Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies arising from mesenchymal tissue. Although several occupational exposures have been evaluated in association with sarcoma, little is known about the role of socioeconomic indicators such as education. Socioeconomic status has been found to be associated with risk of development of several types of cancers, primarily lung, gastric, and cervical cancers. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the association of socioeconomic level with the risk for sarcoma. A total of 371 incident cases of sarcoma were matched in terms of age, sex, and year of enrollment in the study with 742 cancer-free controls. Education and income levels were evaluated as the indicators of socioeconomic status. Higher education (college level) was associated with a significantly lower risk for sarcoma [odds ratio (OR)=0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.29-0.80], even after adjusting for important confounders. After stratifying by sex, significantly lower risk for sarcoma was observed among men who had college level education compared with men with a level of education of eighth grade or lower (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.19-0.74). A significant association between education and the risk for sarcoma remained after stratifying by income (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.28-0.86, among the low income group). When analyzed as a composite exposure, individuals with high education and high income status had significantly lower risk for sarcoma compared with those with low income and low education status (OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.23-0.71). Thus, socioeconomic factors may play a significant role in determining the risk for sarcoma and should be explored further to elucidate the underlying factors that may explain these sociodemographic inequalities related to sarcoma. PMID:24356343
Hampras, Shalaka S; Moysich, Kirsten B; Marimuthu, Sathiya P; Ravi, Vinod; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel
Despite a general decline in mortality rates in recent decades, these rates are substantially higher among lower socioeconomic groups. To determine target groups for preventive health promotion programs, the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic group in Canadian adults aged 20 to 69 years was examined through comparison of estimates from the 1978-79 Canada Health Survey, the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey and the labour force smoking surveys of 1975 and 1983. Lev...
Wielgosz, A. T.; Spasoff, R. A.
To understand cardiovascular health in low socioeconomic populations, we analyzed the data from 426 low socioeconomic community-dwelling males and females and 287 homeless males in Philadelphia. Despite higher prevalence of smoking and hypertension, the proportion of homeless participants at increased risk for coronary heart disease was comparable with that of low socioeconomic community-dwelling participants. Among various characteristics, emotional stress was significantly associated with coronary heart disease risk in low socioeconomic community-dwelling participants only, suggestive of a differential psychosocial effect of stress. Our findings suggest that low socioeconomic populations are heterogeneous with respect to their risk factors and needs for interventions. PMID:18794634
Kim, Dae Hyun; Daskalakis, Constantine; Plumb, James D; Adams, Suzanne; Brawer, Rickie; Orr, Nicole; Hawthorne, Katie; Toto, Erin Cunningham; Whellan, David J
Abstract Background Few studies have examined socioeconomic disparities in health and behavioral risk factors by gender in Asian countries and in South Korea, specifically. We investigated the relationship between socioeconomic position (education, income, and occupation) and subjective and acute and chronic health outcomes and behavioral risk factors by gender, and compared results from 1998 and 2005, in the Republic of Korea. Methods We examined data from a na...
Ruger Jennifer; Kim Hak-Ju
In the European Union, there are 180,000 new cases of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer cases per year--more than half of whom will die of the disease. Socioeconomic inequalities in UADT cancer incidence are recognised across Europe. We aimed to assess the components of socioeconomic risk both independently and through their influence on the known behavioural risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption and diet.
Conway, D I
This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…
Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce
The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of co-occurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment, and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had a...
Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-woerpel, Ludmila M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Costello, Tracy J.; Businelle, Michael S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined socioeconomic disparities in health and behavioral risk factors by gender in Asian countries and in South Korea, specifically. We investigated the relationship between socioeconomic position (education, income, and occupation and subjective and acute and chronic health outcomes and behavioral risk factors by gender, and compared results from 1998 and 2005, in the Republic of Korea. Methods We examined data from a nationally representative stratified random sample of 4213 men and 4618 women from the 1998 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 8289 men and 8827 women from the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using General Linear Modeling and multiple logistic regression methods. Results Controlling for behavioral risk factors (smoking, drinking, obesity, exercise, and sleep, those in lower socioeconomic positions had poorer health outcomes in both self-reported acute and chronic disease and subjective measures; differences were especially pronounced among women. A socioeconomic gradient for education and income was found for both men and women for morbidity and self-reported health status, but the gradient was more pronounced in women. In 1998, the odds ratios (ORs of higher morbidity for illiterate vs. college educated females was 5.4:1 and 1.9:1 for females in the lowest income quintile vs. the highest. The OR for education decreased in 2005 to 2.9:1 and that for income quintiles remained the same at 1.9:1. The OR of lower self-reported health status for illiterate vs. college educated females was 2.9:1 and 1.6:1 for females in the lowest income quintile vs. the highest in 1998, and 3.3:1 and 2.3:1 in 2005. Conclusions Among Korean adults, men and women in lower socioeconomic position, as denoted by education, income, and somewhat less by occupation, experience significantly higher levels of morbidity and lower self-reported health status, even after controlling for standard behavioral risk factors. Disparities were more pronounced for women than for men. Efforts to reduce health disparities in South Korea require attention to the root causes of socioeconomic inequality and gender differences in the impact of socioeconomic position on health.
Our aims were to investigate possible associations between hospitalisation for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and socioeconomic and occupational factors. A nationwide database was constructed by linking Swedish census data to the Hospital Discharge Register (1990-2007). Hospital diagnoses of VTE were based on the International Classification of Diseases. Standardised incidence ratios were calculated for different socioeconomic and occupational groups. A total of 43063 individuals aged >20 years were hospitalised for VTE. Individuals with >12 years of education were at lower risk for VTE. Blue-collar workers, farmers, and non-employed individuals had higher risks for VTE, and white collar workers and professionals lower risks. In males and/or females, risks for VTE were increased for assistant nurses; farmers; miners and quarry workers; mechanics, iron and metalware workers; wood workers; food manufacture workers; packers; loaders and warehouse workers; public safety and protection workers; cooks and stewards; home helpers; building caretakers; and cleaners. Decreased risks were observed for technical, chemical, physical, and biological workers; physicians; dentists; nurses; other health and medical workers; teachers, religious, juridical, and other social science-related workers; artistic workers; clerical workers; sale agents; and fishermen, whalers and sealers. High educational level and several occupations requiring high levels of education were protective against VTE, while the risks for VTE were increased for farmers, blue-collar workers and non-employed individuals. The mechanisms are unknown but it might involve persistent psychosocial stress related to low socioeconomic and occupational status. PMID:21868069
Zöller, Bengt; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina
Abstract Background As longevity increases, cases of myocardial infarction (MI) are likely to be more. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major global health problem reaching epidemic proportions in the Indian subcontinent, also among low socio-economic status (SES) and thin individuals. Objectives The present study was undertaken to elicit risk factors for MI among low SES Southern Indians and to find out its association with body mass index (BMI). Materi...
Meenakshisundaram Ramachandran; Agarwal Dipti; Rajendiran Chinnaswamy; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian Ponniah
Abstract Background The mechanisms underlying socioeconomic inequalities in mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are largely unknown. We studied the contribution of childhood socioeconomic conditions and adulthood risk factors to inequalities in CVD mortality in adulthood. Methods The prospective GLOBE study was carried out in the Netherlands, with baseline data from 1991, and linked with the cause of death register in 2007. At baseline, participants rep...
Bm, Kamphuis Carlijn; Turrell Gavin; Giskes Katrina; Mackenbach Johan P; van Lenthe Frank J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms underlying socioeconomic inequalities in mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD are largely unknown. We studied the contribution of childhood socioeconomic conditions and adulthood risk factors to inequalities in CVD mortality in adulthood. Methods The prospective GLOBE study was carried out in the Netherlands, with baseline data from 1991, and linked with the cause of death register in 2007. At baseline, participants reported on adulthood socioeconomic position (SEP (own educational level, childhood socioeconomic conditions (occupational level of respondent’s father, and a broad range of adulthood risk factors (health behaviours, material circumstances, psychosocial factors. This present study is based on 5,395 men and 6,306 women, and the data were analysed using Cox regression models and hazard ratios (HR. Results A low adulthood SEP was associated with increased CVD mortality for men (HR 1.84; 95% CI: 1.41-2.39 and women (HR 1.80; 95%CI: 1.04-3.10. Those with poorer childhood socioeconomic conditions were more likely to die from CVD in adulthood, but this reached statistical significance only among men with the poorest childhood socioeconomic circumstances. About half of the investigated adulthood risk factors showed significant associations with CVD mortality among both men and women, namely renting a house, experiencing financial problems, smoking, physical activity and marital status. Alcohol consumption and BMI showed a U-shaped relationship with CVD mortality among women, with the risk being significantly greater for both abstainers and heavy drinkers, and among women who were underweight or obese. Among men, being single or divorced and using sleep/anxiety drugs increased the risk of CVD mortality. In explanatory models, the largest contributor to adulthood CVD inequalities were material conditions for men (42%; 95% CI: ?73 to ?20 and behavioural factors for women (55%; 95% CI: -191 to ?28. Simultaneous adjustment for adulthood risk factors and childhood socioeconomic conditions attenuated the HR for the lowest adulthood SEP to 1.34 (95% CI: 0.99-1.82 for men and 1.19 (95% CI: 0.65-2.15 for women. Conclusions Adulthood material, behavioural and psychosocial factors played a major role in the explanation of adulthood SEP inequalities in CVD mortality. Childhood socioeconomic circumstances made a modest contribution, mainly via their association with adulthood risk factors. Policies and interventions to reduce health inequalities are likely to be most effective when considering the influence of socioeconomic circumstances across the entire life course and in particular, poor material conditions and unhealthy behaviours in adulthood.
Kamphuis Carlijn BM
Full Text Available Abstract Background As longevity increases, cases of myocardial infarction (MI are likely to be more. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a major global health problem reaching epidemic proportions in the Indian subcontinent, also among low socio-economic status (SES and thin individuals. Objectives The present study was undertaken to elicit risk factors for MI among low SES Southern Indians and to find out its association with body mass index (BMI. Materials and methods A case-control study of patients with MI matched against healthy control subjects was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Standard methods were followed to elicit risk factors and BMI. Chi-square and Fishers exact test for categorical versus categorical, to show relationship with risk factors were analyzed. Results A total of 949 patients (male (M = 692 and post menopausal female (F = 257 and 611 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. In our study, BMI was below 23 in 48.2% of patients and below 21 in 22.5%. The risk of developing MI was significantly more in males (odds ratio (OR = 3.3, 95% confidence interval (C.I. = 2.69-4.13, among females with post-menopausal duration (PMD of more than or equal to 3 years (OR = 9.27, 95% C.I. = 6.36-13.50 and in those with BMI less than 23 with one or other risk factors (P = 0.002, OR = 1.38, 95% C.I. = 1.13-1.70. Conclusion BMI cannot be considered as a lone independent risk factor, as the study population had low BMI but had one or more modifiable risk factors. It would be advisable to keep BMI at least 21 kg/m2 for screening program. Health education on life style modification and programs to diagnose and control diabetes and hypertension have to be initiated at community level in order to reduce the occurrence.
STUDY OBJECTIVE—To analyse trends in socioeconomic differences in cardiovascular disease risk factors among an urban Chinese population using educational attainment as the socioeconomic indicator.?DESIGN—Population surveys with randomly selected independent samples were carried out in 1989 and in 1996. Educational attainment, blood pressure, body mass index, cigarette smoking and lack of leisure time physical activity were determined.?SETTING—Urban areas of the city of Tianjin, Ch...
Yu, Z.; Nissinen, A.; Vartiainen, E.; Song, G.; Guo, Z.; Tian, H.
To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidt. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age-adjusted odds ratio in male subjects was 1.9 (0.9, 3.9) but this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, a lower socio-economic class, categorised either by occupational or educational level, was an additional risk factor for diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese who had known risk factors for glucose intolerance. These subjects should have increased priority for health education and regular diabetes screening. Our findings further emphasise the complex relationships between societal affluence, personal income and educational level
Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if...
Tamayo Teresa; Christian Herder; Rathmann Wolfgang
Abstract Objectives The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on physiological (lipid profile, obesity indices) and behavioral (dietary habits, physical activity) cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Istanbul. Design Cross sectional study. Setting One private school and two public schools from different SES districts in Istanbul. Participants 510 random...
Keskin Yasar; Sur Haydar; Kocaoglu Bike; Moschonis George; Dimitriou Maria; Manios Yannis; Hayran Osman
Abstract Background The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA) might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality) in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. Methods This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver) from J...
Hayward Irene; Malcoe Lorraine; Cleathero Lesley A; Janssen Patricia A; Lanphear Bruce P; Hayes Michael V; Mattman Andre; Pampalon Robert; Venners Scott A
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which changes in blood pressure, smoking, and serum cholesterol concentration explain the observed increase in socioeconomic differences in mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in Finland during the past 20 years. DESIGN: Predicted changes in mortality from IHD were calculated using logistic regression models with the risk factor levels assessed by cross sectional population surveys conducted in 1972, 1977, 1982, and 1987. The subjects ...
Vartiainen, E.; Pekkanen, J.; Koskinen, S.; Jousilahti, P.; Salomaa, V.; Puska, P.
Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES) predicts coronary heart disease independently of the traditional risk factors included in the Framingham risk score. However, it is unknown whether changes in Framingham risk score variables over time explain the association between SES and coronary heart disease. We examined this question given its relevance to risk assessment in clinical decision making. Methods The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities stu...
Tancredi Daniel J; Winters Paul C; Franks Peter; Fiscella Kevin A
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The decline in cardiovascular mortality in Denmark during the 1980s has been greatest in the highest socioeconomic groups of the population. This study examines whether the increased social inequality in cardiovascular mortality has been accompanied by a different trend in cardiovascular risk factors in different educational groups. DESIGN: Data from three cross sectional WHO MONICA surveys conducted in 1982-84, 1987, and 1991-92, were analysed to estimate trends in biological (weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure, and serum lipids) and behavioural (smoking, physical activity during leisure, and eating habits) risk factors in relation to educational status. SETTING: County of Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 6695 Danish men and women of ages 30, 40, 50, and 60 years. MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking and heavy smoking decreased during the study but only in the most educated groups. In fact, the prevalence of heavy smoking increased in the least educated women. There wasno significant interaction for the remaining biological and behavioural risk factors between time of examination and educational level, indicating that the trend was the same in the different educational groups. However, a summary index based on seven cardiovascular risk factors improved, and this development was only seen in the most educated men and women. CONCLUSION: The difference between educational groups in prevalence of smoking increased during the 1980s, and this accounted for widening of an existing social difference in the total cardiovascular risk.
Osler, M; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik
Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ? 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and d...
Geater Alan; Chongsuvivatwong Virasakdi; Le Cai
Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ? 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.
Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting CSHCN's receiving needed specialty care among different socioeconomic levels. Previous literature has shown that Socioeconomic Status (SES) is a significant factor in CHSHCN receiving access to healthcare. Other literature has shown that factors of insurance, family size, race/ethnicity and sex also have effects on these children's receipt of care. However, this literature does not address whether ...
Bae Sejong; Fulda Kimberly G; Lykens Kristine A; Singh Karan P
Full Text Available IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the California Health Interview Survey 2003, we estimated the prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight, combined as a single measure (AROW, body mass index ?85th percentile. We used logistic regression models to examine associations between AROW and risk factors.ResultsTwenty-nine percent of California adolescents were AROW. The prevalence of AROW differed significantly by sex and race. Boys were more likely than girls to be AROW (33% vs 25%. American Indians/Pacific Islanders/others (39% were at highest risk, followed by Hispanics (37%, blacks (35%, whites (23%, and Asians (15%. For boys, older age, Hispanic or American Indian/Pacific Islander/other race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and longer residence in the United States were significantly associated with AROW. For girls, Hispanic or black race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and poor dietary habits were significantly associated with AROW.ConclusionThe high prevalence of AROW among California adolescents in most racial/ethnic groups indicates the need for culturally specific and appropriate interventions to prevent and treat overweight.
Joel Gittelsohn, PhD
Abstract Background The highest prevalence of several cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, smoking and low physical activity level is observed in adults of low socioeconomic status. This study investigates whether tracking of body mass index and physical fitness from childhood to adolescence differs between groups of socioeconomic status. Furthermore the study investigates whether social class differences in the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitn...
Bai Charlotte N; Andersen Lars B; Møller Niels C; Wedderkopp Niels; Kristensen Peter L; Froberg Karsten
Social disadvantage across the life course is associated with a greater risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and with established CHD risk factors, but less is known about whether novel CHD risk factors show the same patterns. The Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development was used to investigate associations between occupational socioeconomic position during childhood, early adulthood and middle age and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), endothelial function (E-selectin, tissue-plasminogen activator), adipocyte function (leptin, adiponectin) and pancreatic beta cell function (proinsulin) measured at 60–64 years. Life course models representing sensitive periods, accumulation of risk and social mobility were compared with a saturated model to ascertain the nature of the relationship between social class across the life course and each of these novel CHD risk factors. For interleukin-6 and leptin, low childhood socioeconomic position alone was associated with high risk factor levels at 60–64 years, while for C-reactive protein and proinsulin, cumulative effects of low socioeconomic position in both childhood and early adulthood were associated with higher (adverse) risk factor levels at 60–64 years. No associations were observed between socioeconomic position at any life period with either endothelial marker or adiponectin. Associations for C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, leptin and proinsulin were reduced considerably by adjustment for body mass index and, to a lesser extent, cigarette smoking. In conclusion, socioeconomic position in early life is an important determinant of several novel CHD risk factors. Body mass index may be an important mediator of these relationships. PMID:25437893
Jones, Rebecca; Hardy, Rebecca; Sattar, Naveed; Deanfield, John E.; Hughes, Alun; Kuh, Diana; Murray, Emily T.; Whincup, Peter H.; Thomas, Claudia
Social disadvantage across the life course is associated with a greater risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and with established CHD risk factors, but less is known about whether novel CHD risk factors show the same patterns. The Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development was used to investigate associations between occupational socioeconomic position during childhood, early adulthood and middle age and markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6), endothelial function (E-selectin, tissue-plasminogen activator), adipocyte function (leptin, adiponectin) and pancreatic beta cell function (proinsulin) measured at 60-64 years. Life course models representing sensitive periods, accumulation of risk and social mobility were compared with a saturated model to ascertain the nature of the relationship between social class across the life course and each of these novel CHD risk factors. For interleukin-6 and leptin, low childhood socioeconomic position alone was associated with high risk factor levels at 60-64 years, while for C-reactive protein and proinsulin, cumulative effects of low socioeconomic position in both childhood and early adulthood were associated with higher (adverse) risk factor levels at 60-64 years. No associations were observed between socioeconomic position at any life period with either endothelial marker or adiponectin. Associations for C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, leptin and proinsulin were reduced considerably by adjustment for body mass index and, to a lesser extent, cigarette smoking. In conclusion, socioeconomic position in early life is an important determinant of several novel CHD risk factors. Body mass index may be an important mediator of these relationships. PMID:25437893
Jones, Rebecca; Hardy, Rebecca; Sattar, Naveed; Deanfield, John E; Hughes, Alun; Kuh, Diana; Murray, Emily T; Whincup, Peter H; Thomas, Claudia
OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to evaluate the association between socioeconomic level (as measured by maternal education, maternal occupation, and monthly family income) and anencephaly. METHODS: The authors conducted a case-control study using data from the Epidemiological Surveillance System Register for Neural Tube Defects for three states of the Mexican Republic: Puebla, Guerrero and the State of Mexico. Mothers of 151 cases of infants born with anencephaly and mothers of 151 control ...
Blanco Mun?oz, Julia; Lacasan?a, Marina; Borja Aburto, Victor Hugo; Torres Sa?nchez, Luisa Elvira; Garci?a Garci?a, Ana Mari?a; Lo?pez Carrillo, Lizbeth
Abstract Background The influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors is widely known, although the role of different SES indicators is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of different SES indicators for cardiovascular disease risk factors in a middle and old aged East German population. Methods Cross-sectional data of an East German population-based cohort study (1779 men and women aged 4...
Werdan Karl; Tiller Daniel; Kluttig Alexander; Schumann Barbara; Haerting Johannes; Greiser Karin H
Full Text Available Abstract Background The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. Methods This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver from January 1, 2006 to September 17, 2009. To identify an indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality, we used hierarchical logistic regression to model SGA by area-level variables from the Canadian census. We then modelled SGA by area-level average income plus established maternal risk factors for SGA and calculated population attributable SGA risk percentages (PAR% for each variable. Associations of maternal risk factors for SGA with average income were investigated to identify those that might contribute to SGA inequality. Finally, we estimated crude reductions in the percentage and absolute differences in SGA risks between highest and lowest average income quintiles that would result if interventions on maternal risk factors successfully equalized them across income levels or eliminated them altogether. Results Average income produced the most linear and statistically significant indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality with 8.9% prevalence of SGA in the lowest income quintile compared to 5.6% in the highest. The adjusted PAR% of SGA for variables were: bottom four quintiles of height (51%, first birth (32%, bottom four quintiles of average income (14%, oligohydramnios (7%, underweight or hypertension, (6% each, smoking (3% and placental disorder (1%. Shorter height, underweight and smoking during pregnancy had higher prevalence in lower income groups. Crude models assuming equalization of risk factors across income levels or elimination altogether indicated little potential change in relative socioeconomic SGA inequality and reduction in absolute SGA inequality for shorter height only. Conclusions Our findings regarding maternal height may indicate trans-generational aetiology for socioeconomic SGA inequalities and/or that adult height influences social mobility. Conditions affecting foetal and childhood growth might be viable targets to reduce absolute socioeconomic SGA inequality in future generations, but more research is needed to determine whether such an approach is appropriate.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest prevalence of several cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, smoking and low physical activity level is observed in adults of low socioeconomic status. This study investigates whether tracking of body mass index and physical fitness from childhood to adolescence differs between groups of socioeconomic status. Furthermore the study investigates whether social class differences in the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness exist or develop within the age range from childhood to adolescence. Methods In all, 384 school children were followed for a period of six years (from third to ninth grade. Physical fitness was determined by a progressive maximal cycle ergometer test and the classification of overweight was based on body mass index cut-points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Socioeconomic status was defined according to The International Standard Classification of Occupation scheme. Results Moderate and moderately high tracking was observed for physical fitness and body mass index, respectively. No significant difference in tracking was observed between groups of socioeconomic status. A significant social gradient was observed in both the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness in the 14–16-year-old adolescents, whereas at the age of 8–10 years, only the prevalence of low physical fitness showed a significant inverse relation to socioeconomic status. The odds of both developing and maintaining risk during the measurement period were estimated as bigger in the group of low socioeconomic status than in the group of high socioeconomic status, although differences were significant only with respect to the odds of developing overweight. Conclusion The results indicate that the fundamental possibilities of predicting overweight and low physical fitness at an early point in time are the same for different groups of socio-economic status. Furthermore, the observed development of social inequalities in the absolute prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness underline the need for broad preventive efforts targeting children of low socioeconomic status in early childhood.
Bai Charlotte N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of psychological factors such as traumata and childhood adversities for the future risk of type 2 diabetes or obesity is too small to draw conclusions. Thus, more population-based longitudinal studies and international standards to assess psychosocial factors are needed to clarify the mechanisms leading to the observed health disparities.
Abstract Background Though vascular factors may be important in the aetiology of late-life depression, it is not clear whether they have a major effect on the risk of depression after a stroke. We investigated the relationship between physiological, biochemical, neuro-imaging and socio-economic factors and late-phase post-stroke depression in a cross-sectional case-control study. Methods People living at home at least 9 months after a stroke were interviewed usi...
Fall Susan; Chatterjee Kausik; Barer David
Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES), urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference), blo...
Delisle Hélène; Agueh Victoire; Fayomi Benjamin; Sodjinou Roger
Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher than in the rest of the country. To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socioeconomic levels in north-west Mexico
A study on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 250 male and female adult subjects 20 years of age and over, pertaining to different socio-economic levels is being conducted in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Measurements of weight, height, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test, blood levels of total of cholesterol, tryglicerides, LDL and HDL-cholesterol are being obtained. Body composition is being determined by deuterium dilution and infrared spectroscopy, air displacement plethysmography, skinfold thickness and bio-electrical impedance. Physical activity by questionnaire and diet by non-consecutive multiple 24 h recalls (to account for seasonal and inter-individual variability), will provide information on lifestyle and diet. At present, analysis of 141 subjects has been completed. Preliminary results showed high levels of overweight, 55% with BMI>25, and obesity, 17% with BMI>30. Subjects with abnormal glucose levels had significantly higher weight (p<0.008), larger waist/hip ratio (p<0.003), higher % body fat (p<0.01), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.01; p<0.009 respectively) than normal subjects, after adjusting for sex and age. Serum tryglicerides were significantly higher in obese subjects with central adiposity than non-obese subjects. Body composition by deuterium dilution was determined by infrared spectroscopy and by air displacement plethysmography in a preliminary pilot study. Finally, a physical activity questionnaire was tested in two groups of subjects with different lifestyles. (author)
Background: Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In Northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher the in the rest of the country. Objective: To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socio-economic levels in north-west Mexico. Methods: Non probabilistic sample selection by invitation was used to recruit subjects, completing quotas by age groups, gender and socio-economic status. The study included 350 men and women, 20-84 years pertaining to low and high income groups from the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. All subjects were measured for body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, skinfolds, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure SBP, DBP). Body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio were calculated. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 12 hour fast was performed and blood samples were taken for analysis of insulin, leptin, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. In 273 of the 350 subjects physical activity was studied by questionnaire. Activity was calculated as in categories of low, medium and high intensity and expressed as hours/day with respect to occupational and recreational activities. Physical activity level (PAL) was also calculated from the questionnaires. Body composition was investigated in more detail by air displacement plethysmography (densitometry) and by deuterium dilution in 200 subjects. Diet by 24 hour non-consecutive recalls in another sub-group of 135 male and female subjects. Statistical analysis was performed using NCSS statistical software using ANCOVA and regression procedures. Result: High levels of overweight (BMI >25) and obesity BMI>30) were found in this population group with 65 and 23.4% of them being in these categories respectively. After adjusting for sex and age, results showed that subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance levels had significantly higher weight (p0,120. In terms of body composition percent body fat by BL4 showed the best relationship to insulin sensitivity with the same index. Conclusions: Total body fat and regional fat distribution rather than body size may be a better alternative to assess risk levels for Type 2 diabetes and CVD. For population studies, this has to rely on appropriate field methods such as BIA. However, this has to be validated by recognised methodology such as deuterium dilution, DEXA or body density determinations that can provide the necessary information for specific predictive equation development. Work in Progress: Body composition by deuterium dilution determined by IR spectroscopy and plethysmography to validate BL4 are still in progress bt preliminary results show that either method can be used for validation purposes. Diet and physical activity data analysis will be completed by recruiting 50 mores subjects. Further analysis combining all possible risk indicators through multiple regression procedures are still pending as well as HOAL4 calculations. Take Home Message: The anthropometric evaluation of regional fat distribution and total body fat by BL4 might be an important field technique for type 2 diabetes and C VD risk assessment. Intervention studies that may use the findings in this study for this population would be warranted. (author)
AIMS—To investigate the effects of parental smoking, socioeconomic characteristics, and indoor environment on the risk of invasive meningococcal disease in children.?METHODS—Population based case-control study. A total of 68 incident cases of invasive meningococcal disease in children less than 15 years old were compared with 135 controls selected from the same school and matched for year of birth, sex, and place of residence. Information on exposures was obtained i...
Kriz, P.; Bobak, M; Kriz, B.
While the risk for arterial vascular disease has been shown to be influenced by socioeconomic status (SES), there is limited information whether SES also influences the risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). To evaluate whether there is an association between SES and VTE incidence. In 1990, all 730,050 inhabitants (379,465 women and 350,585 men) above 25 years of age in the County of Skåne in Sweden were evaluated with regard to age, household income, marital status, country of birth, number...
Isma, Nazim; Merlo, Juan; Ohlsson, Henrik; Svensson, Peter; Lindblad, Bengt; Gottsa?ter, Anders
Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring inequalities in non communicable disease risk factor prevalence can help to inform and target effective interventions. The prevalence of current daily smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and heavy episodic alcohol drinking were quantified and compared across wealth and education levels in low- and middle-income country groups. Methods This study included self-reported data from 232,056 adult participants in 48 countries, derived from the 2002–2004 World Health Survey. Data were stratified by sex and low- or middle-income country status. The main outcome measurements were risk factor prevalence rates reported by wealth quintile and five levels of educational attainment. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured using the slope index of inequality, reflecting differences in prevalence rates, and the relative index of inequality, reflecting the prevalence ratio between the two extremes of wealth or education accounting for the entire distribution. Data were adjusted for confounding factors: sex, age, marital status, area of residence, and country of residence. Results Smoking and low fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly higher among lower socioeconomic groups. The highest wealth-related absolute inequality was seen in smoking among men of low- income country group (slope index of inequality 23.0 percentage points; 95% confidence interval 19.6, 26.4. The slope index of inequality for low fruit and vegetable consumption across the entire distribution of education was around 8 percentage points in both sexes and both country income groups. Physical inactivity was less prevalent in populations of low socioeconomic status, especially in low-income countries (relative index of inequality: (men 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.64; (women 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42, 0.65. Mixed patterns were found for heavy drinking. Conclusions Disaggregated analysis of the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors demonstrated different patterns and varying degrees of socioeconomic inequalities across low- and middle-income settings. Interventions should aim to reach and achieve sustained benefits for high-risk populations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES predicts coronary heart disease independently of the traditional risk factors included in the Framingham risk score. However, it is unknown whether changes in Framingham risk score variables over time explain the association between SES and coronary heart disease. We examined this question given its relevance to risk assessment in clinical decision making. Methods The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study data (initiated in 1987 with 10-years follow-up of 15,495 adults aged 45-64 years in four Southern and Mid-Western communities were used. SES was assessed at baseline, dichotomized as low SES (defined as low education and/or low income or not. The time dependent variables - smoking, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and use of blood pressure lowering medication - were assessed every three years. Ten-year incidence of coronary heart disease was based on EKG and cardiac enzyme criteria, or adjudicated death certificate data. Cox survival analyses examined the contribution of SES to heart disease risk independent of baseline Framingham risk score, without and with further adjustment for the time dependent variables. Results Adjusting for baseline Framingham risk score, low SES was associated with an increased coronary heart disease risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.53; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.27 to1.85. After further adjustment for the time dependent variables, the SES effect remained significant (HR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.19 to1.74. Conclusion Using Framingham Risk Score alone under estimated the coronary heart disease risk in low SES persons. This bias was not eliminated by subsequent changes in Framingham risk score variables.
Tancredi Daniel J
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze risk factors for overweight among adolescents grouped in three different socioeconomic levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1779 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years, grouped according to socioeconomic status (low, middle, and high. Parents reported their own anthropometric data and the adolescents had their anthropometric data taken by trained researchers, and completed three questionnaires. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 16.7%, 23.8%, and 26.3% in low, middle and high socioeconomic status, respectively (P= 0.001. In all socioeconomic status, parent's overweight was associated with adolescent overweight (all POBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores de risco para o sobrepeso entre adolescentes agrupados em três níveis econômicos diferentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que incluiu 1779 adolescentes com idade de 11-17 anos, agrupados de acordo com a condição econômica (baixo, médio e alto. Os pais reportaram seus próprios dados antropométricos e os adolescentes tiveram seus dados antropométricos aferidos por avaliadores treinados, e também responderam a três questionários. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 16.7%, 23.8% e 26.3% nas classes econonômicas baixa, média e alta, respectivamente (P=0.001. Em todas as condições econômicas, o sobrepeso dos pais foi associado com o sobrepeso dos filhos (P<0.05. Os estudantes de classes econômicas média e alta (RP=2.00 de escolas privadas foram associados com o sobrepeso, e estudantes de baixo nível sócio-econômico com comportamento sedentário (RP = 2,25 e alta ingestão de frituras (PR = 2.35. CONCLUSÃO: Em cada nível socioeconômico o sobrepeso é associado com diferentes fatores de risco de diferente formas, exceto para pais com sobrepeso.
Rômulo Araújo Fernandes
Associations of housing, population, and agriculture census variables, and presence near public places were retrospectively evaluated as potential risk factors for canine leptospirosis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The sample population included 94 dogs positive for leptospirosis based on a positive polymerase chain reaction test for leptospires on urine, isolation of leptospires on urine culture, a single reciprocal serum titer of 12,800 or greater, or a four-fold rise in reciprocal serum titers over a 2-4 week period; and 185 dogs negative for leptospirosis based on a negative polymerase chain reaction test and reciprocal serum titers less than 400. Multivariable logistic regressions revealed different risk factors among different census units; however, houses lacking complete plumbing facilities [OR=2.80, 95% C.I.=1.82, 4.32 (census unit, block group); OR=1.36, 95% C.I.=1.28, 1.45 (census tract); OR=3.02, 95% C.I.=2.60, 3.52 (county)]; and poverty status by age (18-64) [OR=2.04, 95% C.I.=1.74, 2.39 (block group); OR=1.53, 95% C.I.=1.41, 1.67 (census tract); and OR=1.62, 95% C.I.=1.50, 1.76 (county)] were consistent risk factors for all census units. Living within 2500 m of a university/college and parks/forests were also significantly associated with leptospirosis status in dogs. Dogs that live under these circumstances are at higher risk for leptospirosis and pet owners should consider vaccination. PMID:22626864
Raghavan, R K; Brenner, K M; Higgins, J J; Shawn Hutchinson, J M; Harkin, K R
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the rise of diet-related chronic diseases. People with higher SES and those with a longer exposure to the urban environment are priority target groups for interventions focusing on environmental risk factors that are amenable to change in this population. Lifestyle interventions would appear appropriate, with particular emphasis on physical activity.
Dengue is a peri-urban mosquito-transmitted disease, ubiquitous in the tropics and the subtropics. The geographic distribution of dengue and its more severe form, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), have expanded dramatically in the last decades and dengue is now considered to be the world's most important arboviral disease. Recent demographic changes have greatly contributed to the acceleration and spread of the disease along with uncontrolled urbanization, population growth and increased air travel, which acts as a mechanism for transporting and exchanging dengue viruses between endemic and epidemic populations. The dengue vector and virus are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity and precipitation that influence mosquito biology, abundance and habitat and the virus replication speed. In order to control the spread of dengue and impede epidemics, decision support systems are required that take into account the multi-faceted array of factors that contribute to increased dengue risk. Due to availability of seasonal climate forecasts, that predict the average climate conditions for forthcoming months/seasons in both time and space, there is an opportunity to incorporate precursory climate information in a dengue decision support system to aid epidemic planning months in advance. Furthermore, oceanic indicators from teleconnected areas in the Pacific and Indian Ocean, that can provide some indication of the likely prevailing climate conditions in certain regions, could potentially extend predictive lead time in a dengue early warning system. In this paper we adopt a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling framework for dengue in Thailand to support public health decision making. Monthly cases of dengue in the 76 provinces of Thailand for the period 1982-2012 are modelled using a multi-layered approach. Explanatory variables at various spatial and temporal resolutions are incorporated into a hierarchical model in order to make spatio-temporal probabilistic predictions of dengue. Potential risk factors considered include altitude, land cover, proximity to road/rail networks and water bodies, temperature and precipitation, oceanic indicators, intervention activities, air traffic volume, population movement, urbanisation and sanitation indicators. In order to quantify unknown or unmeasured dengue risk factors, we use spatio-temporal random effects in the model framework. This helps identify those available indicators which could significantly contribute to a dengue early warning system. We use this model to quantify the extent to which climate indicators can explain variations in dengue risk. This allows us to assess the potential utility of forecast climate information in a dengue decision support system for Thailand. Taking advantage of lead times of several months provided by climate forecasts, public health officials may be able to more efficiently allocate intervention measures, such as targeted vector control activities and provision of medication to deal with more deadly forms of the disease, well ahead of an imminent dengue epidemic.
