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Socioeconomic factors and the risk for sarcoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies arising from mesenchymal tissue. Although several occupational exposures have been evaluated in association with sarcoma, little is known about the role of socioeconomic indicators such as education. Socioeconomic status has been found to be associated with risk of development of several types of cancers, primarily lung, gastric, and cervical cancers. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the association of socioeconomic level with the risk for sarcoma. A total of 371 incident cases of sarcoma were matched in terms of age, sex, and year of enrollment in the study with 742 cancer-free controls. Education and income levels were evaluated as the indicators of socioeconomic status. Higher education (college level) was associated with a significantly lower risk for sarcoma [odds ratio (OR)=0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.29-0.80], even after adjusting for important confounders. After stratifying by sex, significantly lower risk for sarcoma was observed among men who had college level education compared with men with a level of education of eighth grade or lower (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.19-0.74). A significant association between education and the risk for sarcoma remained after stratifying by income (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.28-0.86, among the low income group). When analyzed as a composite exposure, individuals with high education and high income status had significantly lower risk for sarcoma compared with those with low income and low education status (OR=0.41, 95% CI=0.23-0.71). Thus, socioeconomic factors may play a significant role in determining the risk for sarcoma and should be explored further to elucidate the underlying factors that may explain these sociodemographic inequalities related to sarcoma. PMID:24356343

Hampras, Shalaka S; Moysich, Kirsten B; Marimuthu, Sathiya P; Ravi, Vinod; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel

2014-11-01

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Socioeconomic disparities in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite a general decline in mortality rates in recent decades, these rates are substantially higher among lower socioeconomic groups. To determine target groups for preventive health promotion programs, the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic group in Canadian adults aged 20 to 69 years was examined through comparison of estimates from the 1978-79 Canada Health Survey, the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey and the labour force smoking surveys of 1975 and 1983. Lev...

Wielgosz, A. T.; Spasoff, R. A.

1986-01-01

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School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents : risk factors differ between socio-economic groups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors to drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups.

Andersen, Anette; Holstein, BjØrn E

2007-01-01

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Pathways between Socioeconomic Status and Modifiable Risk Factors Among African American Smokers  

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Although socioeconomic status is a major contributing factor to health disparities, the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status influences health remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an a priori conceptual model of the pathways between socioeconomic status and modifiable health risk factors in a sample of 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment. A latent variable modeling approach was utilized to characterize the interrelationships among soc...

Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-woerpel, Ludmila M.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Costello, Tracy J.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Wetter, David W.

2009-01-01

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Socioeconomic Factors in Childhood and the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a national cohort comprising 1.5 million Danes born from 1966 to 1992, we studied the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) from 1981 to 2007 using information about household income and parental educational levels at the persons 15th birthday. The association between childhood SES and MS was evaluated using MS incidence rate ratios with 95 confidence intervals obtained in log-linear Poisson regression analyses. We found no strong association between childhood SES and MS but did observe a tendency toward a reduced risk of MS among children from households with more highly educated parents, particularly mothers. Children whose mothers had a secondary (rate ratio 0.95, 95 confidence interval: 0.86, 1.04) or higher (rate ratio 0.86, 95 confidence interval: 0.76, 0.97) education had reduced risks of MS (5 and 14, respectively) compared with children of mothers with a basic education (P for trend 0.02). Results were practically unchanged in an analysis restricted to persons aged 1529 years, among whom the possible effect of own SES on MS risk is considered limited. Overall, SES in childhood seems of no major importance for the subsequent risk of MS; however, offspring of well-educated mothers may be at a slightly reduced risk of MS.

Nielsen, N. M.; Jorgensen, K. T.

2013-01-01

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Socioeconomic disparities in behavioral risk factors and health outcomes by gender in the Republic of Korea  

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Abstract Background Few studies have examined socioeconomic disparities in health and behavioral risk factors by gender in Asian countries and in South Korea, specifically. We investigated the relationship between socioeconomic position (education, income, and occupation) and subjective and acute and chronic health outcomes and behavioral risk factors by gender, and compared results from 1998 and 2005, in the Republic of Korea. Methods We examined data from a na...

Ruger Jennifer; Kim Hak-Ju

2010-01-01

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Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status  

Science.gov (United States)

This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

2005-01-01

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Socioeconomic Status, Negative Affect, and Modifiable Cancer Risk Factors in African American Smokers  

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The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of co-occurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment, and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had a...

Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-woerpel, Ludmila M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Costello, Tracy J.; Businelle, Michael S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

2008-01-01

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Socioeconomic disparities in behavioral risk factors and health outcomes by gender in the Republic of Korea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined socioeconomic disparities in health and behavioral risk factors by gender in Asian countries and in South Korea, specifically. We investigated the relationship between socioeconomic position (education, income, and occupation and subjective and acute and chronic health outcomes and behavioral risk factors by gender, and compared results from 1998 and 2005, in the Republic of Korea. Methods We examined data from a nationally representative stratified random sample of 4213 men and 4618 women from the 1998 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 8289 men and 8827 women from the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey using General Linear Modeling and multiple logistic regression methods. Results Controlling for behavioral risk factors (smoking, drinking, obesity, exercise, and sleep, those in lower socioeconomic positions had poorer health outcomes in both self-reported acute and chronic disease and subjective measures; differences were especially pronounced among women. A socioeconomic gradient for education and income was found for both men and women for morbidity and self-reported health status, but the gradient was more pronounced in women. In 1998, the odds ratios (ORs of higher morbidity for illiterate vs. college educated females was 5.4:1 and 1.9:1 for females in the lowest income quintile vs. the highest. The OR for education decreased in 2005 to 2.9:1 and that for income quintiles remained the same at 1.9:1. The OR of lower self-reported health status for illiterate vs. college educated females was 2.9:1 and 1.6:1 for females in the lowest income quintile vs. the highest in 1998, and 3.3:1 and 2.3:1 in 2005. Conclusions Among Korean adults, men and women in lower socioeconomic position, as denoted by education, income, and somewhat less by occupation, experience significantly higher levels of morbidity and lower self-reported health status, even after controlling for standard behavioral risk factors. Disparities were more pronounced for women than for men. Efforts to reduce health disparities in South Korea require attention to the root causes of socioeconomic inequality and gender differences in the impact of socioeconomic position on health.

Ruger Jennifer

2010-04-01

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Socioeconomic status is a critical risk factor for human rabies post-exposure prophylaxis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The socioeconomic status of the patients is the important factor for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, few investigations were designed to study the correlation between the socioeconomic status and PEP. This study set out to determine the importance of socioeconomic status for PEP. All of the 11,670 at-risk populations of rabies in the public health centre of San Sheng County in Chengdu from January 2002 to December 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. We identified 11,350 patients on vaccination and 550 patients with rabies immunoglobulin. RIG was administered to 4.85% bite victims attending the rabies prevention clinics, while 61.36% had a category III exposure. The incidence of receiving RIG in the population of the high level of income (49.38%) was much higher than the groups of the medium level (8.08%) and the low level of income (1.46%) (P<0.05). The incidence of receiving RIG with above high school (23.08%) was much higher than the groups of the primary school (3.01%), the junior school (12.56%) and the illiteracy (2.08%) (P<0.05). In the logistic regression analysis by stepwise approach, the socioeconomic status was the most important factor for PEP (95% CI 1.20-2.04). Vaccination and immunoglobulin proved to be the most prominent two factors for PEP but whether receiving Vaccination and immunoglobulin treatment or not is determined by the socioeconomic status. So, the socioeconomic status was the most important factor for PEP. PMID:20723628

Fang, Li Xiao; Ping, Feng; Ping, Du Yuan; Hui, Bian Guo; Yan, Yu Xiao

2010-10-01

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A Statistical Study of Socio-economic and Physical Risk Factors of Myocardial Infarction  

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Full Text Available A sample of 506 patients from various hospitals in Peshawar was examined to determine significant socio-economic and physical risk factors of Myocardial Infarction (heart attack. The factors examined were smoking (S, hypertension (H, cholesterol (C, diabetes (D, family history (F, residence (R, own a house (OH, number of dependents (ND, household income (I, obesity and lack of exercise (E. The response variable MI was binary. Therefore, logistic regression was applied (using GLIM and SPSS packages to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. Logistic regression models have been obtained indicating significant risk factors for both sexes, for males and for females separately. The best-selected model for both sexes is of factors S, F, D, H and C. The best-selected model for males is of factors CIFH, S, H, D, C and F, while the best-selected model for females is of factors D, H, C and F.

M. Alamgir

2005-07-01

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Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular mortality and the role of childhood socioeconomic conditions and adulthood risk factors: a prospective cohort study with 17-years of follow up  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms underlying socioeconomic inequalities in mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD are largely unknown. We studied the contribution of childhood socioeconomic conditions and adulthood risk factors to inequalities in CVD mortality in adulthood. Methods The prospective GLOBE study was carried out in the Netherlands, with baseline data from 1991, and linked with the cause of death register in 2007. At baseline, participants reported on adulthood socioeconomic position (SEP (own educational level, childhood socioeconomic conditions (occupational level of respondent’s father, and a broad range of adulthood risk factors (health behaviours, material circumstances, psychosocial factors. This present study is based on 5,395 men and 6,306 women, and the data were analysed using Cox regression models and hazard ratios (HR. Results A low adulthood SEP was associated with increased CVD mortality for men (HR 1.84; 95% CI: 1.41-2.39 and women (HR 1.80; 95%CI: 1.04-3.10. Those with poorer childhood socioeconomic conditions were more likely to die from CVD in adulthood, but this reached statistical significance only among men with the poorest childhood socioeconomic circumstances. About half of the investigated adulthood risk factors showed significant associations with CVD mortality among both men and women, namely renting a house, experiencing financial problems, smoking, physical activity and marital status. Alcohol consumption and BMI showed a U-shaped relationship with CVD mortality among women, with the risk being significantly greater for both abstainers and heavy drinkers, and among women who were underweight or obese. Among men, being single or divorced and using sleep/anxiety drugs increased the risk of CVD mortality. In explanatory models, the largest contributor to adulthood CVD inequalities were material conditions for men (42%; 95% CI: ?73 to ?20 and behavioural factors for women (55%; 95% CI: -191 to ?28. Simultaneous adjustment for adulthood risk factors and childhood socioeconomic conditions attenuated the HR for the lowest adulthood SEP to 1.34 (95% CI: 0.99-1.82 for men and 1.19 (95% CI: 0.65-2.15 for women. Conclusions Adulthood material, behavioural and psychosocial factors played a major role in the explanation of adulthood SEP inequalities in CVD mortality. Childhood socioeconomic circumstances made a modest contribution, mainly via their association with adulthood risk factors. Policies and interventions to reduce health inequalities are likely to be most effective when considering the influence of socioeconomic circumstances across the entire life course and in particular, poor material conditions and unhealthy behaviours in adulthood.

Kamphuis Carlijn BM

2012-12-01

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Seroprevalence and risk factors for dengue infection in socio-economically distinct areas of Recife, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brazil currently accounts for the majority of dengue cases reported in the Americas, with co-circulation of DENV 1-3. Striking variation in the epidemiological pattern of infection within cities has been observed. Therefore, investigation of dengue transmission in small areas is important to formulate control strategies. A population-based household survey was performed in three diverse socio-economic and environmental areas of Recife, a large urban center of Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. Dengue serostatus and individual- and household-level risk factors for infection were collected in residents aged between 5 and 64 years. A total of 2833 individuals were examined, and their residences were geo-referenced. Anti-dengue IgG antibodies were measured using commercial ELISA. The dengue seroprevalence and the force of infection were estimated in each area. Individual and household variables associated with seropositivity were assessed by multilevel models for each area. A spatial analysis was conducted to identify risk gradients of dengue seropositivity using Generalized Additive Models (GAM). The dengue seroprevalence was 91.1%, 87.4% 74.3%, respectively, in the deprived, intermediate and high socio-economic areas, inversely related to their socio-economic status. In the deprived area, 59% of children had already been exposed to dengue virus by the age of 5 years and the estimated force of infection was three times higher than that in the privileged area. The risk of infection increased with age in the three areas. Not commuting away from the area was a risk factor for seropositivity in the deprived area (OR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.18-4.30). Number of persons per room was a risk factor for seropositivity in the intermediate (OR=3.00; 95% CI: 3.21-7.37) and privileged areas (OR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.07-3.04). Living in a house, as opposed to an apartment, was a risk factor for seropositivity in the privileged area (OR=3.62; 95% CI: 2.43-5.41). The main difference between the privileged and other areas could be attributed to the much larger proportion of apartment dwellers. Intensive vector control, surveillance and community education should be considered in deprived urban areas where a high proportion of children are infected by an early age. PMID:19896921

Braga, Cynthia; Luna, Carlos Feitosa; Martelli, Celina Mariaturchi; de Souza, Wayner Vieira; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Alexander, Neal; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão; Júnior, José Constantino Silveira; Marques, Ernesto T

2010-03-01

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A low socio-economic status is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in high risk Hong Kong Chinese  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age-adjusted odds ratio in male subjects was 1.9 (0.9, 3.9) but this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, a lower socio-economic class, categorised either by occupational or educational level, was an additional risk factor for diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese who had known risk factors for glucose intolerance. These subjects should have increased priority for health education and regular diabetes screening. Our findings further emphasise the complex relationships between societal affluence, personal income and educational level

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Effect of Community Affluence on the Association Between Individual Socioeconomic Status and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, Colorado, 2007–2008  

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We assessed the hypothesis that community affluence modifies the association between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and 6 cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors: diabetes, hypertension, physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and poor nutrition. We stratified data from the Colorado Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2007 and 2008 by individual SES and 3 categories of community affluence (median household income of county). People who had a low SES seemed to benefit from r...

Abeyta, Ian Matthew; Tuitt, Nicole R.; Byers, Tim E.; Sauaia, Angela

2012-01-01

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Prevalence of COPD and its association with socioeconomic status in China: Findings from China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance 2007  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic status is likely an independent risk factor for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD, but little research has been done in China to study this association in a nationwide sample. Methods We used data from the 2007 China Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance of 49,363 Chinese men and women aged 15-69 years to examine the association between the prevalence of self-reported physician diagnosed COPD and socioeconomic status defined by both educational level and annual household income. Multivariable logistic regression modelling was performed with adjustement for potential confounders. Results Both low educational attainment and low household income were independently associated with higher risk of physician-diagnosed COPD. Compared to subjects with high educational level, subjects with low educational level had a significantly increased risk of COPD (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.32-2.13, p for trend Conclusions Socioeconomic status is a risk factor for self-reported physician-diagnosed COPD independently of current or passive smoking. Prospective studies are needed in China to better understand the association between socioeconomic status and COPD.

Jiang Yong

2011-07-01

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Associations of social participation, demographic, socioeconomic and disease factors with nutritional risk in a group of older Hong Kong adults  

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Full Text Available Aims: To identify the impact of social participation, socio-demographic, socio-economic and disease factors on nutritional risk among older persons in Hong Kong. Background: Few published work has investigated the relative risks of social participation, demographic, socioeconomic and disease factors with malnutrition in community-living older people, this study is to investigate the associations of these risk factors on the nutritional status in better nutrition support for the old age group. Design: A crosssectional study. Methods: It was a secondary analysis of a database in a mobile community centre between January 2008 and December 2009. One thousand seven hundred and thirty one participants aged between 54 and 103 were collected. With 319 full Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA completed, the participants’ demographic, socio-economic data, diseases, and nutritional status were analyzed with relative risk and 95% confidence interval level to identify the factors that make them vulnerable to nutritional risk. Results: The prevalence of malnutrition in the community-dwelling old was 3.95% and 83.7% of the sample was at risk of malnutrition. Living on allowances, young old who was socially engaged and good relationship with family members were at less risk to malnutrition. Conclusions: Special attention should be taken to these groups as they are prone to develop malnutrition.  

Joanne Wai Yee Chung

2013-03-01

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Socioeconomic status and trends in risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the Danish MONICA population, 1982-1992  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The decline in cardiovascular mortality in Denmark during the 1980s has been greatest in the highest socioeconomic groups of the population. This study examines whether the increased social inequality in cardiovascular mortality has been accompanied by a different trend in cardiovascular risk factors in different educational groups.

Osler, M; Gerdes, L U

2000-01-01

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Effect of Community Affluence on the Association Between Individual Socioeconomic Status and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, Colorado, 2007-2008  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the hypothesis that community affluence modifies the association between individual socioeconomic status (SES) and 6 cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors: diabetes, hypertension, physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and poor nutrition. We stratified data from the Colorado Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2007 and 2008 by individual SES and 3 categories of community affluence (median household income of county). People who had a low SES seemed to benefit from residing in high-affluence communities. Living in high-affluence communities may mitigate the effect of poverty on CVD risk factors; our findings support the value of interventions that address social determinants of health. PMID:22721500

Abeyta, Ian Matthew; Tuitt, Nicole R.; Byers, Tim E.

2012-01-01

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Demographic and socioeconomic risk factors of adult violent victimization from an accident and emergency department and forensic medicine perspective: a register-based case-control study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To describe demographic and socioeconomic risk factors of adult violent victimization leading to contact with an emergency department and/or an institute of forensic medicine based on a case-control study design.

Faergemann, Christian; Lauritsen, Jens

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Systolic Blood Pressure, Socioeconomic Status, and Biobehavioral Risk Factors in a Nationally Representative U.S Young Adult Sample  

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In the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a US longitudinal study of over 15,000 young adults, we examined the extent to which socioeconomic status is linked to systolic blood pressure, and whether biobehavioral risk factors mediate the association. Over 62% of the participants had systolic blood pressure >120 mmHg and 12% with systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg. Over 66% were classified as at least overweight (Body Mass Index>25 kg/m2), with over 36% meeting criteria for at lea...

Brummett, Beverly H.; Babyak, Michael A.; Siegler, Ilene C.; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Elder, Glen H.; Williams, Redford B.

2011-01-01

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Association of Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Acculturation, and Environmental Factors with Risk of Overweight Among Adolescents in California, 2003  

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Full Text Available IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the California Health Interview Survey 2003, we estimated the prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight, combined as a single measure (AROW, body mass index ?85th percentile. We used logistic regression models to examine associations between AROW and risk factors.ResultsTwenty-nine percent of California adolescents were AROW. The prevalence of AROW differed significantly by sex and race. Boys were more likely than girls to be AROW (33% vs 25%. American Indians/Pacific Islanders/others (39% were at highest risk, followed by Hispanics (37%, blacks (35%, whites (23%, and Asians (15%. For boys, older age, Hispanic or American Indian/Pacific Islander/other race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and longer residence in the United States were significantly associated with AROW. For girls, Hispanic or black race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and poor dietary habits were significantly associated with AROW.ConclusionThe high prevalence of AROW among California adolescents in most racial/ethnic groups indicates the need for culturally specific and appropriate interventions to prevent and treat overweight.

Joel Gittelsohn, PhD

2008-07-01

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Diabetes mortality in Panama and related biological and socioeconomic risk factors / Mortalidad por diabetes en Panamá y factores de riesgo biológicos y socioeconómicos relacionados con la enfermedad  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Calcular la mortalidad por diabetes sacarina durante el período del 2001 al 2011 en la República de Panamá por provincias o comarcas indígenas, y determinar su relación con los factores de riesgo biológicos y socioeconómicos de aparición de la enfermedad. MÉTODOS: Se escogieron del Registr [...] o Nacional de Mortalidad de Panamá del 2001 al 2011 los casos en los cuales la diabetes constituyó la principal causa de muerte. Se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad brutas y ajustadas desglosadas por sexo, edad y zona geográfica. Mediante análisis de regresión lineal se determinó la relación entre la mortalidad por diabetes y los factores de riesgo socioeconómicos y biológicos y se calculó un índice de salud compuesto con base en cada tipo de factores de riesgo en cada provincia o comarca indígena de Panamá. RESULTADOS: Las tasas de mortalidad por diabetes no aumentaron en los hombres ni las mujeres del 2001 al 2011. De los factores de riesgo biológicos, el exceso de peso exhibió la asociación más fuerte con la mortalidad por diabetes y el factor de riesgo socioeconómico que presentó una mayor asociación con la mortalidad fue un ingreso mensual inferior a US$ 100. Las puntuaciones más altas del índice de salud compuesto desde el punto de vista socioeconómico se obtuvieron en una provincia que es rural en su mayor parte y en zonas con poblaciones indígenas. Las puntuaciones más altas con los factores biológicos se observaron en las provincias urbanas y rurales y en las que contaban con el porcentaje más alto de personas ancianas. CONCLUSIONES: Las disparidades regionales de la asociación entre la mortalidad por diabetes sacarina y los factores de riesgo de padecer la enfermedad reafirman la composición heterogénea de la población de Panamá y la distribución desigual de los factores determinantes de riesgo biológicos y sociales en el país y ponen en evidencia la necesidad de diversificar las estrategias de manejo de esta importante causa de discapacidad y muerte, en función de las zonas geográficas en Panamá. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality from diabetes mellitus (DM) for the period 2001-2011 in the Republic of Panama, by province/indigenous territory, and determine its relationship with biological and socioeconomic risk factors. METHODS: Cases for the years 2001-2011 with DM listed as the principal cau [...] se of death were selected from Panama's National Mortality Registry. Crude and adjusted mortality rates were generated by sex, age, and geographic area. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between DM mortality and biological and socioeconomic risk factors. A composite health index (CHI) calculated from biological and socioeconomic risk factors was estimated for each province/indigenous territory in Panama. RESULTS: DM mortality rates did not increase for men or women during 2001-2011. Of the biological risk factors, being overweight had the strongest association with DM mortality. Of the socioeconomic risk factors, earning less than US$ 100 per month had the strongest association with DM mortality. The highest socioeconomic CHI scores were found in a province that is predominantly rural and in areas with indigenous populations. The highest biological CHI scores were found in urban-rural provinces and those with the highest percentage of elderly people. CONCLUSIONS: Regional disparities in the association between DM mortality and DM risk factors reaffirm the heterogeneous composition of the Panamanian population and the uneven distribution of biological and social determinant risk factors in the country and point to the need to vary management strategies by geographic area for this important cause of disability and death in Panama.

Jorge A., Motta; Luis G., Ortega-Paz; Carlos A., Gordón; Beatriz, Gómez; Eva, Castillo; Víctor, Herrera Ballesteros; Manuel, Pereira.

2013-08-01

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Diabetes mortality in Panama and related biological and socioeconomic risk factors / Mortalidad por diabetes en Panamá y factores de riesgo biológicos y socioeconómicos relacionados con la enfermedad  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Calcular la mortalidad por diabetes sacarina durante el período del 2001 al 2011 en la República de Panamá por provincias o comarcas indígenas, y determinar su relación con los factores de riesgo biológicos y socioeconómicos de aparición de la enfermedad. MÉTODOS: Se escogieron del Registr [...] o Nacional de Mortalidad de Panamá del 2001 al 2011 los casos en los cuales la diabetes constituyó la principal causa de muerte. Se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad brutas y ajustadas desglosadas por sexo, edad y zona geográfica. Mediante análisis de regresión lineal se determinó la relación entre la mortalidad por diabetes y los factores de riesgo socioeconómicos y biológicos y se calculó un índice de salud compuesto con base en cada tipo de factores de riesgo en cada provincia o comarca indígena de Panamá. RESULTADOS: Las tasas de mortalidad por diabetes no aumentaron en los hombres ni las mujeres del 2001 al 2011. De los factores de riesgo biológicos, el exceso de peso exhibió la asociación más fuerte con la mortalidad por diabetes y el factor de riesgo socioeconómico que presentó una mayor asociación con la mortalidad fue un ingreso mensual inferior a US$ 100. Las puntuaciones más altas del índice de salud compuesto desde el punto de vista socioeconómico se obtuvieron en una provincia que es rural en su mayor parte y en zonas con poblaciones indígenas. Las puntuaciones más altas con los factores biológicos se observaron en las provincias urbanas y rurales y en las que contaban con el porcentaje más alto de personas ancianas. CONCLUSIONES: Las disparidades regionales de la asociación entre la mortalidad por diabetes sacarina y los factores de riesgo de padecer la enfermedad reafirman la composición heterogénea de la población de Panamá y la distribución desigual de los factores determinantes de riesgo biológicos y sociales en el país y ponen en evidencia la necesidad de diversificar las estrategias de manejo de esta importante causa de discapacidad y muerte, en función de las zonas geográficas en Panamá. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality from diabetes mellitus (DM) for the period 2001-2011 in the Republic of Panama, by province/indigenous territory, and determine its relationship with biological and socioeconomic risk factors. METHODS: Cases for the years 2001-2011 with DM listed as the principal cau [...] se of death were selected from Panama's National Mortality Registry. Crude and adjusted mortality rates were generated by sex, age, and geographic area. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between DM mortality and biological and socioeconomic risk factors. A composite health index (CHI) calculated from biological and socioeconomic risk factors was estimated for each province/indigenous territory in Panama. RESULTS: DM mortality rates did not increase for men or women during 2001-2011. Of the biological risk factors, being overweight had the strongest association with DM mortality. Of the socioeconomic risk factors, earning less than US$ 100 per month had the strongest association with DM mortality. The highest socioeconomic CHI scores were found in a province that is predominantly rural and in areas with indigenous populations. The highest biological CHI scores were found in urban-rural provinces and those with the highest percentage of elderly people. CONCLUSIONS: Regional disparities in the association between DM mortality and DM risk factors reaffirm the heterogeneous composition of the Panamanian population and the uneven distribution of biological and social determinant risk factors in the country and point to the need to vary management strategies by geographic area for this important cause of disability and death in Panama.

Jorge A., Motta; Luis G., Ortega-Paz; Carlos A., Gordón; Beatriz, Gómez; Eva, Castillo; Víctor, Herrera Ballesteros; Manuel, Pereira.

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Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and Germany. Methods We combined datasets from two population based studies, one in Germany ('Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study', and one in the Czech Republic ('Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE Study'. Participation rates were 56% in the HNR and 55% in the HAPIEE study. The subsample for this particular analysis consists of 11,554 men and women from nine German and Czech towns. Census based information on social characteristics of 326 neighbourhoods were collected from local administrative authorities. We used unemployment rate and overcrowding as area-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES. The cardiovascular risk factors obesity, hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity were used as response variables. Regression models were complemented by individual-level social status (education and relevant covariates. Results Smoking, obesity and low physical activity were more common in deprived neighbourhoods in Germany, even when personal characteristics including individual education were controlled for. For hypertension associations were weak. In the Czech Republic associations were observed for smoking and physical inactivity, but not for obesity and hypertension when individual-level covariates were adjusted for. The strongest association was found for smoking in both countries: in the fully adjusted model the odds ratio for 'high unemployment rate' was 1.30 [95% CI 1.02–1.66] in the Czech Republic and 1.60 [95% CI 1.29–1.98] in Germany. Conclusion In this comparative study, the effects of neighbourhood deprivation varied by country and risk factor; the strongest and most consistent effects were found for smoking. Results indicate that area level SES is associated with health related lifestyles, which might be a possible pathway linking social status and cardiovascular disease. Individual-level education had a considerable influence on the association between neighbourhood characteristics and risk factors.

Erbel Raimund

2007-09-01

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Tracking and prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors across socio-economic classes: A longitudinal substudy of the European Youth Heart Study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest prevalence of several cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, smoking and low physical activity level is observed in adults of low socioeconomic status. This study investigates whether tracking of body mass index and physical fitness from childhood to adolescence differs between groups of socioeconomic status. Furthermore the study investigates whether social class differences in the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness exist or develop within the age range from childhood to adolescence. Methods In all, 384 school children were followed for a period of six years (from third to ninth grade. Physical fitness was determined by a progressive maximal cycle ergometer test and the classification of overweight was based on body mass index cut-points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Socioeconomic status was defined according to The International Standard Classification of Occupation scheme. Results Moderate and moderately high tracking was observed for physical fitness and body mass index, respectively. No significant difference in tracking was observed between groups of socioeconomic status. A significant social gradient was observed in both the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness in the 14–16-year-old adolescents, whereas at the age of 8–10 years, only the prevalence of low physical fitness showed a significant inverse relation to socioeconomic status. The odds of both developing and maintaining risk during the measurement period were estimated as bigger in the group of low socioeconomic status than in the group of high socioeconomic status, although differences were significant only with respect to the odds of developing overweight. Conclusion The results indicate that the fundamental possibilities of predicting overweight and low physical fitness at an early point in time are the same for different groups of socio-economic status. Furthermore, the observed development of social inequalities in the absolute prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness underline the need for broad preventive efforts targeting children of low socioeconomic status in early childhood.

Bai Charlotte N

2006-01-01

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Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of psychological factors such as traumata and childhood adversities for the future risk of type 2 diabetes or obesity is too small to draw conclusions. Thus, more population-based longitudinal studies and international standards to assess psychosocial factors are needed to clarify the mechanisms leading to the observed health disparities.

Tamayo Teresa

2010-09-01

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Is socioeconomic status a risk factor for stiffness after total knee arthroplasty? A multicenter case-control study.  

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Socioeconomic factors may play a role in the development of arthrofibrosis following total knee arthroplasty. Using manipulation following total knee arthroplasty as a surrogate for stiffness, this multicenter case-control study found that African American and young patients (<45 years of age) had twice the odds for manipulation compared with Caucasian and older-age patients. PMID:23102415

Springer, Bryan D; Odum, Susan M; Nagpal, Vijay S; Lombardi, Adolph V; Berend, Keith R; Kim, Raymond H; Dennis, Douglas A

2012-11-01

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Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 250 male and female adult subjects 20 years of age and over, pertaining to different socio-economic levels is being conducted in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Measurements of weight, height, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test, blood levels of total of cholesterol, tryglicerides, LDL and HDL-cholesterol are being obtained. Body composition is being determined by deuterium dilution and infrared spectroscopy, air displacement plethysmography, skinfold thickness and bio-electrical impedance. Physical activity by questionnaire and diet by non-consecutive multiple 24 h recalls (to account for seasonal and inter-individual variability), will provide information on lifestyle and diet. At present, analysis of 141 subjects has been completed. Preliminary results showed high levels of overweight, 55% with BMI>25, and obesity, 17% with BMI>30. Subjects with abnormal glucose levels had significantly higher weight (p<0.008), larger waist/hip ratio (p<0.003), higher % body fat (p<0.01), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.01; p<0.009 respectively) than normal subjects, after adjusting for sex and age. Serum tryglicerides were significantly higher in obese subjects with central adiposity than non-obese subjects. Body composition by deuterium dilution was determined by infrared spectroscopy and by air displacement plethysmography in a preliminary pilot study. Finally, a physical activity questionnaire was tested in two groups of subjects with different lifestyles. (author)

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Racial/ethnic Heterogeneity in the Socioeconomic Patterning of CVD Risk Factors: in the United States: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis  

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Many studies document racial variation, gender differences, and socioeconomic status (SES) patterning in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors but few studies have investigated heterogeneity in SES differences by race/ethnicity or gender. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (N = 6,814) and stratified regression models, we investigated race/ethnic differences in the SES patterning of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and body mass index (BMI). Inverse socioeconomic gradients in hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and BMI were observed in White and Black women but associations were weaker or absent in Hispanic and Chinese women (except in the case of diabetes for Hispanic women). Even greater heterogeneity in social patterning of risk factors was observed in men. In White men all four risk factors were inversely associated with socioeconomic position, although often associations were only present or were stronger for education than for income. The inverse socioeconomic patterning was much less consistent in men of other races/ethnic groups, and higher SES was associated with higher BMI in non-White men. These findings have implications for understanding the causes of social patterning, for the analysis of SES adjusted race/ethnic differences, and for the targeting of interventions. PMID:21317510

Boykin, Shawn; Diez-Roux, Ana V.; Carnethon, Mercedes; Shrager, Sandi; Ni, Hanyu; Whitt-Glover, Melicia

2012-01-01

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Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adult from different socio-economic levels. Highlights and achievements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher than in the rest of the country. To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socioeconomic levels in north-west Mexico

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Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns  

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Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES), urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference), blo...

