a case-control stu...

  15. Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Mexican Children in New York

    Tuñón-Pablos, Esperanza; Dreby, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the risk factors for being overweight or obese among the children of Mexican migrants in the United States. It draws on a qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews and participant observation with 30 parents in New York State. Findings indicate risks related to nutritional deficiencies and food insecurity before migration, adaptation to US lifestyles, and the cultural tendency to value being overweight as a sign of greater health and higher socioeconomic status. ...

  16. Oral mucosa alterations in a socioeconomically deprived region: prevalence and associated factors

    Raquel Gonçalves Vieira-Andrade

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with oral mucosa alterations in patients from Vale do Jequiti-nhonha, Brazil. The sample consisted of 511 patients of both genders. Questionnaires were used to obtain information about patient gender, age, race, systemic disease state, medication use, cigarette use and alcohol consumption. Physical examinations were then performed to identify lesions of the oral mucosa. Descriptive analyses, Chi-squared tests and logistic regressions were then used to analyze the results (p < 0.05, 95% CI. In this population, 84.9% (434/511 of patients were found to have alterations in their oral mucosa. The most common alterations were melanotic maculae (36.0%, linea alba (33.9%, traumatic ulcers (21.5%, Fordyce's granules (20.4%, coated tongue (12.5% and fissured tongue (10.0%. Melanotic maculae were more frequently observed in black patients, with an odds ration (OR of 7.51. Being female was a statistically significant predictive factor for having a visible linea alba (OR: 1.90 and a fissured tongue (OR: 2.11. No statistically significant association was found between the presence of oral lesions and systemic disease, medication use, alcohol use and smoking. The high observed prevalence of melanotic maculae and Fordyce's granules suggests that these alterations could be considered typical characteristics of the population of the Vale do Jequitinhonha. Coated tongue may be related to the socioeconomic deprivation in the region. Furthermore, the high prevalence of traumatic ulcers may be associated with the traumatic agents that caused patients to seek dental care.

  17. Socioeconomic disadvantage increasing risk for depression among recently diagnosed HIV patients in an urban area in Brazil: cross-sectional study.

    Nomoto, Silmara Harumi; Longhi, Renata Marrona Praça; de Barros, Bruna Paes; Croda, Julio; Ziff, Edward Benjamin; Castelon Konkiewitz, Elisabete

    2015-01-01

    Depression is the most common psychiatric co-morbidity among people living with HIV (PLHIV), with prevalence rates ranging from 25% to 36%. Depression impacts negatively upon adherence and response to combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) and the transmission of HIV infection through increased sexually risky behavior. This cross-sectional study presents data from a reference HIV-outpatient service in Dourados (Brazil) that evaluated the association between depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life, and clinical, socioeconomic, and demographic factors in newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients. Using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the prevalence of depressive symptoms was 61% with a predominance of self-deprecating and cognitive-affective factors. Depressive symptoms were associated with lower income (p=0.019) and disadvantaged social class (p=0.005). Poorer quality of life was related to depressive symptoms (p<0.0001), low educational level (p=0.05), and lower income (p=0.03). These data suggest that socioeconomic factors, including level of income and education, are mediating the risk of depression and poor quality of life of PLHIV. Possible explanations for this effect are discussed, including the possible role of stigma. PMID:25741909

  18. Movin' on Up: Socioeconomic Mobility and the Risk of Delivering a Small-for-Gestational Age Infant.

    Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Holzman, Claudia; Calloway, Danuelle; Tian, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Objective Poor fetal growth is associated with increased rates of adverse health outcomes in children and adults. The social determinants of poor fetal growth are not well understood. Using multiple socioeconomic indicators measured at the individual level, this study examined changes in maternal socioeconomic position (SEP) from childhood to adulthood (socioeconomic mobility) in relation to poor fetal growth in offspring. Methods Data were from the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study (September 1998-June 2004) that enrolled women in mid-pregnancy from 52 clinics in five Michigan communities (2463 women: 1824 non-Hispanic White, 639 non-Hispanic Black). Fetal growth was defined by birthweight-for-gestational age percentiles; infants with birthweight-for-gestational age Hispanic White: 6.3 %, non-Hispanic Black: 13.9 %) delivered an SGA infant. Upward mobility was associated with decreased risk of delivering an SGA infant. Overall, the SGA adjusted-odds ratio was 0.34 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.17-0.69] for women who moved from lower to middle/upper versus static lower class, and 0.44 (CI 0.28-1.04) for women who moved from middle to upper versus static middle class. There were no significant differences in SGA risk when women were compared to the SEP group they joined. Conclusions Our findings support a link between mother's socioeconomic mobility and SGA offspring. Policies that allow for the redistribution or reinvestment of resources may reduce disparities in rates of SGA births. PMID:26541591

  19. Sexual health and socioeconomic-related factors among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Puerto Rico.

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G; Ortiz-Sánchez, Edgardo J; Rodríguez-Santiago, Edda I; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L

    2015-10-01

    Most of the research among HIV-positive populations has been approached from behavioral risk models. This is particularly true for those otherwise socially vulnerable groups like men who have sex with men (MSM). As a response to this pattern, we examined data from an ongoing health promotion research being conducted in Puerto Rico (PR). The study is limited to HIV-positive MSM and consists of the participation in a survey interview that includes domains used to assess indicators of socio-economic-related factors (age, educational level, employment, religion, and partnership status) and sexual health (sexual satisfaction, condom use, and sexual health knowledge(SHK)). Participants reported a relatively high level (75 %) of sexual satisfaction and inconsistent condom use (50.9 % reported always using a condom). A deficient (61 %) SHK was also reported. In multivariate analyses, a higher educational level was associated with higher sexual satisfaction (aβ = 3.223; 95 % CI 0.291-6.156) and higher levels of SHK (aβ = 1.328; 95 % CI 0.358-2.297), while unemployment was associated with less condom use (aOR 0.314; 95 % CI 0.122-0.810). Not having a primary sexual partner was associated with less sexual satisfaction (aβ = -3.871; 95 % CI -7.534-0.208) and more condom use (aOR 4.292; 95 % CI 1.310-14.068). Findings support the notion that men of a disadvantaged socioeconomic position may have a poorer sexual health status; with a lower level of education and unemployment leading this disparity. Findings also evidence that partnership status may have a role in the sexual health of HIV-positive MSM. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of sexual health and socioeconomic indicators among Hispanic/Latino HIV-positive MSM in PR and in the Caribbean. Findings provide valuable information to address the sexual health needs of an underserved population. PMID:26123066

  20. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  1. Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes

    Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro;

    2015-01-01

    status group (1·00, 95% CI 0·80-1·25, incidence difference zero per 10 000 person-years, I(2)=15%, p=0·2464). The association in the low socioeconomic status group was robust to adjustment for age, sex, obesity, and physical activity, and remained after exclusion of shift workers. INTERPRETATION: In this...

  2. Patterns and risk factors associated with speech sounds and language disorders in pakistan

    To observe the patterns of speech sounds and language disorders. To find out associated risk factors of speech sounds and language disorders. Background: Communication is the very essence of modern society. Communication disorders impacts quality of life. Patterns and factors associated with speech sounds and language impairments were explored. The association was seen with different environmental factors. Methodology: The patients included in the study were 200 whose age ranged between two and sixteen years presented in speech therapy clinic OPD Mayo Hospital. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire assessed the patient's bio data, socioeconomic background, family history of communication disorders and bilingualism. It was a descriptive study and was conducted through cross-sectional survey. Data was analysed by SPSS version 16. Results: Results reveal Language disorders were relatively more prevalent in males than those of speech sound disorders. Bilingualism was found as having insignificant effect on these disorders. It was concluded from this study that the socioeconomic status and family history were significant risk factors. Conclusion: Gender, socioeconomic status, family history can play as risk for developing speech sounds and language disorders. There is a grave need to understand patterns of communication disorders in the light of Pakistani society and culture. It is recommended to conduct further studies to determine risk factors and patterns of these impairments. (author)

  3. Socioeconomic factors contributing to exclusion of women from maternal health benefit in Abuja, Nigeria

    Tajudeen O. Oyewale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: An understanding of the predictive effect of socioeconomic characteristics (SECs of women on maternal healthcare service utilisation is essential in order to maximise maternal health benefits and outcomes for the newborn.Objectives: To describe how SECs of women contribute to their exclusion from maternal health benefits in Abuja Municipal Areas Council (AMAC in Abuja, Nigeria.Method: A non-experimental, facility-based cross-sectional survey was done. Data were collected from 384 respondents using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The participants were sampled randomly at antenatal care (ANC clinics in the five district hospitals in AMAC. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations and measures of inequality. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the relationship between SECs (predictors and maternal healthcare service utilisation.Results: There were differentials in the utilisation of maternal healthcare services (ANC, delivery care, post natal care [PNC] and contraceptive services amongst women withdifferent SECs; and the payment system for maternal healthcare services was regressive. There were inconsistencies in the predictive effect of the SECs of women included in this study (age,education, birth order, location of residence, income group and coverage by health insurance on maternal healthcare service utilisation when considered independently (bivariate analysis as opposed to when considered together (logistic regression, with the exception of birth order, which showed consistent effect.Conclusion: SECs of women were predictive factors of utilisation of maternal healthcare services. There is a need for targeted policy measures and programme actions toward multiple SECs of women in their natural co-existing state in order to optimise maternal health benefits.

  4. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

    PETER A. EKUNWE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. Analytical techniques used were percentages, frequency counts, gross margin,profitability and multiple regression analysis. The results of the data analysis showed that majority (93% of the broiler marketers werefemale. The average age of the respondents was 42 years and the mean number of schooling years of the respondents was 8 years. The mean marketing margin per week was N350 ($2.17 while the mean gross margin per week was N5, 150 ($32. However, the average net returns per week for the entire markets were N4, 600 ($28.6. The result of the multiple regression analysis showed that the semi-log model gave the best fit with an adjusted R2 of 0.857 (85.7% and a F-ratio of 70.245. The age of broiler marketers, level of education and marketers income had positive coefficients. Thus, increase in these variables will increase the number of broilers handled per purchase. Major problems faced were loss of weight of broilers and mortality of broilers. Finance and processing were minor constraints faced by the marketer. The study recommended adequate feeding of broilers to maintain market weight, proper weighing of broiler chicken during sales, increase awareness about the need to purchase live broilers instead of frozen chicken and encouraging marketers into backward integration to increase profitability of the business. These recommendations would help to develop the poultry industry and increase marketing efficiency.