Rodo, X.; Lowe, R.; Karczewska-Gibert, A.; Cazelles, B.
The purpose of this study was to examine socio-economic differences in the risk of hospitalisation among children aged 0-5 years in Denmark from 1985 to 2004. All children born between 1985 and 2004 (n=1,278,286) were followed for hospital admissions for infectious diseases from the 29th day of life until the children reached the age of 6 years or the end of 2004, whichever came first. Information on parental socio-economic position (education, labour market attachment and household income) was gathered through record linkage with administrative registries. Infections were grouped into upper respiratory, lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, ear and fever infections. The data were analysed using Cox regression. Children of parents on sick leave or early retirement had an increased risk of being hospitalised with an infection compared with children of employed parents. A clear inverse educational gradient in risk of offspring hospitalisation was also found. From 1985 to 2004 the inverse associations between parental education and risk of hospitalisation grew stronger, whereas the comparatively weaker association between household income and risk of offspring hospitalisation decreased in magnitude. The association between socio-economic status and hospitalisation was strongest for lower respiratory, gastrointestinal and ear infections. This study documented a socially patterned hospitalisation of pre-school children in Denmark. Future studies should investigate possible explanations for the increased risk among children from families with low socio-economic status.
Biering-SØrensen, Sofie; SØndergaard, Grethe
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: investigar a associação de fatores de risco obstétricos, demográficos, socioeconômicos e psicossociais com a presença de risco ao desenvolvimento infantil nas faixas etária de um a dezoito meses de idade. MÉTODO: a amostra inicial foi constituída de 182 díades mãe-bebê e final de 58 díades [...] . A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio da análise da interação mãe-bebê feita com base no Protocolo de Indicadores de Risco ao Desenvolvimento Infantil e de uma entrevista que investigou aspectos socioeconômicos, demográficos, obstétricos e psicossociais na primeira etapa da pesquisa. Os dados foram organizados em uma planilha eletrônica e posteriormente convertidos para os aplicativos computacionais para análise estatística. RESULTADOS: os fatores de risco significantes para as quatro fases do protocolo foram, na faixa de zero a quatro meses o estado civil da mãe e o número de filhos; na faixa de quatro a oito meses o número de consultas pré-natal e a renda per capita; na faixa de oito a doze meses o planejamento da gestação; e na faixa de doze a dezoito meses o histórico de depressão materna, a idade da mãe e a profissão da mãe. CONCLUSÃO: a pesquisa demonstrou que as condições socioeconômicas, obstétricas, psicossociais e demográficas podem oferecer risco ao desenvolvimento infantil. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to investigate obstetric, demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors of mother-child dyads for the occurrence of changes in the Risk Indicators for Child Development (IRDI) in children age groups from zero to 18 months. METHOD: the sample consisted of 182 mother-infant dyads. [...] Data collection occurred through the analysis of mother-infant interaction ??based on the Risk Indicators for Child Development (IRDI) Protocol and on an interview which investigated socio-economic, demographic, obstetric and psychosocial aspects in the first stage of the procedures. Data were organized into an electronic spreadsheet and then converted to computer software for statistical analisys. RESULTS: the significant risk factors for the four phases of IRDI were, in the range of zero to four months, the mother's marital status and number of children; in the range of four to eight months, the number of prenatal visits and per capita income; in the range of eight to twelve months, pregnancy planning; and in the range of twelve to eighteen months, maternal depression history, the mother's age and profession. CONCLUSION: the study demonstrated that the environment and the situations in which the mother-infant dyad is part of, may hinder or facilitate the development of the infant.
Anelise Henrich, Crestani; Felipe, Mattana; Anaelena Bragança de, Moraes; Ana Paula Ramos de, Souza.
Does IQ explain socio-economic differentials in total and cardiovascular disease mortality? Comparison with the explanatory power of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Vietnam Experience Study
The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance in this well-documented association.
Batty, G David; Shipley, Martin J
Abstract Few studies on resilience in young children model risk appropriately and test theory-led hypotheses about its moderation. This study addressed both issues. Our hypothesis was that for preschool children’s emotional/behavioral adjustment in the face of contextual risk protective factors should be located in the cognitive domain. Data were from the first two sweeps of the UK’s Millennium Cohort Study. The final study sample was 4,748 three-year-old children clustered in ...
Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos
Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463
Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.
BACKGROUND—Information about socio economic factors associated with visual impairment can assist in the design of intervention programmes. Such information was collected by the Melbourne Visual Impairment Project (Melbourne VIP).?METHODS—The Melbourne VIP was a population based study of non-institutionalised permanent residents in nine suburbs of the Melbourne metropolitan area aged 40 years of age and older. A standardised eye examination was provided to eligible residents which inclu...
Livingston, P.; Mccarty, C.; Taylor, H.
Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas...
Zhou, Shang-ming; Lyons, Ronan A.; Bodger, Owen G.; John, Ann; Brunt, Huw; Jones, Kerina; Gravenor, Mike B.; Brophy, Sinead
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight (LBW is a public health problem linked to lack of equity in populations. Despite efforts to decrease the proportion of newborns with LBW, success has been quite limited. In recent years, studies focused on explaining how social factors influence this problem have shown that populations with greater inequities have a greater proportion of newborns with LBW. Methods The objective was to describe socioeconomic factors related to LBW adjusted by demographic, reproductive and health services variables in Mexico City. A case-control study was carried out in three hospitals with gynaecological and obstetrics services in Mexico City during the first half of 1996. During the recruiting period all children with LBW (cases, defined as newborns weighing Results We found that low socioeconomic level was the most important risk factor for LBW and was independent of other factors, including those related to reproduction and nutrition, smoking, morbidity during pregnancy, accessibility to health services and prenatal care (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.19, 6.03. Conclusion We found that socioeconomic factors are relevant to LBW. However further research should be done in different population groups as well as developing precise ways of measuring socioeconomic factors and their role in reproductive health.
Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors play a complex role in determining the risk of campylobacteriosis. Understanding the spatial interplay between these factors and disease risk can guide disease control programs. Historically, Poisson and negative binomial models have been used to investigate determinants of geographic disparities in risk. Spatial regression models, which allow modeling of spatial effects, have been used to improve these modeling efforts. Geographicall...
Weisent Jennifer; Rohrbach Barton; Dunn John R; Odoi Agricola
Abstract Background Unnecessary ambulance use has become a socioeconomic problem in Japan. We investigated the possible relations between socioeconomic factors and medically unnecessary ambulance calls, and we estimated the incremental demand for unnecessary ambulance use produced by socioeconomic factors. Methods We conducted a self-administered questionnaire-based survey targeting residents of Yokohama, Japan. The questionnaire included questions pertaining to...
Kubota Katsuaki; Ohshige Kenji; Kawakami Chihiro; Tochikubo Osamu
Full Text Available Background: Child vaccinations are one of most cost effective health programs that have weakened a number of child morbidity and mortality rate all over the world. Pakistan is considered one of the major country of the world, where people especially children are bound by many harmful infectious diseases like polio, hepatitis, viral infections etc. The effectiveness of routine childhood immunization programs relies on multiple factors. Socio-economic determinants have the potential to affect immunization programs. The purpose of the present study was to determine the association between socio-economic factors and polio vaccination coverage among children inPakistan. Methods: The study used data from the Pakistandemographic health survey (PDHS 2006-07 N 10023. The study focused on respondents who had births in last five years. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the association between variables. Spss version 20 was used for data analysis. A number of socioeconomic variables were used in chi square & binary logistic regression model to check out their association with polio vaccination coverage. Results: Study shows that most dominant factors associated with polio vaccination coverage were region that is NWFP OR 3.48 (odd ratio with 95% confidence interval (C-I 2.06 & 3.13 & Punjab OR 2.54 (C-I 2.062 & 3.131, residence urban OR 1.626 (C-I 1.451 & 1.822, sex of child male OR 1.125 (C-I 1.008 & 1.256, age of mother 25 - 34 years OR 1.11 (C-I 0.978 & 1.276, wealth index rich OR 2.98 (C-I 2.55 & 3.48, age of child 4 - 5 years OR 1.17 (C-I 0.899 & 1.538, mother’s education higher OR 2.06 (C-I 1.776 & 2.411, father’s education higher OR 1.399 (C-I 1.221 & 1.203 ,father’s occupation professional OR 1.27 (C-I 0.929 & 1.737. Conclusion: In developing countries like Pakistan most of the children remain unvaccinated because of many socio-economic constraints. Poor marginalized people have a low awareness regarding the importance of polio vaccine. Along with social hierarchies, educational attainment of parents is a strong indicator of defining awareness level regarding vaccination.
Full Text Available Using register-based data on Finnish first marriages that were intact at the end of 1990 (about 2.1 million marriage-years and followed up for divorce in 1991-1993 (n = 21,204, this research explored the possibility that the effect of spouses' socioeconomic position on divorce risk varies according to duration of marriage. The comparatively high divorce risks for spouses with little formal education and for spouses in manual worker occupations were found to be specific to marriages of relatively short duration. In contrast, such factors as unemployment, wife's high income, and living in a rented dwelling were found to increase divorce risk at all marital durations.
Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas having widely different disparity patterns, in which each area is characterised by six deprivation domains (Income, Health, Geographical Access to Services, Housing, Physical Environment, and Community Safety). Traditional health statistical studies tend to use one global model to describe the whole population for macro-analysis. In this paper, we combine linked educational and deprivation data across small areas (median population of 1500), then use a local modelling technique, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, to predict area educational outcomes at ages 7 and 11. We define two new metrics, "Micro-impact of Domain" and "Contribution of Domain", to quantify the variations of local impacts of multidimensional factors on educational outcomes across small areas. The two metrics highlight differing priorities. Our study reveals complex multi-way interactions between the deprivation domains, which could not be provided by traditional health statistical methods based on single global model. We demonstrate that although Income has an expected central role, all domains contribute, and in some areas Health, Environment, Access to Services, Housing and Community Safety each could be the dominant factor. Thus the relative importance of health and socioeconomic factors varies considerably for different areas, depending on the levels of each of the other factors, and therefore each component of deprivation must be considered as part of a wider system. Childhood educational achievement could benefit from policies and intervention strategies that are tailored to the local geographic areas' profiles. PMID:25409038
Zhou, Shang-Ming; Lyons, Ronan A; Bodger, Owen G; John, Ann; Brunt, Huw; Jones, Kerina; Gravenor, Mike B; Brophy, Sinead
Factores de riesgo de fallecer en domicilio por neumonía, de niños chilenos de estratos socioeconómicos bajos, Santiago de Chile (1990-1994 Risk factors for home deaths due to pneumonia among low socioeconomic level Chilean children
Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is the main cause of late infant mortality in Chile. Over 60% of these deaths occur at home. The lack of hospital beds and the inadequate outpatient management are contributing factors. Aim: To assess risk factors for home deaths due to pneumonia in Chilean children. Patients and methods: The clinical and environmental histories of 53 (39 male children that died due to pneumonia in their homes were analyzed. The cause of death was confirmed by necropsy with histopathological studies in all cases. These cases were compared with 88 control children of similar age, gender, socioeconomic status and living in the same geographical area of Metropolitan Santiago. Results: Fifty four percent of deceased children were of less than 3 months of age and only 3 cases and their controls were above1 year old. Identified risk factors for death were malnutrition with an odds ratio of 30.6 (CI 3.9-64.8, p< 0.001, low birth weight with an odds ratio of 5 (CI 1.8-14.1, p< 0.001, previous admissions to hospitals with an odds ratio of 5.79 (CI 2-17.1, p< 0.001, congenital malformations (mainly cardiac with an odds ratio of 8.4 (CI 2-39.9, p= 0.001 and a history of bronchial obstruction with an odds ratio of 5.68 (p< 0.001. Identified maternal risk factors were smoking with an odds ratio of 4.13 (CI 1.6-10.7 p< 0.001 and being a teenager with an odds ratio of 4.3 (CI 1.7-11, p<0.001. Malnutrition, low birth weight, history of previous hospital admissions and having a teenager or smoker mother were considered as independent risk factors using a stepwise analysis. Conclusions: Chilean low income children have identifiable risk factors for death at their homes due to pneumonia, that can be preventively managed. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 627-32
Leonardo Véjar E
Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…
Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A presbiacusia é consequência de lesões histopatológicas da orelha interna e nervo coclear e leva à deficiência auditiva sensório-neural. Fatores de risco como doenças sistêmicas e hábitos inadequados são agravantes para presbiacusia. A identificação destes fatores é relevante para sua prevenção. OB [...] JETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência da presbiacusia e correlacionar eventuais fatores de risco numa amostra populacional. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de série de casos com amostragem aleatória de 625 prontuários de indivíduos sem e com presbiacusia determinada por avaliação audiológica convencional. Foi feita a análise da associação da presbiacusia com fatores de risco pré-estabelecidos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência da presbiacusia foi de 36,1% na amostra, com idade média de 50,5 anos e variou de 40 anos a 86 anos e foi constituída de 85,5% do gênero masculino e 14,5% do gênero feminino. Os fatores de risco associados foram idade, gênero masculino, diabetes melito e história familiar de presbiacusia. Não houve associação entre presbiacusia e profissão, hipertensão arterial sistêmica, dislipidemia, hábitos de fumar e de beber. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstram que, embora a presbiacusia apresente múltiplos fatores de risco enumerados na literatura, estes fatores na presente amostra foram limitados ao antecedente familiar de presbiacusia, idade, gênero masculino e diabetes melito. Abstract in english Presbycusis, or the aging ear, involves mainly the inner ear and the cochlear nerve, causing sensorineural hearing loss. Risk factors include systemic diseases and poor habits that cause inner ear damage and lead to presbycusis. Correct identification of these risk factors is relevant for prevention [...] . AIM: To evaluate the prevalence and to identify the risk factors of presbycusis in a sample aged over 40 years. Study design: a retrospective case series. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: medical records of 625 patients were evaluated. Presbycusis was identified using pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and impedance testing of all patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of presbycusis was 36.1%; the mean age was 50.5 years ranging from 40 to 86 years; 85.5% were male and 14.5% werf female. Age, the male gender, diabetes mellitus, and hereditary hearing loss were identified as risk factors. Cardiovascular diseases, smoking and consumption of alcohol were not confirmed as risk factors, although these have often been mentioned as risk factors for presbycusis. CONCLUSION: Notwithstanding the idea that presbycusis has multiple risk factors, this study identified few risk factors for this disease.
Cláudia Simônica de, Sousa; Ney de, Castro Júnior; Erkki Juhani, Larsson; Ting Hui, Ching.
While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an intera...
Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.
Abstract Background Monitoring inequalities in non communicable disease risk factor prevalence can help to inform and target effective interventions. The prevalence of current daily smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and heavy episodic alcohol drinking were quantified and compared across wealth and education levels in low- and middle-income country groups. Methods This study included self-reported data from 232,056 adult participa...
Hosseinpoor Ahmad; Bergen Nicole; Kunst Anton; Harper Sam; Guthold Regina; Rekve Dag; Espaignet Edouard, D.; Naidoo Nirmala; Chatterji Somnath
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unnecessary ambulance use has become a socioeconomic problem in Japan. We investigated the possible relations between socioeconomic factors and medically unnecessary ambulance calls, and we estimated the incremental demand for unnecessary ambulance use produced by socioeconomic factors. Methods We conducted a self-administered questionnaire-based survey targeting residents of Yokohama, Japan. The questionnaire included questions pertaining to socioeconomic characteristics, dichotomous choice method questions pertaining to ambulance calls in hypothetical nonemergency situations, and questions on the city's emergency medical system. The probit model was used to analyze the data. Results A total of 2,029 out of 3,363 targeted recipients completed the questionnaire (response rate, 60.3%. Probit regression analyses showed that several demographic and socioeconomic factors influence the decision to call an ambulance. Male respondents were more apt than female respondents to state that they would call an ambulance in nonemergency situations (p Conclusion Results of the study suggest that several socioeconomic factors, i.e., age, gender, household income, and possession of a car, influence a person's decision to call an ambulance in nonemergency situations. Hesitation to use an ambulance and knowledge of the city's primary emergency medical center are likely to be important factors limiting ambulance overuse. It was estimated that unnecessary ambulance use is increased approximately 10% to 20% by socioeconomic factors.
The topic of suicide has long been an important socioeconomic issue studied in many countries. Suicides inject an atmosphere of unrest into society, and media attention furthers that social uneasiness. From the viewpoint of economics and management, suicide is a waste of human resource: it decreases the labor force in society and deteriorates…
Ying, Yung-hsiang; Chang, Koyin
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar, utilizando modelagem estatística, os fatores de risco da anemia em crianças de 6 a 59 meses de idade no estado de Pernambuco, contemplando aspectos socioeconômicos e da dieta. MÉTODOS: A amostra constou de 746 crianças de 6 a 59 meses do estado de Pernambuco, nas quais foram realizados dosagem de hemoglobina e inquérito dietético recordatório de 24 horas. Foi analisado o risco de anemia em relação às variáveis socioeconômicas e de consumo alimentar, utilizando modelos de análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: Os fatores de risco para a anemia foram: alta proporção de calorias do leite de vaca, baixa densidade de ferro não-heme, baixa idade e baixa escolaridade materna, destacando-se que as crianças com menos de 24 meses apresentaram risco 3,61 vezes maior de serem anêmicas em relação às demais. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo reforça a importância de se conhecer o consumo alimentar das crianças no país para melhor estabelecer a sua associação com a ocorrência da anemia. Os resultados revelaram que os fatores que mais explicaram o risco de anemia foram, com relação à dieta, a maior proporção de calorias do leite de vaca e menor densidade de ferro não-heme, além de idade menor de 24 meses e baixa escolaridade materna.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to use statistical modeling to identify risk factors for anemia in children aged 6 to 59 months in the state of Pernambuco, covering socioeconomic and dietary aspects. METHODS: The sample comprised 746 children aged between 6 and 59 months from the state of Pernambuco. Their hemoglobin was assayed and a 24-hour dietary recall performed. Risk of anemia was analyzed with relation to socioeconomic variables and to dietary intakes, using multivariate analysis models. RESULTS: The risk factors for anemia were: a high proportion of calories from cow's milk, low density of nonheme iron, low age and low maternal educational level; age was the most prominent factor, with children under 24 months exhibiting 3.61 times greater risk of being anemic than the older children. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the need for a clear picture of the dietary intake of children in Brazil, in order that associations with anemia can be better understood. Our results revealed that the dietary factors which were most responsible for risk of anemia were a greater proportion of calories from cow's milk and lower density of nonheme iron, in addition to age below 24 months and low maternal educational level.
Maria A. A. Oliveira
Child health is fundamental to well-being and achievement throughout the life course. Prior research has demonstrated strong associations between familial socioeconomic resources and children’s health outcomes, with especially poor health outcomes among disadvantaged youth who experience a concentration of risks, yet little is known about the influence of maternal health as a dimension of risk for children. This research used nationally representative U.S. data from the National Health Inte...
Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Landale, Nancy S.
Pelvic pain is a primary symptom of women referred for hysterectomy. This study identified risk factors for purchase of prescribed analgesics before and after hysterectomy and examined purchase changes after hysterectomy, specifically focusing on socioeconomic effects.
Daugbjerg, Signe Bennedbæk; Brandsborg, Birgitte
The environmental risk factors related to the breast tumors (lumps) are essential in order to build strategies to decrease cancer incidence and mortality among different socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. A case control study of 70 cases and 52 controls were classified into high, middle and low socioeconomic classes. The results revealed significant increased risk of breast tumors among working females, having positive family history, married with lower mean parity, with higher consumption of fatty meals, lesser meat intake. Non significant risk factors were the social class, exposure to ionizing radiation, non lactating. wearing tight bra, consumption of vegetables and fruits, oral contraceptive pill users and exposure to outdoor air pollution or indoor pollution as floors and wall paintings. In conclusion, this study highlights the positive life style for egyptian women so they can prevent some of the environmental risks of breast tumors. Increasing the awareness of breast diseases and regular examination remains the corner stone for early detection management of breast lumps.
Associations between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population in China / Association entre le niveau socio-économique et les facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaire dans une population urbaine de Chine / Relación entre la situación socioeconómica y los factores de riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en una población urbana de China
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se ha demostrado que la situación socioeconómica (SSE) es un factor importante en la progresión de las enfermedades cardiovasculares en los países desarrollados. En cambio, hay pocos datos sobre la relación entre la SSE y los factores de riesgo de contraer dichas enfermedades en los países en desarr [...] ollo. China es el país en desarrollo más grande del mundo, pero los informes precedentes de ese país en que se cuantifican los efectos de diferentes dimensiones de la SSE en los factores de riesgo cardiovascular son escasos. Por esta razón, realizamos una evaluación transversal para investigar la relación entre el grado de instrucción, la ocupación, los ingresos y el estado civil, por un lado, y tres factores de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular - tensión arterial, índice de masa corporal y hábito de fumar - entre la población urbana de Tianjin, la tercera ciudad más populosa de China. En 1996 se realizó una encuesta de población transversal en Tianjin. La muestra para ese estudio se obtuvo por un procedimiento en dos etapas. Primero se tomaron al azar en la zona urbana 14 comunidades con un total de 400 000 habitantes. En la segunda etapa se tomaron al azar de los registros de población, en las comunidades muestreadas, 4000 personas de edad comprendida entre 15 y 69 años. La muestra se estratificó por sexos y grupos de edad (el grupo de más edad, 55-69 años). El presente estudio se ha limitado a las personas entrevistadas de edad comprendida entre 25 y 69 años (1615 varones y 1592 mujeres). Se determinaron en la encuesta cuatro indicadores socioeconómicos (grado de instrucción, ocupación, ingresos y estado civil), así como la tensión arterial, el índice de masa corporal y el hábito de fumar de los participantes. El grado de instrucción parece ser el más importante de los cuatro indicadores socioeconómicos en relación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la población estudiada. En general, las personas con SSE más baja tenían niveles más altos de factores de riesgo cardiovascular, y la relación entre la SSE y los factores de riesgo cardiovascular fue más sistemática en las mujeres que en los varones. Asimismo, las diferencias fueron más amplias en las mujeres que en los varones. Nuestros hallazgos no parecen diferir de los observados en los países desarrollados. Abstract in english INTRODUCTIONS: In developed countries socioeconomic status has been proven to be an important factor in the progression of cardiovascular disease. The present article reports the results of a cross-sectional assessment to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular ri [...] sk factors in a Chinese urban population. METHODS: In 1996, a behavioural risk factor survey was carried out in Tianjin, the third largest city in China. A sample of 4000 people aged 15-69 years, stratified by sex and 10-year age groups, was drawn randomly from urban areas of the city. The present study covers respondents aged 25-69 years (1615 men and 1592 women). Four socioeconomic indicators (education, occupation, income, and marital status), blood pressure, body mass index, and cigarette smoking were determined in the survey. RESULTS: Educational level seemed to be the most important measure of the four socioeconomic indicators in relation to the cardiovascular risk factors in the study population. People with lower socioeconomic status had higher levels of cardiovascular risk factors. The association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors was more consistent among women than men. DISCUSSION: Our findings do not seem to differ from those observed in developed countries.
Zhijie, Yu; Aulikki, Nissinen; Erkki, Vartiainen; Guide, Song; Zeyu, Guo; Gengwen, Zheng; Jaakko, Tuomilehto; Huiguang, Tian.
Full Text Available Background and Design: There have been reports suggesting the involvement of environmental factors in the disease process of pemphigus. In this study, we aimed to find out the risk factors which could play role in the etiopathogenesis in our pemphigus patients.Material and method: A total of 42 patients (15 male and 27 female who were diagnosed as pemphigus with histopathological and direct immunoflurosence examinations in our clinic between the years 1998-2004, were interviewed for assessment of regarding with the subjects of the demographic properties, occupational groups, educational level, the number of pregnancies, stressfull life events, diet habits, smoking and alcohol consumption before the onset of the disease and the results were compared to 42 age and gender-matched controls with similar socioeconomic circumstances. Results: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were found to be statistically significant in pemphigus patients than in controls. Conclusion: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were assumed to play role in the etiopathogenesis and course of pemphigus.
Gül?en Tükenmez Demirc
Abstract Background Low birth weight (LBW) is a public health problem linked to lack of equity in populations. Despite efforts to decrease the proportion of newborns with LBW, success has been quite limited. In recent years, studies focused on explaining how social factors influence this problem have shown that populations with greater inequities have a greater proportion of newborns with LBW. Methods The objective was to describe socioeconomic factors related t...
Villa-Barragán Juan; Flores-Hernández Sergio; Constantino-Casas Patricia; Torres-Arreola Laura P; Rendón-Macías Enrique
This chapter describes and discusses the socioeconomic factors pressing for consideration in selective college admission policies and processes. It also presents an institutional example of using socioeconomic factors in a selective college admission process. (Contains 1 table.)
Family history and socioeconomic risk factors for non-syndromic cleft lip and palate: A matched case-control study in a less developed country Factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos para labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en México: estudio de casos y controles pareado
Full Text Available
Introduction. From an epidemiological point of view, non-syndromic orofacial clefts are the most common oral congenital deformities worldwide.
Objective. Family histories were traced and socioeconomic risk factors were identified for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.
Material and methods. A case-control study was carried out with 208 cases of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and matched by age and sex with 416 controls. Cases were patients attending a referral clinic from 2002 through 2004 in Campeche, Mexico. A questionnaire was administered to collect sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables as well as familial background relevant to non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Conditional logistic regression models were used; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Results. In the multivariate model, the following risk factors were identified: 1 low socioeconomic status; 2 birth in the southern region of Campeche state; 3 home delivery or delivery in a publicly funded hospital; 4 occurrence of prior non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate cases in the father's or mother's family: 5 having a sibling with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate; 6 the proband having another malformation, and 7 a history of infections during pregnancy. Prenatal care consisting of vitamin supplementation was a protective factor for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (odds ratio=0.29.
Conclusions. A "social gradient in health" was seen to link oral malformation with diet components, and several socioeconomic and socio-demographic factors broadly encompassed in low socioeconomic status. Further characterization of risk factors will guide the assemblage of a pro-active counseling and prevention program for families at risk for non-syndromic cleft lip and cleft palate.
Introducción. Desde el punto de vista epidemiológico, las hendiduras faciales son las deformidades orales más comunes alrededor del mundo.
Objetivo. Identificar los factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos relacionados con la presencia de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome.
Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de casos y controles en el que se incluyeron 208 casos con diagnóstico de labio, paladar hendido o ambos no asociados a un síndrome, los cuales fueron pareados por edad y sexo con 416 controles. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes quirúrgicos atendidos durante el periodo 2002-2004 en el programa estatal de labio o paladar hendido de Campeche, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario en el que se recogió información sobre variables sociodemográficas y socioeconómicas, así como sobre antecedentes hereditarios de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en la familia. Debido a que el diseño fue pareado, el análisis se hizo con regresión logística condicionada.
Resultados. En el modelo multivariado para labio o paladar hendido no asociado a un síndrome se identificaron de forma significativa (p<0,05 los siguientes factores de riesgo: nivel socioeconómico bajo (razón de momios, RM=2,02, nacimiento en el sur del estado (RM=3,96, nacimiento en casa (RM=2,51 o nacimiento en hospital público (RM=4,08, antecedentes heredofamiliares paternos (RM=5,38, antecedentes heredofamiliares maternos (RM=4,11, tener otro hijo con labio o paladar hendido en la familia (RM=46,02, presentar algún otro defecto congénito asociado (RM=8,20 e infección en el embarazo (RM=2,90, y como factor protector, el cuidado prenatal y el uso de vitaminas (RM=0,29.
Conclusiones. El mayor riesgo en nuestra muestra para labio, paladar hendido o ambos, no asociados a un síndrome, radica en las variables relaci
Juan J. Villalobos-Rodelo
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors play a complex role in determining the risk of campylobacteriosis. Understanding the spatial interplay between these factors and disease risk can guide disease control programs. Historically, Poisson and negative binomial models have been used to investigate determinants of geographic disparities in risk. Spatial regression models, which allow modeling of spatial effects, have been used to improve these modeling efforts. Geographically weighted regression (GWR takes this a step further by estimating local regression coefficients, thereby allowing estimations of associations that vary in space. These recent approaches increase our understanding of how geography influences the associations between determinants and disease. Therefore the objectives of this study were to: (i identify socioeconomic determinants of the geographic disparities of campylobacteriosis risk (ii investigate if regression coefficients for the associations between socioeconomic factors and campylobacteriosis risk demonstrate spatial variability and (iii compare the performance of four modeling approaches: negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR. Methods Negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR modeling techniques were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic factors and geographic disparities in campylobacteriosis risk. The best fitting models were identified and compared. Results Two competing four variable models (Models 1 & 2 were identified. Significant variables included race, unemployment rate, education attainment, urbanicity, and divorce rate. Local Poisson GWR had the best fit and showed evidence of spatially varying regression coefficients. Conclusions The international significance of this work is that it highlights the inadequacy of global regression strategies that estimate one parameter per independent variable, and therefore mask the true relationships between dependent and independent variables. Since local GWR estimate a regression coefficient for each location, it reveals the geographic differences in the associations. This implies that a factor may be an important determinant in some locations and not others. Incorporating this into health planning ensures that a needs-based, rather than a “one-size-fits-all”, approach is used. Thus, adding local GWR to the epidemiologists’ toolbox would allow them to assess how the impacts of different determinants vary by geography. This knowledge is critical for resource allocation in disease control programs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The socioeconomic and sociodemographic situation are important components for the design and assessment of malaria control measures. In malaria endemic areas, however, valid classification of socioeconomic factors is difficult due to the lack of standardized tax and income data. The objective of this study was to quantify household socioeconomic levels using principal component analyses (PCA to a set of indicator variables and to use a classification scheme for the multivariate analysis of children Methods In total, 1,496 children presenting to the hospital were examined for malaria parasites and interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. The information of eleven indicators of the family's housing situation was reduced by PCA to a socioeconomic score, which was then classified into three socioeconomic status (poor, average and rich. Their influence on the malaria occurrence was analysed together with malaria risk co-factors, such as sex, parent's educational and ethnic background, number of children living in a household, applied malaria protection measures, place of residence and age of the child and the mother. Results The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the proportion of children with malaria decreased with increasing socioeconomic status as classified by PCA (p Conclusions The socioeconomic situation is significantly associated with malaria even in holoendemic rural areas where economic differences are not much pronounced. Valid classification of the socioeconomic level is crucial to be considered as confounder in intervention trials and in the planning of malaria control measures.
Full Text Available To achieve maximum returns consistent with an investor’s appetite for risk, the correct identification and estimation of all relevant risk factors in a portfolio are necessary. In this paper, we identify the role of foreign currency as an important risk factor from an international investor’s point of view.
J. H. Witte
Family history and socioeconomic risk factors for non-syndromic cleft lip and palate: A matched case-control study in a less developed country / Factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos para labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en México: estudio de casos y controles pareado
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción. Desde el punto de vista epidemiológico, las hendiduras faciales son las deformidades orales más comunes alrededor del mundo. Objetivo. Identificar los factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos relacionados con la presencia de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome. [...] Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de casos y controles en el que se incluyeron 208 casos con diagnóstico de labio, paladar hendido o ambos no asociados a un síndrome, los cuales fueron pareados por edad y sexo con 416 controles. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes quirúrgicos atendidos durante el periodo 2002-2004 en el programa estatal de labio o paladar hendido de Campeche, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario en el que se recogió información sobre variables sociodemográficas y socioeconómicas, así como sobre antecedentes hereditarios de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en la familia. Debido a que el diseño fue pareado, el análisis se hizo con regresión logística condicionada. Resultados. En el modelo multivariado para labio o paladar hendido no asociado a un síndrome se identificaron de forma significativa (p Abstract in english Introduction. From an epidemiological point of view, non-syndromic orofacial clefts are the most common oral congenital deformities worldwide. Objective. Family histories were traced and socioeconomic risk factors were identified for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Material and [...] methods. A case-control study was carried out with 208 cases of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and matched by age and sex with 416 controls. Cases were patients attending a referral clinic from 2002 through 2004 in Campeche, Mexico. A questionnaire was administered to collect sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables as well as familial background relevant to non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Conditional logistic regression models were used; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results. In the multivariate model, the following risk factors were identified: 1) low socioeconomic status; 2) birth in the southern region of Campeche state; 3) home delivery or delivery in a publicly funded hospital; 4) occurrence of prior non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate cases in the father´s or mother´s family: 5) having a sibling with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate; 6) the proband having another malformation, and 7) a history of infections during pregnancy. Prenatal care consisting of vitamin supplementation was a protective factor for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (odds ratio=0.29). Conclusions. A “social gradient in health” was seen to link oral malformation with diet components, and several socioeconomic and socio-demographic factors broadly encompassed in low socioeconomic status. Further characterization of risk factors will guide the assemblage of a pro-active counseling and prevention program for families at risk for non-syndromic cleft lip and cleft palate.
Gladys, Acuña-González; Carlo E, Medina-Solís; Gerardo, Maupomé; Mauricio, Escoffie-Ramírez; Jesús, Hernández-Romano; María de L, Márquez-Corona; Arturo J, Islas-Márquez; Juan J, Villalobos-Rodelo.
Full Text Available Abstract Title An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation models. Background Socioeconomic indicators have been inversely associated with overweight and obesity, with stronger associations observed among women. The objective of the present secondary analysis was to examine the relationships among socioeconomic measures and adiposity for men and women participating in the Ontario Food Survey (OFS, and to explore lifestyle factors as potential mediators of these associations. Methods The cross-sectional 1997/98 OFS collected anthropometric measurements, a food frequency questionnaire, data on socio-demographics (age, sex, income, and education and physical activity from 620 women and 467 men, ages 18 to 75. Based on the 2003 Health Canada guidelines, waist circumference and BMI values were used to derive least risk, increased risk, and high risk adiposity groups. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine increased risk and high risk adiposity in relation to education and income, with leisure time physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and smoking status included as potential mediators of these associations. Results The probability of high risk adiposity was directly associated with education (?-0.19, p Conclusion The socioeconomic context of adiposity continues to differ greatly between men and women. For women only in the OFS, fruit and vegetable intake contributed to the inverse association between education and high risk adiposity; however, additional explanatory factors are yet to be determined.
... Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Heart Disease Risk Factors Share Compartir Some conditions as well ... put people at a higher risk for developing heart disease. All persons can take steps to lower their ...
SUMMARY There is little knowledge about the association between lifestyle factors and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this thesis was to investigate the relation between coffee consumption, emotional states, cigarette smoking and socioeconomic status and future risk of incident VTE in a prospective, population-based cohort study. Our study population consisted of more than 27 000 men and women, who participated in the fourth Tromsø study (1994-95). All adult inhabitants of ...
Enga, Kristin Fjeldstad
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.
Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.
Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between socio-economic factors and obesity within a population from Iran. Male and female subjects (n=4977 aged 15-65 years, were recruited from the Great Khorasan province of Iran using a cluster-stratified sampling method. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected by questionnaire. Of the study population, 29.1% were overweight and 13.8% were obese. Being overweight and obese was significantly more prevalent among women than men and urban- compared to rural-dwellers. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was seen among individuals who were divorced or widowed and among housewives, or individuals with poor education. Urbanization, age, illiteracy, female gender and divorced, or widowed status were significant predictors of obesity (p<0.001. The association of obesity with urban-dwelling which is consistent with previous reports was also found to be the most important determinant of obesity. The prevalence of obesity in urban residents of Iran is high, particularly among poorly educated women. A community-based approach using multiple strategies including appropriate education will be required to address this problem.
The relationship between socioeconomic factors and mortality for lung cancer is investigated. A space-time hierarchical Bayesian model with time dependent covariates, to define the proper lag time on which lung cancer mortality is affected by socioeconomic factors, is adopted. An example on males lung cancer in Tuscany (Italy) during the period 1971-99 is provided. Results confirm the presence of an association between mortality for lung cancer and socioeconomic factors with a temporal lag of...