Delisle Hélène

2008-01-01

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Socioeconomic status as a risk factor for HIV infection in women in East, Central and Southern Africa: a systematic review.  

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This is a critical, systematic review of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and HIV infection in women in Southern, Central and Eastern Africa. In light of the interest in micro-credit programmes and other HIV prevention interventions structured to empower women through increasing women's access to funds and education, this review examines the epidemiological and public health literature, which ascertains the association between low SES using different measurements of SES and risk of HIV infection in women. Also, given the focus on structural violence and poverty as factors driving the HIV epidemic at a structural/ecological level, as advocated by Paul Farmer and others, this study examines the extent to which differences in SES between individuals in areas with generalized poverty affect risk for SES. Out of 71 studies retrieved, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria including 30 cross-sectional, one case-control and five prospective cohort or nested case-control studies. Thirty-five studies used at least one measurement of female's SES and fourteen also included a measurement of partner's SES. Studies used variables measuring educational level, household income and occupation or employment status at the individual and neighbourhood level to ascertain SES. Of the 36 studies, fifteen found no association between SES and HIV infection, twelve found an association between high SES and HIV infection, eight found an association between low SES and HIV infection and one was mixed. In interpreting these results, this review examines the role of potential confounders and effect modifiers such as history of STDs, number of partners, living in urban or rural areas and time and location of study in sub-Saharan Africa. It is argued that STDs and number of partners are on the causal pathway under investigation between HIV and SES and should not be adjusted as confounders in any analysis. In conclusion, it is argued that in low-income sub-Saharan Africans countries, where poverty is widespread, increasing access to resources for women may initially increase risk of HIV or have no effect on risk-taking behaviours. In some parts of Southern Africa where per capita income is higher and within-country inequalities in wealth are greater, studies suggest that increasing SES may decrease risk. This review concludes that increased SES may have differential effects on married and unmarried women and further studies should use multiple measures of SES. Lastly, it is suggested that the partner's SES (measured by education or income/employment) may be a stronger predictor of female HIV serostatus than measures of female SES. PMID:15688569

Wojcicki, Janet Maia

2005-01-01

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Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In Northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher the in the rest of the country. Objective: To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socio-economic levels in north-west Mexico. Methods: Non probabilistic sample selection by invitation was used to recruit subjects, completing quotas by age groups, gender and socio-economic status. The study included 350 men and women, 20-84 years pertaining to low and high income groups from the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. All subjects were measured for body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, skinfolds, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure SBP, DBP). Body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio were calculated. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 12 hour fast was performed and blood samples were taken for analysis of insulin, leptin, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. In 273 of the 350 subjects physical activity was studied by questionnaire. Activity was calculated as in categories of low, medium and high intensity and expressed as hours/day with respect to occupational and recreational activities. Physical activity level (PAL) was also calculated from the questionnaires. Body composition was investigated in more detail by air displacement plethysmography (densitometry) and by deuterium dilution in 200 subjects. Diet by 24 hour non-consecutive recalls in another sub-group of 135 male and female subjects. Statistical analysis was performed using NCSS statistical software using ANCOVA and regression procedures. Result: High levels of overweight (BMI >25) and obesity BMI>30) were found in this population group with 65 and 23.4% of them being in these categories respectively. After adjusting for sex and age, results showed that subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance levels had significantly higher weight (p0,120. In terms of body composition percent body fat by BL4 showed the best relationship to insulin sensitivity with the same index. Conclusions: Total body fat and regional fat distribution rather than body size may be a better alternative to assess risk levels for Type 2 diabetes and CVD. For population studies, this has to rely on appropriate field methods such as BIA. However, this has to be validated by recognised methodology such as deuterium dilution, DEXA or body density determinations that can provide the necessary information for specific predictive equation development. Work in Progress: Body composition by deuterium dilution determined by IR spectroscopy and plethysmography to validate BL4 are still in progress bt preliminary results show that either method can be used for validation purposes. Diet and physical activity data analysis will be completed by recruiting 50 mores subjects. Further analysis combining all possible risk indicators through multiple regression procedures are still pending as well as HOAL4 calculations. Take Home Message: The anthropometric evaluation of regional fat distribution and total body fat by BL4 might be an important field technique for type 2 diabetes and C VD risk assessment. Intervention studies that may use the findings in this study for this population would be warranted. (author)

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Association of Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Acculturation, and Environmental Factors with Risk of Overweight Among Adolescents in California, 2003  

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IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the Californ...

2008-01-01

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Impact of socioeconomic risk factors on the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infections in a cohort of pregnant Polish women between 2010 and 2011.  

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The purpose of this investigation was to perform an evaluation of the prevalence and socioeconomic risk factors for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections in a cohort of Polish pregnant women between 2010 and 2011. HCMV-specific IgG and IgM antibody levels were assayed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests in serum samples collected from 1,250 pregnant women attending outpatient obstetric clinics and hospitalized at two hospitals in Lodz. The seroprevalence of anti-HCMV IgG and IgM antibodies was 62.4 and 2.2 %, respectively, and differed significantly between age-stratified groups (p???0.05). The highest IgG prevalence was observed in women above 36 years of age (76.2 %) and IgM in adolescent women aged 16-20 years (6.0 %). Of the various socioeconomic factors, age above 36 years, basic and professional education, and offspring were significantly associated with HCMV IgG prevalence rates (PRs; 1.89, 1.80, and 1.56, respectively). Financial status, occupational risk related to contact with children, and transfusions were not related to the prevalence of IgG antibodies. The IgM prevalence was not associated with any of the analyzed risk factors. A slightly higher prevalence was observed in women who were transfused in the past, but the relationship was not significant. The current data have revealed a decrease in HCMV IgG seroprevalence in our region during recent years (62.4 vs. 76.7 %). Basic and professional education, as well as bringing up offspring, were determined as significant risk factors for HCMV infections in Polish pregnant women [risk ratio (RR) 1.20 and 1.17, respectively], suggesting that the primary and secondary prophylaxis of cytomegaly is necessary during pregnancy, even if screening is not mandatory. PMID:24902519

Wujcicka, W; Gaj, Z; Wilczy?ski, J; Sobala, W; Spiewak, E; Nowakowska, D

2014-11-01

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Socioeconomic inequalities in risk factors for non communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries: results from the World Health Survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring inequalities in non communicable disease risk factor prevalence can help to inform and target effective interventions. The prevalence of current daily smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and heavy episodic alcohol drinking were quantified and compared across wealth and education levels in low- and middle-income country groups. Methods This study included self-reported data from 232,056 adult participants in 48 countries, derived from the 2002–2004 World Health Survey. Data were stratified by sex and low- or middle-income country status. The main outcome measurements were risk factor prevalence rates reported by wealth quintile and five levels of educational attainment. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured using the slope index of inequality, reflecting differences in prevalence rates, and the relative index of inequality, reflecting the prevalence ratio between the two extremes of wealth or education accounting for the entire distribution. Data were adjusted for confounding factors: sex, age, marital status, area of residence, and country of residence. Results Smoking and low fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly higher among lower socioeconomic groups. The highest wealth-related absolute inequality was seen in smoking among men of low- income country group (slope index of inequality 23.0 percentage points; 95% confidence interval 19.6, 26.4. The slope index of inequality for low fruit and vegetable consumption across the entire distribution of education was around 8 percentage points in both sexes and both country income groups. Physical inactivity was less prevalent in populations of low socioeconomic status, especially in low-income countries (relative index of inequality: (men 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.64; (women 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42, 0.65. Mixed patterns were found for heavy drinking. Conclusions Disaggregated analysis of the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors demonstrated different patterns and varying degrees of socioeconomic inequalities across low- and middle-income settings. Interventions should aim to reach and achieve sustained benefits for high-risk populations.

Hosseinpoor Ahmad

2012-10-01

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Association of childhood and adult socioeconomic indicators with cardiovascular risk factors and its modification by age: the CARLA Study 2002-2006  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of socioeconomic status (SES on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors is widely known, although the role of different SES indicators is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of different SES indicators for cardiovascular disease risk factors in a middle and old aged East German population. Methods Cross-sectional data of an East German population-based cohort study (1779 men and women aged 45 to 83 were used to assess the association of childhood and adulthood SES indicators (childhood SES, education, occupational position, income with cardiovascular risk factors. Adjusted means and odds ratios of risk factors by SES indicators with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated by linear and logistic regression models, stratified by sex. The interaction effect of education and age on cardiovascular risk factors was tested by including an interaction term. Results In age-adjusted models, education, occupational position, and income were statistically significantly associated with abdominal obesity in men, and with smoking in both sexes. Men with low education had a more than threefold risk of being a smoker (OR 3.44, CI 1.58-7.51. Low childhood SES was associated with higher systolic blood pressure and abdominal obesity in women (OR 2.27, CI 1.18-4.38 for obesity; a non-significant but (in terms of effect size relevant association of childhood SES with smoking was observed in men. In women, age was an effect modifier for education in the risk of obesity and smoking. Conclusions We found considerable differences in cardiovascular risk factors by education, occupational position, income, and partly by childhood social status, differing by sex. Some social inequalities levelled off in higher age. Longitudinal studies are needed to differentiate between age and birth cohort effects.

Werdan Karl

2011-05-01

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Environmental, entomological, socioeconomic and behavioural risk factors for malaria attacks in Amerindian children of Camopi, French Guiana  

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Abstract Background Malaria is a major health issue in French Guiana. Amerindian communities remain the most affected. A previous study in Camopi highlighted the predominant role of environmental factors in the occurrence of malaria. However, all parameters involved in the transmission were not clearly identified. A new survey was conducted in order to clarify the risk factors for the presence of malaria cases in Camopi. Methods An open cohort of children under ...

Nacher Mathieu; Hanf Matthieu; Stefani Aurélia; Girod Romain; Carme Bernard

2011-01-01

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Combining individual and ecological data to determine compositional and contextual socio-economic risk factors for suicide  

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The social and economic characteristics of geographic areas are associated with their suicide rates. The extent to which these ecological associations are due to the characteristics of the people living in the areas (compositional effects) or the influence of the areas themselves on risk (contextual effects) is uncertain. Denmark's Medical Register on Vital Statistics and its Integrated Database for Longitudinal Labour Market Research were used to identify suicides and 20 matched controls per case in 25-60-year-old men and women between 1982 and 1997. Individual and area (municipality) measures of income, marital and employment status were obtained. There were 9011 suicides and 180,220 controls. Individual-level associations with these risk factors were little changed when controlling for contextual effects. In contrast, ecological associations of increased suicide risk with declining area levels of employment and income and increasing proportions of people living alone were much attenuated after controlling for compositional effects. We found no consistent evidence that associations with individual-level risk factors differed depending on the areas' characteristics (cross-level interactions). This analysis suggests the ecological associations to be attributed to characteristics of the residents rather than area influences on risk.

Agerbo, Esben; Sterne, J.A.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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A prospective study of reproductive, familial and socioeconomic risk factors for breast cancer using NHANES I data.  

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Risk factors for breast cancer in a cohort of women who participated in the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and its followup epidemiologic survey were examined. The analytic cohort consisted of 122 breast cancer cases and 7,304 noncases, with a median followup time of 10 years. We found no appreciable increase in risk among women who reported their onset of menarche as occurring before the age of 13 compared with those reporting onset at ages 13 and older. Brea...

Carter, C. L.; Jones, D. Y.; Schatzkin, A.; Brinton, L. A.

1989-01-01

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Socioeconomic status as determinant of risk factors for overweight in adolescents Status socioeconômico como determinante de fatores de risco associados com o sobrepeso em adolescentes  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze risk factors for overweight among adolescents grouped in three different socioeconomic levels. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1779 adolescents aged 11 to 17 years, grouped according to socioeconomic status (low, middle, and high. Parents reported their own anthropometric data and the adolescents had their anthropometric data taken by trained researchers, and completed three questionnaires. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 16.7%, 23.8%, and 26.3% in low, middle and high socioeconomic status, respectively (P= 0.001. In all socioeconomic status, parent's overweight was associated with adolescent overweight (all POBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores de risco para o sobrepeso entre adolescentes agrupados em três níveis econômicos diferentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que incluiu 1779 adolescentes com idade de 11-17 anos, agrupados de acordo com a condição econômica (baixo, médio e alto. Os pais reportaram seus próprios dados antropométricos e os adolescentes tiveram seus dados antropométricos aferidos por avaliadores treinados, e também responderam a três questionários. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 16.7%, 23.8% e 26.3% nas classes econonômicas baixa, média e alta, respectivamente (P=0.001. Em todas as condições econômicas, o sobrepeso dos pais foi associado com o sobrepeso dos filhos (P<0.05. Os estudantes de classes econômicas média e alta (RP=2.00 de escolas privadas foram associados com o sobrepeso, e estudantes de baixo nível sócio-econômico com comportamento sedentário (RP = 2,25 e alta ingestão de frituras (PR = 2.35. CONCLUSÃO: Em cada nível socioeconômico o sobrepeso é associado com diferentes fatores de risco de diferente formas, exceto para pais com sobrepeso.

Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

2011-10-01

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Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the rise of diet-related chronic diseases. People with higher SES and those with a longer exposure to the urban environment are priority target groups for interventions focusing on environmental risk factors that are amenable to change in this population. Lifestyle interventions would appear appropriate, with particular emphasis on physical activity.

Delisle Hélène

2008-03-01

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Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES), urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference), blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides) were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS) was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income). Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%), abdominal obesity (32%), hypertension (23%), and low HDL-cholesterol (13%). Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%). After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the rise of diet-related chronic diseases. People with higher SES and those with a longer exposure to the urban environment are priority target groups for interventions focusing on environmental risk factors that are amenable to change in this population. Lifestyle interventions would appear appropriate, with particular emphasis on physical activity. PMID:18318907

Sodjinou, Roger; Agueh, Victoire; Fayomi, Benjamin; Delisle, Hélène

2008-01-01

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Environmental, entomological, socioeconomic and behavioural risk factors for malaria attacks in Amerindian children of Camopi, French Guiana  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major health issue in French Guiana. Amerindian communities remain the most affected. A previous study in Camopi highlighted the predominant role of environmental factors in the occurrence of malaria. However, all parameters involved in the transmission were not clearly identified. A new survey was conducted in order to clarify the risk factors for the presence of malaria cases in Camopi. Methods An open cohort of children under seven years of age was set up on the basis of biologically confirmed malaria cases for the period 2001-2009. Epidemiological and observational environmental data were collected using two structured questionnaires. Data were analysed with a multiple failures multivariate Cox model. The influence of climate and the river level on malaria incidence was evaluated by time-series analysis. Relationships between Anopheles darlingi human biting rates and malaria incidence rates were estimated using Spearman's rank correlation. Results The global annual incidence over the nine-year period was 238 per 1,000 for Plasmodium falciparum, 514 per 1,000 for Plasmodium visa and 21 per 1,000 for mixed infections. The multivariate survival analysis associated higher malaria incidence with living on the Camopi riverside vs. the Oyapock riverside, far from the centre of the Camopi hamlet, in a home with numerous occupants and going to sleep late. On the contrary, living in a house cleared of all vegetation within 50 m and at high distance of the forest were associated with a lower risk. Meteorological and hydrological characteristics appeared to be correlated with malaria incidence with different lags. Anopheles darlingi human biting rate was also positively correlated to incident malaria in children one month later. Conclusions Malaria incidence in children remains high in young children despite the appearance of immunity in children around three years of age. The closeness environment but also the meteorological parameters play an important role in malaria transmission among children under seven years of age in Camopi.

Nacher Mathieu

2011-08-01

46

Environmental and socio-economic change in Thailand: quantifying spatio-temporal risk factors of dengue to inform decision making  

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Dengue is a peri-urban mosquito-transmitted disease, ubiquitous in the tropics and the subtropics. The geographic distribution of dengue and its more severe form, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), have expanded dramatically in the last decades and dengue is now considered to be the world's most important arboviral disease. Recent demographic changes have greatly contributed to the acceleration and spread of the disease along with uncontrolled urbanization, population growth and increased air travel, which acts as a mechanism for transporting and exchanging dengue viruses between endemic and epidemic populations. The dengue vector and virus are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity and precipitation that influence mosquito biology, abundance and habitat and the virus replication speed. In order to control the spread of dengue and impede epidemics, decision support systems are required that take into account the multi-faceted array of factors that contribute to increased dengue risk. Due to availability of seasonal climate forecasts, that predict the average climate conditions for forthcoming months/seasons in both time and space, there is an opportunity to incorporate precursory climate information in a dengue decision support system to aid epidemic planning months in advance. Furthermore, oceanic indicators from teleconnected areas in the Pacific and Indian Ocean, that can provide some indication of the likely prevailing climate conditions in certain regions, could potentially extend predictive lead time in a dengue early warning system. In this paper we adopt a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling framework for dengue in Thailand to support public health decision making. Monthly cases of dengue in the 76 provinces of Thailand for the period 1982-2012 are modelled using a multi-layered approach. Explanatory variables at various spatial and temporal resolutions are incorporated into a hierarchical model in order to make spatio-temporal probabilistic predictions of dengue. Potential risk factors considered include altitude, land cover, proximity to road/rail networks and water bodies, temperature and precipitation, oceanic indicators, intervention activities, air traffic volume, population movement, urbanisation and sanitation indicators. In order to quantify unknown or unmeasured dengue risk factors, we use spatio-temporal random effects in the model framework. This helps identify those available indicators which could significantly contribute to a dengue early warning system. We use this model to quantify the extent to which climate indicators can explain variations in dengue risk. This allows us to assess the potential utility of forecast climate information in a dengue decision support system for Thailand. Taking advantage of lead times of several months provided by climate forecasts, public health officials may be able to more efficiently allocate intervention measures, such as targeted vector control activities and provision of medication to deal with more deadly forms of the disease, well ahead of an imminent dengue epidemic.

Rodo, X.; Lowe, R.; Karczewska-Gibert, A.; Cazelles, B.

2013-12-01

47

Time trends in socio-economic factors and risk of hospitalisation with infectious diseases in pre-school children 1985-2004 : a Danish register-based study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this study was to examine socio-economic differences in the risk of hospitalisation among children aged 0-5 years in Denmark from 1985 to 2004. All children born between 1985 and 2004 (n=1,278,286) were followed for hospital admissions for infectious diseases from the 29th day of life until the children reached the age of 6 years or the end of 2004, whichever came first. Information on parental socio-economic position (education, labour market attachment and household income) was gathered through record linkage with administrative registries. Infections were grouped into upper respiratory, lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, ear and fever infections. The data were analysed using Cox regression. Children of parents on sick leave or early retirement had an increased risk of being hospitalised with an infection compared with children of employed parents. A clear inverse educational gradient in risk of offspring hospitalisation was also found. From 1985 to 2004 the inverse associations between parental education and risk of hospitalisation grew stronger, whereas the comparatively weaker association between household income and risk of offspring hospitalisation decreased in magnitude. The association between socio-economic status and hospitalisation was strongest for lower respiratory, gastrointestinal and ear infections. This study documented a socially patterned hospitalisation of pre-school children in Denmark. Future studies should investigate possible explanations for the increased risk among children from families with low socio-economic status.

Biering-SØrensen, Sofie; SØndergaard, Grethe

2012-01-01

48

Fatores socioeconômicos, obstétricos, demográficos e psicossociais como risco ao desenvolvimento infantil / Socioeconomic, obstetric, demographic and psychosocial factors as risk to child development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: investigar a associação de fatores de risco obstétricos, demográficos, socioeconômicos e psicossociais com a presença de risco ao desenvolvimento infantil nas faixas etária de um a dezoito meses de idade. MÉTODO: a amostra inicial foi constituída de 182 díades mãe-bebê e final de 58 díades [...] . A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio da análise da interação mãe-bebê feita com base no Protocolo de Indicadores de Risco ao Desenvolvimento Infantil e de uma entrevista que investigou aspectos socioeconômicos, demográficos, obstétricos e psicossociais na primeira etapa da pesquisa. Os dados foram organizados em uma planilha eletrônica e posteriormente convertidos para os aplicativos computacionais para análise estatística. RESULTADOS: os fatores de risco significantes para as quatro fases do protocolo foram, na faixa de zero a quatro meses o estado civil da mãe e o número de filhos; na faixa de quatro a oito meses o número de consultas pré-natal e a renda per capita; na faixa de oito a doze meses o planejamento da gestação; e na faixa de doze a dezoito meses o histórico de depressão materna, a idade da mãe e a profissão da mãe. CONCLUSÃO: a pesquisa demonstrou que as condições socioeconômicas, obstétricas, psicossociais e demográficas podem oferecer risco ao desenvolvimento infantil. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to investigate obstetric, demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors of mother-child dyads for the occurrence of changes in the Risk Indicators for Child Development (IRDI) in children age groups from zero to 18 months. METHOD: the sample consisted of 182 mother-infant dyads. [...] Data collection occurred through the analysis of mother-infant interaction ??based on the Risk Indicators for Child Development (IRDI) Protocol and on an interview which investigated socio-economic, demographic, obstetric and psychosocial aspects in the first stage of the procedures. Data were organized into an electronic spreadsheet and then converted to computer software for statistical analisys. RESULTS: the significant risk factors for the four phases of IRDI were, in the range of zero to four months, the mother's marital status and number of children; in the range of four to eight months, the number of prenatal visits and per capita income; in the range of eight to twelve months, pregnancy planning; and in the range of twelve to eighteen months, maternal depression history, the mother's age and profession. CONCLUSION: the study demonstrated that the environment and the situations in which the mother-infant dyad is part of, may hinder or facilitate the development of the infant.

Anelise Henrich, Crestani; Felipe, Mattana; Anaelena Bragança de, Moraes; Ana Paula Ramos de, Souza.

2013-08-01

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Socioeconomic status, pathogen burden and cardiovascular disease risk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Socioeconomic status ( SES) is inversely associated with coronary heart disease ( CHD) risk. Cumulative pathogen burden may also predict future CHD. The hypothesis was tested that lower SES is associated with a greater pathogen burden, and that pathogen burden accounts in part for SES differences in cardiovascular risk factors.Methods: This was a cross- sectional observational study involving the clinical examination of 451 men and women aged 51 - 72 without CHD, recruited from the...

Steptoe, A.; Shamaei-tousi, A.; Gylfe, A.; Henderson, B.; Bergstrom, S.; Marmot, M.

2007-01-01

50

Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level  

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Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.

Issler Roberto M.S.

1996-01-01

51

Mood after stroke: a case control study of biochemical, neuro-imaging and socio-economic risk factors for major depression in stroke survivors  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Though vascular factors may be important in the aetiology of late-life depression, it is not clear whether they have a major effect on the risk of depression after a stroke. We investigated the relationship between physiological, biochemical, neuro-imaging and socio-economic factors and late-phase post-stroke depression in a cross-sectional case-control study. Methods People living at home at least 9 months after a stroke were interviewed using a structured proforma. Depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, together with a Montgomery Asberg (MADRS score >17. Stroke survivors of similar age and functional status but without symptoms of, or recent treatment for, depression and with MADRS score Results Stroke survivors with depression were more likely than controls to have been smokers, to have had hypertension or peripheral arterial disease, and to have had more than one stroke or multiple discrete brainscan lesions. In univariate analysis they had significantly higher blood pressure, lower Mini-Mental State (MMSE scores, higher serum homocysteine and lower folate levels, as well as more extensive white matter and basal ganglia changes on brainscan. In logistic regression, previous hypertension (OR 3.4, peripheral vascular disease (OR 4.7, number of strokes (OR 2, MMSE score (OR 0.76 and basal ganglia changes (OR 2.2, were independently associated with depression. Conclusion These results suggest that patients with hypertension, hyperhomocysteinaemia and other factors associated with cerebral small vessel disease, may be more susceptible to post-stroke depression. Future intervention trials should focus on such high risk groups.

Fall Susan

2010-12-01

52

Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua  

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Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”.

Jorge Bacallao

2014-08-01

53

Socioeconomic factors and vulnerability to outbreaks of leptospirosis in Nicaragua.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the "causes of outbreaks" and "causes of cases". PMID:25153463

Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquiño, Wilmer; Sáenz, Carlos; Jiménez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chávez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I; Espinal, Marcos A

2014-08-01

54

Socioeconomic Factors and Vulnerability to Outbreaks of Leptospirosis in Nicaragua  

Science.gov (United States)

Leptospirosis is an epidemic-prone zoonotic disease that occurs worldwide, with more than 500,000 human cases reported annually. It is influenced by environmental and socioeconomic factors that affect the occurrence of outbreaks and the incidence of the disease. Critical areas and potential drivers for leptospirosis outbreaks have been identified in Nicaragua, where several conditions converge and create an appropriate scenario for the development of leptospirosis. The objectives of this study were to explore possible socioeconomic variables related to leptospirosis critical areas and to construct and validate a vulnerability index based on municipal socioeconomic indicators. Municipalities with lower socioeconomic status (greater unsatisfied basic needs for quality of the household and for sanitary services, and higher extreme poverty and illiteracy rates) were identified with the highest leptospirosis rates. The municipalities with highest local vulnerability index should be the priority for intervention. A distinction between risk given by environmental factors and vulnerability to risk given by socioeconomic conditions was shown as important, which also applies to the “causes of outbreaks” and “causes of cases”. PMID:25153463

Bacallao, Jorge; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Soto, Aida; Marquino, Wilmer; Saenz, Carlos; Jimenez, Eduardo; Moreno, Gilberto; Chavez, Octavio; Galan, Deise I.; Espinal, Marcos A.

2014-01-01

55

Socioeconomic factors effecting polio vaccination in Pakistan  

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Full Text Available Background: Child vaccinations are one of most cost effective health programs that have weakened a number of child morbidity and mortality rate all over the world. Pakistan is considered one of the major country of the world, where people especially children are bound by many harmful infectious diseases like polio, hepatitis, viral infections etc. The effectiveness of routine childhood immunization programs relies on multiple factors. Socio-economic determinants have the potential to affect immunization programs. The purpose of the present study was to determine the association between socio-economic factors and polio vaccination coverage among children inPakistan. Methods: The study used data from the Pakistandemographic health survey (PDHS 2006-07 N 10023. The study focused on respondents who had births in last five years. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the association between variables. Spss version 20 was used for data analysis. A number of socioeconomic variables were used in chi square & binary logistic regression model to check out their association with polio vaccination coverage. Results: Study shows that most dominant factors associated with polio vaccination coverage were region that is NWFP OR 3.48 (odd ratio with 95% confidence interval (C-I 2.06 & 3.13 & Punjab OR 2.54 (C-I 2.062 & 3.131, residence urban OR 1.626 (C-I 1.451 & 1.822, sex of child male OR 1.125 (C-I 1.008 & 1.256, age of mother 25 - 34 years OR 1.11 (C-I 0.978 & 1.276, wealth index rich OR 2.98 (C-I 2.55 & 3.48, age of child 4 - 5 years OR 1.17 (C-I 0.899 & 1.538, mother’s education higher OR 2.06 (C-I 1.776 & 2.411, father’s education higher OR 1.399 (C-I 1.221 & 1.203 ,father’s occupation professional OR 1.27 (C-I 0.929 & 1.737. Conclusion: In developing countries like Pakistan most of the children remain unvaccinated because of many socio-economic constraints. Poor marginalized people have a low awareness regarding the importance of polio vaccine. Along with social hierarchies, educational attainment of parents is a strong indicator of defining awareness level regarding vaccination.

Midhat Ali

2013-05-01

56

Local Modelling Techniques for Assessing Micro-Level Impacts of Risk Factors in Complex Data: Understanding Health and Socioeconomic Inequalities in Childhood Educational Attainments  

Science.gov (United States)

Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas having widely different disparity patterns, in which each area is characterised by six deprivation domains (Income, Health, Geographical Access to Services, Housing, Physical Environment, and Community Safety). Traditional health statistical studies tend to use one global model to describe the whole population for macro-analysis. In this paper, we combine linked educational and deprivation data across small areas (median population of 1500), then use a local modelling technique, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, to predict area educational outcomes at ages 7 and 11. We define two new metrics, “Micro-impact of Domain” and “Contribution of Domain”, to quantify the variations of local impacts of multidimensional factors on educational outcomes across small areas. The two metrics highlight differing priorities. Our study reveals complex multi-way interactions between the deprivation domains, which could not be provided by traditional health statistical methods based on single global model. We demonstrate that although Income has an expected central role, all domains contribute, and in some areas Health, Environment, Access to Services, Housing and Community Safety each could be the dominant factor. Thus the relative importance of health and socioeconomic factors varies considerably for different areas, depending on the levels of each of the other factors, and therefore each component of deprivation must be considered as part of a wider system. Childhood educational achievement could benefit from policies and intervention strategies that are tailored to the local geographic areas' profiles. PMID:25409038

Zhou, Shang-Ming; Lyons, Ronan A.; Bodger, Owen G.; John, Ann; Brunt, Huw; Jones, Kerina; Gravenor, Mike B.; Brophy, Sinead

2014-01-01

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Factores de riesgo de fallecer en domicilio por neumonía, de niños chilenos de estratos socioeconómicos bajos, Santiago de Chile (1990-1994 Risk factors for home deaths due to pneumonia among low socioeconomic level Chilean children  

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Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is the main cause of late infant mortality in Chile. Over 60% of these deaths occur at home. The lack of hospital beds and the inadequate outpatient management are contributing factors. Aim: To assess risk factors for home deaths due to pneumonia in Chilean children. Patients and methods: The clinical and environmental histories of 53 (39 male children that died due to pneumonia in their homes were analyzed. The cause of death was confirmed by necropsy with histopathological studies in all cases. These cases were compared with 88 control children of similar age, gender, socioeconomic status and living in the same geographical area of Metropolitan Santiago. Results: Fifty four percent of deceased children were of less than 3 months of age and only 3 cases and their controls were above1 year old. Identified risk factors for death were malnutrition with an odds ratio of 30.6 (CI 3.9-64.8, p< 0.001, low birth weight with an odds ratio of 5 (CI 1.8-14.1, p< 0.001, previous admissions to hospitals with an odds ratio of 5.79 (CI 2-17.1, p< 0.001, congenital malformations (mainly cardiac with an odds ratio of 8.4 (CI 2-39.9, p= 0.001 and a history of bronchial obstruction with an odds ratio of 5.68 (p< 0.001. Identified maternal risk factors were smoking with an odds ratio of 4.13 (CI 1.6-10.7 p< 0.001 and being a teenager with an odds ratio of 4.3 (CI 1.7-11, p<0.001. Malnutrition, low birth weight, history of previous hospital admissions and having a teenager or smoker mother were considered as independent risk factors using a stepwise analysis. Conclusions: Chilean low income children have identifiable risk factors for death at their homes due to pneumonia, that can be preventively managed. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 627-32

Leonardo Véjar E

2000-06-01

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Breast cancer and socio-economic factors  

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Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW; Gross domestic product (GDP per capita by purchasing power parity (current international $; computed tomography (CT for cancer diagnosis. Data include 52 countries. The statistical analysis is carried out by correlation, ANOVA and an econometric modeling based on a multiple regression model of the breast cancer incidence on two explanatory variables. Results: Partial correlation is higher: rbreast cancer, GDP ? CT=60.3% (sign.0.00. The estimated relationship shows an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 0.05% for a GDP increase of 1% and an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 3.23% for a CT increase of 1%. ANOVA confirms that incidence of breast cancer is higher across richer countries, ceteris paribus.Conclusions: Empirical evidence shows that the breast cancer tends to be higher across richer countries, measured by GDP per capita and number of Computed Tomography. The main determinants of these findings can be due to several socio-economic factors, mainly localized in richer countries. In addition, this research may provide an alternative interpretation to the theory of Oh et al. (2010 on the influence of latitude on breast cancer, focusing on socio-economic factors rather than biologic root causes.

