Wielgosz, A T; Spasoff, R A
Despite a general decline in mortality rates in recent decades, these rates are substantially higher among lower socioeconomic groups. To determine target groups for preventive health promotion programs, the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic group in Canadian adults aged 20 to 69 years was examined through comparison of estimates from the 1978-79 Canada Health Survey, the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey and the labour force smoking surveys of 1975 and 1983. Lev...
Andersen, Anette; Holstein, BjØrn E
Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors to drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups.
De Vogli, R; Marmot, M
A large number of studies show that cardiovascular disease and its traditional risk factors are associated with socioeconomic conditions. However, their etiological role in the development of cardiovascular outcomes is not always well understood. In particular, it is unclear whether socioeconomic factors should be considered as traditional risk factors for CVD, as confounders, or as risk modifiers. In this article, after examining whether socioeconomic c...
Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille
Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors to drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups. METHODS: The study population was a random sample of 1453 Danish 15-year-old students. The outcome measure was drunkenness 10 times or more, as a lifetime ...
Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Costello, Tracy J; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Jasjit S Ahluwalia; Wetter, David W.
Although socioeconomic status is a major contributing factor to health disparities, the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status influences health remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an a priori conceptual model of the pathways between socioeconomic status and modifiable health risk factors in a sample of 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment. A latent variable modeling approach was utilized to characterize the interrelationships among soc...
Ruger Jennifer; Kim Hak-Ju
Abstract Background Few studies have examined socioeconomic disparities in health and behavioral risk factors by gender in Asian countries and in South Korea, specifically. We investigated the relationship between socioeconomic position (education, income, and occupation) and subjective and acute and chronic health outcomes and behavioral risk factors by gender, and compared results from 1998 and 2005, in the Republic of Korea. Methods We examined data from a nationally representative stratif...
de Haan, Anna M.; Boon, Albert E.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Hoeve, Machteld; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.
Background: Dropout from child and adolescent psychotherapy is a common phenomenon which can have negative consequences for the individual later in life. It is therefore important to gain insight on dropout risk factors. Objective: Several potential risk factors [ethnic minority status, a lower socioeconomic status (SES), and higher problem…
Conway, D I
In the European Union, there are 180,000 new cases of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer cases per year--more than half of whom will die of the disease. Socioeconomic inequalities in UADT cancer incidence are recognised across Europe. We aimed to assess the components of socioeconomic risk both independently and through their influence on the known behavioural risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption and diet.
Greener, Robert; Sarkar, Swarup
HIV epidemics in Asia have been mainly concentrated among certain population groups such as injecting drug users, sex workers and their clients and men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV risk has also been associated with labour migrants and their partners. Many of the people at risk through these behaviours are very poor, and this raises the question that poverty and social deprivation may be underlying factors that drive the adoption of risk behaviours and can be regarded as 'determinants' of vulnerability to HIV infection in Asia. The study presents some observations of the socioeconomic pattern of HIV spread in Asia, using country-level and household-level data. The discussion then draws tentative conclusions about what is known concerning the mechanisms influencing the risk of HIV acquisition in Asia and what they might imply for programme design and policy. In summary, the data presented here do not support the hypothesis that HIV epidemics in Asia are primarily driven by poverty and social deprivation, though sex inequality and education for women and girls are strongly associated factors. There is clearly a multidimensional relationship between the risk of HIV infection and a host of underlying social and cultural factors that confound any attempt at a single explanation for the HIV epidemic in Asia or elsewhere. There is an undeniable need for further research through multicountry studies and better analysis of existing household data, as well as through further investigation of the quantitative relationship between the barriers to HIV services and the risk of infection. The key message for policy is to seek a broad balance between a focus on prevention and treatment for the higher-risk behaviours without losing sight of the importance of programmes that address vulnerability and behavioural change among the sexually active adult population. The implication of these findings for the allocation of resources for downstream factors such as risk behaviours as well as upstream development factors is briefly discussed. PMID:20926925
Full Text Available Background: Not only the expand development of knowledge for reducing risk factors, but also the improvement in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and socioeconomic inequalities could affect cancer incidence, diagnosis stage, and mortality. The aim of this study was investigation the relationships between family levels of socioeconomic status and distribution of breast cancer risk factors. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study has conducted on 526 patients who were suffering from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2008 to December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family levels of socioeconomic status has filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS19. Results: The mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41. According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between family socioeconomic status and patient's age at diagnosis of breast cancer (p value 0.001. In the multiple logistic regressions, the relationship between excellent socioeconomic status and number of abortions was significant (p value> 0.007. Furthermore, the relationships between moderate and good socioeconomic statuses and smoking were significant (p value=0.05 and p value=0.02, respectively. Conclusion: The results have indicated that among those patients having better socioeconomic status, age at cancer diagnosis, number of pregnancies and duration of breast feeding was lower, and then number of abortions was more than the others. According to the results of this study, it was really important to focus on family socioeconomic status as a critical and effective variable on breast cancer risk factors among the Iranian women.
Potvin, L; L. Richard; Edwards, A.C.
BACKGROUND: We examined the ability of adult Canadians to recall cardiovascular disease risk factors to determine the associations between their ability to recall risk factors for cardiovascular disease and their socioeconomic status. METHODS: This study used the database assembled by the Canadian Heart Health Surveys Research Group between 1986 and 1992--a stratified representative sample comprising 23,129 Canadian residents aged 18 to 74. Nurses administered a standard questionnaire asking ...
Alves, Luís; Azevedo, Ana; Silva, Susana; Barros, Henrique
The evaluation of the gender-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors across socioeconomic position (SEP) categories may unravel mechanisms involved in the development of coronary heart disease. Using a sample of 1704 community dwellers of a Portuguese urban center aged 40 years or older, assessed in 1999–2003, we quantified the age-standardized prevalence of nine established cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, sedentariness, ...
Kendzor, Darla E; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Mazas, Carlos A; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Costello, Tracy J.; Businelle, Michael S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.
The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of co-occurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment, and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had a...
Alves, Luís; Azevedo, Ana; Silva, Susana; Barros, Henrique
The evaluation of the gender-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors across socioeconomic position (SEP) categories may unravel mechanisms involved in the development of coronary heart disease. Using a sample of 1704 community dwellers of a Portuguese urban center aged 40 years or older, assessed in 1999-2003, we quantified the age-standardized prevalence of nine established cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, sedentariness, abdominal obesity, poor diet, excessive alcohol intake and depression) across SEP and gender categories. Data on individual education and occupation were collected by questionnaire and used to characterize SEP. The prevalence of seven out of nine well-established risk factors was higher in men. Among women, the prevalence of most of the studied risk factors was higher in lower SEP groups. The main exception was smoking, which increased with education and occupation levels. Among men, socioeconomic gradients were less clear, but lower SEP was associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes, excessive alcohol intake and depression in a graded mode. The historical cultural beliefs and practices captured throughout the lifecourse frame the wide socioeconomic gradients discernible in our study conducted in an unequal European developed population. While men were more exposed to most risk factors, the clearer associations between SEP and risk factors among women support that their adoption of particular healthy behaviors is more dependent on material and symbolic conditions. To fully address the issue of health inequalities, interventions within the health systems should be complemented with population-based policies specifically designed to reduce socioeconomic gradients. PMID:22666343
Alamgir, M.; Salahuddin, M.
A sample of 506 patients from various hospitals in Peshawar was examined to determine significant socio-economic and physical risk factors of Myocardial Infarction (heart attack). The factors examined were smoking (S), hypertension (H), cholesterol (C), diabetes (D), family history (F), residence (R), own a house (OH), number of dependents (ND), household income (I), obesity and lack of exercise (E). The response variable MI was binary. Therefore, logistic regression was applied (using GLIM a...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined socioeconomic disparities in health and behavioral risk factors by gender in Asian countries and in South Korea, specifically. We investigated the relationship between socioeconomic position (education, income, and occupation and subjective and acute and chronic health outcomes and behavioral risk factors by gender, and compared results from 1998 and 2005, in the Republic of Korea. Methods We examined data from a nationally representative stratified random sample of 4213 men and 4618 women from the 1998 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 8289 men and 8827 women from the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using General Linear Modeling and multiple logistic regression methods. Results Controlling for behavioral risk factors (smoking, drinking, obesity, exercise, and sleep, those in lower socioeconomic positions had poorer health outcomes in both self-reported acute and chronic disease and subjective measures; differences were especially pronounced among women. A socioeconomic gradient for education and income was found for both men and women for morbidity and self-reported health status, but the gradient was more pronounced in women. In 1998, the odds ratios (ORs of higher morbidity for illiterate vs. college educated females was 5.4:1 and 1.9:1 for females in the lowest income quintile vs. the highest. The OR for education decreased in 2005 to 2.9:1 and that for income quintiles remained the same at 1.9:1. The OR of lower self-reported health status for illiterate vs. college educated females was 2.9:1 and 1.6:1 for females in the lowest income quintile vs. the highest in 1998, and 3.3:1 and 2.3:1 in 2005. Conclusions Among Korean adults, men and women in lower socioeconomic position, as denoted by education, income, and somewhat less by occupation, experience significantly higher levels of morbidity and lower self-reported health status, even after controlling for standard behavioral risk factors. Disparities were more pronounced for women than for men. Efforts to reduce health disparities in South Korea require attention to the root causes of socioeconomic inequality and gender differences in the impact of socioeconomic position on health.
Full Text Available A sample of 506 patients from various hospitals in Peshawar was examined to determine significant socio-economic and physical risk factors of Myocardial Infarction (heart attack. The factors examined were smoking (S, hypertension (H, cholesterol (C, diabetes (D, family history (F, residence (R, own a house (OH, number of dependents (ND, household income (I, obesity and lack of exercise (E. The response variable MI was binary. Therefore, logistic regression was applied (using GLIM and SPSS packages to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. Logistic regression models have been obtained indicating significant risk factors for both sexes, for males and for females separately. The best-selected model for both sexes is of factors S, F, D, H and C. The best-selected model for males is of factors CIFH, S, H, D, C and F, while the best-selected model for females is of factors D, H, C and F.
Lantz, Paula M.; Golberstein, Ezra; House, James S.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.
Many demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral risk factors predict mortality in the United States. However, very few population-based longitudinal studies are able to investigate simultaneously the impact of a variety of social factors on mortality. We investigated the degree to which demographic characteristics, socioeconomic variables and major health risk factors were associated with mortality in a nationally-representative sample of 3,617 U.S. adults from 1986-2005, using data from the ...
Jiang Yong; Li Yichong; Zhang Mei; Yin Peng; Zhao Wenhua
Abstract Background Socioeconomic status is likely an independent risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), but little research has been done in China to study this association in a nationwide sample. Methods We used data from the 2007 China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance of 49,363 Chinese men and women aged 15-69 years to examine the association between the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnosed COPD and socioeconomic status defined by both educational ...
Phillips, Jennifer E.; Klein, William M. P.
The aim of this study is to examine existing research on social cognitive factors that may, in part, mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and coronary heart disease (CHD). We focus on how social status is ‘carried’ in the mental systems of individuals, and how these systems differentially affect CHD risk and associated behaviors. To this end, literatures documenting the association of various social cognitive factors (e.g., social comparison, perceived discrimination, and self-efficacy) with cardiovascular disease are reviewed as are literatures regarding the relationship of these factors to SES. Possible mechanisms through which social cognitions may affect health are addressed. In addition, directions for future research are discussed, and a model identifying the possible associations between social cognitive factors, SES, and coronary disease is provided. PMID:21785652
Fei, Xufeng; WU, JIAPING; Kong, Zhe; Christakos, George
Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The primary aim of this work is the study of breast cancer disparity among Chinese women in urban vs. rural regions and its associations with socioeconomic factors. Data on breast cancer incidence were obtained from the Chinese cancer registry annual report (2005–2009). The ten socioeconomic factors considered in this study were obtained from the national population 2000 census and the Chinese city/county statistical yearb...
To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age-adjusted odds ratio in male subjects was 1.9 (0.9, 3.9) but this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, a lower socio-economic class, categorised either by occupational or educational level, was an additional risk factor for diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese who had known risk factors for glucose intolerance. These subjects should have increased priority for health education and regular diabetes screening. Our findings further emphasise the complex relationships between societal affluence, personal income and educational level
Kershaw, Kiarri N; Droomers, Mariël; Robinson, Whitney R; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Daviglus, Martha L; Verschuren, W M Monique
Quantifying the impact of different modifiable behavioral and biological risk factors on socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease (CHD) may help inform targeted, population-specific strategies to reduce the unequal distribution of the disease. Previous studies have used analytic approaches that limit our ability to disentangle the relative contributions of these risk factors to CHD disparities. The goal of this study was to assess mediation of the effect of low education on inciden...
Abeyta, Ian Matthew; Tuitt, Nicole R.; Byers, Tim E.; Sauaia, Angela
We assessed the hypothesis that community affluence modifies the association between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and 6 cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors: diabetes, hypertension, physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and poor nutrition. We stratified data from the Colorado Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2007 and 2008 by individual SES and 3 categories of community affluence (median household income of county). People who had a low SES seemed to benefit from r...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status is likely an independent risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, but little research has been done in China to study this association in a nationwide sample. Methods We used data from the 2007 China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance of 49,363 Chinese men and women aged 15-69 years to examine the association between the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnosed COPD and socioeconomic status defined by both educational level and annual household income. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was performed with adjustement for potential confounders. Results Both low educational attainment and low household income were independently associated with higher risk of physician-diagnosed COPD. Compared to subjects with high educational level, subjects with low educational level had a significantly increased risk of COPD (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.32-2.13, p for trend Conclusions Socioeconomic status is a risk factor for self-reported physician-diagnosed COPD independently of current or passive smoking. Prospective studies are needed in China to better understand the association between socioeconomic status and COPD.
Fei, Xufeng; Wu, Jiaping; Kong, Zhe; Christakos, George
Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The primary aim of this work is the study of breast cancer disparity among Chinese women in urban vs. rural regions and its associations with socioeconomic factors. Data on breast cancer incidence were obtained from the Chinese cancer registry annual report (2005-2009). The ten socioeconomic factors considered in this study were obtained from the national population 2000 census and the Chinese city/county statistical yearbooks. Student's T test was used to assess disparities of female breast cancer and socioeconomic factors in urban vs. rural regions. Pearson correlation and ordinary least squares (OLS) models were employed to analyze the relationships between socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence. It was found that the breast cancer incidence was significantly higher in urban than in rural regions. Moreover, in urban regions, breast cancer incidence remained relatively stable, whereas in rural regions it displayed an annual percentage change (APC) of 8.55. Among the various socioeconomic factors considered, breast cancer incidence exhibited higher positive correlations with population density, percentage of non-agriculture population, and second industry output. On the other hand, the incidence was negatively correlated with the percentage of population employed in primary industry. Overall, it was observed that higher socioeconomic status would lead to a higher breast cancer incidence in China. When studying breast cancer etiology, special attention should be paid to environmental pollutants, especially endocrine disruptors produced during industrial activities. Lastly, the present work's findings strongly recommend giving high priority to the development of a systematic nationwide breast cancer screening program for women in China; with sufficient participation, mammography screening can considerably reduce mortality among women. PMID:25688556
Silhol, Romain; Zins, Marie; Chauvin, Pierre; Chaix, Basile
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to improve understanding of the relationships between contextual socioeconomic characteristics and coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence in France. Several authors have suggested that CHD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol, overweight, tobacco consumption) may partly mediate associations between socioeconomic environmental variables and CHD. Studies have assessed the overall mediating role of CHD risk factors, but have never investigat...
Brummett, Beverly H.; Babyak, Michael A; Ilene C. Siegler; Shanahan, Michael; HARRIS, KATHLEEN MULLAN; Elder, Glen H.; WILLIAMS, REDFORD B.
In the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a US longitudinal study of over 15,000 young adults, we examined the extent to which socioeconomic status is linked to systolic blood pressure, and whether biobehavioral risk factors mediate the association. Over 62% of the participants had systolic blood pressure >120 mmHg and 12% with systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg. Over 66% were classified as at least overweight (Body Mass Index>25 kg/m2), with over 36% meeting criteria for at lea...
Halonen, Jaana I.; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Martikainen, Pekka; Vahtera, Jussi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S.V. Venkata
Background: The extent to which neighbourhood characteristics explain accumulation of health behaviours is poorly understood. We examined whether neighbourhood disadvantage was associated with co-occurrence of behaviour-related risk factors, and how much of the neighbourhood differences in the co-occurrence can be explained by individual and neighbourhood level covariates. Methods: The study population consisted of 60 694 Finnish Public Sector Study participants in 2004 and 2008. Neighbourhoo...
Olsen, Jørn; Basso, Olga; Christensen, Kaare
No less than 10% of clinically recognised pregnancies end as spontaneous abortions and the recurrence risk is high. Due to lack of data and appropriate study design only little is known about preventable causes of miscarriage. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of paternal and environmental factors by studying reproductive histories in population based cohorts. We based the study upon two cohorts. The 'abortion cohort' consisted of 55 259 women who had a hospitalised spontaneous ab...
Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ? 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.
Bae Sejong; Fulda Kimberly G; Lykens Kristine A; Singh Karan P
Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting CSHCN's receiving needed specialty care among different socioeconomic levels. Previous literature has shown that Socioeconomic Status (SES) is a significant factor in CHSHCN receiving access to healthcare. Other literature has shown that factors of insurance, family size, race/ethnicity and sex also have effects on these children's receipt of care. However, this literature does not address whether other factors suc...
Full Text Available Introduction : Studying the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in low socioeconomic groups is of great importance. People who are under the supervisioin and care of Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation are the most deprived in Iran. The present survey aimed at investigating the prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors among the citizens who are under the supervision of Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation (IKRF. Mathrials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 1008 individuals protected by the IKRF in Birjand in 2008 through multi-stage, random sampling Demographic were recorded. Furthermore, blood pressure, waist circumference, weight and height were measured by two trained nurses. Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS and serum lipids were measured within 12 hours of overnight fasting. Chi-square and T-test were used for data analysis at the significant level of 0.05 using SPSS software (version 15. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 39±16.8 years and the most common risk factor proved to be dyslipidemia (72%. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia was 43/2% and 12.7% respectively. Obesity was detected in 32.1% . The prevalence of hypertension (HTN and diabetes mellitus (DM appeared to be 13.1% and 6.3% respectively. Smoking was distinguished in 9.8 % of the participants. The prevalence of high Cholestrol (P=0.001,high LDL(p=0.01,low HDL(P
Joel Gittelsohn, PhD
Full Text Available IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the California Health Interview Survey 2003, we estimated the prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight, combined as a single measure (AROW, body mass index ?85th percentile. We used logistic regression models to examine associations between AROW and risk factors.ResultsTwenty-nine percent of California adolescents were AROW. The prevalence of AROW differed significantly by sex and race. Boys were more likely than girls to be AROW (33% vs 25%. American Indians/Pacific Islanders/others (39% were at highest risk, followed by Hispanics (37%, blacks (35%, whites (23%, and Asians (15%. For boys, older age, Hispanic or American Indian/Pacific Islander/other race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and longer residence in the United States were significantly associated with AROW. For girls, Hispanic or black race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and poor dietary habits were significantly associated with AROW.ConclusionThe high prevalence of AROW among California adolescents in most racial/ethnic groups indicates the need for culturally specific and appropriate interventions to prevent and treat overweight.
Bai Charlotte N; Andersen Lars B; Møller Niels C; Wedderkopp Niels; Kristensen Peter L; Froberg Karsten
Abstract Background The highest prevalence of several cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, smoking and low physical activity level is observed in adults of low socioeconomic status. This study investigates whether tracking of body mass index and physical fitness from childhood to adolescence differs between groups of socioeconomic status. Furthermore the study investigates whether social class differences in the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness exist or deve...
Jorge A., Motta; Luis G., Ortega-Paz; Carlos A., Gordón; Beatriz, Gómez; Eva, Castillo; Víctor, Herrera Ballesteros; Manuel, Pereira.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Calcular la mortalidad por diabetes sacarina durante el período del 2001 al 2011 en la República de Panamá por provincias o comarcas indígenas, y determinar su relación con los factores de riesgo biológicos y socioeconómicos de aparición de la enfermedad. MÉTODOS: Se escogieron del Registr [...] o Nacional de Mortalidad de Panamá del 2001 al 2011 los casos en los cuales la diabetes constituyó la principal causa de muerte. Se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad brutas y ajustadas desglosadas por sexo, edad y zona geográfica. Mediante análisis de regresión lineal se determinó la relación entre la mortalidad por diabetes y los factores de riesgo socioeconómicos y biológicos y se calculó un índice de salud compuesto con base en cada tipo de factores de riesgo en cada provincia o comarca indígena de Panamá. RESULTADOS: Las tasas de mortalidad por diabetes no aumentaron en los hombres ni las mujeres del 2001 al 2011. De los factores de riesgo biológicos, el exceso de peso exhibió la asociación más fuerte con la mortalidad por diabetes y el factor de riesgo socioeconómico que presentó una mayor asociación con la mortalidad fue un ingreso mensual inferior a US$ 100. Las puntuaciones más altas del índice de salud compuesto desde el punto de vista socioeconómico se obtuvieron en una provincia que es rural en su mayor parte y en zonas con poblaciones indígenas. Las puntuaciones más altas con los factores biológicos se observaron en las provincias urbanas y rurales y en las que contaban con el porcentaje más alto de personas ancianas. CONCLUSIONES: Las disparidades regionales de la asociación entre la mortalidad por diabetes sacarina y los factores de riesgo de padecer la enfermedad reafirman la composición heterogénea de la población de Panamá y la distribución desigual de los factores determinantes de riesgo biológicos y sociales en el país y ponen en evidencia la necesidad de diversificar las estrategias de manejo de esta importante causa de discapacidad y muerte, en función de las zonas geográficas en Panamá. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality from diabetes mellitus (DM) for the period 2001-2011 in the Republic of Panama, by province/indigenous territory, and determine its relationship with biological and socioeconomic risk factors. METHODS: Cases for the years 2001-2011 with DM listed as the principal cau [...] se of death were selected from Panama's National Mortality Registry. Crude and adjusted mortality rates were generated by sex, age, and geographic area. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between DM mortality and biological and socioeconomic risk factors. A composite health index (CHI) calculated from biological and socioeconomic risk factors was estimated for each province/indigenous territory in Panama. RESULTS: DM mortality rates did not increase for men or women during 2001-2011. Of the biological risk factors, being overweight had the strongest association with DM mortality. Of the socioeconomic risk factors, earning less than US$ 100 per month had the strongest association with DM mortality. The highest socioeconomic CHI scores were found in a province that is predominantly rural and in areas with indigenous populations. The highest biological CHI scores were found in urban-rural provinces and those with the highest percentage of elderly people. CONCLUSIONS: Regional disparities in the association between DM mortality and DM risk factors reaffirm the heterogeneous composition of the Panamanian population and the uneven distribution of biological and social determinant risk factors in the country and point to the need to vary management strategies by geographic area for this important cause of disability and death in Panama.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES on physiological (lipid profile, obesity indices and behavioral (dietary habits, physical activity cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Istanbul. Design Cross sectional study. Setting One private school and two public schools from different SES districts in Istanbul. Participants 510 randomly selected children aged 12 and 13 years old (257 boys, 253 girls. Results The prevalence of overweight (15.2% and the energy intake (p Conclusion The findings of the current study revealed a coexistence of both overweight and higher energy intake in middle/ high SES children, as well as a coexistence of underweight and lower physical activity levels in low SES children. These observations should guide the public health policy in developing appropriate intervention strategies to efficiently tackle these health and social issues early in life.
Full Text Available SUMMARY: AIM: This study aimed to determine the incidence of home accidents in the households with low socioeconomic level who preferred in single flat or duplex and the risk factor related to house and sociodemographic characteristics. METHOD: The prospective cohort study. The universe of the survey composed of 419 households (N=1539 persons both with single flat and duplex house located at the “42 Evler” region of Izmit district of the Kocaeli province. The questionaries included “The Sociodemographic Characteristics of the Households” and “The Characteristics and Reasons of the Home Accidents.” The data were collected with face to face tecniques by home visits of households between November 28, 2008 and April 2, 2009. After the first form were filled, each household was followed up three months for home accidents. RESULTS: Twenty-seven of the households and 13.6% of the participants had home accident. The incidence of the home accident also was 4.2 person per/year. Most of the accidents (89% occurred inside of the houses. The mostly observed home accidents were 39.1% burn, 28.6% incision and 12.8% falling respectively. It was important risk factors heater for burns, knife for incisions and slippery-floor for fallings. The incidence of the home accident was higher among women (22.0% (p0.05, and in those with not house ownership itself (for rent 34.5%, for relatives house 34.8% (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This study has showed that the incidence of home accidents are high, and the characteristics of house and some sociodemographic characteristics are important risk factors in term of the home accidents. The qualified primary health services which are financed by the government have great importance for the preventing of the household accidents, determination of the risk factors and recording the home accidents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 257-268
Bai Charlotte N
Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest prevalence of several cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, smoking and low physical activity level is observed in adults of low socioeconomic status. This study investigates whether tracking of body mass index and physical fitness from childhood to adolescence differs between groups of socioeconomic status. Furthermore the study investigates whether social class differences in the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness exist or develop within the age range from childhood to adolescence. Methods In all, 384 school children were followed for a period of six years (from third to ninth grade. Physical fitness was determined by a progressive maximal cycle ergometer test and the classification of overweight was based on body mass index cut-points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Socioeconomic status was defined according to The International Standard Classification of Occupation scheme. Results Moderate and moderately high tracking was observed for physical fitness and body mass index, respectively. No significant difference in tracking was observed between groups of socioeconomic status. A significant social gradient was observed in both the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness in the 14–16-year-old adolescents, whereas at the age of 8–10 years, only the prevalence of low physical fitness showed a significant inverse relation to socioeconomic status. The odds of both developing and maintaining risk during the measurement period were estimated as bigger in the group of low socioeconomic status than in the group of high socioeconomic status, although differences were significant only with respect to the odds of developing overweight. Conclusion The results indicate that the fundamental possibilities of predicting overweight and low physical fitness at an early point in time are the same for different groups of socio-economic status. Furthermore, the observed development of social inequalities in the absolute prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness underline the need for broad preventive efforts targeting children of low socioeconomic status in early childhood.
Sabbah, Wael; Mortensen, Laust Hvas
BACKGROUND: There is evidence of an association between poor oral health and mortality. This association is usually attributed to inflammatory and nutrition pathways. However, the role of health behaviours and socioeconomic position has not been adequately examined. The aims of this study were to examine the association between oral health and premature death among middle-aged men and to test whether it was explained by socioeconomic position and behaviours. METHODS: Data were from the Vietnam Experience Study, a prospective cohort study of Vietnam War-era (1965-1971), American male army personnel. The authors examined risk of cause-specific and all-cause mortality in relation to poor oral health in middle age, adjusting for age, ethnicity, socioeconomic position, IQ, behavioural factors and systemic conditions. RESULTS: Men with poor oral health experienced a higher risk of cause-specific and all-cause mortality. HRs for all-cause mortality were 2.94 (95% CI 2.11 to 4.08) among individuals with poor oral health and 3.98 (95% CI 2.43 to 6.49) among edentates compared with those with good oral health after adjusting for ethnicity and age. The association attenuated but remained significant after further adjustment for systemic conditions, socioeconomic position and behaviours. Socioeconomic and behavioural factors explained 52% and 44% of mortality risks attributed to poor oral health and being edentate, respectively. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that oral health-mortality relation is partly due to measured covariates in the present study. Oral health appears to be a marker of socioeconomic and behavioural risk factors related to all-cause mortality.
A study on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 250 male and female adult subjects 20 years of age and over, pertaining to different socio-economic levels is being conducted in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Measurements of weight, height, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test, blood levels of total of cholesterol, tryglicerides, LDL and HDL-cholesterol are being obtained. Body composition is being determined by deuterium dilution and infrared spectroscopy, air displacement plethysmography, skinfold thickness and bio-electrical impedance. Physical activity by questionnaire and diet by non-consecutive multiple 24 h recalls (to account for seasonal and inter-individual variability), will provide information on lifestyle and diet. At present, analysis of 141 subjects has been completed. Preliminary results showed high levels of overweight, 55% with BMI>25, and obesity, 17% with BMI>30. Subjects with abnormal glucose levels had significantly higher weight (p<0.008), larger waist/hip ratio (p<0.003), higher % body fat (p<0.01), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.01; p<0.009 respectively) than normal subjects, after adjusting for sex and age. Serum tryglicerides were significantly higher in obese subjects with central adiposity than non-obese subjects. Body composition by deuterium dilution was determined by infrared spectroscopy and by air displacement plethysmography in a preliminary pilot study. Finally, a physical activity questionnaire was tested in two groups of subjects with different lifestyles. (author)
Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher than in the rest of the country. To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socioeconomic levels in north-west Mexico
Delisle Hélène; Agueh Victoire; Fayomi Benjamin; Sodjinou Roger
Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES), urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference), blood pressure, fasting plasma glu...
Background: Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In Northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher the in the rest of the country. Objective: To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socio-economic levels in north-west Mexico. Methods: Non probabilistic sample selection by invitation was used to recruit subjects, completing quotas by age groups, gender and socio-economic status. The study included 350 men and women, 20-84 years pertaining to low and high income groups from the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. All subjects were measured for body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, skinfolds, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure SBP, DBP). Body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio were calculated. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 12 hour fast was performed and blood samples were taken for analysis of insulin, leptin, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. In 273 of the 350 subjects physical activity was studied by questionnaire. Activity was calculated as in categories of low, medium and high intensity and expressed as hours/day with respect to occupational and recreational activities. Physical activity level (PAL) was also calculated from the questionnaires. Body composition was investigated in more detail by air displacement plethysmography (densitometry) and by deuterium dilution in 200 subjects. Diet by 24 hour non-consecutive recalls in another sub-group of 135 male and female subjects. Statistical analysis was performed using NCSS statistical software using ANCOVA and regression procedures. Result: High levels of overweight (BMI >25) and obesity BMI>30) were found in this population group with 65 and 23.4% of them being in these categories respectively. After adjusting for sex and age, results showed that subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance levels had significantly higher weight (p0,120. In terms of body composition percent body fat by BL4 showed the best relationship to insulin sensitivity with the same index. Conclusions: Total body fat and regional fat distribution rather than body size may be a better alternative to assess risk levels for Type 2 diabetes and CVD. For population studies, this has to rely on appropriate field methods such as BIA. However, this has to be validated by recognised methodology such as deuterium dilution, DEXA or body density determinations that can provide the necessary information for specific predictive equation development. Work in Progress: Body composition by deuterium dilution determined by IR spectroscopy and plethysmography to validate BL4 are still in progress bt preliminary results show that either method can be used for validation purposes. Diet and physical activity data analysis will be completed by recruiting 50 mores subjects. Further analysis combining all possible risk indicators through multiple regression procedures are still pending as well as HOAL4 calculations. Take Home Message: The anthropometric evaluation of regional fat distribution and total body fat by BL4 might be an important field technique for type 2 diabetes and C VD risk assessment. Intervention studies that may use the findings in this study for this population would be warranted. (author)
Joel Gittelsohn, PhD; Min Kyung Ahn, MHS; Hee-Soon Juon, PhD
IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the Californ...
Kriz, P; Bobak, M; Kriz, B
AIMS—To investigate the effects of parental smoking, socioeconomic characteristics, and indoor environment on the risk of invasive meningococcal disease in children.?METHODS—Population based case-control study. A total of 68 incident cases of invasive meningococcal disease in children less than 15 years old were compared with 135 controls selected from the same school and matched for year of birth, sex, and place of residence. Information on exposures was obtained in inte...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting CSHCN's receiving needed specialty care among different socioeconomic levels. Previous literature has shown that Socioeconomic Status (SES is a significant factor in CHSHCN receiving access to healthcare. Other literature has shown that factors of insurance, family size, race/ethnicity and sex also have effects on these children's receipt of care. However, this literature does not address whether other factors such as maternal education, geographic location, age, insurance type, severity of condition, or race/ethnicity have different effects on receiving needed specialty care for children in each SES level. Methods Data were obtained from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, 2000–2002. The study analyzed the survey which studies whether CHSCN who needed specialty care received it. The analysis included demographic characteristics, geographical location of household, severity of condition, and social factors. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed for SES levels defined by federal poverty level: Results For the poorest children (,199% FPL being uninsured had a strong negative effect on receiving all needed specialty care. Being Hispanic was a protective factor. Having more than one adult in the household had a positive impact on receipt of needed specialty care but a larger number of children in the family had a negative impact. For the middle income group of children (200–299% of FPL severity of condition had a strong negative association with receipt of needed specialty care. Children in highest income group (> 300% FPL were positively impacted by living in the Midwest and were negatively impacted by the mother having only some college compared to a four-year degree. Conclusion Factors affecting CSHCN receiving all needed specialty care differed among socioeconomic groups. These differences should be addressed in policy and practice. Future research should explore the CSHCN population by income groups to better serve this population
Do factors in the psychosocial work environment mediate the effect of socioeconomic position on the risk of myocardial infarction? : Study from the Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies
Andersen, I; Burr, H
AIM: To investigate whether the effect of socioeconomic position on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by differential exposure or differential susceptibility to psychosocial work environment. METHODS: Data were used from three prospective population studies conducted in Copenhagen. A total of 16 214 employees, 44% women, aged 20-75 years, with initial examination between 1974 and 1992 were followed until 1996 for incident (hospital admission or death) MI. Register based information on job categories was used. Psychosocial job exposures were measured indirectly by means of a job exposure matrix based on the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study 1990. RESULTS: During follow up, 731 subjects were diagnosed with an MI: 610 men and 121 women (35% fatal). The hazards by socioeconomic position showed a graded effect with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.57 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.03) for unskilled workers compared to executive managers. Despite a strong and graded association in risk of MI related to decision authority and skill discretion, only skill discretion mediated the effect of socioeconomic position. The HR for unskilled workers was reduced to 1.47 (0.93 to 2.31) after adjustment for decision authority and other cardiovascular risk factors, and to 1.07 (0.72 to 1.60) after adjustment for skill discretion and cardiovascular risk factors. No sign of synergy was found. CONCLUSIONS: Decision authority and skill discretion were strongly related to socioeconomic position; and the effect on risk of MI was partially mediated by skill discretion. Improvements in psychosocial work environment, especially possibilities for skill discretion, might contribute to reducing the incidence of MI and social inequality in MI.
Yang, May H.; Hall, Sue A.; Piccolo, Rebecca S.; Maserejian, Nancy N.; McKinlay, John B.
To examine whether behavioral risk factors associated with diabetes (diet, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, and sleep duration) are also related to both prediabetes and insulin resistance (IR), we used data from Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey (2010–2012, n = 3155). Logistic and linear regression models were used to test the association of lifestyle factors with prediabetes status, insulin resistance, and prediabetes or insulin resistance. All regression models were stratified by education and income levels (to examine whether risk factors had differential effects across socioeconomic factors) and adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, and smoking status. We found that large waist circumference was consistently associated with higher levels of insulin resistance (IR) and increased odds of prediabetes. While the association between large waist circumference and IR was consistent across all levels of SES (P < 0.001), the association between large waist circumference and prediabetes was only statistically significant in the highest socioeconomic strata with odds ratios of 1.68 (95% CI 1.07–2.62) and 1.88 (95% CI 1.22–2.92) for postgraduate degree and income strata, respectively. There was no association between diet, physical activity, sleep duration, and the presence of multiple risk factors and prediabetes or IR within SES strata. PMID:26089894
Andersen, I; Burr, H; Kristensen, T.; Gamborg, M; Osler, M.; Prescott, E.; Diderichsen, F
Aim: To investigate whether the effect of socioeconomic position on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by differential exposure or differential susceptibility to psychosocial work environment.
Fall Susan; Chatterjee Kausik; Barer David
Abstract Background Though vascular factors may be important in the aetiology of late-life depression, it is not clear whether they have a major effect on the risk of depression after a stroke. We investigated the relationship between physiological, biochemical, neuro-imaging and socio-economic factors and late-phase post-stroke depression in a cross-sectional case-control study. Methods People living at home at least 9 months after a stroke were interviewed using a structured proforma. Depre...
Erbel Raimund; Stang Andreas; Möhlenkamp Stefan; Moebus Susanne; Weyers Simone; Kubinova Ruzena; Verde Pablo E; Peasey Anne; Wege Natalia; Bobak Martin; Dragano Nico; Jöckel Karl-Heinz; Siegrist Johannes; Pikhart Hynek
Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and G...
Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M; Evans, Gary W; Beach, Steven R H; Windle, Michael; Simons, Ronald L; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Philibert, Robert A
The health disparities literature has identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental precursors to this pattern. Hypotheses were tested with a representative sample of 443 African American youths living in the rural South. Cumulative SES risk and protective processes were assessed at ages 11-13 years; psychological adjustment was assessed at ages 14-18 years; genotyping at the 5-HTTLPR was conducted at age 16 years; and allostatic load (AL) was assessed at age 19 years. A latent profile analysis identified 5 profiles that evinced distinct patterns of SES risk, AL, and psychological adjustment, with 2 relatively large profiles designated as focal profiles: a physical health vulnerability profile characterized by high SES risk/high AL/low adjustment problems, and a resilient profile characterized by high SES risk/low AL/low adjustment problems. The physical health vulnerability profile mirrored the pattern found in the adult health disparities literature. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that carrying an s allele at the 5-HTTLPR and receiving less peer support distinguished the physical health vulnerability profile from the resilient profile. Protective parenting and planful self-regulation distinguished both focal profiles from the other 3 profiles. The results suggest the public health importance of preventive interventions that enhance coping and reduce the effects of stress across childhood and adolescence. PMID:22709130
Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring inequalities in non communicable disease risk factor prevalence can help to inform and target effective interventions. The prevalence of current daily smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and heavy episodic alcohol drinking were quantified and compared across wealth and education levels in low- and middle-income country groups. Methods This study included self-reported data from 232,056 adult participants in 48 countries, derived from the 2002–2004 World Health Survey. Data were stratified by sex and low- or middle-income country status. The main outcome measurements were risk factor prevalence rates reported by wealth quintile and five levels of educational attainment. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured using the slope index of inequality, reflecting differences in prevalence rates, and the relative index of inequality, reflecting the prevalence ratio between the two extremes of wealth or education accounting for the entire distribution. Data were adjusted for confounding factors: sex, age, marital status, area of residence, and country of residence. Results Smoking and low fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly higher among lower socioeconomic groups. The highest wealth-related absolute inequality was seen in smoking among men of low- income country group (slope index of inequality 23.0 percentage points; 95% confidence interval 19.6, 26.4. The slope index of inequality for low fruit and vegetable consumption across the entire distribution of education was around 8 percentage points in both sexes and both country income groups. Physical inactivity was less prevalent in populations of low socioeconomic status, especially in low-income countries (relative index of inequality: (men 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.64; (women 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42, 0.65. Mixed patterns were found for heavy drinking. Conclusions Disaggregated analysis of the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors demonstrated different patterns and varying degrees of socioeconomic inequalities across low- and middle-income settings. Interventions should aim to reach and achieve sustained benefits for high-risk populations.
Nacher Mathieu; Hanf Matthieu; Stefani Aurélia; Girod Romain; Carme Bernard
Abstract Background Malaria is a major health issue in French Guiana. Amerindian communities remain the most affected. A previous study in Camopi highlighted the predominant role of environmental factors in the occurrence of malaria. However, all parameters involved in the transmission were not clearly identified. A new survey was conducted in order to clarify the risk factors for the presence of malaria cases in Camopi. Methods An open cohort of children under seven years of age was set up o...
Agerbo, Esben; Sterne, J.A.
The social and economic characteristics of geographic areas are associated with their suicide rates. The extent to which these ecological associations are due to the characteristics of the people living in the areas (compositional effects) or the influence of the areas themselves on risk (contextual effects) is uncertain. Denmark's Medical Register on Vital Statistics and its Integrated Database for Longitudinal Labour Market Research were used to identify suicides and 20 matched controls per case in 25-60-year-old men and women between 1982 and 1997. Individual and area (municipality) measures of income, marital and employment status were obtained. There were 9011 suicides and 180,220 controls. Individual-level associations with these risk factors were little changed when controlling for contextual effects. In contrast, ecological associations of increased suicide risk with declining area levels of employment and income and increasing proportions of people living alone were much attenuated after controlling for compositional effects. We found no consistent evidence that associations with individual-level risk factors differed depending on the areas' characteristics (cross-level interactions). This analysis suggests the ecological associations to be attributed to characteristics of the residents rather than area influences on risk
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Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aims were to determine the pace of change in cardiovascular risk factors by age, gender and socioeconomic groups from 1994 to 2008, and quantify the magnitude, direction and change in absolute and relative inequalities. Methods Time trend analysis was used to measure change in absolute and relative inequalities in risk factors by gender and age (16-54, ? 55 years, using repeated cross-sectional data from the Health Survey for England 1994-2008. Seven risk factors were examined: smoking, obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, raised cholesterol, consumption of five or more daily portions of fruit and vegetables, and physical activity. Socioeconomic group was measured using the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007. Results Between 1994 and 2008, the prevalence of smoking, high blood pressure and raised cholesterol decreased in most deprivation quintiles. However, obesity and diabetes increased. Increasing absolute inequalities were found in obesity in older men and women (p = 0.044 and p = 0.027 respectively, diabetes in young men and older women (p = 0.036 and p = 0.019 respectively, and physical activity in older women (p = 0.025. Relative inequality increased in high blood pressure in young women (p = 0.005. The prevalence of raised cholesterol showed widening absolute and relative inverse gradients from 1998 onwards in older men (p = 0.004 and p ? 0.001 respectively and women (p ? 0.001 and p ? 0.001. Conclusions Favourable trends in smoking, blood pressure and cholesterol are consistent with falling coronary heart disease death rates. However, adverse trends in obesity and diabetes are likely to counteract some of these gains. Furthermore, little progress over the last 15 years has been made towards reducing inequalities. Implementation of known effective population based approaches in combination with interventions targeted at individuals/subgroups with poorer cardiovascular risk profiles are therefore recommended to reduce social inequalities.
Tancredi Daniel J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status (SES predicts coronary heart disease independently of the traditional risk factors included in the Framingham risk score. However, it is unknown whether changes in Framingham risk score variables over time explain the association between SES and coronary heart disease. We examined this question given its relevance to risk assessment in clinical decision making. Methods The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study data (initiated in 1987 with 10-years follow-up of 15,495 adults aged 45-64 years in four Southern and Mid-Western communities were used. SES was assessed at baseline, dichotomized as low SES (defined as low education and/or low income or not. The time dependent variables - smoking, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and use of blood pressure lowering medication - were assessed every three years. Ten-year incidence of coronary heart disease was based on EKG and cardiac enzyme criteria, or adjudicated death certificate data. Cox survival analyses examined the contribution of SES to heart disease risk independent of baseline Framingham risk score, without and with further adjustment for the time dependent variables. Results Adjusting for baseline Framingham risk score, low SES was associated with an increased coronary heart disease risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.53; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.27 to1.85. After further adjustment for the time dependent variables, the SES effect remained significant (HR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.19 to1.74. Conclusion Using Framingham Risk Score alone under estimated the coronary heart disease risk in low SES persons. This bias was not eliminated by subsequent changes in Framingham risk score variables.
Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Olesen, Jes
To investigate whether sex-specific associations exist between migraine, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. We distinguished between the subtypes migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). In 2002, a questionnaire containing validated questions to diagnose migraine and questions on lifestyle and socioeconomic factors was sent to 46,418 twin individuals residing in Denmark. 31,865 twin individuals aged 20-71 were included. The twins are representative of the Danish population with r...