A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG)
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Low birth weight (LBW is a result of preterm birth or intrauterine growth retardation, and in both cases is the strongest single factor associated with perinatal and neonatal mortality. It is considered that socioeconomic factors, as well as mothers bad habits, play the most significant role in the development of LBW, which explains notable number of researches focused on this particular problem. The aim of this study was to characterize socioeconomic factors, as well as smoking habits of the mothers, and their connection with LBW. Methods. The questionnaire was carried out among mothers of 2 years old children (n = 956, born after 37 gestational weeks. The characteristics of mothers who had children with LBW, defined as < 2 500 g, (n = 50, were matched with the characteristics of mothers who had children ? 2 500 g, (n = 906. For defining risk factors, and protective factors as well, we used univariant and multivariant logistic modeles. Results. As significant risk factors for LBW in an univariant model we had education level of the mothers, smoking during pregnancy, smoking before pregnancy, the number of daily cigarettes, the number of cigarettes used during pregnancy, paternal earnings and socioeconomic factors. In a multivariant model the most significant factors were socioeconomic factors, education level of the mothers, paternal earnings and mothers smoking during pregnancy. Conclusion. Smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors have great influence on LBW. Future studies should be carried out in different social groups, with the intention to define their influence on LBW and reproduction, as well. This should be the proper way of adequate health breeding planning for giving up smoking, the prevention of bad habits and melioration of mothers and children health, as the most vulnerable population.
Objectives: To predict the relative risk and time trend in hospitalisation due to coxarthrosis (CA) among groups of different socioeconomic status and occupations in order to test existing aetiological hypotheses.
Tuchsen, F.; Hannerz, H.; Jensen, M.; Krause, N.
Can socioeconomic factors seemingly explain variation in suicide rates at large-unit aggregate levels only due to an ecological fallacy? This is what Kunce and Anderson (2002) suggest based on fixed-effects estimation of US state suicide rates, in which they find little evidence that socioeconomic factors matter. We demonstrate that this result does not hold true for other large-unit aggregate levels in our analysis of suicide at the cross-national level. We find that many socioeconomic facto...
Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in health are a global problem, not only among the adult population but also among children. However, studies concerning young children especially are rare. The aim of this study was to describe the health of Finnish children under 12 years of age, and the socioeconomic factors associated with health. The socioeconomic factors were parental education level, household net income, and working status. Methods A populat...
Savolainen Piia H; Ahonen Riitta S; Siponen Sanna M; Hämeen-Anttila Katri P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk factors are often considered individually, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of combinations of multiple behavioural risk factors and their association with socioeconomic determinants. Methods Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the associations between socioeconomic factors and multiple risk factors from data in the Scottish Health Survey 2003. Prevalence of five key risk - smoking, alcohol, diet, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity, and their risk in relation to demographic, individual and area socioeconomic factors were assessed. Results Full data were available on 6,574 subjects (80.7% of the survey sample. Nearly the whole adult population (97.5% reported to have at least one behavioural risk factor; while 55% have three or more risk factors; and nearly 20% have four or all five risk factors. The most important determinants for having four or five multiple risk factors were low educational attainment which conferred over a 3-fold increased risk compared to high education; and residence in the most deprived communities (relative to least deprived which had greater than 3-fold increased risk. Conclusions The prevalence of multiple behavioural risk factors was high and the prevalence of absence of all risk factors very low. These behavioural patterns were strongly associated with poorer socioeconomic circumstances. Policy to address factors needs to be joined up and better consider underlying socioeconomic circumstances.
Brewster David H
Full Text Available Abstract Background A relatively consistent body of research supports an inverse graded relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and cardiovascular disease (CVD. More recently, researchers have proposed various life course SES hypotheses, which posit that the combination, accumulation, and/or interactions of different environments and experiences throughout life can affect adult risk of CVD. Different life course designs have been utilized to examine the impact of SES throughout the life course. This systematic review describes the four most common life course hypotheses, categorizes the studies that have examined the associations between life course SES and CVD according to their life course design, discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the different designs, and summarizes the studies' findings. Methods This research reviewed 49 observational studies in the biomedical literature that included socioeconomic measures at a time other than adulthood as independent variables, and assessed subclinical CHD, incident CVD morbidity and/or mortality, and/or the prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors as their outcomes. Studies were categorized into four groups based upon life course design and analytic approach. The study authors' conclusions and statistical tests were considered in summarizing study results. Results Study results suggest that low SES throughout the life course modestly impacts CVD risk factors and CVD risk. Specifically, studies reviewed provided moderate support for the role of low early-life SES and elevated levels of CVD risk factors and CVD morbidity and mortality, little support for a unique influence of social mobility on CVD, and consistent support for the detrimental impact of the accumulation of negative SES experiences/conditions across the life course on CVD risk. Conclusions While the basic life course SES study designs have various methodologic and conceptual limitations, they provide an important approach from which to examine the influence of social factors on CVD development. Some limitations may be addressed through the analysis of study cohorts followed from childhood, the evaluation of CVD risk factors in early and middle adulthood, and the use of multiple SES measures and multiple life course analysis approaches in each life course study.
Kaufman Jay S
Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United Kingdom has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy in Europe and in contrast to the decline in the rate of teenage pregnancy, recorded in the remaining countries of Western Europe, this figure has remained relatively stable, especially in adolescents aged 16 years and below. In Greece, according to National Statistics Office, in 2007, we had 3.129 births by teenagers under 18, with 75 births by teenagers under 15. The main factors contributing to the incidence of teenage pregnancy are socioeconomic factors, the family, the education and the sexual behavior of teenagers. Conclusions.It is necessary the state, through the health services and the education programs, to provide modern sex education in schools, as well as programs of prevention and health education in primary health care. The cooperation of these authorities is essential, to better address the extent and consequences of teenage pregnancy.
Abstract Background Low participation at recruitment to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) has raised concern about non-participation bias. Objective To study the socioeconomic pattern of participation to the DNBC. Methods Independently of the DNBC, we identified the DNBC source population in two geographical areas of Denmark by means of local birth registers with full coverage. Socioeconomic information came from national registers, and the source population consisted of 48,5...
Jacobsen, Tine Neermann; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Frydenberg, Morten
This study investigated socioeconomic and cultural factors that interplay with racial differences in adult literacy. African-American adults were shown to have statistically significantly higher book and periodical reading practices than European-Americans when income was controlled, demonstrating the important relationship between socioeconomic…
Holt, Janet K.; Smith, M. Cecil
OBJECTIVE:: Pelvic pain is a primary symptom of women referred for hysterectomy. This study identified risk factors for purchase of prescribed analgesics before and after hysterectomy and examined purchase changes after hysterectomy, specifically focusing on socioeconomic effects. METHODS:: Nearly all Danish women (n=13,420) with a hysterectomy on benign indication between 2004 and 2006 were included in a registry-based follow-up study. Information on prescription analgesic purchase was from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Factors associated with a purchase and associations between socioeconomic factors and changes in analgesic purchase were assessed. RESULTS:: Analgesic purchase after hysterectomy was independently predicted by age below 35 or above 65 years, body mass index >29.9, high American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, uterus weight
Daugbjerg, Signe B; Brandsborg, Birgitte
?Background Pneumonia and influenza (P&I) infections have been increasing substantially over the past decade and have been attributed to high morbidity and mortality rates. P&I are particularly prevalent amongst the young and elderly populations, but there may be additional vulnerable groups due to socioeconomic disparities that are also at high risk. Health inequalities can oftentimes be linked to socioeconomic inequities. Identifying these groups is essential for lowering P&I mortalit...
Ng, Christi Fontain Ashley
The present study was designed as a hospital-based, group-matched, case-control investigation into the risk factors associated with age-related cataract in central India. The study included 262 cases of age-related cataract and an equal number of controls. A total of 21 risk factors were evaluated: namely, low socioeconomic status (SES), illiteracy, marital status, history of diarrhoea, history of diabetes, glaucoma, use of cholinesterase inhibitors, steroids, spironolactone, nifedipine, anal...
Ughade Suresh; Zodpey Sanjay; Khanolkar Vandana
Full Text Available Imane Cherkaoui Dekkaki,1 Said Ettair,1 Toufik Meskini,1 Nabil Khalloufi,2 Nezha Mouane,1 Amina Barkat21Unité de Pédagogie et de Recherche en Nutrition, 2CRECET, Université Mohammed V, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Rabat, Souissi, Rabat, MoroccoObjectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and the socioeconomic risk factors among children enrolled in primary public schools in Rabat, Morocco.Methods: Twenty-three schools were randomly selected. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2010. The survey was conducted on the basis of two questionnaires for both parents and children. The references used were from the World Health Organization, 2007.Results: Our study focused on a sample of 1569 children whose average age was 9.7 ± 0.95 years. The prevalence of underweight among girls and boys was 43.1%, while that of stunting was 18.2%. The majority of the children in our population come from a low socioeconomic level. While 59% of fathers are laborers, 85% of mothers are unemployed.Conclusion: In our study, we demonstrated that child malnutrition is strongly linked to a low socioeconomic level. These observations suggest that besides income, schooling and food quality may also be important factors that can affect growth. Educational programs, whether held in schools or informally, such as literacy or parenting classes, are valuable complements to other nutrition sustaining activities.Keywords: underweight, stunting, malnutrition, children, low socioeconomic level
Cherkaoui Dekkaki I
Results of previous research suggest that parents of children with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of psychological distress and psychiatric disorder. Secondary analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study in the United Kingdom indicated that controlling for between-group differences in socioeconomic circumstances reduced the…
Emerson, Eric; McCulloch, Andrew; Graham, Hilary; Blacher, Jan; Llwellyn, Gwynnyth M.; Hatton, Chris
Full Text Available Objective: Substance abuse amongst youth has been growing in developed and developing nations, including Turkey. This growth is related to a number of factors, not the least of which are forces associated with development, globalization, and youth culture. The identification of risk factors for youth substance abuse for particular populations is an important approach to the development of prevention and intervention strategies. Methods: We analyzed the data from a survey of 31,272 youth ages 14 to 18 years enrolled in high schools in Istanbul that covered the use of various substances as well as a number of demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, psychopathological, and psychosocial risk factors. Our data consisted of answers to similar questions that were asked in European School Survey Project (ESPAD, Youth in Europe (YIE, and Monitoring of the Future Survey and the National Household Survey in USA. We used binary logistic regression analyses to generate risk profiles for each of the following categories of lifetime use: tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, other illicit drugs, and multiple (two or more other illicit drugs. Results: We identified statistically significant risk profiles for these different substance categories. All the different risk factor categories contributed variably to the use of gateway drugs (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicits, but the multiple use of other illicit drugs was associated primarily with a narrower set of psychopathological (suicidality, irritability, and antisocial problems and psychosocial variables (family substance abuse and peer in?uence. Conclusions: These risk profiles share some commonality with those found amongst other populations. However, these unique risk profiles for Turkish youth can be useful in developing primary and secondary preventive interventions to address the growing substance use and abuse problems. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, focusing on time trends and risk factors of substance use in youth of emerging countries including Turkey, are needed.
andres j. pumariega
Objective: To investigate the extent to which shared genetic factors can explain the clustering of depression among individuals with lower socioeconomic status, and to examine if neuroticism or intelligence are involved in these pathways. Methods: In total 2,383 participants (1,028 men and 1,355 women) of the Erasmus Rucphen Family Study were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADSD). Socioeconomic status ...
Lo?pez Leo?n, S.; Choy, W. C.; Aulchenko, Y. S.; Claes, S.; Oostra, B. A.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Duijn, C. M.; Janssens, A. C. J. W.
The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI) in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip co...
Chaiana Piovesan; Renata Saraiva Guedes; Luciano Casagrande; Thiago Machado Ardenghi
Abstract Background Young maternal age has long been associated with higher infant mortality rates, but the role of socioeconomic factors in this association has been controversial. We sought to investigate the relationships between infant mortality (distinguishing neonatal from post-neonatal deaths), socioeconomic status and maternal age in a large, retrospective cohort study. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked birth-death certifi...
Flick Louise H; Cook Rebeka; Markovitz Barry P; Leet Terry L
Abstract Background Our study aims to follow this effort and to explore the association between health, socioeconomic background, school-related factors, social support and adolescents' sense of coherence and educational aspirations among adolescents from different educational tracks and to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the role of educational aspirations in the social reproduction of health inequalities. We expect that socioeconomic background will contribu...
Abel Thomas; van Dijk Jitse P; Tavel Peter; Madarasova Geckova Andrea; Reijneveld Sijmen A
The aim of the present study was to assess the human health risks (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic) of PCDD/F exposure for the adult population living in two different areas (industrial and residential) of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain), as well as to compare these risks according to the socioeconomic status of the population. Two pathways were considered for PCDD/F exposure: direct (air inhalation, dermal contact and ingestion from soils and dust) and dietary. Although environmental exposure was higher for the population living in the neighborhood of the industrial area (mainly lower socioeconomic group subjects), it only accounted 1.05%. On the other hand, PCDD/F exposure through dietary intake was more important for those individuals of an upper socioeconomic level. This was due to the fact that their diet is richer in those foodstuffs containing higher PCDD/F concentrations. Consequently, taking together direct and dietary exposure to PCDD/Fs, the result is that upper socioeconomic group populations are more exposed to these toxic pollutants. In any case, the current levels of PCDD/F exposure would not mean significant carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for the population living in the industrial and residential areas of Tarragona. PMID:15536508
Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L
Abstract Title An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation models. Background Socioeconomic indicators have been inversely associated with overweight and obesity, with stronger associations observed among women. The objective of the present secondary analysis was to examine the relationships among socioeconomic measures and adiposity for men and women participating in the Ont...
Mendelson Rena; Tarasuk Valerie; Ward Heather; McKeown-Eyssen Gail
Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.
Arma?, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; St?nciugelu, I.
In this report, we quantitatively analyzed the essential ecological factors that were strongly correlated with the global outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. The ecological niche modeling (ENM) was used to reveal the potential outbreak hotspots of H5N1. A two-step modeling procedure has been proposed: we first used BioClim model to obtain the coarse suitable areas of H5N1, and then those suitable areas with very high probabilities were retained as the inputs of multiple-variable autologistic regression analysis (MAR) for model refinement. MAR was implemented taking spatial autocorrelation into account. The final performance of ENM was evaluated using the areas under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal the most important variables and relevant ecological gradients of H5N1 outbreak. Niche visualization was used to identify potential spreading trend of H5N1 along important ecological gradients. For the first time, we combined socioeconomic and environmental variables as joint predictors in developing ecological niche modeling. Environmental variables represented the natural element related to H5N1 outbreak, whereas socioeconomic ones represented the anthropogenic element. Our results indicated that: (1) the high-risk hotspots are mainly located in temperate zones (indicated by ENM)-correspondingly, we argued that the "ecoregions hypothesis" was reasonable to some extent; (2) evaporation, humidity, human population density, livestock population density were the first four important factors (in descending order) that were associated with the H5N1 global outbreak (indicated by PCA); (3) influenza had a tendency to expand into areas with low evaporation (indicated by niche visualization). In conclusion, our study substantiates that both the environmental and socioeconomic variables jointly determined the global spreading trend of H5N1, but environmental variables played a more important role. Consequently, our study is consistent with the assumption that the natural element is more important than the anthropogenic element as the underlying ecological mechanisms explaining global H5N1 transmission. PMID:25103831
Chen, Youhua; Chen, You-Fang
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors? Coronary heart disease risk factors are ... Heart Disease Risk Factors, visit www.clinicaltrials.gov . Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in the News October 27, 2014 ...
What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient. Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi-centre study with highly standardized study protoco. The strength of association between SES and overweight and obesity varies across European regions. In our study, the SES gradient is correlated with the regional mean income and the country-specific Human development index indicating a strong influence not only of the family but also of region and country on the overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To assess the association between different macro- and micro-level socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight. Methods Data from the IDEFICS baseline survey is used to investigate the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic factors, like socioeconomic status (SES), and the prevalence of childhood overweight. Differences and similarities regarding this relationship in eight European regions (located in Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden) are explored. 11?994 children (50.9% boys, 49.1% girls) and their parents were included in the analyses. Results In five of the eight investigated regions (in Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Spain and Sweden), the prevalence of childhood overweight followed an inverse SES gradient. In the other three regions (in Cyprus, Hungary and Italy), no association between SES and childhood overweight was found. The SES-overweight association in a region was best explained by the country-specific human development index and the centre-specific mean income. For the investigated association between other socioeconomic factors and overweight, no clear pattern could be found in the different regions. Conclusion The association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight was shown to be heterogeneous across different European regions. Further research on nationwide European data is needed to confirm the results and to identify target groups for prevention.
Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke
Teachers' knowledge of children's exposure to family risk factors was examined using the Family Risk Factor Checklist-Teacher. Data collected for 756 children indicated that teachers had accurate knowledge of children's exposure to factors such as adverse life events and family socioeconomic status, which predicted children's mental health…
Dwyer, Sarah B.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Battistutta, Diana; Oldenburg, Brian
Most hydrological studies do not account for the socio-economic influences on eco-hydrological processes. However, socio-economic developments often change the water balance substantially and are highly relevant in understanding changes in hydrological responses. In this study a multi-disciplinary approach was used to study the cascading impacts of socio-economic drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on the eco-hydrological regime of the Lake Naivasha Basin. The basin has recently experienced substantial LULC changes exacerbated by socio-economic drivers. The simplified cascade models provided insights for an improved understanding of the socio-ecohydrological system. Results show that the upstream population has transformed LULC such that runoff during the period 1986-2010 was 32% higher than during the period 1961-1985. Cut-flower export volumes and downstream population growth explain 71% of the water abstracted from Lake Naivasha. The influence of upstream population on LULC and upstream hydrological processes explained 59% and 30% of the variance in lake storage volumes and sediment yield respectively. The downstream LULC changes had significant impact on large wild herbivore mammal species on the fringe zone of the lake. This study shows that, in cases where observed socio-economic developments are substantial, the use of a cascade-modeling approach, that couple socio-economic factors to eco-hydrological processes, can greatly improve our understanding of the eco-hydrological processes of a catchment.
Odongo, V. O.; Mulatu, D. W.; Muthoni, F. K.; van Oel, P. R.; Meins, F. M.; van der Tol, C.; Skidmore, A. K.; Groen, T. A.; Becht, R.; Onyando, J. O.; van der Veen, A.
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008. The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women's financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences.
Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an aggregated large-scale analysis due to their large between- and within-village heterogeneity. Specific information of both the infection risk and potential predictors might be needed to obtain any existing association. The presented soil-transmitted helminth infection risk estimates for Cambodia can be used for guiding and evaluating control and elimination efforts. PMID:25205492
Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope
In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity (general and central) in the Trabzon Region and its associations with demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, reproductive history in women, and level of education), socioeconomic factors (household income and occupation), family history of selected medical conditions (diabetes, hypertension, and obesity), lifestyle factors (smoking habits, physical activity, and alcohol consumption), and hypertension in the adult populati...
Beltai?fa, L.; Traissac, P.; El Ati, J.; Lefe?vre, P.; Romdhane, H. B.; Delpeuch, F.
In studies of the SAT, correlations of SAT scores, high school grades, and socioeconomic factors (SES) are usually obtained using a university as the unit of analysis. This approach obscures an important structural aspect of the data: The high school grades received by a given institution come from a large number of high schools, all of which have…
Zwick, Rebecca; Greif Green, Jennifer
AIM: To examine if dietary and socio-economic factors contribute to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) re-infection.METHODS: The population of patients consisted of subjects in whom H pylori infection had been successfully treated in the past. Patients were divided into two groups:?I-examined group (111 persons with H pylori re-infection) and II-control group (175 persons who had not been re-infected). The respondents were interviewed retrospectively on their dietary habits and socio-economic f...
Miros?aw Jarosz, Ewa Rychlik
Heart disease remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in women in the United States and worldwide. This review highlights known and emerging risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women. Traditional Framingham risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, as well as lifestyle habits such as unhealthy diet and sedentary lifestyle are all modifiable. Health care providers should be aware of emerging cardiac risk factors in women such as adverse pregnancy outcomes, systemic autoimmune disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, and radiation-induced heart disease; psychosocial factors such as mental stress, depression, anxiety, low socioeconomic status, and work and marital stress play an important role in IHD in women. Appropriate recognition and management of an array of risk factors is imperative given the growing burden of IHD and need to deliver cost-effective, quality care for women. PMID:25453985
Mehta, Puja K; Wei, Janet; Wenger, Nanette K
Full Text Available Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals.
Rodney R. Dietert
Morbid states are determined by complex factors acting in a synergistic system. Thus, population health is an integrated indicator of social development of a country, reflecting the socio-economic and moral welfare of the people, living conditions and consumption of health services, as well as the level of adequate education about risk factors and healthy behaviors. For these reasons, we decided to analyze the role of the person and of the health system for public health prosperity, given the...
Gramma, Rodica; Parvu, Andrada; Enache, Angela; Roman, Gabriel; Dumitras, Silvia; Ioan, Beatrice
Risk Factor Frequency for Learning Disabilities in Low Socioeconomic Level Preschool Children in Mexico City / Frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico en la Ciudad de México / Frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem em pré-escolares com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo objetivou identificar a frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem (DA) em crianças com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México. A escala de inteligência Wechsler, desenho da figura humana e o teste gestáltico visomotor de Bender foram utilizados. A idade méd [...] ia do grupo masculino foi de 5,6±0,9 anos e do grupo feminino 5,4±0,5 anos. O quociente intelectual total (QI-T) foi de 98±12 no grupo masculino e 99±12,2 no grupo feminino. No teste de Bender, os meninos apresentaram idade mental e visomotora um ano abaixo da idade cronológica, enquanto que as meninas apresentaram idade mental e visomotora 7-8 meses abaixo do normal. As características de alto risco que apresentaram maior frequência, tanto nos meninos como nas meninas, no teste do desenho de figura humana, foram: autoisolamento 25%, timidez 22,4 e controle interno deficiente 22%. Concluindo, alta frequência de fatores de risco para DA foi encontrada em crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico. É importante destacar a importância de se identificar pré-escolares em risco de DA. Abstract in spanish Nuestro objetivo fue identificar la frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje (PA) en niños de bajo nivel socioeconómico de la Ciudad de México. Se utilizaron las pruebas de inteligencia de Wechsler, Gestáltica Visuomotora de Bender y del Dibujo de la figura humana. La edad prom [...] edio en el grupo masculino fue 5,6±0,9 años, del femenino fue 5,4±0,5. En los hombres, el cociente intelectual total (CI-T) fue 98±12,2, en mujeres fue 99±12,2. En la prueba de Bender, los hombres mostraron una edad mental y visuomotora un año menor que la cronológica, las mujeres tuvieron una edad mental y visuomotora 7-8 meses por debajo de la norma. En la Prueba de la figura humana, los hombres y mujeres mostraron mayor frecuencia de: auto-aislamiento 25%, timidez 22,4% y controles internos pobres 22%. En conclusión encontramos una alta frecuencia de factores de riesgo en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico, destacamos la importancia de identificar a los preescolares propensos a tener problemas de aprendizaje (PA). Abstract in english The objective was to identify the frequency of risk factors for Learning Disabilities (LD) in low socioeconomic level children in Mexico City. We studied children by means of: Wechsler, Bender-Gestalt, and Human drawing tests. Average age of male subjects was 5.6±0.9 years, while that of the female [...] group was 5.4±0.5 years. In male subjects, average Total intelligence quotient (T-IQ) score was 98±12.2 while, in the female group, this was 99±12.2. On the Bender-Gestalt test, male subjects had a mental and visual-motor average age of
Elizabeth, Zambrano-Sánchez; María del Consuelo, Martínez-Wbaldo; Adrián, Poblano.
Risk Factor Frequency for Learning Disabilities in Low Socioeconomic Level Preschool Children in Mexico City Frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico en la Ciudad de México Frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem em pré-escolares com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México
Full Text Available The objective was to identify the frequency of risk factors for Learning Disabilities (LD in low socioeconomic level children in Mexico City. We studied children by means of: Wechsler, Bender-Gestalt, and Human drawing tests. Average age of male subjects was 5.6±0.9 years, while that of the female group was 5.4±0.5 years. In male subjects, average Total intelligence quotient (T-IQ score was 98±12.2 while, in the female group, this was 99±12.2. On the Bender-Gestalt test, male subjects had a mental and visual-motor average age of Nuestro objetivo fue identificar la frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje (PA en niños de bajo nivel socioeconómico de la Ciudad de México. Se utilizaron las pruebas de inteligencia de Wechsler, Gestáltica Visuomotora de Bender y del Dibujo de la figura humana. La edad promedio en el grupo masculino fue 5,6±0,9 años, del femenino fue 5,4±0,5. En los hombres, el cociente intelectual total (CI-T fue 98±12,2, en mujeres fue 99±12,2. En la prueba de Bender, los hombres mostraron una edad mental y visuomotora un año menor que la cronológica, las mujeres tuvieron una edad mental y visuomotora 7-8 meses por debajo de la norma. En la Prueba de la figura humana, los hombres y mujeres mostraron mayor frecuencia de: auto-aislamiento 25%, timidez 22,4% y controles internos pobres 22%. En conclusión encontramos una alta frecuencia de factores de riesgo en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico, destacamos la importancia de identificar a los preescolares propensos a tener problemas de aprendizaje (PA.Este estudo objetivou identificar a frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem (DA em crianças com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México. A escala de inteligência Wechsler, desenho da figura humana e o teste gestáltico visomotor de Bender foram utilizados. A idade média do grupo masculino foi de 5,6±0,9 anos e do grupo feminino 5,4±0,5 anos. O quociente intelectual total (QI-T foi de 98±12 no grupo masculino e 99±12,2 no grupo feminino. No teste de Bender, os meninos apresentaram idade mental e visomotora um ano abaixo da idade cronológica, enquanto que as meninas apresentaram idade mental e visomotora 7-8 meses abaixo do normal. As características de alto risco que apresentaram maior frequência, tanto nos meninos como nas meninas, no teste do desenho de figura humana, foram: autoisolamento 25%, timidez 22,4 e controle interno deficiente 22%. Concluindo, alta frequência de fatores de risco para DA foi encontrada em crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico. É importante destacar a importância de se identificar pré-escolares em risco de DA.
This paper attempts to understand the factors of the slow progress in the coverage of basic childhood immunisation in India using three rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data. States are selected on the basis of changes in full immunisation coverage during 1992-2005. Bivariate, multivariate, and dropout rates are used to understand the differentials and changes in immunisation coverage. The result reveals substantial improvement in partial immunisation in mos...
Abstract Background Many different factors influenced food habits and physical activity patterns of adolescents in a complex interactive way. The aim of this study was to assess association between sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic factors, diet and lifestyle among the Balearic Islands adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n?=?1961; 12–17?years old) was carried out. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Act...
Bibiloni Maria del Mar; Pich Jordi; Córdova Alfredo; Pons Antoni; Tur Josep A
Abstract Background A relatively consistent body of research supports an inverse graded relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). More recently, researchers have proposed various life course SES hypotheses, which posit that the combination, accumulation, and/or interactions of different environments and experiences throughout life can affect adult risk of CVD. Different life course designs have been utilized to examine the impact of SES...
Kaufman Jay S; Rose Kathryn M; Pollitt Ricardo A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in health are a global problem, not only among the adult population but also among children. However, studies concerning young children especially are rare. The aim of this study was to describe the health of Finnish children under 12 years of age, and the socioeconomic factors associated with health. The socioeconomic factors were parental education level, household net income, and working status. Methods A population-based survey among Finnish children aged under 12 years (n = 6,000 was conducted in spring 2007. A questionnaire was sent to parents, and a response rate of 67% was achieved. Each child's health was explored by asking a parent to report the child's health status on a 5-point Likert scale, current symptoms from a symptoms list, and current disease(s diagnosed by a physician. The final three outcome measures were poor health, the prevalences of psychosomatic symptoms, and long-term diseases. Data were analysed using Pearson's Chi-Square tests, and logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. P-values ?0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results In total, 3% of parents reported that their child's health status was poor. The prevalences of psychosomatic symptoms and long-term diseases were both 11%. The probability for poor health status was lowest among children aged 3-6 and 7-11 years, and for psychosomatic symptoms among 3-6-year-old children, whereas the odds ratios for long-term diseases was highest among children aged 7-11 years. Parental socioeconomic factors were not associated with the children's health. Conclusions Most of the children were reported by their parent to have good health status, and approximately one tenth had experienced some psychosomatic symptoms or long-term diseases. Our study suggests that parental socioeconomic factors are not associated with the health of children aged under 12 years in Finland.
Savolainen Piia H
Objective: Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that affects the individualin various ways. Many risk factors have been suggested in the emergenceof the illness. The aim of this study is to identify the potential risk factors forschizophrenia considering the characteristics of patients.Methods: The study included 164 patients diagnosed with schizophreniaaccording to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, FourthEdition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria and a control group consi...
Akal, Burc?in N.; Dog?an, Orhan
Full Text Available This paper attempts to understand the factors of the slow progress in the coverage of basic childhood immunisation in India using three rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS data. States are selected on the basis of changes in full immunisation coverage during 1992-2005. Bivariate, multivariate, and dropout rates are used to understand the differentials and changes in immunisation coverage. The result reveals substantial improvement in partial immunisation in most states; however, the increase in full immunisation coverage has been slower. Two crucial determinants of the full immunisation coverage in selected states are availability of health card and antenatal care (ANC visits of mother. Further, higher drop out of DPT3 and measles are responsible for slow increase in full immunisation coverage in selected states. The dropout rate between BCG-measles remains very high. The measles vaccination is very poorly addressed in India, due to which full immunisation is low. Mother’s education, standard of living, mass media exposure, and availability of health card are appeared as significant predictor in explaining the full immunisation coverage irrespective of time. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression analysis are used in the study. Results indicate a steady increase in coverage of full immunisation in last 14 years, while the increase was higher during 1992-1998 but lower during 1998-2005.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI) in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months wer [...] e included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals). The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.
Chaiana, Piovesan; Renata Saraiva, Guedes; Luciano, Casagrande; Thiago Machado, Ardenghi.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals. The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.
Abstract Background The socioeconomic and sociodemographic situation are important components for the design and assessment of malaria control measures. In malaria endemic areas, however, valid classification of socioeconomic factors is difficult due to the lack of standardized tax and income data. The objective of this study was to quantify household socioeconomic levels using principal component analyses (PCA) to a set of indicator variables and to use a classification sche...
Adu-Sarkodie Yaw; Sarpong Nimako; Loag Wibke; Acquah Samuel; Nkrumah Bernard; Schwarz Norbert; Krefis Anne; Ranft Ulrich; May Jürgen
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify socioeconomic factors that are related to students’ mathematics achievement in the national large scale test ÖBBS 2009 and the international large scale test PISA 2009. Socioeconomic factors were considered in two levels. These are student level and school level. Therefore, two level hierarchical linear model (HLM was used. The participants of the study include 65275 students who took ÖBBS 2009 and 4575 students who took PISA 2009 in Turkey. In both tests, the factors that were found to be related to mathematics achievement are student’s father’s education and the resources owned. At the school level, the educational development level of the city where the school is located was found to be related to students’ mathematics achievement
Ye?im Özer Özkan
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The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.
Full Text Available A case control study of risk factors of Diabetes Mellitus was carried out among 75 diabetic cases attending the clinic, and an equal number of matched controls from inpatients of the surgical department of R .G Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Diabetes Mellitus was found significantly higher among those persons having family history of similar illness, belonging to the socio-economic class (Kuppuwamiâ€?s classification and non-vegetarian dietary habit.
The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples` perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain.
Kunreuther, H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Wharton School of Finance and Commerce; Slovic, P. [Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States); Nigg, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Desvousges, W.H. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)
The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples' perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain
Full Text Available Gianfranco Damiani,1 Eleonora Salvatori,1 Giulia Silvestrini,1 Ivana Ivanova,2 Luka Bojovic,3 Lanfranco Iodice,1 Walter Ricciardi1 1Department of Public Health, Università Cattolica Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; 2ERAWEB Project, Faculty of Medicine, Saints Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Skopje, Macedonia; 3ERAWEB Project, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia Purpose: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Among these diseases, heart failure (HF and acute myocardial infarction (AMI are the most common causes of hospitalization. Therefore, readmission for HF and AMI is receiving increasing attention. Several socioeconomic factors could affect readmissions in this target group, and thus, a systematic review was conducted to identify the effect of socioeconomic factors on the risk for readmission in people aged 65 years and older with HF or AMI.Methods: The search was carried out by querying an electronic database and hand searching. Studies with an association between the risk for readmission and at least one socioeconomic factor in patients aged 65 years or older who are affected by HF or AMI were included. A quality assessment was conducted independently by two reviewers. The agreement was quantified by Cohen’s Kappa statistic. The outcomes of studies were categorized in the short-term and the long-term, according to the follow-up period of readmission. A positive association was reported if an increase in the risk for readmission among disadvantaged patients was found. A cumulative effect of socioeconomic factors was computed by considering the association for each study and the number of available studies.Results: A total of eleven articles were included in the review. They were mainly published in the United States. All the articles analyzed patients who were hospitalized for HF, and four of them also analyzed patients with AMI. Seven studies (63.6% were found for the short-term outcome, and four studies (36.4% were found for the long-term outcome. For the short-term outcome, race/ethnicity and marital status showed a positive cumulative effect on the risk for readmission. Regarding the educational level of a patient, no effect was found.Conclusion: Among the socioeconomic factors, mainly race/ethnicity and marital status affect the risk for readmission in elderly people with HF or AMI. Multidisciplinary hospital-based quality initiatives, disease management, and care transition programs are a priority for health care systems to achieve better coordination. Keywords: chronic conditions, cardiovascular disease (CVD, re-hospitalization, disparities, older patients, socioeconomic factors
Abstract Background: Little is known about the etiologic factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype. Methods: Orthoptists reviewed ophthalmologic records for Danish National Birth Cohort children examined for strabismus in hospital ophthalmology departments or by ophthalmologists in private practice. Information on perinatal characteristics was obtained from national registers. We ...
Torp-pedersen, Tobias Emil; Boyd, Heather Allison; Poulsen, Gry; Haargaard, Birgitte; Wohlfahrt, J.; Melbye, M.; Holmes, Jonathan M.
As global warming continues, the current trend implies that the uptake of air conditioning in the residential sector will go up, thus potentially increasing domestic cooling energy consumption. In this context, this paper investigates the significance of behavioural, physical and socio-economic parameters on cooling energy in order to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings. It demonstrates that such factors exert a significant indirect as well as direct influence on energy use, showing that it is particularly important to understand indirect relationships. An initial study of direct factors affecting cooling energy reveals that occupant behaviour is the most significant issue (related to choices about how often and where air conditioning is used). This is broadly confirmed by path analysis, although climate is seen to be the single most significant parameter, followed by behavioural issues, key physical parameters (e.g. air conditioning type), and finally socio-economic aspects (e.g. household income).
OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between preterm birth and socioeconomic and psychological factors, smoking, and alcohol, and caffeine consumption. DESIGN--Prospective study of outcome of pregnancy. SETTING--District general hospital in inner London. PARTICIPANTS--1860 consecutive white women booking for delivery; 1513 women studied after exclusion because of multiple pregnancy and diabetes, refusals, and loss to follow up. MEASUREMENTS--Gestational age was determined from ultrasound and ma...
Peacock, J. L.; Bland, J. M.; Anderson, H. R.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effects of smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and socio-economic factors and psychosocial stress on birth weight. DESIGN--Prospective population study. SETTING--District general hospital in inner London. PARTICIPANTS--A consecutive series of 1860 white women booking for delivery were approached. 136 Refused and 211 failed to complete the study for other reasons (moved, abortion, subsequent refusal), leaving a sample of 1513. Women who spoke no English, bo...