Anees B. Chagpar

2012-01-01

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Risk factors for presbycusis in a socio-economic middle-class sample / Estudo de fatores de risco para presbiacusia em indivíduos de classe sócio-econômica média  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A presbiacusia é consequência de lesões histopatológicas da orelha interna e nervo coclear e leva à deficiência auditiva sensório-neural. Fatores de risco como doenças sistêmicas e hábitos inadequados são agravantes para presbiacusia. A identificação destes fatores é relevante para sua prevenção. OB [...] JETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência da presbiacusia e correlacionar eventuais fatores de risco numa amostra populacional. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de série de casos com amostragem aleatória de 625 prontuários de indivíduos sem e com presbiacusia determinada por avaliação audiológica convencional. Foi feita a análise da associação da presbiacusia com fatores de risco pré-estabelecidos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência da presbiacusia foi de 36,1% na amostra, com idade média de 50,5 anos e variou de 40 anos a 86 anos e foi constituída de 85,5% do gênero masculino e 14,5% do gênero feminino. Os fatores de risco associados foram idade, gênero masculino, diabetes melito e história familiar de presbiacusia. Não houve associação entre presbiacusia e profissão, hipertensão arterial sistêmica, dislipidemia, hábitos de fumar e de beber. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstram que, embora a presbiacusia apresente múltiplos fatores de risco enumerados na literatura, estes fatores na presente amostra foram limitados ao antecedente familiar de presbiacusia, idade, gênero masculino e diabetes melito. Abstract in english Presbycusis, or the aging ear, involves mainly the inner ear and the cochlear nerve, causing sensorineural hearing loss. Risk factors include systemic diseases and poor habits that cause inner ear damage and lead to presbycusis. Correct identification of these risk factors is relevant for prevention [...] . AIM: To evaluate the prevalence and to identify the risk factors of presbycusis in a sample aged over 40 years. Study design: a retrospective case series. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: medical records of 625 patients were evaluated. Presbycusis was identified using pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and impedance testing of all patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of presbycusis was 36.1%; the mean age was 50.5 years ranging from 40 to 86 years; 85.5% were male and 14.5% werf female. Age, the male gender, diabetes mellitus, and hereditary hearing loss were identified as risk factors. Cardiovascular diseases, smoking and consumption of alcohol were not confirmed as risk factors, although these have often been mentioned as risk factors for presbycusis. CONCLUSION: Notwithstanding the idea that presbycusis has multiple risk factors, this study identified few risk factors for this disease.

Cláudia Simônica de, Sousa; Ney de, Castro Júnior; Erkki Juhani, Larsson; Ting Hui, Ching.

2009-08-01

60

What Are the Risk Factors for Hodgkin Disease?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Hodgkin disease, or some combination of these factors. Socioeconomic status The risk of Hodgkin disease is greater in people with a higher socioeconomic background. The reason for this is not clear. ...

 
 
 
 
61

Risk factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Minimize surprises on your financial statement by adopting a model for integrated risk management that: Examines interrelationships among operations, investments, and financing. Incorporates concepts of the capital asset pricing model to manage unexpected volatility PMID:17240669

Robbins, Catherine J; Connors, K C; Sheehan, Timothy J; Vaughan, James S

2005-06-01

62

Behavioral and socioeconomic risk factors associated with probable resistance to ceftriaxone and resistance to penicillin and tetracycline in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Shanghai.  

Science.gov (United States)

Globally, incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is once again the highest of the bacterial sexually transmitted infections. The bacterium can produce serious complications in those infected, and emerging resistance to third generation cephalosporins could usher in an era of potentially untreatable gonorrhea. This research aimed to identify risk factors for antibiotic resistant gonorrhea infection among clients at a Shanghai sexually transmitted infection clinic over two time periods, 2004-2005 and 2008-2011. Demographic and risk factor behavior data, and biological samples for antimicrobial resistance analysis, were collected. Statistical models were built to identify risk factors associated with probable resistance to ceftriaxone and resistance to penicillin and tetracycline. High levels of ciprofloxacin resistance (98%) in our sample precluded examining its risk factors; all isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. Overall (P<0.001), chromosomal (P<0.001), and plasmid-mediated (P?=?0.01) penicillin resistance decreased from the first to second period of the study. For tetracycline, chromosomal resistance decreased (P?=?0.01) and plasmid-mediated resistance increased (P<0.001) between the first and second periods of study. In multi-level multivariable regression models, male gender (P?=?0.03) and older age (P?=?0.01) were associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations to ceftriaxone. Male gender (P?=?0.03) and alcohol use (P?=?0.02) were associated with increased odds of overall tetracycline resistance. Male gender was associated with increased odds of chromosomally-mediated tetracycline resistance (P?=?0.04), and alcohol use was associated with increased odds of plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance (P?=?0.02). Additionally, individuals in middle-salary categories were found to have lower odds of plasmid-mediated resistance to tetracycline compared with those in the lowest salary category (P?0.02). This study is one of the first to use multilevel analysis to consider the association between risk factors for gonorrhea infections and mechanisms of resistance to individual antibiotics. Such information is urgently needed to combat the growing threat of untreatable gonorrhea. PMID:24586792

Trecker, Molly A; Waldner, Cheryl; Jolly, Ann; Liao, Mingmin; Gu, Weiming; Dillon, Jo-Anne R

2014-01-01

63

A Study of Suicide and Socioeconomic Factors  

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The topic of suicide has long been an important socioeconomic issue studied in many countries. Suicides inject an atmosphere of unrest into society, and media attention furthers that social uneasiness. From the viewpoint of economics and management, suicide is a waste of human resource: it decreases the labor force in society and deteriorates…

Ying, Yung-hsiang; Chang, Koyin

2009-01-01

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Fatores socioeconômicos e dietéticos de risco para a anemia em crianças de 6 a 59 meses de idade Socioeconomic and dietary risk factors for anemia in children aged 6 to 59 months  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar, utilizando modelagem estatística, os fatores de risco da anemia em crianças de 6 a 59 meses de idade no estado de Pernambuco, contemplando aspectos socioeconômicos e da dieta. MÉTODOS: A amostra constou de 746 crianças de 6 a 59 meses do estado de Pernambuco, nas quais foram realizados dosagem de hemoglobina e inquérito dietético recordatório de 24 horas. Foi analisado o risco de anemia em relação às variáveis socioeconômicas e de consumo alimentar, utilizando modelos de análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: Os fatores de risco para a anemia foram: alta proporção de calorias do leite de vaca, baixa densidade de ferro não-heme, baixa idade e baixa escolaridade materna, destacando-se que as crianças com menos de 24 meses apresentaram risco 3,61 vezes maior de serem anêmicas em relação às demais. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo reforça a importância de se conhecer o consumo alimentar das crianças no país para melhor estabelecer a sua associação com a ocorrência da anemia. Os resultados revelaram que os fatores que mais explicaram o risco de anemia foram, com relação à dieta, a maior proporção de calorias do leite de vaca e menor densidade de ferro não-heme, além de idade menor de 24 meses e baixa escolaridade materna.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to use statistical modeling to identify risk factors for anemia in children aged 6 to 59 months in the state of Pernambuco, covering socioeconomic and dietary aspects. METHODS: The sample comprised 746 children aged between 6 and 59 months from the state of Pernambuco. Their hemoglobin was assayed and a 24-hour dietary recall performed. Risk of anemia was analyzed with relation to socioeconomic variables and to dietary intakes, using multivariate analysis models. RESULTS: The risk factors for anemia were: a high proportion of calories from cow's milk, low density of nonheme iron, low age and low maternal educational level; age was the most prominent factor, with children under 24 months exhibiting 3.61 times greater risk of being anemic than the older children. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the need for a clear picture of the dietary intake of children in Brazil, in order that associations with anemia can be better understood. Our results revealed that the dietary factors which were most responsible for risk of anemia were a greater proportion of calories from cow's milk and lower density of nonheme iron, in addition to age below 24 months and low maternal educational level.

Maria A. A. Oliveira

2007-02-01

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Socioeconomic Status, Psychological Distress, and Other Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among American Indians of the Northern Plains  

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The relationship of selected demographic, socioeconomic status (SES), and psychological characteristics was examined in interviews with 176 Northern Plains American Indian mothers whose children were referred to diagnostic clinics for evaluation of developmental disabilities, including fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Thirty-nine mothers…

Lewis, Phyllis Trujillo; Shipman, Virginia C.; May, Philip A.

2011-01-01

66

Heart Disease Risk Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

... Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Heart Disease Risk Factors Share Compartir Some conditions as well as some ... disease and heart attack by addressing these risk factors. Control of risk factors is especially need by people who already ...

67

Risk Factors and Prevention  

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... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and free ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following conditions ...

68

Brain Tumor Risk Factors  

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... updates Please leave this field empty Brain Tumor Risk Factors SHARE Share on Facebook Preview your comments Share ... Cancel Close Finish Home > Brain Tumor Information > Risk Factors Listen A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of ...

69

Relationship between socioeconomic factors and severe childhood injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to examine the relationship between injury rates and socioeconomic factors for children in Hamilton County, Ohio, using small-area analysis. The subjects were county residents less than 15 years old who were hospitalized or died of injuries between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 1995; they were identified through a population-based trauma registry. The census tract was the unit of analysis; the rate of injury per 100,000 population was the dependent variable. Risk factors included median income, level of education, percentage below the poverty level, percentage unemployment, percentage non-Caucasian, and percentage families headed by females. There were 2,437 children meeting the case definition; injuries per census tract ranged from 0 to 2,020.2 per 100,000 per year. Census tracts with higher injury rates had lower median incomes, more people with less than a high school education, more unemployment, more families headed by females, more people living below the poverty level, and more non-Caucasians than those with lower rates. In a regression model, percentage of people living below the poverty level, percentage of those who did not graduate from high school, and percentage unemployment were significant risk factors for injuries, P unemployment. PMID:11368193

Pomerantz, W J; Dowd, M D; Buncher, C R

2001-03-01

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Mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo: influência do peso ao nascer e de fatores sócio-demográficos e assistenciais / Neonatal mortality: socio-economic, health services risk factors and birth weight in the City of São Paulo  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo, apesar da sua tendência decrescente, constitui em um importante problema para a saúde pública. Os principais fatores de risco podem ser agrupados em quatro categorias básicas de variáveis: características do recém-nascido, características [...] maternas, condições socioeconômicas e características dos serviços de saúde. O peso ao nascer e a prematuridade constituem fatores dominantes, compondo complexas redes de articulação com os demais. METODOLOGIA: Este é um estudo caso-controle, com base em dados vinculados do SIM e SINASC no Município de São Paulo, no primeiro semestre de 1995. Foi utilizada análise hierárquica, considerando quatro blocos de variáveis (características socioeconômicas, do recém-nascido, maternas e serviços de saúde) para o conjunto de recém-nascidos e para três grupos de peso ao nascer: Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Although neonatal mortality has been declining in the City of São Paulo, it still is an important public health problem. Four basic categories constitute risk factors: newborn characteristics, maternal characteristics, socio-economic conditions and quality of health care. Low birth weigh [...] t and prematurity are the dominant factors and constitute a complex network with other factors. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out based on linked birth and death certificates of the City of São Paulo for the first semester of 1995. The study performed a hierarchical analysis, considering four blocks of variables (characteristics of the new-born; mothers, health care and socio-economic status) for all birth-weight groups together and separately for three birth-weight groups: 2,500g. RESULTS: The final model for all newborns together showed statistical significant association for mothers under 20 years of age, being born in a SUS hospital, birth weight

Marcia Furquim de, Almeida; Hillegonda Maria Dutilh, Novaes; Gizelton Pereira, Alencar; Laura C., Rodrigues.

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Mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo: influência do peso ao nascer e de fatores sócio-demográficos e assistenciais / Neonatal mortality: socio-economic, health services risk factors and birth weight in the City of São Paulo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo, apesar da sua tendência decrescente, constitui em um importante problema para a saúde pública. Os principais fatores de risco podem ser agrupados em quatro categorias básicas de variáveis: características do recém-nascido, características [...] maternas, condições socioeconômicas e características dos serviços de saúde. O peso ao nascer e a prematuridade constituem fatores dominantes, compondo complexas redes de articulação com os demais. METODOLOGIA: Este é um estudo caso-controle, com base em dados vinculados do SIM e SINASC no Município de São Paulo, no primeiro semestre de 1995. Foi utilizada análise hierárquica, considerando quatro blocos de variáveis (características socioeconômicas, do recém-nascido, maternas e serviços de saúde) para o conjunto de recém-nascidos e para três grupos de peso ao nascer: Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Although neonatal mortality has been declining in the City of São Paulo, it still is an important public health problem. Four basic categories constitute risk factors: newborn characteristics, maternal characteristics, socio-economic conditions and quality of health care. Low birth weigh [...] t and prematurity are the dominant factors and constitute a complex network with other factors. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out based on linked birth and death certificates of the City of São Paulo for the first semester of 1995. The study performed a hierarchical analysis, considering four blocks of variables (characteristics of the new-born; mothers, health care and socio-economic status) for all birth-weight groups together and separately for three birth-weight groups: 2,500g. RESULTS: The final model for all newborns together showed statistical significant association for mothers under 20 years of age, being born in a SUS hospital, birth weight

Marcia Furquim de, Almeida; Hillegonda Maria Dutilh, Novaes; Gizelton Pereira, Alencar; Laura C., Rodrigues.

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Association Between Socioeconomic Factors and Obesity in Iran  

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The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between socio-economic factors and obesity within a population from Iran. Male and female subjects (n=4977) aged 15-65 years, were recruited from the Great Khorasan province of Iran using a cluster-stratified sampling method. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected by questionnaire. Of the study population, 29.1% were overweight and 13.8% were obese. Being overweight and obese was significantly more prevalent among ...

Habibollah Esmaeily; Mohsen Azimi-Nezhad; Majid Ghayour - Mobarhan; Mohammad-Reza Parizadeh; Mohammad Safarian; Mohammad-Javad Parizadeh; Bahareh Hassankhani; Elahe Salardini; Zaim-Kohan Houshang; Hossini Javad; Oladi Mohammad Reza; Gordon Ferns

2009-01-01

73

Association between migraine, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors: a population-based cross-sectional study  

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To investigate whether sex-specific associations exist between migraine, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. We distinguished between the subtypes migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). In 2002, a questionnaire containing validated questions to diagnose migraine and questions on lifestyle and socioeconomic factors was sent to 46,418 twin individuals residing in Denmark. 31,865 twin individuals aged 20-71 were included. The twins are representative of the Danish population with regard to migraine and other somatic diseases and were used as such in the present study. An increased risk of migraine was significantly associated with lower level of schooling and education, retirement, unemployment, and smoking. A decreased risk of migraine was significantly associated with heavy physical exercise and intake of alcohol. Direct comparison between the subtypes showed a decreased risk of MA compared to MO in subjects with low education or weekly intake of alcohol. The risk of MA was increased compared to MO in unemployed or retired subjects. Direct comparison between sexes showed a decreased risk of migraine for men compared to women in subjects who were low educated, unemployed or studying. The risk was increased for men compared to women in subjects with heavy physical exercise, intake of alcohol, and body mass index >25. Migraine was associated with several lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Most associations such as low education and employment status were probably due to the negative effects of having migraine while others such as smoking were risk factors for migraine.

Le, Ngoc Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

2011-01-01

74

Association between migraine, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors : a population-based cross-sectional study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To investigate whether sex-specific associations exist between migraine, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. We distinguished between the subtypes migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). In 2002, a questionnaire containing validated questions to diagnose migraine and questions on lifestyle and socioeconomic factors was sent to 46,418 twin individuals residing in Denmark. 31,865 twin individuals aged 20-71 were included. The twins are representative of the Danish population with regard to migraine and other somatic diseases and were used as such in the present study. An increased risk of migraine was significantly associated with lower level of schooling and education, retirement, unemployment, and smoking. A decreased risk of migraine was significantly associated with heavy physical exercise and intake of alcohol. Direct comparison between the subtypes showed a decreased risk of MA compared to MO in subjects with low education or weekly intake of alcohol. The risk of MA was increased compared to MO in unemployed or retired subjects. Direct comparison between sexes showed a decreased risk of migraine for men compared to women in subjects who were low educated, unemployed or studying. The risk was increased for men compared to women in subjects with heavy physical exercise, intake of alcohol, and body mass index >25. Migraine was associated with several lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Most associations such as low education and employment status were probably due to the negative effects of having migraine while others such as smoking were risk factors for migraine.

Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

2011-01-01

75

Socioeconomic inequalities in adult obesity risk in Canada: trends and decomposition analyses.  

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This study examines trends in socioeconomic-related inequalities in obesity risk among Canadian adults (aged 18-65 years) from 2000 to 2010 using five nationally representative Canadian Community Health Surveys (CCHSs). We employed the concentration index (C) to quantify the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity risk across different demographic groups and geographic regions in each survey period. A decomposition analysis of inequality is performed to determine factors that lie behind income-related inequality in obesity risk. Although declining over time, the results show that there exists income-related inequality in obesity risk in Canada. The estimated Cs for men indicate that obesity is concentrated among the rich and its trend is increasing over time. The findings, however, suggest that obesity is more prevalent among economically disadvantaged women. While we found that obesity is mainly concentrated among the poor in the Atlantic Provinces, the degree of socioeconomic related inequality in obesity risk is increasing in these provinces. The results for Alberta showed that obesity is concentrated among the better-off individuals. The decomposition analysis suggests that factors such as demographics, income, immigration, education, drinking habits, and physical activity are the key factors explaining income-related inequality in obesity risk in Canada. Our empirical findings suggest that, in order to combat the obesity epidemic, health policies should focus on poorer females and economically well-off males. PMID:23543117

Hajizadeh, Mohammad; Campbell, M Karen; Sarma, Sisira

2014-03-01

76

The effect of environmental factors on breast lumps of Egyptian women in different socioeconomic levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The environmental risk factors related to the breast tumors (lumps) are essential in order to build strategies to decrease cancer incidence and mortality among different socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. A case control study of 70 cases and 52 controls were classified into high, middle and low socioeconomic classes. The results revealed significant increased risk of breast tumors among working females, having positive family history, married with lower mean parity, with higher consumption of fatty meals, lesser meat intake. Non significant risk factors were the social class, exposure to ionizing radiation, non lactating. wearing tight bra, consumption of vegetables and fruits, oral contraceptive pill users and exposure to outdoor air pollution or indoor pollution as floors and wall paintings. In conclusion, this study highlights the positive life style for egyptian women so they can prevent some of the environmental risks of breast tumors. Increasing the awareness of breast diseases and regular examination remains the corner stone for early detection management of breast lumps.

77

Meningococcal Disease: Risk Factors  

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... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Risk Factors Share Compartir Certain groups of people are at ... way to protect yourself against meningococcal disease. Some risk factors include: Age Meningococcal disease is more commonly diagnosed ...

78

Modifiable risk factors for childhood adiposity  

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Background: The epidemic of childhood obesity is of increasing public health concern, with major implications for long-term health. Prevention strategies are urgently needed. Most of the evidence concerning risk factors for childhood obesity comes from observational studies, mainly from Western populations. In the West, socio-economic position (SEP) is often associated with potential risk factors and with childhood obesity, making these observational studies open to residual confounding. Evid...

Lin, Shilin; ???

2013-01-01

79

The Hidden Risk Factor  

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Full Text Available To achieve maximum returns consistent with an investor’s appetite for risk, the correct identification and estimation of all relevant risk factors in a portfolio are necessary. In this paper, we identify the role of foreign currency as an important risk factor from an international investor’s point of view.

J. H. Witte

2013-10-01

80

Sexual Risk Factors  

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... with a sexually transmitted disease. Both of these factors can increase the risk of HIV transmission. Remember: one in six people ... higher risk of HIV transmission than others. Your risk depends on several other factors as well, including whether you and your partner ...

 
 
 
 
81

Suicide in young adults: psychiatric and socio-economic factors from a case-control study  

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Background Suicide in young adults remains an important public health issue in Australia. The attributable risks associated with broader socioeconomic factors, compared to more proximal psychiatric disorders, have not been considered previously in individual-level studies of young adults. This study compared the relative contributions of psychiatric disorder and socio-economic disadvantage associated with suicide in terms of relative and attributable risk in young adults. Method A population-based case–control study of young adults (18–34 years) compared cases of suicide (n?=?84) with randomly selected controls (n?=?250) from population catchments in New South Wales (Australia), with exposure information collected from key informant interviews (for both cases and controls). The relative and attributable risk of suicide associated with ICD-10 defined substance use, affective, and anxiety disorder was compared with educational achievement and household income, adjusting for key confounders. Prevalence of exposures from the control group was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAF). Results Strong associations were evident between mental disorders and suicide for both males and females (ORs 3.1 to 18.7). The strongest association was for anxiety disorders (both males and females), followed by affective disorders and substance use disorders. Associations for socio-economic status were smaller in magnitude than for mental disorders for both males and females (ORs 1.1 to 4.8 for lower compared to high SES groups). The combined PAF% for all mental disorders (48% for males and 52% for females) was similar in magnitude to socio-economic status (46% for males and 58% for females). Conclusion Socio-economic status had a similar magnitude of population attributable risk for suicide as mental disorders. Public health interventions to reduce suicide should incorporate socio-economic disadvantage in addition to mental illness as a potential target for intervention. PMID:24597482

2014-01-01

82

Risk Factor Frequency for Learning Disabilities in Low Socioeconomic Level Preschool Children in Mexico City Frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico en la Ciudad de México Frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem em pré-escolares com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México  

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The objective was to identify the frequency of risk factors for Learning Disabilities (LD) in low socioeconomic level children in Mexico City. We studied children by means of: Wechsler, Bender-Gestalt, and Human drawing tests. Average age of male subjects was 5.6±0.9 years, while that of the female group was 5.4±0.5 years. In male subjects, average Total intelligence quotient (T-IQ) score was 98±12.2 while, in the female group, this was 99±12.2. On the Bender-Gestalt test, male subjects h...

Elizabeth Zambrano-Sánchez; María del Consuelo Martínez-Wbaldo; Adrián Poblano

2010-01-01

83

Early life socioeconomic factors and genomic DNA methylation in mid-life  

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Epigenetic modifications may be one mechanism linking early life factors, including parental socioeconomic status (SES), to adult onset disease risk. However, SES influences on DNA methylation patterns remain largely unknown. In a US birth cohort of women, we examined whether indicators of early life and adult SES were associated with white blood cell methylation of repetitive elements (Sat2, Alu and LINE-1) in adulthood. Low family income at birth was associated with higher Sat2 methylation ...

Tehranifar, Parisa; Wu, Hui-chen; Fan, Xiaozhou; Flom, Julie D.; Ferris, Jennifer S.; Cho, Yoon Hee; Gonzalez, Karina; Santella, Regina M.; Terry, Mary Beth

2013-01-01

84

Socio-economic class, rurality and risk of cutaneous melanoma by site and gender in Sweden  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cutaneous melanoma (CM is a cancer usually associated with high socio-economic level in the literature. Few studies have, however, assessed this relationship by gender and site or the association between CM and rurality. Methods A major-sized historical occupational Swedish cohort comprising 2,992,166 workers was used to estimate relative risk of cutaneous melanoma, broken down by gender and anatomical site, for occupational sectors (as a proxy of socio-economic class and rurality. To this end, Poisson models were fitted for each site in men and women, including occupational sector and town size, with adjustment for age, period of diagnosis and geographical area as possible confounding factors. Results White collar workers presented a marked increased of risk in men in all melanoma cases, as well as in trunk, upper and lower limbs. This pattern was less clear for women, in which some heterogeneity appeared, as low risks in lower socioeconomic sectors in trunk, or risk excesses in white collar workers in lower limbs did not achieve statistical significance. Males also showed significant differences in risk by rural/urban distribution, but in women this association was limited to CM of lower limb. Risk of CM of head/neck did not vary by occupational sector or town size, thus depicting a specific epidemiological profile, which proved common to both sexes. Conclusion While differences in risk between men and women could suggest greater homogeneity in UV-exposure behaviour among women, the uniform risk pattern in head and neck melanoma, present in both sexes, might support the coexistence of different aetiological pathways, related to anatomical site.

Gustavsson Per

2008-01-01

85

Socio-economic factors and suicide rates in European Union countries.  

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Are socio-economic factors valid determinants of suicide? The modern sociological theory of suicide is based on Durkheim's studies. In addition to these fundamental social determinants, modern theorists have put more attention on economic factors. The purpose of the research is to determine the relationship between suicide rates and socio-economic factors, such as demography, economic development, education, healthcare systems, living conditions and labour market. All data were collected from a Eurostat publication and they concern 25 European Union countries. In order to test this relationship, a discriminant analysis was performed using an ordinal dependent variable and a set of independent variables concerning socio-economic factors. A dataset of 37 independent variables was used. We estimated a model with five variables: annual growth rates for industry, people working in S&T (% of total employment), at-risk-of-poverty rate, all accidents (standardized rates), and healthcare expenditures (% of GDP). Highly significant values of Wilk's Lambda assess a good discriminating power of the model. The accuracy too is very high: all cases are correctly classified by the model. Countries with high suicide rate levels are marked by high levels of at-risk-of-poverty rates, high annual growth rates for industry and low healthcare expenditures. PMID:19251457

Ferretti, Fabio; Coluccia, Anna

2009-04-01

86

Family history and socioeconomic risk factors for non-syndromic cleft lip and palate: A matched case-control study in a less developed country / Factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos para labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en México: estudio de casos y controles pareado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción. Desde el punto de vista epidemiológico, las hendiduras faciales son las deformidades orales más comunes alrededor del mundo. Objetivo. Identificar los factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos relacionados con la presencia de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome. [...] Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de casos y controles en el que se incluyeron 208 casos con diagnóstico de labio, paladar hendido o ambos no asociados a un síndrome, los cuales fueron pareados por edad y sexo con 416 controles. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes quirúrgicos atendidos durante el periodo 2002-2004 en el programa estatal de labio o paladar hendido de Campeche, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario en el que se recogió información sobre variables sociodemográficas y socioeconómicas, así como sobre antecedentes hereditarios de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en la familia. Debido a que el diseño fue pareado, el análisis se hizo con regresión logística condicionada. Resultados. En el modelo multivariado para labio o paladar hendido no asociado a un síndrome se identificaron de forma significativa (p Abstract in english Introduction. From an epidemiological point of view, non-syndromic orofacial clefts are the most common oral congenital deformities worldwide. Objective. Family histories were traced and socioeconomic risk factors were identified for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Material and [...] methods. A case-control study was carried out with 208 cases of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and matched by age and sex with 416 controls. Cases were patients attending a referral clinic from 2002 through 2004 in Campeche, Mexico. A questionnaire was administered to collect sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables as well as familial background relevant to non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Conditional logistic regression models were used; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results. In the multivariate model, the following risk factors were identified: 1) low socioeconomic status; 2) birth in the southern region of Campeche state; 3) home delivery or delivery in a publicly funded hospital; 4) occurrence of prior non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate cases in the father´s or mother´s family: 5) having a sibling with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate; 6) the proband having another malformation, and 7) a history of infections during pregnancy. Prenatal care consisting of vitamin supplementation was a protective factor for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (odds ratio=0.29). Conclusions. A “social gradient in health” was seen to link oral malformation with diet components, and several socioeconomic and socio-demographic factors broadly encompassed in low socioeconomic status. Further characterization of risk factors will guide the assemblage of a pro-active counseling and prevention program for families at risk for non-syndromic cleft lip and cleft palate.

Gladys, Acuña-González; Carlo E, Medina-Solís; Gerardo, Maupomé; Mauricio, Escoffie-Ramírez; Jesús, Hernández-Romano; María de L, Márquez-Corona; Arturo J, Islas-Márquez; Juan J, Villalobos-Rodelo.

87

Socioeconomic determinants of geographic disparities in campylobacteriosis risk: a comparison of global and local modeling approaches  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors play a complex role in determining the risk of campylobacteriosis. Understanding the spatial interplay between these factors and disease risk can guide disease control programs. Historically, Poisson and negative binomial models have been used to investigate determinants of geographic disparities in risk. Spatial regression models, which allow modeling of spatial effects, have been used to improve these modeling efforts. Geographically weighted regression (GWR takes this a step further by estimating local regression coefficients, thereby allowing estimations of associations that vary in space. These recent approaches increase our understanding of how geography influences the associations between determinants and disease. Therefore the objectives of this study were to: (i identify socioeconomic determinants of the geographic disparities of campylobacteriosis risk (ii investigate if regression coefficients for the associations between socioeconomic factors and campylobacteriosis risk demonstrate spatial variability and (iii compare the performance of four modeling approaches: negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR. Methods Negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR modeling techniques were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic factors and geographic disparities in campylobacteriosis risk. The best fitting models were identified and compared. Results Two competing four variable models (Models 1 & 2 were identified. Significant variables included race, unemployment rate, education attainment, urbanicity, and divorce rate. Local Poisson GWR had the best fit and showed evidence of spatially varying regression coefficients. Conclusions The international significance of this work is that it highlights the inadequacy of global regression strategies that estimate one parameter per independent variable, and therefore mask the true relationships between dependent and independent variables. Since local GWR estimate a regression coefficient for each location, it reveals the geographic differences in the associations. This implies that a factor may be an important determinant in some locations and not others. Incorporating this into health planning ensures that a needs-based, rather than a “one-size-fits-all”, approach is used. Thus, adding local GWR to the epidemiologists’ toolbox would allow them to assess how the impacts of different determinants vary by geography. This knowledge is critical for resource allocation in disease control programs.