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the rise of diet-related chronic diseases. People with higher SES and those with a longer exposure to the urban environment are priority target groups for interventions focusing on environmental risk factors that are amenable to change in this population. Lifestyle interventions would appear appropriate, with particular emphasis on physical activity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major health issue in French Guiana. Amerindian communities remain the most affected. A previous study in Camopi highlighted the predominant role of environmental factors in the occurrence of malaria. However, all parameters involved in the transmission were not clearly identified. A new survey was conducted in order to clarify the risk factors for the presence of malaria cases in Camopi. Methods An open cohort of children under seven years of age was set up on the basis of biologically confirmed malaria cases for the period 2001-2009. Epidemiological and observational environmental data were collected using two structured questionnaires. Data were analysed with a multiple failures multivariate Cox model. The influence of climate and the river level on malaria incidence was evaluated by time-series analysis. Relationships between Anopheles darlingi human biting rates and malaria incidence rates were estimated using Spearman's rank correlation. Results The global annual incidence over the nine-year period was 238 per 1,000 for Plasmodium falciparum, 514 per 1,000 for Plasmodium visa and 21 per 1,000 for mixed infections. The multivariate survival analysis associated higher malaria incidence with living on the Camopi riverside vs. the Oyapock riverside, far from the centre of the Camopi hamlet, in a home with numerous occupants and going to sleep late. On the contrary, living in a house cleared of all vegetation within 50 m and at high distance of the forest were associated with a lower risk. Meteorological and hydrological characteristics appeared to be correlated with malaria incidence with different lags. Anopheles darlingi human biting rate was also positively correlated to incident malaria in children one month later. Conclusions Malaria incidence in children remains high in young children despite the appearance of immunity in children around three years of age. The closeness environment but also the meteorological parameters play an important role in malaria transmission among children under seven years of age in Camopi.
Rodo, X.; Lowe, R.; Karczewska-Gibert, A.; Cazelles, B.
Dengue is a peri-urban mosquito-transmitted disease, ubiquitous in the tropics and the subtropics. The geographic distribution of dengue and its more severe form, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), have expanded dramatically in the last decades and dengue is now considered to be the world's most important arboviral disease. Recent demographic changes have greatly contributed to the acceleration and spread of the disease along with uncontrolled urbanization, population growth and increased air travel, which acts as a mechanism for transporting and exchanging dengue viruses between endemic and epidemic populations. The dengue vector and virus are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity and precipitation that influence mosquito biology, abundance and habitat and the virus replication speed. In order to control the spread of dengue and impede epidemics, decision support systems are required that take into account the multi-faceted array of factors that contribute to increased dengue risk. Due to availability of seasonal climate forecasts, that predict the average climate conditions for forthcoming months/seasons in both time and space, there is an opportunity to incorporate precursory climate information in a dengue decision support system to aid epidemic planning months in advance. Furthermore, oceanic indicators from teleconnected areas in the Pacific and Indian Ocean, that can provide some indication of the likely prevailing climate conditions in certain regions, could potentially extend predictive lead time in a dengue early warning system. In this paper we adopt a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling framework for dengue in Thailand to support public health decision making. Monthly cases of dengue in the 76 provinces of Thailand for the period 1982-2012 are modelled using a multi-layered approach. Explanatory variables at various spatial and temporal resolutions are incorporated into a hierarchical model in order to make spatio-temporal probabilistic predictions of dengue. Potential risk factors considered include altitude, land cover, proximity to road/rail networks and water bodies, temperature and precipitation, oceanic indicators, intervention activities, air traffic volume, population movement, urbanisation and sanitation indicators. In order to quantify unknown or unmeasured dengue risk factors, we use spatio-temporal random effects in the model framework. This helps identify those available indicators which could significantly contribute to a dengue early warning system. We use this model to quantify the extent to which climate indicators can explain variations in dengue risk. This allows us to assess the potential utility of forecast climate information in a dengue decision support system for Thailand. Taking advantage of lead times of several months provided by climate forecasts, public health officials may be able to more efficiently allocate intervention measures, such as targeted vector control activities and provision of medication to deal with more deadly forms of the disease, well ahead of an imminent dengue epidemic.
Farzin, Y. Hossein; Grogan, Kelly A.
We investigate the relationships between water quality and socioeconomic factors in California at the county level for the years 1993 to 2006 using 24 water quality indicators coming from seven different types of water bodies. We estimate these relationships using three classes of models: the traditional per capita income-pollution level - Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) - specifications, a more inclusive model containing main socioeconomic variables such as agricultural intensity, land use...
Marshall, Iain J; Wang, Yanzhong; Crichton, Siobhan; McKevitt, Christopher; Rudd, Anthony G; Wolfe, Charles D A
The latest evidence on socioeconomic status and stroke shows that stroke not only disproportionately affects low-income and middle-income countries, but also socioeconomically deprived populations within high-income countries. These disparities are reflected not only in risk of stroke but also in short-term and long-term outcomes after stroke. Increased average levels of conventional risk factors (eg, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, excessive alcohol intake, smoking, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle) in populations with low socioeconomic status account for about half of these effects. In many countries, evidence shows that people with lower socioeconomic status are less likely to receive good-quality acute hospital and rehabilitation care than people with higher socioeconomic status. For clinical practice, better implementation of well established treatments, effective management of risk factors, and equity of access to high-quality acute stroke care and rehabilitation will probably reduce inequality substantially. Overcoming barriers and adapting evidence-based interventions to different countries and health-care settings remains a research priority. PMID:26581971
Anelise Henrich, Crestani; Felipe, Mattana; Anaelena Bragança de, Moraes; Ana Paula Ramos de, Souza.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar a associação de fatores de risco obstétricos, demográficos, socioeconômicos e psicossociais com a presença de risco ao desenvolvimento infantil nas faixas etária de um a dezoito meses de idade. MÉTODO: a amostra inicial foi constituída de 182 díades mãe-bebê e final de 58 díades [...] . A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio da análise da interação mãe-bebê feita com base no Protocolo de Indicadores de Risco ao Desenvolvimento Infantil e de uma entrevista que investigou aspectos socioeconômicos, demográficos, obstétricos e psicossociais na primeira etapa da pesquisa. Os dados foram organizados em uma planilha eletrônica e posteriormente convertidos para os aplicativos computacionais para análise estatística. RESULTADOS: os fatores de risco significantes para as quatro fases do protocolo foram, na faixa de zero a quatro meses o estado civil da mãe e o número de filhos; na faixa de quatro a oito meses o número de consultas pré-natal e a renda per capita; na faixa de oito a doze meses o planejamento da gestação; e na faixa de doze a dezoito meses o histórico de depressão materna, a idade da mãe e a profissão da mãe. CONCLUSÃO: a pesquisa demonstrou que as condições socioeconômicas, obstétricas, psicossociais e demográficas podem oferecer risco ao desenvolvimento infantil. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to investigate obstetric, demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors of mother-child dyads for the occurrence of changes in the Risk Indicators for Child Development (IRDI) in children age groups from zero to 18 months. METHOD: the sample consisted of 182 mother-infant dyads. [...] Data collection occurred through the analysis of mother-infant interaction ??based on the Risk Indicators for Child Development (IRDI) Protocol and on an interview which investigated socio-economic, demographic, obstetric and psychosocial aspects in the first stage of the procedures. Data were organized into an electronic spreadsheet and then converted to computer software for statistical analisys. RESULTS: the significant risk factors for the four phases of IRDI were, in the range of zero to four months, the mother's marital status and number of children; in the range of four to eight months, the number of prenatal visits and per capita income; in the range of eight to twelve months, pregnancy planning; and in the range of twelve to eighteen months, maternal depression history, the mother's age and profession. CONCLUSION: the study demonstrated that the environment and the situations in which the mother-infant dyad is part of, may hinder or facilitate the development of the infant.
Biering-SØrensen, Sofie; SØndergaard, Grethe
The purpose of this study was to examine socio-economic differences in the risk of hospitalisation among children aged 0-5 years in Denmark from 1985 to 2004. All children born between 1985 and 2004 (n=1,278,286) were followed for hospital admissions for infectious diseases from the 29th day of life until the children reached the age of 6 years or the end of 2004, whichever came first. Information on parental socio-economic position (education, labour market attachment and household income) was gathered through record linkage with administrative registries. Infections were grouped into upper respiratory, lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, ear and fever infections. The data were analysed using Cox regression. Children of parents on sick leave or early retirement had an increased risk of being hospitalised with an infection compared with children of employed parents. A clear inverse educational gradient in risk of offspring hospitalisation was also found. From 1985 to 2004 the inverse associations between parental education and risk of hospitalisation grew stronger, whereas the comparatively weaker association between household income and risk of offspring hospitalisation decreased in magnitude. The association between socio-economic status and hospitalisation was strongest for lower respiratory, gastrointestinal and ear infections. This study documented a socially patterned hospitalisation of pre-school children in Denmark. Future studies should investigate possible explanations for the increased risk among children from families with low socio-economic status.
... Depression has been found to be a risk factor for development of heart disease. Depression occurs in up to 20% of people with ... and has been found to be a risk factor also for subsequent heart attack, the ... Fortunately, depression in patients with heart disease responds well to ...
Does IQ explain socio-economic differentials in total and cardiovascular disease mortality? Comparison with the explanatory power of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Vietnam Experience Study
Batty, G David; Shipley, Martin J; Dundas, Ruth; Macintyre, Sally; Der, Geoff; Mortensen, Laust H; Deary, Ian J
The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance in this well-documented association.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Though vascular factors may be important in the aetiology of late-life depression, it is not clear whether they have a major effect on the risk of depression after a stroke. We investigated the relationship between physiological, biochemical, neuro-imaging and socio-economic factors and late-phase post-stroke depression in a cross-sectional case-control study. Methods People living at home at least 9 months after a stroke were interviewed using a structured proforma. Depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, together with a Montgomery Asberg (MADRS score >17. Stroke survivors of similar age and functional status but without symptoms of, or recent treatment for, depression and with MADRS score Results Stroke survivors with depression were more likely than controls to have been smokers, to have had hypertension or peripheral arterial disease, and to have had more than one stroke or multiple discrete brainscan lesions. In univariate analysis they had significantly higher blood pressure, lower Mini-Mental State (MMSE scores, higher serum homocysteine and lower folate levels, as well as more extensive white matter and basal ganglia changes on brainscan. In logistic regression, previous hypertension (OR 3.4, peripheral vascular disease (OR 4.7, number of strokes (OR 2, MMSE score (OR 0.76 and basal ganglia changes (OR 2.2, were independently associated with depression. Conclusion These results suggest that patients with hypertension, hyperhomocysteinaemia and other factors associated with cerebral small vessel disease, may be more susceptible to post-stroke depression. Future intervention trials should focus on such high risk groups.
This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)
Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Søndergaard, Grethe; Vitting Andersen, Karen; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Mortensen, Laust Hvas
The purpose of this study was to examine socio-economic differences in the risk of hospitalisation among children aged 0-5 years in Denmark from 1985 to 2004. All children born between 1985 and 2004 (n=1,278,286) were followed for hospital admissions for infectious diseases from the 29th day of life until the children reached the age of 6 years or the end of 2004, whichever came first. Information on parental socio-economic position (education, labour market attachment and household income) was ...
Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos
Abstract Few studies on resilience in young children model risk appropriately and test theory-led hypotheses about its moderation. This study addressed both issues. Our hypothesis was that for preschool children’s emotional/behavioral adjustment in the face of contextual risk protective factors should be located in the cognitive domain. Data were from the first two sweeps of the UK’s Millennium Cohort Study. The final study sample was 4,748 three-year-old children clustered in 1,54...
Agerbo, Esben; Sterne, J.A.; Gunnell, D.J.
The social and economic characteristics of geographic areas are associated with their suicide rates. The extent to which these ecological associations are due to the characteristics of the people living in the areas (compositional effects) or the influence of the areas themselves on risk (contextual effects) is uncertain. Denmark's Medical Register on Vital Statistics and its Integrated Database for Longitudinal Labour Market Research were used to identify suicides and 20 matched controls per ca...
Agerbo, Esben; Sterne, J.A.; Gunnell, D.J.
The social and economic characteristics of geographic areas are associated with their suicide rates. The extent to which these ecological associations are due to the characteristics of the people living in the areas (compositional effects) or the influence of the areas themselves on risk (contextual effects) is uncertain. Denmark's Medical Register on Vital Statistics and its Integrated Database for Longitudinal Labour Market Research were used to identify suicides and 20 matched controls per ca...
Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Hollegaard, Mads V; Meier, Sandra; Mattheisen, Manuel; Ripke, Stephan; Wray, Naomi R; Mortensen, Preben B
Importance: Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. Objective: To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's gen...
Factores de riesgo de fallecer en domicilio por neumonía, de niños chilenos de estratos socioeconómicos bajos, Santiago de Chile (1990-1994) / Risk factors for home deaths due to pneumonia among low socioeconomic level Chilean children
Leonardo, Véjar E; Juan C, Casterán; Patricia, Navarrete; Salomé, Sánchez; Patricio, LeCerf S; Carlos, Castillo D.
Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Background: Pneumonia is the main cause of late infant mortality in Chile. Over 60% of these deaths occur at home. The lack of hospital beds and the inadequate outpatient management are contributing factors. Aim: To assess risk factors for home deaths due to pneumonia in Chilean children. Patients a [...] nd methods: The clinical and environmental histories of 53 (39 male) children that died due to pneumonia in their homes were analyzed. The cause of death was confirmed by necropsy with histopathological studies in all cases. These cases were compared with 88 control children of similar age, gender, socioeconomic status and living in the same geographical area of Metropolitan Santiago. Results: Fifty four percent of deceased children were of less than 3 months of age and only 3 cases and their controls were above1 year old. Identified risk factors for death were malnutrition with an odds ratio of 30.6 (CI 3.9-64.8, p
Factores de riesgo de fallecer en domicilio por neumonía, de niños chilenos de estratos socioeconómicos bajos, Santiago de Chile (1990-1994 Risk factors for home deaths due to pneumonia among low socioeconomic level Chilean children
Leonardo Véjar E
Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is the main cause of late infant mortality in Chile. Over 60% of these deaths occur at home. The lack of hospital beds and the inadequate outpatient management are contributing factors. Aim: To assess risk factors for home deaths due to pneumonia in Chilean children. Patients and methods: The clinical and environmental histories of 53 (39 male children that died due to pneumonia in their homes were analyzed. The cause of death was confirmed by necropsy with histopathological studies in all cases. These cases were compared with 88 control children of similar age, gender, socioeconomic status and living in the same geographical area of Metropolitan Santiago. Results: Fifty four percent of deceased children were of less than 3 months of age and only 3 cases and their controls were above1 year old. Identified risk factors for death were malnutrition with an odds ratio of 30.6 (CI 3.9-64.8, p< 0.001, low birth weight with an odds ratio of 5 (CI 1.8-14.1, p< 0.001, previous admissions to hospitals with an odds ratio of 5.79 (CI 2-17.1, p< 0.001, congenital malformations (mainly cardiac with an odds ratio of 8.4 (CI 2-39.9, p= 0.001 and a history of bronchial obstruction with an odds ratio of 5.68 (p< 0.001. Identified maternal risk factors were smoking with an odds ratio of 4.13 (CI 1.6-10.7 p< 0.001 and being a teenager with an odds ratio of 4.3 (CI 1.7-11, p<0.001. Malnutrition, low birth weight, history of previous hospital admissions and having a teenager or smoker mother were considered as independent risk factors using a stepwise analysis. Conclusions: Chilean low income children have identifiable risk factors for death at their homes due to pneumonia, that can be preventively managed. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 627-32
Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille
Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors to drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups.
Full Text Available Using register-based data on Finnish first marriages that were intact at the end of 1990 (about 2.1 million marriage-years and followed up for divorce in 1991-1993 (n = 21,204, this research explored the possibility that the effect of spouses' socioeconomic position on divorce risk varies according to duration of marriage. The comparatively high divorce risks for spouses with little formal education and for spouses in manual worker occupations were found to be specific to marriages of relatively short duration. In contrast, such factors as unemployment, wife's high income, and living in a rented dwelling were found to increase divorce risk at all marital durations.
Anees B. Chagpar
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW; Gross domestic product (GDP per capita by purchasing power parity (current international $; computed tomography (CT for cancer diagnosis. Data include 52 countries. The statistical analysis is carried out by correlation, ANOVA and an econometric modeling based on a multiple regression model of the breast cancer incidence on two explanatory variables. Results: Partial correlation is higher: rbreast cancer, GDP ? CT=60.3% (sign.0.00. The estimated relationship shows an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 0.05% for a GDP increase of 1% and an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 3.23% for a CT increase of 1%. ANOVA confirms that incidence of breast cancer is higher across richer countries, ceteris paribus.Conclusions: Empirical evidence shows that the breast cancer tends to be higher across richer countries, measured by GDP per capita and number of Computed Tomography. The main determinants of these findings can be due to several socio-economic factors, mainly localized in richer countries. In addition, this research may provide an alternative interpretation to the theory of Oh et al. (2010 on the influence of latitude on breast cancer, focusing on socio-economic factors rather than biologic root causes.
Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.
Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…
Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P
While maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children’s future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal physical and mental health outcomes. We hypothesize that poor child health may also increase the risk of poor maternal health outcomes through an interact...
Weisent Jennifer; Rohrbach Barton; Dunn John R; Odoi Agricola
Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors play a complex role in determining the risk of campylobacteriosis. Understanding the spatial interplay between these factors and disease risk can guide disease control programs. Historically, Poisson and negative binomial models have been used to investigate determinants of geographic disparities in risk. Spatial regression models, which allow modeling of spatial effects, have been used to improve these modeling efforts. Geographically weighted regres...
Hosseinpoor Ahmad; Bergen Nicole; Kunst Anton; Harper Sam; Guthold Regina; Rekve Dag; d'Espaignet Edouard; Naidoo Nirmala; Chatterji Somnath
Abstract Background Monitoring inequalities in non communicable disease risk factor prevalence can help to inform and target effective interventions. The prevalence of current daily smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and heavy episodic alcohol drinking were quantified and compared across wealth and education levels in low- and middle-income country groups. Methods This study included self-reported data from 232,056 adult participants in 48 countries, derived fr...
Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Nyberg, Solja T; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjørner, Jakob; Borritz, Marianne; Brunner, Eric J; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Hamer, Mark; Heikkilä, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Jokela, Markus
BACKGROUND: Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (cohort stu...
... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and free ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following conditions ...
... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is still ... 4-to-1. There is likely no single risk factor for scleroderma. A number of scientific studies suggest ...
Mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo: influência do peso ao nascer e de fatores sócio-demográficos e assistenciais Neonatal mortality: socio-economic, health services risk factors and birth weight in the City of São Paulo
Marcia Furquim de Almeida
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo, apesar da sua tendência decrescente, constitui em um importante problema para a saúde pública. Os principais fatores de risco podem ser agrupados em quatro categorias básicas de variáveis: características do recém-nascido, características maternas, condições socioeconômicas e características dos serviços de saúde. O peso ao nascer e a prematuridade constituem fatores dominantes, compondo complexas redes de articulação com os demais. METODOLOGIA: Este é um estudo caso-controle, com base em dados vinculados do SIM e SINASC no Município de São Paulo, no primeiro semestre de 1995. Foi utilizada análise hierárquica, considerando quatro blocos de variáveis (características socioeconômicas, do recém-nascido, maternas e serviços de saúde para o conjunto de recém-nascidos e para três grupos de peso ao nascer: BACKGROUND: Although neonatal mortality has been declining in the City of São Paulo, it still is an important public health problem. Four basic categories constitute risk factors: newborn characteristics, maternal characteristics, socio-economic conditions and quality of health care. Low birth weight and prematurity are the dominant factors and constitute a complex network with other factors. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out based on linked birth and death certificates of the City of São Paulo for the first semester of 1995. The study performed a hierarchical analysis, considering four blocks of variables (characteristics of the new-born; mothers, health care and socio-economic status for all birth-weight groups together and separately for three birth-weight groups: 2,500g. RESULTS: The final model for all newborns together showed statistical significant association for mothers under 20 years of age, being born in a SUS hospital, birth weight <2,500g and prematurity. The three birth weight groups showed distinctive patterns of risk factors. Those <1,500g had lower mortality when born in a university hospital and caesarean section. The 1,500-2,499g group had increased risk for mortality with prematurity, male sex and high parity of mother. In the more than 2,500g group, risk factors for mortality were prematurity, adolescent mother, living in an area with low quality of life, being born in a SUS hospital and caesarean section. CONCLUSION: This study, while pointing out the enormous influence of low birth weight on neonatal mortality in São Paulo, demonstrated that different birth weight categories have distinct biological and social vulnerabilities with complex links, and that health services have an important role to play for each of them.
Full Text Available Lars Haukali Omland,1 Merete Osler,2 Peter Jepsen,3,4 Henrik Krarup,5 Nina Weis,6 Peer Brehm Christensen,7 Casper Roed,1 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Niels Obel1 On behalf of the DANVIR Cohort Study1Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Research Center for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 6Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 7Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, DenmarkBackground and aims: It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection or a prognostic factor following infection.Methods: From Danish nationwide registries, we obtained information on three markers of SES: employment, income, and education. In a case control design, we examined HCV infected patients and controls; conditional logistic regression was employed to obtain odds ratios (ORs for HCV infection for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity, and substance abuse. In a cohort design, we used Cox regression analysis to compute mortality rate ratios (MRRs for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity level, age, substance abuse, and gender.Results: When compared to employed persons, ORs for HCV infection were 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24–3.26 for disability pensioners and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.83–2.72 for the unemployed. When compared to persons with a high income, ORs were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.34–2.01 for low income persons and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.02–1.40 for medium income persons. The OR was 1.35 (95% CI: 1.20–1.52 for low education (no more than basic schooling. When compared to employed patients, MRRs were 1.71 (95% CI: 1.22–2.40 for unemployed patients and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.63–3.08 for disability pensioners. When compared to high income patients, MRRs were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.05–2.05 for medium income patients and 1.64 (95% CI: 1.13–2.34 for low income patients. Educational status was not associated with mortality.Conclusion: Low SES was associated with an increased risk of HCV infection and with poor prognosis in HCV infected patients.Keywords: survival, socioeconomic status, risk factor, prognosis
Mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo: influência do peso ao nascer e de fatores sócio-demográficos e assistenciais / Neonatal mortality: socio-economic, health services risk factors and birth weight in the City of São Paulo
Marcia Furquim de, Almeida; Hillegonda Maria Dutilh, Novaes; Gizelton Pereira, Alencar; Laura C., Rodrigues.
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo, apesar da sua tendência decrescente, constitui em um importante problema para a saúde pública. Os principais fatores de risco podem ser agrupados em quatro categorias básicas de variáveis: características do recém-nascido, características [...] maternas, condições socioeconômicas e características dos serviços de saúde. O peso ao nascer e a prematuridade constituem fatores dominantes, compondo complexas redes de articulação com os demais. METODOLOGIA: Este é um estudo caso-controle, com base em dados vinculados do SIM e SINASC no Município de São Paulo, no primeiro semestre de 1995. Foi utilizada análise hierárquica, considerando quatro blocos de variáveis (características socioeconômicas, do recém-nascido, maternas e serviços de saúde) para o conjunto de recém-nascidos e para três grupos de peso ao nascer: Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Although neonatal mortality has been declining in the City of São Paulo, it still is an important public health problem. Four basic categories constitute risk factors: newborn characteristics, maternal characteristics, socio-economic conditions and quality of health care. Low birth weigh [...] t and prematurity are the dominant factors and constitute a complex network with other factors. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out based on linked birth and death certificates of the City of São Paulo for the first semester of 1995. The study performed a hierarchical analysis, considering four blocks of variables (characteristics of the new-born; mothers, health care and socio-economic status) for all birth-weight groups together and separately for three birth-weight groups: 2,500g. RESULTS: The final model for all newborns together showed statistical significant association for mothers under 20 years of age, being born in a SUS hospital, birth weight
Habibollah Esmaeily; Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad; Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan; Mohammad-Reza Parizadeh; Mohammad Safarian; Mohammad-Javad Parizadeh; Bahareh Hassankhani; Elahe Salardini; Zaim-Kohan Houshang; Hossini Javad; Oladi Mohammad Reza; Gordon Ferns
The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between socio-economic factors and obesity within a population from Iran. Male and female subjects (n=4977) aged 15-65 years, were recruited from the Great Khorasan province of Iran using a cluster-stratified sampling method. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected by questionnaire. Of the study population, 29.1% were overweight and 13.8% were obese. Being overweight and obese was significantly more prevalent among ...
Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Landale, Nancy S.
Child health is fundamental to well-being and achievement throughout the life course. Prior research has demonstrated strong associations between familial socioeconomic resources and children’s health outcomes, with especially poor health outcomes among disadvantaged youth who experience a concentration of risks, yet little is known about the influence of maternal health as a dimension of risk for children. This research used nationally representative U.S. data from the National Health Interv...
The environmental risk factors related to the breast tumors (lumps) are essential in order to build strategies to decrease cancer incidence and mortality among different socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. A case control study of 70 cases and 52 controls were classified into high, middle and low socioeconomic classes. The results revealed significant increased risk of breast tumors among working females, having positive family history, married with lower mean parity, with higher consumption of fatty meals, lesser meat intake. Non significant risk factors were the social class, exposure to ionizing radiation, non lactating. wearing tight bra, consumption of vegetables and fruits, oral contraceptive pill users and exposure to outdoor air pollution or indoor pollution as floors and wall paintings. In conclusion, this study highlights the positive life style for egyptian women so they can prevent some of the environmental risks of breast tumors. Increasing the awareness of breast diseases and regular examination remains the corner stone for early detection management of breast lumps.
... Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Heart Disease Risk Factors Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Smoking is a key risk factor for heart disease. Several health conditions, your lifestyle, ...
Takano Takehito; Nakamura Keiko; Fukuda Yoshiharu
Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women), the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, exc...
Associations between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population in China / Association entre le niveau socio-économique et les facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaire dans une population urbaine de Chine / Relación entre la situación socioeconómica y los factores de riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en una población urbana de China
Zhijie, Yu; Aulikki, Nissinen; Erkki, Vartiainen; Guide, Song; Zeyu, Guo; Gengwen, Zheng; Jaakko, Tuomilehto; Huiguang, Tian.
Full Text Available Se ha demostrado que la situación socioeconómica (SSE) es un factor importante en la progresión de las enfermedades cardiovasculares en los países desarrollados. En cambio, hay pocos datos sobre la relación entre la SSE y los factores de riesgo de contraer dichas enfermedades en los países en desarr [...] ollo. China es el país en desarrollo más grande del mundo, pero los informes precedentes de ese país en que se cuantifican los efectos de diferentes dimensiones de la SSE en los factores de riesgo cardiovascular son escasos. Por esta razón, realizamos una evaluación transversal para investigar la relación entre el grado de instrucción, la ocupación, los ingresos y el estado civil, por un lado, y tres factores de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular - tensión arterial, índice de masa corporal y hábito de fumar - entre la población urbana de Tianjin, la tercera ciudad más populosa de China. En 1996 se realizó una encuesta de población transversal en Tianjin. La muestra para ese estudio se obtuvo por un procedimiento en dos etapas. Primero se tomaron al azar en la zona urbana 14 comunidades con un total de 400 000 habitantes. En la segunda etapa se tomaron al azar de los registros de población, en las comunidades muestreadas, 4000 personas de edad comprendida entre 15 y 69 años. La muestra se estratificó por sexos y grupos de edad (el grupo de más edad, 55-69 años). El presente estudio se ha limitado a las personas entrevistadas de edad comprendida entre 25 y 69 años (1615 varones y 1592 mujeres). Se determinaron en la encuesta cuatro indicadores socioeconómicos (grado de instrucción, ocupación, ingresos y estado civil), así como la tensión arterial, el índice de masa corporal y el hábito de fumar de los participantes. El grado de instrucción parece ser el más importante de los cuatro indicadores socioeconómicos en relación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la población estudiada. En general, las personas con SSE más baja tenían niveles más altos de factores de riesgo cardiovascular, y la relación entre la SSE y los factores de riesgo cardiovascular fue más sistemática en las mujeres que en los varones. Asimismo, las diferencias fueron más amplias en las mujeres que en los varones. Nuestros hallazgos no parecen diferir de los observados en los países desarrollados. Abstract in english INTRODUCTIONS: In developed countries socioeconomic status has been proven to be an important factor in the progression of cardiovascular disease. The present article reports the results of a cross-sectional assessment to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular ri [...] sk factors in a Chinese urban population. METHODS: In 1996, a behavioural risk factor survey was carried out in Tianjin, the third largest city in China. A sample of 4000 people aged 15-69 years, stratified by sex and 10-year age groups, was drawn randomly from urban areas of the city. The present study covers respondents aged 25-69 years (1615 men and 1592 women). Four socioeconomic indicators (education, occupation, income, and marital status), blood pressure, body mass index, and cigarette smoking were determined in the survey. RESULTS: Educational level seemed to be the most important measure of the four socioeconomic indicators in relation to the cardiovascular risk factors in the study population. People with lower socioeconomic status had higher levels of cardiovascular risk factors. The association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors was more consistent among women than men. DISCUSSION: Our findings do not seem to differ from those observed in developed countries.
Anders, Markus P; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele
BACKGROUND: Good sleep quality is essential for recovery. The risk factors of sleep disorders have been extensively investigated, but there is sparse information on the association of socioeconomic factors with a person's sleep quality. The aim of the present analysis is to investigate this association, taking particularly the effect of health confounders into consideration. METHODS: The data were extracted from the cross-sectional QUEBEB Study. In total, the study sample consisted of 3281 parti...
Akbar, N; Basuki, B; Mulyanto; Garabrant, D H; Sulaiman, A; Noer, H M
This study identifies the risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and measures the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis C (anti-HCV) in the general population of Jakarta. A population-based sample of 985 people aged 15 and above was surveyed. Risk factors were identified through questionnaires and home visits. Serum was analysed for HBsAg, antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), anti-HCV, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The seroprevalence was: 4.0% (39/985) for HBsAg, 17.2% (170/985) for anti-HBs, and 3.9% (38/985) for anti-HCV. The risk factors for hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection had little in common. Low socioeconomic status was a strong risk factor for HBsAg (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 18.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.35-139.50). In addition, the Chinese group has 2.97 higher risk of having HBV infection compared with the Malayan ethnic group (adjusted OR 2.97; 95% CI 1.22-7.83). There was moderate positive trend between family size and risk of HBsAg positivity (P = 0.130). Age over 50 (adjusted OR 14.72; 95% CI 4.35-49.89) and history of transfusion were significant risk factors for hepatitis C (adjusted OR 3.03; 95% CI 1.25-7.33). Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections have different risk factors in Jakarta, a high risk in population for both diseases. Hepatitis B transmission is associated with low socioeconomic status, Chinese ethnic group and large family size, while hepatitis C is associated with an older age and a history of transfusions. PMID:9430042
Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Ward, Philip; Bouwman, Arno; Ligtvoet, Willem; van Beek, Rens; Winsemius, Hessel
Worldwide major flood events result in both economic losses and large numbers of casualties. Recent global scale studies indicate that in many regions of the world discharge extremes are likely to increase under changing climate conditions. However, few studies have so far examined how these changes in climate conditions may affect flood risk (defined here as the probability of a flood multiplied by the consequences). In the current study we investigate the impacts of changing climate and socioeconomic conditions on flood extents and depths, and also assess the potential impacts on flood risk. The study is conducted on a global scale, thereby indicating in which regions of the world flood risk is likely to change most. To assess global food risk under changing conditions, we combined socio-economic data from the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE) framework of the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) with high resolution maps of inundation depth (1 km). To this end, projections from a number of GCMs were bias-corrected and used to force the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB which simulates (amongst other variables) global maps with daily flood volumes on a 0.5 degree resolution. These time series were used to derive flood volume maps for multiple return periods, which were downscaled to inundation depth maps at 1 km resolution using a 1 km resolution DEM. Finally, these high resolution flood maps were combined with spatial datasets on future GDP and population density from the IMAGE model. Results are presented on both the global scale and at the country level. We believe that the obtained flood extend and flood risk maps can assist development agencies in planning climate adaptation investments that aim to reduce flood risks.
Tehranifar, Parisa; Wu, Hui-Chen; Fan, Xiaozhou; Flom, Julie D; Ferris, Jennifer S; CHO, YOON HEE; Gonzalez, Karina; Santella, Regina M.; Terry, Mary Beth
Epigenetic modifications may be one mechanism linking early life factors, including parental socioeconomic status (SES), to adult onset disease risk. However, SES influences on DNA methylation patterns remain largely unknown. In a US birth cohort of women, we examined whether indicators of early life and adult SES were associated with white blood cell methylation of repetitive elements (Sat2, Alu and LINE-1) in adulthood. Low family income at birth was associated with higher Sat2 methylation ...
Family history and socioeconomic risk factors for non-syndromic cleft lip and palate: A matched case-control study in a less developed country Factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos para labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en México: estudio de casos y controles pareado
Juan J. Villalobos-Rodelo
Full Text Available
Introduction. From an epidemiological point of view, non-syndromic orofacial clefts are the most common oral congenital deformities worldwide.
Objective. Family histories were traced and socioeconomic risk factors were identified for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.
Material and methods. A case-control study was carried out with 208 cases of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and matched by age and sex with 416 controls. Cases were patients attending a referral clinic from 2002 through 2004 in Campeche, Mexico. A questionnaire was administered to collect sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables as well as familial background relevant to non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Conditional logistic regression models were used; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Results. In the multivariate model, the following risk factors were identified: 1 low socioeconomic status; 2 birth in the southern region of Campeche state; 3 home delivery or delivery in a publicly funded hospital; 4 occurrence of prior non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate cases in the father's or mother's family: 5 having a sibling with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate; 6 the proband having another malformation, and 7 a history of infections during pregnancy. Prenatal care consisting of vitamin supplementation was a protective factor for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (odds ratio=0.29.
Conclusions. A "social gradient in health" was seen to link oral malformation with diet components, and several socioeconomic and socio-demographic factors broadly encompassed in low socioeconomic status. Further characterization of risk factors will guide the assemblage of a pro-active counseling and prevention program for families at risk for non-syndromic cleft lip and cleft palate.
Introducción. Desde el punto de vista epidemiológico, las hendiduras faciales son las deformidades orales más comunes alrededor del mundo.
Objetivo. Identificar los factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos relacionados con la presencia de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome.
Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de casos y controles en el que se incluyeron 208 casos con diagnóstico de labio, paladar hendido o ambos no asociados a un síndrome, los cuales fueron pareados por edad y sexo con 416 controles. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes quirúrgicos atendidos durante el periodo 2002-2004 en el programa estatal de labio o paladar hendido de Campeche, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario en el que se recogió información sobre variables sociodemográficas y socioeconómicas, así como sobre antecedentes hereditarios de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en la familia. Debido a que el diseño fue pareado, el análisis se hizo con regresión logística condicionada.
Resultados. En el modelo multivariado para labio o paladar hendido no asociado a un síndrome se identificaron de forma significativa (p<0,05 los siguientes factores de riesgo: nivel socioeconómico bajo (razón de momios, RM=2,02, nacimiento en el sur del estado (RM=3,96, nacimiento en casa (RM=2,51 o nacimiento en hospital público (RM=4,08, antecedentes heredofamiliares paternos (RM=5,38, antecedentes heredofamiliares maternos (RM=4,11, tener otro hijo con labio o paladar hendido en la familia (RM=46,02, presentar algún otro defecto congénito asociado (RM=8,20 e infección en el embarazo (RM=2,90, y como factor protector, el cuidado prenatal y el uso de vitaminas (RM=0,29.
Conclusiones. El mayor riesgo en nuestra muestra para labio, paladar hendido o ambos, no asociados a un síndrome, radica en las variables relaci
Ferretti, Fabio; Coluccia, Anna
Are socio-economic factors valid determinants of suicide? The modern sociological theory of suicide is based on Durkheim's studies. In addition to these fundamental social determinants, modern theorists have put more attention on economic factors. The purpose of the research is to determine the relationship between suicide rates and socio-economic factors, such as demography, economic development, education, healthcare systems, living conditions and labour market. All data were collected from a Eurostat publication and they concern 25 European Union countries. In order to test this relationship, a discriminant analysis was performed using an ordinal dependent variable and a set of independent variables concerning socio-economic factors. A dataset of 37 independent variables was used. We estimated a model with five variables: annual growth rates for industry, people working in S&T (% of total employment), at-risk-of-poverty rate, all accidents (standardized rates), and healthcare expenditures (% of GDP). Highly significant values of Wilk's Lambda assess a good discriminating power of the model. The accuracy too is very high: all cases are correctly classified by the model. Countries with high suicide rate levels are marked by high levels of at-risk-of-poverty rates, high annual growth rates for industry and low healthcare expenditures. PMID:19251457
Family history and socioeconomic risk factors for non-syndromic cleft lip and palate: A matched case-control study in a less developed country / Factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos para labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en México: estudio de casos y controles pareado
Gladys, Acuña-González; Carlo E, Medina-Solís; Gerardo, Maupomé; Mauricio, Escoffie-Ramírez; Jesús, Hernández-Romano; María de L, Márquez-Corona; Arturo J, Islas-Márquez; Juan J, Villalobos-Rodelo.
Full Text Available Introducción. Desde el punto de vista epidemiológico, las hendiduras faciales son las deformidades orales más comunes alrededor del mundo. Objetivo. Identificar los factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos relacionados con la presencia de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome. [...] Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de casos y controles en el que se incluyeron 208 casos con diagnóstico de labio, paladar hendido o ambos no asociados a un síndrome, los cuales fueron pareados por edad y sexo con 416 controles. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes quirúrgicos atendidos durante el periodo 2002-2004 en el programa estatal de labio o paladar hendido de Campeche, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario en el que se recogió información sobre variables sociodemográficas y socioeconómicas, así como sobre antecedentes hereditarios de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en la familia. Debido a que el diseño fue pareado, el análisis se hizo con regresión logística condicionada. Resultados. En el modelo multivariado para labio o paladar hendido no asociado a un síndrome se identificaron de forma significativa (p Abstract in english Introduction. From an epidemiological point of view, non-syndromic orofacial clefts are the most common oral congenital deformities worldwide. Objective. Family histories were traced and socioeconomic risk factors were identified for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Material and [...] methods. A case-control study was carried out with 208 cases of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and matched by age and sex with 416 controls. Cases were patients attending a referral clinic from 2002 through 2004 in Campeche, Mexico. A questionnaire was administered to collect sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables as well as familial background relevant to non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Conditional logistic regression models were used; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results. In the multivariate model, the following risk factors were identified: 1) low socioeconomic status; 2) birth in the southern region of Campeche state; 3) home delivery or delivery in a publicly funded hospital; 4) occurrence of prior non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate cases in the father´s or mother´s family: 5) having a sibling with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate; 6) the proband having another malformation, and 7) a history of infections during pregnancy. Prenatal care consisting of vitamin supplementation was a protective factor for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (odds ratio=0.29). Conclusions. A “social gradient in health” was seen to link oral malformation with diet components, and several socioeconomic and socio-demographic factors broadly encompassed in low socioeconomic status. Further characterization of risk factors will guide the assemblage of a pro-active counseling and prevention program for families at risk for non-syndromic cleft lip and cleft palate.
Coleman, Anne L; Kodjebacheva, Gergana
Glaucoma is defined as a chronic progressive optic neuropathy, for which elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor. Emerging research indicates that modifiable factors besides IOP may be associated with the presence of glaucoma. In this review, we discuss the role of modifiable determinants, specifically socioeconomic status, nutritional intake, body mass index and obesity, exercise, smoking, and sleep apnea, in the presence of glaucoma. Preliminary studies sugges...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous melanoma (CM is a cancer usually associated with high socio-economic level in the literature. Few studies have, however, assessed this relationship by gender and site or the association between CM and rurality. Methods A major-sized historical occupational Swedish cohort comprising 2,992,166 workers was used to estimate relative risk of cutaneous melanoma, broken down by gender and anatomical site, for occupational sectors (as a proxy of socio-economic class and rurality. To this end, Poisson models were fitted for each site in men and women, including occupational sector and town size, with adjustment for age, period of diagnosis and geographical area as possible confounding factors. Results White collar workers presented a marked increased of risk in men in all melanoma cases, as well as in trunk, upper and lower limbs. This pattern was less clear for women, in which some heterogeneity appeared, as low risks in lower socioeconomic sectors in trunk, or risk excesses in white collar workers in lower limbs did not achieve statistical significance. Males also showed significant differences in risk by rural/urban distribution, but in women this association was limited to CM of lower limb. Risk of CM of head/neck did not vary by occupational sector or town size, thus depicting a specific epidemiological profile, which proved common to both sexes. Conclusion While differences in risk between men and women could suggest greater homogeneity in UV-exposure behaviour among women, the uniform risk pattern in head and neck melanoma, present in both sexes, might support the coexistence of different aetiological pathways, related to anatomical site.
Nagaraj, E; Mankani, N; Madalli, P; Astekar, D
Complete edentulism is the terminal outcome of a multifactorial process involving biological factors and patient related factors. Tooth loss associated with periodontal disease and caries has an apparent impact on an individual's quality of life, and has been associated with lower levels of satisfaction with life and a lower morale. The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. The distribution and prevelance of complete edentulism between developed and less developed countries may be associated with a complex interrelationship between cultural, individual, attitude, behavior, dental attendance, etiopathogenesis of edentulism, access to care and socioeconomic factors. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. In order to plan for future oral health care provisions for the society, collecting epidemiological data on oral health particularly related to prosthodontics and its related issues are very important. PMID:24604994
Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors play a complex role in determining the risk of campylobacteriosis. Understanding the spatial interplay between these factors and disease risk can guide disease control programs. Historically, Poisson and negative binomial models have been used to investigate determinants of geographic disparities in risk. Spatial regression models, which allow modeling of spatial effects, have been used to improve these modeling efforts. Geographically weighted regression (GWR takes this a step further by estimating local regression coefficients, thereby allowing estimations of associations that vary in space. These recent approaches increase our understanding of how geography influences the associations between determinants and disease. Therefore the objectives of this study were to: (i identify socioeconomic determinants of the geographic disparities of campylobacteriosis risk (ii investigate if regression coefficients for the associations between socioeconomic factors and campylobacteriosis risk demonstrate spatial variability and (iii compare the performance of four modeling approaches: negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR. Methods Negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR modeling techniques were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic factors and geographic disparities in campylobacteriosis risk. The best fitting models were identified and compared. Results Two competing four variable models (Models 1 & 2 were identified. Significant variables included race, unemployment rate, education attainment, urbanicity, and divorce rate. Local Poisson GWR had the best fit and showed evidence of spatially varying regression coefficients. Conclusions The international significance of this work is that it highlights the inadequacy of global regression strategies that estimate one parameter per independent variable, and therefore mask the true relationships between dependent and independent variables. Since local GWR estimate a regression coefficient for each location, it reveals the geographic differences in the associations. This implies that a factor may be an important determinant in some locations and not others. Incorporating this into health planning ensures that a needs-based, rather than a “one-size-fits-all”, approach is used. Thus, adding local GWR to the epidemiologists’ toolbox would allow them to assess how the impacts of different determinants vary by geography. This knowledge is critical for resource allocation in disease control programs.
A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG)
Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted viral infection of major international public health concern. Global environmental and socio-economic change has created ideal conditions for the global expansion of dengue transmission. Innovative modelling tools help in understanding the global determinants of dengue risk and the relative impact of environmental and socio-economic factors on dengue transmission and spread. While climatic factors may act as a limiting factor on the global scale, other processes may play a dominant role at the local level. Understanding the spatial scales at which environmental and socio-economic factors dominate can help to target appropriate dengue control and prevention strategies. PMID:26311416
Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author
Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.
Full Text Available Research question: What are the epidemiological and risk factors associated with asthma in children. Objective: To determine epidemiological and risk factors in childhood bronchial asthma. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting Hospital based. Participants: Children suffering from bronchial asthma and their parents/ attendants. Sample size: 235 children. Study variables: Age, sex place of residence, socio-economic status, age of onset of asthma, no of siblings, fuel used for cooking, smoking, asthma in the family seasonal variation etc. Statistical analysis: percentages
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.
Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F
Importance: Schizophrenia has a complex etiology influenced both by genetic and nongenetic factors but disentangling these factors is difficult. Objective: To estimate (1) how strongly the risk for schizophrenia relates to the mutual effect of the polygenic risk score, parental socioeconomic status, and family history of psychiatric disorders; (2) the fraction of cases that could be prevented if no one was exposed to these factors; (3) whether family background interacts with an individual's genetic liability so that specific subgroups are particularly risk prone; and (4) to what extent a proband's genetic makeup mediates the risk associated with familial background. Design, Settings, and Participants: We conducted a nested case-control study based on Danish population-based registers. The study consisted of 866 patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2006, and 871 matched control individuals. Genome-wide data and family psychiatric and socioeconomic background information were obtained from neonatal biobanks and national registers. Results from a separate meta-analysis (34?600 cases and 45?968 control individuals) were applied to calculate polygenic risk scores. Exposures: Polygenic risk scores, parental socioeconomic status, and family psychiatric history. Main Outcomes and Measures: Odds ratios (ORs), attributable risks, liability R2 values, and proportions mediated. Results: Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score (OR, 8.01; 95% CI, 4.53-14.16 for highest vs lowest decile), socioeconomic status (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 3.24-20.3 for 6 vs no exposures), and a history of schizophrenia/psychoses (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.57-6.79). The R2 values were 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for the polygenic risk score, 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) for parental socioeconomic status, and 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for family history. Socioeconomic status and psychiatric history accounted for 45.8% (95% CI, 36.1-55.5) and 25.8% (95% CI, 21.2-30.5) of cases, respectively. There was an interaction between the polygenic risk score and family history (P?=?.03). A total of 17.4% (95% CI, 9.1-26.6) of the effect associated with family history of schizophrenia/psychoses was mediated through the polygenic risk score. Conclusions and Relevance: Schizophrenia was associated with the polygenic risk score, family psychiatric history, and socioeconomic status. Our study demonstrated that family history of schizophrenia/psychoses is partly mediated through the individual's genetic liability.
Lundberg, Johanna; Karlsson, Nadine; Kristenson, Margareta
Previous longitudinal studies have demonstrated the importance of measuring stability of risk factors over time to correct for attenuation bias. The present aim was to assess the stability of scores for eight psychometric scales over a 2-yr. period and whether stability differed by socioeconomic position. Baseline data were collected during 2003–2004 from 1,007 men and women ages 45 to 69 years. Follow-up data were collected in 2006 from a total of 795 men and women. Analysis showed that stab...
Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United Kingdom has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy in Europe and in contrast to the decline in the rate of teenage pregnancy, recorded in the remaining countries of Western Europe, this figure has remained relatively stable, especially in adolescents aged 16 years and below. In Greece, according to National Statistics Office, in 2007, we had 3.129 births by teenagers under 18, with 75 births by teenagers under 15. The main factors contributing to the incidence of teenage pregnancy are socioeconomic factors, the family, the education and the sexual behavior of teenagers. Conclusions.It is necessary the state, through the health services and the education programs, to provide modern sex education in schools, as well as programs of prevention and health education in primary health care. The cooperation of these authorities is essential, to better address the extent and consequences of teenage pregnancy.
Ocaña-Riola, Ricardo; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Carmen; Rosell, Jorge; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Daponte, Antonio
An ecological design was used to study the relationship between cancer incidence and both socioeconomic and environmental features in Southern Spain. Twenty-four sites and 26,380 cases diagnosed in 1985--1996 were analysed. Generalised Additive Models were used for data analysis. Except for lip cancer, the urban areas showed an increase in cancer risk for all sites. The relative risks among urban and rural municipalities ranges between 1.09 for skin non-melanoma (95% CI: 1.00-1.18) and 1.64 for cervix cancer (95% CI: 1.28-2.12). The relative risk among areas with high and low unemployment was 1.29 for stomach cancer (95% CI: 1.07-1.57), 1.45 for oral cavity cancer (95% CI: 1.10-1.93) and 1.77 for oesophagus cancer (95% CI: 1.02-3.05). Areas with highest unemployment showed the lowest incidence of melanoma. Risk for leukaemia, gall bladder, breast and prostate cancer showed a significant decreases by approximately 28% in the municipalities with the highest illiteracy score. A high percentage of land under cultivation was related to uterine tumours, larynx, rectum, lung, skin non-melanoma and brain cancers. For these sites, the risk had a significant increase by between 23% (skin non-melanoma) and 70% (rectum). Areas with high intensive farming showed a significant increase in cancer risk for lip, oral cavity, larynx, oesophagus, colon, lung, and bladder cancer. The relative risks ranges between 1.16 for colon cancer (95% CI: 1.04-1.29) and 1.47 for oesophagus cancer (95% CI: 1.15-1.87). The results of this study reveal how important socio-economic and environmental factors are for the analysis of cancer incidence in small areas of Southern Spain. PMID:15461195
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Low birth weight (LBW is a result of preterm birth or intrauterine growth retardation, and in both cases is the strongest single factor associated with perinatal and neonatal mortality. It is considered that socioeconomic factors, as well as mothers bad habits, play the most significant role in the development of LBW, which explains notable number of researches focused on this particular problem. The aim of this study was to characterize socioeconomic factors, as well as smoking habits of the mothers, and their connection with LBW. Methods. The questionnaire was carried out among mothers of 2 years old children (n = 956, born after 37 gestational weeks. The characteristics of mothers who had children with LBW, defined as < 2 500 g, (n = 50, were matched with the characteristics of mothers who had children ? 2 500 g, (n = 906. For defining risk factors, and protective factors as well, we used univariant and multivariant logistic modeles. Results. As significant risk factors for LBW in an univariant model we had education level of the mothers, smoking during pregnancy, smoking before pregnancy, the number of daily cigarettes, the number of cigarettes used during pregnancy, paternal earnings and socioeconomic factors. In a multivariant model the most significant factors were socioeconomic factors, education level of the mothers, paternal earnings and mothers smoking during pregnancy. Conclusion. Smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors have great influence on LBW. Future studies should be carried out in different social groups, with the intention to define their influence on LBW and reproduction, as well. This should be the proper way of adequate health breeding planning for giving up smoking, the prevention of bad habits and melioration of mothers and children health, as the most vulnerable population.
van de Mheen, H. (Dike); Stronks, K.; Looman, C W N; Mackenbach, J.P.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS: Data were obtained from the baseline of a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands (13 854 respondents, aged between 25 and 74). Childhood socioeconomic group was ...
Can socioeconomic factors seemingly explain variation in suicide rates at large-unit aggregate levels only due to an ecological fallacy? This is what Kunce and Anderson (2002) suggest based on fixed-effects estimation of US state suicide rates, in which they find little evidence that socioeconomic factors matter. We demonstrate that this result does not hold true for other large-unit aggregate levels in our analysis of suicide at the cross-national level. We find that many socioeconomic facto...
Southavilay Boundeth; Teruaki Nanseki; Shigeyoshi Takeuchi; Tetsuo SATHO
Changes in land use areoften associated with policy implementation and socio-economic factors. The objective of this study was to interpret the patterns of land use and changes in land cover with a watershed area, especially focusing on the detection of change of agricultural land. The socio-economic factors contributing to land change was also analyzed. This study adopted both spatial and socio-economic analysis with remote sensing and logistic regression model. Land use maps of the study ar...
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…
Kopp, M S; Skrabski, A; Szedmák, S
We analysed the relationships between socioeconomic factors, severity of depressive symptomatology, and sickness absence rate in an active (working and studying) population of 20,902 persons representative of the Hungarian population over the age of 16 by age, sex, and place of residence. The severity of depression was very closely correlated with sick leave. Hierarchical log linear analysis was performed to investigate the interactive effects of socioeconomic factors, severity of depressive symptomatology, and sickness absence rate. Material socioeconomic factors such as housing situation, access to a car, and owning properties had no direct impact on sick leave, unless mediated by the effect of depression. All of the measured socioeconomic factors, with the exception of place of residence, were closely connected with depressive symptomatology, and depression appeared to mediate between socioeconomic factors and higher sickness absence rate. A vicious circle might be hypothesized between depression and a socially deprived situation, which plays a significant causal role in ill health. PMID:8926597
Anders, Markus P; Breckenkamp, Jürgen
BACKGROUND: Good sleep quality is essential for recovery. The risk factors of sleep disorders have been extensively investigated, but there is sparse information on the association of socioeconomic factors with a person's sleep quality. The aim of the present analysis is to investigate this association, taking particularly the effect of health confounders into consideration. METHODS: The data were extracted from the cross-sectional QUEBEB Study. In total, the study sample consisted of 3281 participants (1817 women and 1464 men, aged 16-72 years). Here socioeconomic status (SES) was collected from the baseline survey taken in 2004. Sleep quality for the same participants was measured with in-depth personal interviews in 2006 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, together with other relevant characteristics (e.g. anxiety, depression and health status). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: People living in an urban environment with a high or medium SES have a greater probability of good sleep quality (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.14; odds ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.69) than persons with a low SES. Anxiety and depression, but also health status, are also associated with sleep quality and can influence in part the socioeconomic levels seen in sleep quality. CONCLUSION: SES and sleep quality are associated. However, there are important additional determinants that influence the level of association between SES and sleep quality. Several factors, such as anxiety, depression and health status, are associated with poorer sleep quality, but at the same time, these factors occur more often within lower social classes.
Full Text Available The high number of suicides drew attention to medical professionals. In Europe suicide is one of the leading cause of death caused by intentional and unintentional injuries. We tried to evaluate the suicide rates and methods of suicide during a 3 years period. There were collected all the date provided by the archives of forensic services of Brasov county between 2011 and 2013 regarding age, sex, marital status, occupation, socio-economic status, methods of suicide and alcohol consumption before suicide. The statistics included 545 subjects included in the study, 293 were male (53.8%, and 252 were female (46.2% who were admitted at the ER of Brasov County Emergency Hospital during study period. Of 545 patients with suicide attempt, 355 (65.15% survived and were referred to the Psychiatry and Neurology Hospital for psychiatric treatment and psychological counseling. The number of male who died after a suicide attempt was significantly higher than in female cases (134 vs.56, p<0.001. Previous suicide attempts, depression, alcohol abuse and unemployment are strong factors for fatal suicide. Poor economic status and life events may contribute to suicide attempt in those individuals.
The use of socioeconomic factors in mapping tuberculosis risk areas in a city of northeastern Brazil / Uso de factores socioeconómicos en la localización de áreas con riesgo de tuberculosis en una ciudad del nordeste de Brasil
Wayner V., Souza; Ricardo, Ximenes; Maria F. M., Albuquerque; Tiago M., Lapa; José L., Portugal; Maria L. C., Lima; Celina M. T., Martelli.
Full Text Available En Brasil, el reto de satisfacer las necesidades de los residentes en zonas pobres ha generado discusiones sobre la sustitución del actual abordaje de la vigilancia epidemiológica por un sistema integrado de vigilancia de la salud pública. Este nuevo abordaje debería sustituir el tradicional enfoque [...] en los individuos de alto riesgo por un método destinado a identificar las poblaciones de alto riesgo y las zonas en las que viven. Dada la magnitud del problema de la tuberculosis en Brasil, elegimos esta enfermedad como un ejemplo de cómo se podría concebir este nuevo sistema integrado de vigilancia de la salud pública. Se reunieron los datos de varias fuentes y la información geográfica para crear un indicador del riesgo de tuberculosis en Olinda, ciudad del estado de Pernambuco. Con el fin de estratificar el espacio urbano de Olinda y de buscar una asociación entre el gradiente del riesgo de tuberculosis y la incidencia media de la enfermedad entre 1991 y 1996, se aplicaron dos métodos diferentes: 1) un "índice social de pobreza", y 2) un análisis de componentes principales seguido de un análisis por grupos. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron una asociación entre la pobreza y la aparición de la tuberculosis y también señalaron grupos y zonas prioritarias que requerían intervención. Se recomienda un seguimiento que debería incluir el tratamiento de los casos de tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia positiva, la identificación de los contactos de estos individuos y el control de los casos resistentes a múltiples fármacos, todo ello en coordinación con los servicios de salud locales. Abstract in english In Brazil the challenge of meeting the needs of those living in deprived areas has generated discussions on replacing the existing approach to epidemiological surveillance with an integrated public health surveillance system. This new approach would supplant the traditional focus on high-risk indivi [...] duals with a method for identifying high-risk populations and the areas where these persons live. Given the magnitude of the problem that tuberculosis (TB) poses for Brazil, we chose that disease as an example of how such a new, integrated public health surveillance system could be constructed. We integrated data from several sources with geographic information to create an indicator of tuberculosis risk for Olinda, a city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. In order to stratify the urban space in Olinda and to check for an association between the resulting TB risk gradient and the mean incidence of the disease between 1991 and 1996, we applied two different methods: 1) a "social deprivation index" and 2) principal component analysis followed by cluster analysis. Our results showed an association between social deprivation and the occurrence of TB. The results also highlighted priority groups and areas requiring intervention. We recommend follow-up that would include treating acid-fast bacilli smear-positive pulmonary TB cases, tracing of these persons' contacts, and monitoring of multidrug-resistant cases, all in coordination with local health services.
The use of socioeconomic factors in mapping tuberculosis risk areas in a city of northeastern Brazil Uso de factores socioeconómicos en la localización de áreas con riesgo de tuberculosis en una ciudad del nordeste de Brasil
Wayner V. Souza
Full Text Available In Brazil the challenge of meeting the needs of those living in deprived areas has generated discussions on replacing the existing approach to epidemiological surveillance with an integrated public health surveillance system. This new approach would supplant the traditional focus on high-risk individuals with a method for identifying high-risk populations and the areas where these persons live. Given the magnitude of the problem that tuberculosis (TB poses for Brazil, we chose that disease as an example of how such a new, integrated public health surveillance system could be constructed. We integrated data from several sources with geographic information to create an indicator of tuberculosis risk for Olinda, a city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. In order to stratify the urban space in Olinda and to check for an association between the resulting TB risk gradient and the mean incidence of the disease between 1991 and 1996, we applied two different methods: 1 a "social deprivation index" and 2 principal component analysis followed by cluster analysis. Our results showed an association between social deprivation and the occurrence of TB. The results also highlighted priority groups and areas requiring intervention. We recommend follow-up that would include treating acid-fast bacilli smear-positive pulmonary TB cases, tracing of these persons' contacts, and monitoring of multidrug-resistant cases, all in coordination with local health services.En Brasil, el reto de satisfacer las necesidades de los residentes en zonas pobres ha generado discusiones sobre la sustitución del actual abordaje de la vigilancia epidemiológica por un sistema integrado de vigilancia de la salud pública. Este nuevo abordaje debería sustituir el tradicional enfoque en los individuos de alto riesgo por un método destinado a identificar las poblaciones de alto riesgo y las zonas en las que viven. Dada la magnitud del problema de la tuberculosis en Brasil, elegimos esta enfermedad como un ejemplo de cómo se podría concebir este nuevo sistema integrado de vigilancia de la salud pública. Se reunieron los datos de varias fuentes y la información geográfica para crear un indicador del riesgo de tuberculosis en Olinda, ciudad del estado de Pernambuco. Con el fin de estratificar el espacio urbano de Olinda y de buscar una asociación entre el gradiente del riesgo de tuberculosis y la incidencia media de la enfermedad entre 1991 y 1996, se aplicaron dos métodos diferentes: 1 un "índice social de pobreza", y 2 un análisis de componentes principales seguido de un análisis por grupos. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron una asociación entre la pobreza y la aparición de la tuberculosis y también señalaron grupos y zonas prioritarias que requerían intervención. Se recomienda un seguimiento que debería incluir el tratamiento de los casos de tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia positiva, la identificación de los contactos de estos individuos y el control de los casos resistentes a múltiples fármacos, todo ello en coordinación con los servicios de salud locales.
Ardalan, Maryam; H.Rafati, Ali; Nejat, Farideh; Farazmand, Behnood; Majed, Masood; El Khashab, Mostafa
Craniosynostosis is a relatively common congenital abnormality. The underlying etiology and most probable risk factors of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis are unknown. We conducted a study to identify the risk factors for craniosynostosis.
... Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... menu on the side of your screen. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of ...
... Twitter Chats American Stroke Month Launch Hidden Stroke Risk Factors for Women Updated:Feb 5,2014 Excerpted from "What Women Need To Know About The Hidden Risk Factors For Stroke," Stroke Connection Magazine, November/December 2004. ( ...
Sebillotte, C Godard; Deligny, C; Hanf, M; Santiago, R; Chevallier, J C; Voluménie, J L; Arfi, S
Risk factors for peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) are controversial. PPCM seems to be more prevalent in women of African descent, the highest observed incidence is in Haiti (1 per 300 live births). Our retrospective study conducted in Martinique showed an incidence of 1 per 5500 live births. This incidence is significantly lower than in Haiti. Women from Martinique and Haiti do not differ for most classical risk factors: African descent, age, pregnancy-associated hypertension, multiple pregnancy and pre-eclampsia. However, the parity rate and the socioeconomic level are different. Thus, African descent could be confounded by high parity rate and socioeconomic status. PMID:19540008
Full Text Available Systemic hypertension is a common disease in the population and is one of the most important risk factors whose prevalence reaches 28% in U.S.A, 44% in Europe, so that in 2025, it is estimated that hypertensive persons will reach 1.56 billion worldwide. In our country, the overall prevalence was 44.92%, mainly higher in males (50.17% than females (41.11%. We conducted an assessment of social and psychological factors in association with medical and biological routine quantification in a group of 80 hypertensives newly diagnosed, compared with a control group. Questionnaires were for studying the marital status, education level, quantifying the number of working hours per day, the level of physical training and professional socio-familial stress, smoking, alcohol consumption, after which patients were tested to assess the psychometric anxiety and depression using the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. The results may support an increased risk of hypertension in individuals who are undergoing to social and family stress, working over 10 hours/day and who record mild or moderate levels of anxiety and depression at evaluation tests. These data support the implementation of complex programs to decrease the risk of hypertension by working professionals in the medical, social and psychological fields of expertise.
Study objective: To study geographical differences in mortality and disability and sosio-economic status in Oslo, Norway. Setting: A total of 25 local authority districts within the city of Oslo. Design: Analysis of age adjusted mortality rates aged 0-74 in the period 1991-1994, and cross sectional data on disability pensioners aged 50-66 and socio-economic indicators (low education, single parenthood, unemployment, high income) in 1994. Main outcome measures: The levels of correlation between the health outcomes (mortality and disability) and sosio-economic exposure variables. Main results: The geographical patterns of mortality and disability display substantial similarities and show strong linear correlation with area measures of socio-economic deprivation. The ratios between the highest and lowest area mortality rates were 3.3 for men and 2.1 for women, while the high-low ratios of disability were 7.0 for men and 3.8 for women. For women deprivation measures are better correlated with disability than mortality. While disability and mortality display similar correlations with deprivation measures for men. Conclusions: The social gradients in health are substantial in Oslo. Further ecological analysis of cause specific morbidity and mortality and the distribution of risk factors ought to be done to identify problem areas suitable for interventions. However, to understand the mechanisms and the relative importance of each etiological factor, studies based on individual data have to be performed
Full Text Available Background/Aim. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and it is a manifestation of the epidemics of a sedentary lifestyle and excessive energy intake. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population of the Province of Vojvodina, Serbia, and to examine the association between obesity and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Methods. A cross-sectional study conducted in the Province of Vojvodina in 2006 involved 3 854 participants aged 20 years and over (1 831 men and 2 023 women. The study was a countinuation of the baseline study conducted in 2000 (n = 2 840, 1 255 men and 1 585 women. The main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (Body Mass Index - BMI ? 25 kg/m2, sociodemographic factors, including nutrition habits - having breakfast everyday and television watching frequency. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in both sexes in 2006 was 57.4% (35.7% were overweight and 21.7% obese. The prevalence of overweight was higher in men (41.1% than in women (30.9% (p < 0.001 while obesity was higher in women (23.1% as compared to men (20.2% (p = 0.035. For both sexes, overweight rates were highest at the age 60-69 (men 44.8% and women 39.1% while obesity rates were peaked to men aged 50-59 (25.1% and women aged 60-69 years (37.8%. Increasing ageing, males, rural population, single examinees, lower educational level, improved income, examinees that never/sometimes have breakfast and frequently watch TV were associated with obesity. Conclusions. The population of Vojvodina, with 23.1% obese women and 20.2% obese men is one of severely affected European populations. High prevalence of obesity requires urgent public health action. Healthy lifestyle, balanced nutrition with low energy intake and increased physical activity have to be promoted within a prevention strategy and obesity management.
Nordahl, Helene; Osler, Merete
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combined effects of socioeconomic position and well-established risk factors on stroke incidence have not been formally investigated. METHODS: In a pooled cohort study of 68 643 men and women aged 30 to 70 years in Denmark, we examined the combined effect and interaction between socioeconomic position (ie, education), smoking, and hypertension on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence by the use of the additive hazards model. RESULTS: During 14 years of follow-up, 3613 ischemic strokes and 776 hemorrhagic strokes were observed. Current smoking and hypertension were more prevalent among those with low education. Low versus high education was associated with greater ischemic, but not hemorrhagic, stroke incidence. The combined effect of low education and current smoking was more than expected by the sum of their separate effects on ischemic stroke incidence, particularly among men: 134 (95% confidence interval, 49-219) extra cases per 100 000 person-years because of interaction, adjusted for age, cohort study, and birth cohort. There was no clear evidence of interaction between low education and hypertension. The combined effect of current smoking and hypertension was more than expected by the sum of their separate effects on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence. This effect was most pronounced for ischemic stroke among women: 178 (95% confidence interval, 103-253) extra cases per 100 000 person-years because of interaction, adjusted for age, cohort study, and birth cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing smoking in those with low socioeconomic position and in those with hypertension could potentially reduce social inequality stroke incidence.
Nordahl, Helene; Osler, Merete
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combined effects of socioeconomic position and well-established risk factors on stroke incidence have not been formally investigated. METHODS: In a pooled cohort study of 68 643 men and women aged 30 to 70 years in Denmark, we examined the combined effect and interaction between socioeconomic position (ie, education), smoking, and hypertension on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence by the use of the additive hazards model. RESULTS: During 14 years of follow-up, 3613 ischemic strokes and 776 hemorrhagic strokes were observed. Current smoking and hypertension were more prevalent among those with low education. Low versus high education was associated with greater ischemic, but not hemorrhagic, stroke incidence. The combined effect of low education and current smoking was more than expected by the sum of their separate effects on ischemic stroke incidence, particularly among men: 134 (95% confidence interval, 49-219) extra cases per 100 000 person-years because of interaction, adjusted for age, cohort study, and birth cohort. There was no clear evidence of interaction between low education and hypertension. The combined effect of current smoking and hypertension was more than expected by the sum of their separate effects on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence. This effect was most pronounced for ischemic stroke among women: 178 (95% confidence interval, 103-253) extra cases per 100 000 person-years because of interaction, adjusted for age, cohort study, and birth cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing smoking in those with low socioeconomic position and in those with hypertension could potentially reduce social inequality stroke incidence.
An attempt is made to put the risk factor of nuclear energy in proper perspective in comparison with other sources of energy, particularly, coal and hydel. Risk factor which draws considerable public attention is radioactive release from nuclear power plants (NPPs) and consequent environmental impacts and radiation exposure of both plant personnel and public leading to biological effects which may even affect progeny. So far as design, construction and operation of Indian NPPs are concerned, a defence in depth approach is followed. This is illustrated by describing some major components of the approach followed in the case of Madras Atomic Power Station. They are uninterrupted power supply, reactor shutdown, adequate cooling at all times, multiple barriers to prevent release of fission products to the public domain, multi-layered safety analyses, explicit safety clearances, operator training and qualification, and radiation monitoring. Data collected for all operating Indian NPPs indicate that radiation exposure of plant personnel and public, and radioactivity release (both atmospheric and aquatic) are well below permissible levels recommended by ICRP. Increase in environmental radiation level is also found to be insignificant (4-6 mrem/year at the site boundary of NPPs) when compared to the variations in natural background. Accidents and waste effluents in the case of NPPs are several orders of magnitude less than those from coal-fired plants. Continued release of CO2 and SO2 from coal fired power plants is leading to greenhouse effect and acid rain respectively. Apprehension about leakage of radioactive wastes from containers is also out of proportion. Control and surveillance exercised over release of radioactive waste is more stringent than those over chemicals. (M.G.B.)
andres j. pumariega
Full Text Available Objective: Substance abuse amongst youth has been growing in developed and developing nations, including Turkey. This growth is related to a number of factors, not the least of which are forces associated with development, globalization, and youth culture. The identification of risk factors for youth substance abuse for particular populations is an important approach to the development of prevention and intervention strategies. Methods: We analyzed the data from a survey of 31,272 youth ages 14 to 18 years enrolled in high schools in Istanbul that covered the use of various substances as well as a number of demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, psychopathological, and psychosocial risk factors. Our data consisted of answers to similar questions that were asked in European School Survey Project (ESPAD, Youth in Europe (YIE, and Monitoring of the Future Survey and the National Household Survey in USA. We used binary logistic regression analyses to generate risk profiles for each of the following categories of lifetime use: tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, other illicit drugs, and multiple (two or more other illicit drugs. Results: We identified statistically significant risk profiles for these different substance categories. All the different risk factor categories contributed variably to the use of gateway drugs (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicits, but the multiple use of other illicit drugs was associated primarily with a narrower set of psychopathological (suicidality, irritability, and antisocial problems and psychosocial variables (family substance abuse and peer in?uence. Conclusions: These risk profiles share some commonality with those found amongst other populations. However, these unique risk profiles for Turkish youth can be useful in developing primary and secondary preventive interventions to address the growing substance use and abuse problems. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, focusing on time trends and risk factors of substance use in youth of emerging countries including Turkey, are needed.
Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu
Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.
This research aims at estimating association between socioeconomic and psychosocial factors on the one hand and health in Latvia on the other hand. While information on association between socioeconomic determinants of population health in Latvia is scarce, effect of psychosocial resources on individual health in this country hasn’t been estimated before. We find empirical support for the association between different psychosocial factors and physical health in Latvia. This paper proposes ...
P.M. Ngore; P.M. Mshenga; G Owuor; B. K. Mutai
The aim of this study was to determine and quantify the socio-economic factors influencing decision by meat agribusiness operators to add value to their products, describe and characterize the existing systems of value addition in rural Kenya. The study carried out a census of 120 butchery operators in Igembe north district. Data was collected with the help of a structured questionnaire. Using a probit model to evaluate the socioeconomic factors influencing the decision to add value, the stud...
Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Lund, Mogens
This article investigates how socio-economic factors and incentives affect farmers’ investment behaviour. The motivation is a need for a better quantitative knowledge of investment behaviour in order to support farmers’ investment decisions through extension services and public investment support schemes. Data from a questionnaire survey among 208 Danish pig producers are analysed by use of logistic regression and the relationships between socio-economic factors, investment incentives and farmer...
KONEVIC, Slavica; MARTINOVIC, Jelena; DJONOVIC, Nela
Background: Sedentary lifestyle represents a growing health problem and considering that there is already a range of unhealthy habits that are marked as health risk factors and the increasing prevalence of sedentary lifestyle worldwide, we aimed to investigate association of sedentary way of living in suburb, working class local community with socioeconomic determinants such as educational level, occupation and income status. Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, 1126 independently functioning adults were enrolled into the study. The study protocol included a complete clinical and biochemical investigation revealing age, gender, lipid status, height, weight and blood pressure. Trained interviewers (nurses) collected information from patients about current state of chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension) smoking, medication and other socioeconomic data. Descriptive analysis, Chi-square and logistic regression were performed as statistical calculations. Results: Patients with elementary school were seven times more likely to be classified in category with sedentary lifestyle compared to patients with college or faculty degree. Being retired and reporting low income were significantly associated with higher odds of sedentary behavior when compared with students and patients with high-income status, respectively. Conclusions: The significance of this study lies in the fact that our results may help to easier identification of patients who may have a tendency towards a sedentary lifestyle.
Arma?, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; St?nciugelu, I.
Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.
Dean, Kimberlie; Murray, Robin M.
Genetic factors are clearly important in the etiology of schizophrenia, but the environment in which an individual's genes find expression is also crucial to the development of the illness. In this review of environmental risk factors for schizophrenia, we consider risks operating prenatally and perinatally, during childhood, and then later in life prior to illness onset. Some of these risk factors have been well documented, for example, early hazards causing fetal growth retardation or hypox...
Park, Hyun Ah
This study is to assess how missing values in socioeconomic status (SES) variables were handled in the Korean Journal of Family Medicine (KJFM) article using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data and to estimate the rate of missing SES variables from the 4th KNHANES. We searched all original articles published in the KJFM from 2007 to 2011 and identified those that used KNHANES as their primary source of data. None of the 11 articles which presented KNHANES...
Boylan, Sinead M; Gill, Timothy P
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that socioeconomic status (SES) may influence the risk of obesity; however it is important to consider individual changes in SES over the life-course in addition to SES at specific time-points to better understand the complex associations with obesity. We explored the relationship between lifetime-specific and life-course SES and risk of obesity and overweight in Danish adults. METHODS: Data were used from the Danish Youth and Sports Study (DYSS) – a 20–22 year follow-up study of Danish teenagers born between 1964 and 1969. Baseline data gathered in 1983 and 1985 included self-reported BMI, SES and physical activity. The follow-up survey (2005) repeated these assessments in addition to an assessment of diet. Complete data on adolescent and adult SES and BMI were available for 623 participants. RESULTS: Following adjustments, adolescent SES had no significant association with overweight/obesity in this sample, however females of low or medium adult SES were significantly more likely to be overweight/obese compared to those of high SES (low SES: OR: 2.7; 95% CI: (1.3–5.8); p = 0.008; medium SES: OR: 4.0, 95% CI (1.6–10.2); p = 0.003). Females who decreased in SES during adulthood were significantly more likely to be overweight/obese compared to those who remained of high SES (OR: 3.1; 95% CI (1.1–9.2); p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Effects of early life-factors may be conditional upon the environment in adulthood, particularly for the women. Further research should consider the timing of SES exposure and the mechanisms which may be responsible for the socioeconomic gradients in prevalence of obesity and overweight.
Cherkaoui Dekkaki I
Full Text Available Imane Cherkaoui Dekkaki,1 Said Ettair,1 Toufik Meskini,1 Nabil Khalloufi,2 Nezha Mouane,1 Amina Barkat21Unité de Pédagogie et de Recherche en Nutrition, 2CRECET, Université Mohammed V, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Rabat, Souissi, Rabat, MoroccoObjectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and the socioeconomic risk factors among children enrolled in primary public schools in Rabat, Morocco.Methods: Twenty-three schools were randomly selected. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2010. The survey was conducted on the basis of two questionnaires for both parents and children. The references used were from the World Health Organization, 2007.Results: Our study focused on a sample of 1569 children whose average age was 9.7 ± 0.95 years. The prevalence of underweight among girls and boys was 43.1%, while that of stunting was 18.2%. The majority of the children in our population come from a low socioeconomic level. While 59% of fathers are laborers, 85% of mothers are unemployed.Conclusion: In our study, we demonstrated that child malnutrition is strongly linked to a low socioeconomic level. These observations suggest that besides income, schooling and food quality may also be important factors that can affect growth. Educational programs, whether held in schools or informally, such as literacy or parenting classes, are valuable complements to other nutrition sustaining activities.Keywords: underweight, stunting, malnutrition, children, low socioeconomic level
Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level Nível de pobreza e estado de saúde das crianças: um estudo de fatores de risco em população urbana de baixo nível socioeconômico
Roberto M.S. Issler; Elsa R.J. Giugliani; Guilherme T. Kreutz; Clarice F. Meneses; Elisa B. Justo; Valerie M. Kreutz; Milton Pires
To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile) were found to ha...
In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed
Kayode, A. M.; F. K. Omole
This study adopted a survey design. Questionnaire was administered on 215 respondents in Ibadan metropolis selected randomly. The objectives of the study are to examined the influence of some socio-economic factors on solid waste generation and disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. The nature and composition of solid waste generated, methods of disposal and relationship that exist between the socio-economic characteristics of the people and solid waste generation and disposal were also identified...
López León, S.; Choy, W.C.; Aulchenko, Y. S.; Claes, S.; B.A. Oostra; Mackenbach, J.P.; van Duijn, C M; Janssens, A.C.J.W.
Objective: To investigate the extent to which shared genetic factors can explain the clustering of depression among individuals with lower socioeconomic status, and to examine if neuroticism or intelligence are involved in these pathways. Methods: In total 2,383 participants (1,028 men and 1,355 women) of the Erasmus Rucphen Family Study were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADSD). Socioeconomic status ...
Abel Thomas; van Dijk Jitse P; Tavel Peter; Madarasova Geckova Andrea; Reijneveld Sijmen A
Abstract Background Our study aims to follow this effort and to explore the association between health, socioeconomic background, school-related factors, social support and adolescents' sense of coherence and educational aspirations among adolescents from different educational tracks and to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the role of educational aspirations in the social reproduction of health inequalities. We expect that socioeconomic background will contribute to the develop...
Spatial heterogeneity in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important aspect to be considered in planning control actions for the disease. The objective of this study was to predict areas at high risk for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) based on socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data. We applied classification and regression trees to develop and validate prediction models. Performance of the models was assessed by means of sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve. The model developed was able to discriminate 15 subsets of census tracts (CT) with different probabilities of containing CT with high risk of VL occurrence. The model presented, respectively, in the validation and learning samples, sensitivity of 79% and 52%, specificity of 75% and 66%, and area under the ROC curve of 83% and 66%. Considering the complex network of factors involved in the occurrence of VL in urban areas, the results of this study showed that the development of a predictive model for VL might be feasible and useful for guiding interventions against the disease, but it is still a challenge as demonstrated by the unsatisfactory predictive performance of the model developed. PMID:24885128
Cherny, A S; Cherny, Alexander S.; Madan, Dilip B.
We propose a new procedure for the risk measurement of large portfolios. It employs the following objects as the building blocks: - coherent risk measures introduced by Artzner, Delbaen, Eber, and Heath; - factor risk measures introduced in this paper, which assess the risks driven by particular factors like the price of oil, S&P500 index, or the credit spread; - risk contributions and factor risk contributions, which provide a coherent alternative to the sensitivity coefficients. We also propose two particular classes of coherent risk measures called Alpha V@R and Beta V@R, for which all the objects described above admit an extremely simple empirical estimation procedure. This procedure uses no model assumptions on the structure of the price evolution. Moreover, we consider the problem of the risk management on a firm's level. It is shown that if the risk limits are imposed on the risk contributions of the desks to the overall risk of the firm (rather than on their outstanding risks) and the desks are al...
Emerson, Eric; McCulloch, Andrew; Graham, Hilary; Blacher, Jan; Llwellyn, Gwynnyth M.; Hatton, Chris
Results of previous research suggest that parents of children with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of psychological distress and psychiatric disorder. Secondary analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study in the United Kingdom indicated that controlling for between-group differences in socioeconomic circumstances reduced the…
Ramphoma, Sefako Samuel
The aim of this dissertation was to analyse the effect of socio-economic factors on poverty in Nyakallong. Nyakallong is a former Black township in the Free State Province of South Africa. The effect of the socio economic factors on poverty was analysed using an econometric model. The analysis was based on data collected by the researcher and three fieldworkers who conducted a survey of 412 households in Nyakallong in 2009. To calculate poverty rates and the effect of socio-economic factors, ...
Petersen, Poul Erik
Diseases probably have their roots in a complex chain of environmental and behavioural events which are shaped by broader socioeconomic determinants. Most studies of sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries have been carried out in industrialized countries, but such reports from low- and middle-income countries have been published in recent years. World Health Organization international collaborative studies and other international studies of social factors in dental caries using the same ...
Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gerster, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Osler, Merete; Christensen, Kaare
Although well established, the association between socioeconomic position and health and health behaviour is not clearly understood, and it has been speculated that familial factors, for example, dispositional factors or exposures in the rearing environment, may be underlying the association. The objective was to compare prescription fillings within twin pairs who are partly or fully genetically identical and share childhood exposures.
Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke
What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient. Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi-centre study with highly standardized study protoco. The strength of association between SES and overweight and obesity varies across European regions. In our study, the SES gradient is correlated with the regional mean income and the country-specific Human development index indicating a strong influence not only of the family but also of region and country on the overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To assess the association between different macro- and micro-level socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight. Methods Data from the IDEFICS baseline survey is used to investigate the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic factors, like socioeconomic status (SES), and the prevalence of childhood overweight. Differences and similarities regarding this relationship in eight European regions (located in Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden) are explored. 11?994 children (50.9% boys, 49.1% girls) and their parents were included in the analyses. Results In five of the eight investigated regions (in Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Spain and Sweden), the prevalence of childhood overweight followed an inverse SES gradient. In the other three regions (in Cyprus, Hungary and Italy), no association between SES and childhood overweight was found. The SES-overweight association in a region was best explained by the country-specific human development index and the centre-specific mean income. For the investigated association between other socioeconomic factors and overweight, no clear pattern could be found in the different regions. Conclusion The association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight was shown to be heterogeneous across different European regions. Further research on nationwide European data is needed to confirm the results and to identify target groups for prevention.
PETRACCI, ELISABETTA; Decarli, Adriano
Although modifiable risk factors have been included in previous models that estimate or project breast cancer risk, there remains a need to estimate the effects of changes in modifiable risk factors on the absolute risk of breast cancer.
Ro?. 15, 1/2 (1995), s. 203-212. ISSN 0208-5216. [Seminar on Statistics and Clinical Practice. Warsaw, 20.06.1994-23.06.1994] Keywords : risk factors * genetics * association * epidemilogy * measures of association * screening * genetics
Mehta, Puja K; Wei, Janet; Wenger, Nanette K
Heart disease remains a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in women in the United States and worldwide. This review highlights known and emerging risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) in women. Traditional Framingham risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, as well as lifestyle habits such as unhealthy diet and sedentary lifestyle are all modifiable. Health care providers should be aware of emerging cardiac risk factors in women such as adverse pregnancy outcomes, systemic autoimmune disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, and radiation-induced heart disease; psychosocial factors such as mental stress, depression, anxiety, low socioeconomic status, and work and marital stress play an important role in IHD in women. Appropriate recognition and management of an array of risk factors is imperative given the growing burden of IHD and need to deliver cost-effective, quality care for women. PMID:25453985
Paulina K. Bangun
Full Text Available Background The incidence of childhood leukemia has increased annually. Recent studies have shown that childhood leukemia is initiated in utero, and have focused on prenatal risk factors such as birth weight and parental age. Exposure to pesticides and radiation, as well as parental smoking, breastfeeding, and the number of older siblings have also been suggested as risk factors for childhood leukemia. Objective To evaluate possible risk factors for childhood leukemia, including birth weight, parental age, and other risk factors. Methods This case-control study was conducted from October 2011 to February 2012 in Haji Adam Malik Hospital, Medan. Case subjects were children aged below 18 years and diagnosed with leukemia. Control subjects were children aged below 18 years who were diagnosed with any non-cancerous acute illnesses in this hospital, and individually matched for age and gender to the case subject group. Patients and parents were asked to fill a structured questionnaire. Data was analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 140 subjects were eligible, with 70 subjects in each group. Birth weight ?4000 g and maternal age ?35 years were significant risk factors with OR 10.13 (95%CI 1.124 to 91.27 and OR 4.98 (95%CI 1.276 to 19.445, respectively. Paternal age of ?35 years was not a significant risk factor. Exposure to pesticides was also noted as another significant risk factor (OR=6.66; 95%CI 2.021 to 21.966. Conclusion High birth weight, advanced maternal age, and exposure to pesticides are risk factors of childhood leukemia. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:358-64.].
WEN, MING; Maloney, Thomas N.
The prevalence rate of obesity in the United States has been persistently high in recent decades, and disparities in obesity risks are routinely observed. Both individual and contextual factors should be considered when addressing health disparities. This study examines how Latino-white spatial segregation is associated with the risk of obesity for Latinos and whites, whether neighborhood socioeconomic resources, the built environment, and subcultural orientation serve as the underlying mecha...
Gang Lin; Jingying Fu; Dong Jiang; Wensheng Hu; Donglin Dong; Yaohuan Huang; Mingdong Zhao
The air quality in China, particularly the PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter) level, has become an increasing public concern because of its relation to health risks. The distribution of PM2.5 concentrations has a close relationship with multiple geographic and socioeconomic factors, but the lack of reliable data has been the main obstacle to studying this topic. Based on the newly published Annual Average PM2.5 gridded data, together with land use data, gridded populat...
Malochet-Guinamand, Sandrine; Durif, Franck; Thomas, Thierry
Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. On the long term, it may be complicated by various musculoskeletal problems, such as osteoporotic fractures, that have significant socioeconomic consequences. Indeed, patients suffering from Parkinson's disease have a higher fracture risk, particularly hip fracture risk, than other subjects of the same age because of both a higher risk of falls and lower bone mineral density. Bone loss in Parkinson's disease may be associated with the severity and duration of the disease. We review here the different suspected mechanisms of accelerated bone loss in Parkinson's disease, amongst which weight loss and reduced mobility appear to play key roles. Antiparkinsonian drugs, particularly levodopa, may also be associated with decreased bone mineral density as a result of hyperhomocysteinaemia. We discuss the role of other nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin B12, folate or vitamin K. In conclusion, it seems necessary to screen for and treat osteoporosis in this at-risk population, while actions to prevent falls are still disappointing. A better understanding of the factors explaining bone loss in this population would help implementing preventive actions. PMID:26453100
Radiation hazards which can occur in the process of excavation and exploration of uranium ore are described. These factors are: radon and its decay products, aerosols of long-lived radionuclides, gamma- and beta-radiation of ores, radioactive contamination of hands, skin covers and clothing of attendants, contamination of environment of ore-minimg works
Nagaraj, E.; Mankani, N.; Madalli, P.; Astekar, D.
Complete edentulism is the terminal outcome of a multifactorial process involving biological factors and patient related factors. Tooth loss associated with periodontal disease and caries has an apparent impact on an individual’s quality of life, and has been associated with lower levels of satisfaction with life and a lower morale. The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases a...
Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope
Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an aggregated large-scale analysis due to their large between- and within-village heterogeneity. Specific information of both the infection risk and potential predictors might be needed to obtain any existing association. The presented soil-transmitted helminth infection risk estimates for Cambodia can be used for guiding and evaluating control and elimination efforts. PMID:25205492
This study investigated the joint effects of spouses' socioeconomic positions on the risk of divorce in Finland. For couples in which both partners were at the lowest educational level, the risk of divorce was lower than could be expected on the basis of the previously documented overall inverse association between each spouse's education and the risk of divorce. Women who were employed or were homemakers, and who had employed husbands, had comparatively stable marriages; couples in which the husband, the wife, or both partners were unemployed had an elevated risk of divorce. A husband's high income decreased the risk of divorce, and a wife's high income increased the risk at all levels of the other spouse's income, but especially when the wife's income exceeded the husband's. PMID:12647514
Risk Factor Frequency for Learning Disabilities in Low Socioeconomic Level Preschool Children in Mexico City / Frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico en la Ciudad de México / Frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem em pré-escolares com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México
Elizabeth, Zambrano-Sánchez; María del Consuelo, Martínez-Wbaldo; Adrián, Poblano.
Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou identificar a frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem (DA) em crianças com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México. A escala de inteligência Wechsler, desenho da figura humana e o teste gestáltico visomotor de Bender foram utilizados. A idade méd [...] ia do grupo masculino foi de 5,6±0,9 anos e do grupo feminino 5,4±0,5 anos. O quociente intelectual total (QI-T) foi de 98±12 no grupo masculino e 99±12,2 no grupo feminino. No teste de Bender, os meninos apresentaram idade mental e visomotora um ano abaixo da idade cronológica, enquanto que as meninas apresentaram idade mental e visomotora 7-8 meses abaixo do normal. As características de alto risco que apresentaram maior frequência, tanto nos meninos como nas meninas, no teste do desenho de figura humana, foram: autoisolamento 25%, timidez 22,4 e controle interno deficiente 22%. Concluindo, alta frequência de fatores de risco para DA foi encontrada em crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico. É importante destacar a importância de se identificar pré-escolares em risco de DA. Abstract in spanish Nuestro objetivo fue identificar la frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje (PA) en niños de bajo nivel socioeconómico de la Ciudad de México. Se utilizaron las pruebas de inteligencia de Wechsler, Gestáltica Visuomotora de Bender y del Dibujo de la figura humana. La edad prom [...] edio en el grupo masculino fue 5,6±0,9 años, del femenino fue 5,4±0,5. En los hombres, el cociente intelectual total (CI-T) fue 98±12,2, en mujeres fue 99±12,2. En la prueba de Bender, los hombres mostraron una edad mental y visuomotora un año menor que la cronológica, las mujeres tuvieron una edad mental y visuomotora 7-8 meses por debajo de la norma. En la Prueba de la figura humana, los hombres y mujeres mostraron mayor frecuencia de: auto-aislamiento 25%, timidez 22,4% y controles internos pobres 22%. En conclusión encontramos una alta frecuencia de factores de riesgo en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico, destacamos la importancia de identificar a los preescolares propensos a tener problemas de aprendizaje (PA). Abstract in english The objective was to identify the frequency of risk factors for Learning Disabilities (LD) in low socioeconomic level children in Mexico City. We studied children by means of: Wechsler, Bender-Gestalt, and Human drawing tests. Average age of male subjects was 5.6±0.9 years, while that of the female [...] group was 5.4±0.5 years. In male subjects, average Total intelligence quotient (T-IQ) score was 98±12.2 while, in the female group, this was 99±12.2. On the Bender-Gestalt test, male subjects had a mental and visual-motor average age of
Risk Factor Frequency for Learning Disabilities in Low Socioeconomic Level Preschool Children in Mexico City Frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico en la Ciudad de México Frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem em pré-escolares com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México
Full Text Available The objective was to identify the frequency of risk factors for Learning Disabilities (LD in low socioeconomic level children in Mexico City. We studied children by means of: Wechsler, Bender-Gestalt, and Human drawing tests. Average age of male subjects was 5.6±0.9 years, while that of the female group was 5.4±0.5 years. In male subjects, average Total intelligence quotient (T-IQ score was 98±12.2 while, in the female group, this was 99±12.2. On the Bender-Gestalt test, male subjects had a mental and visual-motor average age of Nuestro objetivo fue identificar la frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje (PA en niños de bajo nivel socioeconómico de la Ciudad de México. Se utilizaron las pruebas de inteligencia de Wechsler, Gestáltica Visuomotora de Bender y del Dibujo de la figura humana. La edad promedio en el grupo masculino fue 5,6±0,9 años, del femenino fue 5,4±0,5. En los hombres, el cociente intelectual total (CI-T fue 98±12,2, en mujeres fue 99±12,2. En la prueba de Bender, los hombres mostraron una edad mental y visuomotora un año menor que la cronológica, las mujeres tuvieron una edad mental y visuomotora 7-8 meses por debajo de la norma. En la Prueba de la figura humana, los hombres y mujeres mostraron mayor frecuencia de: auto-aislamiento 25%, timidez 22,4% y controles internos pobres 22%. En conclusión encontramos una alta frecuencia de factores de riesgo en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico, destacamos la importancia de identificar a los preescolares propensos a tener problemas de aprendizaje (PA.Este estudo objetivou identificar a frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem (DA em crianças com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México. A escala de inteligência Wechsler, desenho da figura humana e o teste gestáltico visomotor de Bender foram utilizados. A idade média do grupo masculino foi de 5,6±0,9 anos e do grupo feminino 5,4±0,5 anos. O quociente intelectual total (QI-T foi de 98±12 no grupo masculino e 99±12,2 no grupo feminino. No teste de Bender, os meninos apresentaram idade mental e visomotora um ano abaixo da idade cronológica, enquanto que as meninas apresentaram idade mental e visomotora 7-8 meses abaixo do normal. As características de alto risco que apresentaram maior frequência, tanto nos meninos como nas meninas, no teste do desenho de figura humana, foram: autoisolamento 25%, timidez 22,4 e controle interno deficiente 22%. Concluindo, alta frequência de fatores de risco para DA foi encontrada em crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico. É importante destacar a importância de se identificar pré-escolares em risco de DA.
Gianaros, Peter J; Hackman, Daniel
Socioeconomic disadvantage confers risk for ill health. Historically, the pathways by which socioeconomic disadvantage may affect health have been viewed from epidemiological perspectives emphasizing environmental, behavioral, and biopsychosocial risk factors. Such perspectives, however, have yet to integrate findings from emerging neuroscience studies demonstrating that indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage relate to patterns of brain morphology and functionality that have been associated...
Background Obesity rates in Swedish children are currently not increasing, however socioeconomic disparities are widening. Many children become obese as early as their preschool years. Hereditary and environmental family-related risk factors are the dominating determinants of child obesity, with parental obesity as the most important. Prevention is a high priority, and increased knowledge on risk factors specifically in high-risk populations is of vital importance for the development of e...
Abdussalam, Auwal; Thornes, John; Leckebusch, Gregor
Nigeria has a number of climate-sensitive infectious diseases; one of the most important of these diseases that remains a threat to public health is cholera. This study investigates the influences of both meteorological and socioeconomic factors on the spatiotemporal variability of cholera in Nigeria. A stepwise multiple regression models are used to estimate the influence of the year-to-year variations of cholera cases and deaths for individual states in the country and as well for three groups of states that are classified based on annual rainfall amount. Specifically, seasonal mean maximum and minimum temperatures and annual rainfall totals were analysed with annual aggregate count of cholera cases and deaths, taking into account of the socioeconomic factors that are potentially enhancing vulnerability such as: absolute poverty, adult literacy, access to pipe borne water and population density. Result reveals that the most important explanatory meteorological and socioeconomic variables in explaining the spatiotemporal variability of the disease are rainfall totals, seasonal mean maximum temperature, absolute poverty, and accessibility to pipe borne water. The influences of socioeconomic factors appeared to be more pronounced in the northern part of the country, and vice-versa in the case of meteorological factors. Also, cross validated models output suggests a strong possibility of disease prediction, which will help authorities to put effective control measures in place which depend on prevention, and or efficient response.
Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien
The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);…
Morales, Leo S; Lara, Marielena; Kington, Raynard S; Valdez, Robert O; Escarce, José J
Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher porverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of the epidemiological paradox. They find substantial support for the existence of the epidemiological paradox, particularly among Mexican Americans. Census undercounts of Hispanics, misclassification of Hispanic deaths, and emigration of Hispanics do not fully account for the epidemiological paradox. Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic conditions among Hispanics, are important research and policy implications of this review. PMID:12407964
This paper attempts to understand the factors of the slow progress in the coverage of basic childhood immunisation in India using three rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data. States are selected on the basis of changes in full immunisation coverage during 1992-2005. Bivariate, multivariate, and dropout rates are used to understand the differentials and changes in immunisation coverage. The result reveals substantial improvement in partial immunisation in most states; however, t...
The number of suicides in Japan has substantially increased during its low growth period. The main argument of Durkheim’s (1951) seminal work in the field of sociology is that suicide is under influences of not only individual traits but also of the society one belongs to. ?Recently it was found that the effect of socio-economic variables on suicide rates depends on gender. This paper attempts to examine the difference of socio-economic factors on suicide between males and females. ...
Full Text Available A case control study of risk factors of Diabetes Mellitus was carried out among 75 diabetic cases attending the clinic, and an equal number of matched controls from inpatients of the surgical department of R .G Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Diabetes Mellitus was found significantly higher among those persons having family history of similar illness, belonging to the socio-economic class (Kuppuwamiâ€?s classification and non-vegetarian dietary habit.
Rodica GRAMMA; Andrada PARVU; Angela ENACHE; Gabriel ROMAN; Silvia DUMITRAS; Beatrice IOAN
Morbid states are determined by complex factors acting in a synergistic system. Thus, population health is an integrated indicator of social development of a country, reflecting the socio-economic and moral welfare of the people, living conditions and consumption of health services, as well as the level of adequate education about risk factors and healthy behaviors. For these reasons, we decided to analyze the role of the person and of the health system for public health prosperity, given the...
Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Heitmann, B L; Skakkebaek, N E; Juul, A
Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross-sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relation...
Burçin N. AKAL
Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that affects the individualin various ways. Many risk factors have been suggested in the emergenceof the illness. The aim of this study is to identify the potential risk factors forschizophrenia considering the characteristics of patients.Methods: The study included 164 patients diagnosed with schizophreniaaccording to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, FourthEdition (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and a control group consisting of a matchingnumber of healthy people. The subjects were given questionnaire formson potential risk factors (prenatal and postnatal, sociodemographic, illnessrelatedinformation. Student’s t-test, chi-square test and logistic regressionanalysis were used to evaluate the data.Results: Significant differences were identified between the patient group andhealthy control group in terms of: for the mother- use of medication , history ofinflammatory disease, or a psychical or physical trauma during pregnancy;-for the patient- being born in hospital, prolonged delivery, growth during childhood,relatives with a history of schizophrenia, and school history. Among thesubtypes of schizophrenia, significant differences were identified in terms ofeducational level, birth rank and school history.Conclusion: Identification of the potential risk factors for schizophrenia and ofsubjects at risk will provide important individual and social advantages, such associal health, health expenses and protection of individuals and society from theadverse effects of schizophrenia. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2010; 47: 230-6
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between risk factors and diabetic retinopathy, which is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries for patients aged 20 to 65.We compared risk factors between patients without retinopathy, with non-proliferate and with proliferate retinopathy (p< 0.05. Duration of diabetes is most important for the development of retinopathy. Hyperglycaemia and high blood pressure are important for progression. Better control of blood sugar and elevated blood pressure can reduce progression of retinopathy and riskof vision loss.
Ma, Yue; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Lv, Qiang; Yin, Fei
Bacillary dysentery (BD) remains a big public health problem in China. Effective spatio-temporal monitoring of BD incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention measures. This study aimed to examine the spatio-temporal pattern of BD and analyze socio-economic factors that may affect BD incidence in Sichuan province, China. Firstly, we used space-time scan statistic to detect the high risk spatio-temporal clusters in each year. Then, bivariate spatial correlation and Bayesian spatio-temporal model were utilized to examine the associations between the socio-economic factors and BD incidence. Spatio-temporal clusters of BD were mainly located in the northern-southern belt of the midwest area of Sichuan province. The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of rural population and the rates of BD incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. The proportion of secondary industry, proportion of tertiary Industry, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons, per capital GDP and the rate of BD incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The best fitting spatio-temporal model showed that medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and per capital GDP were significantly negative related to the risk of BD. PMID:26469274
Leke, R J; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K. M.
Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomple...
Bibiloni Maria del Mar; Pich Jordi; Córdova Alfredo; Pons Antoni; Tur Josep A
Abstract Background Many different factors influenced food habits and physical activity patterns of adolescents in a complex interactive way. The aim of this study was to assess association between sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic factors, diet and lifestyle among the Balearic Islands adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n?=?1961; 12–17?years old) was carried out. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents (IPAQ-A). Se...
Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gerster, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Osler, Merete; Christensen, Kaare
OBJECTIVES: Although well established, the association between socioeconomic position and health and health behaviour is not clearly understood, and it has been speculated that familial factors, for example, dispositional factors or exposures in the rearing environment, may be underlying the association. The objective was to compare prescription fillings within twin pairs who are partly or fully genetically identical and share childhood exposures. DESIGN: Twin cohort study. SETTING: Denmark. PAR...
Koch, Kristoffer; Søgaard, Mette; Nørgaard, Mette; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl
In a Danish population-based case-control study, we examined the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk of community-acquired bacteremia, as well as the contribution of chronic diseases and substance abuse to differences in bacteremia risk. Analyses were based on 4,117 patients aged 30-65 years who were hospitalized with first-time community-acquired bacteremia during 2000-2008 and 41,170 population controls matched by sex, age, and region of residence. Individual-level informat...
Boylan, Sinead M; Gill, Timothy P; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Andersen, Lars B; Heitmann, Berit L
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that socioeconomic status (SES) may influence the risk of obesity; however it is important to consider individual changes in SES over the life-course in addition to SES at specific time-points to better understand the complex associations with obesity. We explored the relationship between lifetime-specific and life-course SES and risk of obesity and overweight in Danish adults. METHODS: Data were used from the Danish Youth and Sports Study (DYSS) – a 20–22 year ...
Kikuti, Mariana; Cunha, Geraldo M.; Paploski, Igor A. D.; Kasper, Amelia M.; Silva, Monaise M. O.; Tavares, Aline S.; Cruz, Jaqueline S.; Queiroz, Tássia L.; Rodrigues, Moreno S.; Santana, Perla M.; Lima, Helena C. A. V.; Calcagno, Juan; Takahashi, Daniele; Gonçalves, André H. O.; Araújo, Josélio M. G.; Gauthier, Kristine; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A.; Kitron, Uriel; Ko, Albert I.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.
Background Few studies of dengue have shown group-level associations between demographic, socioeconomic, or geographic characteristics and the spatial distribution of dengue within small urban areas. This study aimed to examine whether specific characteristics of an urban slum community were associated with the risk of dengue disease. Methodology/Principal Findings From 01/2009 to 12/2010, we conducted enhanced, community-based surveillance in the only public emergency unit in a slum in Salvador, Brazil to identify acute febrile illness (AFI) patients with laboratory evidence of dengue infection. Patient households were geocoded within census tracts (CTs). Demographic, socioeconomic, and geographical data were obtained from the 2010 national census. Associations between CTs characteristics and the spatial risk of both dengue and non-dengue AFI were assessed by Poisson log-normal and conditional auto-regressive models (CAR). We identified 651 (22.0%) dengue cases among 2,962 AFI patients. Estimated risk of symptomatic dengue was 21.3 and 70.2 cases per 10,000 inhabitants in 2009 and 2010, respectively. All the four dengue serotypes were identified, but DENV2 predominated (DENV1: 8.1%; DENV2: 90.7%; DENV3: 0.4%; DENV4: 0.8%). Multivariable CAR regression analysis showed increased dengue risk in CTs with poorer inhabitants (RR: 1.02 for each percent increase in the frequency of families earning ?1 times the minimum wage; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), and decreased risk in CTs located farther from the health unit (RR: 0.87 for each 100 meter increase; 95% CI: 0.80-0.94). The same CTs characteristics were also associated with non-dengue AFI risk. Conclusions/Significance This study highlights the large burden of symptomatic dengue on individuals living in urban slums in Brazil. Lower neighborhood socioeconomic status was independently associated with increased risk of dengue, indicating that within slum communities with high levels of absolute poverty, factors associated with the social gradient influence dengue transmission. In addition, poor geographic access to health services may be a barrier to identifying both dengue and non-dengue AFI cases. Therefore, further spatial studies should account for this potential source of bias. PMID:26196686
Rubin, Kathrine Hass; Abrahamsen, B; Hermann, A P; Bech, M; Gram, J; Brixen, K
To determine the relationship between risk factors and use of DXA scans. Our study showed a relatively high use of DXA in low-risk women and the relatively low coverage in women with multiple risk factors. Moreover, distance to DXA clinics, age, and socio-economic factors are associated with the use of DXA. INTRODUCTION: To determine the relationship between risk factors for fracture and use of DXA scans in Danish women in relation to distance to DXA clinics and socio-economic factors. METHODS: ...
Kasetchai Laeheem; Metta Kuning; Nittaya McNeil
The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of a classification of bullying outcomes, and to investigate the risk factors associated with bullying behaviour at Pattani primary schools, southern Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1,440 students. Factor analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s chi-squared test, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results showed that 20.9% of students in Pa...
... Sy... Back to Fainting Risk Factors & Causes of Syncope Risk Factors for Cardiovasular Syncope The risk of cardiovascular syncope increases with age. ... on suddenly and without warning. Signs of Cardiovascular Syncope Cardiovascular syncope usually is sudden. There may be ...
Full Text Available Introduction: eating disorders (ED are characterized by the excessive worry aboutphysical appearance. They have high incidence in young population with more frequencyin women than in men.Objective: to identify the risk factors for ED.Methods: thematic review of publications in which are described and evaluated thedifferent risk factors to develop ED. It was done an electronic search since 1984 to2011, in english and spanish, in which were included all the methods of publications.There were reviewed the summaries to find the complete articles that treated about riskfactors associate with the development of the ED.Results: there were found 48203 about ED. 96 tried specifically about risk factors. 35(36.4% complete articles were obtained and the review was done with them.Conclusion: principal risk factors are: To be an adolescent, woman, to have distortedperception of the corporal image and the use of diet to lose weight. Rev.cienc.biomed.2012;3(2:300-305
M.I. Lobato; P. Belmonte-de-Abreu; D. Knijnik; B. Teruchkin; E. Ghisolfi; Henriques, A.
The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and sk...
Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko
Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are being developed internationally for cross-sectoral assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. These are five scenarios that include both qualitative and quantitative information for mitigation and adaptation challenges to climate change. In this study, we quantified scenarios for the risk of hunger in the 21st century using SSPs, and clarified elements that influence future hunger risk. There were two primary findings: (1) risk of hunger in the 21st-century greatly differed among five SSPs; and (2) population growth, improvement in the equality of food distribution within a country, and increases in food consumption mainly driven by income growth greatly influenced future hunger risk and were important elements in its long-term assessment.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to find out how socioeconomic, cultural, educational and religious factors play a role in causation of RTI/STD. STUDY DESIGN: This study was conducted at Gynae, OPD of Dist. Hospital Samba, Jammu, J&K. 200 patients coming for infertility check u p and treatment between Feb. 2013 to Jan. 2014 were included in the study. It was an observational cross - sectional study. A pretested, semi - structured questionnaire was administered which included information about demographic, socioeconomic profile, menstrual and sexual practices, obstetrics treatment and family history. Complaints suggestive of RTI/STI were noted. RESULTS: Maximum incidence of RTI/STI was observed in th e age group 25 – 30 years. RTI/STI was more in illiterate patients (64 as compared to literate patients (53 % . A negative correlation between income and prevalence of RTI was found. Prevalence of RTI was slightly more in patients from joint families (67 % as compared to women from nuclear families ( 33%. Similarly people living in Kutcha houses showed more prevalence of RTI ( 66% as compared to pucca houses ( 48%. Correlation between RTI and housing was not significant (p > 0.005 . Tap water supplied residents showed less prevalence of RTI 50% as compared to hand pump using residents 65%, however, correlation was not statistically significant (p > 0.05 . The incidence of RTI was 54% in daily bathers and among irregular bathers, the incidence was 66%. The prevalence of RTI was 54%in regular wearers of underwear whereas in irregular wearers the prevalence was 75%. Genital hygiene correlation, the prevalence of RTI in pad users was 42.8% whereas the prevalence in non – pad users was 61%. There was statistically significant correlation between the use of rag during menses and the prevalence of RTI. RTI was more prevalent (64.8 % in women sharing toilets with others while same was 45.6% in women among having separate toilet facilities. CONCLUSION: RTI/STI is increasing worldwide. HIV and RTI/STI share the same mode of transmission and the persons suffering from STI/RTI practice the risk behavior which increases the probability of acquiring HIV. There is great need to develop strategies for awareness generation and management of these diseases
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.
Full Text Available The present study was designed as a hospital-based, group-matched, case-control investigation into the risk factors associated with age-related cataract in central India. The study included 262 cases of age-related cataract and an equal number of controls. A total of 21 risk factors were evaluated: namely, low socioeconomic status (SES, illiteracy, marital status, history of diarrhoea, history of diabetes, glaucoma, use of cholinesterase inhibitors, steroids, spironolactone, nifedipine, analgesics, myopia early in life, renal failure, heavy smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, hypertension, low body mass index (BMI, use of cheaper cooking fuel, working in direct sunlight, family history of cataract, and occupational exposure. In univariate analysis, except marital status, low BMI, renal failure, use of steroids, spironolactone, analgesics, and occupational exposure, all 14 other risk factors were found significantly associated with age-related cataract. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the significance of low SES, illiteracy, history of diarrhoea, diabetes, glaucoma, myopia, smoking, hypertension and cheap cooking fuel. The etiological role of these risk factors in the outcome of cataract is confirmed by the estimates of attributable risk proportion. The estimates of population attributable risk proportion for these factors highlight the impact of elimination of these risk factors on the reduction of cataract in this population.
Harmon, T. C.; Villamizar, S. R.; Conde, D.; Rusak, J.; Reid, B.; Astorga, A.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; London, S.; Velez, M.; Hoyos, N.; Escobar, J.
Freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide are under increasing anthropogenic pressure at local (e.g., irrigation diversions, wastewater discharge) and global scales (e.g., climate change, global trading). The impact depends on an ecosystem's sensitivity, which is determined by its geophysical and ecological settings, and the population and activities in its surrounding watershed. Given the importance of ecosystem services, it is critical that we improve our ability to identify and understand changes in aquatic ecosystems, and translate them to risk of service loss. Furthermore, to inspire changes in human behavior, it is equally critical that we learn to communicate risk, and pose risk mitigation strategies, in a manner acceptable to a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Quantifying the nature and timing of the risk is difficult because (1) we often fail to understand the connection between anthropogenic pressures and the timing and extent of ecosystem changes; and (2) the concept of risk is inherently coupled to human perception, which generally differs with cultural and socio-economic conditions. In this study, we endeavor to assess aquatic ecosystem risks across an international array of six study sites. The challenge is to construct a methodology capable of capturing the marked biogeographical, socioeconomic, and cultural differences among the sites, which include: (1) Muskoka River watershed in humid continental Ontario, Canada; (2) Lower San Joaquin River, an impounded snow-fed river in semi-arid Central California; (3) Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, a tropical coastal lagoon in Colombia; (4) Senguer River basin in the semi-arid part of Argentina; (5) Laguna de Rocha watershed in humid subtropical Uruguay; and (6) Palomas Lake complex in oceanic Chilean Patagonia. Results will include a characterization of the experimental gradient over the six sites, an overview of the risk assessment methodology, and preliminary findings for several of the sites.
As global warming continues, the current trend implies that the uptake of air conditioning in the residential sector will go up, thus potentially increasing domestic cooling energy consumption. In this context, this paper investigates the significance of behavioural, physical and socio-economic parameters on cooling energy in order to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings. It demonstrates that such factors exert a significant indirect as well as direct influence on energy use, showing that it is particularly important to understand indirect relationships. An initial study of direct factors affecting cooling energy reveals that occupant behaviour is the most significant issue (related to choices about how often and where air conditioning is used). This is broadly confirmed by path analysis, although climate is seen to be the single most significant parameter, followed by behavioural issues, key physical parameters (e.g. air conditioning type), and finally socio-economic aspects (e.g. household income).
Petersen, Poul Erik
Diseases probably have their roots in a complex chain of environmental and behavioural events which are shaped by broader socioeconomic determinants. Most studies of sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries have been carried out in industrialized countries, but such reports from low- and middle-income countries have been published in recent years. World Health Organization international collaborative studies and other international studies of social factors in dental caries using the same methodology provide empirical evidence of social inequality in oral health across countries and across oral health care systems. The paper highlights the challenges to dental public health practice, particularly the importance of risk assessment in estimating the potential for prevention. In future public health programmes, systematic risk factor assessment may therefore be instrumental in the planning and surveillance of oral health promotion and oral disease intervention programmes.
Duvigneaud Nathalie; Wijndaele Katrien; Matton Lynn; Deriemaeker Peter; Philippaerts Renaat; Lefevre Johan; Thomis Martine; Duquet William
Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC) ? 94 cm (men) or ? 80 cm (women) and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods T...
Beydoun, May A; Wang, Youfa
Obesity and depression are two diseases of major public health importance. While both correlate with each other, potential pathways involving depression that would link socioeconomic status (SES) to lifestyle factors and obesity have not been systematically examined using nationally representative data. Using rich data on 2,217 US young adults aged 20–39 years from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) and multivariate linear and logistic regression models, we examined ...
Masoumeh Bagheri-Nesami; Seyed Afshin Shorofi
The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simulta...
J. L. Peacock; Bland, J.M.; Anderson, H R
OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between preterm birth and socioeconomic and psychological factors, smoking, and alcohol, and caffeine consumption. DESIGN--Prospective study of outcome of pregnancy. SETTING--District general hospital in inner London. PARTICIPANTS--1860 consecutive white women booking for delivery; 1513 women studied after exclusion because of multiple pregnancy and diabetes, refusals, and loss to follow up. MEASUREMENTS--Gestational age was determined from ultrasound and ma...
Brooke, O. G.; Anderson, H R; Bland, J.M.; J. L. Peacock; Stewart, C.M.
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effects of smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and socio-economic factors and psychosocial stress on birth weight. DESIGN--Prospective population study. SETTING--District general hospital in inner London. PARTICIPANTS--A consecutive series of 1860 white women booking for delivery were approached. 136 Refused and 211 failed to complete the study for other reasons (moved, abortion, subsequent refusal), leaving a sample of 1513. Women who spoke no English, bo...
Houshmand Ebrahimpour Masoumi
Full Text Available The effects of neighborhood-level land use characteristics on urban travel behavior of Iranian cities are under-researched. The present paper examines such influences in a microscopic scale. In this study the role of socio-economic factors is also studies and compared to that of urban form. Two case-study neighborhoods in west of Tehran are selected and considered, first of which is a centralized and compact neighborhood and the other is a sprawled and centerless one. A Multinomial Logit Regression model is developed to consider the effects of socio-economic and land use factors on urban travel pattern. In addition, to consider the effective factors, cross-sectional comparison between the influences of local accessibility and attractiveness of the neighborhood centers of the two case-study areas are undertaken. Also the causality relationships are considered according to the findings of the survey. The findings indicate significant effects of age and household income as socio-economic factors on transportation mode choice in neighborhoods with central structure. One the other hand, no meaningful association between socio-economic or land use variables are resulted by the model for the sprawled case. The most effective land use concept in micro-scale is considered to be satisfaction of entertainment facilities of the neighborhood. Also the descriptive findings show that the centralized neighborhood that gives more local accessibility to shops and retail generates less shopping trips. In considering the causal relations, the study shows that providing neighborhood infrastructures that increase or ease the accessibility to neighborhood amenities can lead to higher shares of sustainable transportation modes like walking, biking, or public transportation use.
Ozlem Esturk; M. Necat Oren
Food insecurity is the situation where people do not have access to sufficient, stable and safe food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. The objective of this study was to determine the status of food security in the Adana metropolitan area by using, for the first time in Turkey, Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSS). Household’s food security levels and socio-economic factors affecting the food security were analyzed using the o...
Ozlem Alpu; Gunseli Kurt
The aim of the study was to estimate the parameters of the heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model established for the induced abortion and the contraceptive use by using socioeconomic and demographic factors and their effects by eliminating the observed heteroscedasticity. Using a heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model and Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (1998) data on married women aged 15 through 49 years, we estimated the probabilities of their having an induced abortion, if induced ...
The prevalence of undernutrition among Lao children is among the highest in the region. However, the determinants of childhood undernutrition in Laos have not been fully analyzed. This paper, using the dataset of the Lao Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 3, which is a nationally-representative sample in Laos, investigated the effects of socioeconomic factors at both household and community levels on the nutritional status of children. In the estimation, a multilevel linear model with random-i...
Milce Burgos Ferreira
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the perceptions of two families living in two different neighborhoods (rated according to risk levels regarding social support. A questionnaire was designed to assess social support according to the following dimensions: instrumental, emotional, religious, and support from friends, neighbors and family. The sample was comprised as follows: considering the 114 families living in neighborhood 1, 52 families were interviewed; and among the 162 families living in neighborhood 2, 60 families were interviewed. No significant difference was found related to instrumental, religious and emotional support, including the support from relatives among the families from both neighborhoods. The results disagree with the reviewed literature, which indicated a strong association between social support and families living at socioeconomic risk. In conclusion, social support is important for families, regardless of their risk stratification.
Kiguchi, M.; Hatono, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.
In this study, flood risks in the present and the end of the 21st century in Asia are estimated using a future socio-economic scenario. Using the runoff data of 7 GCMs (RCP 8.5) of CMIP5, the river discharge, inundation area, and inundation depth are calculated for the assessment of flood risk. Finally, the flood risk is estimated using a function of damage. The flood frequency in the end of the 21st century in Asia tends to increase. Inundation area in Japan, Taiwan, and Kyrgyz is almost unchanged. At the same time, that in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Myanmar reached about 1.4-1.6 times compared to present. Damage cost is largely influenced by economic growth, however, we show that it is important that we distinguish the influence of climate change from economic development and evaluate it when we think about an adaptation.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are responsible for around 20% of all deaths worldwide (approximately 14 million) and are the principal cause of death in all developed countries, accounting for 50% of all deaths. Variations in the annual per capita death rates in different countries are well documented. Less well known are seasonal variations in death rates, with the highest levels occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon is referred to as excess winter mortality. CVD-related deaths account for the majority of excess winter deaths (up to 70% in some countries), while about half of the remaining are due to increases in respiratory diseases. Paradoxically, CVD mortality increases to a greater extent with a given fall in temperature in regions with warm winters. While much of the indirect evidence points to the notion that cold is somehow involved in explaining excess winter deaths, the mechanism by which seemingly mild exposure to cold ambient conditions can increase the risk of death remains unclear. The strong indirect epidemiological evidence coupling cold climate to mortality may be related to indoor rather than outdoor climatic conditions (e.g., cold/damp houses versus arm/dry houses) coupled with a plethora of factors including health status, ageing-related deterioration in physiological and behavioral thermoregulation, toxicology, and socioeconomic factors
Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Prescott, Eva; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper; Skotte, Jørgen H; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer ...
Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Prescott, Eva; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper; Skotte, Jørgen Henrik; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas
Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative worklo...
Stapinski, Lexine A; Montgomery, Alan A.; Heron, Jon; Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna; Araya, Ricardo
Adolescence is a key period for studying the development of depression, with studies in Europe and North America showing a pattern of elevated risk that begins in early adolescence and continues to increase as adolescents age. Few studies have examined the course of adolescent depression and associated risk factors in low and middle-income countries. This longitudinal cohort study examined depression symptom trajectories and risk factors in a sample of socio-economically disadvantaged adolesc...
Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…
Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina
Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…
M.I., Lobato; P., Belmonte-de-Abreu; D., Knijnik; B., Teruchkin; E., Ghisolfi; A., Henriques.
Full Text Available The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelo [...] pmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.
Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic factors influencing adoption of artisanal fisheries resources conservation measures based on the perspectives of Artisanal fishers in Delta, Rivers and Bayelsa states, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The study was conducted for a period of one year (January 2008 to Decmber 2008. With the aid of well-structured questionnaires the desired information were collected and analyzed. A total sample size of 1,200 respondents within the study area, were selected using random sampling technique. Logistic regression technique was used to determine the impact of the independent variables on willingness to adopt fisheries conservation measures. The regression analysis result show that eleven (11 independent variables (Public Enlightenment, Regulatory pressure, Environmental stewardship, Severity of pollutants, Economic circumstances, Institutional Support, Information access, Highest Education, Fishing Experience, Legal Structure and Age were factors that influence willingness to adopt conservation measures by the fishers. However, the level of influence was found to vary differently in the three states studied depending on the socioeconomic and educational status and other peculiarities of each of the state. Generally, based on the result of the logit analysis of the perspectives of the artisanal fisher respondents, it is therefore inferred that the willingness to adopt fisheries resources conservation measures in the Niger Delta by the Artisanal Fishers, is significantly a function of the studied demographic, socioeconomic, psychological, institutional and environmental factors as specified by the eleven variables.
Chen, Hsin-Jen; Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Youfa
Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006-2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients) in body mass index (BMI) and HPA were estimated by couples' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses' BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI???30, overweight: 30?>?BMI???25) was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women's husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women's husbands (OR?=?0.69 (95% CI?=?0.53-0.89)). Men's unemployment status was associated with wives' greater odds of obesity (OR?=?1.31 (95% CI?=?1.01-1.71)). HPA was associated with men's employment status and income level, but not with women's. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors. PMID:25332834
Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Alves, Luis; Bobak, Martin; Bongard, Vanina; Clays, Els; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Elosua, Roberto; Ferrieres, Jean; Guessous, Idris; Igland, Jannicke; Jørgensen, Torben; Nikitin, Yuri; O'Doherty, Mark G; Palmieri, Luigi; Ramos, Rafel; Simons, Judith; Sulo, Gerhard; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vila, Joan; Barros, Henrique; Borglykke, Anders; Conen, David; De Bacquer, Dirk; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Giampaoli, Simona; Giles, Graham G; Iacoviello, Licia; Kee, Frank; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Marrugat, Jaume; Prescott, Eva; Ruidavets, Jean Bernard; Scragg, Robert; Simons, Leon A; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Tell, Grethe S; Vollenweider, Peter; Marques-Vidal, Pedro
OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237?979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference; systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure; total, high (HDL) and low (LDL) density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides and glucose levels. Within each study, all data were adjusted...
Munch, Tina Noergaard; Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Hee; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Juhler, Marianne; Melbye, Mads
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the associations between isolated congenital hydrocephalus (CHC) and maternal characteristics, maternal medical diseases, and medicine intake during pregnancy as well as birth characteristics of the child in a retrospective, register-based, nationwide cohort study. Furthermore, to identify the risk factors unique for isolated CHC as compared to syndromic CHC. METHODS: We established a cohort of all children born in Denmark between 1978 and 2008. Information on CHC and ...
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in human population. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in our country. The incidence of colorectal cancer increases in the fifth decade of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between colorectal cancer and potential risk factors. A case-control study of colorectal cancer was carried out between 1998 and 1999 in Clinical Center of Serbia, Center for Digestive Surgery. A total of 100 cases of newly diagnosed ...
The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples' perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain
Kunreuther, H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Wharton School of Finance and Commerce; Slovic, P. [Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States); Nigg, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Desvousges, W.H. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)
The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples` perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain.
Griskevicius, Vladas; Tybur, Joshua M; Delton, Andrew W; Robertson, Theresa E
Why do some people take risks and live for the present, whereas others avoid risks and save for the future? The evolutionary framework of life history theory predicts that preferences for risk and delay in gratification should be influenced by mortality and resource scarcity. A series of experiments examined how mortality cues influenced decisions involving risk preference (e.g., $10 for sure vs. 50% chance of $20) and temporal discounting (e.g., $5 now vs. $10 later). The effect of mortality depended critically on whether people grew up in a relatively resource-scarce or resource-plentiful environment. For individuals who grew up relatively poor, mortality cues led them to value the present and gamble for big immediate rewards. Conversely, for individuals who grew up relatively wealthy, mortality cues led them to value the future and avoid risky gambles. Overall, mortality cues appear to propel individuals toward diverging life history strategies as a function of childhood socioeconomic status, suggesting important implications for how environmental factors influence economic decisions and risky behaviors. PMID:21299312
The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG)
Full Text Available The malaria cases were increasing in Mamuju district. Several factors influence of the malaria prevention specifically socioeconomic and access to health services. The objectives of the study were to find out socioeconomic determinants, access to health services and behaviour towards prevention of malaria in Mamuju district, West Sulawesi. The design study was cross sectional. The population of this study was the residence in Mamuju District, number sample 739 respondents taken by random sampling and data analysis by using Chi-square and logistic regression in a 5%. Results of the study reveal that 51% of respondents have done malaria control in the Mamuju District. Socioeconomic factors like education (p = 0.000, income (p = 0.004, knowledge (p = 0.000 and attitude (p = 0.000 were significant to prevent malaria. Variables that are not related were employed (p = 0.060 and access to health services (p = 0.223. Logistic regression analysis showed that behavior; knowledge and attitude most impact for prevention of malaria in the district Mamuju. This research recommended the dissemination of health information about malaria prevention to the public through various media both of print and written media also counseling.
Dar, Nazir A; Shah, Idrees A; Bhat, Gulzar A; Makhdoomi, Muzamil A; Iqbal, Beenish; Rafiq, Rumaisa; Nisar, Iqra; Bhat, Arshid B; Nabi, Sumaiya; Masood, Akbar; Shah, Sajad A; Lone, Mohd M; Zargar, Showkat A; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo
Studies have persistently associated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk with low socioeconomic status (SES), but this association is unexplored in Kashmir, an area with a high incidence of ESCC in the northernmost part of India. We carried out a case-control study to assess the association of multiple indicators of SES and ESCC risk in the Kashmir valley. A total number of 703 histologically confirmed ESCC cases and 1664 controls matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence were recruited from October 2008 to January 2012. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Composite wealth scores were constructed based on the ownership of several appliances using multiple correspondence analyses. Higher education, living in a kiln brick or concrete house, use of liquefied petroleum gas and electricity for cooking, and higher wealth scores all showed an inverse association with ESCC risk. Compared to farmers, individuals who had government jobs or worked in the business sector were at lower risk of ESCC, but this association disappeared in fully adjusted models. Occupational strenuous physical activity was strongly associated with ESCC risk. In summary, we found a strong relationship of low SES and ESCC in Kashmir. The findings need to be studied further to understand the mechanisms through which such SES parameters increase ESCC risk. PMID:23721087
Aim: The aim of this thesis was to analyse the association between various types of indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and the risk of later developing schizophrenia and other psychoses. Furthermore, the importance of socioeconomic disadvantage was explored in relation to immigration, school performance, and an indicator of genetic liability for psychosis. Methods: The study populations were based on register linkages of several Swedish registers. They were identified in...
Madhu, B.; Ashok, N. C.; Balasubramanian, S.
Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to develop statistical model that can predict the probability of breast cancer in Southern Karnataka using the breast cancer occurrence data during 2007-2011. Independent socio-economic variables describing the breast cancer occurrence like age, education, occupation, parity, type of family, health insurance coverage, residential locality and socioeconomic status of each case was obtained. The models were developed as follows: i) Spatial visualization of the Urban- rural distribution of breast cancer cases that were obtained from the Bharat Hospital and Institute of Oncology. ii) Socio-economic risk factors describing the breast cancer occurrences were complied for each case. These data were then analysed using multinomial logistic regression analysis in a SPSS statistical software and relations between the occurrence of breast cancer across the socio-economic status and the influence of other socio-economic variables were evaluated and multinomial logistic regression models were constructed. iii) the model that best predicted the occurrence of breast cancer were identified. This multivariate logistic regression model has been entered into a geographic information system and maps showing the predicted probability of breast cancer occurrence in Southern Karnataka was created. This study demonstrates that Multinomial logistic regression is a valuable tool for developing models that predict the probability of breast cancer Occurrence in Southern Karnataka.
This paper defines a risk-stability index (RSI) that takes into account the extreme dependence structure and the conditional probability of joint failure (CPJF) among risk factors in a portfolio. In combination, both the RSI and CPJF provide a valuable tool for analyzing risk from complementary perspectives; thereby allowing the measurement of (i) common distress of risk factors in a portfolio, (ii) distress between specific risk factors, and (iii) distress to a portfolio related to a specifi...
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In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11
... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention We can’t control some risk factors for Alzheimer's disease such as age and genetic profile. But scientists ...
Grahn, Sarah W.; Varma, Madhulika G
Adenomatous polyps are common and factors that increase risk include race, gender, smoking, and obesity. This author summarizes the evidence supporting increased risk with these factors and describes how epidemiological data may be used to tailor screening programs.
SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED
Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.
Luben Robert N
Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between socioeconomic position in middle age and risk of subsequent, short-term weight gain is unknown. We therefore assessed this association in a prospective population based cohort study in Norfolk, UK. Methods We analysed data on 14,619 middle-aged men and women (aged between 40–75 at baseline with repeated objective measures of weight and height at baseline (1993–1997 and follow up (1998–2000. Results During follow up 5,064 people gained more than 2.5 kg. Compared with the highest social class, individuals in the lowest social class had around a 30% greater risk of gaining more than 2.5 kg (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.11–1.51; p for trend = 0.002. This association remained statistically significant following adjustment for sex, age, baseline BMI, smoking, and follow up time (OR 1.25; CI 1.07–1.46; p for trend Conclusion Individuals of low socioeconomic position are at greatest risk of gaining weight during middle age, which is not explained by classical correlates of socioeconomic position and risk factors for obesity.
Egeberg, Rikke; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Olsen, Anja; Johnsen, Nina F; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between wholegrain products intake and other dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric and socio-economic factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, with data on diet, lifestyle and socio-economic factors obtained from questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were collected by trained professionals. Multiple linear and principal components regression analyses were used in statistical analyses. SETTING: Part of the Diet, Cancer and Health study, a prospective cohor...
Byun, Hyaejeong; Ryu, Kyongnam; Jang, Kyungjo; Bae, Hyunjoo; Kim, Dongjin; Shin, Hosung; Chu, Jangmin; Yoon, Chungsik
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to cause adverse health effects. We investigated the relationships between children's VOC exposure and socioeconomic and human activity factors with passive personal samplers, questionnaires, and time-activity diaries (TAD). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS 9.1, and the results were organized using SigmaPlot 8.0 software. Chemicals such as benzene, toluene, 2-butanone, ethylbenzene, xylene, chloroform, n-hexane, heptane, and some kinds of decanes, which are known to adversely affect public health, were identified in measured samples. These were mainly emitted from outdoor sources (e.g., vehicular traffic) or indoor sources (e.g., household activities such as cooking and cleaning) or both. We concluded that region was the most important socioeconomic factor affecting children's VOC exposure, and the significant compounds were n-hexane (p = 0.006), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (p = 0.001), benzene (p = 0.003), toluene (p = 0.002), ethylbenzene (p = 0.020), m-, p-xylene (p = 0.014), dodecane (p = 0.003), and hexadecane (p = 0.001). Parental education, year of home construction and type of housing were also slightly correlated with personal VOC exposure. Only the concentration of o-xylene (p = 0.027) was significantly affected by the parental education, and the concentrations of benzene (p = 0.030) and 2-butanone (p = 0.049) by the type of housing. Also, tridecane (p = 0.049) and n-hexane (p = 0.033) were significantly associated with the year of home construction. When household activities such as cooking were performed indoors, children's VOC concentrations tended to be higher, especially for n-hexane, chloroform, heptane, toluene (p factors simultaneously, socioeconomic factors such as region had a greater effect on children's VOC exposures than indoor activities. From this study, we can suggest that socioeconomic factors as well as environmental factors should be considered when formulating environmental policy to protect children's health. PMID:20145896
Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian
Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…
Lum, Sooky; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Sonnappa, Samatha; Wade, Angie; Cole, Tim J; Harding, Seeromanie; Wells, Jonathan C K; Griffiths, Chris; Treleaven, Philip; Bonner, Rachel; Kirkby, Jane; Lee, Simon; Raywood, Emma; Legg, Sarah; Sears, Dave; Cottam, Philippa; Feyeraband, Colin; Stocks, Janet
Can ethnic differences in spirometry be attributed to differences in physique and socioeconomic factors?Assessments were undertaken in 2171 London primary schoolchildren on two occasions 1?year apart, whenever possible, as part of the Size and Lung function In Children (SLIC) study. Measurements included spirometry, detailed anthropometry, three-dimensional photonic scanning for regional body shape, body composition, information on ethnic ancestry, birth and respiratory history, socioeconomic circumstances, and tobacco smoke exposure.Technically acceptable spirometry was obtained from 1901 children (mean (range) age 8.3 (5.2-11.8)?years, 46% boys, 35% White, 29% Black-African origin, 24% South-Asian, 12% Other/mixed) on 2767 test occasions. After adjusting for sex, age and height, forced expiratory volume in 1?s was 1.32, 0.89 and 0.51 z-score units lower in Black-African origin, South-Asian and Other/mixed ethnicity children, respectively, when compared with White children, with similar decrements for forced vital capacity (pphysique and socioeconomic circumstances, emphasising the need to use ethnic-specific equations when interpreting results. PMID:26493801
Marta Barreto de Medeiros, Nóbrega; Roque, Aras; Eduardo Martins, Netto; Ricardo David, Couto; Alexandre Magno da Nóbrega, Marinho; João Luís da, Silva; Víctor Nóbrega Quintas, Colares; Priscilla Leite, Campelo; Marcos André Lima, Nunes.
Full Text Available Objective Diabetes mellitus is the main cause of Charcot neuroarthropathy and is clinically classified as follows: Charcot foot, acute Charcot foot (ACF) when there is inflammation, and inactive Charcot foot when inflammatory signs are absent. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors f [...] or ACF in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Materials and methods A matched case-control study was conducted to assess the factors associated with acute Charcot foot from February 2000 until September 2012. Four controls for each case were selected 47 cases of ACF and 188 controls without ACF were included. Cases and controls were matched by year of initialization of treatment. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate matched odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).Results In multivariate analysis, patients having less than 55 years of age (adjusted OR = 4.10, 95% CI = 1.69 – 9.94), literate education age (adjusted OR = 3.73, 95% CI = 1.40 – 9.92), living alone (adjusted OR = 5.84, 95% CI = 1.49 – 22.86), previous ulceration (adjusted OR = 4.84, 95% CI = 1.62 – 14.51) were at increased risk of ACF. However, peripheral arterial disease (adjusted OR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.05 – 0.52) of 6.25 (1.92 – 20.0) was a protective factor.Discussion The results suggest that PCA in type 2 diabetes primarily affects patients under 55 who live alone, are literate, and have a prior history of ulcers, and that peripheral arterial disease is a protective factor. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(3):226-30
Chung, Hae-Rang; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael
This study aimed to identify risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Korea, a rapidly changing country. Data of 5,132 adults aged 20-85 were used from the 2001 Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multiple logistic regression was carried out to identify risk factors for T2D. Three models were specified: (i) socioeconomic and demographic factors (model 1: age, gender, education, poverty income ratio, employment), (ii) behavioral risk factors and covariates (model 2: obesity, physi...