  5. Space-time clustering characteristics of dengue based on ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors in northern Sri Lanka.

    Anno, Sumiko; Imaoka, Keiji; Tadono, Takeo; Igarashi, Tamotsu; Sivaganesh, Subramaniam; Kannathasan, Selvam; Kumaran, Vaithehi; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify geographical areas and time periods of potential clusters of dengue cases based on ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors in northern Sri Lanka from January 2010 to December 2013. Remote sensing (RS) was used to develop an index comprising rainfall, humidity and temperature data. Remote sensing data gathered by the AVNIR-2 instrument onboard the ALOS satellite were used to detect urbanisation, and a digital land cover map was used to extract land cover information. Other data on relevant factors and dengue outbreaks were collected through institutions and extant databases. The analysed RS data and databases were integrated into a geographical information system (GIS) enabling space-time clustering analysis. Our results indicate that increases in the number of combinations of ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors that are present or above the average contribute to significantly high rates of space-time dengue clusters. The spatio-temporal association that consolidates the two kinds of associations into one can ensure a more stable model for forecasting. An integrated spatiotemporal prediction model at a smaller level using ecological, socioeconomic and demographic factors could lead to substantial improvements in dengue control and prevention by allocating the right resources to the appropriate places at the right time. PMID:26618322

  6. Depression and anxiety in Swedish primary health care: prevalence, incidence, and risk factors.

    Lejtzén, Nadja; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Li, Xinjun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and stress and adjustment disorders in primary health care in Sweden and to analyse the relationship between socioeconomic and demographic factors and incidence of these disorders. Prevalence and incidence data on the study population was retrieved from a Swedish primary health care database. A cohort study design was used to examine the incidence of, and risk factors for, mood disorders, ...

  7. Cross-sectional Study on the Effects of Socioeconomic Factors on Lead Exposure in Children by Gender in Serpong, Indonesia

    Hiroaki Itoh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the socioeconomic factors influencing lead exposure in elementary school children by gender, 108 children (56 male, 52 female, aged 6–7 years, were randomly selected from 39 elementary state schools in Serpong, Banten, Indonesia. Their parents were interviewed to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics. Their blood lead (BPb levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. BPb concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females, i.e., 6.8 ± 2.0 (2.9–12.5 µg/dL and 5.9 ± 1.9 (3.1–11.7 µg/dL, respectively (p < 0.05. Lower socioeconomic status and well water use were associated with increased BPb concentrations, especially in females. The proportion of well water use was related to lower socioeconomic status. Lower socioeconomic status linked with well water drinking seemed to be associated with increased lead exposure in children in Serpong. Their exposure levels possibly varied according to gender differences in behavior. An intervention should be instituted among children in Serpong with BPb concentrations of 10 µg/dL or above.

  8. Epidemiologic, socioeconomic, and clinical factors associated with severity of respiratory syncytial virus infection in previously healthy infants.

    Somech, Raz; Tal, Guy; Gilad, Eli; Mandelberg, Avigdor; Tal, Asher; Dalal, Ilan

    2006-09-01

    We prospectively quantified disease severity associated with epidemiologic and socioeconomic parameters as well as the clinical factors in 195 previously healthy infants with confirmed respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Infants were enrolled into three subgroups according to disease severity: outpatients (82 patients), inpatients (100 patients), and intensive care unit patients (13 patients). Epidemiologic parameters such as gestational age, birth weight, chronologic age at presentation, and gender as well as socioeconomic factors such as ethnic origin, family history of asthma, exposure to cigarette smoke, number of family members, presence of pets at home, breast-feeding, and day-care attendance were not found to predict the severity of RSV illness in previously healthy infants. Our results emphasize the complexity of predicting disease severity in previously healthy infants with RSV infection and suggest that other parameters such as host genetic background might explain the clinical variability. PMID:16928839

  9. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Design Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence. PMID:26950567

  10. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    Oanh Thi Hoang Trinh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective: This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Design: Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011 with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results: Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%. Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion: Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.

  11. Assessing the risk for dengue fever based on socioeconomic and environmental variables in a geographical information system environment

    Hassan M. Khormi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An important option in preventing the spread of dengue fever (DF is to control and monitor its vector (Aedes aegypti as well as to locate and destroy suitable mosquito breeding environments. The aim of the present study was to use a combination of environmental and socioeconomic variables to model areas at risk of DF. These variables include clinically confirmed DF cases, mosquito counts, population density in inhabited areas, total populations per district, water access, neighbourhood quality and the spatio-temporal risk of DF based on the average, weekly frequency of DF incidence. Out of 111 districts investigated, 17 (15%, covering a total area of 121 km², were identified as of high risk, 25 (22%, covering 133 km², were identified as of medium risk, 18 (16%, covering 180 km², were identified as of low risk and 51 (46%, covering 726 km², were identified as of very low risk. The resultant model shows that most areas at risk of DF were concentrated in the central part of Jeddah county, Saudi Arabia. The methods used can be implemented as routine procedures for control and prevention. A concerted intervention in the medium- and high-risk level districts identified in this study could be highly effective in reducing transmission of DF in the area as a whole.

  12. Assessing the risk for dengue fever based on socioeconomic and environmental variables in a geographical information system environment.

    Khormi, Hassan M; Kumar, Lalit

    2012-05-01

    An important option in preventing the spread of dengue fever (DF) is to control and monitor its vector (Aedes aegypti) as well as to locate and destroy suitable mosquito breeding environments. The aim of the present study was to use a combination of environmental and socioeconomic variables to model areas at risk of DF. These variables include clinically confirmed DF cases, mosquito counts, population density in inhabited areas, total populations per district, water access, neighbourhood quality and the spatio-temporal risk of DF based on the average, weekly frequency of DF incidence. Out of 111 districts investigated, 17 (15%), covering a total area of 121 km2, were identified as of high risk, 25 (22%), covering 133 km2, were identified as of medium risk, 18 (16%), covering 180 km2, were identified as of low risk and 51 (46%), covering 726 km2, were identified as of very low risk. The resultant model shows that most areas at risk of DF were concentrated in the central part of Jeddah county, Saudi Arabia. The methods used can be implemented as routine procedures for control and prevention. A concerted intervention in the medium- and high-risk level districts identified in this study could be highly effective in reducing transmission of DF in the area as a whole. PMID:22639119

  13. Shift work and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a study at age 45 years in the 1958 British birth cohort

    Thomas, Claudia; Power, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This study examined associations between exposure to shift-work and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether the associations are explained by socio-economic circumstances, occupational factors or health behaviours. Biological risk factors for CVD were measured in 7,839 participants of the 1958 British birth cohort at age 45 years who were in paid employment. Regular (?1/week) shift-workers included 46% working evenings (1800?2200), 28% weekends, 13% night...

  14. Influence of Socioeconomic Factors and Family Social Support on Smoking and Alcohol Use among Health School Students

    Zuhal Bahar; Figen Çavusoglu

    2010-01-01

    Background: Substance dependence is a global problem threatening individuals and communities alike by negatively influencing public health and social cohesion.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of socioeconomic factors and family social support on substance use and/or dependence among health school students.Results: A significant difference was found between student substance users and nonusers in terms of age, grade level, educational level and vocational statu...

  15. The Effects of Socioeconomic and Environmental Factors on the Incidence of Dengue Fever in the Pearl River Delta, China, 2013

    Xiaopeng Qi; Yong Wang; Yue Li; Yujie Meng; Qianqian Chen; Jiaqi Ma; George F Gao

    2015-01-01

    Background An outbreak of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Guangdong Province, China in 2013 with the highest number of cases observed within the preceding ten years. DF cases were clustered in the Pearl River Delta economic zone (PRD) in Guangdong Province, which accounted for 99.6% of all cases in Guangdong province in 2013. The main vector in PRD was Aedes albopictus. We investigated the socioeconomic and environmental factors at the township level and explored how the independent variables j...

  16. All for One: Contributions of Age, Socioeconomic Factors, Executive Functioning, and Social Cognition to Moral Reasoning in Childhood

    Vera-Estay, Evelyn; Seni, Anne G.; Champagne, Caroline; Beauchamp, Miriam H.

    2016-01-01

    Moral reasoning (MR) is a socio-cognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning (EF), theory of mind (ToM), empathy, and affect recognition. However, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of ...

  17. SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS INFLUENCING NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN OF AGRARIAN FAMILIES IN BANGLADESH: A MULTILEVEL ANALYSIS

    Alom, Jahangir; Islam, Mohammad Amirul; Quddus, Md. Abdul

    2009-01-01

    The nutritional status of under five children is a sensitive sign of a country's health status as well as economic condition. This study investigated differential impact of some demographic, socioeconomic, environmental and health related factors on nutritional status among under five children in Bangladesh whose fathers' occupation was agriculture. The study used Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 data. Bivariate analysis, multivariate analysis (Cox's linear logistic regression mo...

  18. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery

    Santhiago MR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marcony R Santhiago,1 Natalia T Giacomin,1 David Smadja,2 Samir J Bechara1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, 2Ophthalmology Department, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Abstract: This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient’s age, as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue. Corneal topo­graphy patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a

  19. HIV and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status, Popayan-Colombia (2008-2009)

    Pinzón, María Virgínia; Tello, Ines Constanza; Rincón-Hoyos, Hernan Gilberto; Galindo, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objetive: To determine HIV presence and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status in the city of Popayan-Colombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study; between 2008 and 2009, 363 participants of Popayan signed informed consent and received pre and post HIV test counseling. Socio-demographic characteristics and history of STDs, risk behaviors and previous HIV testing were assessed. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multivariate logistic regression were calculated. Results: Mean age 33.5±10,2; 66 %women. Frequency of HIV-positive patients was 3.86 % (95% CI:1.87-5.85), greater in men (7.38%; p= 0.013). Greater frequency of HIV-positive patients was observed in people age 29-37, those without a stable partner, and those with history of risky alcohol consumption (more than five drinks in 2 h). Conclusions: HIV-positive patients frequency in this population was greater than national estimate for general population, aged 15-49 in Colombia, with even greater frequency in men. This study suggests that characteristics associated with low socioeconomic status, in economically active population, without a stable partner and with risky alcohol use, can potentially increase risk of HIV infection. PMID:24892315

  20. HIV and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status, Popayan-Colombia (2008-2009

    Mueses, Hector Fabio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine HIV presence and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status in the city of PopayanColombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study; between 2008 and 2009, 363 participants of Popayan signed informed consent and received pre and post HIV test counseling. Socio-demographic characteristics and history of STDs, risk behaviors and previous HIV testing were assessed. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multivariate logistic regression were calculated Results: Mean age 33,5±10,2; 66%women.Frequency of HIV-positive patients was 3.86% (95% CI: 1.87-5.85, greater in men (7.38%; p=0,013. Greater frequency of HIV-positive patients was observed in people age 29-37, those without a stable partner, and those with history of risky alcohol consumption (more than five drinks in 2 hours . Conclusions: HIV-positive patients frequency in this population was greater than national estimate for general population, aged 15-49 in Colombia, with even greater frequency in men. This study suggests that characteristics associated with low socioeconomic status, in economically active population, without a stable partner and with risky alcohol use, can potentially increase risk of HIV infection

  1. The Influence of Socioeconomic Factors on Kentucky's Public School Accountability System:Does Poverty Impact School Effectiveness?