Weisent Jennifer

2012-10-01

88

Socioeconomic factors and complete edentulism in north karnataka population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complete edentulism is the terminal outcome of a multifactorial process involving biological factors and patient related factors. Tooth loss associated with periodontal disease and caries has an apparent impact on an individual's quality of life, and has been associated with lower levels of satisfaction with life and a lower morale. The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. The distribution and prevelance of complete edentulism between developed and less developed countries may be associated with a complex interrelationship between cultural, individual, attitude, behavior, dental attendance, etiopathogenesis of edentulism, access to care and socioeconomic factors. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. In order to plan for future oral health care provisions for the society, collecting epidemiological data on oral health particularly related to prosthodontics and its related issues are very important. PMID:24604994

Nagaraj, E; Mankani, N; Madalli, P; Astekar, D

2014-03-01

89

Principal component analysis of socioeconomic factors and their association with malaria in children from the Ashanti Region, Ghana  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The socioeconomic and sociodemographic situation are important components for the design and assessment of malaria control measures. In malaria endemic areas, however, valid classification of socioeconomic factors is difficult due to the lack of standardized tax and income data. The objective of this study was to quantify household socioeconomic levels using principal component analyses (PCA to a set of indicator variables and to use a classification scheme for the multivariate analysis of children Methods In total, 1,496 children presenting to the hospital were examined for malaria parasites and interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. The information of eleven indicators of the family's housing situation was reduced by PCA to a socioeconomic score, which was then classified into three socioeconomic status (poor, average and rich. Their influence on the malaria occurrence was analysed together with malaria risk co-factors, such as sex, parent's educational and ethnic background, number of children living in a household, applied malaria protection measures, place of residence and age of the child and the mother. Results The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the proportion of children with malaria decreased with increasing socioeconomic status as classified by PCA (p Conclusions The socioeconomic situation is significantly associated with malaria even in holoendemic rural areas where economic differences are not much pronounced. Valid classification of the socioeconomic level is crucial to be considered as confounder in intervention trials and in the planning of malaria control measures.

Adu-Sarkodie Yaw

2010-07-01

90

Risk factors for neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG)

91

The effect of race on the incidence of low birth weight: persistence of effect after controlling for socioeconomic, educational, marital, and risk status.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the elevated risk for low birth weight (LBW) infants among black mothers would persist when biologic, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors (as measured by socioeconomic status, level of education, and marital status) were controlled. It was found that the odds ratios for the risk of LBW for blacks/whites persisted above 1.5, regardless of what subgroups were used and what factors were controlled. The black/white odds ratios were, however, le...

Miller, H. C.; Jekel, J. F.

1987-01-01

92

Is Discrimination an Equal Opportunity Risk? Racial Experiences, Socioeconomic Status, and Health Status among Black and White Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we explore the relationship between racial awareness, perceived discrimination, and self-rated health among black (n = 5,902) and white (n = 28,451) adults. We find that adjusting for group differences in racial awareness and discrimination, in addition to socioeconomic status, explains…

Bratter, Jenifer L.; Gorman, Bridget K.

2011-01-01

93

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh  

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Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

2011-09-01

94

Risk factors for stroke  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Stroke is the third cause of mortality both in men and in women throughout the world. In Serbia, stroke is the first cause of mortality in women older than 55 years of age and the second cause of death in men of the same age. Both ischemic heart diseases and ischemic stroke correlate with the same predisposing, potentially modifiable risk factors (hypertension, abnormal blood lipids and lipoproteins, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes mellitus. Stroke does not usually occur on its own. Patients with stroke have a high prevalence of associated medical problems. These conditions may predict the stroke (”preexisting conditions”, occur for the first time after stroke (”post-stroke complications”, or present as manifestations of preexisting medical conditions after stroke. Risk factors. Risk factors for stroke are divided into the three groups: risk factors which cannot be influenced on such as: age, gender, positive family history of stroke, race; those which are modifiable such as: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking cigarettes, obesity, physical inactivity and the third group consists of potential risk factors for stroke (consumption of alcohol, hormones, changes in fibrinolysis, changes in blood. Conclusion. Stroke remains a leading cause of long-term disability and premature death of both men and women. Consequently, stroke survivors are often handicapped and doomed to sedentary lifestyle which restrains performance of activities of daily living, increases the risk for falls, and may contribute to a higher risk for recurrent stroke and cardiovascular disease. Prevention of stroke is still a great medical and social problem. Further studies are required to investigate potential risk factors for the occurrence of stroke as well as the measures of primary and secondary prevention.

Ran?i? Nataša

2011-01-01

95

Socioeconomic factors and adolescent pregnancy outcomes: distinctions between neonatal and post-neonatal deaths?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Young maternal age has long been associated with higher infant mortality rates, but the role of socioeconomic factors in this association has been controversial. We sought to investigate the relationships between infant mortality (distinguishing neonatal from post-neonatal deaths, socioeconomic status and maternal age in a large, retrospective cohort study. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked birth-death certificate data for Missouri residents during 1997–1999. Infant mortality rates for all singleton births to adolescent women (12–17 years, n = 10,131; 18–19 years, n = 18,954 were compared to those for older women (20–35 years, n = 28,899. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for all potential associations. Results The risk of infant (OR 1.95, CI 1.54–2.48, neonatal (1.69, 1.24–2.31 and post-neonatal mortality (2.47, 1.70–3.59 were significantly higher for younger adolescent (12–17 years than older (20–34 years mothers. After adjusting for race, marital status, age-appropriate education level, parity, smoking status, prenatal care utilization, and poverty status (indicated by participation in WIC, food stamps or Medicaid, the risk of post-neonatal mortality (1.73, 1.14–2.64 but not neonatal mortality (1.43, 0.98–2.08 remained significant for younger adolescent mothers. There were no differences in neonatal or post-neonatal mortality risks for older adolescent (18–19 years mothers. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors may largely explain the increased neonatal mortality risk among younger adolescent mothers but not the increase in post-neonatal mortality risk.

Flick Louise H

2005-07-01

96

Association Between Socioeconomic Factors and Obesity in Iran  

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Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between socio-economic factors and obesity within a population from Iran. Male and female subjects (n=4977 aged 15-65 years, were recruited from the Great Khorasan province of Iran using a cluster-stratified sampling method. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected by questionnaire. Of the study population, 29.1% were overweight and 13.8% were obese. Being overweight and obese was significantly more prevalent among women than men and urban- compared to rural-dwellers. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was seen among individuals who were divorced or widowed and among housewives, or individuals with poor education. Urbanization, age, illiteracy, female gender and divorced, or widowed status were significant predictors of obesity (p<0.001. The association of obesity with urban-dwelling which is consistent with previous reports was also found to be the most important determinant of obesity. The prevalence of obesity in urban residents of Iran is high, particularly among poorly educated women. A community-based approach using multiple strategies including appropriate education will be required to address this problem.

Habibollah Esmaeily

2009-01-01

97

Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.

Takano Takehito

2005-05-01

98

Risk Factors in Pemphigus  

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Background and Design: There have been reports suggesting the involvement of environmental factors in the disease process of pemphigus. In this study, we aimed to find out the risk factors which could play role in the etiopathogenesis in our pemphigus patients.Material and method: A total of 42 patients (15 male and 27 female) who were diagnosed as pemphigus with histopathological and direct immunoflurosence examinations in our clinic between the years 1998-2004, were interviewed for assessme...

Gül?en Tükenmez Demirc; Ay?e Tülin Mansur; ?kbal Esen Ayd?ngöz

2011-01-01

99

ABORTION IN RELATION TO SOME SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS  

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Full Text Available The data for this study has been collected from a questionnaire examining the relationship between birth weight of the new born and some physical and socio-economic characteristics of the mother. Between Dec.1975 to Jan.1976, 1553 women who had referred to two hospitals in Tehran for labor: 981 to Farah Maternity and 572 to Firoozgar Hospital have been interviewed. The results of the study have indicated that women who had referred to Firoozgar Hospital, were older, more literate, had higher per capita income, used more contraceptives and had fewer pregnancies, all these figures are statistically significant. Regression analysis indicates that factors such as age of the mother, literacy, household income, husband's job position are not significant towards increase of abortion rate amongst these women, but when these factors are fixed and place of reference is analyzed this variable becomes significant, increase of abortion, which have not been considered in this study. Parity regardless of the above factors increases abortion rate and for each increase in the number of pregnancy, mean number of abortion is increased by 0.09.

A.Majd

1978-09-01

100

Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

... Factors Request Permissions Download PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors This section has been reviewed and approved by ... menu on the side of your screen. A risk factor is anything that increases a person’s chance of ...

 
 
 
 
101

Risk factors of bronchiolitis  

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Full Text Available Background Bronchiolitis peak incidence is in children aged 2 - 6 months. History of atopy in parents, non-exclusive breastfeeding, exposure to cigarette smoke, and infants living in crowded areas may be risk factors for bronchiolitis. Gestational of age at birth is also influences the mortality of lower respiratory tract infection. Objective To evaluate the following conditions as possible risk factors for bronchiolitis: history of atopy, non-exclusive breastfeeding, preterm infants, exposure to cigarette smoke, and ? 6 persons residing in the home. Methods A sex-matched case-control study was conducted by collecting data from medical records at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar. The case group subjects met the diagnostic criteria for bronchiolitis and were aged 1-24 months. The control group included patients with diagnoses unrelated to the respiratory system. Data was analyzed using bivariate (Mc.Nemar and multivariate methods (logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals and statistical significance value of P<0.05. Results There were 96 subjects in our study, consisted of 48 subjects in the case group and 48 in the control group. The case and control groups were similar in baseline characteristics. The presence of history of atopy (OR 34.7; 95%CI 3 to 367, P=0.003, non-exclusive breastfeeding (OR 4.3; 95%CI 1.4 to 13, P=0.010, exposure to cigarette smoke (OR 3; 95%CI 1 to 9.2, P=0.047, and ? 6 persons living in the home (OR 7.9; 95%CI 2.6 to 24, P<0.0001 were found to be significant risk factors for bronchiolitis, while the preterm infants seem not significant as a risk factor of bronchiolitis (OR 3; 95%CI 0.31 to 78.99, P=0.625. Conclusion History of atopy, non-exclusive breastfeeding, exposure to cigarette smoke, and ? 6 persons living in the home are found to be risk factors, while preterm infants seem not a risk factor for bronchiolitis. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:21-5.

I Gde Doddy Kurnia Indrawan

2013-01-01

102

Is the Scottish population living dangerously? Prevalence of multiple risk factors: the Scottish Health Survey 2003  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk factors are often considered individually, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of combinations of multiple behavioural risk factors and their association with socioeconomic determinants. Methods Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the associations between socioeconomic factors and multiple risk factors from data in the Scottish Health Survey 2003. Prevalence of five key risk - smoking, alcohol, diet, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity, and their risk in relation to demographic, individual and area socioeconomic factors were assessed. Results Full data were available on 6,574 subjects (80.7% of the survey sample. Nearly the whole adult population (97.5% reported to have at least one behavioural risk factor; while 55% have three or more risk factors; and nearly 20% have four or all five risk factors. The most important determinants for having four or five multiple risk factors were low educational attainment which conferred over a 3-fold increased risk compared to high education; and residence in the most deprived communities (relative to least deprived which had greater than 3-fold increased risk. Conclusions The prevalence of multiple behavioural risk factors was high and the prevalence of absence of all risk factors very low. These behavioural patterns were strongly associated with poorer socioeconomic circumstances. Policy to address factors needs to be joined up and better consider underlying socioeconomic circumstances.

Brewster David H

2010-06-01

103

Gender-based violence and socioeconomic inequalities: does living in more deprived neighbourhoods increase women's risk of intimate partner violence?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the influence of neighbourhood socioeconomic conditions on women's likelihood of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Data from 940 women who were interviewed as part of the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women, and census data for Sao Paulo City, were analyzed using multilevel regression techniques. A neighbourhood socioeconomic-level scale was created, and proxies for the socioeconomic positions of the couple were included. Other individual level variables included factors related to partner's behaviour and women's experiences and attitudes. Women's risk of IPV did not vary across neighbourhoods in Sao Paulo nor was it influenced by her individual socioeconomic characteristics. However, women in the middle range of the socioeconomic scale were significantly more likely to report having experienced violence by a partner. Partner behaviours such as excessive alcohol use, controlling behaviour and multiple sexual partnerships were important predictors of IPV. A women's likelihood of IPV also increased if either her mother had experienced IPV or if she used alcohol excessively. These findings suggest that although the characteristics of people living in deprived neighbourhoods may influence the probability that a woman will experience IPV, higher-order contextual dynamics do not seem to affect this risk. While poverty reduction will improve the lives of individuals in many ways, strategies to reduce IPV should prioritize shifting norms that reinforce certain negative male behaviours. PMID:22361088

Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Heise, Lori; Zimmerman, Cathy; Gouveia, Nelson; Watts, Charlotte

2012-04-01

104

Association between socioeconomic factors and the choice of dentifrice and fluoride intake by children.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is questionable whether socioeconomic factors influence the choice of marketed children's dentifrices and whether these products are associated with greater fluoride (F) intake in children. The present cross-sectional study involving 197 children (mean age: 40.98 ± 6.62 months) was carried out in Montes Claros, Brazil. Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic status and the tooth brushing habits of their children. The children brushed their teeth and saliva residues were collected for F analysis. F intake from dentifrice was determined with an ion-specific electrode. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to test whether the type of dentifrice (children's or family) and F dose (children's and family dentifrices regarding daily F intake (0.046 and 0.040 mg F/Kg/day, respectively; p = 0.513). The following were strong predictors for the use of a children's dentifrice: studying at a private kindergarten (OR: 6.89; p parents" and "type of tooth brush used" (OR: 27.20; p study found a social influence over the choice of dentifrice: children with a high socioeconomic status tend to use a children's dentifrice. The amount of dentifrice used can strongly increase the risk of exposure to higher doses of F, regardless of the type of dentifrice. PMID:22163207

Martins, Carolina Castro; Oliveira, Maria José; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Paiva, Saul Martins

2011-11-01

105

Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors Involved in Suicide  

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Full Text Available The high number of suicides drew attention to medical professionals. In Europe suicide is one of the leading cause of death caused by intentional and unintentional injuries. We tried to evaluate the suicide rates and methods of suicide during a 3 years period. There were collected all the date provided by the archives of forensic services of Brasov county between 2011 and 2013 regarding age, sex, marital status, occupation, socio-economic status, methods of suicide and alcohol consumption before suicide. The statistics included 545 subjects included in the study, 293 were male (53.8%, and 252 were female (46.2% who were admitted at the ER of Brasov County Emergency Hospital during study period. Of 545 patients with suicide attempt, 355 (65.15% survived and were referred to the Psychiatry and Neurology Hospital for psychiatric treatment and psychological counseling. The number of male who died after a suicide attempt was significantly higher than in female cases (134 vs.56, p<0.001. Previous suicide attempts, depression, alcohol abuse and unemployment are strong factors for fatal suicide. Poor economic status and life events may contribute to suicide attempt in those individuals.

Marius MOGA

2014-06-01

106

The use of socioeconomic factors in mapping tuberculosis risk areas in a city of northeastern Brazil / Uso de factores socioeconómicos en la localización de áreas con riesgo de tuberculosis en una ciudad del nordeste de Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish En Brasil, el reto de satisfacer las necesidades de los residentes en zonas pobres ha generado discusiones sobre la sustitución del actual abordaje de la vigilancia epidemiológica por un sistema integrado de vigilancia de la salud pública. Este nuevo abordaje debería sustituir el tradicional enfoque [...] en los individuos de alto riesgo por un método destinado a identificar las poblaciones de alto riesgo y las zonas en las que viven. Dada la magnitud del problema de la tuberculosis en Brasil, elegimos esta enfermedad como un ejemplo de cómo se podría concebir este nuevo sistema integrado de vigilancia de la salud pública. Se reunieron los datos de varias fuentes y la información geográfica para crear un indicador del riesgo de tuberculosis en Olinda, ciudad del estado de Pernambuco. Con el fin de estratificar el espacio urbano de Olinda y de buscar una asociación entre el gradiente del riesgo de tuberculosis y la incidencia media de la enfermedad entre 1991 y 1996, se aplicaron dos métodos diferentes: 1) un "índice social de pobreza", y 2) un análisis de componentes principales seguido de un análisis por grupos. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron una asociación entre la pobreza y la aparición de la tuberculosis y también señalaron grupos y zonas prioritarias que requerían intervención. Se recomienda un seguimiento que debería incluir el tratamiento de los casos de tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia positiva, la identificación de los contactos de estos individuos y el control de los casos resistentes a múltiples fármacos, todo ello en coordinación con los servicios de salud locales. Abstract in english In Brazil the challenge of meeting the needs of those living in deprived areas has generated discussions on replacing the existing approach to epidemiological surveillance with an integrated public health surveillance system. This new approach would supplant the traditional focus on high-risk indivi [...] duals with a method for identifying high-risk populations and the areas where these persons live. Given the magnitude of the problem that tuberculosis (TB) poses for Brazil, we chose that disease as an example of how such a new, integrated public health surveillance system could be constructed. We integrated data from several sources with geographic information to create an indicator of tuberculosis risk for Olinda, a city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. In order to stratify the urban space in Olinda and to check for an association between the resulting TB risk gradient and the mean incidence of the disease between 1991 and 1996, we applied two different methods: 1) a "social deprivation index" and 2) principal component analysis followed by cluster analysis. Our results showed an association between social deprivation and the occurrence of TB. The results also highlighted priority groups and areas requiring intervention. We recommend follow-up that would include treating acid-fast bacilli smear-positive pulmonary TB cases, tracing of these persons' contacts, and monitoring of multidrug-resistant cases, all in coordination with local health services.

Wayner V., Souza; Ricardo, Ximenes; Maria F. M., Albuquerque; Tiago M., Lapa; José L., Portugal; Maria L. C., Lima; Celina M. T., Martelli.

107

Association between socioeconomic factors and sleep quality in an urban population-based sample in Germany  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Good sleep quality is essential for recovery. The risk factors of sleep disorders have been extensively investigated, but there is sparse information on the association of socioeconomic factors with a person's sleep quality. The aim of the present analysis is to investigate this association, taking particularly the effect of health confounders into consideration. METHODS: The data were extracted from the cross-sectional QUEBEB Study. In total, the study sample consisted of 3281 participants (1817 women and 1464 men, aged 16-72 years). Here socioeconomic status (SES) was collected from the baseline survey taken in 2004. Sleep quality for the same participants was measured with in-depth personal interviews in 2006 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, together with other relevant characteristics (e.g. anxiety, depression and health status). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: People living in an urban environment with a high or medium SES have a greater probability of good sleep quality (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.14; odds ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.69) than persons with a low SES. Anxiety and depression, but also health status, are also associated with sleep quality and can influence in part the socioeconomic levels seen in sleep quality. CONCLUSION: SES and sleep quality are associated. However, there are important additional determinants that influence the level of association between SES and sleep quality. Several factors, such as anxiety, depression and health status, are associated with poorer sleep quality, but at the same time, these factors occur more often within lower social classes.

Anders, Markus P; Breckenkamp, Jürgen

2014-01-01

108

Evaluating the evidence for models of life course socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A relatively consistent body of research supports an inverse graded relationship between socioeconomic status (SES and cardiovascular disease (CVD. More recently, researchers have proposed various life course SES hypotheses, which posit that the combination, accumulation, and/or interactions of different environments and experiences throughout life can affect adult risk of CVD. Different life course designs have been utilized to examine the impact of SES throughout the life course. This systematic review describes the four most common life course hypotheses, categorizes the studies that have examined the associations between life course SES and CVD according to their life course design, discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the different designs, and summarizes the studies' findings. Methods This research reviewed 49 observational studies in the biomedical literature that included socioeconomic measures at a time other than adulthood as independent variables, and assessed subclinical CHD, incident CVD morbidity and/or mortality, and/or the prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors as their outcomes. Studies were categorized into four groups based upon life course design and analytic approach. The study authors' conclusions and statistical tests were considered in summarizing study results. Results Study results suggest that low SES throughout the life course modestly impacts CVD risk factors and CVD risk. Specifically, studies reviewed provided moderate support for the role of low early-life SES and elevated levels of CVD risk factors and CVD morbidity and mortality, little support for a unique influence of social mobility on CVD, and consistent support for the detrimental impact of the accumulation of negative SES experiences/conditions across the life course on CVD risk. Conclusions While the basic life course SES study designs have various methodologic and conceptual limitations, they provide an important approach from which to examine the influence of social factors on CVD development. Some limitations may be addressed through the analysis of study cohorts followed from childhood, the evaluation of CVD risk factors in early and middle adulthood, and the use of multiple SES measures and multiple life course analysis approaches in each life course study.

Kaufman Jay S

2005-01-01

109

Risk Factors for Eating Disorders  

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The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

2007-01-01

110

Risk factors in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).  

Science.gov (United States)

In a genetic-epidemiologic study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) observations adjusted for age, sex, race, and smoking indicate certain factors to be associated with increased pulmonary function aberrancy, and suggest that they are risk factors for COPD. These presumptive "risk factors" include not only cigarette smoking, but also alpha1-antitrypsin (Pi system) variation, one or more other familial components, low socioeconomic status (SES), and, in whites, ABO blood type (either absence of "B" or presence of "A"). PMID:300564

Cohen, B H; Ball, W C; Brashears, S; Diamond, E L; Kreiss, P; Levy, D A; Menkes, H A; Permutt, S; Tockman, M S

1977-03-01

111

Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors in Patients with Essential Hypertension  

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Full Text Available Systemic hypertension is a common disease in the population and is one of the most important risk factors whose prevalence reaches 28% in U.S.A, 44% in Europe, so that in 2025, it is estimated that hypertensive persons will reach 1.56 billion worldwide. In our country, the overall prevalence was 44.92%, mainly higher in males (50.17% than females (41.11%. We conducted an assessment of social and psychological factors in association with medical and biological routine quantification in a group of 80 hypertensives newly diagnosed, compared with a control group. Questionnaires were for studying the marital status, education level, quantifying the number of working hours per day, the level of physical training and professional socio-familial stress, smoking, alcohol consumption, after which patients were tested to assess the psychometric anxiety and depression using the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. The results may support an increased risk of hypertension in individuals who are undergoing to social and family stress, working over 10 hours/day and who record mild or moderate levels of anxiety and depression at evaluation tests. These data support the implementation of complex programs to decrease the risk of hypertension by working professionals in the medical, social and psychological fields of expertise.

Corina DIMA-COZMA

2014-03-01

112

Modifiable Risk Factors Branch (MRFB)  

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The Modifiable Risk Factors Branch (MRFB) focuses on factors to reduce cancer risk in humans, including exposures to nutritional components; physical activity and energy balance; alcohol and tobacco; and infectious, physical, and chemical agents.

113

Cryptosporidium Epidemiology and Risk Factors  

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... known as "Crypto") Parasites Home Share Compartir Epidemiology & Risk Factors Crypto lives in the intestine of infected humans ... Commerically Bottled-Water and Other Beverages Diagnosis Epidemiology & Risk Factors Treatment Biology Prevention & Control Child Care Facilities Prevention ...

114

Stroke risk factors and prevention  

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... stroke is sometimes called a "brain attack." A risk factor is something about you that increases your chance ... disease or having a certain health condition. Some risk factors for stroke you cannot change, but some you ...

115

Association between obesity and socioeconomic factors and lifestyle  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and it is a manifestation of the epidemics of a sedentary lifestyle and excessive energy intake. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population of the Province of Vojvodina, Serbia, and to examine the association between obesity and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Methods. A cross-sectional study conducted in the Province of Vojvodina in 2006 involved 3 854 participants aged 20 years and over (1 831 men and 2 023 women. The study was a countinuation of the baseline study conducted in 2000 (n = 2 840, 1 255 men and 1 585 women. The main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (Body Mass Index - BMI ? 25 kg/m2, sociodemographic factors, including nutrition habits - having breakfast everyday and television watching frequency. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in both sexes in 2006 was 57.4% (35.7% were overweight and 21.7% obese. The prevalence of overweight was higher in men (41.1% than in women (30.9% (p < 0.001 while obesity was higher in women (23.1% as compared to men (20.2% (p = 0.035. For both sexes, overweight rates were highest at the age 60-69 (men 44.8% and women 39.1% while obesity rates were peaked to men aged 50-59 (25.1% and women aged 60-69 years (37.8%. Increasing ageing, males, rural population, single examinees, lower educational level, improved income, examinees that never/sometimes have breakfast and frequently watch TV were associated with obesity. Conclusions. The population of Vojvodina, with 23.1% obese women and 20.2% obese men is one of severely affected European populations. High prevalence of obesity requires urgent public health action. Healthy lifestyle, balanced nutrition with low energy intake and increased physical activity have to be promoted within a prevention strategy and obesity management.

Gruji? Vera

2009-01-01

116

Combined effects of socioeconomic position, smoking, and hypertension on risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combined effects of socioeconomic position and well-established risk factors on stroke incidence have not been formally investigated. METHODS: In a pooled cohort study of 68 643 men and women aged 30 to 70 years in Denmark, we examined the combined effect and interaction between socioeconomic position (ie, education), smoking, and hypertension on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence by the use of the additive hazards model. RESULTS: During 14 years of follow-up, 3613 ischemic strokes and 776 hemorrhagic strokes were observed. Current smoking and hypertension were more prevalent among those with low education. Low versus high education was associated with greater ischemic, but not hemorrhagic, stroke incidence. The combined effect of low education and current smoking was more than expected by the sum of their separate effects on ischemic stroke incidence, particularly among men: 134 (95% confidence interval, 49-219) extra cases per 100 000 person-years because of interaction, adjusted for age, cohort study, and birth cohort. There was no clear evidence of interaction between low education and hypertension. The combined effect of current smoking and hypertension was more than expected by the sum of their separate effects on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence. This effect was most pronounced for ischemic stroke among women: 178 (95% confidence interval, 103-253) extra cases per 100 000 person-years because of interaction, adjusted for age, cohort study, and birth cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing smoking in those with low socioeconomic position and in those with hypertension could potentially reduce social inequality stroke incidence.

Nordahl, Helene; Osler, Merete

2014-01-01

117

Combined Effects of Socioeconomic Position, Smoking, and Hypertension on Risk of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combined effects of socioeconomic position and well-established risk factors on stroke incidence have not been formally investigated. METHODS: In a pooled cohort study of 68 643 men and women aged 30 to 70 years in Denmark, we examined the combined effect and interaction between socioeconomic position (ie, education), smoking, and hypertension on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence by the use of the additive hazards model. RESULTS: During 14 years of follow-up, 3613 ischemic strokes and 776 hemorrhagic strokes were observed. Current smoking and hypertension were more prevalent among those with low education. Low versus high education was associated with greater ischemic, but not hemorrhagic, stroke incidence. The combined effect of low education and current smoking was more than expected by the sum of their separate effects on ischemic stroke incidence, particularly among men: 134 (95% confidence interval, 49-219) extra cases per 100 000 person-years because of interaction, adjusted for age, cohort study, and birth cohort. There was no clear evidence of interaction between low education and hypertension. The combined effect of current smoking and hypertension was more than expected by the sum of their separate effects on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence. This effect was most pronounced for ischemic stroke among women: 178 (95% confidence interval, 103-253) extra cases per 100 000 person-years because of interaction, adjusted for age, cohort study, and birth cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Reducing smoking in those with low socioeconomic position and in those with hypertension could potentially reduce social inequality stroke incidence.

Nordahl, Helene; Osler, Merete

2014-01-01

118

Strong regional links between socio-economic background factors and disability and mortality in Oslo, Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study objective: To study geographical differences in mortality and disability and sosio-economic status in Oslo, Norway. Setting: A total of 25 local authority districts within the city of Oslo. Design: Analysis of age adjusted mortality rates aged 0-74 in the period 1991-1994, and cross sectional data on disability pensioners aged 50-66 and socio-economic indicators (low education, single parenthood, unemployment, high income) in 1994. Main outcome measures: The levels of correlation between the health outcomes (mortality and disability) and sosio-economic exposure variables. Main results: The geographical patterns of mortality and disability display substantial similarities and show strong linear correlation with area measures of socio-economic deprivation. The ratios between the highest and lowest area mortality rates were 3.3 for men and 2.1 for women, while the high-low ratios of disability were 7.0 for men and 3.8 for women. For women deprivation measures are better correlated with disability than mortality. While disability and mortality display similar correlations with deprivation measures for men. Conclusions: The social gradients in health are substantial in Oslo. Further ecological analysis of cause specific morbidity and mortality and the distribution of risk factors ought to be done to identify problem areas suitable for interventions. However, to understand the mechanisms and the relative importance of each etiological factor, studies based on individual data have to be performed

119

Dietary and socio-economic factors in relation to Helicobacter pylori re-infection  

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Full Text Available AIM: To examine if dietary and socio-economic factors contribute to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori re-infection.METHODS: The population of patients consisted of subjects in whom H pylori infection had been successfully treated in the past. Patients were divided into two groups:?I-examined group (111 persons with H pylori re-infection and II-control group (175 persons who had not been re-infected. The respondents were interviewed retrospectively on their dietary habits and socio-economic factors.RESULTS: A statistically significant lower frequency of fermented dairy products (P < 0.0001, vegetables (P = 0.02, and fruit (P = 0.008 consumption was noted among patients with H pylori re-infection as compared to those who had not been re-infected.CONCLUSION: High dietary intake of probiotic bacteria, mainly Lactobacillus, and antioxidants, mainly vitamin C (contained in fruit and vegetables, might decrease the risk of H pylori re-infection.