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in human population. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in our country. The incidence of colorectal cancer increases in the fifth decade of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between colorectal cancer and potential risk factors. A case-control study of colorectal cancer was carried out between 1998 and 1999 in Clinical Center of Serbia, Center for Digestive Surgery. A total of 100 cases of newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer confirmed by histopathology and an equal number of controls, individually matched by gender and age (+/-5 years, were chosen from patients from the same hospital with no history of cancer at all. McNemar test and conditional logistic regression were used in the analysis. According to logistic regression analysis the following risk factors were independently related with the occurrence of colorectal cancer: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet rich in red meat and fat promote the carcinogenic process; food rich in vegetables, fruits, grains, vitamin C, physical activity, and oral contraceptive use inhibit the same process. A family history of cancer and long standing inflammatory bowel diseases also have significant role. There is convincing evidence that nutrition affects colorectal carcinogenesis in a complex fashion.
Francisco Rodal Abal
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine those risk factors that may cause running injuries in general, and particularly damage to the muscle mass, and the tendon. Twenty six male and female Galician runners were evaluated about their lower limb flexibility and length, knee Q angle, explosive power and training features such as kilometers and sessions per week, level of competition, shoes, surface, injuries last year, use of insoles, athletic specially, age, weight and height. During next 12 weeks runners continued training as they had been doing regularly and we recorded all injuries that appeared in this period. After that and from the liner regression we obtained different models that explained the variability of general injuries, tendon injuries and damages to the muscle mass. We also find positive correlations between previous injuries and training volume, and these with the dependent variable «injuries in 12 weeks». In regard to tendinopathy and muscle mass injuries, we observed that the synthetic material present in the track is a risk factor for these muscle injuries. Meanwhile, the increasing age and the Q angle, increments the occurrence of tendon injuries.
Agha, Golareh; Murabito, Joanne M.; Lynch, John W.; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Harper, Sam B.; Loucks, Eric B
Potential upstream determinants of coronary heart disease (CHD) include life-course socioeconomic position (e.g., childhood socioeconomic circumstances, own education and occupation); however, several plausible biological mechanisms by which socioeconomic position (SEP) may influence CHD are poorly understood. Several CHD risk factors appear to be more strongly associated with SEP in women than in men; little is known as to whether any CHD risk factors may be more strongly associated with SEP...
Full Text Available For generations communities in the Western Pacific have employed a range of resource management techniques (including periodic reef closures, gear restrictions, entry limitations, and the protection of spawning aggregations to limit marine resource use. Localized control over marine resources, commonly known as customary marine tenure (CMT, is the legal and cultural foundation for many of these practices. Because of their perceived potential to meet both conservation and community goals, these traditional resource management techniques are being revitalized by communities, governments, and NGOs as an integral part of national and regional marine conservation plans in the Pacific. However, the viability of conservation strategies built on a foundation of marine tenure may be in question, as it remains unclear whether marine tenure systems will be able to withstand the profound social and economic changes sweeping the Pacific region. Numerous studies have suggested that changes in marine tenure are attributed to social and economic factors, however, specific relationships between socioeconomic conditions and marine tenure are still not well understood. This paper examines the social and economic characteristics of 21 coastal communities in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, and explores the characteristics of the communities that employ exclusive marine tenure to answer the following questions: Which socioeconomic factors are related to the presence of CMT regimes? How might socioeconomic factors influence the ability of communities to employ or maintain CMT regimes? Distance to market, immigration, dependence on fishing, and conflicts were found to be related to the presence of highly exclusive marine tenure systems. Exploring these relationships will help conservation practitioners better understand how future social changes may influence the foundation of conservation and development projects.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study aims to follow this effort and to explore the association between health, socioeconomic background, school-related factors, social support and adolescents' sense of coherence and educational aspirations among adolescents from different educational tracks and to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the role of educational aspirations in the social reproduction of health inequalities. We expect that socioeconomic background will contribute to the development of educational aspirations, but this association will be modified by available social and individual resources, which may be particularly favourable for the group of adolescents who are on lower educational tracks, since for them such resources may lead to gaining a higher educational level. Methods We collected data on the socioeconomic background (mother's and father's education and employment status, doubts about affordability of future study, school-related factors (school atmosphere, school conditions, attitudes towards school, perceived social support, sense of coherence (manageability, comprehensibility, meaningfulness and the self-rated health of a national sample of Slovak adolescents (n = 1992, 53.5% females, mean age 16.9 years. We assessed the association of these factors with educational aspirations, overall and by educational tracks (grammar schools, specialised secondary schools, vocational schools. Results We found statistically significant associations with educational aspirations for the factors parental educational level, father's unemployment, doubts about the affordability of future study, school atmosphere, attitude towards school, social support from the father and a sense of coherence. Social support from the mother and friends was not associated with educational aspiration, nor was self-rated health. Besides affinity towards school, the determinants of educational aspirations differed among adolescents on different educational tracks. Educational aspirations of grammar school students were associated with father's education, while the aspirations of their peers on lower educational tracks had a stronger association with mother's education and perceived social support from father and friends. Moreover, a sense of coherence contributes to the reporting of educational aspiration by students on different educational tracks. Conclusions Characteristics of the school environment, the family and the individual adolescent are all associated with the level of educational aspiration, but in a different way for different educational tracks. Interventions aimed at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in health via the educational system should, therefore, take this variation and the rather pivotal role of the father into account.
Full Text Available Abstract Background School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant students. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed risk for school difficulties among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income, WHO-Quality of life (measuring the four dimensions physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment, unhealthy behaviours (last-30-day uses of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs and no regular sports/physical activities, grade repetition, low school performance ( Results Grade repetition affected 14.8% of students, low school performance 8.2%, and school dropout ideation 3.9%. European immigrants had a higher risk for grade repetition only with a gender-age-adjusted odds ratio (OR of 2.44, vs. French students. This odds ratio decreased to 1.76 (contribution 47% with further adjustment for all confounders (family structure, father’s occupation, family income, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Non-European immigrants had a statistically higher risk for all grade repetition, low school performance, and school dropout ideation with ORs of 3.29, 3.02, and 3.42, respectively vs. French students. These odds ratios decreased to 1.76, 1.54, and 1.54, respectively (contributions 66%, 73%, and 78% with further adjustment for all confounders. Conclusions Compared with French students, European immigrant students were more affected only by grade repetition while non-European immigrant students by all grade repetition, low school performance, and school dropout ideation. The contribution of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours was very high and much higher for non-European than for European immigrant students. Public policy should focus on these factors and services to reduce school difficulties.
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of a classification of bullying outcomes, and to investigate the risk factors associated with bullying behaviour at Pattani primary schools, southern Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1,440 students. Factor analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s chi-squared test, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results showed that 20.9% of students in Pattani primary schools reported having bullied others. A four factors structure of bullying was clearly shown; serious, general physical, psychological-maligning parent and psychological-maligning student. Witnessing parental physical abuse was clearly the most strongly associated determinants, and much more strongly linked to bullying others than was the group who had never witnessed parental physical abuse (OR 7.60, 95% CI 5.60-10.31. The students who preferred action cartoons were more often bullies than were those who preferred comedy cartoons (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.91-430.
Full Text Available Violence against Women has become a global concern because this specific issue affects the life of women adversely. Domestic violence is most persistent form of Violence against Women. It is a severe violation of human rights. Many demographic, economic, psychological factors may be responsible for the domestic violence but social factors contain prime importance in this regard. Pakistani society is facing the trouble of increase in domestic violence because this issue is still under acknowledged and underreported. An exploratory study was conducted to probe the socio-economic factors behind domestic violence. Interview schedule was utilized as a tool to accumulate concerning data. A representative sample of (N=100 was collected through purposive and snowball sampling techniques. 56% of women indicated that they have faced physical violence and a huge majority i.e., 71% has faced psychological violence. The results suggest that women are more prone to bear and face domestic violence due to economic dependence.
A Akbari Sari
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Previous studies show that disability and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases are closely related to socioeconomic status in a community. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between socioeconomic factors and coronary artery disease (CAD among people under 45 years old at Shahid Rajaei Hospital, Tehran, Iran.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Shahid Rajaei Hospital, Tehran, Iran in summer 2008. The participants were 100 CAD cases (<45 years old, mean age = 41.2 years; 85% men and 100 controls from among accompanying persons matched for age and gender. In order to assess the risk of factors related to such variables as educational level, occupation, income, social exclusion, social support, stress, exercise, nutritional status, smoking, etc, odds ratio (95% CI was used. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the synchronic effect of the risk factors, and the t-test was used to find differences between means.Results: The odds ratio (95% CI for smoking vs nonsmoking was 3.9 (1.9-7.9 for CAD. Individuals with a low educational level showed an odds ratio of 2.7 (1.9-7-9, compared to those with a high educational level. Eating fruits and vegetables at least seven servings a week has an odds ratio of 2.7 (1.01-7.4 vs eating fewer servings. Occupation, job grade and physical activity had statistically significant relationships with CAD. Mean BMI was different between cases and controls. The disease had no significant association with stress, social support, social exclusion or income."nConclusion: Smoking, a low educational level and eating small amounts of fruits and vegetables were the most important socioeconomic factors contributing to coronary artery disease. Policymaking and planning aiming at improving the socioeconomic situation of the people, particularly those under 45 years old, seem essential.
Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.; Hemphill, R.C.; Mohiudden, S.; Corso, J.
In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to initiate the process of choosing a location to permanently store high-level nuclear waste from the designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only location to be studied as a candidate site for such a repository. The original acts and its amendments had established the grant mechanism by which the state of Nevada could finance an investigation of the potential socioeconomic impacts that could result from the installation and operation of this facility. Over the past three years, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM or RW) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved grant requests by Nevada to perform this investigation. This report is intended to update and enhance a literature review conducted by the Human Affairs Research Center (HARC) for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project that dealt with the psychological and sociological processes underlying risk perception. It provides addition information on the HARC work, covers a subsequent step in the impact-estimation process, and translates risk perception into decisions and behaviors with economic consequences. It also covers recently developed techniques for assessing the nature and magnitude of impacts caused by environmental changes focusing on those impacts caused by changes in perceived risks.
In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to initiate the process of choosing a location to permanently store high-level nuclear waste from the designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only location to be studied as a candidate site for such a repository. The original acts and its amendments had established the grant mechanism by which the state of Nevada could finance an investigation of the potential socioeconomic impacts that could result from the installation and operation of this facility. Over the past three years, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM or RW) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved grant requests by Nevada to perform this investigation. This report is intended to update and enhance a literature review conducted by the Human Affairs Research Center (HARC) for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project that dealt with the psychological and sociological processes underlying risk perception. It provides addition information on the HARC work, covers a subsequent step in the impact-estimation process, and translates risk perception into decisions and behaviors with economic consequences. It also covers recently developed techniques for assessing the nature and magnitude of impacts caused by environmental changes focusing on those impacts caused by changes in perceived risks
Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.
Climate change is predicted to negatively impact many agricultural communities across the globe, particularly smallholder farmers who often do not have access to appropriate technologies to reduce their vulnerability. To better predict which farmers will be most impacted by future climate change at a regional scale, we use remote sensing and agricultural census data to examine how cropping intensity and crop type have shifted based on rainfall variability across Gujarat, India from 1990 to 2010. Using household-level interviews, we then identify the socio-economic, biophysical, perceptional, and psychological factors associated with smallholder farmers who are the most impacted and the least able to adapt to contemporaneous rainfall variability. We interviewed 750 farmers in 2011 and 2012 that span a rainfall, irrigation, socio-economic, and caste gradient across central Gujarat. Our results show that farmers shift cropping practices in several ways based on monsoon onset, which farmers state is the main observable rainfall signal influencing cropping decisions during the monsoon season. When monsoon onset is delayed, farmers opt to plant more drought-tolerant crops, push back the date of sowing, and increase the number of irrigations used. Comparing self-reported income and yields, we find that switching crops does not improve agricultural income, shifting planting date does not influence crop yield, yet increasing the number of irrigations significantly increases yield. Future work will identify which social (e.g. social networks), psychological (e.g. risk preference), and knowledge (e.g. information sources) factors are associated with farmers who are best able to adapt to rainfall variability.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. Methods The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18–84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investigated covers 55 municipalities with about one million inhabitants in central part of Sweden. The study population includes 42,448 respondents. Mental health was measured with self-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (EQ-5D, 5th question. The association between socio-economic conditions, lifestyle factors and mental health symptoms was investigated using multivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Results About 40% of women and 30% of men reported that they were moderately or extremely anxious or depressed. Younger subjects reported poorer mental health than older subjects, the best mental health was found at ages 65–74 years. Factors that were strongly and independently related to mental health symptoms were poor social support, experiences of being belittled, employment status (receiving a disability pension and unemployment, economic hardship, critical life events, and functional disability. A strong association was also found between how burdensome domestic work was experienced and anxiety/depression. This was true for both men and women. Educational level was not associated with mental health symptoms. Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol were independently associated with mental health symptoms. Conclusion Our results support the notion that a ground for good mental health includes balance in social relations, in domestic work and in employment as well as in personal economy both among men and women. In addition, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol are associated with mental health symptoms independent of socio-economic factors.
Kamal, S M Mostafa
This article explores the socioeconomic factors affecting contraceptive use and method choice among women of urban slums using the nationally representative 2006 Bangladesh Urban Health Survey. Both bivariate and multivariate statistical analyses were applied to examine the relationship between a set of sociodemographic factors and the dependent variables. Overall, the contraceptive prevalence rate was 58.1%, of which 53.2% were modern methods. Women's age, access to TV, number of unions, nongovernmental organization membership, working status of women, number of living children, child mortality, and wealth index were important determinants of contraceptive use and method preference. Sex composition of surviving children and women's education were the most important determinants of contraceptive use and method choice. Programs should be strengthened to provide nonclinical modern methods free of cost among the slum dwellers. Doorstep delivery services of modern contraceptive methods may raise the contraceptive prevalence rate among the slum dwellers in Bangladesh. PMID:21914707
Full Text Available Analysis of income inequality is a general and constant concern of both the public and researchers and politicians. This subject, though, and has been widely debated, never becomes obsolete and does not lose its importance or valence mobilizing the more as he becomes more present with the onset of the recent economic crisis. This interest framework, on the one hand and the difficult context generated the economic crisis, on the other hand, bring forward decisions and policy choices implemented or required to restore economic balance and well-being of citizens. Causes (factors of influence of income inequality differ from country to country, there is dispute among economists on the preponderance of cases compared to the others. However in this paper I will analyze two of these factors: education and socioeconomic status of their parents.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...
Alijahan, Rahele; Kordi, Masoumeh
Background: Detection of women at risk for dystocia will allow physicians to make preparations and treatment decisions that can minimize maternal and neonatal morbidity. We aimed to determine the risk factors for dystocia in nulliparous women.
Full Text Available Background: Socio-economic status (SES, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV knowledge and self-efficacy influence risky behaviors and female sex workers (FSWs are not exception. Aims: This study was aimed to investigate if SES, HIV knowledge and self-efficacy predict frequency of unprotected sex with injecting drug users (IDUs among a sample of FSWs in Iran. Setting and Design: Universal Network for Health Information Dissemination and Exchange HIV Risk Study was a survey of IDUs and FSWs, conducted in eight different provinces of Iran, 2009. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 FSWs were entered in this study. Frequency of unprotected sex with IDUs during the past 6 months was the dependent variable. Number of sexual partners during the past 6 month, SES, HIV Knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived HIV risk and intention for change were predictors. Statistical Analysis: We used hierarchical regression for data analysis. In each step, a block of predictors were added to the model. SES block composed of education level, owning a house and living alone. Results: In the absence of SES in the model, HIV knowledge and self-efficacy were not significantly associated with the frequency of unprotected sex with IDUs during the past 6 months, However, with adding SES block to the model, HIV knowledge became significant predictor of the outcome. Thus, among our sample of Iranian FSWs, SES has a suppressor effect for the effect of HIV knowledge on frequency of unprotected sex with IDUs during the past 6 months. Conclusion: Studies which wish to understand the role of theory-based psychological constructs such as HIV knowledge on high risk behaviors need to include SES an essential contextual factor. This finding may also explain why literature is mixed on the effect of HIV knowledge on HIV risk behaviors.
Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N.
Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic immunologically mediated diseases that often have a relapsing-remitting course in young persons. Genetic-risk polymorphisms explain less than one third of the heritability of disease. Epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that environmental factors play a significant role in influencing the risk and natural history of disease. Smoking is the most widely and consistently described risk factor. It, however, increases the risk of C...
Esmat Davoudi Monfared
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Cancer is the second cause of death in the world, and colon cancer is the third cause of death and is one of the most common cancers which will cure with early diagnosis, treatment and sufficient follow up. Assessing factors which affect this cancer is important for prolonging patient survival. Socioeconomic factors are among effective factors of cancer morbidity and mortality. Because mortality rates for colon cancers vary by socioeconomic characteristics, this study has been performed to recognize the relationship between socioeconomic factors with treatment and follow up of colon cancer. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study for patients with colon cancer registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from April 2005 to November 2006. Patients were selected randomly, and the study was conducted using questionnaires filled by interviewing the patients via phone (if a patient was dead, the questions were asked from their family members. Data analysis was done using SPSS (version 19 software. Results: The study was performed on 520 colon cancer patients with age range of 23-88 years. The mean age of the patients was 63 (S.D. = 11.8 and the median age was 64.Two hundred thirty seven (45.4% patients were female and 283(54.4% were male. Using Chi- square test, age< 60 (P=0.002 and female gender (P=0.034 had a significant correlation with complete treatment and there was a significant relationship between complete follow up and age< 60 (P=0.037, academic education (P=0.02 and having insurance (P=0.021. Multiple logistic regression tests were used to evaluate concurrent effects of variables on treatment and follow up. Correlated variables to complete treatment include: age< 60 (P=0.001, and female gender (P=0.023.The Odds Ratio (OR of completing treatment for patients under 60 years of age versus patients above 60 years was 3.13 (95% C.I. 1.55 to 6.34, and the OR of completing treatment for women versus men was 1.91(95% C.I. 1.33 to 2.74. Correlated variables to follow up were academic education (P=0.018 and having insurance (P=0.046. The OR of cancer follow up in illiterate patients versus college-educated patients was 0.45(95% C.I. 0.24 to 0.82, and the OR of cancer follow up in patients without insurance versus patients with health was 0.46(95% C.I. 0.21 to 0.98. Conclusion: Age is a correlated factor on completing colon cancer treatment. Women have more complete colon cancer treatment than men. Academic education and having insurance were the most important factors among socioeconomic factors observed in a five-year follow up after treatment. As the population of the old is increasing, executing effective interventions to improve treatment and follow up procedures for old patients is of prime importance. It seems that increasing the insurance contribution in follow up measures may lead to increase in the regular follow up and may affect patients' survival.
Earle, Gordon D.; Ryan, Katherine; Pyykonen, Nicole K.; Pitts, Lucas [Otonabee Region Conservation Authority, Peterborough, (Canada)
The Lang Dam and adjoining gristmill, located near Peterborough are integral parts of the Lang Pioneer Village museum. Activities occurring within close proximity to the dam have led to safety issues. The owner (ORCA) has developed and implemented public safety management plans (PSMPs) for each of its water control structures, including the Lang Dam. ORCA gave special attention to the social, economic, aesthetic, historic and cultural dimensions associated the implementation of public safety management plans. These factors play a significant role in how well public safety measures (PSMs) are received by stakeholder groups and the general public. This paper reported the challenges of developing and implementing a PSMP for the Lang Dam, with the focus on property site-specific PSMS while preserving socio-economic and historic-cultural character and values. It was demonstrated that the dam owners, regulatory authorities, control agencies and preservationists need to come together to develop a holistic public safety management process.
Giupponi, Carlo; Gain, Animesh; Mojtahed, Vahid; Balbi, Stefano
The approaches for vulnerability and risk assessment have found different and often contrasting solutions by various schools of thought. The two most prominent communities in this field are: climate change adaptation (CCA), and disaster risk reduction (DRR). Although those communities have usually in common the aim of reducing socio-economic vulnerability and risk to natural hazards, they have usually referred to different definitions and conceptualizations. For example, the DRR community has always driven more emphasis on the concept of risk and vulnerability is considered as a physical/environmental input for the quantification of risk, while the CCA research stream, mainly under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), considered vulnerability as an output deriving from social conditions and processes such as adaptation or maladaptation. Recently, with the publication of the IPCC Special Report on extreme events and disasters (IPCC-SREX), the notions of vulnerability and risk are somehow integrated in order to jointly consider both climate change adaptation and disaster risk management. The IPCC-SREX indeed is expected to significantly contribute to find common language and methodological approaches across disciplines and, therefore, the opportunity emerges for proposing new operational solutions, consistent with the most recent evolution of concepts and terminology. Based on the development of the IPCC Report, the KULTURisk project developed an operational framework to support integrated assessment and decision support through the combination of contributions from diverse disciplinary knowledge, with emphasis on the social and economic dimensions. KIRAF (KULTURisk Integrated Risk Assessment Framework) is specifically aimed at comprehensively evaluate the benefits of risk mitigation measures with consideration of the dynamic context deriving from the consideration of climatic changes and their effects on natural disasters, within the policy framework of climate change adaptation (CCA). Three main innovations are proposed with respect to the current state of the art: (1) to include the social capacities of reducing risk, (2) to go beyond the estimation direct tangible costs, and (3) to provide an operational solution for decision support to assess risks, impacts and the benefits of plausible risk reduction measures, compatible with both the DRR and the CCA literatures. As stated above, the proposed framework is the inclusion of social capacities (adaptive and coping capacities) in the process of translating risk into a comprehensive cost matrix considering not only direct tangible costs (damages), but also the three other components deriving from the combination of tangible/intangible and direct/indirect costs. The proposed KIRAF approach is thus expected to provide: 1) an operational basis for multidisciplinary integration; 2) a flexible reference to deal with heterogeneous case studies and potentially various types of hazards; and 3) a means to support the assessment of alternative risk prevention measures including consideration of social and cultural dimensions.
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Michael S. Irwig; Xinia Siles; Antonio M. Gotto, Jr.; Nader Rifai; Hannia Campos
This study assessed plasma lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents in a developing Latin American country and compared those risk factors to those of adolescents in the United States of America, where the risk of heart disease is high. In a cross-sectional study, data were collected from September 1998 to April 1999 on 161 Costa Rican adolescents between the ages of 12 and 20. A general questionnaire was used to collect demographic, smoking, socioeconomic, and women's heal...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (? = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, literacy status, mass media exposure, wealth status, and child-death experience by mothers. All of these were strong predictors for CEB. It can be concluded that programs should aim to reduce fertility rates by focusing on these identified factors so that fertility as well as infant and maternal mortality and morbidity will be decreased and the overall well-being of the family maintained and enhanced.
Full Text Available The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Ribeirão Preto, a rich Brazilian city, was significantly higher (21.4% than in São Luís (5.9%, a less developed city. To assess which variables explain the difference in prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, data from two birth cohorts were used, including 2846 puerperae from Ribeirão Preto, in 1994, and 2443 puerperae from São Luís, in 1997/98. In multivariable analysis, risk of maternal smoking during pregnancy was higher in São Luís for mothers living in a household with five or more persons (OR = 1.72, 95%CI = 1.12-2.64, aged 35 years or older (OR = 1.98, 95%CI = 0.99-3.96, who had five or more children (OR = 2.10, 95%CI = 1.16-3.81, and whose companion smoked (OR = 2.20, 95%CI = 1.52-3.18. Age of less than 20 years was a protective factor (OR = 0.55, 95%CI = 0.33-0.92. In Ribeirão Preto there was association with maternal low educational level (OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.30-3.65 and with a smoking companion (OR = 3.25, 95%CI = 2.52-4.18. Receiving prenatal care was a protective factor (OR = 0.24, 95%CI = 0.11-0.49. Mothers from Ribeirão Preto who worked outside the home were at a higher risk and those aged 35 years or older or who attended five or more prenatal care visits were at lower risk of smoking during pregnancy as compared to mothers from São Luís. Smoking by the companion reduced the difference between smoking rates in the two cities by 10%. The socioeconomic variables in the model did not explain the higher prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in the more developed city.
Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G; Ortiz-Sánchez, Edgardo J; Rodríguez-Santiago, Edda I; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L
Most of the research among HIV-positive populations has been approached from behavioral risk models. This is particularly true for those otherwise socially vulnerable groups like men who have sex with men (MSM). As a response to this pattern, we examined data from an ongoing health promotion research being conducted in Puerto Rico (PR). The study is limited to HIV-positive MSM and consists of the participation in a survey interview that includes domains used to assess indicators of socio-economic-related factors (age, educational level, employment, religion, and partnership status) and sexual health (sexual satisfaction, condom use, and sexual health knowledge(SHK)). Participants reported a relatively high level (75 %) of sexual satisfaction and inconsistent condom use (50.9 % reported always using a condom). A deficient (61 %) SHK was also reported. In multivariate analyses, a higher educational level was associated with higher sexual satisfaction (a? = 3.223; 95 % CI 0.291-6.156) and higher levels of SHK (a? = 1.328; 95 % CI 0.358-2.297), while unemployment was associated with less condom use (aOR 0.314; 95 % CI 0.122-0.810). Not having a primary sexual partner was associated with less sexual satisfaction (a? = -3.871; 95 % CI -7.534-0.208) and more condom use (aOR 4.292; 95 % CI 1.310-14.068). Findings support the notion that men of a disadvantaged socioeconomic position may have a poorer sexual health status; with a lower level of education and unemployment leading this disparity. Findings also evidence that partnership status may have a role in the sexual health of HIV-positive MSM. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of sexual health and socioeconomic indicators among Hispanic/Latino HIV-positive MSM in PR and in the Caribbean. Findings provide valuable information to address the sexual health needs of an underserved population. PMID:26123066
Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa
The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (?(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p wealth' indicators like mobile telephones and refrigerators (?(2) = 9.67, df = 2, p status. No significant associations could be demonstrated between household income, the number of people living in the household and the availability of electricity/water and HIV status. As the observed levels of HIV prevalence underlined gender bias and failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that renewed efforts should be made to improve sexual risk behaviour within this group. PMID:25388981
Full Text Available The air quality in China, particularly the PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter level, has become an increasing public concern because of its relation to health risks. The distribution of PM2.5 concentrations has a close relationship with multiple geographic and socioeconomic factors, but the lack of reliable data has been the main obstacle to studying this topic. Based on the newly published Annual Average PM2.5 gridded data, together with land use data, gridded population data and Gross Domestic Product (GDP data, this paper explored the spatial-temporal characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations and the factors impacting those concentrations in China for the years of 2001–2010. The contributions of urban areas, high population and economic development to PM2.5 concentrations were analyzed using the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR model. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of PM2.5 concentrations in China remained stable during the period 2001–2010; high concentrations of PM2.5 are mostly found in regions with high populations and rapid urban expansion, including the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in North China, East China (including the Shandong, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces and Henan province. Increasing populations, local economic growth and urban expansion are the three main driving forces impacting PM2.5 concentrations.
Lin, Gang; Fu, Jingying; Jiang, Dong; Hu, Wensheng; Dong, Donglin; Huang, Yaohuan; Zhao, Mingdong
The air quality in China, particularly the PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter) level, has become an increasing public concern because of its relation to health risks. The distribution of PM2.5 concentrations has a close relationship with multiple geographic and socioeconomic factors, but the lack of reliable data has been the main obstacle to studying this topic. Based on the newly published Annual Average PM2.5 gridded data, together with land use data, gridded population data and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data, this paper explored the spatial-temporal characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations and the factors impacting those concentrations in China for the years of 2001-2010. The contributions of urban areas, high population and economic development to PM2.5 concentrations were analyzed using the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of PM2.5 concentrations in China remained stable during the period 2001-2010; high concentrations of PM2.5 are mostly found in regions with high populations and rapid urban expansion, including the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in North China, East China (including the Shandong, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces) and Henan province. Increasing populations, local economic growth and urban expansion are the three main driving forces impacting PM2.5 concentrations. PMID:24362546
Full Text Available Introduction: To inform maternal health improvements, the purpose of this study was to identify the socioeconomic factors affecting access to basic antenatal care (ANC. Methods: 1,360 women (aged 15-49 years from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey were classified according to the frequency of ANC and the health assessments completed. Results: Low education was the strongest determinant for refusal to use ANC (OR: 9.2-39.3; p < .01 and frequency of use below the three recommended visits (OR: 6.9-39.3; p < .01. In terms of quality of care, low income (OR: 5.6-25.6; p < .01 and living in the Northern Midland and Mountain area (OR: 5.9-8.1; p < .01 were associated with incomplete care. Conclusions: Different approaches are needed for each group, including measures such as improving health literacy and advocating for better services in low-income regions.
Ngo, Anh D; Paquet, Catherine; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Taylor, Anne W; Adams, Robert J; Daniel, Mark
This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension). A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000-2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR), prevalence risk ratio (SRR), ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI)). Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ? 1; p ? 0.42). However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely) and unemployment rate (positively) were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI) = 0.76 (0.63-0.90), and 1.48 (1.26-1.74), respectively), and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI) = 0.96 (0.93-0.99), and 1.06 (1.04-1.09), respectively). The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI) = 0.58 (0.45-0.73), and SRR (95%CI) = 0.91 (0.88-0.94)). Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education being modified by individual-level education. Population-level interventions for communities defined by area-level socioeconomic disadvantage are needed to reduce cardiometabolic risks. PMID:24406665
Anh D. Ngo
Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000–2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR, prevalence risk ratio (SRR, ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI. Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ? 1; p ? 0.42. However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely and unemployment rate (positively were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI = 0.76 (0.63–0.90, and 1.48 (1.26–1.74, respectively, and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI = 0.96 (0.93–0.99, and 1.06 (1.04–1.09, respectively. The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI = 0.58 (0.45–0.73, and SRR (95%CI = 0.91 (0.88–0.94. Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education being modified by individual-level education. Population-level interventions for communities defined by area-level socioeconomic disadvantage are needed to reduce cardiometabolic risks.
Electric vehicles represent an innovation with the potential to lower greenhouse gas emissions and help mitigate the causes of climate change. However, externalities including the appropriability of knowledge and pollution abatement result in societal/economic benefits that are not incorporated in electric vehicle prices. In order to address resulting market failures, governments have employed a number of policies. We seek to determine the relationship of one such policy instrument (consumer financial incentives) to electric vehicle adoption. Based on existing literature, we identified several additional socio-economic factors that are expected to be influential in determining electric vehicle adoption rates. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we examined the relationship between those variables and 30 national electric vehicle market shares for the year 2012. The model found financial incentives, charging infrastructure, and local presence of production facilities to be significant and positively correlated to a country's electric vehicle market share. Results suggest that of those factors, charging infrastructure was most strongly related to electric vehicle adoption. However, descriptive analysis suggests that neither financial incentives nor charging infrastructure ensure high electric vehicle adoption rates. - Highlights: • This research analyzes electric vehicle adoption of 30 countries in 2012. • Financial incentives and charging infrastructure were statistically significant factors. • Country-specific factors help to explain diversity in national adoption rates. • Socio-demographic variables e.g., income and education level were not significant
Bernal-Pacheco, Oscar; Román, Gustavo C
Despite intensive evaluation of acute stroke patients, perhaps only half of the attributable stroke risk is usually identified. In addition to traditional and non-traditional vascular risk factors-including most recently homocysteine, inflammation, and alterations of coagulation-a number of environmental risk factors for stroke have been identified in the last decade. In this update we review the following: lower education and poor socioeconomic status (probable surrogates for exposure to traditional high-risk behaviors such as smoking, poor nutrition, lack of prenatal control, absence of preventive medical and dental care, and non-compliance of treatment of conditions such as hypertension); depression, stress and affective disorders; obstructive sleep apnea; passive smoking and environmental pollution; infections, in particular periodontal diseases that increase C-reactive protein (CRP); raised body mass index (obesity); exercise, and diet. The possible role of high-fructose corn syrup in the epidemic of obesity in the USA is reviewed. Protective diets include higher consumption of fish, olive oil, grains, fruits and vegetables (Mediterranean diet), as well as probiotic bacteria in yogurt and dairy products. Careful attention should be given to the patient's environment looking for modifiable factors. The effects of clean environmental air and water, adequate diet and appropriate nutrition, healthy teeth, exercise, and refreshing sleep in the prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease appear to be quite compelling. Although some of these modifiable risk factors lack evidence-based information, judicious clinical sense should be used to counteract the potentially damaging effects of adverse environmental vascular risk factors. PMID:17655871
Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Berg, Christina; Lissner, Lauren; Nunez, Leyla; Rosengren, Annika; Torén, Kjell; Thelle, Dag S
Non-participation in population studies is likely to be a source of bias in many types of epidemiologic studies, including those describing social disparities in health. The objective of this paper is to present a non-attendance analysis evaluating the possible impact of selection bias, when investigating the association between education level and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from the INTERGENE research programme including 3,610 randomly selected individuals aged 25-74 (1,908 women and 1,702 men), in West Sweden were used. Only 42% of the invited population participated. Non-attendance analyses were done by comparing data from official registries (Statistics Sweden) covering the entire invited study population. This analysis revealed that participants were more likely to be women, have university education, high income, be married and of Nordic origin compared to non-participants. Among participants, all health behaviours studied were significantly related to education. Physical activity, alcohol use and breakfast consumption were higher in the more educated group, while there were more smokers in the less educated group. Central obesity, obesity and hypertension were also significantly associated with lower education level. Weaker associations were observed for blood lipids, diabetes, high plasma glucose level and perceived stress. The socio-demographic differences between participants and non-participants indicated by the register analysis imply potential biases in epidemiological research. For instance, the positive association between education level and frequent alcohol consumption, may, in part be explained by participation bias. For other risk factors studied, an underestimation of the importance of low socioeconomic status may be more likely. PMID:20127393
Leila Abdollahi; Masumeh Gholizadeh; Hamid Allahverdipour; Hossein Matlabi; Ali Janati
Background: Iran has undergone a remarkable demographic transition over the last threedecades. Socioeconomic status (SES) indicators including education, income, and occupationare associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors, morbidity, and mortality. Theaim of the present study was to describe demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, theirassociation to the diseases, and to explore the predictive risk of CHD in Tabriz, the fourthlargest city in Iran and the capital of East...
Pakistani people belong to an ethnic group which has the highest rate of coronary artery disease. There are a number of risk factors for developing the coronary artery disease (CAD). Homocysteine, a sulphur containing amino acid, has been reported to be an independent risk factor for CAD. The present study was done to find out the role of hyperhomocysteinemia in the development of coronary artery disease in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out. There were 40 angiographically diagnosed male patients of coronary artery disease between 30 - 40 years of age taken as cases and 40 age, sex and socioeconomically matched healthy subjects with normal carotid doppler study taken as controls. Fasting venous blood from cases and controls was taken in E.D.T.A vacationers. Plasma was analyzed for homo-cysteine level by enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Mean plasma concentration of homocysteine in coronary artery disease patients i.e. cases was 13.5 +- 6.8 mu mol/L and was higher than the mean for controls (10.76 +- 2.27 mu mol/L) to a significant extent. Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia through inter-play with the classical cardiovascular risk factors may be aggravating the risk of coronary artery disease in Pakistani people. (author)
Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony
A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…
Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen M; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Wilfley, Denise E; Fairburn, Christopher G; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, B Timothy; Striegel Weissman, Ruth
This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674
Strachan, D. P.; Powell, K. J.; Thaker, A.; Millard, F J; Maxwell, J. D.
BACKGROUND--In a previous retrospective study of tuberculosis in south London among Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent Hindu Asians were found to have a significantly increased risk for tuberculosis compared with Muslims. This finding has been further investigated by examining the role of socioeconomic and lifestyle variables, including diet, as risk factors for tuberculosis in Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent resident in south London. METHODS--Using a case-control stu...
Deswal B S
Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as â€˜casesâ€? and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in â€˜controlâ€? group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.
BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464 patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at ...
Novák, Ji?í; Petr, Dalibor
Measuring risk in the stock market context is one of the key challenges of modern finance. Despite of the substantial significance of the topic to investors and market regulators, there is a controversy over what risk factors should be used to price the assets or to determine the cost of capital. We empirically investigate the ability of several commonly proposed risk factors to predict Swedish stock returns. We consider the sensitivity of an asset returns to the variation in market returns, ...
Despite the existence of extensive literature regarding risk management, there still seems to be lack of knowledge in identification of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) in this area. In this research Grounded Theory is implemented to identify CSFs in Risk Management Systems (RMS). Factor analysis and one-sample t-test are then used to refine and rank the CSFs based on the results of a survey which has been performed among Risk Management practitioners in various types of Swedish corporations. ...
Petersen, Jørgen Eskild; Vesco, G; Villari, S; Buffolano, W
Summary Fourteen case-control studies evaluating the importance of different risk factors for infection of humans with Toxoplasma gondii were identified. Surprisingly, up to two-thirds of infections could not be explained by risk factors such as consuming raw or undercooked meat or poor kitchen hygiene. Few studies reported population attributable risk, and when reported, it was low. Protocols including questionnaires used for collecting data, age and socio-economic groups studied, and sample si...
Bibiloni Maria del Mar
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many different factors influenced food habits and physical activity patterns of adolescents in a complex interactive way. The aim of this study was to assess association between sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic factors, diet and lifestyle among the Balearic Islands adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n?=?1961; 12–17?years old was carried out. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents (IPAQ-A. Sedentary behaviour was defined as Results The prevalence of sedentary behaviour was 37.1% (22.0% boys, 50.8% girls. Active boys consumed frequently breakfast cereals and fresh fruit; active girls yogurt, cheese, breakfast cereals, and fresh fruit; and sedentary girls high fat foods and soft drinks. Sedentary behaviour of girls was directly associated to age, and time spent on media screen and homework, and inversely related to adherence to Mediterranean diet, and body composition. Sedentary behaviour of boys was inversely related to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and the desire to remain the same weight. Conclusions The prevalence of sedentary behaviour among Balearic Islands adolescents is high, mainly among girls. Age, sex, parental educational and profession levels, body size dissatisfaction, and poor quality diet are important factors of physical activity practice among adolescents.
Full Text Available It is seen that primary school dropout among tribal students is generally high. Socioeconomic factors among others are also responsible for that. This study tried to find out the significant factors responsible for primary school dropout among the tribal students in Kamrup district of Assam. It is found that household income, household size and parent’s education are some of the significant factors having influence on school dropout. Some policy suggestions are also provided in conclusion.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ? 94 cm (men or ? 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are positively associated with overweight, while educational level and health related sports are negatively related to overweight in both genders. In men, alcohol consumption and smoking in the past are also among the lifestyle factors associated with overweight. This study also indicates that BMI and WC do not have the same discriminative function regarding different lifestyle factors.
Li, Rui; Cui, Hong-ping
Primary angle closure glaucoma is one of the common diseases causing blindness. The pathogenesis inducing primary angle closure glaucoma has not been entirely clear. Traditionally identified risk factors include shallow anterior chamber, short axial length and thicker lens. Recent studies begin to pay attention to other new risk factors, not only including static anatomical factors, such as anterior chamber volume, iris curvature and lens vault, but also including dynamic changing factors, such as dynamic dilation of iris volume and choroidal effusion. Comprehensive assessment of these risk factors is of great significance for early diagnosis and treatment of angle closure glaucoma. This article briefly reviews research advances in risk factors of primary angle closure glaucoma. PMID:22490921
Full Text Available It has been defined that social enterprise development represents a meaningful factor in the Ukrainian regions’ increase in potential of economic development; the priority is to identify strategies of their socio-economic development. Social enterprise has been proven to be a relatively new phenomenon in the Ukrainian practice; there is a need to utilize the state government more actively as one of tools for solving socio-economic problems of society. It has to be directed at the population’s living conditions improvement with the help of producing necessary goods and services; provision of services in such areas as healthcare, employment, education, environmental protection etc.; catering and social adaptation for vulnerable groups of population (disabled, unemployed, national minorities. The social enterprise development is the "bridge" between social and commercial interests necessary for social welfare and effective social goals’ achievement.Ukraine’s necessity to follow the path of social enterprise recognition as an effective tool for achieving the stable social and economic development, and the recognition of social entrepreneurs as transformation leaders has been grounded. Social entrepreneurs need support – financial, informational, and consultative one – from the government. Human talents are revealed anddeveloped only in case they are needed by the society. There is a need to provide a certain platform for the dialogue between business and social sector. Social enterprise emerges and functions when the ideas and capital are combined. A new entrepreneurial type in Ukraine has to be formed – the one of social innovators. The benefit is evident for everyone; nonetheless, the social enterprise has to be developed and supported at the present stage of economic development.
Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is the commonest cardiovascular disorder, posing a major public health challenge to population in epidemiological transition. The prevalence of hypertension increases with age and is more common in men as compared to women. But women loose this advantage after menopause due to estrogen deficiency. Objectives: 1. To assess the prevalence of hypertension and risk factors for hypertension among postmenopausal women in an urban community in Delhi. 2. To study association of risk factors with hypertension. Methodology: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted at Palam, an urbanized village in Delhi. A total 416 postmenopausal women were interviewed, examined and investigated. Results: Majority (78% of postmenopausal women were in the age group of 45-65 years. More than three fourth 342 (82.4% of women belonged to lower middle and upper lower socio-economic status. The prevalence of hypertension in these women was 39.6%, another one third (37% were pre-hypertensive. All women had one or more than one risk factor for hypertension. The most common risk factors were high salt intake (82.7%, low vegetable and fruit intake (64.2%, stress (53.2% and truncal obesity (36.1%. Risk factors like diabetes, obesity, smoking and physical inactivity were significantly more common in hypertensive as compared to non-hypertensive. Conclusion: Burden of hypertension among postmenopausal women in the present study was found to be high. Interventions integrating promotive, preventive and curative care for postmenopausal women should be provided to them.
Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna
BACKGROUND: Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (cohort study); investigation of the effect of working hours or overtime work; incident diabetes as an outcome; and relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, or sufficient information to calculate these estimates. Additionally, we used unpublished individual-level data from 19 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working-Populations Consortium and international open-access data archives. Effect estimates from published and unpublished data from 222?120 men and women from the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: During 1·7 million person-years at risk, 4963 individuals developed diabetes (incidence 29 per 10?000 person-years). The minimally adjusted summary risk ratio for long (?55 h per week) compared with standard working hours (35-40 h) was 1·07 (95% CI 0·89-1·27, difference in incidence three cases per 10?000 person-years) with significant heterogeneity in study-specific estimates (I(2)=53%, p=0·0016). In an analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, the association between long working hours and diabetes was evident in the low socioeconomic status group (risk ratio 1·29, 95% CI 1·06-1·57, difference in incidence 13 per 10?000 person-years, I(2)=0%, p=0·4662), but was null in the high socioeconomic status group (1·00, 95% CI 0·80-1·25, incidence difference zero per 10?000 person-years, I(2)=15%, p=0·2464). The association in the low socioeconomic status group was robust to adjustment for age, sex, obesity, and physical activity, and remained after exclusion of shift workers. INTERPRETATION: In this meta-analysis, the link between longer working hours and type 2 diabetes was apparent only in individuals in the low socioeconomic status groups. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, European Union New and Emerging Risks in Occupational Safety and Health research programme, Finnish Work Environment Fund, Swedish Research Council for Working Life and Social Research, German Social Accident Insurance, Danish National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Academy of Finland, Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment (Netherlands), Economic and Social Research Council, US National Institutes of Health, and British Heart Foundation.
Empirical measures of world consumption growth risk have failed to rationalize the cross-section of country equity returns. We propose a new factor, termed ?the global consumption factor?, to explain the patterns in risk premiums on international equity markets. We identify this factor as the difference between the return on a portfolio of equity market indices with high consumption growth rates and the return on a portfolio of equity market indices with low consumption growth rates. We show ...