    Robert Lyons

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the Commonwealth Accountability Testing System (CATS, Kentucky's public schools have been assigned individualized baseline and improvement goal indices based upon past school performance in relation to the 2014 statewide index goal of 100. Each school's CATS Accountability Index, a measure of school performance based upon both cognitive and non-cognitive measures, has then been compared to these individualized improvement goals for the purpose of designating schools as Meet Goal, Progressing, and Assistance Level (Kentucky Department of Education (KDE, 2000. Considered an interim target model, the design of CATS has been intended to negate the biasing effects of socioeconomic factors on school performance on accountability tests through the individualization of school goals (Ladd. 2001. Results of this study showed that 39.9% to 55.5% of the variance of the CATS indices was shared by school socioeconomic factors. Analysis of this interim target model for the 2000-2002 biennium showed that for elementary and middle schools this model negated the biasing effects of socioeconomic factors, but not for high schools. Moreover, analysis of the progress of schools toward their Improvement Goals in 2001 showed that both elementary and high schools from higher poverty backgrounds lagged significantly behind their more affluent peers, indicating inequitable capacity to meet improvement goals between the poorest and most wealthy schools. Adaptations to the present accountability systems were suggested for the purpose of providing more accurate information to the public regarding the effectiveness of public schools in Kentucky.

  2. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    Maria Dilma Bezerra de Vasconcellos Piscoya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1 socio-demographic variables; 2a variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth > 4 mm and an attachment loss > 3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.

  3. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  4. Uncertainty factors in ectotoxicological risk : uncertainty factors in ectotoxicological risk management.

    Craig, P.

    2006-01-01

    Uncertainty factors (also known as extrapolation or safety factors) are widely used in lower tier ecotoxicological risk management in order to allow for sources of variability and uncertainty for which there is only limited information. From the point of view of probabilistic risk assessment, the rationale underlying both the use of uncertainty factors and the specific values chosen is often unclear. On the other hand, uncertainty factors are a convenient approach to lower tier risk assessme...

  5. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen;

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter...... rupture (ASR). Design  Population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting  Data were taken from the National Medical Birth Registry, Denmark. Population  Patients with a first and a second vaginal delivery in the time period 1997-2010. Methods  Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression...... were used to determine risk factors of recurrent ASR. Main outcome measures  The incidence of recurrent ASR and odds ratios for possible risk factors of recurrent ASR: age, body mass index, grade of ASR, birthweight, head circumference, gestational age, presentation, induction of labour, oxytocin...

  6. Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Diabetes

    ... Espanol Image Library Campaign Materials The Healthy Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease ... on how to choose and cook low-fat foods, get more physical activity, and achieve a healthy ...

  7. Risk Factors Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Anthony Shannon; Wong, C K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the studies reviewed here is to consider the risk factors associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. In order to abstract general features meta-analysis is utilized as the review tool.

  8. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults in...... Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  9. Risk factors across the eating disorders

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise; Fairburn, Christopher; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, Timothy; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. ...

  10. Risk factors in prevention of drug dependences

    Orosova, Ol'ga; Gajdosova, Beata; Madarasova-Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2007-01-01

    The study presents the state-of-art of knowledge of risk factors of drug use as a form of risk behaviour in adolescents in individual, interpersonal, and environmental domain (family, school, society). The attention is paid to general deviation syndrome and to the construct of general tendency to dr

  11. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption of awkward postures. Another category of work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) includes psychosocial work characteristics, such as work demands, job control and social supp...

  12. Vascular Risk Factors: Imaging and Neuropathologic Correlates

    Knopman, David S; Roberts, Rosebud

    2010-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease plays an important role in cognitive disorders in the elderly. Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease interact on several levels, one important level being the overlap in risk factors. The major vascular risk factors such as diabetes and impaired glycemic control, hypertension, obesity and hyper- or dyslipidemia have been associated both with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The purpose of this review is to consider the context in which vascular deme...

  13. Atherogenic Risk Factors and Hearing Thresholds

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann;

    2014-01-01

    children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models...... associated with increased low-frequency hearing thresholds, but only at a borderline level of statistical significance. Associations were generally strongest with hearing levels of the worst hearing ear. We found no statistically significant associations between atherogenic risk factors and high...

  14. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment h...

  15. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at...

  16. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained fi...

  17. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

  18. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults.

    Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health. PMID:24603009

  19. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila; Petrović Slobodanka; Tomić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemio...

  20. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  1. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. Methods: A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Results: Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Conclusions: Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD. PMID:21976868

  2. Healthcare access, socioeconomic factors and late-stage cancer diagnosis: an exploratory spatial analysis and public policy implication

    Wang, Fahui; Luo, Lan; McLafferty, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with late-stage cancer have lower survival rates than those with early-stage cancer. This paper examines possible associations between several risk factors and late-stage diagnosis for four types of cancer in Illinois: breast cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer. Potential risk factors are composed of spatial factors and nonspatial factors. The spatial factors include accessibility to primary healthcare and distance or travel time to the nearest cance...

  3. Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009.

    Zhao, Juanjuan; Chen, Shengbin; Wang, Hua; Ren, Yin; Du, Ke; Xu, Weihua; Zheng, Hua; Jiang, Bo

    2012-08-01

    Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of "environmental investment" to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) "population in mining sector" and "coverage of green space in built-up area" were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. PMID:22575095

  4. [Anthropometric indices of children treated in daycare centers and the relationship with socioeconomic, maternal and child factors].

    Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa; Oliveira, Maria Monica de; Rocha, Ana Carolina Dantas; Araujo, Erika Morganna Neves de

    2016-06-01

    Weight/height and weight/age anthropometric statistics are important, respectively, for identifying incipient changes in weight and alterations in nutritional status at an early stage. The scope of this study was to analyze weight/height- and weight/age-associated factors in preschool children. This is a cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample scrutinizing 299 children enrolled in municipal daycare centers. Information was obtained through interviews with mothers together with a questionnaire analyzing socioeconomic, maternal and child information. Weight and height/stature of children were measured according to recommendations of the World Health Organization. The results showed that none of the maternal variables was associated with the nutritional status of children and that only birth weight among child variables revealed any association with weight/height (p = 0.0030) and weight/age scores (p = 0.0018). The block of socioeconomic variables, in turn, proved to be the most representative variation factor of results, especially in the weight/age index. The importance of birth weight in the weight/height and weight/age of children, as well as the socioeconomic conditions notably in weight/age indices, was clearly revealed. PMID:27383355

  5. Socio-economic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria

    N. O. Anyoha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the socioeconomic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to determine socioeconomic characteristics of crop farmers in the area, determine farmers level of awareness of climate change in the area, ascertain effects of climate change in crop production, identify adaptation strategies adopted by the farmers in the area and determine socioeconomic factors influencing adaptation to climate change. Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 120 farmers. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as tables, likert type scale and multiple regression analysis. Results of data collected shows that the strategies adopted to combat the effects of climate change by farmers in the area include tree planting, cultivation of early maturing crops, mixed farming, use of improved crop varieties, increased use of family labour, engagement in complementary/diverse livelihoods, cover cropping, changes in planting and harvesting dates, irrigation practices, crop rotation, riverside/bank cultivation, increased frequency of weeding etc, Results reveal that farm size, farming experience, household size, and social organization (MEM COP were significant at 5%, sex was significant at 1% . Extension educational campaign should be intensified to increase the knowledge about climate change. Government should collaborate with meteorologists in forecasting about climate change and also in bringing about measures to control the adverse effect of climate change especially in agriculture.

  6. Ectasia risk factors in refractive surgery.

    Santhiago, Marcony R; Giacomin, Natalia T; Smadja, David; Bechara, Samir J

    2016-01-01

    This review outlines risk factors of post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) ectasia that can be detected preoperatively and presents a new metric to be considered in the detection of ectasia risk. Relevant factors in refractive surgery screening include the analysis of intrinsic biomechanical properties (information obtained from corneal topography/tomography and patient's age), as well as the analysis of alterable biomechanical properties (information obtained from the amount of tissue altered by surgery and the remaining load-bearing tissue). Corneal topography patterns of placido disk seem to play a pivotal role as a surrogate of corneal strength, and abnormal corneal topography remains to be the most important identifiable risk factor for ectasia. Information derived from tomography, such as pachymetric and epithelial maps as well as computational strategies, to help in the detection of keratoconus is additional and relevant. High percentage of tissue altered (PTA) is the most robust risk factor for ectasia after LASIK in patients with normal preoperative corneal topography. Compared to specific residual stromal bed (RSB) or central corneal thickness values, percentage of tissue altered likely provides a more individualized measure of biomechanical alteration because it considers the relationship between thickness, tissue altered through ablation and flap creation, and ultimate RSB thickness. Other recognized risk factors include low RSB, thin cornea, and high myopia. Age is also a very important risk factor and still remains as one of the most overlooked ones. A comprehensive screening approach with the Ectasia Risk Score System, which evaluates multiple risk factors simultaneously, is also a helpful tool in the screening strategy. PMID:27143849

  7. Equalisation of socioeconomic differences in injury risks at school age? A study of three age cohorts of Swedish children and adolescents

    Engström, K; Laflamme, L; Diderichsen, F

    2003-01-01

    Hospital Discharge and Causes of Death registers) with documented socioeconomic differences: injuries due to traffic, interpersonal violence, and self-infliction. The Relative Index of Inequality was used to measure the magnitude of relative socioeconomic differences, for each year of observation. Where...... the two older cohorts (10-14 and 15-19, in 1990). In conclusion, this study provides limited evidence of equalisation in injury risks between socioeconomic groups among Swedish adolescents. Equalisation appears to be a gender-specific phenomenon, that is, among girls, and manifests itself around the...