Miros?aw Jarosz, Ewa Rychlik, Magdalena Siuba, Wioleta Respondek, Ma?gorzata Ry?ko-Skiba, Iwona Sajór, Sylwia Guga?a, Tomasz B?a?ejczyk, Janusz Ciok

2009-03-01

120

Children at risk: II. Risk factors and clinic utilization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a strategy involving multiple raters and instruments, the authors compared 134 clinic subjects with controls matched on sex, age, and socioeconomic status to determine how various risk factors are related to clinic utilization apart from their effects on children's symptomatology. Parental psychopathology, family size, and marital status were most predictive of children's symptom levels, while stress levels, family size, and marital status were most predictive of clinic utilization. Although children's total symptom levels explained 27.6% of the variance in clinic utilization, other factors (family size, family history of divorce, stress, and parental psychopathology) explained an additional 13.2% of the variance. Findings indicate that clinicians and health care planners must carefully assess variables other than children's symptom levels in order to better understand children's mental health services utilization, develop more robust models of risk, and increase the effectiveness of our efforts directed towards prevention and intervention. PMID:2228937

Jensen, P S; Bloedau, L; Davis, H

1990-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk in rural indian adolescents: evidence from the Andhra Pradesh children and parents study (APCAPS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives This study examined association between socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents to investigate whether childhood socio-economic position is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease, independently of adult behaviours. Study design and methods Participants (n = 1128, 46% girls, aged 13–18 years) were members of a birth cohort (Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study or APCAPS) established to investigate long-term effects of a pregnancy and childhood nutritional supplementation trial conducted in 29 villages near Hyderabad in South India. Cross-sectional associations between socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk factors were examined using linear regression models. Results The mean BMI was 16.7 kg/m2 for boys and 17.8 kg/m2 for girls. Socio-economic position was positively associated with fat mass index (0.15 kg/m2; 95% CI: 0.05–0.25) and inversely associated with central-peripheral skinfold ratio (?0.04; 95% CI: ?0.06 to ?0.01) and, in boys, fasting triglycerides (?0.05; 95% CI: ?0.09 to ?0.01). Association of socio-economic position with other risk factors (blood pressure, arterial stiffness, fasting glucose, insulin and cholesterol) was weak and inconsistent, and did not persist after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, pubertal stage, height, adiposity and nutrition supplementation. Conclusions The study thus showed that lower socio-economic position may be associated with greater central adiposity and higher triglyceride levels in these settings. Socio-economic gradient in cardiovascular risk may strengthen in future with later economic and lifestyle changes. Cardiovascular disease prevention strategies should therefore focus on the youth from the low income group. PMID:25220689

Kinra, S.; Johnson, M.; Kulkarni, B.; Rameshwar Sarma, K.V.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Smith, G.D.

2014-01-01

122

The Impact of Socioeconomic and Clinical Factors on Purchase of Prescribed Analgesics Before and After Hysterectomy on Benign Indication  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE:: Pelvic pain is a primary symptom of women referred for hysterectomy. This study identified risk factors for purchase of prescribed analgesics before and after hysterectomy and examined purchase changes after hysterectomy, specifically focusing on socioeconomic effects. METHODS:: Nearly all Danish women (n=13,420) with a hysterectomy on benign indication between 2004 and 2006 were included in a registry-based follow-up study. Information on prescription analgesic purchase was from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Factors associated with a purchase and associations between socioeconomic factors and changes in analgesic purchase were assessed. RESULTS:: Analgesic purchase after hysterectomy was independently predicted by age below 35 or above 65 years, body mass index >29.9, high American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, uterus weight

Daugbjerg, Signe B; Brandsborg, Birgitte

2014-01-01

123

SOCIO-ECONOMICS FACTORS INFLUENCING LITERACY IN THE WESTERN SATPURA REGION: A GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY”  

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Full Text Available Literacy is a dynamic process. The distribution of literacy is uneven in different parts of a region. The various geographical factors like the nature of relief, amount of rainfall, agricultural productivity, availability of water, accessibility etc. influence the distribution of population. The influence of these factors is clearly seen in the socioeconomic development of the region. This socio-economic development directly and indirectly accelerates the rate of literacy. As the Western Satpura region is socioeconomically less developed, therefore, the proportion of literate population is less and the rate of acceleration is also rather slow.

R. C. AHIRE

2012-11-01

124

Socioeconomic-status and mental health in a personality disorder sample: the importance of neighborhood factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

This cross-sectional study examined the associations between neighborhood-level socioeconomic-status (NSES), and psychosocial functioning and personality pathology among 335 adults drawn from the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Participants belonged to four personality disorder (PD) diagnostic groups: Avoidant, Borderline, Schizotypal, and Obsessive Compulsive. Global functioning, social adjustment, and PD symptoms were assessed following a minimum two-year period of residential stability. Residence in higherrisk neighborhoods was associated with more PD symptoms and lower levels of functioning and social adjustment. These relationships were consistent after controlling for individual-level socioeconomic-status and ethnicity; however, the positive association between neighborhood-level socio-economic risk and PD symptoms was evident only at higher levels of individual-level socio-economic risk. Our findings identify NSES as a candidate for explaining some of the variability in symptoms and functioning among PD individuals. PMID:22984860

Walsh, Zach; Shea, M Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Ansell, Emily B; Grilo, Carlos M; McGlashan, Thomas H; Stout, Robert L; Bender, Donna S; Skodol, Andrew E; Sanislow, Charles A; Morey, Lesley C; Gunderson, John G

2013-12-01

125

Association Between Socioeconomic Factors and the Choice of Dentifrice and Fluoride Intake by Children  

Science.gov (United States)

It is questionable whether socioeconomic factors influence the choice of marketed children’s dentifrices and whether these products are associated with greater fluoride (F) intake in children. The present cross-sectional study involving 197 children (mean age: 40.98 ± 6.62 months) was carried out in Montes Claros, Brazil. Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic status and the tooth brushing habits of their children. The children brushed their teeth and saliva residues were collected for F analysis. F intake from dentifrice was determined with an ion-specific electrode. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to test whether the type of dentifrice (children’s or family) and F dose (<0.05 and ?0.05 mg F/Kg of body weight/day) were associated with the independent variables (p < 0.05). No differences were found between children’s and family dentifrices regarding daily F intake (0.046 and 0.040 mg F/Kg/day, respectively; p = 0.513). The following were strong predictors for the use of a children’s dentifrice: studying at a private kindergarten (OR: 6.89; p < 0.001); age that the child begun to tooth brush <2 years (OR: 2.93; p = 0.041), and the interaction between the variables “use of the same dentifrice as parents” and “type of tooth brush used” (OR: 27.20; p < 0.001). “The amount of dentifrice used” and “frequency of tooth brushing” (p ? 0.004) had a statistically and synergistic effect over the daily F dose. The present study found a social influence over the choice of dentifrice: children with a high socioeconomic status tend to use a children’s dentifrice. The amount of dentifrice used can strongly increase the risk of exposure to higher doses of F, regardless of the type of dentifrice. PMID:22163207

Martins, Carolina Castro; Oliveira, Maria Jose; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Paiva, Saul Martins

2011-01-01

126

Substance abuse: risk factors for Turkish youth  

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Full Text Available Objective: Substance abuse amongst youth has been growing in developed and developing nations, including Turkey. This growth is related to a number of factors, not the least of which are forces associated with development, globalization, and youth culture. The identification of risk factors for youth substance abuse for particular populations is an important approach to the development of prevention and intervention strategies. Methods: We analyzed the data from a survey of 31,272 youth ages 14 to 18 years enrolled in high schools in Istanbul that covered the use of various substances as well as a number of demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, psychopathological, and psychosocial risk factors. Our data consisted of answers to similar questions that were asked in European School Survey Project (ESPAD, Youth in Europe (YIE, and Monitoring of the Future Survey and the National Household Survey in USA. We used binary logistic regression analyses to generate risk profiles for each of the following categories of lifetime use: tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, other illicit drugs, and multiple (two or more other illicit drugs. Results: We identified statistically significant risk profiles for these different substance categories. All the different risk factor categories contributed variably to the use of gateway drugs (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicits, but the multiple use of other illicit drugs was associated primarily with a narrower set of psychopathological (suicidality, irritability, and antisocial problems and psychosocial variables (family substance abuse and peer in?uence. Conclusions: These risk profiles share some commonality with those found amongst other populations. However, these unique risk profiles for Turkish youth can be useful in developing primary and secondary preventive interventions to address the growing substance use and abuse problems. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, focusing on time trends and risk factors of substance use in youth of emerging countries including Turkey, are needed.

andres j. pumariega

2014-01-01

127

The accuracy of the Framingham risk-score in different socioeconomic groups: a prospective study  

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BACKGROUND: The primary prevention of cardiovascular disease involves using the Framingham risk score to identify high risk patients and then prescribe preventive treatments. AIM: To examine the performance of the Framingham risk score in different socioeconomic groups in a population with high rates of cardiovascular disease. DESIGN OF STUDY: A prospective study. SETTING: West of Scotland. METHOD: The observed 10-year cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease mortality rates in 5626 ...

Brindle, P. M.; Mcconnachie, A.; Upton, M.; Hart, C.; Davey Smith, G.; Watt, G. C. M.

2005-01-01

128

Heart disease - risk factors  

Science.gov (United States)

... for men. Your genes or race. If your parents had heart disease, you are at higher risk. African-Americans, Mexican Americans, American Indians, Hawaiians, and some Asian Americans also have a higher risk for heart ...

129

Stroke - risk factors  

Science.gov (United States)

... older adults. Your genes or race. If your parents had a stroke, you are at higher risk. African Americans, Mexican Americans, American Indians, Hawaiians, and some Asian Americans also have a higher risk. Diseases such ...

130

Risk Factors for Smoking in Rural Women  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Background This study examined the association between social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking status among Appalachian Ohio women. A secondary aim examined whether specific factors could be identified and segmented for future tailored treatment of tobacco dependence. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n=570) obtained information about social, demographic, and psychologic factors and smoking. Logistic regression described associations between these characteristics and smoking status. Chi-square automatic interaction detection (CHAID) analyses identified subgroups at risk for smoking. Results Fifty-two percent never smoked, with 20.5% and 27.5% categorized as former and current smokers, respectively. Women with low adult socioeconomic position (SEP) were more likely to smoke (odds ratio [OR] 3.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74-5.34) compared to high SEP women. Other factors associated with current smoking included age 31–50 (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.22-4.33), age 18–30 (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.72-5.34), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) score?16 (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.31-3.05), and first pregnancy at age<20 (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.14-2.66). The prevalence of smoking was 50% among those with four or more risk factors compared to 10% for those reporting no risk factors. CHAID analyses identified low adult SEP and depressive symptoms as the combination of risk factors most strongly associated with smoking; 49.3% of women in this subgroup currently smoked. Conclusions Low SEP in adulthood, maternal circumstances, and depressive symptoms are associated with current smoking. Tailored cessation interventions that address these risk factors should be developed and further evaluated in an attempt to reduce disparities in smoking prevalence among this vulnerable group of women. PMID:22360694

Salsberry, Pamela J.; Ferketich, Amy K.; Ahijevych, Karen L.; Hood, Nancy E.; Paskett, Electra D.

2012-01-01

131

Is elevated risk of child maltreatment in immigrant families associated with socioeconomic status? Evidence from three sources.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we tested whether children from Dutch-immigrant families are at increased risk for maltreatment, and if so, what factors could explain this risk. Three data sources from the second Netherlands Prevalence Study of Maltreatment of Youth (NPM-2010) were used to answer these questions. First, 1127 professionals from various occupational branches (sentinels) were asked to report each child (including some background information on the child and family) for whom they suspected child maltreatment during a period of three months. Second, we included the 2010 data from the Dutch Child Protective Services and third, 1759 high school students aged 11-17 years filled out a questionnaire on their experiences of maltreatment in the past year. We found that children from traditional immigrant families with a relatively long migration history in the Netherlands (Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, and Antillean) and from nontraditional immigrant families (African [except Morocco], Eastern European, Central Asian, and South and Central American; often refugees) were at increased risk for child maltreatment compared to native Dutch families. However, in the professionals' and CPS data this risk disappeared for the traditional immigrant families after correction for educational level of the parents and for step-parenthood. Within the group of families with low education or step-parents, the risk for child maltreatment was similar for traditional immigrant families as for native Dutch families. Nontraditional families remained at increased risk after correction for sociodemographic and family factors. In conclusion, we found that children from both traditional and nontraditional immigrant families are at increased risk for maltreatment as compared to children from native Dutch families. For the traditional immigrants this risk could partially be explained by socioeconomic status. This implies that socioeconomic factors should be taken into account when outlining policies to fight child maltreatment. PMID:23597011

Alink, Lenneke R A; Euser, Saskia; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

2013-01-01

132

Growth evaluation of a group of children enrolled in public schools in Rabat, Morocco: the role of socioeconomic factors  

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Full Text Available Imane Cherkaoui Dekkaki,1 Said Ettair,1 Toufik Meskini,1 Nabil Khalloufi,2 Nezha Mouane,1 Amina Barkat21Unité de Pédagogie et de Recherche en Nutrition, 2CRECET, Université Mohammed V, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Rabat, Souissi, Rabat, MoroccoObjectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and the socioeconomic risk factors among children enrolled in primary public schools in Rabat, Morocco.Methods: Twenty-three schools were randomly selected. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2010. The survey was conducted on the basis of two questionnaires for both parents and children. The references used were from the World Health Organization, 2007.Results: Our study focused on a sample of 1569 children whose average age was 9.7 ± 0.95 years. The prevalence of underweight among girls and boys was 43.1%, while that of stunting was 18.2%. The majority of the children in our population come from a low socioeconomic level. While 59% of fathers are laborers, 85% of mothers are unemployed.Conclusion: In our study, we demonstrated that child malnutrition is strongly linked to a low socioeconomic level. These observations suggest that besides income, schooling and food quality may also be important factors that can affect growth. Educational programs, whether held in schools or informally, such as literacy or parenting classes, are valuable complements to other nutrition sustaining activities.Keywords: underweight, stunting, malnutrition, children, low socioeconomic level

Cherkaoui Dekkaki I

2013-09-01

133

Prediction of high-risk areas for visceral leishmaniasis using socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial heterogeneity in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important aspect to be considered in planning control actions for the disease. The objective of this study was to predict areas at high risk for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) based on socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data. We applied classification and regression trees to develop and validate prediction models. Performance of the models was assessed by means of sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve. The model developed was able to discriminate 15 subsets of census tracts (CT) with different probabilities of containing CT with high risk of VL occurrence. The model presented, respectively, in the validation and learning samples, sensitivity of 79% and 52%, specificity of 75% and 66%, and area under the ROC curve of 83% and 66%. Considering the complex network of factors involved in the occurrence of VL in urban areas, the results of this study showed that the development of a predictive model for VL might be feasible and useful for guiding interventions against the disease, but it is still a challenge as demonstrated by the unsatisfactory predictive performance of the model developed. PMID:24885128

Almeida, Andréa S; Werneck, Guilherme L

2014-01-01

134

Prediction of high-risk areas for visceral leishmaniasis using socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial heterogeneity in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important aspect to be considered in planning control actions for the disease. The objective of this study was to predict areas at high risk for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) based on socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data. We applied classification and regression trees to develop and validate prediction models. Performance of the models was assessed by means of sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve. The model developed was able to discriminate 15 subsets of census tracts (CT) with different probabilities of containing CT with high risk of VL occurrence. The model presented, respectively, in the validation and learning samples, sensitivity of 79% and 52%, specificity of 75% and 66%, and area under the ROC curve of 83% and 66%. Considering the complex network of factors involved in the occurrence of VL in urban areas, the results of this study showed that the development of a predictive model for VL might be feasible and useful for guiding interventions against the disease, but it is still a challenge as demonstrated by the unsatisfactory predictive performance of the model developed. PMID:24885128

2014-01-01

135

Socioeconomic development, family income, and psychosocial risk factors: a study of families with children in public elementary school / Desenvolvimento socioeconômico, renda monetária familiar e fatores de risco psicossociais: um estudo com famílias da rede pública do ensino fundamental  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar os reflexos do recente crescimento econômico brasileiro sobre o rendimento monetário, o padrão de consumo familiar e os riscos em que vivem famílias da rede pública do Ensino Fundamental do Município de São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. São analisadas as seguinte [...] s informações sobre as famílias de 447 crianças que participaram de duas ondas de estudo longitudinal: estrato social, renda familiar per capita, evolução de renda no período e fatores psicossociais. Os resultados indicam incremento financeiro em 74,8% das famílias, acompanhado de aumento no consumo de bens materiais e no acesso a serviços de saúde. Esse crescimento não pode ser tomado como garantia de melhoria nas condições de vida e saúde, já que é gasto com a aquisição de produtos e necessidades básicas que não chegam a afetar substancialmente a forma de inserção social em que vivem as famílias. Os fatores de risco psicossociais mostraram-se frequentes, porém decrescentes nas famílias estudadas, o que pode refletir a melhoria da situação de vida familiar ou ser decorrente da etapa do desenvolvimento infantil. Abstract in english This article aims to evaluate the effects of Brazil's recent economic growth on the monetary income, consumption patterns, and risk exposures of families with children enrolled in the public elementary school system in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The article analyzes the following inf [...] ormation on families of 447 children that participated in two waves in a longitudinal study: social stratum, per capita family income, evolution in income over a three-year period, and psychosocial factors. The findings showed a 74.8% increase in the families' income, accompanied by an increase in the consumption of material assets and access to health services. This increase should not be interpreted as a guarantee of improved living and health conditions, since it was spent on basic products and needs that do not substantially affect the families' form of social inclusion. Psychosocial risk factors were frequent among the families, but decreased during the study period, which may either reflect the improved family situation or result from the later stage in child development.

Simone Gonçalves de, Assis; Thiago, Pires; Renata Pires, Pesce; Joviana Quintes, Avanci; Raquel V. C., Oliveira.

136

Socioeconomic development, family income, and psychosocial risk factors: a study of families with children in public elementary school / Desenvolvimento socioeconômico, renda monetária familiar e fatores de risco psicossociais: um estudo com famílias da rede pública do ensino fundamental  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar os reflexos do recente crescimento econômico brasileiro sobre o rendimento monetário, o padrão de consumo familiar e os riscos em que vivem famílias da rede pública do Ensino Fundamental do Município de São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. São analisadas as seguinte [...] s informações sobre as famílias de 447 crianças que participaram de duas ondas de estudo longitudinal: estrato social, renda familiar per capita, evolução de renda no período e fatores psicossociais. Os resultados indicam incremento financeiro em 74,8% das famílias, acompanhado de aumento no consumo de bens materiais e no acesso a serviços de saúde. Esse crescimento não pode ser tomado como garantia de melhoria nas condições de vida e saúde, já que é gasto com a aquisição de produtos e necessidades básicas que não chegam a afetar substancialmente a forma de inserção social em que vivem as famílias. Os fatores de risco psicossociais mostraram-se frequentes, porém decrescentes nas famílias estudadas, o que pode refletir a melhoria da situação de vida familiar ou ser decorrente da etapa do desenvolvimento infantil. Abstract in english This article aims to evaluate the effects of Brazil's recent economic growth on the monetary income, consumption patterns, and risk exposures of families with children enrolled in the public elementary school system in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The article analyzes the following inf [...] ormation on families of 447 children that participated in two waves in a longitudinal study: social stratum, per capita family income, evolution in income over a three-year period, and psychosocial factors. The findings showed a 74.8% increase in the families' income, accompanied by an increase in the consumption of material assets and access to health services. This increase should not be interpreted as a guarantee of improved living and health conditions, since it was spent on basic products and needs that do not substantially affect the families' form of social inclusion. Psychosocial risk factors were frequent among the families, but decreased during the study period, which may either reflect the improved family situation or result from the later stage in child development.

Simone Gonçalves de, Assis; Thiago, Pires; Renata Pires, Pesce; Joviana Quintes, Avanci; Raquel V. C., Oliveira.

137

Role Models and the Psychological Characteristics That Buffer Low-Socioeconomic-Status Youth from Cardiovascular Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…

Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda

2013-01-01

138

Overweight among Four-Year-Old Children in Relation to Early Growth Characteristics and Socioeconomic Factors  

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Objectives. To assess early growth characteristics and socioeconomic factors of children in relation to body mass index (BMI) and presence of overweight among four-year-old children. Methods. Two Child Health Centres (CHC) participated in the study. They were selected to obtain two populations of children featuring divergent socio-economic characteristics. Growth data registered at the CHCs from birth to the 4-year check-up were recovered. Overweight was defined by the BMI cut-offs establishe...

Amp Rild, Staffan M.; Amp Rgen Thorn, J.; Maria Johansson; Maria Waller

2010-01-01

139

Socioeconomic differences in cognitive decline and the role of biomedical factors  

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PURPOSE: This study examines the association between socioeconomic status and cognitive decline in a community-based cohort of well-functioning older adults and seeks to determine whether this link could be explained by biomedical factors. METHODS: Data are from 2574 men and women aged 70 to 79 years from Pittsburgh, PA, and Memphis, TN, participating in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study (Health ABC). Three indicators of socioeconomic status were used: education, income, and owners...

Koster, A.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Bosma, H.; Kempen, G. I. J. M.; Newman, A. B.; Rubin, S. M.; Satterfield, S.; Atkinson, H. H.; Ayonayon, H. N.; Rosano, C.; Yaffe, K.; Harris, T. B.; Rooks, R. N.; Eijk, J. T. M.; Kritchevsky, S. B.

2005-01-01

140

Some Socio-economic Factors affecting Solid Wastes Generation and Disposal in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria  

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This study adopted a survey design. Questionnaire was administered on 215 respondents in Ibadan metropolis selected randomly. The objectives of the study are to examined the influence of some socio-economic factors on solid waste generation and disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. The nature and composition of solid waste generated, methods of disposal and relationship that exist between the socio-economic characteristics of the people and solid waste generation and disposal were also identified...

Kayode, A. M.; Omole, F. K.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Lifestyle Factors and Stroke Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

... lower right-hand corner of the player. Lifestyle Factors and Stroke Risk HealthDay October 9, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Healthy ... with women who had none of the healthy factors, those with all 5 had a 62% lower risk of cerebral infarction. One of the study authors ...

142

Lifestyle Factors and Stroke Risk  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... lower right-hand corner of the player. Lifestyle Factors and Stroke Risk HealthDay October 9, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Healthy ... with women who had none of the healthy factors, those with all 5 had a 62% lower risk of cerebral infarction. One of the study authors ...

143

Probabilistic human health risk of PCDD/F exposure: a socioeconomic assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to assess the human health risks (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic) of PCDD/F exposure for the adult population living in two different areas (industrial and residential) of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain), as well as to compare these risks according to the socioeconomic status of the population. Two pathways were considered for PCDD/F exposure: direct (air inhalation, dermal contact and ingestion from soils and dust) and dietary. Although environmental exposure was higher for the population living in the neighborhood of the industrial area (mainly lower socioeconomic group subjects), it only accounted 1.05%. On the other hand, PCDD/F exposure through dietary intake was more important for those individuals of an upper socioeconomic level. This was due to the fact that their diet is richer in those foodstuffs containing higher PCDD/F concentrations. Consequently, taking together direct and dietary exposure to PCDD/Fs, the result is that upper socioeconomic group populations are more exposed to these toxic pollutants. In any case, the current levels of PCDD/F exposure would not mean significant carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for the population living in the industrial and residential areas of Tarragona. PMID:15536508

Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

2004-11-01

144

Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in adults is the leading cause of chronic disease and cirrhosis. Globally, an estimated 200 million persons are chronically infected with HCV and 3 to 4 million persons are newly infected each year. Improved sanitary and socioeconomic conditions over time have greatly affected the frequency of HCV infection causing a decreased risk of infection along generation. However, the younger population is particularly at risk due to certain practices (use of intravenous drugs, tattooing, piercing known to favor HCV transmission. Such practices often begin during adolescence when awareness of hepatitis C is low. We have conducted a prospective study in which have been included 286 patients with chronic hepatitis C hospitalized in the Clinic Hospital of Infectious Diseases Iasi between 2004 and 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for the acquisition of hepatitis C virus in patients with chronic hepatitis. The study confirms that the most relevant risk factors for the acquisition of HCV are transfusions of blood before 1993 (32% followed by dental procedures (25,5% and health care related procedures (20%. Accidental needlstick, was reported by 16 patients (5,6%. Patients older than 40 years had a significant higher rate of declared risk factors compared with younger patients (p=0,038. The results of this study stress the need of strict adherence to universal precautionary measures. Because the quality of knowledge regarding hepatitis C is very poor among adolescents it would be beneficial for public health a strong intervention to present the most relevant risk factors for the acquisition of this virus.

Egidia MIFTODE

2009-09-01

145

Coherent measurement of factor risks  

CERN Document Server

We propose a new procedure for the risk measurement of large portfolios. It employs the following objects as the building blocks: - coherent risk measures introduced by Artzner, Delbaen, Eber, and Heath; - factor risk measures introduced in this paper, which assess the risks driven by particular factors like the price of oil, S&P500 index, or the credit spread; - risk contributions and factor risk contributions, which provide a coherent alternative to the sensitivity coefficients. We also propose two particular classes of coherent risk measures called Alpha V@R and Beta V@R, for which all the objects described above admit an extremely simple empirical estimation procedure. This procedure uses no model assumptions on the structure of the price evolution. Moreover, we consider the problem of the risk management on a firm's level. It is shown that if the risk limits are imposed on the risk contributions of the desks to the overall risk of the firm (rather than on their outstanding risks) and the desks are al...

Cherny, A S; Cherny, Alexander S.; Madan, Dilip B.

2006-01-01

146

Global distribution patterns of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza: environmental vs. socioeconomic factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report, we quantitatively analyzed the essential ecological factors that were strongly correlated with the global outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza. The ecological niche modeling (ENM) was used to reveal the potential outbreak hotspots of H5N1. A two-step modeling procedure has been proposed: we first used BioClim model to obtain the coarse suitable areas of H5N1, and then those suitable areas with very high probabilities were retained as the inputs of multiple-variable autologistic regression analysis (MAR) for model refinement. MAR was implemented taking spatial autocorrelation into account. The final performance of ENM was evaluated using the areas under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal the most important variables and relevant ecological gradients of H5N1 outbreak. Niche visualization was used to identify potential spreading trend of H5N1 along important ecological gradients. For the first time, we combined socioeconomic and environmental variables as joint predictors in developing ecological niche modeling. Environmental variables represented the natural element related to H5N1 outbreak, whereas socioeconomic ones represented the anthropogenic element. Our results indicated that: (1) the high-risk hotspots are mainly located in temperate zones (indicated by ENM)-correspondingly, we argued that the "ecoregions hypothesis" was reasonable to some extent; (2) evaporation, humidity, human population density, livestock population density were the first four important factors (in descending order) that were associated with the H5N1 global outbreak (indicated by PCA); (3) influenza had a tendency to expand into areas with low evaporation (indicated by niche visualization). In conclusion, our study substantiates that both the environmental and socioeconomic variables jointly determined the global spreading trend of H5N1, but environmental variables played a more important role. Consequently, our study is consistent with the assumption that the natural element is more important than the anthropogenic element as the underlying ecological mechanisms explaining global H5N1 transmission. PMID:25103831

Chen, Youhua; Chen, You-Fang

2014-01-01

147

What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors?  

Science.gov (United States)

... NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors? Coronary heart disease risk factors are conditions or ... Many people have at least one CHD risk factor. Your risk of CHD and heart attack increases with the ...

148

Risk factors for periodontal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors for periodontal disease, such as smoking, diabetes and obesity, and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, are relatively common and can be expected to affect most patients with periodontal disease seen in clinics and dental practices. Hence, risk factor identification and management has become a key component of care for periodontal patients. PMID:23574464

Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S

2013-06-01

149

Risk factors for depression in adolescence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public health concern regarding depression has recently increased as a result of the rise in the rate of adolescent suicide, with a probable concomitant rise in the rate of depression in this age group. The rise appears to be both a period effect, in that increased rates are now observed across age categories, and a cohort effect, in that being born after 1960 also contributes to the increase. The clinical phenomena and epidemiology of depression in adolescence are reviewed. Diagnostic criteria for depressive mood and depressive syndrome are similar to those in adults. However, the predictive value of a depressive episode in adolescence, and whether the occurrence of depression in adolescence is a transient developmental experience or whether it predicts a particular subtype of future depression, are at present unknown. The familial, social and personal risk factors for adolescent depression are reviewed, The major factors are: parental history of affective illness, childhood experience of parental loss, and female gender. Other factors, such as birth order and sibling factors, socio-economic status, race, religion, geography, concomitant medical illness, intelligence, career aspirations, substance abuse and life events, are reviewed, although their relative contributions as risk factors are less clear-cut. It is proposed that cross-sectional, retrospective and longitudinal studies are required to clarify important areas of uncertainty. PMID:3889900

Wells, V E; Deykin, E Y; Klerman, G L

1985-01-01

150

Socioeconomic Factors and Childhood Overweight in Europe : Results from the Multi-centre IDEFICS Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient. Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi-centre study with highly standardized study protoco. The strength of association between SES and overweight and obesity varies across European regions. In our study, the SES gradient is correlated with the regional mean income and the country-specific Human development index indicating a strong influence not only of the family but also of region and country on the overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To assess the association between different macro- and micro-level socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight. Methods Data from the IDEFICS baseline survey is used to investigate the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic factors, like socioeconomic status (SES), and the prevalence of childhood overweight. Differences and similarities regarding this relationship in eight European regions (located in Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden) are explored. 11?994 children (50.9% boys, 49.1% girls) and their parents were included in the analyses. Results In five of the eight investigated regions (in Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Spain and Sweden), the prevalence of childhood overweight followed an inverse SES gradient. In the other three regions (in Cyprus, Hungary and Italy), no association between SES and childhood overweight was found. The SES-overweight association in a region was best explained by the country-specific human development index and the centre-specific mean income. For the investigated association between other socioeconomic factors and overweight, no clear pattern could be found in the different regions. Conclusion The association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight was shown to be heterogeneous across different European regions. Further research on nationwide European data is needed to confirm the results and to identify target groups for prevention.

Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke

2013-01-01

151

Environmental risk factors for autism  

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Full Text Available Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals.

Rodney R. Dietert

2011-04-01

152

Land Use Change and Its Determinant Factors in Northern Laos: Spatial and Socio-economic Analysis  

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Full Text Available Changes in land use areoften associated with policy implementation and socio-economic factors. The objective of this study was to interpret the patterns of land use and changes in land cover with a watershed area, especially focusing on the detection of change of agricultural land. The socio-economic factors contributing to land change was also analyzed. This study adopted both spatial and socio-economic analysis with remote sensing and logistic regression model. Land use maps of the study area for the years 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2010 were interpreted from Landsat 5 TM and prepared with eight classes of land use/land cover types. This study revealed that the land use/land cover in the study area had dynamically changed with socio-economic factors in each period. Particularly, 70% of forest covers had significantly decreased in contrast to the increase of other land use types such as secondary forest/mixed or shrubland and agricultural land. The logistic regression model provided results of socio-economic factors that influenced land use changein each period.