This study assessed the associations between potential socio-economic and lifestyle factors with sexual dissatisfaction and gender disparities in north-eastern France. In total 6216 subjects (randomly selected subjects completed a postal questionnaire gathering socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, living alone, income, tobacco use, alcohol abuse (Deta questionnaire), heath status, fatigue, sleep disorders, diseases, depression/sadness and sexual dissatisfaction. Data were analyzed u...
Anquetil, M.; Baumann, Miche?le
Abstract Aim Aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of demographic factors (DGF) and socio-economic status (SES) on survival after pancreatic cancer resection in a German setting. Methods Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and pancreaticoduodenectomy were identified from our pancreatic resection database (1989-2008). DGF, SES, survival and tumor-related information were obtained from hospital records, a registry office questionnaire, and t...
Kuhn, Y.; Koscielny, A.; Glowka, T.; Hirner, A.; Kalff, J. C.; Standop, J.
Abstract Background Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are likely to deliver lower quality maternity care compared to professional health workers. It is important to characterize women who are assisted by TBAs in order to design interventions specific to such groups. We thus conducted a study to assess if socio-economic status and demographic factors are associated with having childbirth supervised by traditional birth attendants in Iraq. Methods Iraqi Multiple...
Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S; Siziya Seter
Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Sur...
Abstract Background: We aimed to determine the prevalence of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) symptoms in 13 European countries and the association between socioeconomic factors and symptoms using a standardised method. Methods: A representative age- and gender stratified sample of 23.110 subjects (aged 18-69 years) was surveyed. Results: The prevalence of UGI symptoms was 38%. UGI symptoms were most prevalent in Hungary (45.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 42.2-48.4) and lowes...
Haag, Sebastian; Andrews, Jane M.; Gapasin, Judith; Keller, Andreas; Holtmann, Gerald J.
Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC) ? 94 cm (men) or ? 80 cm (women) and the combination of BMI and WC for...
Duvigneaud Nathalie; Wijndaele Katrien; Matton Lynn; Deriemaeker Peter; Philippaerts Renaat; Lefevre Johan; Thomis Martine; Duquet William
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic factors influencing adoption of artisanal fisheries resources conservation measures based on the perspectives of Artisanal fishers in Delta, Rivers and Bayelsa states, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The study was conducted for a period of one year (January 2008 to Decmber 2008. With the aid of well-structured questionnaires the desired information were collected and analyzed. A total sample size of 1,200 respondents within the study area, were selected using random sampling technique. Logistic regression technique was used to determine the impact of the independent variables on willingness to adopt fisheries conservation measures. The regression analysis result show that eleven (11 independent variables (Public Enlightenment, Regulatory pressure, Environmental stewardship, Severity of pollutants, Economic circumstances, Institutional Support, Information access, Highest Education, Fishing Experience, Legal Structure and Age were factors that influence willingness to adopt conservation measures by the fishers. However, the level of influence was found to vary differently in the three states studied depending on the socioeconomic and educational status and other peculiarities of each of the state. Generally, based on the result of the logit analysis of the perspectives of the artisanal fisher respondents, it is therefore inferred that the willingness to adopt fisheries resources conservation measures in the Niger Delta by the Artisanal Fishers, is significantly a function of the studied demographic, socioeconomic, psychological, institutional and environmental factors as specified by the eleven variables.
Full Text Available More than 60 thousand new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosedeach year in the United States, accounting for approximately 13thousand deaths annually. In recent decades, the overall incidenceof bladder cancer seems to be rising and this may be due to thelatent effects of tobacco abuse, other non-occupational risk factors,industrial carcinogens, as well as the overall aging of our population.Cultural and socioeconomic factors also contribute substantially tothe etiology of bladder cancer and may play an even more importantrole than the occupational environment. In this paper, it is reviewedthe main established or proposed non-occupational factors associatedwith bladder cancer development.
Luiz Alexandre Villares da Costa
For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10-6 rem-1. This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10-6 yr-1. This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the -fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between socioeconomic position in middle age and risk of subsequent, short-term weight gain is unknown. We therefore assessed this association in a prospective population based cohort study in Norfolk, UK. Methods We analysed data on 14,619 middle-aged men and women (aged between 40 75 at baseline with repeated objective measures of weight and height at baseline (1993–1997 and follow up (1998–2000. Results During follow up 5,064 people gained more than 2.5 kg. Compared with the highest social class, individuals in the lowest social class had around a 30% greater risk of gaining more than 2.5 kg (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.11–1.51; p for trend = 0.002. This association remained statistically significant following adjustment for sex, age, baseline BMI, smoking, and follow up time (OR 1.25; CI 1.07–1.46; p for trend Conclusion Individuals of low socioeconomic position are at greatest risk of gaining weight during middle age, which is not explained by classical correlates of socioeconomic position and risk factors for obesity.
Luben Robert N
Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that affects the individualin various ways. Many risk factors have been suggested in the emergenceof the illness. The aim of this study is to identify the potential risk factors forschizophrenia considering the characteristics of patients.Methods: The study included 164 patients diagnosed with schizophreniaaccording to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, FourthEdition (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and a control group consisting of a matchingnumber of healthy people. The subjects were given questionnaire formson potential risk factors (prenatal and postnatal, sociodemographic, illnessrelatedinformation. Student’s t-test, chi-square test and logistic regressionanalysis were used to evaluate the data.Results: Significant differences were identified between the patient group andhealthy control group in terms of: for the mother- use of medication , history ofinflammatory disease, or a psychical or physical trauma during pregnancy;-for the patient- being born in hospital, prolonged delivery, growth during childhood,relatives with a history of schizophrenia, and school history. Among thesubtypes of schizophrenia, significant differences were identified in terms ofeducational level, birth rank and school history.Conclusion: Identification of the potential risk factors for schizophrenia and ofsubjects at risk will provide important individual and social advantages, such associal health, health expenses and protection of individuals and society from theadverse effects of schizophrenia. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2010; 47: 230-6
Burçin N. AKAL
We investigated prospectively the risk of lung cancer in relation to socio-economic status (SES) in 22,387 middle-aged individuals who attended a screening program in the city of Malmö, Sweden between 1974 and 1992. We also examined the relationship between SES and histologic subtype in smokers. By 2003, a total of 550 lung cancer cases had been identified. Relative risks (RR) were calculated with adjustment for age, current smoking, inhalation habits and marital status at baseline in the low SES group compared to high SES group. Among smokers, the RR (95% confidence interval (CI)) for lung cancer in the low SES group of men was 1.39 (1.11-1.73), and women 1.56 (1.04-2.34). Also among smokers, low SES was associated with an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma in men; RR 1.89 (1.16-2.81) and women; RR 7.10 (1.63-30.86), and with an increased risk of mesothelioma in men RR 9.97 (1.29-76.96). We conclude that low SES groups run an increased risk of lung cancer despite accounting for smoking habits. Furthermore, low SES was positively associated with squamous cell carcinoma and mesothelioma. Our results suggest that the association between low SES and lung cancer could be mediated by unaccounted for smoking exposure, lifestyle or occupational hazards. PMID:16337709
Ekberg-Aronsson, Marie; Nilsson, Peter M; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Pehrsson, Kerstin; Löfdahl, Claes-Göran
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between risk factors and diabetic retinopathy, which is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries for patients aged 20 to 65.We compared risk factors between patients without retinopathy, with non-proliferate and with proliferate retinopathy (p< 0.05. Duration of diabetes is most important for the development of retinopathy. Hyperglycaemia and high blood pressure are important for progression. Better control of blood sugar and elevated blood pressure can reduce progression of retinopathy and riskof vision loss.
Full Text Available The malaria cases were increasing in Mamuju district. Several factors influence of the malaria prevention specifically socioeconomic and access to health services. The objectives of the study were to find out socioeconomic determinants, access to health services and behaviour towards prevention of malaria in Mamuju district, West Sulawesi. The design study was cross sectional. The population of this study was the residence in Mamuju District, number sample 739 respondents taken by random sampling and data analysis by using Chi-square and logistic regression in a 5%. Results of the study reveal that 51% of respondents have done malaria control in the Mamuju District. Socioeconomic factors like education (p = 0.000, income (p = 0.004, knowledge (p = 0.000 and attitude (p = 0.000 were significant to prevent malaria. Variables that are not related were employed (p = 0.060 and access to health services (p = 0.223. Logistic regression analysis showed that behavior; knowledge and attitude most impact for prevention of malaria in the district Mamuju. This research recommended the dissemination of health information about malaria prevention to the public through various media both of print and written media also counseling.
Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to develop statistical model that can predict the probability of breast cancer in Southern Karnataka using the breast cancer occurrence data during 2007-2011. Independent socio-economic variables describing the breast cancer occurrence like age, education, occupation, parity, type of family, health insurance coverage, residential locality and socioeconomic status of each case was obtained. The models were developed as follows: i) Spatial visualization of the Urban- rural distribution of breast cancer cases that were obtained from the Bharat Hospital and Institute of Oncology. ii) Socio-economic risk factors describing the breast cancer occurrences were complied for each case. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis in a SPSS statistical software and relations between the occurrence of breast cancer across the socio-economic status and the influence of other socio-economic variables were evaluated and multinomial logistic regression models were constructed. iii) the model that best predicted the occurrence of breast cancer were identified. This multivariate logistic regression model has been entered into a geographic information system and maps showing the predicted probability of breast cancer occurrence in Southern Karnataka was created. This study demonstrates that Multinomial logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that predict the probability of breast cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka.
Madhu, B.; Ashok, N. C.; Balasubramanian, S.
... your risk Heart Health and Stroke Other possible heart disease risk factors Related information Depression fact sheet Stress ... Return to top More information on Other possible heart disease risk factors Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart ...
The prevalence of being overweight and of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with a high risk to health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate whether normal weight, overweight and obese subjects of low, middle or high socioeconomic status (SES) differ with regard to their health behavior, health, quality of life, and the use of medical care. Data from the Austrian Health Interview Survey (ATHIS) 2006/07, comprising 3 groups of 1,077 individuals, each of whom were...
Burkert, Nathalie T.; Ra?sky, E?va; Großscha?dl, Franziska; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Freidl, Wolfgang
Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.
SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED
Diseases probably have their roots in a complex chain of environmental and behavioural events which are shaped by broader socioeconomic determinants. Most studies of sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries have been carried out in industrialized countries, but such reports from low- and middle-income countries have been published in recent years. World Health Organization international collaborative studies and other international studies of social factors in dental caries using the same methodology provide empirical evidence of social inequality in oral health across countries and across oral health care systems. The paper highlights the challenges to dental public health practice, particularly the importance of risk assessment in estimating the potential for prevention. In future public health programmes, systematic risk factor assessment may therefore be instrumental in the planning and surveillance of oral health promotion and oral disease intervention programmes.
Petersen, Poul Erik
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre fatores de risco e a presença do excesso de peso entre adolescentes de diferentes classes socioeconômicas. MÉTODOS: Análise transversal, da qual participaram 888 jovens de ambos os sexos e com idade variando entre 11 e 17 anos. O índice de massa corporal foi cal [...] culado por meio dos valores de massa corporal e estatura, e utilizado como indicador do excesso de peso. A atividade física, a ingestão alimentar e a classe socioeconômica (alta e baixa) foram analisadas mediante a aplicação de questionários. Os dados foram analisados estatiscamente por meio dos testes Qui quadrado e regressão logística binária. RESULTADOS: Para os adolescentes de classe socioeconômica baixa, uma inadequada ingestão alimentar (Razão de chance [RC]= 4,59) e o sobrepeso dos pais (RC= 5,33) foram associados à presença do excesso de peso. Entre os adolescentes de classe socioeconômica alta, a escolaridade materna (RC= 0,57), estudar em escola privada (RC= 3,04) e o sobrepeso dos pais (RC= 3,47) foram associados à presença do excesso de peso. CONCLUSÃO: Em ambas as classes socioeconômicas, o sobrepeso dos pais foi um importante fator de risco associado ao excesso de peso. Os outros fatores de risco diferiram entre as classes socioeconômicas. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: To analyze the association between risk factors and presence of overweight in adolescents from different socioeconomic levels. METHODS: A cross-section analysis with 888 youths recruited from both genders with ages ranging from 11 to 17 years was carried out. The body mass index was calc [...] ulated through body mass and height values, and was used as the overweight indicator. Physical activity, food intake, and socioeconomic levels (high and low) were obtained by questionnaires. Data were analyzed by chi-square test and binary logistic regression. RESULTS: For adolescents in the lower socioeconomic level, both inadequate food intake (Odds Ratio [OR]= 4.59) and parent overweight (OR= 5.33) were associated to overweight. Among adolescents in the higher socioeconomic level, maternal education (OR= 0.57), study in private school (OR= 3.04), and parent overweight (OR= 3.47) were associated to development of overweight. CONCLUSION: In both socioeconomic levels, parent overweight was an important risk factor associated with overweight. The other risk factors were different among the socioeconomic levels.
Rômulo Araújo, Fernandes; Juliano, Casonatto; Diego Giuliano Destro, Christofaro; Enio Ricardo Vaz, Ronque; Arli Ramos de, Oliveira; Ismael Forte, Freitas Júnior.
Purpose Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Among these diseases, heart failure (HF) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are the most common causes of hospitalization. Therefore, readmission for HF and AMI is receiving increasing attention. Several socioeconomic factors could affect readmissions in this target group, and thus, a systematic review was conducted to identify the effect of socioeconomic factors on the risk for readmission in people aged 65 years and older with HF or AMI. Methods The search was carried out by querying an electronic database and hand searching. Studies with an association between the risk for readmission and at least one socioeconomic factor in patients aged 65 years or older who are affected by HF or AMI were included. A quality assessment was conducted independently by two reviewers. The agreement was quantified by Cohen’s Kappa statistic. The outcomes of studies were categorized in the short-term and the long-term, according to the follow-up period of readmission. A positive association was reported if an increase in the risk for readmission among disadvantaged patients was found. A cumulative effect of socioeconomic factors was computed by considering the association for each study and the number of available studies. Results A total of eleven articles were included in the review. They were mainly published in the United States. All the articles analyzed patients who were hospitalized for HF, and four of them also analyzed patients with AMI. Seven studies (63.6%) were found for the short-term outcome, and four studies (36.4%) were found for the long-term outcome. For the short-term outcome, race/ethnicity and marital status showed a positive cumulative effect on the risk for readmission. Regarding the educational level of a patient, no effect was found. Conclusion Among the socioeconomic factors, mainly race/ethnicity and marital status affect the risk for readmission in elderly people with HF or AMI. Multidisciplinary hospital-based quality initiatives, disease management, and care transition programs are a priority for health care systems to achieve better coordination. PMID:25653510
Damiani, Gianfranco; Salvatori, Eleonora; Silvestrini, Giulia; Ivanova, Ivana; Bojovic, Luka; Iodice, Lanfranco; Ricciardi, Walter
Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors are increasingly recognised as related to health inequalities in Germany and are also identified as important contributing factors for an increased risk of acquiring infections. The aim of the present study was to describe in an ecological analysis the impact of different social factors on the risk of acquiring infectious diseases in an urban setting. The specific outcome of interest was the distribution of Rotavirus infections, which...
Wilking Hendrik; Höhle Michael; Velasco Edward; Suckau Marlen; Eckmanns Tim
Full Text Available Aim: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a chronic lung disease that develops in premature infants who were treated with oxygen and positive pressure ventilation. Although there are recent advances in neonatal care, it has been still the most common long term complication in preterm infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate infants who developed BPD throughout the clinical course of hospitalisation and to determine BPD frequency and also the risk factors associated with BPD.Materials and Method: A total of 276 infants who admitted to neonatal intensive care unit between January 2005 and January 2006 were included to this study. The infants with and without BPD were compared according to characteristic features and risk factors.Results: The mean gestational age and birth weight of all infants were 31±3.1(range, 24-36 weeks, and1607±610 (range, 500-4000 gram, respectively. BPD was diagnosed in 30% (84/276 of all infants. The mean gestational age and birth weight of infants with BPD were 30±3 (range, 24-36 weeks, and 1171±423 (range, 530-3700 gram, respectively. The 36% (31/84 of infants were smaller than 28 gestational age and 41.9% (26/84 were smaller than 1000 gram. Gestational age and birth weight were found to be the most important risk factors for development of BPD, and BPD risk increased as the gestational age and birth weight decreased. The duration of mechanical ventilation in infants with BPD and without BPD were found to be 40±4.3 days and, 17±2 days, respectively and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. Similarly, the duration of oxygen therapy was found to be statistically higher in infants with BPD compared with the infants without BPD (p<0.05. Also, respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis in mother, prolonged total parenteral nutrition, and frequent blood transfusion were also other risk factors that were significantly associated with development of BPD. Conclusion: The risk for BPD is multifactorial. It was observed that the most important risk factors for BPD were prematurity, low birth weight, mechanical ventilation and prolonged oxygen therapy. Preventing small gestational age and low birth weight prematurity, decreasing the duration of mechanical ventilation and also to give minimum oxygen supply in premature infants. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 66-71
In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to initiate the process of choosing a location to permanently store high-level nuclear waste from the designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only location to be studied as a candidate site for such a repository. The original acts and its amendments had established the grant mechanism by which the state of Nevada could finance an investigation of the potential socioeconomic impacts that could result from the installation and operation of this facility. Over the past three years, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM or RW) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved grant requests by Nevada to perform this investigation. This report is intended to update and enhance a literature review conducted by the Human Affairs Research Center (HARC) for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project that dealt with the psychological and sociological processes underlying risk perception. It provides addition information on the HARC work, covers a subsequent step in the impact-estimation process, and translates risk perception into decisions and behaviors with economic consequences. It also covers recently developed techniques for assessing the nature and magnitude of impacts caused by environmental changes focusing on those impacts caused by changes in perceived risks
Objectives Breast cancer incidence rates are rising in Qatar. Although the Qatari government provides subsidised healthcare and screening programmes that reduce cost barriers for residents, breast cancer screening (BCS) practices among women remain low. This study explores the influence of socioeconomic status on BCS among Arab women in Qatar. Setting A multicentre, cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted with 1063 Arab women (87.5% response rate) in Qatar from March 2011 to July 2011. Women who were 35?years or older and had lived in Qatar for at least 10?years were recruited from seven primary healthcare centres and women's health clinics in urban and semiurban regions of Qatar. Associations between socioeconomic factors and BCS practice were estimated using ?2 tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results Findings indicate that less than one-third of the participants practised BCS appropriately, whereas less than half of the participants were familiar with recent BCS guidelines. Married women and women with higher education and income levels were significantly more likely to be aware of and to practise BCS than women who had lower education and income levels. Conclusions Findings indicate low levels of awareness and low participation rates in BCS among Arab women in Qatar. Socioeconomic factors influence these women's participation in BCS activities. The strongest predictors for BCS practice are higher education and higher income levels. Recommendations Additional research is needed to explore the impact of economic factors on healthcare seeking behaviours in the Middle Eastern countries that have a high national gross domestic product where healthcare services are free or heavily subsidised by the government; promotion of BCS and intervention strategies in these countries should focus on raising awareness about breast cancer, the cost and benefit of early screening for this disease, particularly among low-income women. PMID:25613951
Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Khater, Al-Hareth; Al Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al-Meer, Nabila; Abdulmalik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Chaudhry, Sofia; Fung, Tak
Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and sass. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)
Full Text Available The generation of solid waste has become an increasing environmental and public health problem, especially in developing countries. These problems associated with the generation of solid waste are part of social changes where households play an important role. Invariably, these social changes influence the size, structure and characteristics of given households. This paper presents the findings of a study carried out in Freetown municipal area in Sierra Leone to assess socioeconomic factors affecting household solid waste generation and composition in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Structured questionnaires were administered with respect to these socioeconomic factors in four (4 selected constituencies of the city. These are the most populated constituencies that generated 70% of the total quantity of solid waste in the city. Therefore, they are suitable samples of the study area. The rate of waste generation was determined by using door- to-door approach in five (5 selected households from each constituency through sorting and weighing of solid wastes respectively. The dependent variables were solid waste generation and composition, and the independent variables were family size, education, income levels among others. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis to determine relationships between independent variables and dependent variables through correlation. The results showed that the solid waste generation and composition in Freetown was significantly affected by average family size, employment status, monthly income, and number of room(s occupied by households. In general, the paper adequately suggests new insights concerning the role of socioeconomic factors in affecting the generation and composition of household solid waste.
Alhaji Mohamed Hamza Conteh
Full Text Available For generations communities in the Western Pacific have employed a range of resource management techniques (including periodic reef closures, gear restrictions, entry limitations, and the protection of spawning aggregations to limit marine resource use. Localized control over marine resources, commonly known as customary marine tenure (CMT, is the legal and cultural foundation for many of these practices. Because of their perceived potential to meet both conservation and community goals, these traditional resource management techniques are being revitalized by communities, governments, and NGOs as an integral part of national and regional marine conservation plans in the Pacific. However, the viability of conservation strategies built on a foundation of marine tenure may be in question, as it remains unclear whether marine tenure systems will be able to withstand the profound social and economic changes sweeping the Pacific region. Numerous studies have suggested that changes in marine tenure are attributed to social and economic factors, however, specific relationships between socioeconomic conditions and marine tenure are still not well understood. This paper examines the social and economic characteristics of 21 coastal communities in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, and explores the characteristics of the communities that employ exclusive marine tenure to answer the following questions: Which socioeconomic factors are related to the presence of CMT regimes? How might socioeconomic factors influence the ability of communities to employ or maintain CMT regimes? Distance to market, immigration, dependence on fishing, and conflicts were found to be related to the presence of highly exclusive marine tenure systems. Exploring these relationships will help conservation practitioners better understand how future social changes may influence the foundation of conservation and development projects.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study aims to follow this effort and to explore the association between health, socioeconomic background, school-related factors, social support and adolescents' sense of coherence and educational aspirations among adolescents from different educational tracks and to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the role of educational aspirations in the social reproduction of health inequalities. We expect that socioeconomic background will contribute to the development of educational aspirations, but this association will be modified by available social and individual resources, which may be particularly favourable for the group of adolescents who are on lower educational tracks, since for them such resources may lead to gaining a higher educational level. Methods We collected data on the socioeconomic background (mother's and father's education and employment status, doubts about affordability of future study, school-related factors (school atmosphere, school conditions, attitudes towards school, perceived social support, sense of coherence (manageability, comprehensibility, meaningfulness and the self-rated health of a national sample of Slovak adolescents (n = 1992, 53.5% females, mean age 16.9 years. We assessed the association of these factors with educational aspirations, overall and by educational tracks (grammar schools, specialised secondary schools, vocational schools. Results We found statistically significant associations with educational aspirations for the factors parental educational level, father's unemployment, doubts about the affordability of future study, school atmosphere, attitude towards school, social support from the father and a sense of coherence. Social support from the mother and friends was not associated with educational aspiration, nor was self-rated health. Besides affinity towards school, the determinants of educational aspirations differed among adolescents on different educational tracks. Educational aspirations of grammar school students were associated with father's education, while the aspirations of their peers on lower educational tracks had a stronger association with mother's education and perceived social support from father and friends. Moreover, a sense of coherence contributes to the reporting of educational aspiration by students on different educational tracks. Conclusions Characteristics of the school environment, the family and the individual adolescent are all associated with the level of educational aspiration, but in a different way for different educational tracks. Interventions aimed at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in health via the educational system should, therefore, take this variation and the rather pivotal role of the father into account.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelo [...] pmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.
M.I., Lobato; P., Belmonte-de-Abreu; D., Knijnik; B., Teruchkin; E., Ghisolfi; A., Henriques.
Our aim was to describe socio-economic and behavioural factors related to caries experience in school children in Sassari, Sardinia (Italy). Four hundred and three 12-year-old schoolchildren were randomly selected and their teeth clinically examined after air drying, under standard light using a plain mirror and WHO community periodontal index for treatment needs (CPITN) ballpoint probe. The clinical DMFS index was recorded following a diagnostic threshold, CPITN following the WHO indications. A questionnaire concerning oral hygiene habits (OHH), the onset of toothbrushing habits (OTH), frequency of dental check-ups (DCU), sweet food and soft drink consumption and socio-economic background factors, i.e. parents' occupational status (SOCFAM) and parents' age, was filled in by children and parent(s)/guardian(s). The caries prevalence was 61.6%. A positive skewness of DMFS was observed. Regarding caries, a significant linear trend (p<0.05) was found among odds ratios at each exposure level in SOCFAM, OHH, OTH and CPITN. A logistic regression model for caries was constructed using related factors. CPITN (gingival conditions) gave a significant contribution in the predictive model (p = 0.01). Gender acted as an effect modifier on CPITN, so logistic regression models were constructed for males and females separately. CPITN was the only statistically significant covariate in males and OHH the only one in females. Our results confirm a high caries prevalence and also a need for preventive and educational programmes for caries in Sardinia. PMID:11799283
Campus, G; Lumbau, A; Lai, S; Solinas, G; Castiglia, P
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate maternal beliefs, practices about causes and determinant factors on drowning and maternal socioeconomic correlated factors on child mortality from drowning. Methods: From March 2005 to March 2009, in a register-based cohort study and household survey, individual records utilizing drowning registry data of northern Iran were enrolled. Mothers (n=276 who responded to multiple questions in a household survey were included. The patterns, interrelationships and effects of socioeconomic correlated factors on child mortality were analyzed. Results: A significant difference in relation to mother's educational level and age and family income distribution was noticed. Participants in household survey also reported that establishment of a multi-sectorial collaboration, integration of public health messages into local television, additional rescue stations and lifeguard, hazard environment fencing, increasing adult supervision, more support on increasing swimming ability among the children were all effective on reducing of drowning death. Conclusion: Due to the high rate of drowning in children and lack of attention among olders, a greater emphasis should be placed on educating mothers to assist a better supervision on their children.
Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most...
Dietert, Rodney R.; Dietert, Janice M.; Dewitt, Jamie C.
OBJECTIVES To investigate the risk factors and the Candida species that cause candiduria in hospitalized patients via a case-control study. METHODS We evaluated the results of the urine analysis of the specimens sent to the laboratories of Central Microbiology and the Department of Clinical Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases of Selcuk University Medical School, Konya, Turkey between January and December 2004. The urinary specimens, se...
Selma Guler; Onur Ural; Duygu Findik; Ugur Arslan
Non-communicable diseases, above all cardiovascular disease (CVD), are the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in Europe. CVD has been shown to have its roots in childhood, although the clinical manifestations do not become evident until several decades later. The adolescent CVD risk profile has been shown to predict the extent of the atherosclerotic process in adulthood, even if the nature of the effects of biological and lifestyle factors, and their interactions,...
Hurtig Wennlo?f, Anita
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Previous studies show that disability and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases are closely related to socioeconomic status in a community. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between socioeconomic factors and coronary artery disease (CAD among people under 45 years old at Shahid Rajaei Hospital, Tehran, Iran.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Shahid Rajaei Hospital, Tehran, Iran in summer 2008. The participants were 100 CAD cases (<45 years old, mean age = 41.2 years; 85% men and 100 controls from among accompanying persons matched for age and gender. In order to assess the risk of factors related to such variables as educational level, occupation, income, social exclusion, social support, stress, exercise, nutritional status, smoking, etc, odds ratio (95% CI was used. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the synchronic effect of the risk factors, and the t-test was used to find differences between means.Results: The odds ratio (95% CI for smoking vs nonsmoking was 3.9 (1.9-7.9 for CAD. Individuals with a low educational level showed an odds ratio of 2.7 (1.9-7-9, compared to those with a high educational level. Eating fruits and vegetables at least seven servings a week has an odds ratio of 2.7 (1.01-7.4 vs eating fewer servings. Occupation, job grade and physical activity had statistically significant relationships with CAD. Mean BMI was different between cases and controls. The disease had no significant association with stress, social support, social exclusion or income."nConclusion: Smoking, a low educational level and eating small amounts of fruits and vegetables were the most important socioeconomic factors contributing to coronary artery disease. Policymaking and planning aiming at improving the socioeconomic situation of the people, particularly those under 45 years old, seem essential.
A Akbari Sari
Full Text Available Violence against Women has become a global concern because this specific issue affects the life of women adversely. Domestic violence is most persistent form of Violence against Women. It is a severe violation of human rights. Many demographic, economic, psychological factors may be responsible for the domestic violence but social factors contain prime importance in this regard. Pakistani society is facing the trouble of increase in domestic violence because this issue is still under acknowledged and underreported. An exploratory study was conducted to probe the socio-economic factors behind domestic violence. Interview schedule was utilized as a tool to accumulate concerning data. A representative sample of (N=100 was collected through purposive and snowball sampling techniques. 56% of women indicated that they have faced physical violence and a huge majority i.e., 71% has faced psychological violence. The results suggest that women are more prone to bear and face domestic violence due to economic dependence.
Age at menarche is regarded as a sensitive indicator of physical, biological, and psychosocial environment. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche and its association with biological and socioeconomic factors in girls from Santa Rosa (La Pampa, Argentina). An observational cross-sectional study was carried out on 1,221 schoolgirls aged 9-15 years. Menarche data were obtained by the status-quo method. Height, sitting height, weight, arm circumference, tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were measured. We also calculated body mass index, measures of body composition and proportions, and fat distribution. To assess socioeconomic factors, parents completed a self-administered questionnaire about their occupation and education, family size, household, and other family characteristics. The median age at menarche - estimated by the logit method--was 12.84 years (95% CI: 12.71, 12.97). Compared with their premenarcheal age peers, postmenarcheal girls had greater anthropometric dimensions through age 12. After this age, only height was higher in the latter group. Data were processed by fitting two logistic regressions, both including age. The first model included anthropometric variables and birth weight, while the second model included the socioeconomic variables. The significant variables derived from each model were incorporated into a new regression: height, sitting height ratio (first model), and maternal education (second model). These three variables remained significantly associated with menarche. The results suggest a relationship between linear growth and menarche and agree with those found in other populations where the advancement of menarche is associated with improved living conditions. In relatively uniform urban contexts, maternal education may be a good proxy for the standard of living. PMID:21905419
Orden, Alicia B; Vericat, Agustina; Apezteguía, Maria C
The aim of the study was to determine the socioeconomic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to determine socioeconomic characteristics of crop farmers in the area, determine farmers level of awareness of climate change in the area, ascertain effects of climate change in crop production, identify adaptation strategies adopted by the farmers in the area and determine socioeconomi...
Anyoha, N. O.; Nnadi, F. N.; Chikaire, J.; Echetama, J. A.; Utazi, C. O.; Ihenacho, R. A.
Abstract Background The widening socioeconomic gap in smoking during pregnancy remains a challenge to the Swedish antenatal care services. However, the influence of cultural factors in explaining the socioeconomic differences in smoking during pregnancy is not clear among the immigrant women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the development of smoking prevalence among pregnant immigrant women in Sweden followed the trajectory which could be expected from the s...
Eek Frida; P-o, Ostergren; Moussa Kontie M; Kunst Anton E
Abstract Background There has been an increasing availability and accessibility of modern health services in rural Bangladesh over the past decades. However, previous studies on the socioeconomic differentials in the utilization of these services were based on a limited number of factors, focusing either on preventive or on curative modern health services. These studies failed to collect data from remote rural areas of the different regions to examine the socioeconomic differ...
Becker Stan; Shah Nirali M; Amin Ruhul
The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG)
Climate change is predicted to negatively impact many agricultural communities across the globe, particularly smallholder farmers who often do not have access to appropriate technologies to reduce their vulnerability. To better predict which farmers will be most impacted by future climate change at a regional scale, we use remote sensing and agricultural census data to examine how cropping intensity and crop type have shifted based on rainfall variability across Gujarat, India from 1990 to 2010. Using household-level interviews, we then identify the socio-economic, biophysical, perceptional, and psychological factors associated with smallholder farmers who are the most impacted and the least able to adapt to contemporaneous rainfall variability. We interviewed 750 farmers in 2011 and 2012 that span a rainfall, irrigation, socio-economic, and caste gradient across central Gujarat. Our results show that farmers shift cropping practices in several ways based on monsoon onset, which farmers state is the main observable rainfall signal influencing cropping decisions during the monsoon season. When monsoon onset is delayed, farmers opt to plant more drought-tolerant crops, push back the date of sowing, and increase the number of irrigations used. Comparing self-reported income and yields, we find that switching crops does not improve agricultural income, shifting planting date does not influence crop yield, yet increasing the number of irrigations significantly increases yield. Future work will identify which social (e.g. social networks), psychological (e.g. risk preference), and knowledge (e.g. information sources) factors are associated with farmers who are best able to adapt to rainfall variability.
Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.
Countries of the Persian Gulf region--Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates--have become increasingly modernized, resulting in a transformation of lifestyle based on technology, sedentary activity, lack of sunlight, and unhealthy dietary patterns. These factors have led to a higher prevalence not only of vitamin D undernutrition, but also chronic obesity, insulin resistance, prediabetes, and type 2 diabetes. This review explores the integrative physiologic effects of vitamin D with socioeconomic factors and propose a hypothesis-driven model for their contributions to obesity and diabetes in the Persian Gulf. Further research into these interactions may ultimately lead to novel preventive strategies and therapies for metabolic disorders in this geographic region. PMID:21901427
Fields, Jessica; Trivedi, Nishant J; Horton, Edward; Mechanick, Jeffrey I
Craniosynostosis is a little known organic factor in sociopathy. This factor should be among those taken into consideration in selecting patients to undergo craniotomy. Among 22,000 skulls of neuropsychiatric patients, there were 100 with premature coronal synostosis, compared with 57 with dolichocephaly. Thirty-seven of the 100 patients with coronal synostosis exhibited disorders of social adaptation; frontal cortex functions are assumed to be involved. There were 34 cases of mental deficiency, 21 cases of psychosis, 13 of cerebral vascular disease, 10 cases of epilepsy, 4 of acrocephalosyndactyly, 3 of decompensation by slight craniocerebral trauma, and 1 case of ependymoma of the IV ventricle. Dolichocephalic patients exhibited a stronger tendency towards depressive states and cerebral vascular disease. The risks of cosmetic impairment and resulting psychosocial problems are discussed; especially in girls with oxy- and scaphocephaly craniofacial correction, is indicated, as it is also in patients with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. In cases of premature synostosis of the coronal suture or synostosis of several sutures for carrying out a craniotomy, it is advisable to employ a combination of orbito-frontosphenoidal osteotomy for extension of the anterior cranial fossa. Craniosynostosis is a risk factor which, depending on the individual case and the sex and age of the patient, can impair central nervous functions, social adaption, and the blood supply of the brain. PMID:8269413
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and ...
Santos Ana Paula Pires dos; Soviero Vera Mendes
Although autoimmune diabetes in adults is a common form of diabetes, knowledge on risk factors and long term consequences of the disease is limited. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the influence of socioeconomic factors (education and occupation), sleep disturbances and psychological well-being on the risk of developing autoimmune diabetes in adults, to investigate whether genetic variation in the melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) contributes to the association between poor sleep and...