  8. Risk factors for lower respiratory tract infections in children

    Objectives: Acute respiratory tract infections are divided into two groups as upper and lower respiratory tract infections. These are very common diseases in childhood. In this study, we aimed to determine risk factors for lower respiratory tract in this region. Methodology: Hospital were included in our study. Their examinations, backgrounds, family histories and information about environmental factors were recorded in questionnaire forms. Results: Lack of vaccination, duration of breast feeding, onset age of cow's milk, family history for asthma and food allergy, number of hospitalized people in the same room, number of people who live in same house and smoking around the children were evaluated for the presence of LRTI, and LRTI risks of these factors were respectively observed as 1.69, 1.71, 1.61, 1.69, 1.20, 1.47, 1.56 and 2.63 fold increased. Conclusion: Standardization of clinical diagnosis, accurate and realistic use of antibiotics, correction of nutrition, improvement of socio-economic situation and the elimination of Respiratory Infections. (author)

  9. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Risk: Beyond Traditional Risk Factors.

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2016-04-01

    A strict adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has repeatedly been linked to a low risk of cardiovascular disease in several situations. Initially, the mechanisms considered as possible causes of this were based on the effects of this dietary pattern on the so-called traditional risk factors (especially lipids and blood pressure). However, the high relative reduction in the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were not proportional to the limited findings about regulation of those traditional risk factors. In addition to several studies confirming the above effects, current research on the MedDiet is being focused on defining its effects on non-traditional risk factors, such as endothelial function, inflammation, oxidative stress, or on controlling the conditions which predispose people to cardiovascular events, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current article, after briefly reviewing the known effects of the MedDiet on the traditional risk factors, we will mainly focus on reviewing the current evidence about the effects that this dietary pattern exerts on alternative factors, including postprandial lipemia or coagulation, among others, as well as providing a short review on future directions. PMID:25118147

  10. BREAST CANCER: IS OBESITY A RISK FACTOR?

    Anjali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most epidemiological studies established obesity as an important risk factor for breast cancer. It is one of the few risk factors that women can modify. Now-a-days breast cancer is considered to be a life-style disease. The relation of obesity to breast cancer is complex one. Obesity is found to be associated with increased risk of cancer in post-menopausal women, but relation is reverse in pre-menopausal women. In these patients, obesity increases risk due to enhanced oestrogenic activity in obese females. Apart from it, other factors like Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1, Leptin has also been involved. Due to big breasts in obese females there is delay in seeking medical attention, delay in diagnosis, poor response to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and associated complication during treatment. We study the effect of obesity (Weight, BMI, WHR as a risk factor in occurrence of breast cancer in local population of Southern part of Rajasthan in India. We found no significant association between obesity and increased risk of breast cancer in local population of this region where women are multiparous, physically active and usually do not use exogenous hormones.

  11. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...... risk factors for PPP were collected preoperatively (pain from the groin hernia, preoperative AAS score, pain from other body regions, and psychometric assessment). Pain scores were collected on days 7 and 30 postoperatively. Sensory functions including pain response to tonic heat stimulation were...

  12. Socioeconomic factors associated with compliance with mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination in Kenya: Descriptive study results

    Doris W Njomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annual Mass Drug Administration (MDA to at least 65 - 80% of the population at risk is necessary for Lymphatic Filariasis (LF elimination. In Kenya, MDA based on diethylcarbamazine and albendazole, using the community-directed treatment (ComDT approach has been implemented thrice in the Kwale and Malindi districts. To identify the socioeconomic factors influencing compliance with MDA, a retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the two districts after the 2008 MDA. Materials and Methods: In Kwale, the Tsimba location was selected for high and Gadini for low coverage, while in Malindi, the Goshi location represented high and Gongoni, low coverage. Using systematic sampling, nine villages were selected from the four locations. Quantitative data was collected from 965 systematically selected household heads and analyzed using SPSS v. 15. For qualitative data, which was analyzed manually according to core themes of the study, 80 opinion leaders and 80 LF patients with clinical signs were purposively selected and interviewed, and 16 focus group discussions (FGDs conducted with adult and youth male and female groups. Results: Christians were slightly more (49.1% in the high compliance areas compared to Muslims (34.3%, while Muslims prevailed (40.6% in the low compliance areas compared to Christians (29%. On the income level, 27% from the low compared to 12.2% from the high compliance areas had a main occupation, indicative of a higher income, and 95% from the low compared to 78% from high compliance areas owned land, also an indicator of higher economic status. Accurate knowledge of the cause of swollen limbs was higher (37% in the high compared to 25.8% in the low compliance areas, and so was accurate knowledge about the cause of swollen genitals (26.8% in high compared to 14% in low. Risk perception was higher in the high compliance areas (52% compared to 45% and access to MDA information seemed to have been better in the high

  13. Rural-to-Urban Migration: Socioeconomic Status But Not Acculturation was Associated with Overweight/Obesity Risk.

    Hilmers, Angela; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; McDermott, Ann Y; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-06-01

    To investigate whether socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation predict overweight/obesity risk as well as the mediating effect of physical activity (PA) in the context of internal migration. Cross-sectional study of 587 rural-to-urban migrants participating in the PERU MIGRANT study. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression and structured equation modeling. Interaction effects of SES and acculturation were tested. Models were controlled for age, gender and education. Only SES was a significant predictor of overweight/obesity risk. Lower SES decreased the odds of being overweight/obese by 51.4 %. This association did not vary by gender nor was it explained by PA. Mechanisms underlying the relationship between SES and overweight/obesity may differ depending on the geographic location and sociocultural context of the population studied. Research on internal migration and health would benefit from the development of tailored acculturation measures and the evaluation of exploratory models that include diet. PMID:26087715

  14. Cannabis use motives and personality risk factors.

    Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory. PMID:24368004

  15. OCULAR HYPERTENSION - RISK FACTORS AND THERAPY?

    Janicijevic Katarina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim: The goal of our study was to analyze the epidemiological`s characteristics of ocular hypertension, as well as the influence of chronic risk factors on glaucoma development (conversion in glaucoma. We tried to make some entries for solving this complex ophthalmological problem. Material /Methods: From 2009 to 2015, a retrospective control study was performed on 121 patient with diagnoses of bilateral ocular hypertension and without disease progression/conversion of glaucoma (by standard protocols of diagnosis and basic procedures on tertiary level at Clinic of Ophthalmology, Clinical Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia.. The authors analyzed epidemiological characteristics: sex, age groups, positive/negative family history and personal history with chronic risk factors (one and/or two of ocular hypertension. The data obtained from this study were statistically analyzed in SPSS program, version 20.00. Results: As for the patients, 69 of them (57.02% were male and 52 female (42.98%. Dominant age group was between 40-49 (42.15% and then group between 50-59 (40.50% years of age. Anamnesis data indicated the absence of family anamnesis 71 (58.68%. Risk factors for ocular hypertension were presented in 103 (85.13% patients, 18 of them (14.87% did not respond. One risk factor - cardiovascular disease was noted in 83 (68.59%, with two risk factors - cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in 20 patients (16.53% and with PEX syndroma at other respondents. Conclusion: Ocular hypertension is not a common disease, but with risk factors, such as older age, positive family history, and chronic risk factors syndicated, represents a serious clinical and social problem, so the question remains for ophthalmologists - pro or against therapy? Those in favor of therapy would state the safety and protection from conversion/progression of glaucoma; but those against therapy would only mention adequate monitoring of patients.

  16. Risk factors for anastomotic dehiscence in colon cancer surgery-a population-based registry study

    Gessler, Bodil; Bock, David; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this was to assess potential risk factors for anastomotic dehiscence in colon cancer surgery in a national cohort. METHODS: All patients, who had undergone a resection of a large bowel segment with an anastomosis between 2008 and 2011, were identified in the Swedish Colon Cancer...... Registry. Patient factors, socioeconomic factors, surgical factors, and medication and hospital data were combined to evaluate risk factors for anastomotic dehiscence. RESULTS: The prevalence of anastomotic dehiscence was 4.3 % (497/11 565). Male sex, ASA classification III-IV, prescribed medications......, bleeding more than 300 mL, and uncommon colorectal resections were associated with a higher risk of anastomotic dehiscence. Hospital stay was increased with 14.5 days, and 30-day mortality as well as long-term mortality was higher in the anastomotic dehiscence group. CONCLUSIONS: There are several factors...

  17. Cervical artery dissection: emerging risk factors.

    Micheli, S; Paciaroni, M; Corea, F; Agnelli, G; Zampolini, M; Caso, V

    2010-01-01

    Cervical artery dissection (CAD) represents an increasingly recognized cause of stroke and the most common cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. Many factors have been identified in association with CAD such as primary disease of arterial wall (fibrodysplasia) and other non-specific diseases related to CAD like Ehlers Danlos-syndrome IV, Marfan's syndrome, vessel tortuosity. Moreover, an underlying arteriopathy which could be in part genetically determined, has been suspected. The rule of emerging risk factors for CAD such as recent respiratory tract infection, migraine and hyperhomocysteinemia are still a matter of research. Other known risks factors for CAD are major head/neck trauma like chiropractic maneuver, coughing or hyperextension injury associated to car. We examined emerging risks factors for CAD detected in the last years, as CAD pathogenesis is still not completely understood and needs further investigations. PMID:21270941

  18. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus H;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN......: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using...... presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis...

  19. Portfolio Credit Risk Modelling With Heavy-Tailed Risk Factors

    Kostadinov, Krassimir

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, the dependencies between financial assets have increased due to globalization effects and relaxed market regulation. The standard industrial methodologies like RiskMetrics and CreditMetrics model the dependence structure in the derivatives or in the credit portfolio by assuming multivariate normality of the underlying risk factors. It has been well recognized that many financial assets exhibit a number of features which contradict the normality assumption - namely asym...