Southavilay Boundeth

2012-11-01

153

Coupling socio-economic factors and eco-hydrological processes using a cascade-modeling approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Most hydrological studies do not account for the socio-economic influences on eco-hydrological processes. However, socio-economic developments often change the water balance substantially and are highly relevant in understanding changes in hydrological responses. In this study a multi-disciplinary approach was used to study the cascading impacts of socio-economic drivers of land use and land cover (LULC) changes on the eco-hydrological regime of the Lake Naivasha Basin. The basin has recently experienced substantial LULC changes exacerbated by socio-economic drivers. The simplified cascade models provided insights for an improved understanding of the socio-ecohydrological system. Results show that the upstream population has transformed LULC such that runoff during the period 1986-2010 was 32% higher than during the period 1961-1985. Cut-flower export volumes and downstream population growth explain 71% of the water abstracted from Lake Naivasha. The influence of upstream population on LULC and upstream hydrological processes explained 59% and 30% of the variance in lake storage volumes and sediment yield respectively. The downstream LULC changes had significant impact on large wild herbivore mammal species on the fringe zone of the lake. This study shows that, in cases where observed socio-economic developments are substantial, the use of a cascade-modeling approach, that couple socio-economic factors to eco-hydrological processes, can greatly improve our understanding of the eco-hydrological processes of a catchment.

Odongo, V. O.; Mulatu, D. W.; Muthoni, F. K.; van Oel, P. R.; Meins, F. M.; van der Tol, C.; Skidmore, A. K.; Groen, T. A.; Becht, R.; Onyando, J. O.; van der Veen, A.

2014-10-01

154

Lifestyle Factors and Stroke Risk  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... hand corner of the player. Lifestyle Factors and Stroke Risk HealthDay October 9, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Healthy Living Stroke Women's Health Transcript If you’re a woman, ...

155

Potential Risk Factors for Schizophrenia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that affects the individualin various ways. Many risk factors have been suggested in the emergenceof the illness. The aim of this study is to identify the potential risk factors forschizophrenia considering the characteristics of patients.Methods: The study included 164 patients diagnosed with schizophreniaaccording to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, FourthEdition (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria and a control group consi...

Akal, Burc?in N.; Dog?an, Orhan

2010-01-01

156

Poverty levels and children's health status: study of risk factors in an urban population of low socioeconomic level Nível de pobreza e estado de saúde das crianças: um estudo de fatores de risco em população urbana de baixo nível socioeconômico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To test the hypothesis that the low socioeconomic population living is shanty towns in Porto Alegre presents different levels of poverty which are reflected on its health status, a cross-sectional study was designed involving 477 families living in Vila Grande Cruzeiro, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The poverty level of the families was measured by using an instrument specifically designed for poor urban populations. Children from families living in extreme poverty (poorest quartile were found to have higher infant mortality rate, lower birth weights, more hospitalizations, and higher malnutrition rates, in addition to belonging to more numerous families. Thus, the shanty town population of Porto Alegre is not homogeneous, and priority should be given to the more vulnerable subgroups.Para testar a hipótese de que a população de baixo nível socioeconômico apresenta diferentes níveis de pobreza que repercutem em seu estado de saúde, foi realizado estudo transversal envolvendo 477 famílias de uma população urbana pobre residente na Vila Grande Cruzeiro, em Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. O nível de pobreza dessas famílias foi medido por meio de um instrumento especialmente elaborado para populações urbanas pobres. Crianças oriundas de famílias vivendo em extrema pobreza (quartil inferior apresentaram maior taxa de mortalidade infantil, menor peso de nascimento, maior número de internações hospitalares e maiores índices de desnutrição, além de pertencerem a famílias mais numerosas. A população de baixo nível socioeconômico mostrou-se heterogênea em relação a diferentes indicadores de saúde. Concluiu-se que a identificação de subgrupos mais vulneráveis numa população permite concentrar as ações de saúde entre os mais necessitados.

Roberto M.S. Issler

1996-12-01

157

Impact of heterogeneity and socioeconomic factors on individual behavior in decentralized sharing ecosystems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tens of millions of individuals around the world use decentralized content distribution systems, a fact of growing social, economic, and technological importance. These sharing systems are poorly understood because, unlike in other technosocial systems, it is difficult to gather large-scale data about user behavior. Here, we investigate user activity patterns and the socioeconomic factors that could explain the behavior. Our analysis reveals that (i) the ecosystem is heterogeneous at several levels: content types are heterogeneous, users specialize in a few content types, and countries are heterogeneous in user profiles; and (ii) there is a strong correlation between socioeconomic indicators of a country and users behavior. Our findings open a research area on the dynamics of decentralized sharing ecosystems and the socioeconomic factors affecting them, and may have implications for the design of algorithms and for policymaking. PMID:25288755

Gavaldà-Miralles, Arnau; Choffnes, David R; Otto, John S; Sánchez, Mario A; Bustamante, Fabián E; Amaral, Luís A N; Duch, Jordi; Guimerà, Roger

2014-10-28

158

Cultural and Socio-Economic Factors on Changes in Aging among Iranian Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the cultural and socio-economic factors that influence changes in aging among Iranian women. This qualitative study was part of a more extensive study designed according to grounded theory method. A purposeful, snowball and theoretical sampling technique was used. Data collection instruments were interviews and field notes. Duration of interviews differed and ranged from 38 to 110 minutes. Data collection process, coding and analysis were performed simultaneously. Collected data were analyzed using the recommended method by Corbin and Straus (1998 and 2008. The factors were formed from 6 subcategories: cultural and socio-economic status in the past, urban/rural life, companionship status, beliefs and attitudes, higher responsibilities of women and women's financial capability. This study explained the various aspects of cultural and socio-economic changes in the elderly participants based on their real experiences.

Masoumeh Bagheri-Nesami

2014-01-01

159

Risk communication: factors affecting impact.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of risk communication depends upon a complex interaction between the characteristics of the audience, the source of the message, and its content. Audience perception of risk is influenced by demographic factors (e.g. age, gender), personality profile, past experience, and ideological orientation. It is also affected by cognitive biases (e.g. unrealistic optimism) and lay 'mental models' of the hazard. For food hazards, the important dimensions of risk are controllability, novelty and naturalness. The source must be trusted for a risk message to be effective. Trust is associated with believing the source is expert, unbiased, disinterested, and not sensationalising. To maximise impact, risk communications must have a content which triggers attention, achieves comprehension and can influence decision-making. It must be unambiguous, definitive and easily interpretable--rarely achievable particularly when risk is shrouded in scientific uncertainty. Risk messages initiate social processes of amplification and attenuation, consequently their ramifications are rarely controllable. PMID:10885109

Breakwell, G M

2000-01-01

160

Risk factors for suicidal behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

 

The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

Antonova A.A.

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

Prevalence of obesity and associated socioeconomic factors among Tunisian women from different living environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity (general and central) in the Trabzon Region and its associations with demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, reproductive history in women, and level of education), socioeconomic factors (household income and occupation), family history of selected medical conditions (diabetes, hypertension, and obesity), lifestyle factors (smoking habits, physical activity, and alcohol consumption), and hypertension in the adult populati...

Beltai?fa, L.; Traissac, P.; El Ati, J.; Lefe?vre, P.; Romdhane, H. B.; Delpeuch, F.

2009-01-01

162

Risk Factor Frequency for Learning Disabilities in Low Socioeconomic Level Preschool Children in Mexico City Frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico en la Ciudad de México Frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem em pré-escolares com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective was to identify the frequency of risk factors for Learning Disabilities (LD in low socioeconomic level children in Mexico City. We studied children by means of: Wechsler, Bender-Gestalt, and Human drawing tests. Average age of male subjects was 5.6±0.9 years, while that of the female group was 5.4±0.5 years. In male subjects, average Total intelligence quotient (T-IQ score was 98±12.2 while, in the female group, this was 99±12.2. On the Bender-Gestalt test, male subjects had a mental and visual-motor average age of Nuestro objetivo fue identificar la frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje (PA en niños de bajo nivel socioeconómico de la Ciudad de México. Se utilizaron las pruebas de inteligencia de Wechsler, Gestáltica Visuomotora de Bender y del Dibujo de la figura humana. La edad promedio en el grupo masculino fue 5,6±0,9 años, del femenino fue 5,4±0,5. En los hombres, el cociente intelectual total (CI-T fue 98±12,2, en mujeres fue 99±12,2. En la prueba de Bender, los hombres mostraron una edad mental y visuomotora un año menor que la cronológica, las mujeres tuvieron una edad mental y visuomotora 7-8 meses por debajo de la norma. En la Prueba de la figura humana, los hombres y mujeres mostraron mayor frecuencia de: auto-aislamiento 25%, timidez 22,4% y controles internos pobres 22%. En conclusión encontramos una alta frecuencia de factores de riesgo en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico, destacamos la importancia de identificar a los preescolares propensos a tener problemas de aprendizaje (PA.Este estudo objetivou identificar a frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem (DA em crianças com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México. A escala de inteligência Wechsler, desenho da figura humana e o teste gestáltico visomotor de Bender foram utilizados. A idade média do grupo masculino foi de 5,6±0,9 anos e do grupo feminino 5,4±0,5 anos. O quociente intelectual total (QI-T foi de 98±12 no grupo masculino e 99±12,2 no grupo feminino. No teste de Bender, os meninos apresentaram idade mental e visomotora um ano abaixo da idade cronológica, enquanto que as meninas apresentaram idade mental e visomotora 7-8 meses abaixo do normal. As características de alto risco que apresentaram maior frequência, tanto nos meninos como nas meninas, no teste do desenho de figura humana, foram: autoisolamento 25%, timidez 22,4 e controle interno deficiente 22%. Concluindo, alta frequência de fatores de risco para DA foi encontrada em crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico. É importante destacar a importância de se identificar pré-escolares em risco de DA.

Elizabeth Zambrano-Sánchez

2010-10-01

163

Risk Factor Frequency for Learning Disabilities in Low Socioeconomic Level Preschool Children in Mexico City / Frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico en la Ciudad de México / Frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem em pré-escolares com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo objetivou identificar a frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem (DA) em crianças com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México. A escala de inteligência Wechsler, desenho da figura humana e o teste gestáltico visomotor de Bender foram utilizados. A idade méd [...] ia do grupo masculino foi de 5,6±0,9 anos e do grupo feminino 5,4±0,5 anos. O quociente intelectual total (QI-T) foi de 98±12 no grupo masculino e 99±12,2 no grupo feminino. No teste de Bender, os meninos apresentaram idade mental e visomotora um ano abaixo da idade cronológica, enquanto que as meninas apresentaram idade mental e visomotora 7-8 meses abaixo do normal. As características de alto risco que apresentaram maior frequência, tanto nos meninos como nas meninas, no teste do desenho de figura humana, foram: autoisolamento 25%, timidez 22,4 e controle interno deficiente 22%. Concluindo, alta frequência de fatores de risco para DA foi encontrada em crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico. É importante destacar a importância de se identificar pré-escolares em risco de DA. Abstract in spanish Nuestro objetivo fue identificar la frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje (PA) en niños de bajo nivel socioeconómico de la Ciudad de México. Se utilizaron las pruebas de inteligencia de Wechsler, Gestáltica Visuomotora de Bender y del Dibujo de la figura humana. La edad prom [...] edio en el grupo masculino fue 5,6±0,9 años, del femenino fue 5,4±0,5. En los hombres, el cociente intelectual total (CI-T) fue 98±12,2, en mujeres fue 99±12,2. En la prueba de Bender, los hombres mostraron una edad mental y visuomotora un año menor que la cronológica, las mujeres tuvieron una edad mental y visuomotora 7-8 meses por debajo de la norma. En la Prueba de la figura humana, los hombres y mujeres mostraron mayor frecuencia de: auto-aislamiento 25%, timidez 22,4% y controles internos pobres 22%. En conclusión encontramos una alta frecuencia de factores de riesgo en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico, destacamos la importancia de identificar a los preescolares propensos a tener problemas de aprendizaje (PA). Abstract in english The objective was to identify the frequency of risk factors for Learning Disabilities (LD) in low socioeconomic level children in Mexico City. We studied children by means of: Wechsler, Bender-Gestalt, and Human drawing tests. Average age of male subjects was 5.6±0.9 years, while that of the female [...] group was 5.4±0.5 years. In male subjects, average Total intelligence quotient (T-IQ) score was 98±12.2 while, in the female group, this was 99±12.2. On the Bender-Gestalt test, male subjects had a mental and visual-motor average age of

Elizabeth, Zambrano-Sánchez; María del Consuelo, Martínez-Wbaldo; Adrián, Poblano.

2010-10-01

164

Perinatal Risk Factors for Strabismus  

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Abstract Background: Little is known about the etiologic factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype. Methods: Orthoptists reviewed ophthalmologic records for Danish National Birth Cohort children examined for strabismus in hospital ophthalmology departments or by ophthalmologists in private practice. Information on perinatal characteristics was obtained from national registers. We ...

2010-01-01

165

Socioeconomic, cultural, and behavioral factors affecting Hispanic health outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher porverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of the epidemiological paradox. They find substantial support for the existence of the epidemiological paradox, particularly among Mexican Americans. Census undercounts of Hispanics, misclassification of Hispanic deaths, and emigration of Hispanics do not fully account for the epidemiological paradox. Identifying protective factors underlying the epidemiological paradox, while improving access to care and the economic conditions among Hispanics, are important research and policy implications of this review. PMID:12407964

Morales, Leo S; Lara, Marielena; Kington, Raynard S; Valdez, Robert O; Escarce, José J

2002-11-01

166

Physical activity, physical fitness, and cardiovascular risk factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical activity at work and during leisure time, physical fitness, and cardiovascular risk factors are analysed in a birth cohort of 577 Danish men examined in 1976 at age 40 and in 1987 at age 51. Despite increasing age, the physical activity over the 11 years was relatively constant during leisure time, but decreasing at work. While there was no correlation between socioeconomic status and physical activity during leisure time at age 40, there was a clear tendency towards greater activity among those belonging to the higher social strata in the study of the 51-year-old. At both time points, there was a negative correlation between socio-economic status and physical activity at work; that is, physical activity at work decreases with increasing socio-economic status. There was no tendency towards a more beneficial cardiovascular risk profile among those increasing their physical activity during leisure time as compared with those with a constant or decreasing activity. As expected, physical activity during leisure time correlated with the cardiovascular risk factors, whereas physical activity at work did not. Increased physical activity during leisure time reduced the serum cholesterol level only in those men who concomitantly reduced their body weight. The study corroborates results from other countries demonstrating increasing inequalities between social strata as to the distribution of cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:2060325

Møller, L F; Kristensen, T S; Hollnagel, H

1991-04-01

167

Linking Socioeconomic Status to Social Cognitive Career Theory Factors: A Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);…

Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien

2011-01-01

168

About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention We can’t control some risk factors for ... as well. NIA Information on Risk Factors and Prevention Brain Health Resource Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease: What Do ...

169

The Different Impacts of Socio-economic Factors on Suicide between Males and Females  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The number of suicides in Japan has substantially increased during its low growth period. The main argument of Durkheim’s (1951) seminal work in the field of sociology is that suicide is under influences of not only individual traits but also of the society one belongs to. ?Recently it was found that the effect of socio-economic variables on suicide rates depends on gender. This paper attempts to examine the difference of socio-economic factors on suicide between males and females. ...

Yamamura, Eiji

2007-01-01

170

The relationship between cardiovascular disease risk factors and gender  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between three socioeconomic sta- tuses and five behavior-related cardiovascular risk factors by gender, based on data from the Third Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination III. Data from 4556 people were analyzed. The propensity toward obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and physical inactivity was significantly higher in women than in men. Hypertension and smoking were significantly more prevalent in men than in women. The differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors by gender is important and should be considered when developing programs to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases.

Young-Mi Lee

2012-06-01

171

Some Socio-economic Factors affecting Solid Wastes Generation and Disposal in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study adopted a survey design. Questionnaire was administered on 215 respondents in Ibadan metropolis selected randomly. The objectives of the study are to examined the influence of some socio-economic factors on solid waste generation and disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. The nature and composition of solid waste generated, methods of disposal and relationship that exist between the socio-economic characteristics of the people and solid waste generation and disposal were also identified. Data for this study were obtained through the administration of questionnaire and review of existing literature. The information obtained from the field was analyzed using frequency and correlation matrix. The finding showed that the composition of waste generated in Ibadan Metropolis was a reflection of variation of socio-economic factors of the people. Also, socio-economic factors such as income, age, education, occupation and building types had greater influence on the choice of method of disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. It was recommended therefore that effective solid waste management can be achieved through the adoption of urban renewal strategy on the chaotic areas, provision of sizable fund by the government and proper education to the people among others.

Kayode, A. M.

2011-04-01

172

Socioeconomic Factors of Full Immunisation Coverage in India  

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Full Text Available  This paper attempts to understand the factors of the slow progress in the coverage of basic childhood immunisation in India using three rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS data. States are selected on the basis of changes in full immunisation coverage during 1992-2005. Bivariate, multivariate, and dropout rates are used to understand the differentials and changes in immunisation coverage. The result reveals substantial improvement in partial immunisation in most states; however, the increase in full immunisation coverage has been slower. Two crucial determinants of the full immunisation coverage in selected states are availability of health card and antenatal care (ANC visits of mother. Further, higher drop out of DPT3 and measles are responsible for slow increase in full immunisation coverage in selected states. The dropout rate between BCG-measles remains very high. The measles vaccination is very poorly addressed in India, due to which full immunisation is low. Mother’s education, standard of living, mass media exposure, and availability of health card are appeared as significant predictor in explaining the full immunisation coverage irrespective of time. Descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regression analysis are used in the study. Results indicate a steady increase in coverage of full immunisation in last 14 years, while the increase was higher during 1992-1998 but lower during 1998-2005.

Suresh Sharma

2013-08-01

173

A Study Of Risk Factors Of Diabetes Mellitus  

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Full Text Available A case control study of risk factors of Diabetes Mellitus was carried out among 75 diabetic cases attending the clinic, and an equal number of matched controls from inpatients of the surgical department of R .G Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Diabetes Mellitus was found significantly higher among those persons having family history of similar illness, belonging to the socio-economic class (Kuppuwami�s classification and non-vegetarian dietary habit.

Banerjee P

1993-01-01

174

The risk factor of thyroid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10-6 rem-1. This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10-6 yr-1. This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the -fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

175

Impact of socio-economic factors on stroke prevalence among urban and rural residents in Mainland China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background An inverse relationship between better socioeconomic status (total household income, education or occupation and stroke has been established in developed communities, but family size has generally not been considered in the use of socioeconomic status indices. We explored the utility of Family Average Income (FAI as a single index of socioeconomic status to examine the association with stroke prevalence in a region of China, and we also compared its performance as a single index of socioeconomic status with that of education and occupation. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Nanjing municipality of China during the period between October 2000 and March 2001. A total of 45 administrative villages were randomly selected using a multi-stage sampling approach and all regular local residents aged 35 years or above were included. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used in analysis. Results The overall prevalence of diagnosed stroke was 1.54% in all 29,340 eligible participants. An elevated prevalence of stroke was associated with increasing levels of FAI. After adjustment for basic demographic variables (age, urban/rural area and gender and a group of defined conventional risk factors, this gradient still remained significant, with participants in the highest (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.40, 2.70 and middle (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01, 2.02 categories of FAI having higher risks compared with the lowest category. A significantly elevated OR of stroke prevalence was found in white collar workers compared to blue collar workers, while no significant relationship was observed with education. Conclusion Our study consistently revealed that the prevalence of stroke was associated with increasing levels of all SES indices, including FAI, education, and occupation. However, a significant gradient was only observed with FAI after controlling for important confounding factors. The findings suggested that, compared with occupation and education, FAI could be used as a more sensitive index of socio-economic status for public health studies in China.

Yin XiaoMei

2008-05-01

176

Children's health and parental socioeconomic factors: a population-based survey in Finland  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in health are a global problem, not only among the adult population but also among children. However, studies concerning young children especially are rare. The aim of this study was to describe the health of Finnish children under 12 years of age, and the socioeconomic factors associated with health. The socioeconomic factors were parental education level, household net income, and working status. Methods A population-based survey among Finnish children aged under 12 years (n = 6,000 was conducted in spring 2007. A questionnaire was sent to parents, and a response rate of 67% was achieved. Each child's health was explored by asking a parent to report the child's health status on a 5-point Likert scale, current symptoms from a symptoms list, and current disease(s diagnosed by a physician. The final three outcome measures were poor health, the prevalences of psychosomatic symptoms, and long-term diseases. Data were analysed using Pearson's Chi-Square tests, and logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. P-values ?0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results In total, 3% of parents reported that their child's health status was poor. The prevalences of psychosomatic symptoms and long-term diseases were both 11%. The probability for poor health status was lowest among children aged 3-6 and 7-11 years, and for psychosomatic symptoms among 3-6-year-old children, whereas the odds ratios for long-term diseases was highest among children aged 7-11 years. Parental socioeconomic factors were not associated with the children's health. Conclusions Most of the children were reported by their parent to have good health status, and approximately one tenth had experienced some psychosomatic symptoms or long-term diseases. Our study suggests that parental socioeconomic factors are not associated with the health of children aged under 12 years in Finland.

Savolainen Piia H

2011-06-01

177

Potential Risk Factors for Schizophrenia  

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Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that affects the individualin various ways. Many risk factors have been suggested in the emergenceof the illness. The aim of this study is to identify the potential risk factors forschizophrenia considering the characteristics of patients.Methods: The study included 164 patients diagnosed with schizophreniaaccording to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, FourthEdition (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and a control group consisting of a matchingnumber of healthy people. The subjects were given questionnaire formson potential risk factors (prenatal and postnatal, sociodemographic, illnessrelatedinformation. Student’s t-test, chi-square test and logistic regressionanalysis were used to evaluate the data.Results: Significant differences were identified between the patient group andhealthy control group in terms of: for the mother- use of medication , history ofinflammatory disease, or a psychical or physical trauma during pregnancy;-for the patient- being born in hospital, prolonged delivery, growth during childhood,relatives with a history of schizophrenia, and school history. Among thesubtypes of schizophrenia, significant differences were identified in terms ofeducational level, birth rank and school history.Conclusion: Identification of the potential risk factors for schizophrenia and ofsubjects at risk will provide important individual and social advantages, such associal health, health expenses and protection of individuals and society from theadverse effects of schizophrenia. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2010; 47: 230-6

Burçin N. AKAL

2010-09-01

178

Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children  

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Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals. The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.

Chaiana Piovesan

2012-10-01

179

Social Patterning of Chronic Disease Risk Factors in a Latin American City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most studies of socioeconomic status (SES) and chronic disease risk factors have been conducted in high-income countries, and most show inverse social gradients. Few studies examine these patterns in lower- or middle-income countries. Using cross-sectional data from a 2005 national risk factor survey in Argentina (a middle-income country), we investigated the associations of individual- and area-level SES with chronic disease risk factors (body mass index [BMI], hypertension, and diabetes) am...

Fleischer, Nancy L.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Alazraqui, Marcio; Spinelli, Hugo

2008-01-01

180

Lifestyle Factors and Stroke Risk  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... right-hand corner of the player. Lifestyle Factors and Stroke Risk HealthDay October 9, 2014 Related MedlinePlus ... moderate alcohol consumption, never smoking, being physically active and having a healthy body mass index. Most of ...

 
 
 
 
181

Non-occupational risk factors for bladder cancer  

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Full Text Available More than 60 thousand new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosedeach year in the United States, accounting for approximately 13thousand deaths annually. In recent decades, the overall incidenceof bladder cancer seems to be rising and this may be due to thelatent effects of tobacco abuse, other non-occupational risk factors,industrial carcinogens, as well as the overall aging of our population.Cultural and socioeconomic factors also contribute substantially tothe etiology of bladder cancer and may play an even more importantrole than the occupational environment. In this paper, it is reviewedthe main established or proposed non-occupational factors associatedwith bladder cancer development.

Luiz Alexandre Villares da Costa

2008-12-01

182

Risk factors for tuberculosis among inmates: a retrospective analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examined risk factors associated with TB among inmates, over a 7-year period, and the association of ethnicity and gender with these risk factors. We performed retrospective analysis of data on former inmates from a county jail. TB status at admission was explained with demographics, behavioral risk factors, and incarceration factors. We examined ethnicity and gender defenses on the risk factors. A total of 441 TB cases and 478 non-TB cases were included. Inmates were more likely to have TB if they were whites, unmarried, homeless, alcohol abusers, and HIV positive. Inmates with TB had even lower socioeconomic status and more behavioral risk factors than other inmates. They had fewer incarcerations and less serious crimes, but longer jail stays. TB risk factors differed by ethnicity and gender. TB control in jails requires intervention in the communities where inmates live. Correctional health is a critical part of public health. Public health nurses are responsible for better understanding and improving health care for this high-risk and difficult-to-reach population. PMID:15860066

Kim, Seijeoung; Crittenden, Kathleen S

2005-01-01

183

Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... disease: Know your risk Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease risk factors you can control Did you know? ... overall health. Return to top More information on Heart disease risk factors you can control Read more from ...

184

Other Possible Heart Disease Risk Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

... your risk Heart Health and Stroke Other possible heart disease risk factors Related information Depression fact sheet Stress ... Return to top More information on Other possible heart disease risk factors Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart ...

185

Behavioural, physical and socio-economic factors in household cooling energy consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As global warming continues, the current trend implies that the uptake of air conditioning in the residential sector will go up, thus potentially increasing domestic cooling energy consumption. In this context, this paper investigates the significance of behavioural, physical and socio-economic parameters on cooling energy in order to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings. It demonstrates that such factors exert a significant indirect as well as direct influence on energy use, showing that it is particularly important to understand indirect relationships. An initial study of direct factors affecting cooling energy reveals that occupant behaviour is the most significant issue (related to choices about how often and where air conditioning is used). This is broadly confirmed by path analysis, although climate is seen to be the single most significant parameter, followed by behavioural issues, key physical parameters (e.g. air conditioning type), and finally socio-economic aspects (e.g. household income).

186

Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Meat Value Addition by Rural Agribusinesses in Kenya  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine and quantify the socio-economic factors influencing decision by meat agribusiness operators to add value to their products, describe and characterize the existing systems of value addition in rural Kenya. The study carried out a census of 120 butchery operators in Igembe north district. Data was collected with the help of a structured questionnaire. Using a probit model to evaluate the socioeconomic factors influencing the decision to add value, the study found that credit, management’s level of education and age significantly influenced the decision to engage in value addition. The study therefore recommends policy interventions to enhance access to credit, reduce illiteracy levels among rural entrepreneurs through training and extension services.

P.M. Ngore

2011-11-01

187

Yucca Mountain socioeconomic project report on the 1987 risk perception telephone surveys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples` perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain.

Kunreuther, H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Wharton School of Finance and Commerce; Slovic, P. [Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States); Nigg, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Desvousges, W.H. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1987-09-01

188

Yucca Mountain socioeconomic project report on the 1987 risk perception telephone surveys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples' perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain

189

Pathways linking socioeconomic status to obesity through depression and lifestyle factors among young US adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity and depression are two diseases of major public health importance. While both correlate with each other, potential pathways involving depression that would link socioeconomic status (SES) to lifestyle factors and obesity have not been systematically examined using nationally representative data. Using rich data on 2,217 US young adults aged 20–39 years from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) and multivariate linear and logistic regression models, we exami...

Beydoun, May A.; Wang, Youfa

2010-01-01

190

Effects on birth weight of smoking, alcohol, caffeine, socioeconomic factors, and psychosocial stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effects of smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and socio-economic factors and psychosocial stress on birth weight. DESIGN--Prospective population study. SETTING--District general hospital in inner London. PARTICIPANTS--A consecutive series of 1860 white women booking for delivery were approached. 136 Refused and 211 failed to complete the study for other reasons (moved, abortion, subsequent refusal), leaving a sample of 1513. Women who spoke no English, bo...

Dowling, Patrick

1989-01-01

191

Risk factors for cataract: A case control study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was designed as a hospital-based, group-matched, case-control investigation into the risk factors associated with age-related cataract in central India. The study included 262 cases of age-related cataract and an equal number of controls. A total of 21 risk factors were evaluated: namely, low socioeconomic status (SES, illiteracy, marital status, history of diarrhoea, history of diabetes, glaucoma, use of cholinesterase inhibitors, steroids, spironolactone, nifedipine, analgesics, myopia early in life, renal failure, heavy smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, hypertension, low body mass index (BMI, use of cheaper cooking fuel, working in direct sunlight, family history of cataract, and occupational exposure. In univariate analysis, except marital status, low BMI, renal failure, use of steroids, spironolactone, analgesics, and occupational exposure, all 14 other risk factors were found significantly associated with age-related cataract. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the significance of low SES, illiteracy, history of diarrhoea, diabetes, glaucoma, myopia, smoking, hypertension and cheap cooking fuel. The etiological role of these risk factors in the outcome of cataract is confirmed by the estimates of attributable risk proportion. The estimates of population attributable risk proportion for these factors highlight the impact of elimination of these risk factors on the reduction of cataract in this population.

Ughade Suresh

1998-01-01

192

Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: Diabetes  

Science.gov (United States)

... Heart Handbook for Women Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease Diabetes Diabetes is a major risk factor for heart ... complications. Because diabetes is so strongly linked with heart disease, managing diabetes must include keeping certain factors under control (See " ...

193

The impact of socio-economic factors and incentives on farmers' inestment behaviour  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article investigates how socio-economic factors and incentives affect farmers’ investment behaviour. The motivation is a need for a better quantitative knowledge of investment behaviour in order to support farmers’ investment decisions through extension services and public investment support schemes. Data from a questionnaire survey among 208 Danish pig producers are analysed by use of logistic regression and the relationships between socio-economic factors, investment incentives and farmers’ investment behaviour are empirically revealed. The results show that the farmers who rank economic incentives as the most important when making investments are those who yield the best financial results. Off-farm income and partial productivity were also higher on these farms. As hypothesised, young farmers with a large production are more likely to invest in real assets than others. No cross sectional trends relating the incentives for making investments to the investment propensity were identified. One important policy implication of the results is that improved knowledge of the socio-economic factors and their influence on investment behaviour and incentives may reduce the deadweight loss associated with many governmental investment programmes.

Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Lund, Mogens

2011-01-01

194

Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Adoption of Fisheries Conservation Measures in Niger Delta, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine Environmental, Demogrphic and Socioeconomic factors influencing adoption of artisanal fisheries resources conservation measures based on the perspectives of Artisanal fishers in Delta, Rivers and Bayelsa states, Niger Delta, Nigeria. The study was conducted for a period of one year (January 2008 to Decmber 2008. With the aid of well-structured questionnaires the desired information were collected and analyzed. A total sample size of 1,200 respondents within the study area, were selected using random sampling technique. Logistic regression technique was used to determine the impact of the independent variables on willingness to adopt fisheries conservation measures. The regression analysis result show that eleven (11 independent variables (Public Enlightenment, Regulatory pressure, Environmental stewardship, Severity of pollutants, Economic circumstances, Institutional Support, Information access, Highest Education, Fishing Experience, Legal Structure and Age were factors that influence willingness to adopt conservation measures by the fishers. However, the level of influence was found to vary differently in the three states studied depending on the socioeconomic and educational status and other peculiarities of each of the state. Generally, based on the result of the logit analysis of the perspectives of the artisanal fisher respondents, it is therefore inferred that the willingness to adopt fisheries resources conservation measures in the Niger Delta by the Artisanal Fishers, is significantly a function of the studied demographic, socioeconomic, psychological, institutional and environmental factors as specified by the eleven variables.