Examines the risk and protective factors for different types of violent behavior in high school adolescents. Major risk factors include gender and deviant behaviors, committing nonviolent felonies, academic failure, and lack of parental affection and support. As risk factors increase, the likelihood of violent behavior increases. Impaired parental…
Saner, Hilary; Ellickson, Phyllis
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Cancer is the second cause of death in the world, and colon cancer is the third cause of death and is one of the most common cancers which will cure with early diagnosis, treatment and sufficient follow up. Assessing factors which affect this cancer is important for prolonging patient survival. Socioeconomic factors are among effective factors of cancer morbidity and mortality. Because mortality rates for colon cancers vary by socioeconomic characteristics, this study has been performed to recognize the relationship between socioeconomic factors with treatment and follow up of colon cancer. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study for patients with colon cancer registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from April 2005 to November 2006. Patients were selected randomly, and the study was conducted using questionnaires filled by interviewing the patients via phone (if a patient was dead, the questions were asked from their family members. Data analysis was done using SPSS (version 19 software. Results: The study was performed on 520 colon cancer patients with age range of 23-88 years. The mean age of the patients was 63 (S.D. = 11.8 and the median age was 64.Two hundred thirty seven (45.4% patients were female and 283(54.4% were male. Using Chi- square test, age< 60 (P=0.002 and female gender (P=0.034 had a significant correlation with complete treatment and there was a significant relationship between complete follow up and age< 60 (P=0.037, academic education (P=0.02 and having insurance (P=0.021. Multiple logistic regression tests were used to evaluate concurrent effects of variables on treatment and follow up. Correlated variables to complete treatment include: age< 60 (P=0.001, and female gender (P=0.023.The Odds Ratio (OR of completing treatment for patients under 60 years of age versus patients above 60 years was 3.13 (95% C.I. 1.55 to 6.34, and the OR of completing treatment for women versus men was 1.91(95% C.I. 1.33 to 2.74. Correlated variables to follow up were academic education (P=0.018 and having insurance (P=0.046. The OR of cancer follow up in illiterate patients versus college-educated patients was 0.45(95% C.I. 0.24 to 0.82, and the OR of cancer follow up in patients without insurance versus patients with health was 0.46(95% C.I. 0.21 to 0.98. Conclusion: Age is a correlated factor on completing colon cancer treatment. Women have more complete colon cancer treatment than men. Academic education and having insurance were the most important factors among socioeconomic factors observed in a five-year follow up after treatment. As the population of the old is increasing, executing effective interventions to improve treatment and follow up procedures for old patients is of prime importance. It seems that increasing the insurance contribution in follow up measures may lead to increase in the regular follow up and may affect patients' survival.
Esmat Davoudi Monfared
Death rates have been calculated by cause, age, sex and race for each county, state economic area, and other groups of counties of the USA for the period 1959 to 1976, data being obtained from official sources. Attention has been given to appropriate methods of using these rates for epidemiological study. Within the USA there are marked and consistent differences in death rates for middle-aged white males: low in the west central plains area and high in the south-east coastal plain. If the USA as a whole had rates as low as in the low-rate areas, there would be 160,000 fewer deaths per year under the age of 75. Coal- and metal-mining is strongly associated with high rates for middle-aged females as well as males. The residents of an area around a nuclear plant, after 22 years of exposure to low levels of radiation from this plant, do not show clear evidence of either decreased or increased risk, for various forms of cancer and other causes, as compared with rates for those living further away in the same states, or as compared with US rates. In the USA, persons living at higher elevations tend to have lower death rates. A number of factors may be hypothesized as being responsible for these lower rates, including the higher levels of background radiation at higher elevations. Many other factors also present evidence of being associated with differences in risk, including cigarette-smoking and various socio-economic or cultural variables. (author)variables. (author)
The changing epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) across time and geography suggests that environmental factors play a major role in modifying disease expression. Disease emergence in developing nations suggests that epidemiological evolution is related to westernisation of lifestyle and industrialisation. The strongest environmental associations identified are cigarette smoking and appendectomy, although neither alone explains the variation in incidence of IBD worldwide. Urbanisation of societies, associated with changes in diet, antibiotic use, hygiene status, microbial exposures and pollution have been implicated as potential environmental risk factors for IBD. Changes in socioeconomic status might occur differently in different geographical areas and populations and, consequently, it is important to consider the heterogeneity of risk factors applicable to the individual patient. Environmental risk factors of individual, familial, community-based, country-based and regionally based origin may all contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD. The geographical variation of IBD provides clues for researchers to investigate possible environmental aetiological factors. The present review aims to provide an update of the literature exploring geographical variability in IBD and to explore the environmental risk factors that may account for this variability. PMID:23335431
Ng, Siew C; Bernstein, Charles N; Vatn, Morten H; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Loftus, Edward V; Tysk, Curt; O'Morain, Colm; Moum, Bjorn; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric
South America exhibits some of the higher rates of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobactericeae worldwide. This continent includes 12 independent countries with huge socioeconomic differences, where the ample access to antimicrobials, including counterfeit ones, coexists with ineffective health systems and sanitation problems, favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant strains. This work presents a literature review concerning the evolution and current status of antimicrobial resistance threats found among Enterobacteriaceae in South America. Resistance to ?-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides was emphasized along with description of key epidemiological studies that highlight the success of specific resistance determinants in different parts of the continent. In addition, a discussion regarding political and socioeconomic factors possibly related to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains in clinical settings and at the community is presented. Finally, in order to assess the possible sources of resistant bacteria, we compile the current knowledge about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in isolates in South American' food, food-producing animals and off-hospitals environments. By addressing that intensive intercontinental commerce and tourism neutralizes the protective effect of geographic barriers, we provide arguments reinforcing that globally integrated efforts are needed to decelerate the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains. PMID:24618111
Bonelli, Raquel Regina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer; Picão, Renata Cristina
Full Text Available Food insecurity is the situation where people do not have access to sufficient, stable and safe food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. The objective of this study was to determine the status of food security in the Adana metropolitan area by using, for the first time in Turkey, Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSS. Household’s food security levels and socio-economic factors affecting the food security were analyzed using the ordered logistic regression technique. The household food security level surveys in the Adana metropolitan area indicated that hunger was not in a serious condition, however food insecurity was critical. While the rate of food insecurity in households with children was 69%, food insecurity rate of households without children was 39.6%. It was a highly worrisome situation that hunger and food insecurity rates were more frequent in households with children. In this study, it has been found that among the socio-economic variables, the income level was the most decisive variable for food security. The gender of household head, employment status, education level and household count were the other variables affecting food security.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction One issue that continues to attract the attention of public health researchers is the possible relationship in high-income countries between income, income inequality and infant mortality (IM. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between IM and major socio-economic determinants in Italy. Methods Associations between infant mortality rates in the 20 Italian regions (2006–2008 and the Gini index of income inequality, mean household income, percentage of women with at least 8 years of education, and percentage of unemployed aged 15–64 years were assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Univariate linear regression and multiple stepwise linear regression analyses were performed to determine the magnitude and direction of the effect of the four socio-economic variables on IM. Results The Gini index and the total unemployment rate showed a positive strong correlation with IM (r?=?0.70; p?b?=?0.15, p? Conclusions In Italy, a high-income country where health care is universally available, variations in IM were strongly associated with relative and absolute income and unemployment rate. These results suggest that in Italy IM is not only related to income distribution, as demonstrated for other developed countries, but also to economic factors such as absolute income and unemployment. In order to reduce IM and the existing inequalities, the challenge for Italian decision makers is to promote economic growth and enhance employment levels.
Full Text Available Dzanga Ndoki is the main National Park located in Dzanga Sangha Complex Protected Area, Central African Republic. This study assesses socioeconomic factors and different NGOs involved in management of the park. A questionnaire survey was used to collect data in 8 villages around the park. Results on socioeconomic study showed that younger people aged of 20-25 (36.55% and between 25-30 (27. 81% are more dynamic in the forest than elderly ones (age >35 who represented (5.61%. Better education may help in conservation of the Dzanga Ndoki due to different employment. Admittedly, 39.27% of people had primary education, (6.4% had secondary level, (1.33% had higher education and 53.18% were illiterate. Employment and access to market are missing. Participative management has mostly focused on villages of Mossapoula and Yandoumbe. Ba Aka people (60.52% were not satisfied with the project. In addition, poor conditions of local people let them very dependent to forest resources (illegal hunting and gathering. This project is however unable to provide financial support to national NGOs and associations for local people.
Ngbo-Ngbangbo Louis Maxime
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (? = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, literacy status, mass media exposure, wealth status, and child-death experience by mothers. All of these were strong predictors for CEB. It can be concluded that programs should aim to reduce fertility rates by focusing on these identified factors so that fertility as well as infant and maternal mortality and morbidity will be decreased and the overall well-being of the family maintained and enhanced.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Ribeirão Preto, a rich Brazilian city, was significantly higher (21.4%) than in São Luís (5.9%), a less developed city. To assess which variables explain the difference in prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, data from two birth cohorts were used, inc [...] luding 2846 puerperae from Ribeirão Preto, in 1994, and 2443 puerperae from São Luís, in 1997/98. In multivariable analysis, risk of maternal smoking during pregnancy was higher in São Luís for mothers living in a household with five or more persons (OR = 1.72, 95%CI = 1.12-2.64), aged 35 years or older (OR = 1.98, 95%CI = 0.99-3.96), who had five or more children (OR = 2.10, 95%CI = 1.16-3.81), and whose companion smoked (OR = 2.20, 95%CI = 1.52-3.18). Age of less than 20 years was a protective factor (OR = 0.55, 95%CI = 0.33-0.92). In Ribeirão Preto there was association with maternal low educational level (OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.30-3.65) and with a smoking companion (OR = 3.25, 95%CI = 2.52-4.18). Receiving prenatal care was a protective factor (OR = 0.24, 95%CI = 0.11-0.49). Mothers from Ribeirão Preto who worked outside the home were at a higher risk and those aged 35 years or older or who attended five or more prenatal care visits were at lower risk of smoking during pregnancy as compared to mothers from São Luís. Smoking by the companion reduced the difference between smoking rates in the two cities by 10%. The socioeconomic variables in the model did not explain the higher prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in the more developed city.
V.S., Ribeiro; F.P., Figueiredo; A.A.M., Silva; R.L.F., Batista; M.A., Barbieri; F., Lamy Filho; M.T.S.S.B., Alves; A.M., Santos; H., Bettiol.
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in human population. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in our country. The incidence of colorectal cancer increases in the fifth decade of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between colorectal cancer and potential risk factors. A case-control study of colorectal cancer was carried out between 1998 and 1999 in Clinical Center of Serbia, Center for Digestive Surgery. A total of 100 cases of newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer confirmed by histopathology and an equal number of controls, individually matched by gender and age (+/-5 years, were chosen from patients from the same hospital with no history of cancer at all. McNemar test and conditional logistic regression were used in the analysis. According to logistic regression analysis the following risk factors were independently related with the occurrence of colorectal cancer: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet rich in red meat and fat promote the carcinogenic process; food rich in vegetables, fruits, grains, vitamin C, physical activity, and oral contraceptive use inhibit the same process. A family history of cancer and long standing inflammatory bowel diseases also have significant role. There is convincing evidence that nutrition affects colorectal carcinogenesis in a complex fashion.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding the cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chamorros residing in the United States. Methods The Chamorro Directory International and the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS were used to assess the health related practices and needs of a random sample of 228 Chamorros. Results Inactivity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in this Chamorro sample compared to the US average. Participants who were 50-and-older or unemployed were more likely to report hypertension, diabetes and inactivity, but they were also more likely to consume more fruits and vegetables than their younger and employed counterparts. Women were more likely to report hypertension and diabetes, whereas men were more likely to have elevated BMI and to have never had their blood cholesterol checked. Conclusion The study provides data that will help healthcare providers, public health workers and community leaders identify where to focus their health improvement efforts for Chamorros and create culturally competent programs to promote health in this community.
Wu Phillis L
Effortful control was examined as a moderator of the relations of three domains of contextual risk factors to growth in internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample (N = 189) of children (8–12 years at Time 1). Socioeconomic, maternal, and environmental risk factors were examined as predictors of initial levels and growth in children’s adjustment problems across 3 years. The effects of the risk factors depended on children’s level of effortful control. For children low...
Lengua, Liliana J.; Bush, Nicole R.; Long, Anna C.; Kovacs, Erica A.; Trancik, Anika M.
This article describes the frequency of possible risk factors that emerged during a cross-cultural study of psychosocial response to sexual assault among African-American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white women presenting for treatment at a major urban rape treatment center. Of 881 victims screened, 51% had no observable risk factors while 49% fell into categories of variables that previous research has associated with increased vulnerability. Included were mental disability (psychiatric or developmental), a prior history of rape or incest, tourist or visitor status (site unfamiliarity), and homelessness. Ethnic groups differed significantly in these categories, suggesting socioeconomic and cultural variables that may affect rape statistics and that should be taken into account in rape prevention programs in the community. PMID:8500286
Scott, C S; Lefley, H P; Hicks, D
Summary Background Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Methods We identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (cohort study); investigation of the effect of working hours or overtime work; incident diabetes as an outcome; and relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, or sufficient information to calculate these estimates. Additionally, we used unpublished individual-level data from 19 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working-Populations Consortium and international open-access data archives. Effect estimates from published and unpublished data from 222?120 men and women from the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis. Findings During 1·7 million person-years at risk, 4963 individuals developed diabetes (incidence 29 per 10?000 person-years). The minimally adjusted summary risk ratio for long (?55 h per week) compared with standard working hours (35–40 h) was 1·07 (95% CI 0·89–1·27, difference in incidence three cases per 10?000 person-years) with significant heterogeneity in study-specific estimates (I2=53%, p=0·0016). In an analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, the association between long working hours and diabetes was evident in the low socioeconomic status group (risk ratio 1·29, 95% CI 1·06–1·57, difference in incidence 13 per 10?000 person-years, I2=0%, p=0·4662), but was null in the high socioeconomic status group (1·00, 95% CI 0·80–1·25, incidence difference zero per 10?000 person-years, I2=15%, p=0·2464). The association in the low socioeconomic status group was robust to adjustment for age, sex, obesity, and physical activity, and remained after exclusion of shift workers. Interpretation In this meta-analysis, the link between longer working hours and type 2 diabetes was apparent only in individuals in the low socioeconomic status groups. Funding Medical Research Council, European Union New and Emerging Risks in Occupational Safety and Health research programme, Finnish Work Environment Fund, Swedish Research Council for Working Life and Social Research, German Social Accident Insurance, Danish National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Academy of Finland, Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment (Netherlands), Economic and Social Research Council, US National Institutes of Health, and British Heart Foundation. PMID:25262544
Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Nyberg, Solja T; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Brunner, Eric J; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Hamer, Mark; Heikkilä, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Jokela, Markus
Full Text Available Introduction: To inform maternal health improvements, the purpose of this study was to identify the socioeconomic factors affecting access to basic antenatal care (ANC. Methods: 1,360 women (aged 15-49 years from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey were classified according to the frequency of ANC and the health assessments completed. Results: Low education was the strongest determinant for refusal to use ANC (OR: 9.2-39.3; p < .01 and frequency of use below the three recommended visits (OR: 6.9-39.3; p < .01. In terms of quality of care, low income (OR: 5.6-25.6; p < .01 and living in the Northern Midland and Mountain area (OR: 5.9-8.1; p < .01 were associated with incomplete care. Conclusions: Different approaches are needed for each group, including measures such as improving health literacy and advocating for better services in low-income regions.
Full Text Available The air quality in China, particularly the PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter level, has become an increasing public concern because of its relation to health risks. The distribution of PM2.5 concentrations has a close relationship with multiple geographic and socioeconomic factors, but the lack of reliable data has been the main obstacle to studying this topic. Based on the newly published Annual Average PM2.5 gridded data, together with land use data, gridded population data and Gross Domestic Product (GDP data, this paper explored the spatial-temporal characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations and the factors impacting those concentrations in China for the years of 2001–2010. The contributions of urban areas, high population and economic development to PM2.5 concentrations were analyzed using the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR model. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of PM2.5 concentrations in China remained stable during the period 2001–2010; high concentrations of PM2.5 are mostly found in regions with high populations and rapid urban expansion, including the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in North China, East China (including the Shandong, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces and Henan province. Increasing populations, local economic growth and urban expansion are the three main driving forces impacting PM2.5 concentrations.
Case-control study comprised 100 histologically verified thyroid cancer patients (23 men, 77 women) and 100 hospital controls matched with cases by sex, age and place of resistance. Various risk factors were studied to determine whether they were associated with the occurrence of thyroid cancer. According to the conditional logistic regression analysis, 6 were significantly related to the disease: cigarette smoking (RR = 7.12 95 % CI 1.53 -32.99), family history of any malignant tumors (RR = 5.84 95 % CI 1.76-19.44), history of goiter or thyroid nodules (RR = 27.69 95 % CI 3.11-246.14), long-term occupational exposure to chemicals (RR = 10.07 95 % CI = 3.85-26.35), history of second primary tumors (RR = 15.49 95 % CI 3.46-69.30), and diagnostic X-ray exposure (RR = 7.56 95 % CI = 2.85-20.07). (author)
Full Text Available We explored the power of 14 socioeconomic factors for predicting differences in traditional knowledge about palms (Arecaceae at the personal, household, and regional levels in 25 locations in the Amazon, Andes, and Chocó of northwestern South America. Using semistructured interviews, we gathered data on palm uses from 2050 informants in 53 communities and four countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia . We performed multilevel statistical analyses, which showed that the influence of each socioeconomic factor differed depending on whether the analysis was performed on the overall palm knowledge or on individual use categories. At the general palm knowledge level, gender was the only factor that had a significant association in all five subregions, and showed that men had more knowledge than women, and age had a positive significant association only in the lowlands. Most of the analyzed socioeconomic factors had a greater influence on the lowland ecoregions of the Amazon and Chocó, although there were mixed trends in these ecoregions. Our results show that there are no regional patterns in the predictive power of socioeconomic factors and that their influence on palm-use knowledge is highly localized. We can conclude that (1 conservation strategies of traditional knowledge of palm use in the region should be developed mainly at the local level, and (2 large-scale comparable ethnoecological studies are necessary to understand indigenous communities' livelihoods at different scales.
Narel Y. Paniagua-Zambrana
Majid Ezzati and colleagues examine the contribution of a set of risk factors (smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and adiposity) to socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy in the US population.
Danaei, Goodarz; Rimm, Eric B.; Oza, Shefali; Kulkarni, Sandeep C.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Ezzati, Majid
It is seen that primary school dropout among tribal students is generally high. Socioeconomic factors among others are also responsible for that. This study tried to find out the significant factors responsible for primary school dropout among the tribal students in Kamrup district of Assam. It is found that household income, household size and parent’s education are some of the significant factors having influence on school dropout. Some policy suggestions are also provided in conclusion.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many different factors influenced food habits and physical activity patterns of adolescents in a complex interactive way. The aim of this study was to assess association between sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic factors, diet and lifestyle among the Balearic Islands adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n?=?1961; 12–17?years old was carried out. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents (IPAQ-A. Sedentary behaviour was defined as Results The prevalence of sedentary behaviour was 37.1% (22.0% boys, 50.8% girls. Active boys consumed frequently breakfast cereals and fresh fruit; active girls yogurt, cheese, breakfast cereals, and fresh fruit; and sedentary girls high fat foods and soft drinks. Sedentary behaviour of girls was directly associated to age, and time spent on media screen and homework, and inversely related to adherence to Mediterranean diet, and body composition. Sedentary behaviour of boys was inversely related to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and the desire to remain the same weight. Conclusions The prevalence of sedentary behaviour among Balearic Islands adolescents is high, mainly among girls. Age, sex, parental educational and profession levels, body size dissatisfaction, and poor quality diet are important factors of physical activity practice among adolescents.
Bibiloni Maria del Mar
Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ? 94 cm (men or ? 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are positively associated with overweight, while educational level and health related sports are negatively related to overweight in both genders. In men, alcohol consumption and smoking in the past are also among the lifestyle factors associated with overweight. This study also indicates that BMI and WC do not have the same discriminative function regarding different lifestyle factors.
The purpose of this study is to examine the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype with causes of death [breast cancer (BC)-specific and non-BC-specific] among non-metastatic invasive BC patients. We identified 3,312 patients younger than 75 years (mean age 53.5 years; 621 [18.8 %] TNBC) with first primary BC treated at an academic medical center from 1999 to 2010. We constructed a census-tract-level socioeconomic deprivation index using the 2000 U.S. Census data and performed a multilevel competing-risk analysis to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of BC-specific and non-BC-specific mortality associated with neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and TNBC subtype. The adjusted models controlled for patient sociodemographics, health behaviors, tumor characteristics, comorbidity, and cancer treatment. With a median 62-month follow-up, 349 (10.5 %) patients died; 233 died from BC. In the multivariate models, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was independently associated with non-BC-specific mortality (the most- vs. the least-deprived quartile: HR = 2.98, 95 % CI = 1.33-6.66); in contrast, its association with BC-specific mortality was explained by the aforementioned patient-level covariates, particularly sociodemographic factors (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 0.71-1.87). TNBC subtype was independently associated with non-BC-specific mortality (HR = 2.15; 95 % CI = 1.20-3.84), while the association between TNBC and BC-specific mortality approached significance (HR = 1.42; 95 % CI = 0.99-2.03, P = 0.057). Non-metastatic invasive BC patients who lived in more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods were more likely to die as a result of causes other than BC compared with those living in the least socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods. TNBC was associated with non-BC-specific mortality but not BC-specific mortality. PMID:25234843
Lian, Min; Pérez, Maria; Liu, Ying; Schootman, Mario; Frisse, Ann; Foldes, Ellen; Jeffe, Donna B
Purpose: This study attempts to determine the associations between postdischarge environmental (PDE) and socioeconomic (SES) factors and early readmission to hospitals. Design and Methods: This study was a cohort study using the 2001 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey and Medicare claims for the period from 2001 to 2002. The participants were…
Arbaje, Alicia I.; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Yu,Qilu; Powe, Neil R.; Anderson, Gerard F.; Boult, Chad
Hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and obesity are among a growing list of conditions that have been designated as major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While CVD risk factors are well known to enhance the development of atherosclerotic lesions in large arteries, there is also evidence that the structure and function of microscopic blood vessels can be profoundly altered by these conditions. The diverse responses of the microvasculature to CVD risk factors include oxi...
Granger, D. Neil; Rodrigues, Stephen F.; Yildirim, Alper; Senchenkova, Elena Y.
In spite of the fact that prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in both Sweden and many other countries in the developed world, little is known of risk factors and predisposing conditions. The only well recognized risk factors are age, race and familial aggregation. More knowledge about risk factors could lead to better preventive measures together with better treatments. One way to evaluate this is to study second primary cancers; the connection between two different cancers can giv...
Thellenberg Karlsson, Camilla
BACKGROUND--In a previous retrospective study of tuberculosis in south London among Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent Hindu Asians were found to have a significantly increased risk for tuberculosis compared with Muslims. This finding has been further investigated by examining the role of socioeconomic and lifestyle variables, including diet, as risk factors for tuberculosis in Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent resident in south London. METHODS--Using a case-control stu...
Strachan, D. P.; Powell, K. J.; Thaker, A.; Millard, F. J.; Maxwell, J. D.
In a Danish population-based case-control study, we examined the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk of community-acquired bacteremia, as well as the contribution of chronic diseases and substance abuse to differences in bacteremia risk. Analyses were based on 4,117 patients aged 30-65 years who were hospitalized with first-time community-acquired bacteremia during 2000-2008 and 41,170 population controls matched by sex, age, and region of residence. Individual-level information on SES (education and income), chronic diseases, and substance abuse was retrieved from public and medical registries. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios for bacteremia. Persons of low SES had a substantially higher risk of bacteremia than those of high SES (for short duration of education vs. long duration, odds ratio = 2.30 (95% confidence interval: 2.10, 2.52); for low income vs. high income, odds ratio = 2.77 (95% confidence interval: 2.54, 3.02)). A higher prevalence of chronic diseases and substance abuse in low-SES individuals versus high-SES individuals explained 43%-48% of the socioeconomic differences in bacteremia risk. In a country with a universal welfare system, differences in the burden of chronic diseases and substance abuse seem to have major importance in explaining inequalities in bacteremia risk.
Koch, Kristoffer; SØgaard, Mette
In the catchment area of Matsumoto Public Health Center in Japan, 44 schizophrenic patients admitted between April 1992 and March 1997 under the national policy Involuntary Hospitalization Ordered by Prefectural Governor (IHOPG) were compared with 61 schizophrenic patients admitted under another policy, Hospitalization for Medical Care and Protection (HMCP), during the same period. The socioeconomic and familial factors that led patients to IHOPG were evaluated in detail. The results revealed the following characteristics of IHOPG patients as opposed to HMCP patients: (i) their morbidity was of longer duration; (ii) they were more likely to live in a densely populated area; (iii) they were less likely to be financially self-sufficient; (iv) prior to admission they were more likely than HMCP patients to have avoided psychiatric examination and to have refused to take medication, and most had received no treatment before their hospitalization under IHOPG; (v) their relationships with family members were more likely to be poor; and (vi) the family was less likely to have cooperated with treatment or to have solved the patient's problematic behaviors. This investigation and the ensuing discussion revealed that a patient's schizophrenia-based danger to hurt self or others, which is an essential impetus for admission to IHOPG, does not arise suddenly but rather stems from multiple factors developing over time. PMID:14678450
Hattori, Isao; Higashi, Takahiro
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia. This study was conducted in 160 children with sickle cell anemia aged 3 to 12 years attending the Center for Hematology in Recife, Brazil . Data collection included interv [...] iews with guardians concerning social factors and oral examinations to determine the caries prevalence. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's chi-square tests at a 5% significance level. The caries prevalence was 55.0%. The dmft index was 2.12, and the DMFT index was 1.50. Income significantly influenced dmft; the mean dmft was 4.57 in children whose family income was less than the Brazilian minimum wage (BMW), whereas in children with a family income three times the BMW or higher, the mean dmft was 2.27. No statistically positive association was found between the educational level of parents and guardians and the caries indices. A statistically significant association was found between dental caries prevalence and family income.
Ana Cláudia Alves e, Luna; Maria José, Rodrigues; Valdenice Aparecida, Menezes; Kátia Maria Gonçalves, Marques; Fabiano Almeida dos, Santos.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia. This study was conducted in 160 children with sickle cell anemia aged 3 to 12 years attending the Center for Hematology in Recife, Brazil . Data collection included interviews with guardians concerning social factors and oral examinations to determine the caries prevalence. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's chi-square tests at a 5% significance level. The caries prevalence was 55.0%. The dmft index was 2.12, and the DMFT index was 1.50. Income significantly influenced dmft; the mean dmft was 4.57 in children whose family income was less than the Brazilian minimum wage (BMW, whereas in children with a family income three times the BMW or higher, the mean dmft was 2.27. No statistically positive association was found between the educational level of parents and guardians and the caries indices. A statistically significant association was found between dental caries prevalence and family income.
Ana Cláudia Alves e Luna
Pakistani people belong to an ethnic group which has the highest rate of coronary artery disease. There are a number of risk factors for developing the coronary artery disease (CAD). Homocysteine, a sulphur containing amino acid, has been reported to be an independent risk factor for CAD. The present study was done to find out the role of hyperhomocysteinemia in the development of coronary artery disease in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out. There were 40 angiographically diagnosed male patients of coronary artery disease between 30 - 40 years of age taken as cases and 40 age, sex and socioeconomically matched healthy subjects with normal carotid doppler study taken as controls. Fasting venous blood from cases and controls was taken in E.D.T.A vacationers. Plasma was analyzed for homo-cysteine level by enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Mean plasma concentration of homocysteine in coronary artery disease patients i.e. cases was 13.5 +- 6.8 mu mol/L and was higher than the mean for controls (10.76 +- 2.27 mu mol/L) to a significant extent. Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia through inter-play with the classical cardiovascular risk factors may be aggravating the risk of coronary artery disease in Pakistani people. (author)
Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ? Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ? Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ? “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ? A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ? Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Sociantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.
Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia and squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus have a poor prognosis. The increasing incidence and the strong male predominance of esophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma are striking, and yet unexplained, patterns that should be due to unknown environmental factors. The main aim of this thesis was to study occupational and socio-economic factors in relation to these tumors. Papers I, III and IV are based on a nationwide Swed...
This study analyzes the socio-economic factors that influence people’s decision to become fishermen in the central region of Ghana. Using a well structured interview schedule, a random sample of 98 people from Elmina in the central region of Ghana was selected for the study. Results from the descriptive statistics analysis of respondents identified fishing as a family business, minimum skills requirement and ready market for fish demand as factors that mo...
Acquah Henry D.; Abunyuwah Isaac
This paper reviews the epidemiological research evidence on the role of socio-economic factors in the origins and disease experience of schizophrenia and major depression. The studies were conducted in different countries over many years. Although their findings are divided in their support of either the social causation or the drift hypothesis, all of them agree that persons with these disorders are at high disadvantage in society. Several factors for this have been identif...
Saraceno, Benedetto; Levav, Itzhak; Kohn, Robert
The reasons for social inequality in breast cancer survival are far from established. Our study aims to study the importance of a range of socioeconomic factors and comorbid disorders on survival after breast cancer surgery in Denmark where the health care system is tax-funded and uniform. All 25,897 Danish women who underwent protocol-based treatment for breast cancer in 1983-1999 were identified in a clinical database and information on socioeconomic variables and both somatic and psychiatric comorbid disorders was obtained from population-based registries. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between socioeconomic position and overall survival and further to analyse breast cancer specific deaths in a competing risk set-up regarding all other causes of death as competing risks. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death was reduced in women with higher education (HR, 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-0.98), with higher income (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98) and with larger dwellings (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96 for women living in houses larger than 150 m(2)). Presence of comorbid disorders increased the HR. An interaction between income and comorbid disorders resulting in a 15% lower survival 10 year after primary surgery in poor women with low-risk breast cancer having comorbid conditions ( approximately 65%) compared to rich women with similar breast cancer prognosis and comorbid conditions ( approximately 80%) suggests that part of the explanation for the social inequality in survival after breast cancer surgery in Denmark lies in the access to and/or compliance with management of comorbid conditions in poorer women. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Ross, Lone
To observe the patterns of speech sounds and language disorders. To find out associated risk factors of speech sounds and language disorders. Background: Communication is the very essence of modern society. Communication disorders impacts quality of life. Patterns and factors associated with speech sounds and language impairments were explored. The association was seen with different environmental factors. Methodology: The patients included in the study were 200 whose age ranged between two and sixteen years presented in speech therapy clinic OPD Mayo Hospital. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire assessed the patient's bio data, socioeconomic background, family history of communication disorders and bilingualism. It was a descriptive study and was conducted through cross-sectional survey. Data was analysed by SPSS version 16. Results: Results reveal Language disorders were relatively more prevalent in males than those of speech sound disorders. Bilingualism was found as having insignificant effect on these disorders. It was concluded from this study that the socioeconomic status and family history were significant risk factors. Conclusion: Gender, socioeconomic status, family history can play as risk for developing speech sounds and language disorders. There is a grave need to understand patterns of communication disorders in the light of Pakistani society and culture. It is recommended to conduct further studies to determine risk factors and patterns of these impairments. (author)
Full Text Available Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported information to meet study objectives. Around 32 % of females were either overweight or obese and the study subjects with a family history of maternal obesity and habit of limited snacking had higher odds for obesity. No associations were found between obesity and parental income and education status; and skipping breakfast and physical activity behaviours of the subjects. Maternal obesity could be a considerable risk factor for obesity in female subjects.
Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors [...] on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance.
Full Text Available Background : This study was conducted in JIPMER & Kurusukuppam, Pondicherry. Objectives : To identify the socioeconomic factors influencing the utilization of cataract surgery & to identify the persons motivating the patients to utilize these services. This was a case-control study; cases were patients (age group 50-70 years who were operated in JIPMER for senile cataract without complications and one control was selected for each case. Controls were also of the same age group residing at Kurusukuppam with complaints of dimness of vision and who had not undergone cataract surgery, selected by random sampling. Both the groups were interviewed using a pretested interview schedule. Results : Subjects who were literate and with high school education and more and with income more than Rs.1050 (class III utilized the cataract surgery services more. In majority of cases, motivation for getting operated comes from relatives. Peer groups who have undergone the surgery before, were the predominant sources of health information about the surgery. Higher income & higher education affect the utilization significantly. Relatives & Previously operated peers play an important role.
In the U.S., women account for over a quarter of the approximately 50,000 annual new HIV diagnoses and face intersecting and ubiquitous adversities including gender inequities, sexism, poverty, violence, and limited access to quality education and employment. Women are also subjected to prescribed gender roles such as silencing their needs in interpersonal relationships, which may lessen their ability to be resilient and function adaptively following adversity. Previous studies have often highlighted the struggles encountered by women with HIV without focusing on their strengths. The present cross-sectional study investigated the relationships of silencing the self and socioeconomic factors (education, employment, and income) with resilience in a sample of women with HIV. The sample consisted of 85 women with HIV, diverse ethnic/racial groups, aged 24 - 65 enrolled at the Chicago site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study in the midwestern region of the United States. Measures included the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale -10 item and the Silencing the Self Scale (STSS). Participants showed high levels of resilience. Women with lower scores on the STSS (lower self-silencing) reported significantly higher resilience compared to women with higher STSS scores. Although employment significantly related to higher resilience, silencing the self tended to predict resilience over and above the contributions of employment, income, and education. Results suggest that intervention and prevention efforts aimed at decreasing silencing the self and increasing employment opportunities may improve resilience. PMID:24932061
Dale, Sannisha K; Cohen, Mardge H; Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cruise, Ruth C; Weber, Kathleen M; Watson, Cheryl; Burke-Miller, Jane K; Brody, Leslie R
Objective: To study the clinical progress, risk factors, management, and outcomes of suspected ectopic pregnancy (EP). Design: Retrospective clinical case study. Population: All 184 patients hospitalized for suspected EP during the period 1.1.2008-31.12.2011. Setting: Oulu University Hospital, Finland. Methods: The clinical progress, risk factors, management, complica...
Anna Patapuro; Henri Lahdemaki; Jaana Marttala; Markku Santala; Markku Ryynanen
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of disease burden in Uganda, although surprisingly few contemporary, age-stratified data exist on malaria epidemiology in the country. This report presents results from a total population survey of malaria infection and intervention coverage in a rural area of eastern Uganda, with a specific focus on how risk factors differ between demographic groups in this population. Methods In 2008, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in four contiguous villages in Mulanda, sub-county in Tororo district, eastern Uganda, to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of Plasmodium species infection. All permanent residents were invited to participate, with blood smears collected from 1,844 individuals aged between six months and 88 years (representing 78% of the population. Demographic, household and socio-economic characteristics were combined with environmental data using a Geographical Information System. Hierarchical models were used to explore patterns of malaria infection and identify individual, household and environmental risk factors. Results Overall, 709 individuals were infected with Plasmodium, with prevalence highest among 5-9 year olds (63.5%. Thin films from a random sample of 20% of parasite positive participants showed that 94.0% of infections were Plasmodium falciparum and 6.0% were P. malariae; no other species or mixed infections were seen. In total, 68% of households owned at least one mosquito although only 27% of school-aged children reported sleeping under a net the previous night. In multivariate analysis, infection risk was highest amongst children aged 5-9 years and remained high in older children. Risk of infection was lower for those that reported sleeping under a bed net the previous night and living more than 750 m from a rice-growing area. After accounting for clustering within compounds, there was no evidence for an association between infection prevalence and socio-economic status, and no evidence for spatial clustering. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that mosquito net usage remains inadequate and is strongly associated with risk of malaria among school-aged children. Infection risk amongst adults is influenced by proximity to potential mosquito breeding grounds. Taken together, these findings emphasize the importance of increasing net coverage, especially among school-aged children.
Snow Robert W
CONTEXT: GH deficiency is associated with changes in body composition, increased cardiovascular risk markers, and reduced bone mineral density. There seem to be multiple causes of the reported increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the socioeconomic status in patients with adult-onset GH deficiency and its impact on mortality. DESIGN: This is a nationwide registry study in which the socioeconomic status in adult-onset GH deficient patients was identified in the Danish registries and compared with controls matched on age and gender. The socio-economic status included cohabitation, education, income, parenthood, convictions, and retirement. PATIENTS AND CONTROLS: All patients had adult-onset GH deficiency and were born between 1950 and 1980. Two-hundred seventy-six patients (53.6% men) and 25 717 controls were included. RESULTS: GH-treated patients had a reduced mortality in total and due to malignancy compared with untreated patients. This difference remained after adjustment for cohabitation and education. Compared with the background population, the incidence of cohabitation, parenthood, and convictions was significantly reduced in patients, whereas education was unaffected. Retirement was significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was increased in patients, especially among patients not treated with GH. In GH-treated patients, mortality was decreased in total and due to malignancy compared with untreated patients, even after adjustment for all possible measured confounders. The patients had an impaired socioeconomic profile on most parameters compared with controls. This study does not support the suggestion that GH replacement therapy causes increased mortality.
Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Berglund, Agnethe
Despite the existence of extensive literature regarding risk management, there still seems to be lack of knowledge in identification of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) in this area. In this research Grounded Theory is implemented to identify CSFs in Risk Management Systems (RMS). Factor analysis and one-sample t-test are then used to refine and rank the CSFs based on the results of a survey which has been performed among Risk Management practitioners in various types of Swedish corporations. ...
Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizó la prevalencia de anemia en mujeres embarazadas y su asociación con el consumo de alimentos, estado nutricional y variables socioeconómicas. La muestra fue de 299 mujeres que asistieron a la consulta prenatal en los ambulatorios del Municipio Libertador Estado Mérida año 2009, en edades d [...] e 13 y 45 años. Los datos recolectados fueron, hemoglobina y hematocrito de los tres trimestres de embarazo, paridad, nivel de instrucción, ocupación, ingresos económicos y gastos en alimentación. Se aplicó encuesta de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, se determinó el Riesgo de Inseguridad Alimentaria (RIA) y el IMC para conocer el estado nutricional. El 25,75 % de las mujeres son anémicas con valores de Hb Abstract in english The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and his association with foods intake, nutritional state and socio-economic variables has been analyzed. The sample was about 299 women that assist to a prenatal consultation in the health center Libertador Municipality, State of Merida 2009, in ages betwee [...] n 13 and 45 years. The obtained data was: haemoglobin and haematocrit of the three pregnancy quarters, parity, instruction level, occupation, incomes and foods expenditure. It was applyed a survey of "foods intake frequency" and it was determined Alimentary Insecurity Risk (RIA) and the IMC to the knowledge their nutritional state. 25, 75% of the women are anemics with values of HB
Yurimay, Quintero de Rivas; Gladys, Bastardo; Coromoto, Angarita; Mariela, Paoli; Belquis, Sanz; Lizbeth, Rojas; Glenda, Da Silva; Lelis, Rodríguez.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic in the Rajasthali region of the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh and the Rajasthali region is the most endemic area of Bangladesh. Quantifying the role of environmental and socio-economic factors in the local spatial patterns of malaria endemicity can contribute to successful malaria control and elimination. This study aimed to investigate the role of environmental factors on malaria risk in Rajasthali and to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Method A total of 4,200 (78.9%; N = 5,322 households were targeted in Rajasthali in July, 2009, and 1,400 individuals were screened using a rapid diagnostic test (Falci-vax. These data were linked to environmental and socio-economic data in a geographical information system. To describe the association between environmental factors and malaria risk, a generalized linear mixed model approach was utilized. The study investigated the role of environmental factors on malaria risk by calculating their population-attributable fractions (PAF, and used residual semivariograms to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Results Overall malaria prevalence was 11.7%. Out of 5,322 households, 44.12% households were living in areas with malaria prevalence of ? 10%. The results from statistical analysis showed that age, ethnicity, proximity to forest, household density, and elevation were significantly and positively correlated with the malaria risk and PAF estimation. The highest PAF of malaria prevalence was 47.7% for third tertile (n = 467 of forest cover, 17.6% for second tertile (n = 467 of forest cover and 19.9% for household density >1,000. Conclusion Targeting of malaria health interventions at small spatial scales in Bangladesh should consider the social and socio-economic risk factors identified as well as alternative methods for improving equity of access to interventions across whole communities.
In general, those who are worse off in terms of power, knowledge and wealth are also worse off in terms of health. This inverse relation between socioeconomic status (ses ) and health has been observed for centuries . With few exceptions, the association exists regardless of the measure of ses that is employed (education, income, or occupation) or the health outcome studied. Still today, in a developed country like the Netherlands, considerable socioeconomic differences in h...
Kamphuis, C. B. M.
Background: The prevalence and severity of asthma is believed to increase with increasing socioeconomic deprivation. The relationship between asthma diagnosis, symptoms, diagnostic accuracy, and socioeconomic deprivation as determined by Townsend scores was determined in Sheffield schoolchildren. Methods: All 6021 schoolchildren aged 8–9 years in one school year in Sheffield were given a parent respondent survey based on International Survey of Asthma and Allergies in Childhoo...
Ng Man Kwong, G.; Das, C.; Proctor, A. R.; Whyte, M. K. B.; Primhak, R. A.
When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often by as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per=kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessment for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations
Full Text Available The paper reports on developing a value at risk (VaR model with respect to a single risk factor. In the process, it shows how stochastic differential equation (SDE and its variants can be considered as special cases of the VaR framework developed. Using VaR, the main result (equation was obtained with respect to the confidence level c of a position consisting of N of the same instruments depending solely on a single underlying risk factor S. The results of the analysis indicate that one can write down the two formulas for risk involved in both a long and short position in one and the same risk factor.
Full Text Available Morbid states are determined by complex factors acting in a synergistic system. Thus, population health is an integrated indicator of social development of a country, reflecting the socio-economic and moral welfare of the people, living conditions and consumption of health services, as well as the level of adequate education about risk factors and healthy behaviors. For these reasons, we decided to analyze the role of the person and of the health system for public health prosperity, given the responsibility assumed by each party, highlighting the specific cultural context of Romania. Based on the results of a qualitative study conducted on two groups of patients in the terminal stages of the disease in the general and in Rroma populations, some frequent perceptions of their own health and the role of the health system have been described.
Full Text Available To elucidate the socioeconomic factors influencing lead exposure in elementary school children by gender, 108 children (56 male, 52 female, aged 6–7 years, were randomly selected from 39 elementary state schools in Serpong, Banten, Indonesia. Their parents were interviewed to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics. Their blood lead (BPb levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. BPb concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females, i.e., 6.8 ± 2.0 (2.9–12.5 µg/dL and 5.9 ± 1.9 (3.1–11.7 µg/dL, respectively (p < 0.05. Lower socioeconomic status and well water use were associated with increased BPb concentrations, especially in females. The proportion of well water use was related to lower socioeconomic status. Lower socioeconomic status linked with well water drinking seemed to be associated with increased lead exposure in children in Serpong. Their exposure levels possibly varied according to gender differences in behavior. An intervention should be instituted among children in Serpong with BPb concentrations of 10 µg/dL or above.
Full Text Available Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.
Background: Emerging issues in HIV prevention include the importance of considering underlying social and economic factors at the community and individual level. We examined the associations between individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) on HIV prevalence in young people in a high HIV prevalence country. Methods: The study re-analysed data from the Zambia Demographic and Health Survey, a cross- sectional nationally representative survey conduc...
In South Africa all the major categories of violent crime (homicide, aggravated robbery, serious assault and rape) showed an increase during the early 2000s. More than half of the total offences that were committed in South Africa during 2005 were aggressive offences. The goal of the study was to explore the perception of offenders regarding the triggering and contributing socio-economic factors to aggravated robbery with a view to inform rehabilitation and re-integratio...
Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of resid...
Gotsadze George; Djibuti Mamuka; Mataradze George; Zoidze Akaki
Objectives. We sought to establish whether women's childhood socioeconomic position influenced their risk of mortality separately from the effects of adult socioeconomic position.Methods. We examined 11855 British women aged 14 to 49 years, with mortality follow-up over a 45-year period.Results. Trends according to childhood social class were observed for all-cause mortality, circulatory disease, coronary heart disease, respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, lung ...
Power, C.; Hypponen, E.; Smith, G. D.
Full Text Available As adoptin and maintenance of healthy eating behaviours is an important factor for Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD prevention , this research was conducted to determin dietetic risk factors in relation to IHD. This is a case – control study conducted in fall 2003 in Tehran Heart Center and Tehran Shahid Rajaii hospital. 100 subjects with IHD, as cases and 100 controls with no cardiovascular disease in their medical history, participated in the study.Nutritional data was collected by Food Frequencey Quastionnaire. Some important risk factors including hypertention, hyperlipidemia,diabetes, Body Mass Index (BMI and physical activity were evaluated. There was a positive association between IHD and consumption of fats and a negative association between IHD and consumption of fruits and vegetables.The most important factors were low intake of fish and high intake of fried foods that increased the risk of disease 13.96 and 54.65 times, respectively. Also 73% of patients had high risk diet while only 17% of controls had high risk diet. High risk diet increased the risk of cardiovascular diseases approximately 20 times. The main dietetic risk factors in this study were : low intake of fish, fruits and vegetables and lower consumption of oiles; while hydrogenated fats with undesirable trans-fatty acid content, were the main source of dietary fat, in case group. Therefore; community-based educational programmes are nesseary to promote healty nutrition.
Full Text Available Under the Commonwealth Accountability Testing System (CATS, Kentucky's public schools have been assigned individualized baseline and improvement goal indices based upon past school performance in relation to the 2014 statewide index goal of 100. Each school's CATS Accountability Index, a measure of school performance based upon both cognitive and non-cognitive measures, has then been compared to these individualized improvement goals for the purpose of designating schools as Meet Goal, Progressing, and Assistance Level (Kentucky Department of Education (KDE, 2000. Considered an interim target model, the design of CATS has been intended to negate the biasing effects of socioeconomic factors on school performance on accountability tests through the individualization of school goals (Ladd. 2001. Results of this study showed that 39.9% to 55.5% of the variance of the CATS indices was shared by school socioeconomic factors. Analysis of this interim target model for the 2000-2002 biennium showed that for elementary and middle schools this model negated the biasing effects of socioeconomic factors, but not for high schools. Moreover, analysis of the progress of schools toward their Improvement Goals in 2001 showed that both elementary and high schools from higher poverty backgrounds lagged significantly behind their more affluent peers, indicating inequitable capacity to meet improvement goals between the poorest and most wealthy schools. Adaptations to the present accountability systems were suggested for the purpose of providing more accurate information to the public regarding the effectiveness of public schools in Kentucky.
Association between white rice intake and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases remained uncertain. Most of the previous published studies have been done in western countries with different lifestyles, and scant data are available from the Middle East region, including Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the structure of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) to assess the association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, 3,006 men were included from three counties of Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak by multistage cluster random-sampling method. Dietary intake was assessed with a 49-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Laboratory assessment was done in a standardized central laboratory. Outcome variables were fasting blood glucose, serum lipid levels, and anthropometric variables. Socioeconomic and demographic data, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) were considered covariates and were adjusted in analysis. In this study, Student's t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Means of BMI among those subjects who consumed white rice less than 7 times per week and people who consumed 7-14 times per week were almost similar--24.8 +/- 4.3 vs 24.5 +/- 4.7 kg/m2. There was no significant association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, such as fasting blood sugar arid serum lipid profiles. Although whole grain consumption has undeniable effect on preventing cardiovascular disease risk, white rice consumption was not associated with cardiovascular risks among Iranian men in the present study. Further prospective studies with a semi-quantitative FFQ or dietary record questionnaire, representing type and portion-size of rice intake as well as cooking methods and other foods consumed with rice that affect glycaemic index (GI) of rice, are required to support our finding and to illustrate the probable mechanism. PMID:23930344
Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Asgari, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Azadbakht, Leila
A biomarker is a biologic specimen that may be a marker of exposure to some substance, of its metabolism, or of the integration of exposure and metabolism. Biomarkers may also reflect host characteristics. Because biomarkers are sometimes related to risk of disease, they are important in cancer control research.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional birth attendants (TBAs are likely to deliver lower quality maternity care compared to professional health workers. It is important to characterize women who are assisted by TBAs in order to design interventions specific to such groups. We thus conducted a study to assess if socio-economic status and demographic factors are associated with having childbirth supervised by traditional birth attendants in Iraq. Methods Iraqi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS data for 2000 were used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of having been delivered by a traditional birth attendant and other social characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between having been delivered by a TBA and wealth, area of residence (urban versus rural, parity, maternal education and age. Results Altogether 22,980 women participated in the survey, and of these women, 2873 had delivery information and whether they were assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs or not during delivery. About 1 in 5 women (26.9% had been assisted by TBAs. Compared to women of age 35 years or more, women of age 25–34 years were 22% (AOR = 1.22, 95%CI [1.08, 1.39] more likely to be assisted by TBAs during delivery. Women who had no formal education were 42% (AOR = 1.42, 95%CI [1.22, 1.65] more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those who had attained secondary or higher level of education. Women in the poorest wealth quintile were 2.52 (AOR = 2.52, 95%CI [2.14, 2.98] more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those in the richest quintile. Compared to women who had 7 or more children, those who had 1 or 2 were 28% (AOR = 0.72, 95%CI [0.59, 0.87] less likely to be delivered by TBAs. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that having delivery supervised by traditional birth attendants was associated with young maternal age, low education, and being poor. Meanwhile women having 1 or 2 children were less likely to be delivered by TBAs. These factors should be considered in the design of interventions to reduce the rate of deliveries assisted by TBAs in favour of professional midwives, and consequently reduce maternal and neonatal mortality rates and other adverse events.
Despite remarkable gains in life expectancy and declining mortality in the 21st century, in many places mostly in developing countries, adult mortality has increased in part due to HIV/AIDS or continued abject poverty levels. Moreover many factors including behavioural, socio-economic and demographic variables work simultaneously to impact on risk of mortality. Understanding risk factors of adult mortality is crucial towards designing appropriate public health interventions. In this paper we ...
Kazembe, Lawrence N.
Background. Polyoma virus-associated nephropathy (PVN) is a common cause of renal transplant failure. The risk factors for the development of PVN have not yet been studied in large cohorts of patients for periods of 20 years.
Prince, Olivier; Savic, Spasenija; Dickenmann, Michael; Steiger, Ju?rg; Bubendorf, Lukas; Mihatsch, Michael J.
Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and disability in Brazil. Among the risk factors for cerebrovascular disease, some have more influence than others in certain stroke subtypes. Little data are available in the literature on the prevalence of stroke subtypes in Latin America. We analyzed data from 688 patients with acute ischemic stroke (52.3% women; mean age, 65.7 years) who were enrolled in a stroke data bank. Standardized data assessment and stroke subtype classification were used. The most common stroke subtype was large-artery atherosclerosis (n = 223; 32.4%), followed by cardioembolism (n = 195; 28.3%), and microangiopathy (n = 127; 18.5%). Stroke risk factors differ among stroke subtypes. The population of South America is ethnically diverse, and few previous studies have describe the distribution of risk factors among stroke subtypes in this population. In this study, the most important risk factors were hypertension and dyslipidemia. PMID:22078780
Porcello Marrone, Luiz Carlos; Diogo, Luciano Passamani; de Oliveira, Faberson Mocelin; Trentin, Sheila; Scalco, Renata Siciliani; de Almeida, Andréa Garcia; Gutierres, Luis del Carmo Vega; Marrone, Antônio Carlos Huf; da Costa, Jaderson Costa
Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. PMID:23123588
Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James
Abstract Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls...
Rosewell Alexander; Addy Benita; Komnapi Lucas; Makanda Freda; Ropa Berry; Posanai Enoch; Dutta Samir; Mola Glen; Wy, Man Nicola; Zwi Anthony; Raina, Macintyre C.
Cerebrovascular disease plays an important role in cognitive disorders in the elderly. Cerebrovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease interact on several levels, one important level being the overlap in risk factors. The major vascular risk factors such as diabetes and impaired glycemic control, hypertension, obesity and hyper- or dyslipidemia have been associated both with Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia. The purpose of this review is to consider the context in which vascular ...
Knopman, David S.; Roberts, Rosebud
Background: Other than glycemic control, there are no treatments for diabetic neuropathy. Thus, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for neuropathy is crucial. We studied risk factors for the development of distal symmetric neuropathy in 1172 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus from 31 centers participating in the European Diabetes (EURODIAB) Prospective Complications Study. Methods: Neuropathy was assessed at baseline (1989 to 1991) and at follow-up (1997 to 1999), with a m...
Tesfaye, S.; Chaturvedi, N.; Eaton, S. E. M.; Ward, J. D.; Manes, C.; Ionescu-tirgoviste, C.; Witte, D. R.; Fuller, J. H.
Full Text Available The article provides a review of literature on risk factors and cofactors for cervical cancer and barriers to cervical cancer screening. Cofactors of cervical cancer are risk factors that contribute to the development of cervical cancer but are not able to generate cancer on their own. Risk factors and cofactors of cervical cancer have been clearly identified in many studies. Therefore cervical cancer is a preventable type of cancer. The aim of this article was to describe in more detail the barriers to cervical cancer screening among women all over the world. The barriers to cervical cancer screening can be sorted according to the results of studies into five main groups: informational, psychological, socio-economic, behavioral and cultural, and geographical. Efforts to reduce risk factors and cofactors of HPV infection and cervical cancer and to increase knowledge about screening are necessary in a positive approach to preventing cervical cancer in society and to promote women’s health.
Objectives: Acute respiratory tract infections are divided into two groups as upper and lower respiratory tract infections. These are very common diseases in childhood. In this study, we aimed to determine risk factors for lower respiratory tract in this region. Methodology: Hospital were included in our study. Their examinations, backgrounds, family histories and information about environmental factors were recorded in questionnaire forms. Results: Lack of vaccination, duration of breast feeding, onset age of cow's milk, family history for asthma and food allergy, number of hospitalized people in the same room, number of people who live in same house and smoking around the children were evaluated for the presence of LRTI, and LRTI risks of these factors were respectively observed as 1.69, 1.71, 1.61, 1.69, 1.20, 1.47, 1.56 and 2.63 fold increased. Conclusion: Standardization of clinical diagnosis, accurate and realistic use of antibiotics, correction of nutrition, improvement of socio-economic situation and the elimination of Respiratory Infections. (author)
Headache is a chronic disease that occurs with varying frequency and results in varying levels of disability. To date, the majority of research and clinical focus has been on the role of biological factors in headache and headache-related disability. However, reliance on a purely biomedical model of headache does not account for all aspects of headache and associated disability. Using a biopsychosocial framework, the current manuscript expands the view of what factors influence headache by co...
Nicholson, Robert A.; Houle, Timothy T.; Rhudy, Jamie L.; Norton, Peter J.
Introduction: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. Methods: A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Results: Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Conclusions: Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD. PMID:21976868
Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the socioeconomic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to determine socioeconomic characteristics of crop farmers in the area, determine farmers level of awareness of climate change in the area, ascertain effects of climate change in crop production, identify adaptation strategies adopted by the farmers in the area and determine socioeconomic factors influencing adaptation to climate change. Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 120 farmers. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as tables, likert type scale and multiple regression analysis. Results of data collected shows that the strategies adopted to combat the effects of climate change by farmers in the area include tree planting, cultivation of early maturing crops, mixed farming, use of improved crop varieties, increased use of family labour, engagement in complementary/diverse livelihoods, cover cropping, changes in planting and harvesting dates, irrigation practices, crop rotation, riverside/bank cultivation, increased frequency of weeding etc, Results reveal that farm size, farming experience, household size, and social organization (MEM COP were significant at 5%, sex was significant at 1% . Extension educational campaign should be intensified to increase the knowledge about climate change. Government should collaborate with meteorologists in forecasting about climate change and also in bringing about measures to control the adverse effect of climate change especially in agriculture.
N. O. Anyoha
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. RESULTS: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the mostpredominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [G-3] brachy) were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01). Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.
BelstrØm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle
In the September issue, we saw that a lower proportion of Hispanics and blacks take physics in U.S. high schools than do whites and Asians. Last month, we examined physics offerings and students by socioeconomic profile of the high school as reported by the principal. We saw that there were more physics classes and more physics students at…
Physics Teacher, 2011
Functional neuroimaging may provide insights into the achievement gap in reading skill commonly observed across socioeconomic status (SES). Brain activation during reading tasks is known to be associated with individual differences in children's phonological language skills. By selecting children of equivalent phonological skill, yet diverse…
Noble, Kimberly G.; Wolmetz, Michael E.; Ochs, Lisa G.; Farah, Martha J.; McCandliss, Bruce D.
The authors used data on public high schools in New Hampshire to demonstrate how the socioeconomic status (SES) of the district can help explain variations in students' average standardized test scores and college-attendance rates and subsequent rankings of schools within states. The authors show how states can use multiple-outcome measures to…
Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Curtis, Taylor
Abstract Background Infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) can lead to chronic liver disease and hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC). This cross-sectional study estimated the prevalence and identified risk factors associated with Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HCV antibody (anti-HCV) sero-positivity among children 1 to 15 years of age. Methods The study targeted the low to middle socioeconomic population that comprises 80% to 85...
Akhtar Saeed; Jafar Tazeen; Tirmizi Syed Farhan Ali; Islam Muhammad; Yakoob Javed; Jafri Nadim; Jafri Wasim; Hamid Saeed; Shah Hasnain; Nizami Sheikh
Chinese American immigrants are a growing part of the United States population. Cervical cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among Chinese Americans. Pap smear testing is less common in Chinese American immigrants than in the general population. During 1999, we conducted a community-based survey of Chinese American women living in Seattle. We assessed knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and history of Pap smear testing along with socioeconomic and acculturation char...
Ralston, James D.; Taylor, Victoria M.; Yasui, Yutaka; Kuniyuki, Alan; Jackson, J. Carey; Tu, Shin-ping
The cumulative rate of childhood eczema during the first three years was studied in a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand infants. A parental history of eczema was the strongest predictor of rates of childhood eczema but parental asthma was also related to childhood eczema. Children exposed to an early diverse solid-food diet also had increased risks of eczema, but there was no evidence to suggest that breast-feeding practices had any effect on rates of eczema. Analysis of the data suggested tha...
Fergusson, D. M.; Horwood, L. J.; Shannon, F. T.
Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...
Background We attempted to identify the pathways by which demographic changes, socioeconomic inequalities, and availability of health factors influence life expectancy in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Methods Data for 91 countries were obtained from United Nations agencies. The response variable was life expectancy, and the determinant factors were demographic events (total fertility rate and adolescent fertility rate), socioeconomic status (mean years of schooling and gross national income per capita), and health factors (physician density and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] prevalence rate). Path analysis was used to determine the direct, indirect, and total effects of these factors on life expectancy. Results All determinant factors were significantly correlated with life expectancy. Mean years of schooling, total fertility rate, and HIV prevalence rate had significant direct and indirect effects on life expectancy. The total effect of higher physician density was to increase life expectancy. Conclusions We identified several direct and indirect pathways that predict life expectancy. The findings suggest that policies should concentrate on improving reproductive decisions, increasing education, and reducing HIV transmission. In addition, special attention should be paid to the emerging need to increase life expectancy by increasing physician density. PMID:24390415
Mondal, Md. Nazrul Islam; Shitan, Mahendran
Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, sedentariness, metabolic syndrome
Full Text Available Road construction projects are considered as the most important governmental issues since there are normally heavy investments required in such projects. There is also shortage of financial resources in governmental budget, which makes the asset allocation more challenging. One primary step in reducing the cost is to determine different risks associated with execution of such project activities. In this study, we present some important risk factors associated with road construction in two levels for a real-world case study of rail-road industry located between two cities of Esfahan and Deligan. The first group of risk factors includes the probability and the effects for various attributes including cost, time, quality and performance. The second group of risk factors includes socio-economical factors as well as political and managerial aspects. The study finds 21 main risk factors as well as 193 sub risk factors. The factors are ranked using groups decision-making method called linear assignment. The preliminary results indicate that the road construction projects could finish faster with better outcome should we carefully consider risk factors and attempt to reduce their impacts.
Purpose: To determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on quality of life (QoL) after treatment in patients with head and neck carcinoma (HNC). Patients and Methods: The study population included 50 HNC patients seen in their control examinations after radiotherapy during a 2-month interval and who were willing to complete the Short-Form 36 QoL questionnaire. Socioeconomic, demographic, and tumor- and treatment-related factors were analyzed for their effect on physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: All patients received radiotherapy, and 33 patients (66%) underwent surgery for the primary tumor and/or neck disease. Chemotherapy was given in 9 patients (18%). Mean PCS and MCS were 47.9 (range, 24.8-59.3) and 46.7 (range, 22-63.3) for the whole patient population. There was no significant factor affecting PCS. Education level of 'middle school or higher,' perceived economic status of 'medium or higher,' social security status of not being 'absent or minimally covered,' and unilateral type of neck surgery were found to increase MCS significantly. According to separate linear regression analyses performed for three socioeconomic variables, the most significant factor for MCS was social security status compared with education level and perceived economic status. It was the only parameter that retained its significance when all five parameters were combined in a linear regression model. Concombined in a linear regression model. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that educational status, perceived economic status, and social security status showed a significant effect on the QoL of HNC patients after radiotherapy. When all variables were taken into account, only 'social security status' remained significant
Full Text Available Nematode infection may be a risk factor for pyogenic liver abscess in children and we hypothesized that the immunomodulation induced by those parasites would be a risk factor for any staphylococcal infection in children. The present study was designed to compare, within the same hospital, the frequency of intestinal nematodes and Toxocara infection in children with and without staphylococcal infections. From October 1997 to February 1998, 80 children with staphylococcal infection and 110 children with other diseases were submitted to fecal examination, serology for Toxocara sp., evaluation of plasma immunoglobulin levels, and eosinophil counts. Mean age, gender distribution, birthplace, and socioeconomic conditions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Frequency of intestinal nematodes and positive serology for Toxocara, were remarkably higher in children with staphylococcal infections than in the non-staphylococcal group. There was a significant correlation between intestinal nematodes or Toxocara infection and staphylococcal infection in children, reinforced by higher eosinophil counts and higher IgE levels in these children than in the control group. One possible explanation for this association would be the enhancement of bacterial infection by the immunomodulation induced by helminth infections, due to strong activation of the Th2 subset of lymphocytes by antigens from larvae and adult worms.
Sandra F Moreira-Silva
Full Text Available In the rural part of our country the use of traditional biomass was common and as a result of this, women who light the fire and bake bread and cook meals as well as children around them are exposed to the smoke that come out . The aim of this study was to to determine possible risk factors and associated conditions of COPD in women. The study was prospective and case-controlled. Fifty-two female patients with COPD followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital Department of Respiratory Medicine were included in this study. All cases were enrolled between December 2000 and October 2003. Fifty-four female non COPD subjects were chosen as the control group. These control subjects who did not have lung diseases were randomly selected in different outpatient clinics in the same hospital. Age, place of residence, comorbid conditions, cigarette smoking (active and passive, occupational exposure, air pollution, socio-economic status, education level, passive smoking in childhood, the fuel used for heating, cooking and baking bread and its duration were questioned. Results from this study suggest that exposure to cooking smoke, low education level, living in rural area, baking bread at home were associated risk factors with COPD among women.
Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references
Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references.
Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S. (Univ. of Chicago Medical Center, IL (USA))
Prevalence of infection with the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis was examinedin 632 residents of communities in Esmeraldas province of Ecuador. These communities were divided into two groups according to area of habitation which reflected different socioeconomic circumstances. Attempts were made to correlate infection status with race and ABO blood group phenotype. The racial groups included blacks, Chachi am...
Cooper, Philip J.; Angel Guevara E; Guderian, Ronald H.
Abstract Background Consumption of illegal drugs is a public health problem in Mexico, and the prison population is a vulnerable group with higher rates of prevalence than in the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the main socioeconomic variables associated with drug consumption in the prison population. Methods Utilizing data from the Second Incarcerated Population Survey carried out by the Centre of Research and Teaching of Econom...
Nevárez-Sida Armando; Constantino-Casas Patricia; Castro-Ríos Angélica
Abstract Introduction One issue that continues to attract the attention of public health researchers is the possible relationship in high-income countries between income, income inequality and infant mortality (IM). The aim of this study was to assess the associations between IM and major socio-economic determinants in Italy. Methods Associations between infant mortality rates in the 20 Italian regions (2006–2008) and the Gini index of income inequality, mean ...
Dallolio Laura; Di Gregori Valentina; Lenzi Jacopo; Franchino Giuseppe; Calugi Simona; Domenighetti Gianfranco; Fantini Maria
Full Text Available Introduction Hepatitis C viral infection represents a major health problem in the world. The estimated global incidence is about 3%, whereas the number of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV carriers worldwide is estimated to be between 150-300 million people. Material and methods This retrospective analysis included 82 patients whose diagnosis of viral hepatitis C infection was based upon the following criteria: case history, physical examination, laboratory and abdominal ultrasound examination, histological examination of the liver, radiological examination, serological analysis and viral analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe general data on patients of the study group, risk factor analysis and follow-up results. Results The most prominent risk factor in our study group was intravenous use of drugs in 37 patients (37%, and blood transfusion in 13 patients (13%. Less important risk factors of viral hepatitis C infection included: promiscuity (8%, sexual contact with hepatitis C carriers (5%, surgical intervention (5%, haemodialysis (3%, intranasal use of cocaine (2%. Discussion Hepatitis C viral infection has become the illness of young and middle-aged population. This is due to the epidemic profile of this illness, due to intravenous use of drugs as the most prominent risk factor. Conclusion Due to the number of infected, numerous risk factors and complications of viral hepatitis C, hepatitis C virus has become the most prominent hepatotrophic virus.
Mijailovi? Željko D.
Fetal growth is an important risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality. In turn, socioeconomic status is a key predictor of fetal growth; however, other sociodemographic factors and environmental effects may also be important. This study modelled geographic variation in poor fetal growth after accounting for socioeconomic status, with a fixed effect for socioeconomic status and a combination of spatially-correlated and spatially-uncorrelated random effects. The dataset comprised 88,246 l...
Zubrick, Stephen R.; Peter Jacoby; Ball, Stephen J.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A prevalência de infecções com helmintos Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale e Strongyloides stercoralis foi examinada em 632 pessoas em diferentes comunidades na Região de Esmeraldas no Equador. Estas comunidades foram divididas em dois grupos conforme a área na qual re [...] sidem, o que reflete diferentes circunstâncias sócio- econômicas. Intentou-se correlacionar os tiposde infecção com a raça e os grupos sanguíneos ABO. Nestes grupos raciais estão incluídos negros, ameríndios Chachi, e mestiços. Notou-se a prevalência de infecções nas áreas sócio-econômicasmais baixas. Não se encontrou nenhuma relação com a infecção helmíntica e raça ou grupo sanguíneo depois de controlar-se o status sócio- econômico. Abstract in english Prevalence of infection with the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis was examinedin 632 residents of communities in Esmeraldas province of Ecuador. These communities were divided into two groups according to area of hab [...] itation which reflected different socioeconomic circumstances. Attempts were made to correlate infection status with race and ABO blood group phenotype. The racial groups included blacks, Chachi amerindians, and mixed-race mestizos. Greater prevalences of infection were seen in the area oflower socioeconomic status. No racial or blood group associations with helminth infection were seen controlling for socioeconomic status.
Philip J., Cooper; Angel Guevara, E.; Ronald H., Guderian.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a common disease, with serious short- and long-term complications and a potential fatal outcome. Despite the knowledge of several inherited and acquired risk factors for VTE, still 30-50 % of the VTE events occur in the absence of obvious predisposing factors. Traditionally, arterial and venous thrombosis has been considered as separate disease entities with different pathology, epidemiology and treatments...
Brækkan, Sigrid Kufaas
Full Text Available Introduction. The rates of suicide are two to three times higher in men than in women in all communities. This “gender paradox” can be explained by various factors, such as more impulsive nature of men and their choice of more efficient (more lethal methods to commit suicide. This study was aimed at finding the correlation between the gender and other suicidal factors. Material and Methods. The study sample consisted of persons who committed suicide on the territory of Kragujevac in the period from 1996 to 2001. This study was based on the records kept by the Ministry of the Interior as well as by the Psychiatric Clinic of the Clinical Centre ”Kragujevac”. Data for weather were obtained from the Serbian Meteorological Institute reports. Results. During the analyzed period 121 suicides were committed on the territory of Kragujevac. The gender structure showed that within persons who committed suicide there were 78.5% men and 21.5% women (p<0.01. As for diseases which had existed before suicide, women suffered from the underlying psychic disorder in 65.3%, while 50.5% of men had both a psychic disorder and addiction problem. Hanging was the most frequently used method by both men and women (57.9% and 65.4%, respectively; and home was chosen as the place to commit suicide by 49.5% men and 42.3% women. Both men and women had a behaviour disorder before suicide, in 75.8% and 88.4% of the cases, respectively, (p<0.01. The dominating motive was a disease in 17.9% of men, whereas family problems prevailed in 11.5% of women (p<0.01. Conclusion. There is a statistically important difference between men and women considering pre-suicidal behaviour, suicidal motive and suicidal frequency.
The incidence of female lung cancer in developed countries has been increasing since 1950 and particularly in France where the cigarettes consumption has also increased. Since 1980, a growing number of epidemiological surveys have pinpointed the risk of female lung cancer related to smoking. Consecutively, a debate on gender differences in lung cancer risk has appeared, but still in progress nowadays. The reproductive factors could explain these differences. In order to have recent and reliab...
The role of leptin in humans is not yet precisely established. Nevertheless there is increasing evidence revealing that this molecule is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis as an independent risk factor. From another point of view, however, leptin is allready related to known traditional risk factors for accelerated atherogenesis, like obesity. We herein provide the experimental and clinical data concerning the association between leptin and atherosclerotic disease. Vascular stiffness and calcification, immune responce regulation, fibrinolysis, and oxidative stress, are the main fields to be investigated in relation to leptin in the present study. Additionally the discription of the main characteristics of leptin and its receptors is included in the introduction of this article, whereas in the end the main clinical data suggesting that this molecule represents an interesting risk factor for atherosclerotic disease are provided. PMID:19582187
Efstratiadis, G; Nikolaidou, C; Vergoulas, G
Full Text Available Problem Statement: Abdominoplasty has become an increasingly popular procedure. Risk factors affecting wound complications of abdominoplasty are not adequately defined in literature. Identification of these risk factors is crucial for better patient?s selection and counseling. The objectives of this study were to determine wound complication rate following abdominoplasty and to examine the relationship of a set of possible risk factors with the incidence of complications. Approach: We studied 116 patients (107 women and 9 men who underwent abdominoplasty at Jordan University Hospital, between June 1997 and June 2007. Data were collected from patients? medical records and analyzed to determine types and rates of surgical wound complications. Fourteen possible risk factors were investigated using logistic regression analysis to evaluate their relationship with the occurrence of wound complications. Risk factors examined were: age, sex, body mass index, parity number, smoking history, history of diabetes mellitus, previous gastroplasty for morbid obesity, previous abdominal surgical scars, type of abdominoplasty, plication of recti, hernia repair, operative time and operative blood loss. Results: A total of 29 patients (two males and 27 females (25% had wound complications. The most common complication was seroma. It was encountered in 15 cases (12.9%. Six patients (5.2% had wound infection. Partial skin necrosis was encountered in four cases (3.4 %. Two patients (1.7% developed wound dehiscence and two patients (1.7% had hematoma. The only factors significantly increased the complication rate were: increased body mass index (p = 0.002 and history of smoking (p = 0.004. Conclusions and Recommendations: This study confirms the adverse effect of overweight and cigarette smoking on the incidence of wound complication rate following abdominoplasty. We recommend that overweight patients and smokers undergoing abdominoplasty should be adequately counseled and informed about the increased risks. In addition, prophylactic measures should be properly taken to decrease wound complication rate in these groups of patients.