  20. Socioeconomic factors contributing to exclusion of women from maternal health benefit in Abuja, Nigeria

    Oyewale, Tajudeen O.; Thandisizwe R. Mavundla

    2015-01-01

    Background: An understanding of the predictive effect of socioeconomic characteristics (SECs) of women on maternal healthcare service utilisation is essential in order to maximise maternal health benefits and outcomes for the newborn.Objectives: To describe how SECs of women contribute to their exclusion from maternal health benefits in Abuja Municipal Areas Council (AMAC) in Abuja, Nigeria.Method: A non-experimental, facility-based cross-sectional survey was done. Data were collected from 38...

  1. A multi-factor approach to understanding socio-economic segregation in European capital cities

    Tammaru, T.; Marcińczak, S.; van der Ham; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    Growing inequalities in Europe, even in the most egalitarian countries, are a major challenge threatening the sustainability of urban communities and the competiveness of European cities. Surprisingly, though, there is a lack of systematic and representative research on the spatial dimension of rising inequalities. This gap is filled by our book project Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West, with empirical evidence from Amsterdam, Athens, Budapest, London, Mad...

  2. Socioeconomic factors associated with drug consumption in prison population in Mexico

    Nevárez-Sida Armando; Constantino-Casas Patricia; Castro-Ríos Angélica

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Consumption of illegal drugs is a public health problem in Mexico, and the prison population is a vulnerable group with higher rates of prevalence than in the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the main socioeconomic variables associated with drug consumption in the prison population. Methods Utilizing data from the Second Incarcerated Population Survey carried out by the Centre of Research and Teaching of Economics (CIDE) in Mexico, a logisti...

  3. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus H.; Kirkby, Nikolai; Twetman, Svante; Heitmann, Berit L.; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Paster, Bruce J; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles.Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately...

  4. Determinants of Risk Factors for Asthma

    Busse, William W.

    1999-01-01

    There are a number of risk factors for the development of asthma, including genetic and environmental components. Moreover, there is mounting evidence that a variety of genes are associated with the features of asthma, such as persistent wheezing, airway responsiveness and chronic bronchial inflammation. However, for expression of these features, other factors must also come into play. This paper focuses on the importance of environmental factors in the development of asthma, including allerg...

  5. Prediction of Risk Factors of Frequent Relapse Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Jahan, I; Hanif, M; Ali, M A; Hoque, M M

    2015-10-01

    This case control study was aimed to identify the predictive risk factors for frequent relapse idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) and conducted in Sir Salimullah Medical College & Mitford Hospital, Dhaka and at Renal and Dialysis Unit of Dhaka Shishu Hospital and Bangladesh Institute of Child Health (BICH), Dhaka, from January 2006 to December 2006. We examined retrospectively the clinical course of fifty cases of frequent relapse nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) as cases and fifty cases of infrequent relapse nephrotic syndrome (IRNS) as control who met the predefined enrollment criteria, followed for at least one year after initial onset of disease. After enrollment following parameters were studied as predictors of frequent relapse: i) Socio-demographic variables: age, sex, socio-economic condition, number of living room ii) Disease related variables i.e. age of onset, duration of illness, frequency of relapse within the 1st year, regimen of initial steroid therapy, total cumulative dose of steroid for remission, day of remission after starting steroid, association with atopy and infection, concomitant upper respiratory illness iii) Biochemical and pathological variables (at the time of initial attack) i.e. Serum albumin, serum cholesterol, blood urea, 24 hours urinary protein, serum creatinine, complete blood count, urine RBC, urine pus cell, urine culture. The test statistics used to analyses the data were descriptive statistics, Chi-square probability test, Student's t-test and Binary logistic regression analysis for Odds ratio. Both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age of onset (P<0.001, OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.85-0.95), poor socioeconomic status (P<0.034, OR=0.5.8, 95% CI=1.14-29.5) and low serum albumin level at the time of initial presentation (P<0.022, OR=0.8, 95% CI=0.65-0.97) were independent predictors of frequent relapse nephrotic syndrome. In conclusion, we demonstrated that age at onset, poor socioeconomic condition and low

  6. The Effect of Socioeconomic Factors on Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    Purpose: To determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on quality of life (QoL) after treatment in patients with head and neck carcinoma (HNC). Patients and Methods: The study population included 50 HNC patients seen in their control examinations after radiotherapy during a 2-month interval and who were willing to complete the Short-Form 36 QoL questionnaire. Socioeconomic, demographic, and tumor- and treatment-related factors were analyzed for their effect on physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: All patients received radiotherapy, and 33 patients (66%) underwent surgery for the primary tumor and/or neck disease. Chemotherapy was given in 9 patients (18%). Mean PCS and MCS were 47.9 (range, 24.8-59.3) and 46.7 (range, 22-63.3) for the whole patient population. There was no significant factor affecting PCS. Education level of 'middle school or higher,' perceived economic status of 'medium or higher,' social security status of not being 'absent or minimally covered,' and unilateral type of neck surgery were found to increase MCS significantly. According to separate linear regression analyses performed for three socioeconomic variables, the most significant factor for MCS was social security status compared with education level and perceived economic status. It was the only parameter that retained its significance when all five parameters were combined in a linear regression model. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that educational status, perceived economic status, and social security status showed a significant effect on the QoL of HNC patients after radiotherapy. When all variables were taken into account, only 'social security status' remained significant

  7. What Are the Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer?

    ... cancer Next Topic What causes bladder cancer? Bladder cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that changes your ... make a person more likely to develop bladder cancer. Risk factors you can change Smoking Smoking is the most ...

  8. Heart Disease Risk Factors | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    ... disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk factors. Risk factors also increase the chance that existing CHD ... CHD, talk with your doctor or healthcare provider. Risk Factors You Can Control Smoking —Smoking is the most ...

  9. Cross-sectional study on the effects of socioeconomic factors on lead exposure in children by gender in Serpong, Indonesia.

    Iriani, Dewi U; Matsukawa, Takehisa; Tadjudin, Muhammad K; Itoh, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Kazuhito

    2012-11-01

    To elucidate the socioeconomic factors influencing lead exposure in elementary school children by gender, 108 children (56 male, 52 female), aged 6-7 years, were randomly selected from 39 elementary state schools in Serpong, Banten, Indonesia. Their parents were interviewed to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics. Their blood lead (BPb) levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. BPb concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females, i.e., 6.8 ± 2.0 (2.9-12.5) µg/dL and 5.9 ± 1.9 (3.1-11.7) µg/dL, respectively (p water use were associated with increased BPb concentrations, especially in females. The proportion of well water use was related to lower socioeconomic status. Lower socioeconomic status linked with well water drinking seemed to be associated with increased lead exposure in children in Serpong. Their exposure levels possibly varied according to gender differences in behavior. An intervention should be instituted among children in Serpong with BPb concentrations of 10 µg/dL or above. PMID:23202836

  10. Endocrine Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment.

    Moon, Jae Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and other kinds of dementia, is a major health problem in older adults worldwide. Although numerous investigators have attempted to develop effective treatment modalities or drugs, there is no reasonably efficacious strategy for preventing or recovering from cognitive impairment. Therefore, modifiable risk factors for cognitive impairment have received attention, and the growing literature of metabolic risk factors for cognitive impairment has expanded from epidemiology to molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic management. This review focuses on the epidemiological evidence for the association between cognitive impairment and several endocrine risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, thyroid dysfunction, vitamin D deficiency, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Researches suggesting possible mechanisms for this association are reviewed. The research investigating modifiable endocrine risk factors for cognitive impairment provides clues for understanding the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment and developing novel treatment modalities. However, so far, interventional studies investigating the beneficial effect of the "modification" of these "modifiable risk factors" on cognitive impairment have reported variable results. Therefore, well-designed, randomized prospective interventional studies are needed. PMID:27118278

  11. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection

    Mijailović Željko D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hepatitis C viral infection represents a major health problem in the world. The estimated global incidence is about 3%, whereas the number of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV carriers worldwide is estimated to be between 150-300 million people. Material and methods This retrospective analysis included 82 patients whose diagnosis of viral hepatitis C infection was based upon the following criteria: case history, physical examination, laboratory and abdominal ultrasound examination, histological examination of the liver, radiological examination, serological analysis and viral analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe general data on patients of the study group, risk factor analysis and follow-up results. Results The most prominent risk factor in our study group was intravenous use of drugs in 37 patients (37%, and blood transfusion in 13 patients (13%. Less important risk factors of viral hepatitis C infection included: promiscuity (8%, sexual contact with hepatitis C carriers (5%, surgical intervention (5%, haemodialysis (3%, intranasal use of cocaine (2%. Discussion Hepatitis C viral infection has become the illness of young and middle-aged population. This is due to the epidemic profile of this illness, due to intravenous use of drugs as the most prominent risk factor. Conclusion Due to the number of infected, numerous risk factors and complications of viral hepatitis C, hepatitis C virus has become the most prominent hepatotrophic virus.

  12. Individual, Provider, and System Risk Factors for Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Underserved Black, Latina, and Arab Women

    Roman, LeeAnne; Meghea, Cristian; Ford, Sabrina; Penner, Louis; Hamade, Hiam; Estes, Tamika; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening persist. An exploratory study was conducted to better understand co-occurring risk factors in underserved groups that could inform interventions to improve screening adherence. The objective of this study was to examine associations between breast and cervical cancer screening adherence and co-occurring risk factors in three racial/ethnic groups of underserved women.

  13. Risk Factors for Learning-Related Behavior Problems at 24 Months of Age: Population-Based Estimates

    Morgan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We used a large sample of singleton children to estimate the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity, gender, additional socio-demographics, gestational and birth factors, and parenting on children's risk for learning-related behavior problems at 24 months of age. We investigated to what extent these factors increased a child's risk of displaying inattention, a lack of task persistence, disinterest, non-cooperation, or frustration as he or she completed a series of cognitive and...

  14. Community-level risk factors for notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, 1991-2008

    Pardhan-Ali Aliya; Wilson Jeff; Edge Victoria L; Furgal Chris; Reid-Smith Richard; Santos Maria; McEwen Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Enteric pathogens are an important cause of illness, however, little is known about their community-level risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural and physical environmental conditions) in the Northwest Territories (NWT) of Canada. The objective of this study was to undertake ecological (group-level) analyses by combining two existing data sources to examine potential community-level risk factors for campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis, which are three noti...