Snow Robert W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of disease burden in Uganda, although surprisingly few contemporary, age-stratified data exist on malaria epidemiology in the country. This report presents results from a total population survey of malaria infection and intervention coverage in a rural area of eastern Uganda, with a specific focus on how risk factors differ between demographic groups in this population. Methods In 2008, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in four contiguous villages in Mulanda, sub-county in Tororo district, eastern Uganda, to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of Plasmodium species infection. All permanent residents were invited to participate, with blood smears collected from 1,844 individuals aged between six months and 88 years (representing 78% of the population. Demographic, household and socio-economic characteristics were combined with environmental data using a Geographical Information System. Hierarchical models were used to explore patterns of malaria infection and identify individual, household and environmental risk factors. Results Overall, 709 individuals were infected with Plasmodium, with prevalence highest among 5-9 year olds (63.5%. Thin films from a random sample of 20% of parasite positive participants showed that 94.0% of infections were Plasmodium falciparum and 6.0% were P. malariae; no other species or mixed infections were seen. In total, 68% of households owned at least one mosquito although only 27% of school-aged children reported sleeping under a net the previous night. In multivariate analysis, infection risk was highest amongst children aged 5-9 years and remained high in older children. Risk of infection was lower for those that reported sleeping under a bed net the previous night and living more than 750 m from a rice-growing area. After accounting for clustering within compounds, there was no evidence for an association between infection prevalence and socio-economic status, and no evidence for spatial clustering. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that mosquito net usage remains inadequate and is strongly associated with risk of malaria among school-aged children. Infection risk amongst adults is influenced by proximity to potential mosquito breeding grounds. Taken together, these findings emphasize the importance of increasing net coverage, especially among school-aged children.
... of more than 7,000 chemicals. Many are poisons. At least 70 are known to cause cancer ... at some workplaces that increase risk include asbestos, arsenic, diesel exhaust, and some forms of silica and ...
To observe the patterns of speech sounds and language disorders. To find out associated risk factors of speech sounds and language disorders. Background: Communication is the very essence of modern society. Communication disorders impacts quality of life. Patterns and factors associated with speech sounds and language impairments were explored. The association was seen with different environmental factors. Methodology: The patients included in the study were 200 whose age ranged between two and sixteen years presented in speech therapy clinic OPD Mayo Hospital. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire assessed the patient's bio data, socioeconomic background, family history of communication disorders and bilingualism. It was a descriptive study and was conducted through cross-sectional survey. Data was analysed by SPSS version 16. Results: Results reveal Language disorders were relatively more prevalent in males than those of speech sound disorders. Bilingualism was found as having insignificant effect on these disorders. It was concluded from this study that the socioeconomic status and family history were significant risk factors. Conclusion: Gender, socioeconomic status, family history can play as risk for developing speech sounds and language disorders. There is a grave need to understand patterns of communication disorders in the light of Pakistani society and culture. It is recommended to conduct further studies to determine risk factors and patterns of these impairments. (author)
When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often by as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per=kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessment for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations
Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Dijkstra, D S; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P
Environmental and socioeconomic risk factors for malaria were studied in a village in Sri Lanka. Over a period of one year, all 49 households in the village were visited every alternate day to obtain information on malaria episodes. Information on risk factors was obtained through questionnaires and direct observations. Age below 17 years (relative risk [RR] = 1.66, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.18-2.35), use of bed nets (RR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.05-0.45) and traditional fumigants (RR = 0.58, 95...
Harris, Dale B.; Pinder, Glenn D.
The results of a modified version of the Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test are presented in relation to selected demographic and socioeconomic factors as they affect youths aged 12-17 years in the noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Findings are based on data gathered on a sample of 6,768 adolescents who participated in the Health…
Lejtzén, Nadja; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Li, Xinjun
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and stress and adjustment disorders in primary health care in Sweden and to analyse the relationship between socioeconomic and demographic factors and incidence of these disorders. Prevalence and incidence data on the study population was retrieved from a Swedish primary health care database. A cohort study design was used to examine the incidence of, and risk factors for, mood disorders, ...
Saggurti, Niranjan; Jain, Anrudh K.; Sebastian, Mary Philip; Singh, Rajendra; Modugu, Hanimi Reddy; Halli, Shiva S.; Verma, Ravi K.
This paper examines the relationship between indicators of mobility, socio-economic vulnerabilities, and HIV risk behaviours among 5,498 mobile female sex workers (FSWs) living in the four high HIV prevalence states in India. Female sex workers with greater degree of mobility reported significantly more often than the FSWs with lesser degree of mobility that they experienced physical violence, and consumed alcohol prior to sex. Further, FSWs with greater degree of mobility reported significan...
Barrington, Wendy E.; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew
Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteri...
Full Text Available As adoptin and maintenance of healthy eating behaviours is an important factor for Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD prevention , this research was conducted to determin dietetic risk factors in relation to IHD. This is a case – control study conducted in fall 2003 in Tehran Heart Center and Tehran Shahid Rajaii hospital. 100 subjects with IHD, as cases and 100 controls with no cardiovascular disease in their medical history, participated in the study.Nutritional data was collected by Food Frequencey Quastionnaire. Some important risk factors including hypertention, hyperlipidemia,diabetes, Body Mass Index (BMI and physical activity were evaluated. There was a positive association between IHD and consumption of fats and a negative association between IHD and consumption of fruits and vegetables.The most important factors were low intake of fish and high intake of fried foods that increased the risk of disease 13.96 and 54.65 times, respectively. Also 73% of patients had high risk diet while only 17% of controls had high risk diet. High risk diet increased the risk of cardiovascular diseases approximately 20 times. The main dietetic risk factors in this study were : low intake of fish, fruits and vegetables and lower consumption of oiles; while hydrogenated fats with undesirable trans-fatty acid content, were the main source of dietary fat, in case group. Therefore; community-based educational programmes are nesseary to promote healty nutrition.
A biomarker is a biologic specimen that may be a marker of exposure to some substance, of its metabolism, or of the integration of exposure and metabolism. Biomarkers may also reflect host characteristics. Because biomarkers are sometimes related to risk of disease, they are important in cancer control research.
Coleman, Mick; Apts, Sherry
This article explores potential risks faced by children with disabilities who are left at home alone. The importance of assessing children's needs and skills for safely staying home alone is stressed and suggestions offered for concepts to teach children, alternate methods of supervision, and other practical concerns. (PB)
Aro, A R; Nyberg, N; Absetz, P; Henriksson, M; Lönnqvist, J
The association of socioeconomic factors, health-related factors, and social support with depressive symptoms has been extensively studied. However, most epidemiological studies have focused on a few factors such as marital status, social class, and employment. In this study of middle-aged women we analyzed both univariate and multivariate associations of socioeconomic factors, perceived physical health factors, and social support with self-rated depressive symptoms measured with the Beck Depres...
Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ? Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ? Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ? “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ? A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ? Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.
Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle
Unhealthy behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and hard drugs uses and depressive symptoms are common in early adolescence and they are well known to affect physical, mental and cognitive functions. These factors can thus favor persistent school difficulties. Socioeconomic factors are known to favor unhealthy behaviors and depressive symptoms as well as school difficulties. This study assessed the associations of unhealthy and depressive symptoms with learning difficulty, low school p...
Adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia and squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus have a poor prognosis. The increasing incidence and the strong male predominance of esophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma are striking, and yet unexplained, patterns that should be due to unknown environmental factors. The main aim of this thesis was to study occupational and socio-economic factors in relation to these tumors. Papers I, III and IV are based on a nationwide Swed...
Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death after cardiac disease and cancer in the developed countries. In patients older than 65 years old, ischemic stroke is one of the main causes of disability. They are also responsible for approximately 4.5 million deaths each year globally.The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the modifiable risk factors related to the development of ischemic stroke.The method ?f this study included bibliographic research from both reviews and researches from literature, mainly of the last 8 years. The words used in pub med data base, referred to the modifiable risk factors related to the development of ischemic stroke.Results: In the majority of research studies, responsible risk factors for ischemic stroke are classified according to their ability of modification, in modifiable and non–modifiable risk factors. Some of the modifiable risk factors have been fully documented whereas some others need further research. The main modifiable risk factor is hypertension because on the one hand it promotes atherosclerosis and, on the other hand, leads to deteriorative changes and constrictions of small brain vessels. Atrial fibrillation is the most significant risk factor for ischemic stroke, since it is responsible for more than 50% of thromboembolic cases. Also, patients with diabetes mellitus are in higher risk for developing ischemic stroke compared to healthy population, whereas the danger is increasing in insuline-depented individuals. Increase of lipids in blood and disorders of cholesterol are responsible for atherosclerosis in coronary vessels and carotid. More in detail, carotid stenosis >50% in individuals over than 65 years old consist a significant risk factor for ischemic stroke. Though, the relation of smoking to ischemic stroke is still not fully understood, however smokers are in high risk for developing ischemic stroke for the reason that smoking is significantly related to atherosclerosis. Furthermore, blood diseases and mainly sickle-cell disease is responsible for ischemic stroke because the progressive narrowing of blood vessels prevents oxygen from reaching the brain and other tissues.Conclusions: As it is supported by published evidence, the main modifiable risk factors for stroke are hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, carotid stenosis, smoking and sickle-cell disease. Taking into account that these factors are modifiable and consequently predictable, the organization of educational programs in individuals of high risk is a matter of great importance.
Elmegaard, N.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G. A. J. M.
Foreword It has become common practice to protect the environment from hazardous chemicals by use of risk assessment to establish environmental concentration at which only limited damage to the ecosystem can be expected. The methods and tools applied in the risk assessment need constant evaluation to secure that the methodology is adequate. As new knowledge surfaces the risk assessment procedures develops. The present report is a contribution to the development of safety factors used to account ...
Hilbert, A.; Pike, KM; Goldschmidt, AB; Wilfley, DE; Fairburn, CG; Dohm, FA; Walsh, BT; Striegel Weissman, R
This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. ...
Boreham, C.; Savage, J. M.; Primrose, D; Cran, G; Strain, J.
Death rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in Northern Ireland are among the highest in the world. However, no data have been available to test the hypothesis that the high prevalence of CHD is reflected by the risk status of the childhood population. A randomly selected 2% population sample of 1015 children aged 12 and 15 years was studied to obtain baseline information on blood pressure, lipid profile, cigarette smoking, family history, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and d...
Chau Kénora; Baumann Michèle; Kabuth Bernard; Chau Nearkasen
Abstract Background School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant students. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed risk for school difficulties among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. ...
Full Text Available Introduction: In the United Kingdom, rates of virological suppression on antiretroviral therapy (ART are very high, but there remain a small but significant number of people on ART with detectable viraemia. The impact of socio-economic factors on virological suppression has been little studied. Materials and Methods: We used data from ASTRA, a cross-sectional, questionnaire study of >3000 individuals from 8 clinics in the United Kingdom in 2011–2012, linked to clinical records to address this question. Included participants had received ART for >6 months with a recorded current viral load (VL (latest at the time of questionnaire. Participants provided data on demographic factors: gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity and age; and socio-economic factors: UK birth/English reading ability, employment, housing, education and financial hardship. To assess non-adherence, participants were asked if in the past 3 months, they had missed ART for ?2 days at a time. Virological suppression was defined as VL?50 cps/mL. For each socio-economic factor, we calculated prevalence ratios using modified Poisson regression, first adjusting for demographic factors, then also for non-adherence. Results: A total of 2445 people fulfilled the inclusion criteria (80% male, 69% MSM, median age: 46 years, median CD4 count: 556 cells/mm3; 10% (234/2445 had VL>50 cps/mL. After adjusting for demographic factors, non-fluent English, not being employed, not home owning, education below university level and increasing financial hardship were each associated with higher prevalence of VL>50 cps/mL. Additional adjustment for non-adherence largely attenuated each association, but did not fully explain them (see Table 1. After adjustment for non-adherence and demographic factors, younger age was also associated with VL>50 cps/mL: for each additional 10 years an individual was 0.80 (95% CI 0.70–0.92 times as likely to have VL>50 cps/mL (p=0.0019. Adjusted prevalence ratios for VL>50cps/mL were 0.91 (0.62–1.34 for women and 1.25 (0.85–1.84 for non-MSM men versus MSM, and 1.29 (0.92–1.80 for white versus non-white people. Conclusions: Among people on ART in the United Kingdom, the proportion with detectable VL is low. Poorer socio-economic status is associated with increased probability of virological non-suppression. It is likely that much of this association is mediated through difficulties in taking ART. Emphasis should be put on aiding the adherence of people in these higher risk groups.
Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena
Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper was to review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. Methods A search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and G...
G. Carson, Charlotte
The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention and information to the families involved. Previous risk factor studies have been hampered by an unsuitable study design and/or difficulties in standardization when diagnosing AD, which limit their conclusion...
Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter R; Linneberg, Allan; Skov, Lone
Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, De...
Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter R; Linneberg, Allan; Skov, Lone
Background? Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods? During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, ...
Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann; Brødsgaard Grynderup, Matias; Hansen, Åse Marie; Lund, Søren Peter; Medom Vestergaard, Jesper; Kristiansen, Jesper; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kolstad, Henrik Albert
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ...
Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann; Brødsgaard Grynderup, Matias; Hansen, Ase Marie; Lund, Søren Peter; Medom Vestergaard, Jesper; Kristiansen, Jesper; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kolstad, Henrik Albert
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ...
Recko, Matthew; Stahl, Erin Durrie
Our understanding of the dynamic interaction between the eye's growth and its ability to adapt to maintain vision has shown that childhood myopia is a significant prediction of progressive myopia and the potentially severe ocular comorbidities associated with it. It is important for us to better understand this process and its risk factors in order to better develop a prevention and treatment strategy. This article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and current therapeutic regimens for reducing myopic progression. PMID:25958656
Anna Patapuro; Henri Lahdemaki; Jaana Marttala; Markku Santala; Markku Ryynanen
Objective: To study the clinical progress, risk factors, management, and outcomes of suspected ectopic pregnancy (EP). Design: Retrospective clinical case study. Population: All 184 patients hospitalized for suspected EP during the period 1.1.2008-31.12.2011. Setting: Oulu University Hospital, Finland. Methods: The clinical progress, risk factors, management, complications and outcomes were based on studies of hospital records. Main outcome measures: Symptoms, serum quantitative human chorio...
Aims: Two overarching hypotheses were tested in this thesis- first, that the environmental factors studied during pregnancy or the time preceding birth would be associated with a higher risk of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the offspring; and second, that these risk factors and/or their magnitude of associations may be different for autism spectrum disorders with and without intellectual disability (ID). Methods: Studies I-IV were case-control studies nested within a population-bas...
Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Ross, Lone
The reasons for social inequality in breast cancer survival are far from established. Our study aims to study the importance of a range of socioeconomic factors and comorbid disorders on survival after breast cancer surgery in Denmark where the health care system is tax-funded and uniform. All 25,897 Danish women who underwent protocol-based treatment for breast cancer in 1983-1999 were identified in a clinical database and information on socioeconomic variables and both somatic and psychiatric comorbid disorders was obtained from population-based registries. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between socioeconomic position and overall survival and further to analyse breast cancer specific deaths in a competing risk set-up regarding all other causes of death as competing risks. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death was reduced in women with higher education (HR, 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-0.98), with higher income (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98) and with larger dwellings (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96 for women living in houses larger than 150 m(2)). Presence of comorbid disorders increased the HR. An interaction between income and comorbid disorders resulting in a 15% lower survival 10 year after primary surgery in poor women with low-risk breast cancer having comorbid conditions ( approximately 65%) compared to rich women with similar breast cancer prognosis and comorbid conditions ( approximately 80%) suggests that part of the explanation for the social inequality in survival after breast cancer surgery in Denmark lies in the access to and/or compliance with management of comorbid conditions in poorer women. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Background : This study was conducted in JIPMER & Kurusukuppam, Pondicherry. Objectives : To identify the socioeconomic factors influencing the utilization of cataract surgery & to identify the persons motivating the patients to utilize these services. This was a case-control study; cases were patients (age group 50-70 years who were operated in JIPMER for senile cataract without complications and one control was selected for each case. Controls were also of the same age group residing at Kurusukuppam with complaints of dimness of vision and who had not undergone cataract surgery, selected by random sampling. Both the groups were interviewed using a pretested interview schedule. Results : Subjects who were literate and with high school education and more and with income more than Rs.1050 (class III utilized the cataract surgery services more. In majority of cases, motivation for getting operated comes from relatives. Peer groups who have undergone the surgery before, were the predominant sources of health information about the surgery. Higher income & higher education affect the utilization significantly. Relatives & Previously operated peers play an important role.
Full Text Available In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors [...] on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD
Ragni, E; Lousquy, R; Costa, P; Delmas, V; Haab, F
Numerous epidemiological studies in recent years have involved the search for the principal risk factors of genitourinary prolapse. Although it has been agreed for a long time that vaginal delivery increases the risk of prolapse (proof level 1), on the other hand, the Cesarian section cannot be considered a completely effective preventative method (proof level 2). The pregnancy itself is a risk factor for prolapse (proof level 2). Certain obstetrical conditions contribute to the alterations of the perineal floor muscle: a foetus weighing more than four kilos, the use of instruments at birth (proof level 3). If the risk of prolapse increases with age, intrication with hormonal factors is important (proof level 2). The role of hormonal replacement therapy remains controversial. Antecedent pelvic surgery has also been identified as a risk factor (proof level 2). Other varying acquired factors have been documented. Obesity (BMI and abdominal perimeter), professional activity and intense physical activity (proof level 3), as well as constipation, increase the risk of prolapse. More thorough research into these varying factors is necessary in order to be able to argue for measures of prevention, obstetrical techniques having already evolved to ensure minimal damage to the perineal structure. PMID:19969261
Koch, Kristoffer; SØgaard, Mette
In a Danish population-based case-control study, we examined the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk of community-acquired bacteremia, as well as the contribution of chronic diseases and substance abuse to differences in bacteremia risk. Analyses were based on 4,117 patients aged 30-65 years who were hospitalized with first-time community-acquired bacteremia during 2000-2008 and 41,170 population controls matched by sex, age, and region of residence. Individual-level information on SES (education and income), chronic diseases, and substance abuse was retrieved from public and medical registries. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios for bacteremia. Persons of low SES had a substantially higher risk of bacteremia than those of high SES (for short duration of education vs. long duration, odds ratio = 2.30 (95% confidence interval: 2.10, 2.52); for low income vs. high income, odds ratio = 2.77 (95% confidence interval: 2.54, 3.02)). A higher prevalence of chronic diseases and substance abuse in low-SES individuals versus high-SES individuals explained 43%-48% of the socioeconomic differences in bacteremia risk. In a country with a universal welfare system, differences in the burden of chronic diseases and substance abuse seem to have major importance in explaining inequalities in bacteremia risk.
Yurimay, Quintero de Rivas; Gladys, Bastardo; Coromoto, Angarita; Mariela, Paoli; Belquis, Sanz; Lizbeth, Rojas; Glenda, Da Silva; Lelis, Rodríguez.
Full Text Available Se analizó la prevalencia de anemia en mujeres embarazadas y su asociación con el consumo de alimentos, estado nutricional y variables socioeconómicas. La muestra fue de 299 mujeres que asistieron a la consulta prenatal en los ambulatorios del Municipio Libertador Estado Mérida año 2009, en edades d [...] e 13 y 45 años. Los datos recolectados fueron, hemoglobina y hematocrito de los tres trimestres de embarazo, paridad, nivel de instrucción, ocupación, ingresos económicos y gastos en alimentación. Se aplicó encuesta de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, se determinó el Riesgo de Inseguridad Alimentaria (RIA) y el IMC para conocer el estado nutricional. El 25,75 % de las mujeres son anémicas con valores de Hb Abstract in english The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and his association with foods intake, nutritional state and socio-economic variables has been analyzed. The sample was about 299 women that assist to a prenatal consultation in the health center Libertador Municipality, State of Merida 2009, in ages betwee [...] n 13 and 45 years. The obtained data was: haemoglobin and haematocrit of the three pregnancy quarters, parity, instruction level, occupation, incomes and foods expenditure. It was applyed a survey of "foods intake frequency" and it was determined Alimentary Insecurity Risk (RIA) and the IMC to the knowledge their nutritional state. 25, 75% of the women are anemics with values of HB
... Materials The Healthy Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease High Blood Cholesterol High blood ... Your Risk Category. Use your umber of risk factors, risk score, and medical history to find out your ...
Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...
KyrØ, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri
OBJECTIVE: To identify the dietary, lifestyle and socio-economic factors associated with the intake of whole grains (WG) in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Subsample of the Scandinavian cohort 'HELGA' consisting of three prospective cohorts: The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study; The Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study; and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. SUBJECTS: A total of 8702 men and women aged 30-65 years. Dietary data are from one 24 h dietary recall and data on socio-economic status and lifestyle factors including anthropometric values are from the baseline collection of data. RESULTS: Vegetables, fruits, dairy products, fish and shellfish, coffee, tea and margarine were directly associated with the intake of WG, whereas red meat, white bread, alcohol and cakes and biscuits were inversely associated. Smoking and BMI were consistently inversely associated with the intake of WG. Furthermore, length of education was directly associated with the intake of WG among women. CONCLUSIONS: The intake of WG was found to be directly associated with healthy diet, lifestyle and socio-economic factors and inversely associated with less healthy factors, suggesting that these factors are important for consideration as potential confounders when studying WG intake and disease associations.
Krag, Kirstine Stochholm; Berglund, Agnethe
CONTEXT: GH deficiency is associated with changes in body composition, increased cardiovascular risk markers, and reduced bone mineral density. There seem to be multiple causes of the reported increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the socioeconomic status in patients with adult-onset GH deficiency and its impact on mortality. DESIGN: This is a nationwide registry study in which the socioeconomic status in adult-onset GH deficient patients was identified in the Danish registries and compared with controls matched on age and gender. The socio-economic status included cohabitation, education, income, parenthood, convictions, and retirement. PATIENTS AND CONTROLS: All patients had adult-onset GH deficiency and were born between 1950 and 1980. Two-hundred seventy-six patients (53.6% men) and 25 717 controls were included. RESULTS: GH-treated patients had a reduced mortality in total and due to malignancy compared with untreated patients. This difference remained after adjustment for cohabitation and education. Compared with the background population, the incidence of cohabitation, parenthood, and convictions was significantly reduced in patients, whereas education was unaffected. Retirement was significantly increased. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality was increased in patients, especially among patients not treated with GH. In GH-treated patients, mortality was decreased in total and due to malignancy compared with untreated patients, even after adjustment for all possible measured confounders. The patients had an impaired socioeconomic profile on most parameters compared with controls. This study does not support the suggestion that GH replacement therapy causes increased mortality.
... bladder cancer? What are the risk factors for bladder cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your ... disease. Many people with risk factors never develop bladder cancer, while others with this disease may have few ...
Objectives: Acute respiratory tract infections are divided into two groups as upper and lower respiratory tract infections. These are very common diseases in childhood. In this study, we aimed to determine risk factors for lower respiratory tract in this region. Methodology: Hospital were included in our study. Their examinations, backgrounds, family histories and information about environmental factors were recorded in questionnaire forms. Results: Lack of vaccination, duration of breast feeding, onset age of cow's milk, family history for asthma and food allergy, number of hospitalized people in the same room, number of people who live in same house and smoking around the children were evaluated for the presence of LRTI, and LRTI risks of these factors were respectively observed as 1.69, 1.71, 1.61, 1.69, 1.20, 1.47, 1.56 and 2.63 fold increased. Conclusion: Standardization of clinical diagnosis, accurate and realistic use of antibiotics, correction of nutrition, improvement of socio-economic situation and the elimination of Respiratory Infections. (author)
Carr, Mary B.; Vandiver, Trish A.
Examined risk and protective factors of youth offenders and their relation to recidivism. It was found that protective factors, specifically personal characteristics, familial conditions, and peer selection, differentiated nonrepeat offenders and repeat offenders. Present findings support adaptive model of resiliency and reinforces importance of…
Cooper, R S; Kennelly, J. F.; Durazo-Arvizu, R.; Oh, H. J.; Kaplan, G; Lynch, J.
OBJECTIVE: examined the association of mortality with selected socioeconomic indicators of inequality and segregation among blacks and whites younger than age 65 in 267 US metropolitan areas. The primary aim of the analysis was to operationalize the concept of institutional racism in public health. METHODS: Socioeconomic indicators were drawn from Census and vital statistics data for 1989-1991 and included median household income; two measures of income inequality; percentage of the populatio...
Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose
SUMMARY A strict adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has repeatedly been linked to a low risk of cardiovascular disease in several situations. Initially, the mechanisms considered as possible causes of this were based on the effects of this dietary pattern on the so-called traditional risk factors (especially lipids and blood pressure). However, the high relative reduction in the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were not proportional to the limited findings about regulation of those traditional risk factors. In addition to several studies confirming the above effects, current research on the MedDiet is being focused on defining its effects on non-traditional risk factors, such as endothelial function, inflammation, oxidative stress, or on controlling the conditions which predispose people to cardiovascular events, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current article, after briefly reviewing the known effects of the MedDiet on the traditional risk factors, we will mainly focus on reviewing the current evidence about the effects that this dietary pattern exerts on alternative factors, including postprandial lipemia or coagulation, among others, as well as providing a short review on future directions. PMID:25118147
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory disease. Knowledge about the contribution of genetics is rapidly increasing, but data on environmental factors that may cause RA is scarce. The aim of this thesis was to contribute to better knowledge about the aetiology of the disease by investigating the association between RA and socioeconomic status, psychosocial work stress and smoking. A further aim was to evaluate participation/non-participation and late response in...
Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, sedentariness, metabolic syndrome
Anno, Sumiko; Imaoka, Keiji; Tadono, Takeo; Igarashi, Tamotsu; Sivaganesh, Subramaniam; Kannathasan, Selvam; Kumaran, Vaithehi; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble
The aim of the present study was to identify geographical areas and time periods of potential clusters of dengue cases based on ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors in northern Sri Lanka from January 2010 to December 2013. Remote sensing (RS) was used to develop an index comprising rainfall, humidity and temperature data. Remote sensing data gathered by the AVNIR-2 instrument onboard the ALOS satellite were used to detect urbanisation, and a digital land cover map was used to extract land cover information. Other data on relevant factors and dengue outbreaks were collected through institutions and extant databases. The analysed RS data and databases were integrated into a geographical information system (GIS) enabling space-time clustering analysis. Our results indicate that increases in the number of combinations of ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors that are present or above the average contribute to significantly high rates of space-time dengue clusters. The spatio-temporal association that consolidates the two kinds of associations into one can ensure a more stable model for forecasting. An integrated spatiotemporal prediction model at a smaller level using ecological, socioeconomic and demographic factors could lead to substantial improvements in dengue control and prevention by allocating the right resources to the appropriate places at the right time. PMID:26618322
Full Text Available Morbid states are determined by complex factors acting in a synergistic system. Thus, population health is an integrated indicator of social development of a country, reflecting the socio-economic and moral welfare of the people, living conditions and consumption of health services, as well as the level of adequate education about risk factors and healthy behaviors. For these reasons, we decided to analyze the role of the person and of the health system for public health prosperity, given the responsibility assumed by each party, highlighting the specific cultural context of Romania. Based on the results of a qualitative study conducted on two groups of patients in the terminal stages of the disease in the general and in Rroma populations, some frequent perceptions of their own health and the role of the health system have been described.
Grünberg, H; Thetloff, M
This cross-sectional study was undertaken to assess the occurrence of conventional cardiovascular risk factors in Estonian school children after the socioeconomic changes of the early 1990s. A total of 1018 9-, 12- and 15-y-old randomly selected children were studied for lipid and lipoprotein profiles, blood pressure, weight, height, regular smoking, physical activity and family history of premature cardiovascular disease. In 11-24% of the children, total cholesterol levels were at or above the risk cut-off of 5.2 mmol l(-1), 3-5% of the children were considered to be obese and 6-12% had blood pressure higher than the age- and gender-specific 95th percentile of height. Of the 15-y-old girls and boys, 1% and 10%, respectively, admitted being daily smokers. Five percent of girls and 20% of boys smoked at least once a week. Ten to 18% of children reported little physical activity. According to age groups, 17-25% of the children had a family history of premature cardiovascular disease. The occurrence of three or more risk factors simultaneously characterized only the older age group, in which 2.3% of girls and 3.5% of boys exhibited clustering of potential cardiovascular risk factors. Our findings showed a relatively low frequency of obesity and low mean blood lipid levels with a high proportion of smokers among children in late puberty, implying that preventive efforts should focus on pubertal children to prevent adverse health behaviour. PMID:9510445
Pethleart, Aree; Saichua, Prasert; Rhongbutsri, Pochong; Leelawongtawon, Ratree; Aree, Kalaya; Tiengtip, Rattana; Nithikathkul, Choosak; Nateeworanart, Saengchai; Taylor, W R J
We studied the prevalence and risk factors for pinworm infection in children attending the kindergarten of Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, Thailand, using the Scotch-tape technique. Slides were examined by a standard light microscope; 20% of negative slides were reexamined for quality control. Symptoms and risk factor data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Three hundred thirty children age 3 to 6 years old were sampled (males=159). Sixty-five (19.7%) had symptoms consistent with pinworm infection. No pinworm eggs were detected. Most parents (73%) had a good socioeconomic status and 64% were university graduates. Pinworm infection may be uncommon in urban Thailand. PMID:20578512
Haque, Ubydul; Glass, Gregory E.; Bomblies, Arne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Mitra, Dipak; Noman, Nawajish; Haque, Waziul; Kabir, M. Moktadir; Yamamoto, Taro; Overgaard, Hans J
Malaria is endemic to Bangladesh. In this longitudinal study, we used hydrologic, topographic, and socioeconomic risk factors to explain single and multiple malaria infections at individual and household levels. Malaria incidence was determined for 1,634 households in 54 villages in 2009 and 2010. During the entire study period 21.8% of households accounted for all (n = 497) malaria cases detected; 15.4% of households had 1 case and 6.4% had ? 2 cases. The greatest risk factors for malaria in...
PETER A. EKUNWE
Full Text Available This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. Analytical techniques used were percentages, frequency counts, gross margin,profitability and multiple regression analysis. The results of the data analysis showed that majority (93% of the broiler marketers werefemale. The average age of the respondents was 42 years and the mean number of schooling years of the respondents was 8 years. The mean marketing margin per week was N350 ($2.17 while the mean gross margin per week was N5, 150 ($32. However, the average net returns per week for the entire markets were N4, 600 ($28.6. The result of the multiple regression analysis showed that the semi-log model gave the best fit with an adjusted R2 of 0.857 (85.7% and a F-ratio of 70.245. The age of broiler marketers, level of education and marketers income had positive coefficients. Thus, increase in these variables will increase the number of broilers handled per purchase. Major problems faced were loss of weight of broilers and mortality of broilers. Finance and processing were minor constraints faced by the marketer. The study recommended adequate feeding of broilers to maintain market weight, proper weighing of broiler chicken during sales, increase awareness about the need to purchase live broilers instead of frozen chicken and encouraging marketers into backward integration to increase profitability of the business. These recommendations would help to develop the poultry industry and increase marketing efficiency.
Full Text Available Introduction. The rates of suicide are two to three times higher in men than in women in all communities. This “gender paradox” can be explained by various factors, such as more impulsive nature of men and their choice of more efficient (more lethal methods to commit suicide. This study was aimed at finding the correlation between the gender and other suicidal factors. Material and Methods. The study sample consisted of persons who committed suicide on the territory of Kragujevac in the period from 1996 to 2001. This study was based on the records kept by the Ministry of the Interior as well as by the Psychiatric Clinic of the Clinical Centre ”Kragujevac”. Data for weather were obtained from the Serbian Meteorological Institute reports. Results. During the analyzed period 121 suicides were committed on the territory of Kragujevac. The gender structure showed that within persons who committed suicide there were 78.5% men and 21.5% women (p<0.01. As for diseases which had existed before suicide, women suffered from the underlying psychic disorder in 65.3%, while 50.5% of men had both a psychic disorder and addiction problem. Hanging was the most frequently used method by both men and women (57.9% and 65.4%, respectively; and home was chosen as the place to commit suicide by 49.5% men and 42.3% women. Both men and women had a behaviour disorder before suicide, in 75.8% and 88.4% of the cases, respectively, (p<0.01. The dominating motive was a disease in 17.9% of men, whereas family problems prevailed in 11.5% of women (p<0.01. Conclusion. There is a statistically important difference between men and women considering pre-suicidal behaviour, suicidal motive and suicidal frequency.
Thumboo, J.; Chew, L; Lewin-Koh, S
Methods: 126 consecutive Chinese (110), Malays (two), Indians (10), or other races (four) with knee or hip OA and a median age of 60.5 years were seen at a tertiary referral centre; 103 were women. Subjects underwent a structured assessment including the Short Form-36 (SF-36) bodily pain (BP) and physical functioning (PF) scales and assessing demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and other characteristics. Factors influencing BP or PF were identified using separate multiple linear regress...
Simona Carla SilviaCaravita; SimonaGiardino; LeonardoLenzi
Neuroscientific and psychological research on moral development has until now developed independently, referring to distinct theoretical models, contents, and methods. In particular, the influence of socio-economic and cultural factors on morality has been broadly investigated by psychologists but as yet has not been investigated by neuroscientists. The value of bridging these two areas both theoretically and methodologically has, however, been suggested. This study aims at providing a first ...
Tavassoli, Ali Akbar; Gharipour, Mojgan; khosravi, Alireza; KELISHADI, Roya; Siadat, Zahra Dana; Bahonar, Ahmad; Sadri, Gholam Hosein; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Rabiei, Katayoun; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Zarfeshani, Sonia; Eshrati, Babak; Shirani, Shahin; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
This study investigated the gender differences in association of some behavioural and socioeconomic factors with obesity indices in a population-based sample of 12,514 Iranian adults. The mean body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were significantly higher in women than in men. Current and passive smoking had an inverse association with BMI among males whereas current smoking, transportation by a private car, and longer duration of watching televisi...
Gotsadze George; Djibuti Mamuka; Mataradze George; Zoidze Akaki
Abstract Background To identify demographic and socio-economic factors that are associated with household expenditure on tobacco in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russian Federation, and Tajikistan. Methods Secondary analysis of the data available through the World Bank Living Standards Monitoring Survey conducted in aforementioned countries in 1995–2000. The role of different variables (e.g. mean age of household members, household area of residence, household size, share of ad...
Zuhal Bahar; Figen Çavusoglu
Background: Substance dependence is a global problem threatening individuals and communities alike by negatively influencing public health and social cohesion.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of socioeconomic factors and family social support on substance use and/or dependence among health school students.Results: A significant difference was found between student substance users and nonusers in terms of age, grade level, educational level and vocational statu...
Choy, Seow Huey; Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi; Mahdy, Mohammed A. K.; Nasr, Nabil N.; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A L; Surin, Johari
This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those ag...
Kvaavik, Elisabeth; Glymour, Maria; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Tell, Grethe S; Batty, G. David
Background: Childhood socio-economic disadvantage has been shown to be associated with an elevated rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in adulthood. The objective of this study is to examine associations between mothers’ and fathers’ education and offspring CVD risk factors. Methods: The Oslo Youth Study (n?=?498) was initiated in 1979. Children (age 11–15 years) attending six schools and their parents were included. Information on education was collected for parents and participants....
Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam
The adolescence period of life comes along with changes and challenges in terms of physical and cognitive development. In this hectic period, many adolescents may suffer more from various risk factors such as low socioeconomic status, substance abuse, sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicate that such disadvantaged backgrounds of Malaysian adolescent students lead to failure or underachievement in their academic performance. This narrative review scrutinises how some of these stu...
Serdar Öztora; Sami Hatipo?lu; Mehmet Bahad?r Barutçugil; Bahar Saliho?lu; Reyhan Y?ld?r?m; Esra ?evketo?lu
Objective: Our study is designed to estimate the prevalence of obesity and related risk factors for the primary school children of higher socioeconomic status. Material and Methods: Healthy children attending to a private school of National Education Ministry in Bak?rköy district were involved in the study. Between dates of 1.4.2003-1.6.2003, 299 students aged 6-15 years were included. A questionnaire was applied to students’ parents including questions about parents weight and height, eating...
Risk factor selection is an important step in a successful risk management plan. There are many risk factors in a construction project and by an effective and systematic risk selection process the most critical risks can be distinguished to have more attention. In this paper through a comprehensive literature survey, most significant risk factors in a construction project are classified in a hierarchical structure. For an effective risk factor selection, a modified rational multi criteria dec...
Full Text Available The study presents data collected in an assessment on the effects of socioeconomic factors on access to improved water sources and basic sanitation in Bomet municipality. Bomet municipality is one of the areas in Kenya where water borne diseases such as intestinal worms, diarrhea and bilharzia are most prevalent. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between socioeconomic factors and access to improved water and basic sanitation. A Multi-stage random sampling method was used to obtain the sample. The questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection. Analysis of data was done using the SPSS. Chi-Square test at 5% level of significance was used to analyze socioeconomic factors that determined household access to improved water and sanitation. The findings show that households’ characteristics such as occupation and education level of the household head have a strong impact on the type of water source used by household as indicated by significance level of 0.01. The study also confirms that the type of toilet facility used by household was significantly influenced by the marital status of household head as indicated by significance level of 0.02. There is need for inclusive growth, basic education and women empowerment in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs.
Vestergaard, Peter; Rejnmark, Lars; Mosekilde, Leif
To study the effects of hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors on risk of fractures, we carried out a case-control study including 124,655 fracture cases and 373,962 age- and gender-matched controls. The main exposure was hypertension, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, and deep venous thromboembolism, and the main confounders were use of diuretics, antihypertensive drugs, organic nitrates, vitamin K antagoni...
Brækkan, Sigrid Kufaas
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, is a common disease, with serious short- and long-term complications and a potential fatal outcome. Despite the knowledge of several inherited and acquired risk factors for VTE, still 30-50 % of the VTE events occur in the absence of obvious predisposing factors. Traditionally, arterial and venous thrombosis has been considered as separate disease entities with different pathology, epidemiology and treatments...
Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.
Full Text Available In the rural part of our country the use of traditional biomass was common and as a result of this, women who light the fire and bake bread and cook meals as well as children around them are exposed to the smoke that come out . The aim of this study was to to determine possible risk factors and associated conditions of COPD in women. The study was prospective and case-controlled. Fifty-two female patients with COPD followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital Department of Respiratory Medicine were included in this study. All cases were enrolled between December 2000 and October 2003. Fifty-four female non COPD subjects were chosen as the control group. These control subjects who did not have lung diseases were randomly selected in different outpatient clinics in the same hospital. Age, place of residence, comorbid conditions, cigarette smoking (active and passive, occupational exposure, air pollution, socio-economic status, education level, passive smoking in childhood, the fuel used for heating, cooking and baking bread and its duration were questioned. Results from this study suggest that exposure to cooking smoke, low education level, living in rural area, baking bread at home were associated risk factors with COPD among women.
Kuo, Chang-Fu; Grainge, Matthew J; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael
Gout is a crystal-deposition disease that results from chronic elevation of uric acid levels above the saturation point for monosodium urate (MSU) crystal formation. Initial presentation is mainly severely painful episodes of peripheral joint synovitis (acute self-limiting 'attacks') but joint damage and deformity, chronic usage-related pain and subcutaneous tophus deposition can eventually develop. The global burden of gout is substantial and seems to be increasing in many parts of the world over the past 50 years. However, methodological differences impair the comparison of gout epidemiology between countries. In this comprehensive Review, data from epidemiological studies from diverse regions of the world are synthesized to depict the geographic variation in gout prevalence and incidence. Key advances in the understanding of factors associated with increased risk of gout are also summarized. The collected data indicate that the distribution of gout is uneven across the globe, with prevalence being highest in Pacific countries. Developed countries tend to have a higher burden of gout than developing countries, and seem to have increasing prevalence and incidence of the disease. Some ethnic groups are particularly susceptible to gout, supporting the importance of genetic predisposition. Socioeconomic and dietary factors, as well as comorbidities and medications that can influence uric acid levels and/or facilitate MSU crystal formation, are also important in determining the risk of developing clinically evident gout. PMID:26150127
Relación entre el Nivel Socioeconómico y Hábitos de Vida, con el Fibrinógeno y el Factor von Willebrand en Venezolanos Sanos y con Cardiopatía Isquémica / Relation between Socioeconomic Levels and Life Style with Fibrinogen and von Willebrand Factor in Venezuela.
Álvaro, Rodríguez-Larralde; Mercedes E, Mijares; Elena, Nagy; Raul, Espinosa; Elena, Ryde; María P., Diez-Ewald; Enrique, Torres; Enriqueta, Coll-Sangrona; Elsy, Rodríguez- Roa; Zoila, Carvajal; Ulf, Lundberg; Gilberto, Campos; Amparo, Gi; Carmen L, Arocha-Piñango.
Full Text Available Estudios epidemiológicos en Europa, EEUU y Japón, han revelado una relación inversa entre la concentración de fibrinógeno y del factor von Willebrand con el nivel socioeconómico. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la relación entre el fibrinógeno y el factor von Willebrand con el nivel s [...] ocioeconómico, los hábitos tabáquicos, alcohólicos, actividad física y la edad, en una población venezolana aparentemente sana de 978 hombres y 968 mujeres (grupo control), y en 172 hombres y 78 mujeres con Enfermedad Cardiovascular Isquémica. Se consideró factor de riesgo comportamiento para niveles altos de fibrinógeno y factor von Willebrand, la presencia de uno o más de los siguientes hábitos: ser fumador o ex-fumador de menos de 5 años, no ingerir alcohol o ingerirlo en exceso, y el tener una actividad física muy limitada. En los controles, la edad tuvo un efecto significativo y positivo sobre las dos variables hemostáticas, en ambos sexos. En relación al efecto del nivel socioeconómico, se observó una tendencia en ambas variables de mostrar las concentraciones más altas en los niveles más bajos, sólo significativa en las mujeres. En cambio, el factor de riesgo comportamiento no tuvo un efecto significativo sobre ninguna de las dos variables. En los pacientes, la edad no tuvo efecto sobre ninguna de las variables, el factor de riesgo comportamiento tuvo un efecto significativo positivo sólo sobre el fibrinógeno de los hombres, y el nivel socioeconómico sólo tuvo efectos significativos en la concentración de fibrinógeno de las mujeres: valores altos en niveles socioeconómicos bajos. Se recomienda continuar con estos estudios para entender mejor la relación entre el nivel socioeconómico, las variables hemostáticas y la incidencia de Enfermedad Cardiovascular Isquémica. Abstract in english Previous studies in Europe, USA and Japan have revealed an inverse relationship between socioeconomic levels and fibrinogen concentration. Similar results have been reported in a smaller number of studies for concentrations of von Willebrand factor. In this opportunity we present results on the rela [...] tionship between smoking, drinking, physical activity, age and socioeconomic level on fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor concentrations in a Venezuelan sample. The Control population consisted of 978 men and 968 women. Patients with Coronary Heart Disease were 172 males and 78 females. The presence of one or more of the following conditions: smoking or less than 5 years of having quit, non drinkers or drinking in excess, and a reduced physical activity, was considered a health related risk factor for high levels of these two haemostatic variables. Our results indicate that in Controls, the socioeconomic level had a significant effect on fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor levels, only in women: those of lower socioeconomic levels had the highest concentrations. This difference was maintained when age was taken into account. Health related behaviors had no significant effect on either variable. In Patients, age had no effect on either variable. The health behavior risk factor had a significant effect only on fibrinogen of male patients, and socioeconomic level had a significant effect only on the fibrinogen of female patients. More studies in Venezuela are recommended, in order to increase our knowledge on the relationship between socioeconomic levels, haemostatic markers and the occurrence of Coronary Heart Disease.