Samir K. Jabaiti
Blood pressure (BP) variability is associated with several cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Is BP variability measurement of any additive value, in terms of CV risk assessment strategies? To answer this question, we analyzed data from the SU.FOL.OM3 secondary prevention trial that included 2501 patients with background of CV disease history (coronary or cerebrovascular disease). BP was measured every year allowing calculation of variability of BP, expressed as s.d. and coefficient of variability (s.d./mean systolic BP) in 2157 patients. We found that systolic BP variability was associated with several CV risk factors: principally hypertension, age, and diabetes. Furthermore, all antihypertensives were positively associated with variability. Logistic regression analysis revealed that three factors were independent predictors of major CV event: coefficient of variability of systolic BP (OR=1.23 per s.d., 95% CI: 1.04-1.46, P=0.016), current smoking (OR=1.94, 95% CI: 1.03-3.66, P=0.039), and inclusion for cerebrovascular disease (OR=1.92, 95% CI: 1.29-2.87, P=0.001). Finally, when comparing logistic regression models characteristics without, and then with, inclusion of BP variability, there was a modest but statistically significant improvement (P=0.04). In conclusion, age, BP and diabetes were the major determinants of BP variability. Furthermore, BP variability has an independent prognostic value in the prediction of major CV events; but improvement in the prediction model was quite modest. This last finding is more in favor of BP variability acting as an integrator of CV risk than acting as a robust independent CV risk factor in this high-risk population. PMID:24990422
Blacher, J; Safar, M E; Ly, C; Szabo de Edelenyi, F; Hercberg, S; Galan, P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC is the cause of severe gastrointestinal infection especially among infants. Between 10 and 20 cases are reported annually to the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR in Finland. The aim of this study was to identify explanatory variables for VTEC infections reported to the NIDR in Finland between 1997 and 2006. We applied a hurdle model, applicable for a dataset with an excess of zeros. Methods We enrolled 131 domestically acquired primary cases of VTEC between 1997 and 2006 from routine surveillance data. The isolated strains were characterized by virulence type, serogroup, phage type and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. By applying a two-part Bayesian hurdle model to infectious disease surveillance data, we were able to create a model in which the covariates were associated with the probability for occurrence of the cases in the logistic regression part and the magnitude of covariate changes in the Poisson regression part if cases do occur. The model also included spatial correlations between neighbouring municipalities. Results The average annual incidence rate was 4.8 cases per million inhabitants based on the cases as reported to the NIDR. Of the 131 cases, 74 VTEC O157 and 58 non-O157 strains were isolated (one person had dual infections. The number of bulls per human population and the proportion of the population with a higher education were associated with an increased occurrence and incidence of human VTEC infections in 70 (17% of 416 of Finnish municipalities. In addition, the proportion of fresh water per area, the proportion of cultivated land per area and the proportion of low income households with children were associated with increased incidence of VTEC infections. Conclusions With hurdle models we were able to distinguish between risk factors for the occurrence of the disease and the incidence of the disease for data characterised by an excess of zeros. The density of bulls and the proportion of the population with higher education were significant both for occurrence and incidence, while the proportion of fresh water, cultivated land, and the proportion of low income households with children were significant for the incidence of the disease.
The most common complication after lumbar discectomy is reherniation. As the first step in reducing the rate of recurrence, many studies have been conducted to find out the factors that may increase the reherniation risk. Some reported factors are age, sex, the type of lumbar disc herniation, the amount of fragments removed, smoking, alcohol consumption and the length of restricted activities. In this review, the factors studied thus far are summarized, excepting factors which cannot be chosen or changed, such as age or sex. Apart from the factors shown here, many other risk factors such as diabetes, family history, history of external injury, duration of illness and body mass index are considered. Few are agreed upon by all. The reason for the diverse opinions may be that many clinical and biomechanical variables are involved in the prognosis following operation. For the investigation of risk factors in recurrent lumbar disc herniation, large-scale multicenter prospective studies will be required in the future. PMID:24761206
Full Text Available Abstract Background Entamoeba histolytica is an important protozoan intestinal infection in resource-poor settings, including Vietnam. The study objective was to assess risk factors of E. histolytica infection in a community in Vietnam, where wastewater and human excreta are used in agriculture. A case-control study was conducted among residents of Hanam province, Northern Vietnam. Cases (n = 46 infected with E. histolytica and non-infected controls (n = 138 were identified in a cross-sectional survey among 794 randomly selected individuals and matched for age, sex and place of residence. Potential risk factors including exposure to human and animal excreta and household wastewater were assessed with a questionnaire. Results People from households with an average socio-economic status had a much higher risk of E. histolytica infection (odds ratio [OR]=4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-14.0 compared with those from households with a good socioeconomic status. Those individuals who never or rarely used soap for hand washing had a 3.4 times higher risk for infection (OR=3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-10.0, compared to those who used always soap. In contrast, none of the factors related to use of human or animal excreta was statistically significant associated with E. histolytica infection. People having close contact with domestic animals presented a greater risk of E. histolytica infection (OR = 5.9, 95% CI: 1.8-19.0 than those without animal contact. E. histolytica infection was not associated with direct contact with Nhue river water, pond water and household's sanitary conditions, type of latrine or water source used. Conclusions Our study suggests that in settings where human and animal excreta and Nhue River water are intensively used in agriculture, socio-economic and personal hygiene factors determine infection with E. histolytica, rather than exposure to human and animal excreta in agricultural activities.
Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. Results The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Conclusions Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender, discerning between real and perceived experiences of discrimination and considering potentially moderating factors such as coping strategy and internalization of racial stereotypes are important issues to address in future Canadian racial inequalities research of this kind.
The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors to predict caries progression in toddlers in primary-healthcare settings for the cost-effective targeting of preventive and referral strategies. We examined 329 children (26 ± 6 mos old) twice, one year apart, in Indiana, USA. A 107-item structured interview was used to collect information from the primary caregiver and child on factors/beliefs/perceptions/behaviors that could affect caries development, transmission of bacteria, medical-...
Fontana, M.; Jackson, R.; Eckert, G.; Swigonski, N.; Chin, J.; Zandona, A. Ferreira; Ando, M.; Stookey, G. K.; Downs, S.; Zero, D. T.
Examining the geographical pattern of temporal changes in infant mortality rates illustrates the methodological problems of documenting and understanding temporal changes in any spatial pattern of disease. Early research on geographical differences in infant mortality rates showed strong ecological correlations with socio-economic factors such as poverty rates. More recent research established relationships between individual-level socio-economic values and probabilities of death. With geographic information available at the level of individuals, it is possible to estimate the probabilities of death on a person-by-person basis from knowledge of the relationships between individual factors and socio-economic measures. These estimated probabilities provide an expected geographic pattern of deaths. The difference between the observed spatial pattern and the expected pattern is the remaining spatial variation adjusted for this knowledge. For the study area, individual factors and some socio-economic measures were available for each year of the study period. Using data from the Iowa Birth Defects Registry and the Iowa Department of Public Health (USA), I tested the stability and continuity of these cross-sectional relationships and investigated whether any temporal lags in these variables relate to the unexplained spatial variations in infant mortality rates that remain. I accounted for the 'Change of Support Problem' [Gotway C. A. & Young L. J. (2002). Combining incompatible spatial data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 97458, 632-648] inherent in frame-based geographical analysis. The analysis involved a generalized linear model (GLM) to estimate individual risks and a Monte Carlo simulation model to generate the non-linear probability density functions for disease rates whose densities are theoretically intractable. Results show the temporal changes in the observed spatial pattern and the expected spatial pattern differ by geographic location. In conclusion such differences are the result of a combination of unexplained place-based risk and unmeasured individual risks. PMID:17509742
Background and Aim: Previous studies show that disability and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases are closely related to socioeconomic status in a community. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between socioeconomic factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) among people under 45 years old at Shahid Rajaei Hospital, Tehran, Iran.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Shahid Rajaei Hospital, Tehran, Iran in summer 2008. The participants w...
Akbari Sari, A.; Hosseini, M.; Barat, A.; Pourreza, A.; Oghbaie, H.
The assessment of flood risk in urban areas is considered nowadays a crucial issue to be addressed by technicians and public authorities and requires the estimation of hazard, vulnerability and exposure. Each step of the risk assessment brings its uncertainties to the final result, thus the analysis of the sensitivity to the different contributors is required. Since the damages are generally evaluated through stage-damage functions one of the most important contribution is the estimated value of the water depth. Water depth is the outcome of hydraulic models that can be implemented with different modeling approaches and levels of spatial detail, thus providing flood depth maps that may differ in the extension of the inundated area and in the flood depth value. It is generally argued that 2D models are the most suitable to describe flood behavior in the urban environment although most of applications are carried out in small and sparse urban areas. In the historic cities a 2D model provides reliable results if the grid size is small enough to describe the street/building pattern, implying long simulation runs. Another contribution is given by monetary values assigned to the damage categories that may come from different proxy variables and may oscillate according to the real estate quotations. The risk assessment here presented is made possible thanks to a methodology based on the open data, both socio-economic and territorial, that are available in the web. In this work the risk assessment procedure and the sensitivity analysis are applied to the main cities located along the Arno river, Pisa and Florence (Italy) that are usually considered of broad interest for the importance of urban and cultural heritage. The risk is estimated accounting for structures, household contents, commercial and tertiary sectors which are the most representative of the studied areas. The evaluation and mapping of micro-scale flood risk is carried out in a GIS environment using open data aggregated to the census polygons. It results that, for a flood event of similar magnitude as the one of 1966, the flood risk analysis for the city of Florence estimates a total damage of about 6 billion euros without considering the damage to cultural heritage. This value is larger than the annual income of the whole municipality. The average flood risk per unit surface of territory (m2) is about 10 â¬/year for the historic centre in Florence and 4 â¬/year for Pisa. A discussion of the sensitivity analysis is also presented.
Arrighi, Chiara; Castelli, Fabio; Brugioni, Marcello; Franceschini, Serena; Mazzanti, Bernardo
Land degradation by soil erosion is a socioeconomic and environmental problem facing many developing countries. Application of stonewall terraces for soil moisture conservation is vital to reducing the environmental impacts of this phenomenon. To this end, a field plot experiment was conducted in the study area along with the use of a closed-ended questionnaire. The object of the experiment was to study the socioeconomic impacts of soil erosion on local farmers and their adoption of the stonewall terrace technique. The study showed a higher net profit in areas that had implemented terrace conservation practices than in areas that had not (i.e., 3.5 to 6 times higher net profit). Correlation analysis indicated that the farmers' perceptions, land ownership, and geomorphology were significantly related to the farmers' incentives and willingness to adopt terraces as soil conservation measures (P urban uses, largely because of the high price and immediate returns offered. However, the associated land use changes warrant greater involvement of both the private and public sectors. This cooperation may be accomplished through the introduction of a long-term agricultural loan system and the development of proper legislation accompanied by a comprehensive and durable infrastructure and service system with the goal of reducing the negative impact of land use changes and encouraging sustainable use of resources. PMID:16456634
Hammad, Ahmad Abu; Børresen, Trond
The report includes a review of the current state-of-the-art of dry-cooling technology for industrial and power-generating facilities and an evaluation of its technical potential and cost for large nuclear power plants. Criteria are formulated for coarse screening of the arid regions of the Western United States to select a surrogate site for more detailed site-specific analyses. The screening criteria included seismic considerations, existing transportation facilities, institutional and jurisdictional constraints, waste heat dissipation effects, water requirements, and ecologic and socioeconomic considerations. The Galt site near Las Vegas, Nevada was selected for the surrogate site analysis to assess important issues related to the construction and operation of twelve dry-cooled nuclear power plants at an arid location remote from major load centers. The assessment covers geotechnical, atmospheric and hydrologic considerations, special aspects of transporting large equipment overland to the site from seaports, analyses of potential transmission routes to major load centers, local institutional and taxing provisions, and ecologic and socioeconomic impacts.
Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…
Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather
One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…
van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Adjusted results suggested associations between smoking, high BMI and triglyceride level and low high-density lipoprotein level and increased low-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kHz). Furthermore, an increasing load of atherogenic risk factors seemed associated with increased low-frequency hearing thresholds, but only at a borderline level of statistical significance. Associations were generally strongest with hearing levels of the worst hearing ear. We found no statistically significant associations between atherogenic risk factors and high-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 4, 6 and 8 kHz). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia HØst
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Adjusted results suggested associations between smoking, high BMI and triglyceride level and low high-density lipoprotein level and increased low-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kHz). Furthermore, an increasing load of atherogenic risk factors seemed associated with increased low-frequency hearing thresholds, but only at a borderline level of statistical significance. Associations were generally strongest with hearing levels of the worst hearing ear. We found no statistically significant associations between atherogenic risk factors and high-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 4, 6 and 8 kHz). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia HØst
In search for risk factors of suicide behavior in epileptic patients one hundred and five patients were examined, including those with (70) and without (35) suicide behavior. Risk factors of suicide behavior encompassed the presence of co-morbid organic affective disorder and a combination of pronounced epileptoid type personality changes and epileptic cognitive deterioration. High frequency of primary generalized seizures and polymorphic seizures combination and typical anticonvulsants daily dosage, including phenobarbital, correlated with suicidal behavior. On the contrary, high frequency of complex partial seizures and high dosage of valproate derivatives and carbamazepin negatively correlated with a risk of suicidal behavior in epileptic patients. Comparing to phenobarbital, novel anticonvulsants--valproic acid derivatives, carbamazepin, lamotrigine--are superior in epilepsy treatment to prevent suicidal behavior. PMID:12830501
Kalinin, V V; Polianski?, D A
The development and progression of early onset myopia is actively being investigated. While myopia is often considered a benign condition it should be considered a public health problem for its visual, quality of life, and economic consequences. Nearly half of the visually impaired population in the world has uncorrected refractive errors, with myopia a high percent of that group. Uncorrected visual acuity should be screened for and treated in order to improve academic performance, career opportunities and socio-economic status. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset and progression of myopia. Twin studies have supported genetic factors and research continues to identify myopia genetic loci. While multiple myopia genetic loci have been identified establishing myopia as a common complex disorder, there is not yet a genetic model explaining myopia progression in populations. Environmental factors include near work, education levels, urban compared to rural location, and time spent outdoors. In this field of study where there continues to be etiology controversies, there is recent agreement that children who spend more time outdoors are less likely to become myopic. Worldwide population studies, some completed and some in progress, with a common protocol are gathering both genetic and environmental cohort data of great value. There have been rapid population changes in prevalence rates supporting an environmental influence. Interventions to prevent juvenile myopia progression include pharmacologic agents, glasses and contact lenses. Pharmacological interventions over 1-2 year trials have shown benefits. Peripheral vision defocus has been found to affect the emmetropization process and may be affected by wearing glasses or contacts. Accommodation accuracy also has been implicated in myopia progression. Further research will aim to assess both the role and interaction of environmental influences and genetic factors. PMID:23961008
Myrowitz, Elliott H
Background. Few studies have investigated individual risk factor contributions to absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Even fewer have examined changes in individual risk factors as components of overall modifiable risk change following a CVD prevention intervention. Design. Longitudinal study of population CVD risk factor changes following a health screening and enhanced support programme. Methods. The contribution of individual risk factors to the estimated absolute CVD risk in a pop...
Thomas Cochrane; Rachel Davey; Christopher Gidlow; Zafar Iqbal; Jagdish Kumar; Yvonne Mawby; Ruth Chambers
The authors review risk factors of prostate carcinoma. Generally accepted factors include advanced age; some work confirms a familial incidence of the condition. When the incidence is evaluated by race, the highest prevalence is described in American negroes and the lowest prevalence in the Japanese. The higher prevalence in northern areas and lower prevalence in southern areas is explained by the effect of ultraviolet radiation. It is generally accepted that prostate carcinoma depends on androgens; the dependence on sexual activity is evaluated in relation to the higher androgen concentration and the higher risk of infection. As to dietary factors the condition is promoted by fats; the higher prevalence in smokers can be explained by the cadmium and nickel content of cigarettes. With regard to occupation, brain workers are affected more frequently; as to occupational carcinogens cadmium and nickel are quoted most frequently. PMID:8556758
Kohout, J; Ouda, Z; Hora, M
Health disparities by socioeconomic status (SES) exist for many outcomes, including patients' subjective health status after myocardial infarction (MI). The Reserve Capacity Model (RCM), a theoretical means to understand such disparities, was tested to examine the possible mediating effects of cognitive-emotional factors on the association between SES and health status. Data from 2,348 post-MI patients in PREMIER were used. Indicators of SES were collected during hospitalization via personal interviews, while participants completed measures of stress and reserves at 1 month, depressive symptoms at 6 months, and health status at 1 year through telephone interviews. Structural equation model results provide partial support for the RCM, as cognitive-emotional factors partially mediated the association between SES and mental health status. For physical health status, results supported direct rather than indirect effects of SES. Findings suggest psychosocial interventions with patients of low SES will have their greatest effects on appraisals of psychological health status. PMID:25022863
Bennett, Kymberley K; Buchanan, Donna M; Jones, Philip G; Spertus, John A
Fecal specimens collected from 456 school children in Gombak, Malaysia, revealed an overall prevalence rate of 62.9%. The most common parasite found was Trichuris trichiura (47.1%) followed by Giardia intestinalis (14.7%), Entamoeba coli (11.4%), Entamoeba histolytica (9.9%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (7.9%). Infection rates were high among the Indonesian immigrant workers' children (90%) followed by the Orang Asli (79.5%), Malay (59.4%) and Indians (36.4%). Females (66.3%) had a higher prevalence rate than the males (58.5%). The prevalence of infection was found to be associated with the socio-economic status, water supply, sanitary disposal of feces and family size. Albendazole administered as a single dose (400 mg) was found to be effective against Ascaris (100%) and hookworm (92.3%) but was not effective against Trichuris (39.2%). PMID:8074940
Rajeswari, B; Sinniah, B; Hussein, H
The near-term availability of domestic and selected foreign uranium resources for use by United States electric utilities is considered in light of projected geopolitical and socioeconomic considerations. No attempt is made to analyze the impact on domestic uranium supply of inflation or cost-price considerations, the introduction of the breeder reactor, limitations in enrichment capacity, or the presently expanding uranium inventory. All data are current as of mid-1980. The period with which this research is concerned is 1980-1995. It is concluded that the United States must promote responsible, environmentally acceptable uranium resource exploration and development, if this nation is to remain self sufficient in this necessary energy commodity
Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.
Connell, Paul P
OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. METHODS Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p homosexual/bisexual behavior and experiencing risk factors; suffering sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with heterosexual behavior and none of the risk factors investigated. More of the risk factors were found in adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior compared with those with heterosexual behavior. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior were more likely to talk about their positive personal experiences and negative relationship experiences that their heterosexual peers, but spoke less about religion. CONCLUSIONS Not only should this issue be studied in more detail, but preventative actions aimed at adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior should be widened. PMID:24789636
de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira
Full Text Available Evidence regarding health benefits of physical activity is overwhelming and plays a critical role in both the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD. Epidemiological investigations show approximately half the incidence of CAD in active compared to sedentary persons. A sedentary lifestyle is considered by various national and international organizations to be one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, a moderate level of occupational or recreational activity appears to confer a significant protective effect. Once coronary artery disease has become manifest, exercise training can clearly improve the functional capacity of patients and reduce overall mortality by decreasing the risk of sudden death. Well-designed clinical investigations, supported by basic animal studies, have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of exercise are related to direct and indirect protective mechanisms. These benefits may result from an improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, enhanced fibrinolysis, improved endothelial function, decreased sympathetic tone, and other as-yet-undetermined factors. Hence physical fitness, more than the absence of ponderosity or other factors, is the major determinant of cardiovascular and metabolic risk and long-term disease-free survival, in effect linking health span to life span. It is obviously in every individual?s interest to assume the responsibility for his or her own health and embrace this extremely effective, safe, and inexpensive treatment modality. The need for a comprehensive review of this particular topic has arisen in view of the high prevalence of physical inactivity and overwhelming evidence regarding CVD risk reduction with regular physical activity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between urbanicity and adolescent health is a critical issue for which little empirical evidence has been reported. Although an association has been suggested, a dichotomous rural versus urban comparison may not succeed in identifying differences between adolescent contexts. This study aims to assess the influence of locality size on risk behaviors in a national sample of young Mexicans living in low-income households, while considering the moderating effect of socioeconomic status (SES. Methods This is a secondary analysis of three national surveys of low-income households in Mexico in different settings: rural, semi-urban and urban areas. We analyzed risk behaviors in 15-21-year-olds and their potential relation to urbanicity. The risk behaviors explored were: tobacco and alcohol consumption, sexual initiation and condom use. The adolescents' localities of residence were classified according to the number of inhabitants in each locality. We used a logistical model to identify an association between locality size and risk behaviors, including an interaction term with SES. Results The final sample included 17,974 adolescents from 704 localities in Mexico. Locality size was associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, showing a similar effect throughout all SES levels: the larger the size of the locality, the lower the risk of consuming tobacco or alcohol compared with rural settings. The effect of locality size on sexual behavior was more complex. The odds of adolescent condom use were higher in larger localities only among adolescents in the lowest SES levels. We found no statically significant association between locality size and sexual initiation. Conclusions The results suggest that in this sample of adolescents from low-income areas in Mexico, risk behaviors are related to locality size (number of inhabitants. Furthermore, for condom use, this relation is moderated by SES. Such heterogeneity suggests the need for more detailed analyses of both the effects of urbanicity on behavior, and the responses--which are also heterogeneous--required to address this situation.
Gutiérrez Juan Pablo
Abstract Background People with a low socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to be physically inactive than their higher status counterparts, however, the mechanisms underlying this socioeconomic gradient in physical inactivity remain largely unknown. Our aims were (1) to investigate socioeconomic differences in recreational walking among older adults and (2) to examine to what extent neighbourhood perceptions and individual cognitions regarding regular physical activity ...
Huisman Martijn; Giskes Katrina; van Lenthe Frank J; Bm, Kamphuis Carlijn; Brug Johannes; Mackenbach Johan P
Full Text Available The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls. The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines. The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%, followed by fruits (17.8%, potatoes and grains (16.0%, energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%, and vegetables (11.8%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular.
Risk factor selection is an important step in a successful risk management plan. There are many risk factors in a construction project and by an effective and systematic risk selection process the most critical risks can be distinguished to have more attention. In this paper through a comprehensive literature survey, most significant risk factors in a construction project are classified in a hierarchical structure. For an e...
Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de dismenorrea y sus factores asociados en estudiantes de tres colegios de Lima de estratos socioeconómicos diferentes. Diseño: Estudio de tipo observacional, de corte transversal y comparativo. Institución: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participantes [...] : Adolescentes estudiantes de tres colegios. Intervenciones: Se realizó una encuesta anónima a 392 adolescentes de 3 colegios: Newton College (estrato A), De Jesús (estrato B) y Ciro Alegría (estrato C). Principales medidas de resultados: Presencia de dismenorrea. Resultados: La edad promedio de las adolescentes entrevistadas fue 14,8 ± 1,0 años e IMC 22,7 ± 12,9, con edad de menarquía a los 11,9 años. Los días promedio de sangrado menstrual fueron 4,9 días. El porcentaje de adolescentes con dismenorrea fue de 51,7%. El dolor menstrual duró en promedio 1,95 días. El ausentismo escolar fue señalado en 34,2%, 26,4% y 21,3%, en los estratos A, B y C, respectivamente. El antecedente materno tuvo un OR 1,85 (1,38 a 2,58) y p 0,0240, el ejercicio físico OR 0,93 (0,81 a 1,25) y p 0,7794, el consumo de pescado OR 0,96 (0,66 a 1,40) y p 0,0836, el consumo de tabaco OR 1,33 (0,68 a 2,60) y p 0,4207. El consumo de tabaco fue claramente mayor en el estrato A, casi 16% frente al 4% del estrato C. Conclusiones: La edad de la menarquía fue la misma de estudios nacionales. La duración del periodo menstrual fue 4,9 días, superior en un día a lo encontrado en mujeres adultas. Una de cada dos adolescentes presentó dismenorrea y el dolor menstrual duró en promedio dos días. Hubo ausentismo escolar en una de cada cuatro alumnas, por causa del dolor menstrual, mayor en el estrato social alto. La presencia de dismenorrea estuvo relacionada significativamente con el antecedente materno. El consumo de pescado, la actividad física y el hábito de fumar no estuvieron asociados a la presencia de dismenorrea. El consumo de tabaco fue elevado en los estratos sociales altos en comparación con los bajos. Abstract in english Objectives: To determine dysmenorrhea prevalence and associated factors in three Lima schools’ students from different socioeconomic strata. Design: Observational, cross-sectional and comparative study. Setting: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participants: Adolescent students. Interventio [...] ns: Anonymous survey to 392 teenagers from three schools: Newton College (stratum A), De Jesus (stratum B) and Ciro Alegría (stratum C). Main outcome measures: Dysmenorrhea. Results: Average age of adolescents was 14.8 ± 1.01 years, BMI was 22.7 ± 12.9 and menarche was reported occurring at age 11.9 years average. Average menstrual bleeding was 4.9 days. Percentage of adolescents with dysmenorrhea was 51.7%. Menstrual pain lasted 1.95 days average. School absenteeism was 34.2%, 26.4%, 21.3% in strata A, B and C respectively. Maternal history of dysmenorrhea had an OR = 1.85 (1.38-2.58) and p = 0.0240; fish consumption had an OR = 0.96 (0.66-1.40) and p = 0.0836; tobacco consumption had an OR = 1.33 (0.68-2.60) and p = 0.4207. Tobacco consumption was clearly higher in stratum A, almost 16% compared with 4% in stratum C. Conclusions: Age of menarche was similar to national studies. Duration of menstrual period was 4.9 days, higher in one day to that reported in adult women. One in two teenagers presented dysmenorrhea and menstrual pain lasted 2 days average. School absenteeism was one in each four students because of menstrual pain, mainly in high social status students. Presence of dysmenorrhea was significantly related to maternal history. Fish consumption, physical activity and smoking were not associated with dysmenorrhea. Tobacco consumption was high in social strata A compared with low strata.
José, Sandoval Paredes; Arnold, Madrid Jaramillo; Cindy, Sandoval Paz; Patricia, Paz Núñez.
Full Text Available Hypertensive Diseases in Pregnancy (HDP are one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The cause of preeclampsia-eclampsia remains unknown and risk factors for the development of preeclampsia are less well defined. We conducted a case-control study on pregnant women presenting to Tabriz Al-Zahra and Taleghani hospitals from August 2003 to August, 2004. Patients were studied in 2 groups of cases (64 and controls (64. Maternal age and BMI in case group was significantly higher than control group. The difference of education, gravidity, smoking and history of abortion between case and control groups was not significant. Preeclampsia history and inadequate prenatal care in case group were significantly high. The difference of previous SGA newborn, birth interval and same paternity between case and control groups was not significant. Preeclampsia risk factors in multigravida women include: High maternal age and BMI, history of preeclampsia, positive past medical history and inadequate prenatal care.
Full Text Available Several theoretical models have been occasionally proposed to account for the involvement of psychological factors in cancer genesis. Family environment and relations as well as certain personality traits were correlated to cancer onset. However, little is known in the case of acute leukemia. The present study examined family environment, state-trait anxiety, hostility and the direction of hostility as well as alexithymia in 41 acute leukemia patients and their first degree relatives (70. In accordance with previous findings, the present results showed that family cohesion, conflict and organization as well as guilt, state anxiety and alexithymia were significant risk factors for the development of the disease.
Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal hypertensive disease and other risk factors and the neonatal development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods: This was a retrospective case-control study of infants with NEC from 2008 to 2012. The primary exposure of interest was maternal hypertensive disease, which has been hypothesized to put infants at risk for NEC. Other variables collected included demographics, pregnancy complications, medications and neonatal hospital course. Data were abstracted from medical records. Results: Twenty-eight cases of singleton neonates with NEC and 81 matched controls were identified and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome. Fetuses with an antenatal diagnosis of growth restriction were more likely to develop NEC (p?=?0.008). Infants with NEC had lower median birth weight than infants without NEC (p?=?0.009). Infants with NEC had more late-onset sepsis (p?=?0.01) and mortality before discharge (p?=?0.001). Conclusions: The factors identified by this case-control study that increased the risk of neonatal NEC included intrauterine growth restriction and lower neonatal birth weight. The primary exposure, hypertensive disease, did not show a significantly increased risk of neonatal NEC; however, there was a nearly two-fold difference observed. Our study was underpowered to detect the observed difference. PMID:25162307
March, Melissa I; Gupta, Munish; Modest, Anna M; Wu, Lily; Hacker, Michele R; Martin, Camilia R; Rana, Sarosh
Full Text Available This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%. Ten patients (5.1% were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6% with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47 and < 18 (OR = 2.95 years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67, used drugs (OR = 1.53 and had an infection (OR = 1.87 during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68 and fathers (OR = 1.74 were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias.
To evaluate risk factors associated with recurrent urinary tract infections,we conducted a case- control study comparing 400 patients referred to aninfectious diseases outpatient clinic who had a history of recurrent urinary tractinfections (case patients) with 400 age, sex-matched control patients without ahistory of urinary tract infections. The distribution of 400 case patients to thegroups; 200 were women, 100 were men and 100 were children. 100 womenwere from 18 through 40 years of age (...
Serda Gülsün; Pa?a Gökta?
Objective: To identify risk factors related to sensorineural hearing loss in elderly. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 selected elderly, divided into two groups: the Case Group, composed by 30 individuals, 21 females and 9 males, aged at least 60 years, presenting sensorineural hearing loss, and the Control Group, composed by 30 individuals matched on gender and age, with normal hearing. The patients were submitted to audiological anamnesis and tonal audiometry. The hearing impairment ...
Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves Martins; Silva Ca?mara, Mari?lia Fontenele E.
AIMS/BACKGROUND--This study was initiated to investigate risk factors for and outcome of Acanthamoeba keratitis. METHODS--Results of treatment were studied in 22 patients (23 eyes) presenting to Bristol Eye Hospital between 1985 and February 1995. Details related to the use and disinfection of contact lenses were also obtained. An additional two patients who were seen at Bristol but mainly treated elsewhere were surveyed for contact lens related information only. RESULTS--The incidence of Aca...
Hay, J.; Seal, D. V.
Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In pa...
Tarlan B; Kiratli H
The risk factors for sepsis after vascular surgery were studied in 100 consecutive patients with lower limb arterial ischaemia. Patients were randomised either to a short or long course of antibiotic prophylaxis with amoxycillin/clavulanic acid combination (Augmentin). Pathogenic organisms were isolated from the skin preoperatively in 39 (36%) cases, significantly more frequently in patients with ischaemic rest pain and skin necrosis (66%) than rest pain alone (21%) (P = 0.0004) or claudicati...
Earnshaw, J. J.; Slack, R. C.; Hopkinson, B. R.; Makin, G. S.
Two hundred infants of below 1501 g at birth were regularly examined with real time ultrasound using a 7.5 MHz transducer. Abnormalities were categorized as periventricular haemorrhage (PVH) (n = 107) or periventricular leucomalacia (PVL), with or without PVH (n = 52). Of the group with PVL, 25 had the appearances of prolonged flare without cavitation. Prospective assessments of up to 50 potential clinical risk factors were made wherever possible on each infant including stratification of all...
Trounce, J. Q.; Shaw, D. E.; Levene, M. I.; Rutter, N.
This paper reports the investigation of risk factors for bovine herpesvirus-1-seropositivity, based on a cluster-sample survey of the Belgian cattle population. This serosurvey was carried out in 1998 in 309 randomly selected unvaccinated herds of all types (dairy, mixed and beef) were all bovids (N = 11,284) were sampled. Older and male cattle had higher seroprevalence. Origin (homebred or purchased) and herd size interacted; for smaller herds (< or = 50 cattle on the premises), purchase sta...
Boelaert, F.; Speybroeck, N.; Kruif, A.; Aerts, M.; Burzykowski, T.; Molenberghs, G.; Berkvens, D. L.
The aim of this thesis was to increase the knowledge about environmental risk factors of acoustic neuroma and to increase the understanding of the methodological problems encountered when studying this tumor. Acoustic neuroma is a benign, usually slow growing, intracranial tumor of the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII), the nerve that transmits information about hearing and balance from the inner ear to the brain. Acoustic neuroma is usually not life threatening, the most com...
The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy.
Postolache, Teodor T.; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H.
Shiga-Toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an emerging human health issue with special regard to their low infectious dose combined with serious sequelae of disease especially in children. Cattle are often infected, but without clinical signs of disease; hence, cattle derived foods could be contaminated. Different factors like the kind of husbandry, the diet and the herd management of cattle were identified as risk for shedding of STEC. However, the individual characteristics of the si...
Full Text Available Objective: To study the clinical progress, risk factors, management, and outcomes of suspected ectopic pregnancy (EP. Design: Retrospective clinical case study. Population: All 184 patients hospitalized for suspected EP during the period 1.1.2008-31.12.2011. Setting: Oulu University Hospital, Finland. Methods: The clinical progress, risk factors, management, complications and outcomes were based on studies of hospital records. Main outcome measures: Symptoms, serum quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG levels, management, complications and outcome of patients. Results: At least one of the risk factors was found in 117 women (66%. There were 11 patients without symptoms. In the initial visit, the median hCG concentration was 1915 (20 - 73,000 IU/l. The most common treatment was surgical, 137/181 (76%, followed with medical treatment, 22/181 (12% and expectant management, 22/181 (12%. Conclusions: Surgery was the most widely used treatment for EP. We might thus draw attention to more conservative management.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce. We conducted this study to evaluate the risk factors for mortality in pediatric burn patients. We included 110 patients. Mean age was 31.5 months (range: 1 to 204). The burn surface was between 1% and 95%(median 27%) Type of burn [...] was: A or superfitial in 39 patients (36%), AB or intermediate in 19 (17%), and B or full thickness in 52 (47%). Inhalatory injury was present in 52 patients (47%). Invasive procedures were: venous catheter, 90 patients (82%), arterial catheter, 83patients (75.5%), urinary catheter, 86 patients (78%), and mechanical ventilation, 75 patients (68%). In 84 patients, 128 infections were diagnosed. in 53 cases (48%). Multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acynetobacter baumannii were the most common organisms isolated. The median length of hospital stay was 33 days (r: 8-139 days). Seventeen patients (15%) died and 14 of them of infection-related causes. Age 40% burn surface, presence of inhalatory syndrome, use of venous catheter, arterial catheter, urinary catheter and mechanical ventilation, positive blood cultures, colistin use in documented multiresistant infections, antifungal use and graft requirement, were identified as risks factors for mortality in the univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis: age
Maria Teresa, Rosanova; Daniel, Stamboulian; Roberto, Lede.
An epidemiologic study of a 'case - control' type is carried out, designed to assess the risk (odds ratio - OR) of thyroid cancer (ThC) development attributable to medical roentgen diagnostics previous thyroid gland diseases and positive family history for thyroid pathology. The investigation is based on data from a questionnaire study covering 90 patients with ThC (55 of them papillary), registered in the town of Sofia over the period 1991 - 1996 and 180 gender and age-matched controls free of neoplastic disease. Two approaches are used to analyze the risk associated with medical roentgen diagnosis. The first is based on thyroid gland exposure to irradiation during the various diagnostic procedures (cumulative equivalent dose - mSv). On this ground no statistically significant increase in risk, neither for the total of histologically verified ThC cases, nor for papillary ThC ones, is established. In the second approach a distribution depend on the type and number of diagnostic methods for individual organs and systems (9 groups) in employed. Here significantly heightened risk (p<0.05) is documented for fluorographic lung examinations (OR=2.49) and pulmonary roentgenograms (OR=2.48). In conclusion, it is confirmed that thyroid gland diseases in the previous history (struma) and positive family history for thyroid pathology should be considered as thyroid cancer risk factors
Full Text Available This study investigated environmental influences on scholastic achievement of first-grade elementary school students. A total of 149 (average age 81 months first-grade children were classified in three groups. The first group comprised of 52 Roma children. Two other groups consisted of 48 non-Roma children classified as children belonging to an average socioeconomic status (SES group and 49 non-Roma children classified as children belonging to a below-average SES group. All 52 Roma children belonged to a below-average SES group. Children’s intellectual abilities were assessed by Test of School Maturity; their scholastic achievement was assessed by teachers, while data on SES and family’s educational climate were obtained through a semi structured interview with their parents. Intellectual abilities – strongly influenced by family’s SES and family’s educational climate – were most predictive of scholastic achievement. Our structural model suggests that family’s educational climate, defined by unfavorable educational stimulation and low parents’ ambition concerning education of their children, moderates effects of low SES on inferior scholastic achievement. This model may be especially relevant for Roma children, since Roma children are most affected by the lack of adequate educational climate within their families.