  15. Suicide, unemployment and other socioeconomic factors: evidence from the economic crisis in Greece

    Michael G. Madianos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Economic adverse conditions are acknowledged as having a major impact on the exacerbation of mental disorders and suicides. The severity of current European crisis and the local unrelenting spending is affecting largely the economy of Greece. Methods: The aim of this study was to explore changes in suicides and their possible association with macroeconomic and behavioural factors. Data for the period 1990-2011 were drawn mainly from the Hellenic Statistical Authority and Eurostat. Suicide mortality rates were correlated with economic and behavioural factors. Results: Suicide mortality rates were increased by 55.8% between 2007 and 2011 while the total mortality was increased by 1.1% only. Significantly increasing trends in public debt, unemployment rates, consumption of daily units of antidepressants as well as divorces per 1000, homicides per 100,000 and persons with HIV per 100,000 were also observed. Suicides have been found to bear strong correlation with unemployment (r. 0.64. Significant associations were also found between suicide mortality and the percentage of public debt as percentage of GDP, the incidence of infections from HIV and homicides. Conclusions: People suffering from income and job losses, living in a demoralized social state caused by severe austerity measures and restrictive health policies, are exposed to risks for developing depression or commit suicide.

  16. Risk Factors Associated with Clinical Malaria Episodes in Bangladesh: A Longitudinal Study

    Haque, Ubydul; Gregory E Glass; Bomblies, Arne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Mitra, Dipak Kumar; Noman, Nawajish Sayeed; Haque, Waziul; Kabir, M. Moktadir; Yamamoto, Taro; Overgaard, Hans J.

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is endemic to Bangladesh. In this longitudinal study, we used hydrologic, topographic, and socioeconomic risk factors to explain single and multiple malaria infections at individual and household levels. Malaria incidence was determined for 1,634 households in 54 villages in 2009 and 2010. During the entire study period 21.8% of households accounted for all (n = 497) malaria cases detected; 15.4% of households had 1 case and 6.4% had ≥2 cases. The greatest risk factors for malaria inf...

  17. Environmental risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Molodecky, Natalie A; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2010-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and is associated with significant morbidity. The etiology of IBD has been extensively studied during the last several decades; however, causative factors in disease pathology are not yet fully understood. IBD is thought to result from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that influence the normal intestinal commensal flora to trigger an inappropriate mucosal immune response. Although many IBD susceptibility genes have been discovered, similar advances in defining environmental risk factors have lagged. A number of environmental risk factors have been explored, including smoking, appendectomy, oral contraceptives, diet, breastfeeding, infections/ vaccinations, antibiotics, and childhood hygiene. However, most of these factors have demonstrated inconsistent findings, thus making additional studies necessary to better understand the etiology of IBD. PMID:20567592

  18. Risk factors of cardiac allograft vasculopathy

    Szczurek, Wioletta; Gąsior, Mariusz; Zembala, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in prevention and treatment of heart transplant rejection, development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains the leading factor limiting long-term survival of the graft. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, but a significant role is attributed to endothelial cell damage, caused by immunological and non-immunological mechanisms. Immunological factors include the differences between the recipient's and the donor's HLA systems, the presence of alloreactive antibodies and episodes of acute rejection. Among the non-immunological factors the most important are the age of the donor, ischemia-reperfusion injury and cytomegalovirus infection. The classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidemia) are also important. This study presents an up-to-date overview of current knowledge on the vasculopathy etiopathogenesis and the role played by endothelium and inflammatory processes in CAV, and it also investigates the factors which may serve as risk markers of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:26855649

  19. Safety Factors in Pesticide Risk Assessment

    Elmegaard, N.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G. A. J. M.

    to secure that the methodology is adequate. As new knowledge surfaces the risk assessment procedures develops. The present report is a contribution to the development of safety factors used to account for the uncertainty when · extrapolating from the results of test with a single species in the......Foreword It has become common practice to protect the environment from hazardous chemicals by use of risk assessment to establish environmental concentration at which only limited damage to the ecosystem can be expected. The methods and tools applied in the risk assessment need constant evaluation...... safety factors used in pesticide risk assessment: the variability in species sensitivities, and the relationship between acute LC50's and chronic NOEC's....

  20. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8...... population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P <0.002), with high vital exhaustion being associated with a 2-fold higher risk of heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence...... population, even a modestly higher risk of heart failure associated with vital exhaustion may be of importance in the planning of future preventive strategies for heart failure....

  1. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Giardia Infection among Indigenous Communities in Rural Malaysia

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Nasr, Nabil N.; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A L; Surin, Johari

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those ag...

  2. Breast Cancer Risk Factors in a Defined Population: Weighted Logistic Regression Approach for Rare Events

    Zare, Najf; Haem, Elham; Lankarani, Kamran B; Heydari, Seyyed Taghi; Barooti, Esmat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine out risk factors for female breast cancer in a low socioeconomic population in Iran. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, a total of 25,592 women who were ensured by the Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation participated in this screening program. The characteristics of patients diagnosed with breast cancer (n=111) were compared with those of control cases (n=25,481). In this study, we used relogit analysis (rare event logistic regression) with a weighting method usi...

  3. Cardiovascular risk factors and risk of venous thromboembolism

    Brækkan, Sigrid Kufaas

    2010-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a common disease, with serious short- and long-term complications and a potential fatal outcome. Despite the knowledge of several inherited and acquired risk factors for VTE, still 30-50 % of the VTE events occur in the absence of obvious predisposing factors. Traditionally, arterial and venous thrombosis has been considered as separate disease entities with different pathology, epidemiology and treatments...

  4. Socioeconomic factors influencing hospitalized patients with pneumonia due to influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in Mexico.

    Toshie Manabe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In addition to clinical aspects and pathogen characteristics, people's health-related behavior and socioeconomic conditions can affect the occurrence and severity of diseases including influenza A(H1N1pdm09. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A face-to-face interview survey was conducted in a hospital in Mexico City at the time of follow-up consultation for hospitalized patients with pneumonia due to influenza virus infection. In all, 302 subjects were enrolled and divided into two groups based on the period of hospitalization. Among them, 211 tested positive for influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction during the pandemic period (Group-pdm and 91 tested positive for influenza A virus in the post-pandemic period (Group-post. All subjects were treated with oseltamivir. Data on the demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, living environment, and information relating to A(H1N1pdm09, and related clinical data were compared between subjects in Group-pdm and those in Group-post. The ability of household income to pay for utilities, food, and health care services as well as housing quality in terms of construction materials and number of rooms revealed a significant difference: Group-post had lower socioeconomic status than Group-pdm. Group-post had lower availability of information regarding H1N1 influenza than Group-pdm. These results indicate that subjects in Group-post had difficulty receiving necessary information relating to influenza and were more likely to be impoverished than those in Group-pdm. Possible factors influencing time to seeking health care were number of household rooms, having received information on the necessity of quick access to health care, and house construction materials. CONCLUSIONS: Health-care-seeking behavior, poverty level, and the distribution of information affect the occurrence and severity of pneumonia due to H1N1 virus from a socioeconomic

  5. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for ovarian cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your chance of getting ... is a risk factor for a number of cancers. But risk factors don't tell us everything. Having a risk ...

  6. Relative deprivation and risk factors for obesity in Canadian adolescents.

    Elgar, Frank J; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E

    2016-03-01

    Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11-15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions. PMID:26851410

  7. Risk Factors for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Women

    Arzu Yakışan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the rural part of our country the use of traditional biomass was common and as a result of this, women who light the fire and bake bread and cook meals as well as children around them are exposed to the smoke that come out . The aim of this study was to to determine possible risk factors and associated conditions of COPD in women. The study was prospective and case-controlled. Fifty-two female patients with COPD followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital Department of Respiratory Medicine were included in this study. All cases were enrolled between December 2000 and October 2003. Fifty-four female non COPD subjects were chosen as the control group. These control subjects who did not have lung diseases were randomly selected in different outpatient clinics in the same hospital. Age, place of residence, comorbid conditions, cigarette smoking (active and passive, occupational exposure, air pollution, socio-economic status, education level, passive smoking in childhood, the fuel used for heating, cooking and baking bread and its duration were questioned. Results from this study suggest that exposure to cooking smoke, low education level, living in rural area, baking bread at home were associated risk factors with COPD among women.

  8. Nutritional risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus

    Sakshi Singh; Ray, T K; Ranjan Das; Abha Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been observed to be associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. GDM is becoming a public health concern globally as well as in India with fast increasing trend. It affects approximately 14% of all pregnancies. Studies on the association of food items having high glycaemic index with GDM risk are sparse. Most of the literature has focused on typical risk factors like advanced maternal age, family history of diabetes mellitus,...

  9. Risk Factors for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    Smith, Helen C.; Vacek, Pamela; Johnson, Robert J.; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hashemi, Javad; Shultz, Sandra; Beynnon, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are immediately disabling and are associated with long-term consequences, such as posttraumatic osteoarthritis. It is important to have a comprehensive understanding of all possible risk factors for ACL injury to identify individuals who are at risk for future injuries and to provide an appropriate level of counseling and programs for prevention. Objective: This review, part 2 of a 2-part series, highlights what is known and still unkn...

  10. Lung cancer risk factors among women

    Papadopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of female lung cancer in developed countries has been increasing since 1950 and particularly in France where the cigarettes consumption has also increased. Since 1980, a growing number of epidemiological surveys have pinpointed the risk of female lung cancer related to smoking. Consecutively, a debate on gender differences in lung cancer risk has appeared, but still in progress nowadays. The reproductive factors could explain these differences. In order to have recent and reliab...

  11. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Silvia Di Legge; Giacomo Koch; Marina Diomedi; Paolo Stanzione; Fabrizio Sallustio

    2012-01-01

    Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI...