J.A. Akankali

2011-08-01

195

Socioeconomic, psychiatric and materiality determinants and risk of postpartum depression in border city of ilam, Western iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Postpartum depression (PPD) is considered as one of the mood disturbances occurring during 2-3 months after delivery. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of PPD and its associated risk factors in border city of Ilam, western Iran. Methods. Through a descriptive cross-sectional study in 2011, overall, 197 women who attended Obstetrics & Gynecology clinics postpartumly in the border city of Ilam, western Iran, were randomly recruited. A standard questionnaire that was completed by a trained midwife through face to face interviews was used for data gathering. Results. Mean age ± standard deviations was 27.9 ± 5.2 years. Prevalence of PPD was estimated to be 34.8% (95% CI: 27.7-41.7). A significant difference was observed among depression scores before and after delivery (P ? 0.001). Type of delivery (P = 0.044), low socioeconomic status (P = 0.011), and women having low educational level (P = 0.009) were the most important significant risk factors associated with PPD. The regression analysis showed that employed mothers compared to housekeepers were more at risk for PPD (adjusted OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22-2.28, P = 0.003). Conclusions. Prevalence of PPD in western Iran was slightly higher than the corresponding rate from either national or international reports. PMID:23984055

Taherifard, Pegah; Delpisheh, Ali; Shirali, Ramin; Afkhamzadeh, Abdorrahim; Veisani, Yousef

2013-01-01

196

Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses' body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses' resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA) and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses' sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients) in body mass index (BMI) and HPA were estimated by couples' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses' BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI???30, overweight: 30?>?BMI???25) was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women's husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women's husbands (OR?=?0.69 (95% CI?=?0.53–0.89)). Men's unemployment status was associated with wives' greater odds of obesity (OR?=?1.31 (95% CI?=?1.01–1.71)). HPA was associated with men's employment status and income level, but not with women's. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

Liu, Yinghui; Wang, Youfa

2014-01-01

197

Cold - an underrated risk factor for health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are responsible for around 20% of all deaths worldwide (approximately 14 million) and are the principal cause of death in all developed countries, accounting for 50% of all deaths. Variations in the annual per capita death rates in different countries are well documented. Less well known are seasonal variations in death rates, with the highest levels occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon is referred to as excess winter mortality. CVD-related deaths account for the majority of excess winter deaths (up to 70% in some countries), while about half of the remaining are due to increases in respiratory diseases. Paradoxically, CVD mortality increases to a greater extent with a given fall in temperature in regions with warm winters. While much of the indirect evidence points to the notion that cold is somehow involved in explaining excess winter deaths, the mechanism by which seemingly mild exposure to cold ambient conditions can increase the risk of death remains unclear. The strong indirect epidemiological evidence coupling cold climate to mortality may be related to indoor rather than outdoor climatic conditions (e.g., cold/damp houses versus arm/dry houses) coupled with a plethora of factors including health status, ageing-related deterioration in physiological and behavioral thermoregulation, toxicology, and socioeconomic factors

198

Risk factors for eosinophilic esophagitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic antigen driven disease, whereby food and/or aeroallergens result in inflammation and luminal narrowing, and the clinical symptoms of dysphagia and food bolus obstruction events (FBOE). Established risk factors are male gender, Caucasian race and atopy. Increased risk amongst family members, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a gene coding thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) on the pseudoautosomal region of the X and Y chromosomes supports a genetic predisposition. Environmental factors including the timing and nature of food and aeroallergen exposure to the developing immune system may be important, whilst esophageal barrier function integrity and the influence of microbiota are worthy of future research. PMID:24990069

Philpott, H; Nandurkar, S; Royce, S G; Thien, F; Gibson, P R

2014-08-01

199

Sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries - international perspectives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Diseases probably have their roots in a complex chain of environmental and behavioural events which are shaped by broader socioeconomic determinants. Most studies of sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries have been carried out in industrialized countries, but such reports from low- and middle-income countries have been published in recent years. World Health Organization international collaborative studies and other international studies of social factors in dental caries using the same methodology provide empirical evidence of social inequality in oral health across countries and across oral health care systems. The paper highlights the challenges to dental public health practice, particularly the importance of risk assessment in estimating the potential for prevention. In future public health programmes, systematic risk factor assessment may therefore be instrumental in the planning and surveillance of oral health promotion and oral disease intervention programmes.

Petersen, Poul Erik

2005-01-01

200

Socioeconomic Disadvantage in Childhood and Later Risk of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses: National Register-Based Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: The aim of this thesis was to analyse the association between various types of indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and the risk of later developing schizophrenia and other psychoses. Furthermore, the importance of socioeconomic disadvantage was explored in relation to immigration, school performance, and an indicator of genetic liability for psychosis. Methods: The study populations were based on register linkages of several Swedish registers. They were identified in...

Wicks, Susanne

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Socioeconomic Factors and Access to Health Services for Malaria Control in Mamuju District, West Sulawesi Indonesia  

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Full Text Available The malaria cases were increasing in Mamuju district. Several factors influence of the malaria prevention specifically socioeconomic and access to health services. The objectives of the study were to find out socioeconomic determinants, access to health services and behaviour towards prevention of malaria in Mamuju district, West Sulawesi. The design study was cross sectional. The population of this study was the residence in Mamuju District, number sample 739 respondents taken by random sampling and data analysis by using Chi-square and logistic regression in a 5%. Results of the study reveal that 51% of respondents have done malaria control in the Mamuju District. Socioeconomic factors like education (p = 0.000, income (p = 0.004, knowledge (p = 0.000 and attitude (p = 0.000 were significant to prevent malaria. Variables that are not related were employed (p = 0.060 and access to health services (p = 0.223. Logistic regression analysis showed that behavior; knowledge and attitude most impact for prevention of malaria in the district Mamuju. This research recommended the dissemination of health information about malaria prevention to the public through various media both of print and written media also counseling.

Puji Astuti

2012-01-01

202

Socioeconomic position and risk of short-term weight gain: Prospective study of 14,619 middle-aged men and women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between socioeconomic position in middle age and risk of subsequent, short-term weight gain is unknown. We therefore assessed this association in a prospective population based cohort study in Norfolk, UK. Methods We analysed data on 14,619 middle-aged men and women (aged between 40–75 at baseline with repeated objective measures of weight and height at baseline (1993–1997 and follow up (1998–2000. Results During follow up 5,064 people gained more than 2.5 kg. Compared with the highest social class, individuals in the lowest social class had around a 30% greater risk of gaining more than 2.5 kg (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.11–1.51; p for trend = 0.002. This association remained statistically significant following adjustment for sex, age, baseline BMI, smoking, and follow up time (OR 1.25; CI 1.07–1.46; p for trend Conclusion Individuals of low socioeconomic position are at greatest risk of gaining weight during middle age, which is not explained by classical correlates of socioeconomic position and risk factors for obesity.

Luben Robert N

2008-04-01

203

[Epidemiology of schizophrenic disorders, genetic and environmental risk factors].  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizophrenia is a relatively common pathology with onset at adolescence or early adulthood, more frequent in men than women. By describing distribution of cases in different populations and the factors that influence this distribution, epidemiology contributes to our understanding of the disease. Several risk factors for schizophrenia have been uncovered both genetic and environmental. The environmental factors can act at individual level (obstetric complications, season of birth, urbanicity, childhood trauma, cannabis, migration) or at population/area levels (socio-economic level, social fragmentation and social capital, ethnic density, etc.). An integrative and dynamic model based on the "vulnerability-persistence-impairment" paradigm is useful in integrating the findings about the risk factors and their complex relationships. PMID:23687754

Szoke, Andrei

2013-03-01

204

Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

2010-12-01

205

Risk factors of ?-hydroxybutyrate overdosing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to identify in recreational drug users the factors which increase the risk of overdosing (OD) with ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). A purposive sample of 45 experienced GHB users was interviewed, equally divided into three groups (never OD, occasional OD, and repeat OD). The repeat OD group scored highest on many risk factors regarding GHB use, the occasional OD group scored intermediate, and the never OD group scored lowest. Participants, whether or not they had overdosed on GHB, most often perceived GHB use (e.g. using more GHB than usual, using GHB doses too closely together) as the main reason for GHB OD, and many participants who had overdosed on GHB reported that they had taken more GHB than usual at their most recent occasion of GHB OD. No significant differences in co-use of GHB with other substances were found between the three groups. Our findings indicate that using GHB in the company of groups of friends probably reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of OD. PMID:24080792

Korf, Dirk J; Nabben, Ton; Benschop, Annemieke; Ribbink, Kim; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

2014-01-01

206

Effects on birth weight of smoking, alcohol, caffeine, socioeconomic factors, and psychosocial stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

This prospective population study attempted to investigate the effects of smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and socioeconomic factors and psychosocial stress on birthweight. A consecutive series of 1860 white women booking for delivery at a district general hospital in inner London were asked to participate. 136 refused and 211 failed to complete the study for other reasons (relocation, abortion, subsequent refusal), leaving a sample of 1513. Women who spoke no English, booked after 24 weeks, had insulin-dependent diabetes, or had a multiple pregnancy were excluded. Data were obtained by research interviewers at booking (general health questionnaire, modified Paykel's interview, and Eysenck personality questionnaire), at 17, 28, and 36 weeks' gestation, and from the structured antenatal and obstetric record. Variables assessed included smoking, alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption, and over 40 indicators of socioeconomic status and psychosocial stress, including social class, tenure of accomodation, educational status, employment status, income, anxiety and depression, stressful life events, social stress, social support, personality, and attitudes to pregnancy. Birthweight was adjusted for gestation and for maternal height, parity, and baby's sex. Smoking was the single most important factor (5% reduction in corrected birthweight). Passive smoking was not significant (0.5% reduction). After smoking was controlled for, alcohol had an effect only in smokers and the effects of caffeine became significant. Only 4 of the socioeconomic and stress factors significantly reduced birthweight and these became nonsignificant after smoking was controlled for. Social and psychological factors have little or no direct effect on birthweight corrected for gestational age (fetal growth), and the main environmental cause of its variation in this population was smoking. PMID:2496859

Brooke, O G; Anderson, H R; Bland, J M; Peacock, J L; Stewart, C M

1989-03-25

207

What Are the Risk Factors for Childhood Leukemia?  

Science.gov (United States)

... known risk factors for childhood leukemia. Genetic risk factors Genetic risk factors are those that are part of our ... studies have found such a link. Environmental risk factors Environmental risk factors are influences in our surroundings, such as ...

208

The Impact of Socioeconomic Factors and Financial Access on Microfinance Institutions  

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Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to unravel new factors that contribute to the success of microfinance institutions “MFIs.” We investigate whether countrywide socioeconomic characteristics and financial access can impact MFIs’ performance. Using data on 222 MFIs we find that countrywide socioeconomic characteristics such as fertility, income and education are important determinants of MFIs’ performance. For example, profitability of MFIs is more likely to fall and default on loans is more likely to rise if fertility rate increases. We also find that countrywide financial access indicators have significant impact on MFIs’ performance. For example, access to commercial banks deposit accounts has a significant and positive impact on MFIs’ success. Access to loans and commercial banks outreach appear to have a negative impact on MFIs’ performance. These results are important as they contradict the generally accepted assumption that commercial banks and MFIs operate in two different market segments and, hence, they are not direct competitors. Overall, the results suggest that several socioeconomic characteristics and financial access elements are important ingredients in evaluating MFIs’ performance.

Moh’d Al-Azzam

2012-03-01

209

The impact of socioeconomic factors on 30-day mortality following elective colorectal cancer surgery: A nationwide study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated postoperative mortality in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) in electively operated colorectal cancer patients, and evaluated whether social inequalities were explained by factors related to patient, disease or treatment. Data from the nationwide database of Danish Colorectal Cancer Group were linked to individual socioeconomic information in Statistics Denmark. Patients born before 1921 and those having local surgical or palliative procedures were excluded. A total of 7160 patients, operated on in the period 2001-2004, were included, of whom 342 (4.8%) died within 30 days of surgery. Postoperative mortality was significantly lower in patients with high income (odds ratio (OR)=0.82 (0.70-0.95) for each increase in annual income of EUR 13,500), higher education versus short education (OR)=0.60 (0.41-0.87), and owner-occupied versus rental housing (OR)=0.73 (0.58-0.93). Differences in comorbidity and to a lesser extent lifestyle characteristics accounted for the excess risk of postoperative death among low-SES patients.

Frederiksen, B L; Osler, M

2009-01-01

210

Risk-Factor Portfolios and Financial Stability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper defines a risk-stability index (RSI) that takes into account the extreme dependence structure and the conditional probability of joint failure (CPJF) among risk factors in a portfolio. In combination, both the RSI and CPJF provide a valuable tool for analyzing risk from complementary perspectives; thereby allowing the measurement of (i) common distress of risk factors in a portfolio, (ii) distress between specific risk factors, and (iii) distress to a portfolio related to a specifi...

Garita, Gus

2009-01-01

211

[Adopted children: risk factors and neuropsychological problems].  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years there has been a striking increase in the number of transnational adoptions in our country, which follows the trend already observed in other developed European countries. Major contributing factors to this phenomenon have been the improvements in socioeconomic conditions in our country, the drop in the birth rate, with the corresponding decrease in the number of children available for adoption, and the disappearance of orphanages. This growing demand can be met by developing countries, in which the birth rate is still high and there are only limited chances of being able to maintain offspring. The children that are adopted come mainly from countries in Central and South America, Eastern Europe and Asia. Pathologies that can be expected in adopted children include general paediatric conditions, especially infections (which are often autochthonous ailments in their own country) and malnutrition, as well as neuropsychological and developmental disorders, such as psychomotor retardation, conduct and behavioural disorders, which sometimes stem from conflicts arising in the process of adaptation, communication problems, which occasionally reflect an autistic like disorder, and the problems deriving from the circumstances that condition the donation of the child for adoption (perinatal pathology, maternal drug addiction and withdrawal symptoms, maternal psychopathology.). The pathology, history and prognosis of the adopted child depend on several different factors that act in an accumulative fashion. The country of origin plays a decisive role in the type of pathology, according to the level of the health care system that exists there, the existence of adoption programmes that are regulated by law, etc. The child's age at adoption marks the difference in the optimisation of their development, if they have early access to a stable family unit. Having stayed in institutions and the length of time spent there is a risk factor for presenting a neuropsychological pathology. On many occasions the scarce information available about the child's medical history makes it more difficult to anticipate the appearance of certain problems. The existence of social risk factors in the biological families is a conditioning factor in increased morbidity. We describe a short series of adopted patients who were attended in our Neuropaediatric clinic, and we analyse the above mentioned conditioning variables and the most frequent pathologies. PMID:12599110

Hernández-Muela, S; Mulas, F; Téllez de Meneses, M; Roselló, B

2003-02-01

212

Impact of socioeconomic factors on nutritional status in primary school children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and sass. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)

213

Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

2009-01-01

214

Factors associated with educational aspirations among adolescents: cues to counteract socioeconomic differences?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Our study aims to follow this effort and to explore the association between health, socioeconomic background, school-related factors, social support and adolescents' sense of coherence and educational aspirations among adolescents from different educational tracks and to contribute to the existing body of knowledge on the role of educational aspirations in the social reproduction of health inequalities. We expect that socioeconomic background will contribute to the development of educational aspirations, but this association will be modified by available social and individual resources, which may be particularly favourable for the group of adolescents who are on lower educational tracks, since for them such resources may lead to gaining a higher educational level. Methods We collected data on the socioeconomic background (mother's and father's education and employment status, doubts about affordability of future study, school-related factors (school atmosphere, school conditions, attitudes towards school, perceived social support, sense of coherence (manageability, comprehensibility, meaningfulness and the self-rated health of a national sample of Slovak adolescents (n = 1992, 53.5% females, mean age 16.9 years. We assessed the association of these factors with educational aspirations, overall and by educational tracks (grammar schools, specialised secondary schools, vocational schools. Results We found statistically significant associations with educational aspirations for the factors parental educational level, father's unemployment, doubts about the affordability of future study, school atmosphere, attitude towards school, social support from the father and a sense of coherence. Social support from the mother and friends was not associated with educational aspiration, nor was self-rated health. Besides affinity towards school, the determinants of educational aspirations differed among adolescents on different educational tracks. Educational aspirations of grammar school students were associated with father's education, while the aspirations of their peers on lower educational tracks had a stronger association with mother's education and perceived social support from father and friends. Moreover, a sense of coherence contributes to the reporting of educational aspiration by students on different educational tracks. Conclusions Characteristics of the school environment, the family and the individual adolescent are all associated with the level of educational aspiration, but in a different way for different educational tracks. Interventions aimed at reducing socioeconomic inequalities in health via the educational system should, therefore, take this variation and the rather pivotal role of the father into account.

Abel Thomas

2010-03-01

215

Risk factors for colorectal cancer  

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Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in human population. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in our country. The incidence of colorectal cancer increases in the fifth decade of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between colorectal cancer and potential risk factors. A case-control study of colorectal cancer was carried out between 1998 and 1999 in Clinical Center of Serbia, Center for Digestive Surgery. A total of 100 cases of newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer confirmed by histopathology and an equal number of controls, individually matched by gender and age (+/-5 years, were chosen from patients from the same hospital with no history of cancer at all. McNemar test and conditional logistic regression were used in the analysis. According to logistic regression analysis the following risk factors were independently related with the occurrence of colorectal cancer: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet rich in red meat and fat promote the carcinogenic process; food rich in vegetables, fruits, grains, vitamin C, physical activity, and oral contraceptive use inhibit the same process. A family history of cancer and long standing inflammatory bowel diseases also have significant role. There is convincing evidence that nutrition affects colorectal carcinogenesis in a complex fashion.

Mihajlovi?-Boži? Vesna

2004-01-01

216

Injury risk factors for runners  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine those risk factors that may cause running injuries in general, and particularly damage to the muscle mass, and the tendon. Twenty six male and female Galician runners were evaluated about their lower limb flexibility and length, knee Q angle, explosive power and training features such as kilometers and sessions per week, level of competition, shoes, surface, injuries last year, use of insoles, athletic specially, age, weight and height. During next 12 weeks runners continued training as they had been doing regularly and we recorded all injuries that appeared in this period. After that and from the liner regression we obtained different models that explained the variability of general injuries, tendon injuries and damages to the muscle mass. We also find positive correlations between previous injuries and training volume, and these with the dependent variable «injuries in 12 weeks». In regard to tendinopathy and muscle mass injuries, we observed that the synthetic material present in the track is a risk factor for these muscle injuries. Meanwhile, the increasing age and the Q angle, increments the occurrence of tendon injuries.

Francisco Rodal Abal

2013-01-01

217

Maternal Beliefs and Socioeconomic Correlated Factors on Child Mortality from Drowning in Caspian Sea Coastline  

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Full Text Available Objective: To investigate maternal beliefs, practices about causes and determinant factors on drowning and maternal socioeconomic correlated factors on child mortality from drowning. Methods: From March 2005 to March 2009, in a register-based cohort study and household survey, individual records utilizing drowning registry data of northern Iran were enrolled. Mothers (n=276 who responded to multiple questions in a household survey were included. The patterns, interrelationships and effects of socioeconomic correlated factors on child mortality were analyzed. Results: A significant difference in relation to mother's educational level and age and family income distribution was noticed. Participants in household survey also reported that establishment of a multi-sectorial collaboration, integration of public health messages into local television, additional rescue stations and lifeguard, hazard environment fencing, increasing adult supervision, more support on increasing swimming ability among the children were all effective on reducing of drowning death. Conclusion: Due to the high rate of drowning in children and lack of attention among olders, a greater emphasis should be placed on educating mothers to assist a better supervision on their children.

Ali Davoudi-Kiakalayeh

2014-04-01

218

Identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images; An annotated bibliography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to initiate the process of choosing a location to permanently store high-level nuclear waste from the designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only location to be studied as a candidate site for such a repository. The original acts and its amendments had established the grant mechanism by which the state of Nevada could finance an investigation of the potential socioeconomic impacts that could result from the installation and operation of this facility. Over the past three years, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM or RW) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved grant requests by Nevada to perform this investigation. This report is intended to update and enhance a literature review conducted by the Human Affairs Research Center (HARC) for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project that dealt with the psychological and sociological processes underlying risk perception. It provides addition information on the HARC work, covers a subsequent step in the impact-estimation process, and translates risk perception into decisions and behaviors with economic consequences. It also covers recently developed techniques for assessing the nature and magnitude of impacts caused by environmental changes focusing on those impacts caused by changes in perceived risks.

Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.; Hemphill, R.C.; Mohiudden, S.; Corso, J.

1990-02-01

219

Identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to initiate the process of choosing a location to permanently store high-level nuclear waste from the designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only location to be studied as a candidate site for such a repository. The original acts and its amendments had established the grant mechanism by which the state of Nevada could finance an investigation of the potential socioeconomic impacts that could result from the installation and operation of this facility. Over the past three years, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM or RW) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved grant requests by Nevada to perform this investigation. This report is intended to update and enhance a literature review conducted by the Human Affairs Research Center (HARC) for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project that dealt with the psychological and sociological processes underlying risk perception. It provides addition information on the HARC work, covers a subsequent step in the impact-estimation process, and translates risk perception into decisions and behaviors with economic consequences. It also covers recently developed techniques for assessing the nature and magnitude of impacts caused by environmental changes focusing on those impacts caused by changes in perceived risks

220

Exploring Socio-Economic Factors Behind Domestic Violence Against Women in Sargodha District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Violence against Women has become a global concern because this specific issue affects the life of women adversely. Domestic violence is most persistent form of Violence against Women. It is a severe violation of human rights. Many demographic, economic, psychological factors may be responsible for the domestic violence but social factors contain prime importance in this regard. Pakistani society is facing the trouble of increase in domestic violence because this issue is still under acknowledged and underreported. An exploratory study was conducted to probe the socio-economic factors behind domestic violence. Interview schedule was utilized as a tool to accumulate concerning data. A representative sample of (N=100 was collected through purposive and snowball sampling techniques. 56% of women indicated that they have faced physical violence and a huge majority i.e., 71% has faced psychological violence. The results suggest that women are more prone to bear and face domestic violence due to economic dependence.

Zarqa Azhar

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Bullying: Risk Factors Becoming ‘Bullies’  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of a classification of bullying outcomes, and to investigate the risk factors associated with bullying behaviour at Pattani primary schools, southern Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1,440 students. Factor analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s chi-squared test, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results showed that 20.9% of students in Pattani primary schools reported having bullied others. A four factors structure of bullying was clearly shown; serious, general physical, psychological-maligning parent and psychological-maligning student. Witnessing parental physical abuse was clearly the most strongly associated determinants, and much more strongly linked to bullying others than was the group who had never witnessed parental physical abuse (OR 7.60, 95% CI 5.60-10.31. The students who preferred action cartoons were more often bullies than were those who preferred comedy cartoons (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.91-430.

Kasetchai Laeheem

2009-04-01

222

Socio-Economic Factors of Bacillary Dysentery Based on Spatial Correlation Analysis in Guangxi Province, China  

Science.gov (United States)

Background In the past decade, bacillary dysentery was still a big public health problem in China, especially in Guangxi Province, where thousands of severe diarrhea cases occur every year. Methods Reported bacillary dysentery cases in Guangxi Province were obtained from local Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control. The 14 socio-economic indexes were selected as potential explanatory variables for the study. The spatial correlation analysis was used to explore the associations between the selected factors and bacillary dysentery incidence at county level, which was based on the software of ArcGIS10.2 and GeoDA 0.9.5i. Results The proportion of primary industry, the proportion of younger than 5-year-old children in total population, the number of hospitals per thousand persons and the rates of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant positive correlation. But the proportion of secondary industry, per capital GDP, per capital government revenue, rural population proportion, popularization rate of tap water in rural area, access rate to the sanitation toilets in rural, number of beds in hospitals per thousand persons, medical and technical personnel per thousand persons and the rate of bacillary dysentery incidence show statistically significant negative correlation. The socio-economic factors can be divided into four aspects, including economic development, health development, medical development and human own condition. The four aspects were not isolated from each other, but interacted with each other. PMID:25036182

Nie, Chengjing; Li, Hairong; Yang, Linsheng; Zhong, Gemei; Zhang, Lan

2014-01-01

223

Testing the effect of specific socioeconomic factors on the ischemic mortality rate. The case of Greece.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present a model to evaluate the effect of certain majors socioeconomic factors (such as alcohol and fat consumption, cigarettes smoking, unemployment rate as a proxy for uncertainty which results frustration, number of passenger cars as a proxy for physical exercise and per capita GDP as a proxy for nutrition quality), to the ischemic mortality rate. Since the existing research works on this field, suffer from the proper model testing, we analytically present all the tests necessary to justify the reliability of the result obtained. For this purpose, after specifying and estimating the model, we applied the specification error test, the linearity, multicollinearity and heteroscedasticity tests, the autocorrelation and stability tests and the ARCH effect test. Finally, we present the aggregate effect of the above socioeconomic factors. In brief, we found that an increase of cigarettes smoked, of fat and alcohol consumption and the number of passenger cars will result to a relevant increase regarding mortality. The latter one is also affected by the changes in unemployment rate. On the other hand, an increase of personal disposable income may negatively affect mortality, by almost the same portion. PMID:18923751

Mouza, A M

2008-01-01

224

Risk factors for thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Case-control study comprised 100 histologically verified thyroid cancer patients (23 men, 77 women) and 100 hospital controls matched with cases by sex, age and place of resistance. Various risk factors were studied to determine whether they were associated with the occurrence of thyroid cancer. According to the conditional logistic regression analysis, 6 were significantly related to the disease: cigarette smoking (RR = 7.12 95 % CI 1.53 -32.99), family history of any malignant tumors (RR = 5.84 95 % CI 1.76-19.44), history of goiter or thyroid nodules (RR = 27.69 95 % CI 3.11-246.14), long-term occupational exposure to chemicals (RR = 10.07 95 % CI = 3.85-26.35), history of second primary tumors (RR = 15.49 95 % CI 3.46-69.30), and diagnostic X-ray exposure (RR = 7.56 95 % CI = 2.85-20.07). (author)

225

New risk factors for osteoporosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the distal radius continues to reveal unsuspected new risk factors for decreased bone mass in younger women. Findings in the patients the authors studied include the following (reported in mean Hounsfield units). Eight nonsmoking patients with regular menses (aged 29 +- 5 years):cortex = 1,268 +- 61, trabeculae = 258 +- 63; eight nonsmoking patients with irregular menses (aged 31 +- 4 years):cortex = 1,186 +- 120, trabeculae = 157 +- 55; ten smoking patients with regular menses (aged 33 +- 4 years):cortex = 1,159 +- 89, trabeculae = 127 +- 58; and 41 nonsmoking patients with endometriosis (aged 30 +- 6 years):cortex = 1,33 +- 103, trabeculae = 173 +- 60. For all but the first group of patients, P < 0.5 when compared with normal controls. Potential causes are presented, including the intriguing possibility that decreased bone mass in endometriosis is the result of interleukin-1 production

226

Genetic risk factors of atherothrombosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atherothrombosis is a preventable and multifaceted pathological disorder whose pathogenesis involves a large number of biological pathways such as lipid and hormonal metabolism, inflammation, and hemostasis. Although it has been known for a long time that atherosclerosis has a sizable hereditary component, research in the field of genetics of cardiovascular disease is still ongoing, with doubts often outweighing certainties. A large amount of evidence gathered so far allows to identify at least 5 potential important pathways that can be specifically targeted by genetic studies-lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, platelet function, blood coagulation, and fibrinolysis. Owing to a large number of published studies that have investigated the role of genetic polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of atherothrombosis and its complications, in this review, we focused on data emerging from meta?analyses. The available evidence suggests that some selected polymorphisms in low?density lipoprotein metabolism, C?reactive protein, and blood coagulation (especially factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A polymorphism, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 4G/5G polymorphism) deserve particular attention. Of note, however, it seems implausible that one single polymorphism will add much to the current approach of risk assessment based on conventional risk factors. A paradigm shift would hence be needed in the current approach to the genetics of atherothrombosis, wherein the investigation of entire pathways rather than assessment of single mutations will likely provide more useful information for complex conditions that involve large numbers of genes and are subjected to environmental regulation of gene expression and cellular phenotype. PMID:25072406

Montagnana, Martina; Danese, Elisa; Lippi, Giuseppe

2014-09-30

227

The socio-economic dimension of flood risk assessment: insights of KULTURisk framework  

Science.gov (United States)

The approaches for vulnerability and risk assessment have found different and often contrasting solutions by various schools of thought. The two most prominent communities in this field are: climate change adaptation (CCA), and disaster risk reduction (DRR). Although those communities have usually in common the aim of reducing socio-economic vulnerability and risk to natural hazards, they have usually referred to different definitions and conceptualizations. For example, the DRR community has always driven more emphasis on the concept of risk and vulnerability is considered as a physical/environmental input for the quantification of risk, while the CCA research stream, mainly under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), considered vulnerability as an output deriving from social conditions and processes such as adaptation or maladaptation. Recently, with the publication of the IPCC Special Report on extreme events and disasters (IPCC-SREX), the notions of vulnerability and risk are somehow integrated in order to jointly consider both climate change adaptation and disaster risk management. The IPCC-SREX indeed is expected to significantly contribute to find common language and methodological approaches across disciplines and, therefore, the opportunity emerges for proposing new operational solutions, consistent with the most recent evolution of concepts and terminology. Based on the development of the IPCC Report, the KULTURisk project developed an operational framework to support integrated assessment and decision support through the combination of contributions from diverse disciplinary knowledge, with emphasis on the social and economic dimensions. KIRAF (KULTURisk Integrated Risk Assessment Framework) is specifically aimed at comprehensively evaluate the benefits of risk mitigation measures with consideration of the dynamic context deriving from the consideration of climatic changes and their effects on natural disasters, within the policy framework of climate change adaptation (CCA). Three main innovations are proposed with respect to the current state of the art: (1) to include the social capacities of reducing risk, (2) to go beyond the estimation direct tangible costs, and (3) to provide an operational solution for decision support to assess risks, impacts and the benefits of plausible risk reduction measures, compatible with both the DRR and the CCA literatures. As stated above, the proposed framework is the inclusion of social capacities (adaptive and coping capacities) in the process of translating risk into a comprehensive cost matrix considering not only direct tangible costs (damages), but also the three other components deriving from the combination of tangible/intangible and direct/indirect costs. The proposed KIRAF approach is thus expected to provide: 1) an operational basis for multidisciplinary integration; 2) a flexible reference to deal with heterogeneous case studies and potentially various types of hazards; and 3) a means to support the assessment of alternative risk prevention measures including consideration of social and cultural dimensions.