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PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include corneal vascularization, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, regrafting, additional surgery, trauma, uncontrolled intraocular pressure, history of graft rejection, recurrent herpetic infection, eccentric grafting and corneal scarring. Recipient age and donor cornea size do not seem to be risk factors for corneal graft rejection.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the 1-year prevalences of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH), and identify their principal risk factors, in the general population of the Republic of Georgia. METHODS: In a community-based door-to-door survey, 4 medical residents interviewed all biologically unrelated adult members (>/=16 years) of 500 adjacent households in Tbilisi, the capital city, and 300 in rural Kakheti in eastern Georgia, using a previously validated questionnaire based on International Headache Society diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The target population included 1,145 respondents, 690 (60%) women, mean age 45.4 +/- 12.0 years. The 1-year prevalences were as follows: migraine 6.5% (95% confidence interval 5.0-7.9), probable migraine 9.2% (7.5-10.8), all migraine 15.6% (13.5%-17.7%), TTH 10.0% (8.2-11.7), probable TTH 27.3% (24.8-29.9), all TTH 37.3% (34.5%-40.1%). Female gender and low socioeconomic status were risk factors for migraine but not for TTH. Headache on >/=15 days/month was reported by 87 respondents, a prevalence of 7.6% (6.1-9.1). Female gender, low socioeconomic status, and frequent use (>/=10 days/month) of acute headache drugs were risk factors. The likely prevalence of medication overuse headache was 0.9% (0.3-1.4), of chronic migraine 1.4% (0.7-2.1), and of chronic TTH 3.3% (2.3-4.4), but caution is needed in interpreting these estimates. CONCLUSIONS: While the prevalences of migraine and tension-type headache are comparable with those in Europe and the United States, a remarkably high percentage of the population of Georgia have headache on >/=15 days/month. This study demonstrates the importance of socioeconomic factors in a developing country and unmasks the unmet needs of people with headache disorders.
Katsarava, Z; Dzagnidze, A
Chinese American immigrants are a growing part of the United States population. Cervical cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among Chinese Americans. Pap smear testing is less common in Chinese American immigrants than in the general population. During 1999, we conducted a community-based survey of Chinese American women living in Seattle. We assessed knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and history of Pap smear testing along with socioeconomic and acculturation characteristics. The overall estimated response rate was 64%, and the cooperation rate was 72%. Our study sample included 472 women. Most cervical cancer risk factors were recognized by less than half of our participants. Factors independently associated with knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors included marital status, employment, and education. Respondents with the highest knowledge had greater odds of ever receiving a Pap smear, compared to those respondents with the lowest knowledge (OR 2.5; 95% CI: 1.1,5.8). Our findings suggest a need for increased recognition of cervical cancer risk factors among Chinese American immigrants. Culturally and linguistically appropriate educational interventions for cervical cancer risk factors should be developed, implemented and evaluated. PMID:12570172
Ralston, James D; Taylor, Victoria M; Yasui, Yutaka; Kuniyuki, Alan; Jackson, J Carey; Tu, Shin-Ping
A total number of 11,635 screening packs were distributed to 5-10 year-old children in 136 schools in Cambridgeshire to investigate the associations between levels of parental concern (none/minor/strong), socioeconomic status and the risk of having Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). The variables for investigating associations and possible confounders were extracted for analysis, including parental concern question score, SES, age of the child, sex, maternal age at birth, paternal age at birth, mother's age of leaving education, father's age of leaving education, birth order and the number of children in the family. The SES, age of the child, sex and mother's age at leaving education were associated with parental concern. Parents with higher SES reported higher levels of concern (Chi-square=11.8; p=0.02). However, a higher SES was not associated with the risk of having ASC (p=0.50). After adjusting for potential confounders, the odds of children meeting ASC criteria whose parents had reported strong parental concern were 8.5 times (odds ratio: 8.5; 95%CI: 4.5, 16.2; p<0.001) the odds of children having ASC whose parents reported minor concern. No child met ASC criteria where parents expressed no concerns. Parents with higher social class express more concerns than those from lower social classes. However, the concerns reported by parents in higher SES did not appear to be specific for ASC as there was no relationship between ASC and SES. PMID:25262013
Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol
La magnitud de la inseguridad alimentaria en México: su relación con el estado de nutrición y con factores socioeconómicos / Magnitude of food insecurity in Mexico: Its relationship with nutritional status and socioeconomic factors
Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Describir la distribución de la inseguridad alimentaria (IA) en México, desde la perspectiva del acceso a la alimentación y consumo, y su relación con diversos factores socioeconómicos y del estado de nutrición. Material y métodos. Se presenta información de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y [...] Nutrición 2012, de la Encuesta Nacional de Ingreso y Gasto en Hogares 2008, y del Consejo Nacional de Evaluación de la Política de Desarrollo Social. La medición de la inseguridad alimentaria se realizó mediante la Escala Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Seguridad Alimentaria y su relación con variables socioeconómicas, dietéticas y nutricionales. Resultados. En México uno de cada tres hogares padece IA moderada o severa. La IA aumenta el riesgo de desnutrición infantil; y de diabetes, sobrepeso y obesidad en adultos, principalmente en mujeres. Conclusión. Mejorar los factores y causas estructurales que influyen en la IA en México es imperante por las implicaciones que tiene para el desarrollo nacional. Abstract in english Objective. To describe the distribution of food insecurity (FI) in Mexico, from the perspective of food access and consumption, and its relationship with diverse socioeconomic factors and nutritional status. Materials and methods. Information from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (Ensan [...] ut 2012), National Income - Expense in Households Survey 2008 (ENIGH 2008), and from the National Council for Poverty Evaluation (Coneval) was gathered for this study. Food insecurity (FI) measurement was conducted by applying the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale (ELCSA) and its relation with socioeconomic, dietetic, and nutritional variables. Results. In Mexico one out of three households suffers food insecurity in moderate or severe degree. FI not only increases the malnutrition risk in children but also contributes to the great incidence of diabetes, overweight and obesity in adults, principally in women. Conclusion. To improve structural agents and factors that impact in FI in Mexico is imperative, due to the consequences that it has in the country's development.
Teresa, Shamah-Levy; Verónica, Mundo-Rosas; Juan A, Rivera-Dommarco.
The sustainable management of river corridors requires an understanding of the linkages between geomorphic, hydrologic, ecologic and socio-economic factors across a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, in order to be genuinely sustainable, management must ideally be set within a catchment/watershed context. However, in practice, this rarely occurs due to obstacles imposed by fragmented land ownership/governance and an incomplete understanding of bio-physical process linkages. We present our experience on a project with the goal of optimising physical objectives at the catchment scale within a framework influenced by environmental legislation and conflicting land-use pressures. The project was carried out on the Eddleston Water in the Scottish Borders and had the primary objective of providing sustainable flood risk management to settlements on the water course while also providing ecological benefit to the river corridor. These co-objectives had to be met while considering the constraints imposed by land-use (predominantly arable agriculture) and transport infrastructure on the floodplain. The Eddleston Water has been heavily impacted by many human activities for over 200 years although a modified upland drainage, markedly canalised main-stem channel and floodplain disconnection are most significant to present-day physical and ecological processes. Catchment-scale restoration plans aim to restore broad-scale hydrological processes in conjunction with re-naturalisation of the river corridor at the reach-scale (including floodbank set-back, floodplain reconnection, regeneration of riparian vegetation, large wood placement). In addition, these measures also had to accommodate the objective of sustainable flood risk management, through the combination of a re-naturalised run-off regime and the encouragement of floodplain water storage. We present the output from 1D and 2D hydraulic models of a 1km stretch of the Eddleston Water that jointly assesses the benefit to flood hydrograph attenuation and bio-physical processes of a suite of restoration designs within the floodplain. Although the models produced an optimised design based on these environmental objectives, the ‘real world’ situation of constraints imposed by ‘socio-economic’ factors (particularly agricultural and urban infrastructure pressures) subsequently modified this. In this way the project demonstrated the compromises that have to be made in implementing these type of idealised physical objectives.
Moir, H.; Bowles, C.; Campbell, C.; Sawyer, A.; Comins, L.; Werritty, A.
Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a major cause of vision loss. Of the two main types of RVO, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is 4 to 6 times more prevalent than central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). A basic risk factor for RVO is advancing age. Further risk factors include systemic conditions like hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, vascular cerebral stroke, blood hyperviscosity, and thrombophilia. A strong risk factor for RVO is the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia). Individuals with end-organ damage caused by diabetes mellitus and hypertension have greatly increased risk for RVO. Socioeconomic status seems to be a risk factor too. American blacks are more often diagnosed with RVO than non-Hispanic whites. Females are, according to some studies, at lower risk than men. The role of thrombophilic risk factors in RVO is still controversial. Congenital thrombophilic diseases like factor V Leiden mutation, hyperhomocysteinemia and anticardiolipin antibodies increase the risk of RVO. Cigarette smoking also increases the risk of RVO as do systemic inflammatory conditions like vasculitis and Behcet disease. Ophthalmic risk factors for RVO are ocular hypertension and glaucoma, higher ocular perfusion pressure, and changes in the retinal arteries. PMID:25009743
Craniosynostosis is a relatively common congenital abnormality. The underlying etiology and most probable risk factors of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis are unknown. We conducted a study to identify the risk factors for craniosynostosis.
Ardalan, Maryam; H.Rafati, Ali
Full Text Available Information Communication Technology (ICT industry is going through a bottleneck period and the low success rate of technical commercialization is exactly one of the most important reasons impeding ICT's development. Through data collection and analysis of three ICT enterprises in Guangzhou, 21 risk factors of ICT commercialization are identified with grounded theory and the three-level ICT commercialization risk factor model is established in the views of technical management, project management and dynamic capability. On the basis of the identified risk factors, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is used to evaluate the risk factors, and 10 key risk factors (TOP10 are selected. Finally, the structural relationship of TOP10 risk factors is analyzed with Interpretive Structural Modeling, and consequently an interpretive structural model of the key risk factors is constructed, and root risk factors are found. The research is aim to improve the success rate of ICT commercialization.
Background : Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Several risk factors were found to play a role in thyroid cancer. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer, in Babol, north of Iran.
Moazezi, Zoleika; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Yahyahpour, Yousef; Alaleh, Alireza
We explored the power of 14 socioeconomic factors for predicting differences in traditional knowledge about palms (Arecaceae) at the personal, household, and regional levels in 25 locations in the Amazon, Andes, and Chocó of northwestern South America. Using semistructured interviews, we gathered data on palm uses from 2050 informants in 53 communities and four countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia ). We performed multilevel statistical analyses, which showed that the influence of each socioeconomic factor differed depending on whether the analysis was performed on the overall palm knowledge or on individual use categories. At the general palm knowledge level, gender was the only factor that had a significant association in all five subregions, and showed that men had more knowledge than women, and age had a positive significant association only in the lowlands. Most of the analyzed socioeconomic factors had a greater influence on the lowland ecoregions of the Amazon and Chocó, although there were mixed trends in these ecoregions. Our results show that there are no regional patterns in the predictive power of socioeconomic factors and that their influence on palm-use knowledge is highly localized. We can conclude that (1) conservation strategies of traditional knowledge of palm use in the region should be developed mainly at the local level, and (2) large-scale comparable ethnoecological studies are necessary to understand indigenous communities’ livelihoods at different scales.
Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo
Full Text Available Background: Violence against children is a deep-rooted social problem in India. The problem is also related to economic as well as cultural beliefs and practices. The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and nature of violence experienced by the children in families in Tripura, India and its relationship with socio-economic factors. Methods: A group of 320 children (160 males and 160 females studying in Class VIII and IX and aged between 14-19 participated in the study after obtaining their informed consent from eight randomly selected English and Bengali medium schools in Agartala, Tripura (India. Data were collected by using a specially designed ‘Semi-structured Questionnaire’. Results: Findings revealed that about 20.9% (67/320, 21.9% (70/230 and 18.1% (58/230 of the children experienced psychological, physical and sexual violence respectively. Male children were more likely to be victims of psychological and physical violence while female children experienced more sexual violence (p=sign. Further analysis of data revealed some relationship between violence against children and nuclear family (p=sign, uncongenial and/or disturbed family environment (p=sign and dominating, short-tempered and/or aggressive parent personality (p=sign, irrespective of the nature of the violence. Physical violence was found to be more prevalent in high income families (p=sign while children from the lower income group of families experienced more psychological violence (p=sign. Sexual violence was found to be equally prevalent in all socio-economic groups. The study also clearly indicated that academic performance of violence-experienced children, irrespective of nature of violence and socio-economic groups was poor compared to academic performance of non-violence-experienced children (p=sign. Conclusions: About one-fifth of the children under study did experience violence in Tripura. Findings speak in favor of an intervention program for creating awareness among parents and teachers about the issue of violence against children, targeted at parents when they meet for periodic parent-teachers meetings in the educational institutions.
OBJECTIVES: Although well established, the association between socioeconomic position and health and health behaviour is not clearly understood, and it has been speculated that familial factors, for example, dispositional factors or exposures in the rearing environment, may be underlying the association. The objective was to compare prescription fillings within twin pairs who are partly or fully genetically identical and share childhood exposures. DESIGN: Twin cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Data from the Danish Twin Registry were linked to registers in Statistics Denmark and the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product statistics. A total of 8582 monozygotic (MZ) and 15 788 dizygotic same sex (DZSS) twins were included. OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of prescription fillings during follow-up (1995-2005) was analysed according to education and income. Results of unpaired and intrapair analyses were compared. RESULTS: An inverse social gradient in filling of prescriptions for all-purpose and system-specific drugs was observed in the unpaired analyses. In the intrapair analyses, associations were attenuated some in DZSS and more in MZ twins. Filling of drugs targeting the nervous system was still strongly associated with income in the intrapair analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Familial factors seem to account for part of the observed social inequality in filling of prescription medicine.
Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh
Abstract Background An inverse relationship between better socioeconomic status (total household income, education or occupation) and stroke has been established in developed communities, but family size has generally not been considered in the use of socioeconomic status indices. We explored the utility of Family Average Income (FAI) as a single index of socioeconomic status to examine the association with stroke prevalence in a region of China, and we also compared its perf...
Yin XiaoMei; Ah Tse Lap; Xu Fei; Yu Ignatius Tak-sun; Griffiths Sian
Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL?4mm/?25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.
Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa
A scientometric analysis has been performed on selected physics journals to estimate the presence of simulation and modeling in physics literature in the past fifty years. Correlations between the observed trends and several social and economical factors have been evaluated.
Pia, M G; Bell, Z W; Dressendorfer, P V
Violence against Women has become a global concern because this specific issue affects the life of women adversely. Domestic violence is most persistent form of Violence against Women. It is a severe violation of human rights. Many demographic, economic, psychological factors may be responsible for the domestic violence but social factors contain prime importance in this regard. Pakistani society is facing the trouble of increase in domestic violence because this issue is still under acknowle...
Zarqa Azhar; Malik Muhammad Sohail; Ghulam Yasin; Babak Mahmood; Shehzad Khaver Mushtaq
Abstract Background The Northern California county of Marin (MC) has historically had high breast cancer incidence rates. Because of MC's high socioeconomic status (SES) and racial homogeneity (non-Hispanic White), it has been difficult to assess whether these elevated rates result from a combination of established risk factors or other behavioral or environmental factors. This survey was designed to compare potential breast cancer risks and incidence rates for a sample of mi...
Uratsu Connie S; Ereman Rochelle; Prebil Lee; Gordon Nancy P; Suzanne, Lea C.; Powell Mark
Abstract Background Childhood obesity levels are rising with estimates suggesting that around one in three children in Western countries are overweight. People from lower socioeconomic status and ethnic minority backgrounds are at higher risk of obesity and subsequent CVD and diabetes. Within this study we examine the prevalence of risk factors for CVD and diabetes (obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension) and examine factors associated with the presence of these r...
Brophy Sinead; Thomas Non; Rees Anwen; Knox Gareth; Williams Rhys
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries and risk factors in outpatients of the Pediatric Ambulatory of the Pedro Ernesto University Hospital aging up to 36 months. After signing informed consent forms, the parents answered a structured questionnaire in order to evaluate risk factors for dental caries, including socioeconomic status, oral hygiene and dietary habits. A single investigator carried out the dental examination which assessed the presence of caries, biofilm and ...
Ana Paula Pires dos Santos; Vera Mendes Soviero
Full Text Available Neuroscientific and psychological research on moral development has until now developed independently, referring to distinct theoretical models, contents and methods. In particular, the influence of socio-economic and cultural factors on morality has been broadly investigated by psychologists but as yet has not been investigated by neuroscientists. The value of bridging these two areas both theoretically and methodologically has, however, been suggested. This study aims at providing a first connection between neuroscientific and psychological literature on morality by investigating whether socio-economic dimensions, i.e. living socio-geographic/economic area, immigrant status and SES, affect moral reasoning as operationalized in moral domain theory (a seminal approach in psychological studies on morality and in Greene and colleagues’ (2001 perspective (one of the main approaches in neuroethics research. Participants were 81 primary school (M = 8.98 yrs.; SD = 0.39, 72 middle school (M = 12.14 yrs.; SD = 0.61 and 73 high school (M = 15.10 yrs.; SD = 0.38 students from rural and urban areas. Participants’ immigrant status (native vs. immigrant and family SES level were recorded. Moral reasoning was assessed by means of a series of personal and impersonal dilemmas based on Greene and colleagues' (2001 neuroimaging experiment and a series of moral and socio-conventional rule dilemmas based on the moral domain theory. Living socio-geographic/economic area, immigrant status and SES mainly affected evaluations of moral and, to a higher extent, socio-conventional dilemmas, but had no impact on judgment of personal and impersonal dilemmas. Results are mainly discussed from the angle of possible theoretical links and suggestions emerging for studies on moral reasoning in the frameworks of neuroscience and psychology.
Simona Carla SilviaCaravita
Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an increasing availability and accessibility of modern health services in rural Bangladesh over the past decades. However, previous studies on the socioeconomic differentials in the utilization of these services were based on a limited number of factors, focusing either on preventive or on curative modern health services. These studies failed to collect data from remote rural areas of the different regions to examine the socioeconomic differentials in health-seeking behavior. Methods Data from 3,498 randomly selected currently married women from three strata of households within 128 purposively chosen remote villages in three divisions of Bangladesh were collected in 2006. This study used bivariate and multivariate logistic analyses to examine both curative and preventive health-seeking behaviors in seven areas of maternal and child health care: antenatal care, postnatal care, child delivery care, mother's receipt of Vitamin A postpartum, newborn baby care, care during recent child fever/cough episodes, and maternal coverageby tetanus toxoid (TT. Results A principal finding was that a household's relative poverty status, as reflected by wealth quintiles, was a major determinant in health-seeking behavior. Mothers in the highest wealth quintile were significantly more likely to use modern trained providers for antenatal care, birth attendance, post natal care and child health care than those in the poorest quintile (?2, p Conclusion Within rural areas of Bangladesh, where overall poverty is greater and access to health care more difficult, wealth differentials in utilization remain pronounced. Those programs with high international visibility and dedicated funding (e.g., Immunization and Vitamin A delivery have higher overall prevalence and a more equitable distribution of beneficiaries than the use of modern trained providers for basic essential health care services. Implications of these findings and recommendations are provided.
Certain viral and bacterial infections may contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study is to determine whether Helicobacter pylori (HP) seropositivity contributes to conventional atherosclerosis risk factors in the development of an early sign of atherosclerosis: intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery. Eighty-four patients who had at least two conventional atherosclerosis risk factors and a control group of 50 patients having no risk factors for atherosclerosis were enrolled in the study. None of the patients had ever received HP eradication treatment. HP IgG antibodies were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Carotid artery IMT was measured 1 cm before the carotid bifurcation. Seventy-five percent of the study group was HP seropositive. HP seropositive (n=64) and seronegative (n=21) groups were identical in terms of sex distribution, smoking pattern, mean age, hemoglobin, leukocyte, platelet, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure levels. There was no significant difference between the mean carotid IMT of HP seropositive (0.8+/-0.3 mm) and negative (0.8+/-0.3 mm) patients in the study group. Similar to the study group, there was no statistically significant difference between mean carotid IMT of HP seropositive (0.56+/-0.19 mm) and negative patients (0.67+/-0.13 mm) in the control group (p=0.2). Future studies concerning virulent strains are needed to determine the probable role of HP in atherosclerosis. PMID:15812164
Köksal, Aydin; Ekmekçi, Yakup; Karadeniz, Yasemin; Köklü, Seyfettin; Apan, Teoman; Yilmaz, Murat; Sezikli, Mesut; Unal, Birsen; Demirel, Tolga; Yildiz, Akin
Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs have remained a leading cause of mortality in Kazakhstan. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of CVD risk factors (RFs among the Kazakh population, and their ability to identify those CVD RFs. We interviewed 611 subjects aged 25–65 years using a structured self-administered questionnaire from April to July, 2008. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated to determine associations between CVD RFs and its correlations, such as socioeconomic status and level of knowledge of CVD RFs through a logistic regression model. Mean age of the respondents was 43.2 years, and 49.8% were male. Tobacco smoking, overweight (body mass index ? 25.0, hypertension (systolic blood pressure ? 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure ??? 90 mm Hg, and alcohol drinking were identified as important CVD RFs. Risk of overweight was greatest among the population aged 45–54 years, with an OR of 5.3 (95% CI=3.1–9.2. The overweight population was significantly associated with higher income (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1–2.4 and knowledge of RF (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.2–2.4, with p<0.05. Only 25.0% of respondents had good knowledge about CVD RFs. Alcohol drinking was inversely related to the level of knowledge about CVD RFs (OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5–0.9. We concluded that CVD RFs were very high among the Kazakh population, although their level of knowledge to identify those RFs was very low. Increasing knowledge about CVD RFs through awareness campaign activities can reduce CVD-related morbidity and mortality and ensure a better quality of life for the Kazakh population.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Central Vietnam, forest malaria remains difficult to control due to the complex interactions between human, vector and environmental factors. Methods Prior to a community-based intervention to assess the efficacy of long-lasting insecticidal hammocks, a complete census (18,646 individuals and a baseline cross-sectional survey for determining malaria prevalence and related risk factors were carried out. Multivariate analysis using survey logistic regression was combined to a classification tree model (CART to better define the relative importance and inter-relations between the different risk factors. Results The study population was mostly from the Ra-glai ethnic group (88%, with both low education and socio-economic status and engaged mainly in forest activities (58%. The multivariate analysis confirmed forest activity, bed net use, ethnicity, age and education as risk factors for malaria infections, but could not handle multiple interactions. The CART analysis showed that the most important risk factor for malaria was the wealth category, the wealthiest group being much less infected (8.9% than the lower and medium wealth category (16.6%. In the former, forest activity and bed net use were the most determinant risk factors for malaria, while in the lower and medium wealth category, insecticide treated nets were most important, although the latter were less protective among Ra-glai people. Conclusion The combination of CART and multivariate analysis constitute a novel analytical approach, providing an accurate and dynamic picture of the main risk factors for malaria infection. Results show that the control of forest malaria remains an extremely complex task that has to address poverty-related risk factors such as education, ethnicity and housing conditions.
Full Text Available Introduction: Self-image is important in the behaviour and lifestyle of children and adolescents. Analysing the self-image they have and the factors that might influence their distortion, can be used to prevent problems of obesity and anorexia. The main objective of present publication was to analyse the risk factors that may contribute to self-image distortion.Material and Methods: A descriptive survey study was conducted among 659 children and adolescents in two social classes (low and medium-high, measuring height and weight, calculating BMI percentile for age and gender. Body image and self-perception were registered.Results: The percentage of overweight-obesity is higher in scholars (41.8% boys, 28.7% girls than in adolescents (30.1% and 22.2% respectively, with no difference between socioeconomic classes. The multinomial logistic regression analysis gives a risk of believing thinner higher (p=0.000 among boys OR=2.9(95%CI:1.43-3.37, school (p=0.000 OR=2.42(95%CI:1.56-3.76 and much lower (p=0.000 between normally nourished OR=0.08(95%CI:0.05-0.13, with no differences according to socioeconomic status. The risk of believing fatter is lower (p=0.000 between boys OR=0.28(95%CI:0.14-0.57, school(p=0.072 OR=0.54(95%CI:0.27-1.6, and much higher among underweight (p=0.000 OR=9x108 (95% CI:4x108-19x108.Conclusions: Are risk factors of believing thinner: males, being in a group of schoolchildren and overweight-obesity. Conversely, are risk factors of believing fatter: females, teen and above all, be thin.
Objectives. To investigate a prevalence of caries, filled permanentand extracted permanent teeth, as well as caries risk factors inschool children aged 7, 9 and 11.Methods. The survey included 800 children (296 children aged7; 254 children aged 9 and 250 children aged 11) from the MostarMunicipality, 400 of them living in both rural and urban areas.A dental mirror and standard light of dental chair were used forexamination. The DMF index (Dental Caries, Missing Teeth andFilled Teeth) was dete...
Melida Hasanagi?; Bajro Sari?
Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye
Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994–2010) were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and ...
Victoria Gray; Panegyres, Peter K.
Cardiovascular risk factors were studied in a random representative sample of the urban community of Tlemcen, aged 20 years or older. The study included 805 subjects (participation rate: 72%). This study showed a high prevalence of hypertension (32.7%), diabetes (16.1%), cigarette smoking (17.1%, but 36.8% among men), blood cholesterol levels > 6.2 mmol/L (6.3%) and obesity (19.2% and significantly higher in women than in men: 27.9% vs 10.5%). These results show that the prevalence of hypertension is very high among women, reaching levels observed in industrialized countries. PMID:18180216
Latifa, Boukli Hacène; Kaouel, Meguenni
A case-control study involving 54 cases and 108 matched controls was conducted to find out the association of risk factors like smoking, chewing paan and tobacco and the occurrence of cancers of the oral cavity. More than 80% of the cases were over 40 years of age, with a male: female ratio of 2:1, paan and tobacco chewing were significantly related to the oral cancers (Odds Ratio of 9.3 and 7.8 respectively). Smoking showed a statistically significant relationship with oral cancers am...
Bharti A.R; Kumar A.R; Jyothi S.L.S; Visweswaran P; Mary T.S; Asthana S.S; Sumana R
Background: Atherosclerosis is a multi-factorial disease involving the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Studies highlighting the public health importance of risk factors like chronic infections causing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Indian context are scarce. This study was undertaken to study the association of socio-demographic and life-style factors with acute myocardial infarction in central India. Materials and Methods: The cases and controls were group-matched for age, gender, and socio-economic status. A blinded research associate administered the study questionnaire. We performed an unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The case-control study included 265 cases of AMI and 265 controls. The results of final model of logistic regression analysis for risk factors of AMI included 11 risk factors at ? = 0.05. They were waist hip ratio, body mass index, stress at home in last 1 year, hypertension, family history of CHD, past history of gingival sepsis, tobacco smoking, raised total serum cholesterol, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori and raised C-reactive protein. Conclusion: The findings confirm the role of conventional risk factors for cardiac disease and highlight need for research into the association between chronic infections with AMI.
Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Shrikhande, Sunanda N.; Negandhi, Himanshu N.; Ughade, Suresh N.; Joshi, Prashant P.
This study examined screen media time usage (SMTU) and its association with personal and socioeconomic factors, as well as the effect of season and type of day, in a Spanish sample of 12-16 year-old school adolescents (N=323). The research design was a cross-sectional survey, in which an interviewer-administered recall questionnaire was used.…
Devis-Devis, Jose; Peiro-Velert, Carmen; Beltran-Carrillo, Vicente J.; Tomas, Jose Manuel
To identify the risk factors associated with childhood asthma, in children attending Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad. The study included 398 age-matched children (200 asthmatic and 198 non-asthmatic). Information was collected concerning their familial history of atopy, birth weight, environment, breastfeeding, disease and treatment history. Odds ratio was calculated for determining the risk. The children were aged between 12 months and 8 years and 60% were male. The asthmatic children were hospitalized more frequently than the non-asthmatic children (p < 0.0001). Most of the asthmatic children lived in the urban areas of Hyderabad (odd ratio (OR) 16.7, 95% CI = 3.1-14.6, p < 0.0001), had a parental history of asthma (OR 26.8, 95% CI = 10.8-68.2, p < 0.0001) or allergic rhinitis (OR 4, 95% CI 1.2-13.4, p= 0.01), 38.5% had at least one person who smoked, and were weaned earlier than the non-asthmatic children (OR =12.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.4, p < 0.01). Childhood asthma was strongly associated with a family history of asthma and allergic rhinitis, the urban place of residence, having smokers as parents and early weaning from maternal breast milk. The results highlight the need to educate the parents about the risk of smoking and early weaning in the development of asthma. (author)
In order to identify risk factors for typhoid fever in a highly endemic area, we undertook a case-control study in the Mekong delta, Viet Nam. Cases were 144 consecutive patients admitted to hospital with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever. Two controls (1 in the hospital and 1 in the community) were chosen for each case. Standardized interviews were conducted with questions regarding recent contact with a typhoid fever patient, eating habits, hygiene and socio-economic level. Cases were m...
Luxemburger, C.; Chau, Mc; Mai, Nl; Wain, J; Tran, Th; Simpson, Ja; Le, Hk; Nguyen, Tt; White, NJ; Farrar, Jj
Objective : This study examined whether the association between socio-economic status (SES) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in black South Africans from the North West Province had shifted from the more affluent groups with higher SES to the less affluent, lower SES groups over a period of nine years. Method : Cross-sectional baseline data of 2 010 urban and rural subjects (35 years and older) participating in the Prospective Urban and Rural (PURE) study and collected in 2005...
Behanan, Ronia; Kruger, Annamarie; Pisa, Pedro Terrence; Vorster, Hester Hendrina
Objective. To assess the HIV serostatus of clients attending integrated counseling and testing centres (ICTCs) in Tamilnadu, south India (excluding antenatal women and children), and to study its association with demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral risk factors. Design. In a prospective observational study, we interviewed clients attending 170 ICTCs from six districts of Tamilnadu during 2007 utilizing a standard pretest assessment questionnaire. All the clients were tested for HIV wit...
Supriya Sahu; Jaggarajamma, K.; Anasua Bagchi; Muniyandi, M.; Chandrasekaran, V.; Rajeswari Ramachandran
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The change of the age pattern for using cosmetics in Iran is an important issue. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting the cosmetics usage by the girls under 20 years old.Methods: This survey was done in Yazdanshahr NajafAbad (Isfahan using of measurement method and questionnaire instrument in the year 2011-2012. Three hundred indivisuals were randomly selected from 1800 female students in high school, secondary school and per-university levels.Results: Most of the respondents named their close friends and relatives as their model of make up. 31.7% of the girls have set satellite channels as their model and 7.7% used internet sites. 44.3% of the girls agreed with the effect of relation with opposite gender on the amount of cosmetics usage. There is a meaningful relation between age, multimedia consumption, marriage status, social reliability and the tendency to the cosmetics usage.Conclusion: The factors influencing the cosmetics usage include population characteristics, socio-economic base, multimedia consumption, relations, family and reliability which explain almost 55% of the changeability of the variances.
In this study we examine the effect of several alcohol-related measures on self-reported collision involvement within the previous 12 months while controlling for demographic and driving exposure factors based on a large representative sample of adults in Ontario. Data are based on the 2002-2006 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Monitor, an ongoing cross-sectional telephone survey of Ontario adults aged 18 and older (n=8542). Three logistic regressions of self-reported collision involvement in the past 12 months were implemented, each consisting of 3 steps: (1) demographic factors and driving exposure entered, (2) driving after drinking within the last 12 months entered, and (3) one of three alcohol-related measures (AUDIT subscales of alcohol consumption, dependence and problems) entered. In each step, measures from the preceding step were included in order to control for those variables. In Step 1, age (OR=0.989), region overall, Central East region (OR=0.71), West region (OR=0.67), and North region (OR=0.67), income overall and those who did not state income (OR=0.64), marital status overall and those married or living common law (OR=0.60), and number of kilometers driven in a typical week (OR=1.00) were found to be significant predictors of collision involvement. The analyses revealed that driving after drinking was a significant predictor of collision involvement in Step 2 (OR=1.51) and each of the Step 3 models (ORs=1.52, 1.37, 1.34). The AUDIT Consumption subscale was not a significant factor in collision risk. Both the AUDIT Dependence and AUDIT Problems subscales were significantly related to collision risk (ORs=1.13 and 1.10, respectively). These findings suggest that alcohol, in addition to its effects on collision risk through its acute impairment of driving skills, may also affect collision risk through processes involved when individuals develop alcohol problems or alcohol dependence. PMID:20728600
Mann, Robert E; Stoduto, Gina; Vingilis, Evelyn; Asbridge, Mark; Wickens, Christine M; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Sharpley, Justin; Smart, Reginald G
Full Text Available Objective: To identify risk factors related to sensorineural hearing loss in elderly. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 selected elderly, divided into two groups: the Case Group, composed by 30 individuals, 21 females and 9 males, aged at least 60 years, presenting sensorineural hearing loss, and the Control Group, composed by 30 individuals matched on gender and age, with normal hearing. The patients were submitted to audiological anamnesis and tonal audiometry. The hearing impairment was defined according to average threshold greater than 35dBNA, in the frequencies of 1,000; 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, in the best ear. Results: Statistically significant odds ratios were: a to audiological history: noise exposure and family history of deafness; b to situations involving hearing difficulty: television, church, telephone, silent environment, spatial location of sound, difficulty with voices and noisy environment; c to otologic history: tinnitus, otorrhea and nausea; and d to medical history: visual problems, smoke, alcohol, thyroid problems and kidney disease. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlighted, for sensorineural hearing loss, risk factors related to audiologic, otologic and medical history, and to situations involving hearing difficulty.
Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves Martins
Full Text Available E Duron, Olivier HanonBroca Hospital, Paris, FranceAbstract: Dementia is one of the most important neurological disorders in the elderly. Aging is associated with a large increase in the prevalence and incidence of degenerative (Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, leading to a devastating loss of autonomy. In view of the increasing longevity of populations worldwide, prevention of dementia has turned into a major public health challenge. In the past decade, several vascular risk factors have been found to be associated with vascular dementia but also Alzheimer’s disease. Some longitudinal studies, have found significant associations between hypertension, diabetus mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, assessed at middle age, and dementia. Studies assessing the link between hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and dementia have given more conflicting results. Furthermore, some studies have highlighted the possible protective effect of antihypertensive therapy on cognition and some trials are evaluating the effects of statins and treatments for insulin resistance. Vascular risk factors and their treatments are a promising avenue of research for prevention of dementia, and further long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized studies, need to be performed.Keywords: dementia, hypertension, diabetus mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, metabolic syndrome
In the majority of mesothelioma cases worldwide, asbestos is a likely causal factor, but several alternative factors, such as ionizing radiation, have been recognized. We reviewed ionizing-radiation evidence from epidemiology studies of (1) patients exposed to the diagnostic X-ray contrast medium "Thorotrast," (2) patients undergoing radiation therapy (i.e., to treat cancer), and (3) atomic energy workers chronically exposed to lower levels of radiation. The results from these populations are also supported by case reports of mesothelioma following therapeutic radiation. Statistically significant associations were found in many, but not all, epidemiology studies (particularly those of Thorotrast- and radiation-treated patients). Given the low mesothelioma rate in the general population, the consistently increased risk among these radiation-exposed individuals is noteworthy. Many studies were limited by the lack of a uniform manner in which mesothelioma was reported prior to introduction of a uniform classification system (ICD-10). Future studies that rely on ICD-10 should have greater power to detect an association. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, considering studies in which statistical significance was achieved, the case reports, and the plausible mode of action, we conclude that the evidence is supportive of a causal link between ionizing radiation exposure and mesothelioma risk. PMID:19444627
Goodman, Julie E; Nascarella, Marc A; Valberg, Peter A