  12. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  13. RISK FACTORS OF MORTALITY IN NEONATAL ILLNESS

    Jeyanthi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Infant Mortality Rate (IMR is high in India. Identification of risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness is essential to reduce Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR and ultimately the IMR. AIM To identify the risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness. SETTING AND DESIGN It was a nested case control study done at the sick neonatal unit of urban tertiary referral centre. METHODS AND MATERIALS After obtaining ethical committee approval, retrospective analysis of 150 out born neonatal case records of babies admitted during the period from October 2015 to December 2015 was done. Data such as demographic features, maternal details, referral details, perinatal events, clinical features, laboratory reports and outcome were recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS These risk factors were subjected to univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and P value calculated for the same to find out significant risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness. RESULTS Neonatal mortality rate was 22%. Male-to-female ratio was 2:1, death occurred more commonly in female neonates (23.1%. Home deliveries carried more risk of mortality. Birth order 4 and above had 25% mortality. Neonates of mother who had primary education and below had higher mortality. Perinatal asphyxia and sepsis were the most common causes of neonatal mortality. By univariate analysis, preterms had 4.9 times increased risk of mortality than term babies. Apnoeic spells, chest retractions and shock had 8 times, 3 times and 3.6 times increased risk of mortality respectively. By multivariate analysis, birth weight below 2 kilograms (kg carried 11.8 times more risk of mortality with a p value 0.00 (95% C.I 3.2, 30.4 and poor maternal intake of iron and folic acid tablets was 3.9 times more risk p value 0.003 (95% C.I 1.6, 9.6, apnoeic spells were 5.8 times more risk of mortality with p value 0.02 (95% C.I 1.3, 26.2. CONCLUSION Birth weight below 2 kg, poor maternal intake of iron and folic

  14. Combined effects of socioeconomic position, smoking, and hypertension on risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke

    Nordahl, Helene; Osler, Merete; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard;

    2014-01-01

    between socioeconomic position (ie, education), smoking, and hypertension on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence by the use of the additive hazards model. RESULTS: During 14 years of follow-up, 3613 ischemic strokes and 776 hemorrhagic strokes were observed. Current smoking and hypertension were...... more prevalent among those with low education. Low versus high education was associated with greater ischemic, but not hemorrhagic, stroke incidence. The combined effect of low education and current smoking was more than expected by the sum of their separate effects on ischemic stroke incidence...... was more than expected by the sum of their separate effects on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence. This effect was most pronounced for ischemic stroke among women: 178 (95% confidence interval, 103-253) extra cases per 100 000 person-years because of interaction, adjusted for age, cohort study...

  15. Risk Factors for Wound Complications Following Abdominoplasty

    Samir K. Jabaiti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Abdominoplasty has become an increasingly popular procedure. Risk factors affecting wound complications of abdominoplasty are not adequately defined in literature. Identification of these risk factors is crucial for better patient’s selection and counseling. The objectives of this study were to determine wound complication rate following abdominoplasty and to examine the relationship of a set of possible risk factors with the incidence of complications. Approach: We studied 116 patients (107 women and 9 men who underwent abdominoplasty at Jordan University Hospital, between June 1997 and June 2007. Data were collected from patients’ medical records and analyzed to determine types and rates of surgical wound complications. Fourteen possible risk factors were investigated using logistic regression analysis to evaluate their relationship with the occurrence of wound complications. Risk factors examined were: age, sex, body mass index, parity number, smoking history, history of diabetes mellitus, previous gastroplasty for morbid obesity, previous abdominal surgical scars, type of abdominoplasty, plication of recti, hernia repair, operative time and operative blood loss. Results: A total of 29 patients (two males and 27 females (25% had wound complications. The most common complication was seroma. It was encountered in 15 cases (12.9%. Six patients (5.2% had wound infection. Partial skin necrosis was encountered in four cases (3.4 %. Two patients (1.7% developed wound dehiscence and two patients (1.7% had hematoma. The only factors significantly increased the complication rate were: increased body mass index (p = 0.002 and history of smoking (p = 0.004. Conclusions and Recommendations: This study confirms the adverse effect of overweight and cigarette smoking on the incidence of wound complication rate following abdominoplasty. We recommend that overweight patients and smokers undergoing abdominoplasty should be adequately

  16. The need to increase awareness of the risk factors of COPD.

    Roche, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    COPD is a heterogeneous disease responsible for a major burden on public and individual health. A wide variety of intrinsic and environmental risk factors are involved, and exert their influence at various time points during the life span of individuals. Knowledge of these factors is of utmost importance to develop appropriate screening and prevention programs, and may help improving the pathophysiological knowledge of the disease. Accordingly, there are multiple targets of information and education on risk factors for COPD, including the general population and patients, workers and employers, doctors and other healthcare professionals, researchers, policy-makers, payers, etc. Gender and socioeconomic factors need to be specifically considered. Importantly, it is likely that increasing the specific knowledge of COPD risk factors among the above-mentioned targets cannot not be obtained without increasing the general knowledge of COPD in the population, which at present is dramatically low. PMID:27137098

  17. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    D'Avanzo, B.; La Vecchia, C

    1995-01-01

    Risk factors for male breast cancer were investigated in a case-control study of 21 cases and 82 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone-related diseases in the Greater Milan area between 1988 and 1994. More educated men tended to be at higher risk of breast cancer, with a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-9.4]. The OR was 3.2 (95% CI 1.1-9.6) for those in the higher social class. Men with no offspring were at higher risk than f...

  18. Risk Factors for Interstage Mortality Following the Norwood Procedure: Impact of Sociodemographic Factors.

    Taylor, Laura C; Burke, Brendan; Donohue, Janet E; Yu, Sunkyung; Hirsch-Romano, Jennifer C; Ohye, Richard G; Goldberg, Caren S

    2016-01-01

    Interstage mortality remains significant for patients undergoing staged palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and other related single right ventricle malformations (HLV). The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to demographics, socioeconomic position, and perioperative course associated with post-Norwood hospital discharge, pre-stage 2, interstage mortality (ISM). Medical record review was conducted for patients with HLV, born from 1/2000 to 7/2009 and discharged alive following the Norwood procedure. Sociodemographic and perioperative factors were reviewed. Patients were determined to have ISM if they died between Norwood procedure hospital discharge and stage 2 palliation. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to identify risk factors associated with ISM. A total of 273 patients were included in the analysis; ISM occurred in 32 patients (12%). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that independent risk factors for interstage mortality included teen mothers [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 6.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-22.5], single adult caregivers (AOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2-14.4), postoperative dysrhythmia (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.4), and longer ICU stay (AOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-6.1). Anatomic and surgical course variables were not associated with ISM in multivariable analysis. Patients with HLV are at increased risk of ISM if born to a teen mother, if they lived in a home with only one adult caregiver, suffered a postoperative dysrhythmia, or experienced a prolonged ICU stay. These risk factors are identifiable, and thus these infants may be targeted for interventions to reduce ISM. PMID:26260093

  19. Intestinal helminthiases in Ecuador: the relatíonship between prevalence, genetic, and socioeconomic factors

    Philip J. Cooper

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of infection with the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis was examinedin 632 residents of communities in Esmeraldas province of Ecuador. These communities were divided into two groups according to area of habitation which reflected different socioeconomic circumstances. Attempts were made to correlate infection status with race and ABO blood group phenotype. The racial groups included blacks, Chachi amerindians, and mixed-race mestizos. Greater prevalences of infection were seen in the area oflower socioeconomic status. No racial or blood group associations with helminth infection were seen controlling for socioeconomic status.A prevalência de infecções com helmintos Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale e Strongyloides stercoralis foi examinada em 632 pessoas em diferentes comunidades na Região de Esmeraldas no Equador. Estas comunidades foram divididas em dois grupos conforme a área na qual residem, o que reflete diferentes circunstâncias sócio- econômicas. Intentou-se correlacionar os tiposde infecção com a raça e os grupos sanguíneos ABO. Nestes grupos raciais estão incluídos negros, ameríndios Chachi, e mestiços. Notou-se a prevalência de infecções nas áreas sócio-econômicasmais baixas. Não se encontrou nenhuma relação com a infecção helmíntica e raça ou grupo sanguíneo depois de controlar-se o status sócio- econômico.

  20. Oil Palm Boom and Land-Use Dynamics in Indonesia: The Role of Policies and Socioeconomic Factors

    Gatto, Marcel; Wollni, Meike; Qaim, Matin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate land-use dynamics in Jambi, Sumatra, one of the hotspots of Indonesia’ recent oil palm boom. Data from a structured village survey are used to analyze the role of socioeconomic and policy factors. Oil palm is partly grown on large plantations, but smallholders are also involved significantly. We find that, in spite of significant oil palm expansion, rubber remains the dominant crop. Most of the oil palm growth takes place on previous fallow and rubber land. Oil palm has not bee...

  1. Oil Palm Boom and Land-Use Dynamics in Indonesia: The Role of Policies and Socioeconomic Factors

    Gatto, Marcel; Wollni, Meike; Qaim, Matin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate land-use dynamics in Jambi, Sumatra, one of the hotspots of Indonesia' recent oil palm boom. Data from a structured village survey are used to analyze the role of socioeconomic and policy factors. Oil palm is partly grown on large plantations, but smallholders are also involved significantly. We find that, in spite of significant oil palm expansion, rubber remains the dominant crop. Most of the oil palm growth takes place on previous fallow and rubber land. Oil palm has not bee...

  2. Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children

    Inge Huybrechts; Herman Van Oyen; John Van Camp; Guy De Backer; Stefaan De Henauw; Stefanie Vandevijvere; Willem De Keyzer; Selin Bolca; Yi Lin

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidel...

  3. Associations between parental BMI, socioeconomic factors, family structure and overweight in Finnish children: a path model approach

    Parikka, Suvi; Mäki, Päivi; Levälahti, Esko; Lehtinen-Jacks, Susanna; Martelin, Tuija; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the less studied interrelationships and pathways between parental BMI, socioeconomic factors, family structure and childhood overweight. Methods The cross-sectional LATE-study was carried out in Finland in 2007–2009. The data for the analyses was classified into four categories: younger boys and girls (ca 3–8 years) (n = 2573) and older boys and girls (ca 11–16 years) (n = 1836). Associations between parental BMI, education, labor market status, ...

  4. Survey of socio-economic and contextual factors of households׳ energy consumption

    Omar Jridi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG. The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015 [2].

  5. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  6. Neighborhood Self-Selection: The Role of Pre-Move Health Factors on the Built and Socioeconomic Environment.