Samir K. Jabaiti
Full Text Available Problem Statement: Abdominoplasty has become an increasingly popular procedure. Risk factors affecting wound complications of abdominoplasty are not adequately defined in literature. Identification of these risk factors is crucial for better patient?s selection and counseling. The objectives of this study were to determine wound complication rate following abdominoplasty and to examine the relationship of a set of possible risk factors with the incidence of complications. Approach: We studied 116 patients (107 women and 9 men who underwent abdominoplasty at Jordan University Hospital, between June 1997 and June 2007. Data were collected from patients? medical records and analyzed to determine types and rates of surgical wound complications. Fourteen possible risk factors were investigated using logistic regression analysis to evaluate their relationship with the occurrence of wound complications. Risk factors examined were: age, sex, body mass index, parity number, smoking history, history of diabetes mellitus, previous gastroplasty for morbid obesity, previous abdominal surgical scars, type of abdominoplasty, plication of recti, hernia repair, operative time and operative blood loss. Results: A total of 29 patients (two males and 27 females (25% had wound complications. The most common complication was seroma. It was encountered in 15 cases (12.9%. Six patients (5.2% had wound infection. Partial skin necrosis was encountered in four cases (3.4 %. Two patients (1.7% developed wound dehiscence and two patients (1.7% had hematoma. The only factors significantly increased the complication rate were: increased body mass index (p = 0.002 and history of smoking (p = 0.004. Conclusions and Recommendations: This study confirms the adverse effect of overweight and cigarette smoking on the incidence of wound complication rate following abdominoplasty. We recommend that overweight patients and smokers undergoing abdominoplasty should be adequately counseled and informed about the increased risks. In addition, prophylactic measures should be properly taken to decrease wound complication rate in these groups of patients.
Full Text Available Road construction projects are considered as the most important governmental issues since there are normally heavy investments required in such projects. There is also shortage of financial resources in governmental budget, which makes the asset allocation more challenging. One primary step in reducing the cost is to determine different risks associated with execution of such project activities. In this study, we present some important risk factors associated with road construction in two levels for a real-world case study of rail-road industry located between two cities of Esfahan and Deligan. The first group of risk factors includes the probability and the effects for various attributes including cost, time, quality and performance. The second group of risk factors includes socio-economical factors as well as political and managerial aspects. The study finds 21 main risk factors as well as 193 sub risk factors. The factors are ranked using groups decision-making method called linear assignment. The preliminary results indicate that the road construction projects could finish faster with better outcome should we carefully consider risk factors and attempt to reduce their impacts.
Brophy Sinead; Thomas Non; Rees Anwen; Knox Gareth; Williams Rhys
Abstract Background Childhood obesity levels are rising with estimates suggesting that around one in three children in Western countries are overweight. People from lower socioeconomic status and ethnic minority backgrounds are at higher risk of obesity and subsequent CVD and diabetes. Within this study we examine the prevalence of risk factors for CVD and diabetes (obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension) and examine factors associated with the presence of these risk factors in school ch...
Carson, Charlotte Giwercman
The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention and information to the families involved. Previous risk factor studies have been hampered by an unsuitable study design and/or difficulties in standardization when diagnosing AD, which limit their conclusions. In paper I, we conducted a traditional cross-sectional analysis testing 40 possible risk factors for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD. This traditional risk factor analysis led to two borderline significant results: duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's alcohol intake during the 3rd trimester. Since these possible two risk factors could neither be rejected nor accepted, we decided to do two in-depth studies, further investigating these, using longitudinal data information and data analysis instead of the traditional cross-sectional approach (paper II & III). In paper II, we investigated the risk of developing AD and wheezy symptoms until age 2 years depending on duration of breastfeeding. We found an increased risk of AD, but a protective effect on wheezy disorders in infancy from exclusive breastfeeding. The effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the risk of development of AD was significant after adjustment for demographics, FLG variants R501X and 2282del4 status, parent's AD and pets at home (RR 2.09, 95% CI 1.15-3.80, p=0.016). In addition, there was a significant effect of duration of exclusive breastfeeding (p=0.043), as the relative risk of AD was increased in proportion to increased duration of breastfeeding. The risk associated with exclusive breastfeeding was not explained by the fatty acid composition of mother's milk, though a trend showed higher risk of AD if mother's milk had low concentrations of n-3 fatty acids. In paper III, we found that alcohol intake during pregnancy was associated with a significantly higher risk of developing AD in the offspring, with the effect persisting throughout the whole 7 years follow-up period (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99, p=0.024). The increased risk was still significant after confounder adjustment for mother's education, AD and smoking habits during the 3rd trimester. There was no association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and other atopic endpoints (wheeze episodes, asthma, allergic rhinitis, blood eosinophil count, total IgE, sensitization, cord blood IgE and nasal eosinophilia). However, the underlying explanation was not clear. The thesis is based on data collected as part of the ongoing COPSAC cohort. The cohort is a longitudinal, prospective birth cohort following 411 children born to mothers with asthma. This selection of high-risk children restricts the interpretation of the results and they cannot necessarily be expanded to apply to the general population. PMID:23809981
G. Carson, Charlotte
The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention and information to the families involved. Previous risk factor studies have been hampered by an unsuitable study design and/or difficulties in standardization when diagnosing AD, which limit their conclusions. In paper I, we conducted a traditional cross-sectional analysis testing 40 possible risk factors for developing AD at 3 years of age. Our data suggested a strong heredity of AD and confirmed the risk associated with the non-functional FLG allele mutations after adjustments for confounders. Besides this mother's dermatitis and father's allergic rhinitis were found to increase the risk of AD. Perinatal exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD. This traditional risk factor analysis led to two borderline significant results: duration of exclusive breastfeeding and mother's alcohol intake during the 3rd trimester. Since these possible two risk factors could neither be rejected nor accepted, we decided to do two in-depth studies, further investigating these, using longitudinal data information and data analysis instead of the traditional cross-sectional approach (paper II & III). In paper II, we investigated the risk of developing AD and wheezy symptoms until age 2 years depending on duration of breastfeeding. We found an increased risk of AD, but a protective effect on wheezy disorders in infancy from exclusive breastfeeding. The effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the risk of development of AD was significant after adjustment for demographics, FLG variants R501X and2282del4 status, parent's AD and pets at home (RR 2.09, 95% CI 1.15-3.80, p=0.016). In addition, there was a significant effect of duration of exclusive breastfeeding (p=0.043), as the relative risk of AD was increased in proportion to increased duration of breastfeeding. The risk associated with exclusive breastfeeding was not explained by the fatty acid composition of mother's milk, though a trend showed higher risk of AD if mother's milk had low concentrations of n-3 fatty acids. In paper III, we found that alcohol intake during pregnancy was associated with a significantly higher risk of developing AD in the offspring, with the effect persisting throughout the whole 7 years follow-up period (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05-1.99, p=0.024). The increased risk was still significant after confounder adjustment for mother's education, AD and smoking habits during the 3rd trimester. There was no association between alcohol intake during pregnancy and other atopic endpoints (wheeze episodes, asthma, allergic rhinitis, blood eosinophil count, total IgE, sensitization, cord blood IgE and nasal eosinophilia). However, the underlying explanation was not clear. The thesis is based on data collected as part of the ongoing COPSAC cohort. The cohort is a longitudinal, prospective birth cohort following 411 children born to mothers with asthma. This selection of high-risk children restricts the interpretation of the results and they cannot necessarily be expanded to apply to the general population.
Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen; Sakse, A
Please cite this paper as: Jangö H, Langhoff-Roos J, Rosthøj S, Sakse A. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures: a population-based cohort study. BJOG 2012;00:000-000 DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03486.x. Objective? To determine the incidence and risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter rupture (ASR). Design? Population-based retrospective cohort study. Setting? Data were taken from the National Medical Birth Registry, Denmark. Population? Patients with a first and a second vaginal d...
Fatores sócio-econômicos relacionados ao risco nutricional e sua associação com a freqüência de defeitos do esmalte em crianças da cidade de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil / Socioeconomic factors, nutritional risk, and enamel defects in children from João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil
Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino, Massoni; Andressa Feitosa Bezerra de, Oliveira; Ana Maria Barros, Chaves; Fábio Correia, Sampaio; Aronita, Rosenblatt.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar fatores associados ao risco nutricional ao longo do primeiro ano de vida em crianças de baixo nível sócio-econômico de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Região Nordeste do Brasil. E determinar a freqüência de defeitos do esmalte, associando-a ao risco nutricional. O estudo [...] foi realizado com 117 crianças, 56 com risco nutricional e 61 eutróficas. Em domicílio, realizaram-se avaliação nutricional, exame clínico dos elementos dentais e entrevistas com as mães. Na maternidade, registraram-se informações dos períodos gestacional e de nascimento. Utilizaram-se os testes qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e modelos de regressão logística. Os defeitos do esmalte estiveram associados ao risco nutricional após o primeiro ano de vida. O risco nutricional esteve associado à renda per capita, condições de peso ao nascimento e índice de crescimento intra-uterino. Conclui-se que na amostra investigada os defeitos do esmalte estiveram associados ao risco nutricional e este às condições sócio-econômicas desfavoráveis durante a gestação e o nascimento, sugerindo que estes são fatores relevantes na programação nutricional do indivíduo e na formação do esmalte dentário. Abstract in english This study focused on factors related to nutritional risk in children over one year of age from low-income families in João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil, and the frequency of related enamel defects. The study included 117 children, 56 at nutritional risk and 61 with normal growth. Nutriti [...] onal evaluation, clinical dental examination, and interviews with mothers were conducted at the homes. Gestational and birth records were examined in the maternity hospital. Data were analyzed using the chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Enamel defects were associated with nutritional risk after the first year of life. Nutritional risk was associated with per capita family income, birth weight, and intrauterine growth index. These are relevant factors for individual nutritional planning and formation of dental enamel.
Fatores sócio-econômicos relacionados ao risco nutricional e sua associação com a freqüência de defeitos do esmalte em crianças da cidade de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil Socioeconomic factors, nutritional risk, and enamel defects in children from João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil
Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino Massoni
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar fatores associados ao risco nutricional ao longo do primeiro ano de vida em crianças de baixo nível sócio-econômico de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Região Nordeste do Brasil. E determinar a freqüência de defeitos do esmalte, associando-a ao risco nutricional. O estudo foi realizado com 117 crianças, 56 com risco nutricional e 61 eutróficas. Em domicílio, realizaram-se avaliação nutricional, exame clínico dos elementos dentais e entrevistas com as mães. Na maternidade, registraram-se informações dos períodos gestacional e de nascimento. Utilizaram-se os testes qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e modelos de regressão logística. Os defeitos do esmalte estiveram associados ao risco nutricional após o primeiro ano de vida. O risco nutricional esteve associado à renda per capita, condições de peso ao nascimento e índice de crescimento intra-uterino. Conclui-se que na amostra investigada os defeitos do esmalte estiveram associados ao risco nutricional e este às condições sócio-econômicas desfavoráveis durante a gestação e o nascimento, sugerindo que estes são fatores relevantes na programação nutricional do indivíduo e na formação do esmalte dentário.This study focused on factors related to nutritional risk in children over one year of age from low-income families in João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil, and the frequency of related enamel defects. The study included 117 children, 56 at nutritional risk and 61 with normal growth. Nutritional evaluation, clinical dental examination, and interviews with mothers were conducted at the homes. Gestational and birth records were examined in the maternity hospital. Data were analyzed using the chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Enamel defects were associated with nutritional risk after the first year of life. Nutritional risk was associated with per capita family income, birth weight, and intrauterine growth index. These are relevant factors for individual nutritional planning and formation of dental enamel.
Mejdoubi Jamila; van den Heijkant Silvia; Struijf Elle; van Leerdam Frank; HiraSing Remy; Crijnen Alfons
Abstract Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s). Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this progr...
Higa, Rosângela; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; dos Reis, Maria José
The goal of this study was to conduct a review of the main papers published between 1983 and 2003 on the main risk factors for urinary incontinence (UI) in women. Thirty-eight publications in English and Portuguese were analyzed using the MEDLINE and LILACS databases as well as through research in libraries. There is evidence that the main risk factors are age, pelvic floor trauma, hereditary factors, race, menopausal status, obesity, chronic diseases, use of some sympathomimetics and parasympatholitics, constipation, smoking, coffee consumption and intense abdominal exercises. Nurses are able to identify these factors through anamnesis and determine interventions for the prevention and treatment of UI, thus contributing to improve incontinent women's quality of life. PMID:18450165
The role of material, psychosocial and behavioral factors in mediating the association between socioeconomic position and allostatic load (measured by cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory markers).
Robertson, Tony; Benzeval, Michaela; Whitley, Elise; Popham, Frank
Lower socioeconomic position (SEP), both accumulated across the life course and at different life-stages, has been found to be associated with higher cumulative physiological burden, as measured by allostatic load. This study aimed to identify what factors mediate the association between SEP and allostatic load, as measured through combining cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory markers. We explored the role of material, psychological and behavioral factors, accumulated across two periods in time, in mediating the association between SEP and allostatic load. Data are from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study, with respondents followed over five waves of data collection from ages 35 to 55 (n=999). Allostatic load was measured by summing nine binary biomarker scores ('1'=in the highest-risk quartile) measured when respondents were 55years old (wave 5). SEP was measured by a person's accumulated social class over two periods All mediators and SEP were measured at baseline in 1987 and 20years later and combined to form accumulated measures of risk. Material mediators included car and home ownership, and having low income. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used as the psychosocial mediator. Behavioral mediators included smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet. Path analysis using linear regressions adjusting for sex were performed for each of the potential mediators to assess evidence of attenuation in the association between lower SEP and higher allostatic load. Analyses by mediator type revealed that renting one's home (approximately 78% attenuation) and having low income (approx. 62% attenuation) largely attenuated the SEP-allostatic load association. GHQ did not attenuate the association. Smoking had the strongest attenuating effect of all health behaviors (by 33%) with no other health behaviors attenuating the association substantially. Material factors, namely home tenure and income status, and smoking have important roles in explaining socioeconomic disparities in allostatic load, particularly when accumulated over time. PMID:25459100
Thakur, Anita; Gupta, Bhupender; Gupta, Anmol; Chauhan, Raman
In Himachal Pradesh, cancer cervix is a major public health problem since it ranks as the number one female cancer. A case-control study of 226 newly diagnosed, histopathologically confirmed cases of cancer cervix and equal number of matched controls was conducted at Regional Cancer Center, Himachal Pradesh during the period from July 2008 to October 2009 with the objective to study the common factors associated with cancer cervix. Univariate analysis identified 10 risk factors associated significantly with the disease. On multiple logistic regression, however, only seven risk factors were found to be associated significantly with the disease. These were: Age at birth of first child, spacing between two children, age at marriage, literacy, socioeconomic status, multiparity, and poor genital hygiene. Risk factors such as poor genital hygiene, age at birth of first child early marriage, illiteracy, multiparity, and low socioeconomic status were highly prevalent in the study subjects and were found to be significantly associated with cancer cervix. PMID:25758731
Peter K. Panegyres
Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.
Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva
Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8,670 participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark) were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work-related stress, social network, vital exhaustion, and sleep medication and were follow...
Nizarali, Z; Marques, T; Costa, C.; Barroso, R.; Cunha, M.
Background: Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) is the most common heart disease among the newborn population. Besides prematurity, other factors are believed to play a significant role in this condition. Aims: Identification of perinatal risk factors associated with PDA in premature or Very Low Birth Weight Infants (VLBW). Material and methods: Transversal study including all infants admitted to a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, from January 2005 to December 2009 and includ...
Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona
Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...
The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non r to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non
Zhao, Juanjuan; Chen, Shengbin; Wang, Hua; Ren, Yin; Du, Ke; Xu, Weihua; Zheng, Hua; Jiang, Bo
Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of "environmental investment" to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) "population in mining sector" and "coverage of green space in built-up area" were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. PMID:22575095
BelstrØm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. RESULTS: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [G-3] brachy) were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01). Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI), and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. CONCLUSIONS: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.
This quasiexperimental research studies the effect of socioeconomic status (SES), language learning, and culture on gifted Hispanic children's performance in an alternative developmental scale (Qualitative Use of English and Spanish Tasks) of cognitive ability for generating developmental profiles. Results show the effect of SES and language…
... causes breast cancer in men? What are the risk factors for breast cancer in men? A risk factor is anything that ... risk factor for skin cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for cancers of the lung, mouth, larynx (voice box), bladder, ...
Doris W Njomo
Full Text Available Background: Annual Mass Drug Administration (MDA to at least 65 - 80% of the population at risk is necessary for Lymphatic Filariasis (LF elimination. In Kenya, MDA based on diethylcarbamazine and albendazole, using the community-directed treatment (ComDT approach has been implemented thrice in the Kwale and Malindi districts. To identify the socioeconomic factors influencing compliance with MDA, a retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the two districts after the 2008 MDA. Materials and Methods: In Kwale, the Tsimba location was selected for high and Gadini for low coverage, while in Malindi, the Goshi location represented high and Gongoni, low coverage. Using systematic sampling, nine villages were selected from the four locations. Quantitative data was collected from 965 systematically selected household heads and analyzed using SPSS v. 15. For qualitative data, which was analyzed manually according to core themes of the study, 80 opinion leaders and 80 LF patients with clinical signs were purposively selected and interviewed, and 16 focus group discussions (FGDs conducted with adult and youth male and female groups. Results: Christians were slightly more (49.1% in the high compliance areas compared to Muslims (34.3%, while Muslims prevailed (40.6% in the low compliance areas compared to Christians (29%. On the income level, 27% from the low compared to 12.2% from the high compliance areas had a main occupation, indicative of a higher income, and 95% from the low compared to 78% from high compliance areas owned land, also an indicator of higher economic status. Accurate knowledge of the cause of swollen limbs was higher (37% in the high compared to 25.8% in the low compliance areas, and so was accurate knowledge about the cause of swollen genitals (26.8% in high compared to 14% in low. Risk perception was higher in the high compliance areas (52% compared to 45% and access to MDA information seemed to have been better in the high compared to low compliance areas. Patients from the high compliance areas had a higher mean number of years with chronic disease (15.2 compared to 9.7. Conclusions: There is a need for more investment in reaching out to groups that are often missed during MDAs. Different strategies have to be devised to reach those in specific religious groupings and those in casual employment. This could include prolonging the duration of MDA to capture those who are out during the week seeking for casual and other forms of employment.
Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction
... Materials The Healthy Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease Overweight and Obesity A healthy ... heart disease even if you have no other risk factors. Overweight and obesity also increase the risks for ...
Ngo, Anh D; Catherine Paquet; Howard, Natasha J.; Coffee, Neil T.; Taylor, Anne W.; Robert J. Adams; Mark Daniel
This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension). A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000–2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median h...
Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia HØst
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Adjusted results suggested associations between smoking, high BMI and triglyceride level and low high-density lipoprotein level and increased low-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kHz). Furthermore, an increasing load of atherogenic risk factors seemed associated with increased low-frequency hearing thresholds, but only at a borderline level of statistical significance. Associations were generally strongest with hearing levels of the worst hearing ear. We found no statistically significant associations between atherogenic risk factors and high-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 4, 6 and 8 kHz).
Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia HØst
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Adjusted results suggested associations between smoking, high BMI and triglyceride level and low high-density lipoprotein level and increased low-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kHz). Furthermore, an increasing load of atherogenic risk factors seemed associated with increased low-frequency hearing thresholds, but only at a borderline level of statistical significance. Associations were generally strongest with hearing levels of the worst hearing ear. We found no statistically significant associations between atherogenic risk factors and high-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 4, 6 and 8 kHz). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather
Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…
Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa
Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…
van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.
One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…
Tome?ková, Marie; Rauch, J.; Berka, P.
Caen : University of Caen, 2004 - (Berka, P.; Cremilleux, B.), s. 1-7 [ECML/PKDD 2004 Discovery Challenge. Pisa (IT), 20.09.2004-24.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00B107 Keywords : data mining * epidemiological study * risk factors of the atherosclerosis Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information
Zivaljevic, V.; Slijepcevic, N.; Paunovic, I.; Diklic, A.; Kalezic, N.; Marinkovic, J.; Zivic, R.; Vekic, B.; Sipetic, S.
Background. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is a form of thyroid cancer with very poor prognosis, but is fortunately quite rare. Its aetiology is unknown and not well researched. Aim. The aim of this study was to identify potential risk factors for ATC. Material and Method. Case-control study of 126 ATC patients (77 females and 49 males) and 252 controls individually matched by gender, age, and place of abode. In statistical analysis we used a Cox regression model. Results. Univariate logistic regression showed that the risk factors for ATC are low education level, type B blood group, goitre, other nonthyroid malignancies, diabetes, late menarche, and an early first pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that independent risk factors for ATC are low education level (OR?=?1.42, 95% CI?=?1.09–1.86), type B blood group (OR?=?2.41, 95% CI?=?1.03–5.66), and goitre (OR?=?25–33, 95% CI?=?5.66–126.65). Conclusion. Independent risk factors for ATC are: low education level, type B blood group, and goitre. PMID:24949009
Jaafarpour, Molouk; KHANI, Ali; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Suhrabi, Zeinab
Background and Aim: Sexual dysfunction adversely affects quality of life, self esteem and interpersonal relationships and it may often be responsible for psychopathological disturbances. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and associated risk factors for Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) in women with Kurdish culture from western Iran .
Rodrigues AN; GR Abreu; Resende RS; Goncalves WL; Gouvea SA
Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentarines...
Direct Estimates are the usual estimates reported from a survey-directly estimated from the survey data using appropriate weighting. Most of these direct estimates are based on data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a large annual telephone survey of U.S. households designed to measure at the state level.
Rutter, Philip A.; Behrendt, Andrew E.
Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents. This study examined the suicidal ideation, behavior, and attempt history of 100 adolescents ages seventeen to nineteen. Four psychosocial factors were found to be important for overall suicide risk: hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept, and isolation. It is suggested that focusing on…
MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.
The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…
Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; SALLIS, JAMES F.; King, Abby C.; Bess H. Marcus; Steven N. Blair
Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT) on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicen...
Myrowitz, Elliott H
The development and progression of early onset myopia is actively being investigated. While myopia is often considered a benign condition it should be considered a public health problem for its visual, quality of life, and economic consequences. Nearly half of the visually impaired population in the world has uncorrected refractive errors, with myopia a high percent of that group. Uncorrected visual acuity should be screened for and treated in order to improve academic performance, career opportunities and socio-economic status. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to the onset and progression of myopia. Twin studies have supported genetic factors and research continues to identify myopia genetic loci. While multiple myopia genetic loci have been identified establishing myopia as a common complex disorder, there is not yet a genetic model explaining myopia progression in populations. Environmental factors include near work, education levels, urban compared to rural location, and time spent outdoors. In this field of study where there continues to be etiology controversies, there is recent agreement that children who spend more time outdoors are less likely to become myopic. Worldwide population studies, some completed and some in progress, with a common protocol are gathering both genetic and environmental cohort data of great value. There have been rapid population changes in prevalence rates supporting an environmental influence. Interventions to prevent juvenile myopia progression include pharmacologic agents, glasses and contact lenses. Pharmacological interventions over 1-2 year trials have shown benefits. Peripheral vision defocus has been found to affect the emmetropization process and may be affected by wearing glasses or contacts. Accommodation accuracy also has been implicated in myopia progression. Further research will aim to assess both the role and interaction of environmental influences and genetic factors. PMID:23961008
... Tools & Resources Stroke More Pre-diabetes Non-modifiable Risk Factors Updated:Nov 9,2015 What Factors Are Beyond ... 2 diabetes are unaware of their condition. Some risk factors are inherited and some are acquired as we ...
Desigualdades socioeconômicas e demográficas como fatores de risco para a artrite autorreferida: estudo de base populacional em adultos no Sul do Brasil Socioeconomic and demographic inequalities as risk factors for self-reported arthritis: a population-based study in southern Brazil
Rafael Santos Gomes
Full Text Available Estimar a prevalência de artrite ou reumatismo autorreferido e os fatores associados. Realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, com 1.720 adultos entre 20 e 59 anos. A presença de artrite ou reumatismo autorreferido foi analisada por meio do modelo hierárquico de determinação no nível demográfico, socioeconômico, comportamental e uso de serviços de saúde. Utilizou-se análise de regressão logística para avaliar a associação entre as variáveis. A prevalência de artrite ou reumatismo autorreferido foi de 7,7% (IC95%: 6,4-8,9. A chance de artrite ou reumatismo autorreferido foi duas vezes maior entre as mulheres, maior entre aqueles com índice de massa corporal (IMC > 30kg/m²,diretamente proporcional à idade e inversamente proporcional à escolaridade. A prevalência de artrite ou reumatismo autorreferido foi maior do que a estimativa nacional no ano de 2008. Essa realidade sugere a necessidade de um planejamento de políticas públicas voltado para esse agravo de saúde.The study aimed to estimate prevalence of self-reported arthritis or rheumatism and associated factors. This was a cross-sectional population-based study in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, with 1,720 adults ranging from 20 to 59 years of age. Presence of self-reported arthritis or rheumatism was analyzed with a hierarchical approach, considering demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables and use of health services. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between the outcome and independent variables. Prevalence of self-reported arthritis or rheumatism was 7.7% (95%CI: 6.4-8.9. The odds of self-reported arthritis were twice as high in women, and increased self-reported arthritis was directly associated with BMI > 30kg/m² and increasing age and inversely proportional to schooling. Self-reported arthritis or rheumatism was higher in this sample than in Brazilian adults in general in 2008. The results suggest the need to plan public health policies to address this problem.
Purpose: To determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on quality of life (QoL) after treatment in patients with head and neck carcinoma (HNC). Patients and Methods: The study population included 50 HNC patients seen in their control examinations after radiotherapy during a 2-month interval and who were willing to complete the Short-Form 36 QoL questionnaire. Socioeconomic, demographic, and tumor- and treatment-related factors were analyzed for their effect on physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: All patients received radiotherapy, and 33 patients (66%) underwent surgery for the primary tumor and/or neck disease. Chemotherapy was given in 9 patients (18%). Mean PCS and MCS were 47.9 (range, 24.8-59.3) and 46.7 (range, 22-63.3) for the whole patient population. There was no significant factor affecting PCS. Education level of 'middle school or higher,' perceived economic status of 'medium or higher,' social security status of not being 'absent or minimally covered,' and unilateral type of neck surgery were found to increase MCS significantly. According to separate linear regression analyses performed for three socioeconomic variables, the most significant factor for MCS was social security status compared with education level and perceived economic status. It was the only parameter that retained its significance when all five parameters were combined in a linear regression model. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that educational status, perceived economic status, and social security status showed a significant effect on the QoL of HNC patients after radiotherapy. When all variables were taken into account, only 'social security status' remained significant
Connell, Paul P
Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.
Glozier, Nick; Tofler, Geoffrey H; Colquhoun, David M; Bunker, Stephen J; Clarke, David M; Hare, David L; Hickie, Ian B; Tatoulis, James; Thompson, David R; Wilson, Alison; Branagan, Maree G
In 2003, the National Heart Foundation of Australia published a position statement on psychosocial risk factors and coronary heart disease (CHD). This consensus statement provides an updated review of the literature on psychosocial stressors, including chronic stressors (in particular, work stress), acute individual stressors and acute population stressors, to guide health professionals based on current evidence. It complements a separate updated statement on depression and CHD. Perceived chronic job strain and shift work are associated with a small absolute increased risk of developing CHD, but there is limited evidence regarding their effect on the prognosis of CHD. Evidence regarding a relationship between CHD and job (in)security, job satisfaction, working hours, effort-reward imbalance and job loss is inconclusive. Expert consensus is that workplace programs aimed at weight loss, exercise and other standard cardiovascular risk factors may have positive outcomes for these risk factors, but no evidence is available regarding the effect of such programs on the development of CHD. Social isolation after myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with an adverse prognosis. Expert consensus is that although measures to reduce social isolation are likely to produce positive psychosocial effects, it is unclear whether this would also improve CHD outcomes. Acute emotional stress may trigger MI or takotsubo ("stress") cardiomyopathy, but the absolute increase in transient risk from an individual stressor is low. Psychosocial stressors have an impact on CHD, but clinical significance and prevention require further study. Awareness of the potential for increased cardiovascular risk among populations exposed to natural disasters and other conditions of extreme stress may be useful for emergency services response planning. Wider public access to defibrillators should be available where large populations gather, such as sporting venues and airports, and as part of the response to natural and other disasters. PMID:23909539
Michael G., Madianos; Tatiana, Alexiou; Athanasios, Patelakis; Marina, Economou.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Economic adverse conditions are acknowledged as having a major impact on the exacerbation of mental disorders and suicides. The severity of current European crisis and the local unrelenting spending is affecting largely the economy of Greece. Methods: The aim of this study [...] was to explore changes in suicides and their possible association with macroeconomic and behavioural factors. Data for the period 1990-2011 were drawn mainly from the Hellenic Statistical Authority and Eurostat. Suicide mortality rates were correlated with economic and behavioural factors. Results: Suicide mortality rates were increased by 55.8% between 2007 and 2011 while the total mortality was increased by 1.1% only. Significantly increasing trends in public debt, unemployment rates, consumption of daily units of antidepressants as well as divorces per 1000, homicides per 100,000 and persons with HIV per 100,000 were also observed. Suicides have been found to bear strong correlation with unemployment (r. 0.64). Significant associations were also found between suicide mortality and the percentage of public debt as percentage of GDP, the incidence of infections from HIV and homicides. Conclusions: People suffering from income and job losses, living in a demoralized social state caused by severe austerity measures and restrictive health policies, are exposed to risks for developing depression or commit suicide.
Full Text Available Evidence regarding health benefits of physical activity is overwhelming and plays a critical role in both the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD. Epidemiological investigations show approximately half the incidence of CAD in active compared to sedentary persons. A sedentary lifestyle is considered by various national and international organizations to be one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, a moderate level of occupational or recreational activity appears to confer a significant protective effect. Once coronary artery disease has become manifest, exercise training can clearly improve the functional capacity of patients and reduce overall mortality by decreasing the risk of sudden death. Well-designed clinical investigations, supported by basic animal studies, have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of exercise are related to direct and indirect protective mechanisms. These benefits may result from an improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, enhanced fibrinolysis, improved endothelial function, decreased sympathetic tone, and other as-yet-undetermined factors. Hence physical fitness, more than the absence of ponderosity or other factors, is the major determinant of cardiovascular and metabolic risk and long-term disease-free survival, in effect linking health span to life span. It is obviously in every individual?s interest to assume the responsibility for his or her own health and embrace this extremely effective, safe, and inexpensive treatment modality. The need for a comprehensive review of this particular topic has arisen in view of the high prevalence of physical inactivity and overwhelming evidence regarding CVD risk reduction with regular physical activity.
Neergaard, M A; Olesen, F
Introduction. General practitioners (GPs) play an important role in end of life care, which should be offered regardless of socioeconomic position and cultural factors. The aim was to analyse associations between GP contacts at the end of life and socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of Danish cancer patients. Method. Population-based study identifying 599 adults who died of cancer from March to November 2006, in Aarhus County, Denmark. Associations between health register-based data on "total GP face-to-face contacts" and "GP home visits" during the last 90 days of life and patients' socioeconomic and cultural characteristics were calculated. Results. Having low income (RR: 1.18 (95% CI: 1.03; 1.35)) and being immigrants or descendants of immigrants (RR: 1.17 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.35)) were associated with GP face-to-face contacts. However, patients living in large municipalities had lower likelihood of having both GP face-to-face contacts in general (RR: 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77;0.95)) and GP home visits (RR: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80; 0.99)). Conclusion. This study indicates higher proportion of GP contacts to economically deprived patients and immigrants/descendants of immigrants. These subgroups were, however, small and results should be looked upon with caution. Furthermore, palliative needs were not included and together with urban/rural the underlying causes need further investigation.
Patricia Adame; Robert Muscarella; Miriam Marlier; Yili Lim; Amir Jina; Meha Jain; Matthew Fagan; Yackulic, Charles B; Ruth DeFries; Maria Uriarte
Forest transitions (FT) occur when socioeconomic development leads to a shift from net deforestation to reforestation; these dynamics have been observed in multiple countries across the globe, including the island of Puerto Rico in the Caribbean. Starting in the 1950s, Puerto Rico transitioned from an agrarian to a manufacturing and service economy reliant on food imports, leading to extensive reforestation. In recent years, however, net reforestation has leveled off. Here we examine the driv...
Lachat, C.; Khanh, L. N. B.; Khan, N. C.; Dung, N. Q.; Anh, N. D. V.; Roberfroid, D.; Kolsteren, P.
BACKGROUND: Out-of-home (OH) eating in developed countries is associated with suboptimal dietary intakes, but evidence is scarce on the situation in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional contribution of OH eating and related socioeconomic determinants in Vietnamese adolescents. DESIGN: A 24-h recall was used to collect food intake data in a cross-sectional study of 1172 adolescents living in urban and rural areas. Multilevel analysis com...
Hackman, Daniel A.; Betancourt, Laura M; Gallop, Robert; Romer, Daniel; Brodsky, Nancy L.; Hurt, Hallam; Farah, Martha J.
Working memory (WM) is positively correlated with socioeconomic status (SES). It is not clear, however, if SES predicts the rate of WM development over time nor whether SES effects are specific to family rather than neighborhood SES. A community sample of children (n = 316) enrolled between ages 10 and 13 completed four annual assessments of WM. Lower parental education, but not neighborhood disadvantage, was associated with worse WM performance. Neither measure of SES was associated with the...
Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent stroke is defined as a new cerebrovascular event which occurs after the stabilization of the previous stroke. Recurrence of stroke increases likelihood of disability-mortality associated with stroke. Systematic evaluation of stroke cases can help to reduce the risk of recurrence. Objective: In order to predict strokes which carry the risk of recurrence, we aimed to compare data related to risk factors, stroke type, etiology and disability-mortality rates associated with stroke. Material And Method: Patients with stroke who referred to Bak?rkoy Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases Training and Research State Hospital between June 1, 2002 and February 28, 2003 were recorded into the stroke database in a consecutive and prospective manner. Strokes were classified as ischemic/hemorrhagic and first/recurrent. For recurrent strokes, information about previous strokes was also recorded. Risk factors were classified as hypertension (HT, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation (AF, coronary artery disease (CAD, migraine, transient ischemic accident (TIA, family history of cerebrovascular accident (CVA, oral contraceptive use, PAD, congestive heart failure (CHF, other heart diseases, smoking cigarette and alcohol consumption. Disability-mortality rates associated with stroke were evaluated. All data were compared for first and recurrent strokes. Results: In our study, 631 patients were evaluated, 52.3% of whom were female and 47.7% male. Frequency of stroke was statistically high (p<0.001 in females over 70 years old. Recurrent strokes were of the same type. For the first and recurrent strokes, HT was the highest risk factor. AF frequency increased with age (p<0.001. The rate of disability-mortality was found high in strokes of undetermined and cardioembolic origin. Conclusion: Knowledge of etiologic group can help to predict recurrence of stroke and prevent death. We think that effective treatment of modifiable risk factors identified in stroke groups where recurrence is the highest, and prioritising the investigation of cardioembolic risk factors in elderly women are significant in terms of primary and secondary stroke prevention.
Dalsgaard, Else-Marie; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Sandbæk, Annelli; Vestergaard, Mogens
BACKGROUND: Both socioeconomic position (SEP) and type 2 diabetes have previously been found to be associated with mortality; however, little is known about the association between SEP, type 2 diabetes and long-term mortality when comorbidity is taken into account. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study of all Danish citizens aged 40-69 years with no history of diabetes during 2001-2006 (N=2,330,206). The cohort was identified using nationwide registers, and it was followed for up...
Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro
The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associated with a moderately elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The excess risk for exposed individuals is 10-40 % compared with those free of such stressors. Differences between men and women, younger versus older employees and workers from different socioeconomic backgrounds appear to be small, indicating that the association is robust. Meta-analyses of a wider range of health outcomes show additionally an association between work stress and type 2 diabetes, though not with common cancers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting outcome specificity. Few studies have addressed whether mitigation of work stressors would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the limited interventional evidence on benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness, definitive recommendations have not been made (e.g. by the US Preventive Services Taskforce) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease via workplace stress reduction. Nevertheless, governments are already launching healthy workplace campaigns, and preventing excessive work stress is a legal obligation in several countries. Promoting awareness of the link between stress and health among both employers and workers is an important component of workplace health promotion. PMID:26238744
Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women
Full Text Available Aims: We looked for the factors which can be adjust in order to reduce the frequency and severity of diabetic retinopathy in Maramure? County, Romania. Methods: We done a cross-sectional study of 1269 persons with diabetes mellitus registered in the healthcare system in Maramure?. The signs of diabetic retinopathy were ascertained from retinal digital photographs. We analyzed different parameters: demographics (age, gender, smoking status, alcohol use, living areas, socioeconomic status; physical measurements (body mass index BMI, abdominal circumference; laboratory measurements (glycemic control, lipid profile, the degree of proteinuria diabetes characteristics (duration, type, other complications and characteristics of comorbid diseases.Results: The total number of patients with retinopathy was 246. From these 94 (38.2% have mild non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR 78 (31.7% have moderate NPDR, 52 (21.1% have severe NPDR and 22 (9.0% have proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR. Among our patients 3.2% had maculopathy (0.6% mild, 0.6% moderate and 2.0% severe. The risk factors associated with severity of retinopahy were: diabetes duration (p=0.000, HbA1c (p=0.005, presence of nephropathy (p=0.004, presence of polineuropathy (p=0.002. Risk factors associated with severity of maculopathy was presence of nephropathy (p=0.000.Conclusions: A positive correlation between diabetes duration and diabetes control and severity of retinopathy was found. Severity of retinopathy was higher in the presence of nephropathy and polineuropathy. Severity of maculopathy was higher in the presence of nefropathy.
Full Text Available Caroline Ingre,1 Per M Roos,2 Fredrik Piehl,1 Freya Kamel,3 Fang Fang4 1Department of Clinical Neuroscience, 2Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 4Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, ?-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, risk factors, genetics, lifestyle, environment
Full Text Available In 2005, the cause for almost 60.0% of the deaths in the world is chronic diseases. In the word each year, due to die 5.1 million people from tobacco use, 3.2 million people from physical inactivity, 2.8 million people from overweight or obesity, and 2.7 million people from inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables. The relationships between environmental, socio-economic, cultural and individual characteristics of the risk factors were multi-dimensional and complex. Today, socio-economic burden of disease and risk factors they bring to society are calculated and determined according to this policy. According to World Health Organization (WHO Global Health Risks report, tobacco use, being overweight or obese, insufficient physical activity, alcohol consumption and inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption were responsible one-third of deaths (34.4%, and 19.3% (excluded inadequate e fruits and vegetables consumption of the burden of DALYs in middle-income countries. According to Turkey the National Burden of Disease (NBD and WHO is preparing the Global Burden of Disease 2005, which is fundamental in the prevention of chronic diseases is life style risks that can be prevented, controlled, and changed. According to the NBD 2004 study, 79% of deaths were due to non-communicable diseases in our country. The primary risk factor for DALY is high blood pressure, and following 6 risk factors were related to behavior in our country. Smoking, being overweight or obese, alcohol consumption, insufficient fruits and vegetables consumption, inactive life, and high dietary fat and salt intake which are considered to be significant risk factors for chronic diseases are lifestyle behaviors. When adults visited to health facilities for any reason, their risky behavior can be evaluated. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 735-740
Fanapour, P C; Yug, B; Kochar, M S
Over the past few years, a substantial body of evidence has accumulated that indicates hyperhomocysteinemia as a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Hyperhomocysteinemia arises from a lack of key enzymes or vitamins such as methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, vitamin B6, and folate which are involved in homocysteine metabolism. Heavy coffee consumption is also known to elevate homocysteine levels. The adverse effects associated with hyperhomocysteinemia are extensive. It increases risk of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality, peripheral vascular disease, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Its seriousness as a risk factor has been equated to hypercholesterolemia and smoking, two leading causes for cardiovascular disease. It also has been shown to produce a multiplicative effect with these and other risk factors such as hypertension. Two major hypotheses have been proposed to explain how homocysteine induces its harmful effects. It can damage endothelial cells lining the vasculature, allowing plaque formation. Simultaneously, it interferes with the vasodilatory effect of endothelial derived nitric oxide. Also, homocysteine has been found to promote vascular smooth muscle cells hypertrophy. Both of these processes induce vessel occlusion. Maintaining a normal plasma level of homocysteine as a means to prevent cardiovascular disease appears promising. This is achieved through increased intake of folate and vitamin B6 through diet or supplementation. Despite the overwhelming evidence suggesting homocysteine as a significant risk factor, no long-term prospective studies have been completed to demonstrate that folate and vitamin B6 can prevent cardiovascular disease related morbidity and mortality in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. Homocysteine is a key metabolite in amino acid synthesis. During the process of methylation, S-adenosylmethionine (Ado Met), derived from methionine, is converted to S-Adenosylhomocysteine (Figure 1). This product is quickly hydrolyzed to form homocysteine and adenosine. Homocysteine can undergo 1 of 3 reactions depending on the status of the organism. If cysteine levels are inadequate, homocysteine utilizes the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B6) to condense with serine, forming the intermediate cystathionine. Subsequent reactions with cystathionine lead to the formation of cysteine. When methionine levels are low, homocysteine is remethylated in a reaction involving the coenzyme N5-methyltetrahydrofolate or betaine. Finally, when both amino acids are in adequate supply, homocysteine is cleaved by the enzyme homocysteine desulthydrase (cystathionase) to form a-ketobutyrate, ammonia, and H2S. Thus, homocysteine's physiological role is to assist in maintaining sulfur-amino acid homeostasis. Beyond these metabolic processes, homocysteine is beginning to be recognized as a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and myocardial infarction. PMID:10639897
To identify the relative contribution of different occupational risk factors associated with the occurrence of skin cancer in the provinces of Havana City and Havana, Cuba , in 2006-2007. It was designed a case-control study of hospital base that included 112 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and 448 witnesses, following the inclusion-exclusion criteria preset. We considered the totality of patients diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell histological study of skin biopsy or surgical excision. Risk factors with possible association with the disease were studied, such as sun exposure, ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and a wide range of chemical and biological substances potentially carcinogenic
Full Text Available Premature ejaculation (PE is considered the most common form of male sexual dysfunction, and the prevalence of PE complaints range from 20% to 40% among sexually active men. Acquired PE, which occurs due to an underlying organic and/or psychological cause, may be a treatable condition. Recent evidence has suggested that certain medical conditions such as hyperthyroidism may cause PE. In addition to hyperthyroidism, the literature has also revealed several urologic risk factors that may predispose a man to acquired PE; these include erectile dysfunction, prostatic diseases and chronic pelvic pain syndrome, varicocele, monosymptomatic enuresis and circumcision. This review aims to provide a systematic analysis of the literature regarding these urological risk factors of acquired PE.
Gatto, Marcel; Wollni, Meike; Qaim, Matin
We investigate land-use dynamics in Jambi, Sumatra, one of the hotspots of Indonesia' recent oil palm boom. Data from a structured village survey are used to analyze the role of socioeconomic and policy factors. Oil palm is partly grown on large plantations, but smallholders are also involved significantly. We find that, in spite of significant oil palm expansion, rubber remains the dominant crop. Most of the oil palm growth takes place on previous fallow and rubber land. Oil palm has not bee...
Subhasis Modak; Sibnath Deb
Background: Violence against children is a deep-rooted social problem in India. The problem is also related to economic as well as cultural beliefs and practices. The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and nature of violence experienced by the children in families in Tripura, India and its relationship with socio-economic factors. Methods: A group of 320 children (160 males and 160 females) studying in Class VIII and IX and aged between 14-19 participated in the study af...
Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N
IBD, comprising Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is a chronic immunologically mediated disease at the intersection of complex interactions between genetics, environment and gut microbiota. Established high-prevalence populations of IBD in North America and Europe experienced the steepest increase in incidence towards the second half of the twentieth century. Furthermore, populations previously considered 'low risk' (such as in Japan and India) are witnessing an increase in incidence. Potentially relevant environmental influences span the spectrum of life from mode of childbirth and early-life exposures (including breastfeeding and antibiotic exposure in infancy) to exposures later on in adulthood (including smoking, major life stressors, diet and lifestyle). Data support an association between smoking and Crohn's disease whereas smoking cessation, but not current smoking, is associated with an increased risk of ulcerative colitis. Dietary fibre (particularly fruits and vegetables), saturated fats, depression and impaired sleep, and low vitamin D levels have all been associated with incident IBD. Interventional studies assessing the effects of modifying these risk factors on natural history and patient outcomes are an important unmet need. In this Review, the changing epidemiology of IBD, mechanisms behind various environmental associations and interventional studies to modify risk factors and disease course are discussed. PMID:25732745
ÁKOS NÉMETH; JÁNOS MIKA
Weather and climate risk factors for tourism are surveyed and illustrated with regard to the expected climate changes in Hungary. These changes are not at all advantageous and which affect the business in question both directly and indirectly. These are the summer resort tourism (characterised by bioclimatic indices). Green tourism is the next one to characterise, including skiing, mountain climbing and eco-tourism, as well. Here both day-to-day weather extremes and long-lasting effects on th...
Hasselaar, P; Derksen, R H; Blokzijl, L; Hessing, M.; Nieuwenhuis, H.K.; Bouma, B.N.; Groot, P.G. de
Lupus anticoagulant, concentrations of anticardiolipin antibodies, antithrombin III, plasminogen, (free) protein S, protein C, prothrombin, platelet counts, and bleeding times were determined in 74 lupus patients (58 with systemic lupus erythematosus; 16 with lupus-like disease) to establish the presence of risk factors for thrombosis in these patients. Of the variables evaluated, lupus anticoagulant had the strongest association with a history of thrombosis. Both positive anticardiolipin ant...
The aim of this thesis was to increase the knowledge about environmental risk factors of acoustic neuroma and to increase the understanding of the methodological problems encountered when studying this tumor. Acoustic neuroma is a benign, usually slow growing, intracranial tumor of the vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII), the nerve that transmits information about hearing and balance from the inner ear to the brain. Acoustic neuroma is usually not life threatening, the most com...
Illingworth, C D; Cook, S D; Karabatsas, C H; Easty, D L
AIMS/BACKGROUND--This study was initiated to investigate risk factors for and outcome of Acanthamoeba keratitis. METHODS--Results of treatment were studied in 22 patients (23 eyes) presenting to Bristol Eye Hospital between 1985 and February 1995. Details related to the use and disinfection of contact lenses were also obtained. An additional two patients who were seen at Bristol but mainly treated elsewhere were surveyed for contact lens related information only. RESULTS--The incidence of Aca...
Obesity is a risk factor for various types of cancer and for other chronic diseases and conditions such as type II diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Obesity prevalence in the United States has risen substantially in the last 50 years, particularly since the early 1980s. Experiences with tobacco control and other public health initiatives suggest that public policy may be a powerful tool to improve diet and physical activity behavior at the population level.
Niazy A. Abu Farsakh
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the role played by some of the traditional risk factors on the prevalence of duodenal ulcer disease in Jordan, where the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori is high. METHODS This study was carried out in the Endoscopy unit at the Health Center, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan, during the period January 1998 through to july 1999. The patients' group consisted of 290 subjects with endoscopically proven duodenal ulcers and 161 subject...
Postolache, Teodor T.; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H
The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy.
Full Text Available To assess the prevalence of selected risk factors for chronic disease and the association of these risk factors with sociodemographic variables, a cross sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of adults aged 40 years or more in the district of Shimoga. A sample of 992 subjects was selected from all the blocks of the district using the World Health Organizations STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. The study participants blood pressure was measured; their body mass index calculated and collected information on self-reported smoking status. The extent to which, being overweight, hypertension, smoking and various combinations of these risk factors were associated with the study participants education level, occupational category and economic status was measured. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 14 and multivariate logistic regression model to note the associations between the outcome variables and select demographic variables. Mean blood pressure levels were higher among men than among women and increased progressively with age. Sixty three percent of men were current smokers and 58% were current daily smokers; less than 1% of women smoked. Mean body mass index was 19.6 among men and 19.9 among women and only 3.5% of the population was overweight. Education level was inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertension among both men and women and with the prevalence of smoking among men. Hypertension was directly associated with socioeconomic status among men but inversely associated with socioeconomic status among women. India is experiencing an increase in the prevalence of many risk factors for chronic diseases and is in urgent need of interventions to reduce the prevalence of these risk factors and to deal with the chronic diseases to which they contribute.
Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still considered as neglected disease in the district. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of cases can save many lives. However, there is a need of integrated rodent control measures with great effort to increase awareness and education among subjects in controlling the disease.
Konstantinova, E D; Varaksin, A N; Zhovner, I V
There is presented ideology of the application of one of the methods for assessment of the influence of multi-factor influence of risk factors on population health--the method of classification trees. The method of classification trees is a hierarchical procedure for constructing a decision rule that allows to divide the population into groups with higher and lower morbidity "in the coordinates of" risk factors. The main advantage of the method--the possibility of finding the complex of risk factors having the greatest impact on the health of the population (in contrast to common methods, analyzing only the single-factor effects). In the paper there are presented two possible variants of application of classification trees: 1) the finding of the complex of environmental risk factors (RF), which provides the maximum impact on the prevalence of non infectious diseases in preschool children) in Yekaterinburg (environmental risk factors--the pollution of air drinking water, in the presence of a gas stove in the child's flat, etc.). It is shown that, together with socio-economic risk factors environmental risk factors increase the prevalence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in Ekaterinburg in 2.5-4 times (depending on the list and the number of environmental RF), 2) finding the complex of non-environmental factors that most effectively compensating the negative effect of environmental pollution on human health. This posing of the problem is associated with the fact that pollution environmental factors are (usually) unmodified, while family, behavioral or social factors can be partially or completely eliminated Implementation of the recommendations presented in the paper can reduce the incidence of circulatory diseases in preschool children in Yekaterinburg more than 2 times. PMID:24340916
Maria Teresa, Rosanova; Daniel, Stamboulian; Roberto, Lede.
Full Text Available Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce. We conducted this study to evaluate the risk factors for mortality in pediatric burn patients. We included 110 patients. Mean age was 31.5 months (range: 1 to 204). The burn surface was between 1% and 95%(median 27%) Type of burn [...] was: A or superfitial in 39 patients (36%), AB or intermediate in 19 (17%), and B or full thickness in 52 (47%). Inhalatory injury was present in 52 patients (47%). Invasive procedures were: venous catheter, 90 patients (82%), arterial catheter, 83patients (75.5%), urinary catheter, 86 patients (78%), and mechanical ventilation, 75 patients (68%). In 84 patients, 128 infections were diagnosed. in 53 cases (48%). Multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acynetobacter baumannii were the most common organisms isolated. The median length of hospital stay was 33 days (r: 8-139 days). Seventeen patients (15%) died and 14 of them of infection-related causes. Age 40% burn surface, presence of inhalatory syndrome, use of venous catheter, arterial catheter, urinary catheter and mechanical ventilation, positive blood cultures, colistin use in documented multiresistant infections, antifungal use and graft requirement, were identified as risks factors for mortality in the univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis: age
Yanelis Emilia Tabio Henry
Full Text Available There are social risk factors that can rebound negatively in the functional capacity of elder people thus they associate to an enchancement of the vulnerability to have them develop a state of fragility and necessity. A descriptive investigation was done with the objective of determinig the social risk factors of elder people in the dispensaries 28 of policlinic ll from Jatibonico municipality from january 1 st to december 31 st, 2009 .The sample was conformed by 103 older people. Different variables were used like: age, sex, marital status, associated desease and basic components of the family functions disminished or null. It prevailed the 60-64 and 70-74 year old group (24.3%, female sex (60.2%, the elder widow women (20,3 %, the hypertension (60,2% and family comprehension about conduct and elderly points of view (50,4%. There was a high incidence of the social risk factors associated to the presence of old women, alone and widows, the lessen of economic resources, the retirement, the incomprehension of elder people by their families and the presence of non transmisible chronic desease.
Fasting hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral vascular atherosclerosis, and for arterial and venous thromboembolism. The risk for cardiovascular disease with homocysteine is similar to conventional risk factors. The interaction of hyperhomocysteinemia with hypertension and smoking is strong and the combined effect is more than multiplicative. The combined effect of homocysteine and cholesterol is additive. Homocysteine produces atherosclerosis, thromboembolism, and vascular endothelial cell injury. Vascular dysfunction produced by homocysteine may be due to endothelial cell damage. Homocysteinemia-induced atherosclerosis is probably due to various factors including endothelial cell injury, inability to sustain S-nitroso-homocysteine formation because of imbalance between production of nitric oxide by dysfunctional endothelium and homocysteine, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and thromboembolism. There is strong evidence that endothelial cell injury is associated with oxidative stress produced by homocysteine. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with numerous conditions, including coronary disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease (carotid artery and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis), venous thrombosis, renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and organ transplant. Folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 have been shown to be beneficial in reducing plasma homocysteine levels. Folic acid is specifically very effective, safe and inexpensive. PMID:9826415
Full Text Available
PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and risk factors of late corneal graft rejection after penetrating keratoplasty (PKP. METHODS: Records of all patients who had undergone PKP from 2002 to 2004 without immunosuppressive therapy other than systemic steroids and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. The role of possible risk factors such as demographic factors, other host factors, donor factors, indications for PKP as well as type of rejection were evaluated. RESULTS: During the study period, 295 PKPs were performed on 286 patients (176 male, 110 female. Mean age at the time of keratoplasty was 38±20 (range, 40 days to 90 years and mean follow up period was 20±10 (range 12-43 months. Graft rejection occurred in 94 eyes (31.8% at an average of 7.3±6 months (range, 20 days to 39 months after PKP. The most common type of rejection was endothelial (20.7%. Corneal vascularization, regrafting, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, additional anterior segment procedures, history of trauma, uncontrolled glaucoma, prior graft rejection, recurrence of herpetic infection and eccentric grafting increased the rate of rejection. Patient age, donor size and bilateral transplantation had no significant influence on graft rejection. CONCLUSION: Significant risk factors for corneal graft rejection include corneal vascularization, anterior synechiae, irritating sutures, active inflammation, regrafting, additional surgery, trauma, uncontrolled intraocular pressure, history of graft rejection, recurrent herpetic infection, eccentric grafting and corneal scarring. Recipient age and donor cornea size do not seem to be risk factors for corneal graft rejection.
Jridi, Omar; Nouri, Fethi Zouheir
We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG). The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015) . PMID:26568974
Ong, Hilary; Meng, Mao; Wei, Liu; Xiawei, Zhao; Wang, May C
This pilot study explores the roles of family socioeconomic status (SES) in influencing dietary consumption patterns in 60 Chinese elementary school-aged children (ages 6-11) in Chengdu, China. Two interviewer-administered questionnaires were specially developed to gather sociodemographic and food frequency data. Children from low SES families consumed rice and traditional staples, and high calcium drinks more frequently, and western fast food less frequently than children from higher SES families. After controlling for family SES, children who were primarily cared for by their mothers or grandparents consumed less healthy snacks less frequently than children who were primarily cared for by other adults (including fathers). PMID:21888470
Hubert Chamone, Gesser; Marco Aurélio, Peres; Wagner, Marcenes.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conhecer a prevalência de sangramento gengival, cálculo dentário e de bolsas periodontais, em jovens de 18 anos do sexo masculino, verificando as associações com variáveis socioeconômicas. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal em uma amostra de jovens de 18 anos de idade (n=300), al [...] istandos do Exército Brasileiro em Florianópolis, SC. Foram aplicadas entrevistas estruturadas com questões sobre o número de anos de escolaridade do alistando e de seus pais e sobre a renda familiar. Um cirurgião-dentista realizou os exames odontológicos para a detecção de sangramento gengival, presença de cálculo dentário, bolsas periodontais rasas (entre 3,5 mm a 5,5 mm) e profundas (5,5 mm e mais). Verificaram-se as associações entre as condições periodontais e as variáveis socioeconômicas pelo teste qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: A taxa de resposta foi de 100,0%, entretanto, 4,7% dos indivíduos foram excluídos do estudo devido à impossibilidade de exame. A concordância diagnóstica intra-examinador foi alta (kappa=0,73). As prevalências de sangramento gengival, cálculo dentário, bolsas rasas e profundas foram de 86%, 50,7%, 7,7% e 0,3%, respectivamente. O sangramento gengival foi negativamente associado a todas as variáveis socioeconômicas estudadas (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus and periodontal pockets among 18-year-old males. In addition, to verify whether these conditions are associated with years of education and family income. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was carried out. A representative sample of [...] 18-year-old males living in Florianópolis, Brazil, was selected from the Brazilian Army applicant list. Clinical and socioeconomic data were collected through dental examinations and interviews, respectively. Socioeconomic data included the subjects and their parents' years of education, and family income. A single dentist carried out the dental examinations looking for gingival bleedings after probing, calculus and shallow and deep periodontal pockets (3.5 mm to 5.5 mm and 5.5 mm and over). The associations between periodontal conditions and socioeconomic variables were analyzed using the qui-square test. RESULTS: A total of 286 people participated in the study. Intra-examiner agreement was high. All kappa values were above 0.7. The prevalence of gingival bleeding, calculus, shallow and deep periodontal pockets were 86%, 50.7%, 7.7% and 0.3% respectively. There were associations between gingival bleeding and all socioeconomic variables (p
Khan Rumana J; Stewart Christine P; Christian Parul; Schulze Kerry J; Wu Lee; LeClerq Steven C; Khatry Subarna K; West Keith P
Abstract Background The prevalence of hypertension is increasing in much of the South Asian region, including Nepal. This paper reports the prevalence and risk factors of hypertension and pre-hypertension among adult women in a rural community of Nepal. Methods Cross-sectional data on socioeconomic status (SES), lifestyle factors and blood pressure (BP) were collected from a cohort of 15,934 women in rural Nepal in 2006–08. Among a subsample (n?=?1679), anthropometry and biomarkers of cardiov...
The report includes a review of the current state-of-the-art of dry-cooling technology for industrial and power-generating facilities and an evaluation of its technical potential and cost for large nuclear power plants. Criteria are formulated for coarse screening of the arid regions of the Western United States to select a surrogate site for more detailed site-specific analyses. The screening criteria included seismic considerations, existing transportation facilities, institutional and jurisdictional constraints, waste heat dissipation effects, water requirements, and ecologic and socioeconomic considerations. The Galt site near Las Vegas, Nevada was selected for the surrogate site analysis to assess important issues related to the construction and operation of twelve dry-cooled nuclear power plants at an arid location remote from major load centers. The assessment covers geotechnical, atmospheric and hydrologic considerations, special aspects of transporting large equipment overland to the site from seaports, analyses of potential transmission routes to major load centers, local institutional and taxing provisions, and ecologic and socioeconomic impacts.
The report includes a review of the current state-of-the-art of dry-cooling technology for industrial and power-generating facilities and an evaluation of its technical potential and cost for large nuclear power plants. Criteria are formulated for coarse screening of the arid regions of the Western United States to select a surrogate site for more detailed site-specific analyses. The screening criteria included seismic considerations, existing transportation facilities, institutional and jurisdictional constraints, waste heat dissipation effects, water requirements, and ecologic and socioeconomic considerations. The Galt site near Las Vegas, Nevada was selected for the surrogate site analysis to assess important issues related to the construction and operation of twelve dry-cooled nuclear power plants at an arid location remote from major load centers. The assessment covers geotechnical, atmospheric and hydrologic considerations, special aspects of transporting large equipment overland to the site from seaports, analyses of potential transmission routes to major load centers, local institutional and taxing provisions, and ecologic and socioeconomic impacts
In the September issue, we saw that a lower proportion of Hispanics and blacks take physics in U.S. high schools than do whites and Asians. Last month, we examined physics offerings and students by socioeconomic profile of the high school as reported by the principal. We saw that there were more physics classes and more physics students at better-off high schools. These increased offerings allow the teachers who teach physics to focus more on physics. We combined race and ethnicity data from the National Center for Education Statistics with data from our principals to examine the percent of each race and ethnicity attending schools by our socioeconomic profile of the school. Less than one-third of white and Asian public high school students attend a school that our principals classify as "worse off." Less than one-fourth of black and Hispanic students attend a school that our principals classify as "better off." The difference is stark. When combined with the percent of physics classes and physics students at each type of school, we have some insight into explaining the variation in physics taking by race and ethnicity.
Qi, Li; Ding, Xianbin; Tang, Wenge; Li, Qin; Mao, Deqiang; Wang, Yulin
The increasing prevalence of dyslipidemia has become a worldwide public health problem, and the prevalence varies widely according to socioeconomic, cultural and ethnic characteristics. Chongqing has experienced rapid economic development and is now the economic center of Southwestern China. There are scant data on serum lipid profile of residents in Chongqing, the largest municipality directly under the Central Government in China. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a representative sample of 5375 residents of Chongqing, aged ?18 years, and estimated the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its associated risk factors. According to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, the age-standardized prevalence of dyslipidemia was 35.5% (34.4% among men and 37.6% among women). Among the 2009 patients with dyslipidemia, 44.2% had isolated hypertriglyceridemia, 14.7% had isolated hypercholesterolemia, 13.2% had mixed hyperlipidemia, and 28.0% had isolated low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The peak prevalence of dyslipidemia in men was between 30 and 39 years (48.2%), and then declined gradually; in women, the prevalence of dyslipidemia increased with age, with the peak prevalence occurring after age 60 (46.3%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that dyslipidemia was associated with age, education level, physical activity, obesity and central obesity for both men and women. In conclusion, the results indicated dyslipidemia, particularly hypertriglyceridemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, are very common in Chongqing. To prevent dyslipidemia, it is essential to conduct appropriate intervention programs aimed at risk factor reduction and implement routine screening programs for blood lipid levels in Chongqing, China. PMID:26516874
Santiago A, Cabrera; Lizardo, Cruzado.
Full Text Available La multiplicidad de factores epidemiológicamente asociados a la esquizofrenia abarca uno de palpitante actualidad y gran complejidad: los procesos migratorios. Millones de personas en el mundo han migrado y migran, sometiéndose a experiencias diversas de racismo, discriminación, postergación socioec [...] onómica y, desde luego, al duelo migratorio. Se ha determinado que las vivencias de discriminación y el aislamiento social (vivir solo y en comunidades con baja densidad de la etnia del migrante) se hallan entre los más prominentes correlatos epidemiológicos de riesgo para desarrollar esquizofrenia. A partir de casos recientes e ilustrativos de nuestra casuística hospitalaria, revisamos la bibliografía pertinente y reflexionamos acerca de este fenómeno psicopatológico colectivo Abstract in english The multiplicity of epidemiological factors associated with schizophrenia encompasses one highly topical and very complex factor: the processes of migration. Millions of people worldwide have migrated and are migrating now, undergoing various experiences of racism, discrimination, socioeconomic post [...] ponement and, of course, the migratory mourning. It has been determined that the experiences of discrimination and social isolation (living alone and in communities with low density of migrant ethnicity) are among the most prominent epidemiological correlates of risk. From recent and illustrative cases from our hospital clinical casuistry, we review the relevant literature on this subject and then we reflect on this collective psychopathological phenomenon
Munch, Jakob Roland; Svarer, Michael
This paper explores how mortality is related to such socio-economic factors as education, occupation, skill level and income for the years 1992-1997 using an extensive sample of the Danish population. We employ a competing risks proportional hazard model to allow for different causes of death. This method is important as some factors have unequal (and sometimes opposite) influence on the cause-specific mortality rates. We find that the often-found inverse correlation between socio-economic statu...
Costa, Larissa da Cunha Feio; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image and associated socio-economic, behavioral and dietary factors in female university students from a public university in Florianopolis, SC. Body image was assessed by the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ-34) in a sample of 220 students. Nutritional status was investigated by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage (%BF). Socio-economic characteristics (age, monthly household income, and parental schooling) as well as energy intake and going on restrictive diets were also investigated. Factors associated with dissatisfaction with body image were analyzed by multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The prevalence of dissatisfaction with body image was 47.3% (95% CI 40.7; 53.9). Nutritional status by BMI and going on a diet to lose weight were the variables associated with body dissatisfaction. Results showed a high prevalence of indicators of rejection of their physical fitness among university students, which signals toward the need for nutritional education actions at universities in order to clarify and prevent abnormal eating attitudes among students. PMID:21180855
Beasley, Richard; Semprini, Alex; Mitchell, Edwin A
Asthma is one of the most common diseases in the world, resulting in a substantial burden of disease. Although rates of deaths due to asthma worldwide have reduced greatly over the past 25 years, no available therapeutic regimens can cure asthma, and the burden of asthma will continue to be driven by increasing prevalence. The reasons for the increase in asthma prevalence have not been defined, which limits the opportunities to develop targeted primary prevention measures. Although associations are reported between a wide range of risk factors and childhood asthma, substantiation of causality is inherently difficult from observational studies, and few risk factors have been assessed in primary prevention studies. Furthermore, none of the primary prevention intervention strategies that have undergone scrutiny in randomised controlled trials has provided sufficient evidence to lead to widespread implementation in clinical practice. A better understanding of the factors that cause asthma is urgently needed, and this knowledge could be used to develop public health and pharmacological primary prevention measures that are effective in reducing the prevalence of asthma worldwide. To achieve this it will be necessary to think outside the box, not only in terms of risk factors for the causation of asthma, but also the types of novel primary prevention strategies that are developed, and the research methods used to provide the evidence base for their implementation. In the interim, public health efforts should remain focused on measures with the potential to improve lung and general health, such as: reducing tobacco smoking and environmental tobacco smoke exposure; reducing indoor and outdoor air pollution and occupational exposures; reducing childhood obesity and encouraging a diet high in vegetables and fruit; improving feto-maternal health; encouraging breastfeeding; promoting childhood vaccinations; and reducing social inequalities. PMID:26382999
Thomas Varghese Attumalil
Full Text Available Background: We aimed to identify the risk factors for epilepsy in children. Materials and Methods: This case-control retrospective study was carried out in the pediatric neurology outpatient service of the Trivandrum Medical College. All children (1-12 years with epilepsy satisfying the selection criteria were included, after obtaining consent from parents. Those with single seizures or febrile seizures were excluded. Controls were children without epilepsy attending the same hospital. Parents were interviewed and clinical data were obtained from medical records. Statistical analysis included chi-square test, odds ratio (OR, and logistic regression. Results: There were 82 cases and 160 controls whose mean age was 6.9 + 3.6 and 5.2 + 3.1, years respectively. On univariate analysis, family history of epilepsy, prolonged labor, cyanosis at birth, delayed cry after birth, admission to newborn intensive care unit, presence of congenital malformations, neurocutaneous markers, incessant cry in the first week, delayed developmental milestones, meningitis, encephalitis, and head trauma were found to be significant. On logistic regression, family history of epilepsy (OR 4.7, newborn distress (OR 8.6, delayed developmental milestones (OR 12.6, and head trauma (OR 5.8 were found to be significant predictors. Infants who had history of newborn distress are likely to manifest epilepsy before 1 year if they are eventually going to have epilepsy (OR 3.4. Conclusion: Modifiable factors such as newborn distress and significant head trauma are significant risk factors for childhood epilepsy. Newborn distress is a risk factor for early-onset (<1 year age epilepsy.
Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva; Schnohr, Peter; Rod, Naja Hulvej
The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by he...
Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Ross, Lone; During, M.; Carlsen, K.; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Lynch, John; Johansen, Christoffer
The reasons for social inequality in breast cancer survival are far from established. Our study aims to study the importance of a range of socioeconomic factors and comorbid disorders on survival after breast cancer surgery in Denmark where the health care system is tax-funded and uniform. All 25,897 Danish women who underwent protocol-based treatment for breast cancer in 1983-1999 were identified in a clinical database and information on socioeconomic variables and both somatic and psychiatric ...
Villagran Pérez, Sergio; José Pedro, Novalbos-Ruiz; Amelia, Rodríguez-Martín; José Manuel, Martínez-Nieto; Alfonso María, Lechuga-Sancho.
Full Text Available Introducción: La situación socioeconómica puede afectar indirectamente las cifras de obesidad. Este trabajo recoge hábitos alimenticios, actividad física y sedentarismo y su relación con el nivel socioeconómico familiar en población infantojuvenil española. Diseño: Estudio transversal de base poblac [...] ional en escolares de 3-16 años. Métodos: Encuesta de hábitos alimentarios, actividad física y sedentarismo con mediciones antropométricas directas. Se consideró actividad física adecuada si alcanzaba > 5METs (equivalentes metabólicos) durante 60 min/día, y sedentarismo 120 min/día de actividades sedentarias. Utilizamos los criterios de obesidad del estudio ENKid. Se confeccionó un indicador del "nivel socioeconómico de la familia" (FSEL) con el nivel de estudios, categoría profesional y situación laboral de ambos padres. Resultados: Se estudiaron 1.620 niños. El 59,5% cumplían las recomendaciones de actividad física. En los niños es mayor la actividad física en el cuartil superior de FSEL, aumentando en las niñas con la edad y el sobrepeso. El 57,7% de varones y el 48,1% de niñas eran sedentarios, disminuyendo en familias con mayores FSEL. El cuartil superior de FSEL se asoció con hábitos alimenticios saludables: desayunos, 5 comidas y menor picoteo. El FSEL se asoció al consumo de cereales, lácteos y frutas, pero no al de verduras, carne o pescado. Obtuvimos mayor riesgo de sobrepeso en niñas > 6 años, FSEL bajos, sedentarismo, picoteos y menores ingestas proteicas. Discusión: El nivel socioeconómico familiar parece condicionar actividad física, sedentarismo y alimentación infantil. La elaboración de un indicador simple del FSEL familiar puede ser útil para el estudio de factores que intervienen en la obesidad infantil. Abstract in english Introduction: Socioeconomical status may indirectly affect the obesity prevalence. This study gathers together dietary behaviour, physical activity and sedentary lifestyle in relation to the family socioeconomic status in a sample of Spanish children. Design: Population-based cross-sectional study o [...] f 3-16 years children. Methods: Questionnaires about dietary behaviors, physical activity and sedentary lifestyles, and direct anthropometric measures. Criteria of physical activity recommended was > 5METs (metabolic equivalence) during 60 min/day, and sedentary lifestyle as 120 min/day of sedentary activities, using obesity criteria from the ENKID study. We derived a single "family socioeconomic level" indicator (FSEL) from the level of studies, professional category and work situation of both parents. Results: 1620 children were studied. 59.5% met the physical activity recommendations. Boys with the higher FSEL quartile tend to do more physical activity. In girls, physical activity increases with the age and degree of overweight. 57.7% of boys and 48.1% of girls were found to be sedentary, with a lower rate in families with higher FSEL. Higher FSEL quartile was related to healthy dietary habits such as having breakfast, 5 meals per day and less snacking. The FSEL was related also to the consumption of whole grains, dairy products and fruits, but not to vegetables, meat or fish. The greatest risk of excess weight was found in girls > 6 years old, with a low FSEL, sedentary habits, that snack frequently and eat few proteins. Discussion: Family socioeconomic status seems to determine the level of physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and dietary behavior. The elaboration of a simple socioeconomic indicator may be useful to study factors involved in child obesity.
The Alzheimer's disease (AD) is multifactorial. How to explain this group of very heterogeneous factors? Many of them can be considered as biopsychosocial risk factors. In other words, the risk factors, in link with the physiological functioning and a physiopathology, are difficultly dissociable of contingencies of psychological and/or social nature. The vital lead could be the stress bound to these variables, be it biological or psychosocial. It remains to ask the question of the preventive efficiency of treatments to relieve the impact of the traumatizing events of life that entail a depressive state or a state of posttraumatic stress. The hippocamp has to be the object of a quite particular attention. AD is a disease of the adaptation. This integrative model combines three vulnerabilities: a genetic vulnerability which would be there to dictate the type of lesions, their localization and the age of occurence; a psychobiographic vulnerability corresponding to a personality with inadequate mechanisms of defence, precarious adaptability in front of the adversity, weak impact strength and biography built on events of life during childhood, then during the grown-up life of traumatic nature, with a psychosocial environment insufficiently auxiliary; a neuroendocrinologic vulnerability which would base on a deregulation of the corticotrope axis, acquired during its infantile maturation, hampered by too premature stress. It would lead to a bad biological adaptability in stress later, at the origin of the observable lesions in the insanities. PMID:18243028
Several cardiovascular disease risk factors including, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and diabetes have been proposed as important modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia. These risk factors often co-occur and their aggregation is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and dementia. However, studies of composite measures of cardiovascular disease risk in relation to cognitive outcomes in non-elderly populations are scarce. The aim of this thesis was to...
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... Glossary Stay Informed Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... who are 50 years old or older. Other risk factors include having— Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, or ...
Ardalan, Maryam; H.Rafati, Ali
Craniosynostosis is a relatively common congenital abnormality. The underlying etiology and most probable risk factors of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis are unknown. We conducted a study to identify the risk factors for craniosynostosis.
... anal cancer? What are the risk factors for anal cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... about HPV and HPV vaccines, see HPV Vaccines . Anal warts Anal warts (also known as condyloma acuminata ) ...
... we know what causes gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors? What are the risk factors for gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors? A ... few risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI) carcinoid tumors are known. Genetic syndromes Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type I ...
... leukemia? What are the risk factors for childhood leukemia? A risk factor is anything that affects a ... of leukemia. Having a brother or sister with leukemia Siblings (brothers and sisters) of children with leukemia ...
Full Text Available Information Communication Technology (ICT industry is going through a bottleneck period and the low success rate of technical commercialization is exactly one of the most important reasons impeding ICT's development. Through data collection and analysis of three ICT enterprises in Guangzhou, 21 risk factors of ICT commercialization are identified with grounded theory and the three-level ICT commercialization risk factor model is established in the views of technical management, project management and dynamic capability. On the basis of the identified risk factors, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is used to evaluate the risk factors, and 10 key risk factors (TOP10 are selected. Finally, the structural relationship of TOP10 risk factors is analyzed with Interpretive Structural Modeling, and consequently an interpretive structural model of the key risk factors is constructed, and root risk factors are found. The research is aim to improve the success rate of ICT commercialization.
Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. Results The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Conclusions Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender, discerning between real and perceived experiences of discrimination and considering potentially moderating factors such as coping strategy and internalization of racial stereotypes are important issues to address in future Canadian racial inequalities research of this kind.
Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa
Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL?4mm/?25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.
Czechowicz, Josephine; Huaman, Jose Luis; Forshey, Brett M; Morrison, Amy C; Castillo, Roger; Huaman, Alfredo; Caceda, Roxana; Eza, Dominique; Rocha, Claudio; Blair, Patrick J; Olson, James G; Kochel, Tadeusz J
Although encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection has been commonly documented among domestic animals, less is known about EMCV transmission among humans. Recently, we described the isolation of EMCV from two febrile patients in Peru. To further investigate EMCV transmission in Peru, we screened febrile patients reporting to health clinics in Peru for serological evidence of recent EMCV infection. We also conducted a serological survey for EMCV-neutralizing antibodies in the city of Iquitos, located in the Amazon basin department of Loreto, Peru. Additionally, we screened serum from rodents collected from 10 departments in Peru for evidence of EMCV exposure. EMCV infection was found to be only rarely associated with acute febrile disease in Peru, accounting for Tumbes and >17% in cities in the tropical rainforest of northeastern Peru (Iquitos and Yurimaguas). On the basis of the serological survey conducted in Iquitos, risk factors for past infection include increased age, socioeconomic indicators such as residence construction materials and neighborhood, and swine ownership. Evidence from the rodent survey indicates that EMCV exposure is common among Murinae subfamily rodents in Peru (9.4% EMCV IgG positive), but less common among Sigmodontinae rodents (1.0% positive). Further studies are necessary to more precisely delineate the mode of EMCV transmission to humans, other potential disease manifestations, and the economic impact of EMCV transmission among swine in Peru. PMID:21395427
HELIOVAARA, M; Aho, K.; Knekt, P.; IMPIVAARA, O; Reunanen, A.; Aromaa, A
BACKGROUND—Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that smoking is a risk factor for rheumatoid factor (RF) positive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Being overweight, high serum cholesterol, and dietary factors have in some studies been found to be associated with the risk of RA. No attention, however, has been paid to coffee consumption as a risk determinant, though it is a shared covariate of the alleged risk factors.?OBJECTIVES—This study aimed at examining coffee consumption for its asso...
Koci? Sanja S.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis ?2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4, defecating in the open air (or river (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4 and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7; while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87. Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90 and 71% (95%CI 44–90%. Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea.
Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for suicide in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study is based on available information about MS patients identified in the Danish MS Registry (DMSR) with onset in the period 1950-1985. We compared the MS suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, the course of the disease, recent deterioration, type of deterioration, Kurtzke Disability Status Scale (DSS) score, previous mental disorder, type of mental disorder, previous suicide attempts, expression of suicidal intentions, circumstances at suicide, and suicide method for all MS patients who had committed suicide. In order to characterize MS suicides with respect to risk factors, comparisons were made for male and female suicides and for various groups of MS suicides according to disability status. RESULTS: Themale suicide patients were characterized by a tendency to commit suicide in the age interval 40-49 years, by the use of a violent suicide method, by previous suicidal behaviour, by a previous mental disorder, by recent deterioration of MS, and by a moderate disability. For women the characteristics were less distinct. Patients with a severe course of MS had been subjected to more risk factors before the suicide than patients with a moderate course of the disease. CONCLUSION: Careful counselling and good information on all aspects of the disease, especially in the first stages and at time of progression, could be an instrument of prevention of suicides in MS patients. Furthermore, recognition and treatment of depression and pain is important.
Katsarava, Z; Dzagnidze, A
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the 1-year prevalences of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH), and identify their principal risk factors, in the general population of the Republic of Georgia. METHODS: In a community-based door-to-door survey, 4 medical residents interviewed all biologically unrelated adult members (>/=16 years) of 500 adjacent households in Tbilisi, the capital city, and 300 in rural Kakheti in eastern Georgia, using a previously validated questionnaire based on International Headache Society diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The target population included 1,145 respondents, 690 (60%) women, mean age 45.4 +/- 12.0 years. The 1-year prevalences were as follows: migraine 6.5% (95% confidence interval 5.0-7.9), probable migraine 9.2% (7.5-10.8), all migraine 15.6% (13.5%-17.7%), TTH 10.0% (8.2-11.7), probable TTH 27.3% (24.8-29.9), all TTH 37.3% (34.5%-40.1%). Female gender and low socioeconomic status were risk factors for migraine but not for TTH. Headache on >/=15 days/month was reported by 87 respondents, a prevalence of 7.6% (6.1-9.1). Female gender, low socioeconomic status, and frequent use (>/=10 days/month) of acute headache drugs were risk factors. The likely prevalence of medication overuse headache was 0.9% (0.3-1.4), of chronic migraine 1.4% (0.7-2.1), and of chronic TTH 3.3% (2.3-4.4), but caution is needed in interpreting these estimates. CONCLUSIONS: While the prevalences of migraine and tension-type headache are comparable with those in Europe and the United States, a remarkably high percentage of the population of Georgia have headache on >/=15 days/month. This study demonstrates the importance of socioeconomic factors in a developing country and unmasks the unmet needs of people with headache disorders.
Signorelli, C; Limina, R M
The problems regarding communication of risks in the environmental sector and the analysis of certain causes of pollution, together with their effects on human health are the subjects of this article. In an illustrative and concise manner results of the most important epidemiological studies concerning the effects of non-ionizing radiations, of radon and of air pollution have been analyzed. Throughout this analysis emphasis has been placed on the difficulty of obtaining clear and scientifically based results. Such results are needed in order to provide the population with satisfying information and thus meet the increasing demand for unambiguous answers. Among the risk factors for human health are the high frequency electromagnetic fields used for mobile phones (radiofrequency--RF) nd extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) of power-lines. Even though these risk factors may be minimal the high number of persons exposed could make them an important impact on public health. Regarding the topic of air pollution, effects on particular segments of the population (children, elderly people and subjects with chronic diseases) have been found in various studies; for example, for an increase of PM(10) of 10 microg/m(3) an increase in daily mortality of 0.69% (CI 0.40-0.98) due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes has been estimated as well as an increase in general daily mortality of 0.54% (CI 0.33-0.76). Due to the populations' low risk perception (caused by unawareness of the problem) radon is undoubtedly the environmental pollutant which has the most impact on public health. This is true even in Italy where 4,000 cases of lung cancer attributable to radon (about 11% of total lung cancer) have been estimated per year; this risk is heightened by the combined effect with smoking. When dealing with health risks the tools of communication must be simple and correct; the mass-media are the most important mediators between the scientific community and the public. It is therefore vital for the public health operators to maintain a continuous relationship with the mass media which should be based on reciprocal trust and full collaboration. PMID:12162123
Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for suicide in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study is based on available information about MS patients identified in the Danish MS Registry (DMSR) with onset in the period 1950-1985. We compared the MS suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, ...
Asmaa Ibrahim Gomaa, Shahid A Khan, Mireille B Toledano, Imam Waked, Simon D Taylor-Robinson
Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the commonest primary malignant cancer of the liver in the world. Given that the burden of chronic liver disease is expected to rise owing to increasing rates of alcoholism, hepatitis B and C prevalence and obesity-related fatty liver disease, it is expected that the incidence of HCC will also increase in the foreseeable future. This article summarizes the international epidemiology, the risk factors and the pathogenesis of HCC, including the roles of viral hepatitis, toxins, such as alcohol and aflatoxin, and insulin resistance.
Bharti A.R; Kumar A.R; Jyothi S.L.S; Visweswaran P; Mary T.S; Asthana S.S; Sumana R
A case-control study involving 54 cases and 108 matched controls was conducted to find out the association of risk factors like smoking, chewing paan and tobacco and the occurrence of cancers of the oral cavity. More than 80% of the cases were over 40 years of age, with a male: female ratio of 2:1, paan and tobacco chewing were significantly related to the oral cancers (Odds Ratio of 9.3 and 7.8 respectively). Smoking showed a statistically significant relationship with oral cancers am...
Pérez Jiménez, Jara; Saura Calixto, Fulgencio D.
Many in vivo trials have evaluated the effects of grape products on different CVD risk factors. Most published studies have dealt with some specific aspects of mechanisms of grape flavonoid action or have focused only on one product, such as wine. The aim of the present paper is to review trials dealing with grape products and CVD published during the last 13 years (seventy-five trials). Polyphenols, alcohol and dietary fibre are the main constituents of the tested products. In animal and hum...
José, Sandoval Paredes; Arnold, Madrid Jaramillo; Cindy, Sandoval Paz; Patricia, Paz Núñez.
Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de dismenorrea y sus factores asociados en estudiantes de tres colegios de Lima de estratos socioeconómicos diferentes. Diseño: Estudio de tipo observacional, de corte transversal y comparativo. Institución: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participantes [...] : Adolescentes estudiantes de tres colegios. Intervenciones: Se realizó una encuesta anónima a 392 adolescentes de 3 colegios: Newton College (estrato A), De Jesús (estrato B) y Ciro Alegría (estrato C). Principales medidas de resultados: Presencia de dismenorrea. Resultados: La edad promedio de las adolescentes entrevistadas fue 14,8 ± 1,0 años e IMC 22,7 ± 12,9, con edad de menarquía a los 11,9 años. Los días promedio de sangrado menstrual fueron 4,9 días. El porcentaje de adolescentes con dismenorrea fue de 51,7%. El dolor menstrual duró en promedio 1,95 días. El ausentismo escolar fue señalado en 34,2%, 26,4% y 21,3%, en los estratos A, B y C, respectivamente. El antecedente materno tuvo un OR 1,85 (1,38 a 2,58) y p 0,0240, el ejercicio físico OR 0,93 (0,81 a 1,25) y p 0,7794, el consumo de pescado OR 0,96 (0,66 a 1,40) y p 0,0836, el consumo de tabaco OR 1,33 (0,68 a 2,60) y p 0,4207. El consumo de tabaco fue claramente mayor en el estrato A, casi 16% frente al 4% del estrato C. Conclusiones: La edad de la menarquía fue la misma de estudios nacionales. La duración del periodo menstrual fue 4,9 días, superior en un día a lo encontrado en mujeres adultas. Una de cada dos adolescentes presentó dismenorrea y el dolor menstrual duró en promedio dos días. Hubo ausentismo escolar en una de cada cuatro alumnas, por causa del dolor menstrual, mayor en el estrato social alto. La presencia de dismenorrea estuvo relacionada significativamente con el antecedente materno. El consumo de pescado, la actividad física y el hábito de fumar no estuvieron asociados a la presencia de dismenorrea. El consumo de tabaco fue elevado en los estratos sociales altos en comparación con los bajos. Abstract in english Objectives: To determine dysmenorrhea prevalence and associated factors in three Lima schools’ students from different socioeconomic strata. Design: Observational, cross-sectional and comparative study. Setting: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participants: Adolescent students. Interventio [...] ns: Anonymous survey to 392 teenagers from three schools: Newton College (stratum A), De Jesus (stratum B) and Ciro Alegría (stratum C). Main outcome measures: Dysmenorrhea. Results: Average age of adolescents was 14.8 ± 1.01 years, BMI was 22.7 ± 12.9 and menarche was reported occurring at age 11.9 years average. Average menstrual bleeding was 4.9 days. Percentage of adolescents with dysmenorrhea was 51.7%. Menstrual pain lasted 1.95 days average. School absenteeism was 34.2%, 26.4%, 21.3% in strata A, B and C respectively. Maternal history of dysmenorrhea had an OR = 1.85 (1.38-2.58) and p = 0.0240; fish consumption had an OR = 0.96 (0.66-1.40) and p = 0.0836; tobacco consumption had an OR = 1.33 (0.68-2.60) and p = 0.4207. Tobacco consumption was clearly higher in stratum A, almost 16% compared with 4% in stratum C. Conclusions: Age of menarche was similar to national studies. Duration of menstrual period was 4.9 days, higher in one day to that reported in adult women. One in two teenagers presented dysmenorrhea and menstrual pain lasted 2 days average. School absenteeism was one in each four students because of menstrual pain, mainly in high social status students. Presence of dysmenorrhea was significantly related to maternal history. Fish consumption, physical activity and smoking were not associated with dysmenorrhea. Tobacco consumption was high in social strata A compared with low strata.
... know what causes kidney cancer? What are the risk factors for kidney cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your ... which is almost always benign (not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a strong family history of renal ...
... know what causes endometrial cancer? What are the risk factors for endometrial cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes (raises or lowers) ... to obesity, which is a well-known endometrial cancer risk factor. Many scientists think this is the main way ...
Arrighi, Chiara; Castelli, Fabio; Brugioni, Marcello; Franceschini, Serena; Mazzanti, Bernardo
The assessment of flood risk in urban areas is considered nowadays a crucial issue to be addressed by technicians and public authorities and requires the estimation of hazard, vulnerability and exposure. Each step of the risk assessment brings its uncertainties to the final result, thus the analysis of the sensitivity to the different contributors is required. Since the damages are generally evaluated through stage-damage functions one of the most important contribution is the estimated value of the water depth. Water depth is the outcome of hydraulic models that can be implemented with different modeling approaches and levels of spatial detail, thus providing flood depth maps that may differ in the extension of the inundated area and in the flood depth value. It is generally argued that 2D models are the most suitable to describe flood behavior in the urban environment although most of applications are carried out in small and sparse urban areas. In the historic cities a 2D model provides reliable results if the grid size is small enough to describe the street/building pattern, implying long simulation runs. Another contribution is given by monetary values assigned to the damage categories that may come from different proxy variables and may oscillate according to the real estate quotations. The risk assessment here presented is made possible thanks to a methodology based on the open data, both socio-economic and territorial, that are available in the web. In this work the risk assessment procedure and the sensitivity analysis are applied to the main cities located along the Arno river, Pisa and Florence (Italy) that are usually considered of broad interest for the importance of urban and cultural heritage. The risk is estimated accounting for structures, household contents, commercial and tertiary sectors which are the most representative of the studied areas. The evaluation and mapping of micro-scale flood risk is carried out in a GIS environment using open data aggregated to the census polygons. It results that, for a flood event of similar magnitude as the one of 1966, the flood risk analysis for the city of Florence estimates a total damage of about 6 billion euros without considering the damage to cultural heritage. This value is larger than the annual income of the whole municipality. The average flood risk per unit surface of territory (m2) is about 10 â¬/year for the historic centre in Florence and 4 â¬/year for Pisa. A discussion of the sensitivity analysis is also presented.
Rothmann, M. J.; Ammentorp, J.; Bech, M.; Gram, J.; Rasmussen, O. W.; Barkmann, R.; Glüer, C. C.; Hermann, Pernille
This Danish cross-sectional study (n?=?20,905) showed that women aged 65-81 years generally underestimated fracture risk compared to absolute risk estimated by the FRAX® algorithm. Significant association was found between risk factors (e.g., previous fracture, parental hip fracture, and self-rated heath) and self-perceived fracture risk. Although women recognized the importance of some fracture risk factors, a number of significant risk factors appeared to be less well known. INTRODUCTION: The ...