    James, Peter; Hart, Jaime E; Arcaya, Mariana C; Feskanich, Diane; Laden, Francine; Subramanian, S V

    2015-10-01

    Residential self-selection bias is a concern in studies of neighborhoods and health. This bias results from health behaviors predicting neighborhood choice. To quantify this bias, we examined associations between pre-move health factors (body mass index, walking, and total physical activity) and post-move neighborhood factors (County Sprawl Index, Census tract socioeconomic status (SES)) in the Nurses' Health Study (n = 14,159 moves from 1986-2008). Individuals in the highest quartile of pre-move BMI (BMI > 28.4) compared to the lowest quartile (BMI physical activity. Individuals with higher pre-move BMI tended to move to Census tracts with lower median income and home values and higher levels of poverty. Analyses examining the change in neighborhood environments after a move demonstrated that healthy pre-move behaviors were associated with moves to worse socioeconomic environments. This type of self-selection would bias results downward, underestimating the true relationship between SES and physical activity. Generally, the magnitudes of associations between pre-move health factors and neighborhood measures were small and indicated that residential self-selection was not a major source of bias in analyses in this population. PMID:26457712

  7. Neighborhood Self-Selection: The Role of Pre-Move Health Factors on the Built and Socioeconomic Environment

    Peter James

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Residential self-selection bias is a concern in studies of neighborhoods and health. This bias results from health behaviors predicting neighborhood choice. To quantify this bias, we examined associations between pre-move health factors (body mass index, walking, and total physical activity and post-move neighborhood factors (County Sprawl Index, Census tract socioeconomic status (SES in the Nurses’ Health Study (n = 14,159 moves from 1986–2008. Individuals in the highest quartile of pre-move BMI (BMI > 28.4 compared to the lowest quartile (BMI < 22.5 moved to counties that averaged 2.57 points lower on the sprawl index (95% confidence interval −3.55, −1.59 indicating that individuals moved to less dense counties; however, no associations were observed for pre-move walking nor total physical activity. Individuals with higher pre-move BMI tended to move to Census tracts with lower median income and home values and higher levels of poverty. Analyses examining the change in neighborhood environments after a move demonstrated that healthy pre-move behaviors were associated with moves to worse socioeconomic environments. This type of self-selection would bias results downward, underestimating the true relationship between SES and physical activity. Generally, the magnitudes of associations between pre-move health factors and neighborhood measures were small and indicated that residential self-selection was not a major source of bias in analyses in this population.

  8. Are all immigrant mothers really at risk of low birth weight and perinatal mortality? The crucial role of socio-economic status

    Racape, Judith; Schoenborn, Claudia; Sow, Mouctar; Alexander, Sophie; De Spiegelaere, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing studies show that immigrants have different perinatal health outcomes compared to native women. Nevertheless, we lack a systematic examination of the combined effects of immigrant status and socioeconomic factors on perinatal outcomes. Our objectives were to analyse national Belgian data to determine 1) whether socioeconomic status (SES) modifies the association between maternal nationality and perinatal outcomes (low birth weight and perinatal mortality); 2) the effect ...

  9. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  10. Addressing risk factors for child abuse among high risk pregnant women: design of a randomised controlled trial of the nurse family partnership in Dutch preventive health care

    Mejdoubi Jamila; van den Heijkant Silvia; Struijf Elle; van Leerdam Frank; HiraSing Remy; Crijnen Alfons

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s). Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this progr...

  11. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians: a review of emerging risks

    Arun Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  12. Changing trends of cardiovascular risk factors among Indians:a review of emerging risks

    Arun Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The global burden of disease due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is escalating, and the changing trends of CVD risk factors are identified among Indians experiencing rapid health transition. Contributory causes include: growing population with demographic shifts and altered age profile, socio-economic factors, lifestyle changes due to urbanization. Indians are also having genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases and adult are susceptible to vascular disease linking possible gene-environment interactions influencing ethnic diversity. Altered diets with more of junk foods along with diminished physical activity are additive factors contributing to the acceleration of CVD epidemics, along with all form of tobacco use. The pace of health transition, however, varies across geographical regions from urban to rural population with consequent variations in the relative burdens of the dominant CVDs. A comprehensive public health response must be looked to plan over all strategies to integrate policies and programs that effectively impact on the multiple determinants of CVDs to provide protection over the life span through primordial, primary and secondary prevention. Populations as well as individuals at risk must be protected through initiatives, enable nutrition-based preventive strategies to protect and promote cardiovascular health.

  13. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  14. Epidemiology and risk factors for drug allergy

    Thong, Bernard Y-H; Tan, Teck-Choon

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to describe the current evidence-based knowledge of the epidemiology, prevalence, incidence, risk factors and genetic associations of drug allergy. Articles published between 1966 and 2010 were identified in MEDLINE using the key words adult, adverse drug reaction reporting systems, age factors, anaphylactoid, anaphylaxis, anaesthetics, antibiotics, child, drug allergy, drug eruptions, ethnic groups, hypersensitivity, neuromuscular depolarizing agents, neuromuscular...

  15. Technical, environmental, and socioeconomic factors associated with dry-cooled nuclear energy centers

    The report includes a review of the current state-of-the-art of dry-cooling technology for industrial and power-generating facilities and an evaluation of its technical potential and cost for large nuclear power plants. Criteria are formulated for coarse screening of the arid regions of the Western United States to select a surrogate site for more detailed site-specific analyses. The screening criteria included seismic considerations, existing transportation facilities, institutional and jurisdictional constraints, waste heat dissipation effects, water requirements, and ecologic and socioeconomic considerations. The Galt site near Las Vegas, Nevada was selected for the surrogate site analysis to assess important issues related to the construction and operation of twelve dry-cooled nuclear power plants at an arid location remote from major load centers. The assessment covers geotechnical, atmospheric and hydrologic considerations, special aspects of transporting large equipment overland to the site from seaports, analyses of potential transmission routes to major load centers, local institutional and taxing provisions, and ecologic and socioeconomic impacts

  16. Considering something 'ELSE': ethical, legal and socio-economic factors in medical imaging and medical informatics.

    Duquenoy, Penny; George, Carlisle; Solomonides, Anthony

    2008-12-01

    The focus on the use of existing and new technologies to facilitate advances in medical imaging and medical informatics (MIMI) is often directed to the technical capabilities and possibilities that these technologies bring. The technologies, though, in acting as a mediating agent alter the dynamics and context of information delivery in subtle ways. While these changes bring benefits in more efficient information transfer and offer the potential of better healthcare, they also disrupt traditional processes and practices which have been formulated for a different setting. The governance processes that underpin core ethical principles, such as patient confidentiality and informed consent, may no longer be appropriate in a new technological context. Therefore, in addition to discussing new methodologies, techniques and applications, there is need for a discussion of ethical, legal and socio-economic (ELSE) issues surrounding the use and application of technologies in MIMI. Consideration of these issues is especially important for the area of medical informatics which after all exists to support patients, healthcare practitioners and inform science. This paper brings to light some important ethical, legal and socio-economic issues related to MIMI with the aim of furthering an interdisciplinary approach to the increasing use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in healthcare. PMID:18649968

  17. Technical, environmental, and socioeconomic factors associated with dry-cooled nuclear energy centers

    1976-04-01

    The report includes a review of the current state-of-the-art of dry-cooling technology for industrial and power-generating facilities and an evaluation of its technical potential and cost for large nuclear power plants. Criteria are formulated for coarse screening of the arid regions of the Western United States to select a surrogate site for more detailed site-specific analyses. The screening criteria included seismic considerations, existing transportation facilities, institutional and jurisdictional constraints, waste heat dissipation effects, water requirements, and ecologic and socioeconomic considerations. The Galt site near Las Vegas, Nevada was selected for the surrogate site analysis to assess important issues related to the construction and operation of twelve dry-cooled nuclear power plants at an arid location remote from major load centers. The assessment covers geotechnical, atmospheric and hydrologic considerations, special aspects of transporting large equipment overland to the site from seaports, analyses of potential transmission routes to major load centers, local institutional and taxing provisions, and ecologic and socioeconomic impacts.

  18. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS IN DESIGN OF AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMMING IN RADIO TEOCELO, VERACRUZ

    Antolin Silvestre Martiñón-Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass media, are an important complement in the agricultural extension, however, radio is the most economical mass media, so their potential is huge especially in rural areas. The present study was carried out at a community radio station (Radio Teocelo, with coffee producers, in three municipalities in the area Center of Veracruz, it should be noted that the radio has an audience formed mainly by agricultural producers, also this medium has been used for agricultural extension by the UNCADER (training unit for Rural Development, through an agricultural program called "The Moon in Uncader", with mainly technical information, however, it is necessary to propose relevant socio-economic issues that may be part of an optional agricultural programming, and/or complement the technical programming that is transmitted by the agricultural program. The study found a positive attitude to the proposed socio-economic issues, since most was obtained 80% of positive responses, highlighting the transmission of information on: marketing, government programs, visits to successful producers and transmission of successful cases of successful producers, also adopted a positive attitude for the program is disseminated by mass media mainly Teocelo Radio and are willing to personally spread mainly with friends.

  19. An empirical study for ranking risk factors using linear assignment: A case study of road construction

    Amin Foroughi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Road construction projects are considered as the most important governmental issues since there are normally heavy investments required in such projects. There is also shortage of financial resources in governmental budget, which makes the asset allocation more challenging. One primary step in reducing the cost is to determine different risks associated with execution of such project activities. In this study, we present some important risk factors associated with road construction in two levels for a real-world case study of rail-road industry located between two cities of Esfahan and Deligan. The first group of risk factors includes the probability and the effects for various attributes including cost, time, quality and performance. The second group of risk factors includes socio-economical factors as well as political and managerial aspects. The study finds 21 main risk factors as well as 193 sub risk factors. The factors are ranked using groups decision-making method called linear assignment. The preliminary results indicate that the road construction projects could finish faster with better outcome should we carefully consider risk factors and attempt to reduce their impacts.

  20. Logit analysis of socio-economic factors influencing people to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana

    Acquah Henry D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the socio-economic factors that influence people’s decision to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana. Using a well structured interview schedule, a random sample of 98 people from Elmina in the central region of Ghana was selected for the study. Results from the descriptive statistics analysis of respondents identified fishing as a family business, minimum skills requirement and ready market for fish demand as factors that motivated majority of the people into fishing. Lack of storage facilities, access to credit, lack of government assistance and unpredictable changes in weather conditions on sea were the main constraints to fishing activities. Results from the logistic regression model indicated that household size and access to credit were significant factors that positively influenced people’s decision to become fishermen. The regression analysis further revealed that engaging in other income generating activity and being educated significantly reduces the probability to start fishing business.