Giupponi, Carlo; Gain, Animesh; Mojtahed, Vahid; Balbi, Stefano

2013-04-01

228

How Psychiatrists Weigh Risk Factors When Assessing Suicide Risk.  

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Determined ranking of suicide risk factors by 81 psychiatrists. Hopelessness was ranked as most important risk factor, followed by Suicidal Ideation, Previous Attempts, Level of Mood and Affect, Quality of Relationships, Signs and Symptoms of Depression, and Social Integration. Notes less highly ranked factors and discusses significance of…

Truant, G. S.; And Others

1991-01-01

229

Risk factors for acute respiratory tract infections in children.  

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Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) are the most common cause of childhood morbidity and an important public health problem. The aim of this study was to identify the significant risk factors for ARTI in children. The study took place in Ivankovo which is a rural area of Eastern Slavonia and with small socio-economic differences. The study population were 159 children who were 3-5 years old at the time of the study, and who were registrated at doctor's office Ivankovo. The study was conducted retrospectively through a questionnaire from January 2008 to December 2008. The risk factors studied were the gender, breastfeeding history, any atopic manifestation in the form of atopic eczema, rhinoconjuctivitis and/or asthma, the size of the family, parents smoking habits and main form of childcare. The number of ARTI requiring the consultation of a doctor throughout 2007 were measured; and whether ARTI had been treated with antibiotic or there were recommendation for symptomatic treatment only. Results of this research show that the risk factor for consulting a doctor because ofARTI in children was passive exposure to cigarette-smoke. For receiving antibiotics because of ARTI in children, the risk factors were passive exposure to cigarette-smoke and atopic manifestation. By giving the available evidence, parents must be told that ceasing smoking offers a significant opportunity to reduce the risk of ARTI in their children. PMID:22856242

Pavi?, Ivan; Jurkovi?, Marija; Pastar, Zrinjka

2012-06-01

230

Socio-economic, Biophysical, and Perceptional Factors Associated with Agricultural Adaptation of Smallholder Farmers in Gujarat, Northwest India  

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Climate change is predicted to negatively impact many agricultural communities across the globe, particularly smallholder farmers who often do not have access to appropriate technologies to reduce their vulnerability. To better predict which farmers will be most impacted by future climate change at a regional scale, we use remote sensing and agricultural census data to examine how cropping intensity and crop type have shifted based on rainfall variability across Gujarat, India from 1990 to 2010. Using household-level interviews, we then identify the socio-economic, biophysical, perceptional, and psychological factors associated with smallholder farmers who are the most impacted and the least able to adapt to contemporaneous rainfall variability. We interviewed 750 farmers in 2011 and 2012 that span a rainfall, irrigation, socio-economic, and caste gradient across central Gujarat. Our results show that farmers shift cropping practices in several ways based on monsoon onset, which farmers state is the main observable rainfall signal influencing cropping decisions during the monsoon season. When monsoon onset is delayed, farmers opt to plant more drought-tolerant crops, push back the date of sowing, and increase the number of irrigations used. Comparing self-reported income and yields, we find that switching crops does not improve agricultural income, shifting planting date does not influence crop yield, yet increasing the number of irrigations significantly increases yield. Future work will identify which social (e.g. social networks), psychological (e.g. risk preference), and knowledge (e.g. information sources) factors are associated with farmers who are best able to adapt to rainfall variability.

Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

2012-12-01

231

Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins  

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Full Text Available AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT.METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients with abdominal venous thrombosis were studied. The patients were divided into Budd-Chiari group (hepatic vein, IVC thrombosis and splanchnic venous thrombosis group (portal, splenic, superior mesenteric veins based on the veins involved. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilic risk factors were evaluated in all patients.RESULTS: Twenty patients had SVT, 14 had BCS, and 2 had mixed venous thrombosis. Ten patients (28% had hereditary and 10 patients (28% acquired thrombophilic risk factors. The acquired risk factors were significantly more common in the SVT group (SVT vs BCS: 45% vs 7%, ?2 = 5.7, P = 0.02 while hereditary risk factors did not show significant differences between the two groups (SVT vs BCS: 25% vs 36%, ?2 = 0.46, P = 0.7. Multiple risk factors were present in one (7% patient with BCS and in 3 patients (15% with SVT. No risk factors were identified in 57% of patients with BCS and in 45% of patients with SVT.CONCLUSION: Hereditary and acquired risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of abdominal venous thrombosis. Acquired risk factors are significantly more common in SVT patients while hereditary factors are similar in both groups.

Amit Kumar Dutta, Ashok Chacko, Biju George, Joseph Anjilivelil Joseph, Sukesh Chandran Nair, Vikram Mathews

2008-07-01

232

Education and Socioeconomic Status of Parents - Factors of Influence For Income Inequality  

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Full Text Available Analysis of income inequality is a general and constant concern of both the public and researchers and politicians. This subject, though, and has been widely debated, never becomes obsolete and does not lose its importance or valence mobilizing the more as he becomes more present with the onset of the recent economic crisis. This interest framework, on the one hand and the difficult context generated the economic crisis, on the other hand, bring forward decisions and policy choices implemented or required to restore economic balance and well-being of citizens. Causes (factors of influence of income inequality differ from country to country, there is dispute among economists on the preponderance of cases compared to the others. However in this paper I will analyze two of these factors: education and socioeconomic status of their parents.

Ionu? Constantin

2013-12-01

233

Effects of socioeconomic factors and cancer survivors' worries on their quality of life (QOL) in Japan.  

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Effects of socioeconomic factors and cancer survivors' worries on their quality of life (QOL) were investigated. In 2002, Japanese national survey was performed to assess distress among cancer patients using a semi-structured questionnaire (http://www.scchr.jp/yorozu/pdf/taiken_koe_eng.pdf). We investigated relationships between patients' distress and their QOL measured by European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy--12-item Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp), using a covariance structure analysis and multivariate regression analysis. A total of 130 outpatients (male: 42%; average age: 59 years; performance status rating 0-2:89%; breast/lung/gastrointestinal cancer: 38/22/21%) answered the questionnaires. A covariance structure analysis extracted latent variables, which were named socioeconomic distress and cancer worries, using a model that sufficiently represented the observed data (Goodness of fit index = 0.833). Regression analysis demonstrated that higher family income significantly correlated with better Global health status/QOL (p = 0.003) but that losing a job negatively correlated with all of the scales on functioning in the QLQ-C30 (p < 0.05) and spiritual well-being (p < 0.05). Patients' QOL was also affected by physical worries and spiritual issues in terms of emotional, cognitive, and social functioning. In conclusion, cancer survivors' QOL was doubly affected by socioeconomic distress and cancer worries. In the former, lower family income and losing employment by experiencing cancer had a negative impact on patients' QOL. As to the latter, physical worries and spiritual issues also affected patients' QOL. PMID:17972358

Kobayashi, K; Morita, S; Shimonagayoshi, M; Kobayashi, M; Fujiki, Y; Uchida, Y; Yamaguchi, K

2008-06-01

234

Socioeconomic status, family background and other key factors influence the management of head lice in Norway.  

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How head lice infestations are managed by households is an important but generally neglected issue in head lice research. In the present study, we investigate actions taken against head lice by Norwegian households in association with socioeconomic status, family background, school-related variables and other key factors. Repeat questionnaires distributed to caretakers of the same elementary school children during a 2-year period enabled us to study both previous head lice management and any changes in this management through time. Households from 12 schools spanning the main socioeconomic variation found in Norway participated in the study. All students with active head lice infestation were treated in the four investigated periods. Most caretakers used a thorough head lice checking technique and informed others of own infestation. Checking frequency was low as most children were inspected less than monthly. The best determinant of increased checking frequency and thoroughness was personal experience with head lice. The increased awareness, however, seemed to be somewhat short-lived, as there was a decrease in checking frequency and thoroughness within 1 year after infestation. Personal experience with head lice also increased general knowledge related to the parasite. Parents born in developing countries checked their children for head lice more frequently, although less thoroughly, informed fewer contacts when infested, used pediculicides preventively more often and knew less about head lice than parents born in developed countries. Households with highly educated mothers had a lower checking frequency, but their knowledge and willingness to inform others was high. Single parents were more concerned about economic costs and kept children home from school longer while infested than other parents. As head lice management varied among socioeconomic groups and with parental background, differentiated advice should be considered in the control of head lice. The biannual focus on head lice during the 2 years of investigation increased checking thoroughness, while checking frequency remained unchanged. Based on the results, we suggest new head lice management guidelines for health authorities. PMID:24609236

Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Soleng, Arnulf; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Birkemoe, Tone

2014-05-01

235

[Cerebral palsy: prenatal risk factors].  

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Prenatal risk factors causing cerebral palsy (CP), here defined as a non-progressive motor abnormality of tone or posture, are much more numerous than once believed, when a great deal of brain injury was attributed to factors surrounding delivery. Scientific advances in genetics and biochemistry, as well as clinical technical advances in, for example, amniotic fluid examination or fetal neuroimaging, has permitted us to find a multiplicity of new etiologies causing neonatal encephalopathy, most of which were formerly attributed to perinatal hypoxia-ischemia. This article reviews an expanded list of etiologies, including asphyxia, which has been found to cause only 6-10% of CP in full term infants, and periventricular leukomalacia, which is associated with 30-50% of CP in premature births. We also review a few of the genetic causes of CP, which lead to metabolic encephalopathies in come cases, to congenital anomalies in others, and sometimes to both. We discuss maternal gestational or intrapartum infections which may affect the fetus by direct in utero contagion or by other less direct means. Inborn metabolic errors affecting the fetus, such as diabetes, are touched on, as are the effects of maternal medications or recreational drugs on the fetus. Finally, we briefly cite the curious phenomenon occurring in multiple births, namely the potential of CP in the surviving infant or infants were the others have died in utero. PMID:12938060

Pascual, J M; Koenigsberger, M R

236

Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors – a population-based study in Sweden  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. Methods The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18–84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investigated covers 55 municipalities with about one million inhabitants in central part of Sweden. The study population includes 42,448 respondents. Mental health was measured with self-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (EQ-5D, 5th question. The association between socio-economic conditions, lifestyle factors and mental health symptoms was investigated using multivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Results About 40% of women and 30% of men reported that they were moderately or extremely anxious or depressed. Younger subjects reported poorer mental health than older subjects, the best mental health was found at ages 65–74 years. Factors that were strongly and independently related to mental health symptoms were poor social support, experiences of being belittled, employment status (receiving a disability pension and unemployment, economic hardship, critical life events, and functional disability. A strong association was also found between how burdensome domestic work was experienced and anxiety/depression. This was true for both men and women. Educational level was not associated with mental health symptoms. Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol were independently associated with mental health symptoms. Conclusion Our results support the notion that a ground for good mental health includes balance in social relations, in domestic work and in employment as well as in personal economy both among men and women. In addition, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol are associated with mental health symptoms independent of socio-economic factors.

Persson Carina

2009-08-01

237

Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk  

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We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

2006-01-01

238

Risk factors for human brucellosis in northern Jordan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about the risk factors of human brucellosis in Jordan. A case-control study was conducted involving 56 Jordanians who had been treated for brucellosis and at least 3 matched controls for each case (n = 247). Matching was for sex, age, locality (the same village) and socioeconomic standard. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. In all, 17 risk factors were examined related to: contact with various livestock, milk and milk product consumption, drinking-water treatment and disease awareness. Most variables were associated with brucellosis in the univariate analysis but the final logistic model included only 4: milking sheep and goats (OR 3.5), consumption of raw feta cheese made from sheep and goat milk (OR 2.8) and consumption of cows' milk (OR 0.4) and boiled feta cheese (OR 0.4). Small ruminant farmers need to be trained in safer milking practices and feta cheese making procedures. PMID:23516823

Abo-Shehada, M N; Abu-Halaweh, M

2013-02-01

239

Associations of Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors With Complete Treatment and Follow up of Colon Cancer  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background: Cancer is the second cause of death in the world, and colon cancer is the third cause of death and is one of the most common cancers which will cure with early diagnosis, treatment and sufficient follow up. Assessing factors which affect this cancer is important for prolonging patient survival. Socioeconomic factors are among effective factors of cancer morbidity and mortality. Because mortality rates for colon cancers vary by socioeconomic characteristics, this study has been performed to recognize the relationship between socioeconomic factors with treatment and follow up of colon cancer. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study for patients with colon cancer registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from April 2005 to November 2006. Patients were selected randomly, and the study was conducted using questionnaires filled by interviewing the patients via phone (if a patient was dead, the questions were asked from their family members. Data analysis was done using SPSS (version 19 software. Results: The study was performed on 520 colon cancer patients with age range of 23-88 years. The mean age of the patients was 63 (S.D. = 11.8 and the median age was 64.Two hundred thirty seven (45.4% patients were female and 283(54.4% were male. Using Chi- square test, age< 60 (P=0.002 and female gender (P=0.034 had a significant correlation with complete treatment and there was a significant relationship between complete follow up and age< 60 (P=0.037, academic education (P=0.02 and having insurance (P=0.021. Multiple logistic regression tests were used to evaluate concurrent effects of variables on treatment and follow up. Correlated variables to complete treatment include: age< 60 (P=0.001, and female gender (P=0.023.The Odds Ratio (OR of completing treatment for patients under 60 years of age versus patients above 60 years was 3.13 (95% C.I. 1.55 to 6.34, and the OR of completing treatment for women versus men was 1.91(95% C.I. 1.33 to 2.74. Correlated variables to follow up were academic education (P=0.018 and having insurance (P=0.046. The OR of cancer follow up in illiterate patients versus college-educated patients was 0.45(95% C.I. 0.24 to 0.82, and the OR of cancer follow up in patients without insurance versus patients with health was 0.46(95% C.I. 0.21 to 0.98. Conclusion: Age is a correlated factor on completing colon cancer treatment. Women have more complete colon cancer treatment than men. Academic education and having insurance were the most important factors among socioeconomic factors observed in a five-year follow up after treatment. As the population of the old is increasing, executing effective interventions to improve treatment and follow up procedures for old patients is of prime importance. It seems that increasing the insurance contribution in follow up measures may lead to increase in the regular follow up and may affect patients' survival.

Esmat Davoudi Monfared

2012-10-01

240

Associations of Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors with Complete Treatment and Follow-up of Colon Cancer  

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Background Cancer is the second cause of death in the world, and colon cancer is the third cause of death and is one of the most common cancers which will cure with early diagnosis, treatment and sufficient follow up. Assessing factors which affect this cancer is important for prolonging patient survival. Socioeconomic factors are among effective factors of cancer morbidity and mortality. Because mortality rates for colon cancers vary by socioeconomic characteristics, this study has been performed to recognize the relationship between socioeconomic factors with treatment and follow up of colon cancer. Methods This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study for patients with colon cancer registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from April 2005 to November 2006. Patients were selected randomly, and the study was conducted using questionnaires filled by interviewing the patients via phone (if a patient was dead, the questions were asked from their family members). Data analysis was done using SPSS (version 19) software. Results The study was performed on 520 colon cancer patients with age range of 23-88 years. The mean age of the patients was 63 (S.D.=11.8) and the median age was 64. Two hundred thirty seven (45.4%) patients were female and 283 (54.4%) were male. Using Chi-square test, age<60 (p=0.002) and female gender (p=0.034) had a significant correlation with complete treatment and there was a significant relationship between complete follow up and age<60 (p=0.037), academic education (p=0.02) and having insurance (p=0.021). Multiple logistic regression tests were used to evaluate concurrent effects of variables on treatment and follow up. Correlated variables to complete treatment include: age<60 (p=0.001), and female gender The Odds Ratio (OR) of completing treatment for patients under 60 years of age versus patients above 60 years was 3.13 (95% C.I. 1.55 to 6.34), and the OR of completing treatment for women versus men was 1.91(95% C.I. 1.33 to 2.74). Correlated variables to follow up were academic education ( ) and having insurance . The OR of cancer follow up in illiterate patients versus college-educated patients was 0.45 (95% C.I. 0.24 to 0.82), and the OR of cancer follow up in patients without insurance versus patients with health was 0.46 (95% C.I. 0.21 to 0.98). Conclusion Age is a correlated factor on completing colon cancer treatment. Women have more complete colon cancer treatment than men. Academic education and having insurance were the most important factors among socioeconomic factors observed in a five-year follow up after treatment. As the population of the old is increasing, executing effective interventions to improve treatment and follow up procedures for old patients is of prime importance. It seems that increasing the insurance contribution in follow up measures may lead to increase in the regular follow up and may affect patients' survival.

Davoudi-Monfared, Esmat; Heidarnia, Mohammad Ali; Akbari, Mohammad Esmail; Yavari, Parvin; Abadi, Alireza

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Socioeconomic indicators of heat-related health risk supplemented with remotely sensed data  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Extreme heat events are the number one cause of weather-related fatalities in the United States. The current system of alert for extreme heat events does not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature derived from thermal remote sensing data. Results Comparison of logistic regression models indicates that supplementing known sociodemographic risk factors with remote sensing estimates of land surface temperature improves the delineation of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat events. Conclusion Thermal remote sensing data can be utilized to improve understanding of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat. The refinement of current risk assessment systems could increase the likelihood of survival during extreme heat events and assist emergency personnel in the delivery of vital resources during such disasters.

Luber George C

2009-10-01

242

Impact of Household Socio-Economic Factors on Food Security: Case of Adana  

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Full Text Available Food insecurity is the situation where people do not have access to sufficient, stable and safe food that meets their dietary needs for an active and healthy life. The objective of this study was to determine the status of food security in the Adana metropolitan area by using, for the first time in Turkey, Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSS. Household’s food security levels and socio-economic factors affecting the food security were analyzed using the ordered logistic regression technique. The household food security level surveys in the Adana metropolitan area indicated that hunger was not in a serious condition, however food insecurity was critical. While the rate of food insecurity in households with children was 69%, food insecurity rate of households without children was 39.6%. It was a highly worrisome situation that hunger and food insecurity rates were more frequent in households with children. In this study, it has been found that among the socio-economic variables, the income level was the most decisive variable for food security. The gender of household head, employment status, education level and household count were the other variables affecting food security.

Ozlem Esturk

2014-01-01

243

Perspectives for integrating human and environmental risk assessment and synergies with socio-economic analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

For more than a decade, the integration of human and environmental risk assessment (RA) has become an attractive vision. At the same time, existing European regulations of chemical substances such as REACH (EC Regulation No. 1907/2006), the Plant Protection Products Regulation (EC regulation 1107/2009) and Biocide Regulation (EC Regulation 528/2012) continue to ask for sector-specific RAs, each of which have their individual information requirements regarding exposure and hazard data, and also use different methodologies for the ultimate risk quantification. In response to this difference between the vision for integration and the current scientific and regulatory practice, the present paper outlines five medium-term opportunities for integrating human and environmental RA, followed by detailed discussions of the associated major components and their state of the art. Current hazard assessment approaches are analyzed in terms of data availability and quality, and covering non-test tools, the integrated testing strategy (ITS) approach, the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concept, methods for assessing uncertainty, and the issue of explicitly treating mixture toxicity. With respect to exposure, opportunities for integrating exposure assessment are discussed, taking into account the uncertainty, standardization and validation of exposure modeling as well as the availability of exposure data. A further focus is on ways to complement RA by a socio-economic assessment (SEA) in order to better inform about risk management options. In this way, the present analysis, developed as part of the EU FP7 project HEROIC, may contribute to paving the way for integrating, where useful and possible, human and environmental RA in a manner suitable for its coupling with SEA. PMID:23624004

Péry, A R R; Schüürmann, G; Ciffroy, P; Faust, M; Backhaus, T; Aicher, L; Mombelli, E; Tebby, C; Cronin, M T D; Tissot, S; Andres, S; Brignon, J M; Frewer, L; Georgiou, S; Mattas, K; Vergnaud, J C; Peijnenburg, W; Capri, E; Marchis, A; Wilks, M F

2013-07-01

244

Area-Level Socioeconomic Characteristics, Prevalence and Trajectories of Cardiometabolic Risk  

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Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000–2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR, prevalence risk ratio (SRR, ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI. Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ? 1; p ? 0.42. However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely and unemployment rate (positively were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI = 0.76 (0.63–0.90, and 1.48 (1.26–1.74, respectively, and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI = 0.96 (0.93–0.99, and 1.06 (1.04–1.09, respectively. The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI = 0.58 (0.45–0.73, and SRR (95%CI = 0.91 (0.88–0.94. Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education being modified by individual-level education. Population-level interventions for communities defined by area-level socioeconomic disadvantage are needed to reduce cardiometabolic risks.

Anh D. Ngo

2014-01-01

245

Social and Behavioral Risk Marker Clustering Associated with Biological Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease: NHANES 2001-2004  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Social and behavioral risk markers (e.g., physical activity, diet, smoking, and socioeconomic position) cluster; however, little is known whether clustering is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Objectives were to determine if sociobehavioral clustering is associated with biological CHD risk factors (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and diabetes) and whether associations are independent of individual clustering components. Methods. Participants included 4,305 males and 4,673 females aged ?20 years from NHANES 2001–2004. Sociobehavioral Risk Marker Index (SRI) included a summary score of physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, smoking, and educational attainment. Regression analyses evaluated associations of SRI with aforementioned biological CHD risk factors. Receiver operator curve analyses assessed independent predictive ability of SRI. Results. Healthful clustering (SRI = 0) was associated with improved biological CHD risk factor levels in 5 of 6 risk factors in females and 2 of 6 risk factors in males. Adding SRI to models containing age, race, and individual SRI components did not improve C-statistics. Conclusions. Findings suggest that healthful sociobehavioral risk marker clustering is associated with favorable CHD risk factor levels, particularly in females. These findings should inform social ecological interventions that consider health impacts of addressing social and behavioral risk factors. PMID:24719858

Everage, Nicholas J.; Linkletter, Crystal D.; Gjelsvik, Annie; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Loucks, Eric B.

2014-01-01

246

Do socioeconomic factors explain why maternal smoking during pregnancy is more frequent in a more developed city of Brazil?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Ribeirão Preto, a rich Brazilian city, was significantly higher (21.4%) than in São Luís (5.9%), a less developed city. To assess which variables explain the difference in prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, data from two birth cohorts were used, inc [...] luding 2846 puerperae from Ribeirão Preto, in 1994, and 2443 puerperae from São Luís, in 1997/98. In multivariable analysis, risk of maternal smoking during pregnancy was higher in São Luís for mothers living in a household with five or more persons (OR = 1.72, 95%CI = 1.12-2.64), aged 35 years or older (OR = 1.98, 95%CI = 0.99-3.96), who had five or more children (OR = 2.10, 95%CI = 1.16-3.81), and whose companion smoked (OR = 2.20, 95%CI = 1.52-3.18). Age of less than 20 years was a protective factor (OR = 0.55, 95%CI = 0.33-0.92). In Ribeirão Preto there was association with maternal low educational level (OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.30-3.65) and with a smoking companion (OR = 3.25, 95%CI = 2.52-4.18). Receiving prenatal care was a protective factor (OR = 0.24, 95%CI = 0.11-0.49). Mothers from Ribeirão Preto who worked outside the home were at a higher risk and those aged 35 years or older or who attended five or more prenatal care visits were at lower risk of smoking during pregnancy as compared to mothers from São Luís. Smoking by the companion reduced the difference between smoking rates in the two cities by 10%. The socioeconomic variables in the model did not explain the higher prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in the more developed city.

V.S., Ribeiro; F.P., Figueiredo; A.A.M., Silva; R.L.F., Batista; M.A., Barbieri; F., Lamy Filho; M.T.S.S.B., Alves; A.M., Santos; H., Bettiol.

247

Do socioeconomic factors explain why maternal smoking during pregnancy is more frequent in a more developed city of Brazil?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Ribeirão Preto, a rich Brazilian city, was significantly higher (21.4% than in São Luís (5.9%, a less developed city. To assess which variables explain the difference in prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, data from two birth cohorts were used, including 2846 puerperae from Ribeirão Preto, in 1994, and 2443 puerperae from São Luís, in 1997/98. In multivariable analysis, risk of maternal smoking during pregnancy was higher in São Luís for mothers living in a household with five or more persons (OR = 1.72, 95%CI = 1.12-2.64, aged 35 years or older (OR = 1.98, 95%CI = 0.99-3.96, who had five or more children (OR = 2.10, 95%CI = 1.16-3.81, and whose companion smoked (OR = 2.20, 95%CI = 1.52-3.18. Age of less than 20 years was a protective factor (OR = 0.55, 95%CI = 0.33-0.92. In Ribeirão Preto there was association with maternal low educational level (OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.30-3.65 and with a smoking companion (OR = 3.25, 95%CI = 2.52-4.18. Receiving prenatal care was a protective factor (OR = 0.24, 95%CI = 0.11-0.49. Mothers from Ribeirão Preto who worked outside the home were at a higher risk and those aged 35 years or older or who attended five or more prenatal care visits were at lower risk of smoking during pregnancy as compared to mothers from São Luís. Smoking by the companion reduced the difference between smoking rates in the two cities by 10%. The socioeconomic variables in the model did not explain the higher prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in the more developed city.

V.S. Ribeiro

2007-09-01

248

Association of coal, atomic energy, socio-economic and other environmental variables with the risk of dying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Death rates have been calculated by cause, age, sex and race for each county, state economic area, and other groups of counties of the USA for the period 1959 to 1976, data being obtained from official sources. Attention has been given to appropriate methods of using these rates for epidemiological study. Within the USA there are marked and consistent differences in death rates for middle-aged white males: low in the west central plains area and high in the south-east coastal plain. If the USA as a whole had rates as low as in the low-rate areas, there would be 160,000 fewer deaths per year under the age of 75. Coal- and metal-mining is strongly associated with high rates for middle-aged females as well as males. The residents of an area around a nuclear plant, after 22 years of exposure to low levels of radiation from this plant, do not show clear evidence of either decreased or increased risk, for various forms of cancer and other causes, as compared with rates for those living further away in the same states, or as compared with US rates. In the USA, persons living at higher elevations tend to have lower death rates. A number of factors may be hypothesized as being responsible for these lower rates, including the higher levels of background radiation at higher elevations. Many other factors also present evidence of being associated with differences in risk, including cigarette-smoking and various socio-economic or cultural variables. (author)variables. (author)

249

Microvascular responses to cardiovascular risk factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and obesity are among a growing list of conditions that have been designated as major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While CVD risk factors are well known to enhance the development of atherosclerotic lesions in large arteries, there is also evidence that the structure and function of microscopic blood vessels can be profoundly altered by these conditions. The diverse responses of the microvasculature to CVD risk factors include oxi...

Granger, D. Neil; Rodrigues, Stephen F.; Yildirim, Alper; Senchenkova, Elena Y.

2010-01-01

250

Major Risk Factors for Heart Disease: High Blood Cholesterol  

Science.gov (United States)

... Your Risk Category. Use your umber of risk factors, risk score, and medical history to find out your ... 20 percent High Risk 2 or more risk factors and a risk score of 10 to 20 percent Next Highest ...

251

The Effect of Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors on Contraceptive Use and Induced Abortion in Turkey  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the parameters of the heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model established for the induced abortion and the contraceptive use by using socioeconomic and demographic factors and their effects by eliminating the observed heteroscedasticity. Using a heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model and Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (1998 data on married women aged 15 through 49 years, we estimated the probabilities of their having an induced abortion, if induced abortion have, of their using contraceptive methods. The results of the research show that induced abortion is perceived and used as a contraceptive method among the women in Turkey. This shows that it is the correct way to examine those two variables, induced abortion and contraceptive use, together.

Ozlem Alpu

2004-01-01

252

Socioeconomic Factors Relevant to the Inequity in Antenatal Care Accessibility in Vietnam  

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Full Text Available Introduction: To inform maternal health improvements, the purpose of this study was to identify the socioeconomic factors affecting access to basic antenatal care (ANC. Methods: 1,360 women (aged 15-49 years from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey were classified according to the frequency of ANC and the health assessments completed. Results: Low education was the strongest determinant for refusal to use ANC (OR: 9.2-39.3; p < .01 and frequency of use below the three recommended visits (OR: 6.9-39.3; p < .01. In terms of quality of care, low income (OR: 5.6-25.6; p < .01 and living in the Northern Midland and Mountain area (OR: 5.9-8.1; p < .01 were associated with incomplete care. Conclusions: Different approaches are needed for each group, including measures such as improving health literacy and advocating for better services in low-income regions.

Mami Wakabayashi

2014-04-01

253

Physical spousal violence against women in India: some risk factors.  

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Domestic spousal violence against women in developing countries like India, is now beginning to be recognized as a widespread health problem impeding development. This study aimed to explore the risk and protective factors for lifetime spousal physical violence. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out in rural, urban and urban-slum areas across seven sites in India, among women aged 15-49 years, living with a child less than 18 years of age. The sample was selected using the probability proportionate to size method. Trained field workers administered a structured questionnaire to elicit information on spousal physical violence. The main hypothesized variables were social support, witnessed father beating mother and experience of harsh physical violence during childhood, alcohol abuse by spouse and socioeconomic variables. The outcome variables included three physical violence behaviours of hit, kick and beat. Odds ratios were calculated for risk and protective factors of violence using logistic regression. Of 9938 women surveyed, 26% reported experiencing spousal physical violence during the lifetime of their marriage. Adjusted odds ratios calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis suggest that women whose husbands regularly consumed alcohol (OR 5.6; 95% CI 4.7-6.6); who experienced dowry harassment (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.7-3.8); had reported experiencing harsh physical punishment during childhood (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8) and had witnessed their fathers beat their mothers (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.6-2.1), were at increased risk of spousal physical violence (beat, hit and kick). Higher socioeconomic status and good social support acted as protective buffers against spousal physical violence. The findings provide compelling evidence of the potential risk factors for spousal physical violence, which in turn could help in planning interventions. PMID:17349066

Jeyaseelan, L; Kumar, Shuba; Neelakantan, Nithya; Peedicayil, Abraham; Pillai, Rajamohanam; Duvvury, Nata

2007-09-01

254

What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Carcinoid Tumors?  

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... what causes lung carcinoid tumors? What are the risk factors for lung carcinoid tumors? A risk factor is ... such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like ...

255

What Are the Risk Factors for Bile Duct Cancer?  

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... what causes bile duct cancer? What are the risk factors for bile duct cancer? A risk factor is ... have liver problems from drinking alcohol. Other possible risk factors Studies have found several other risk factors that ...

256

What Are the Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?  

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... what causes gastrointestinal stromal tumors? What are the risk factors for gastrointestinal stromal tumors? A risk factor is ... disease like cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like ...

257

What Are the Risk Factors for Gallbladder Cancer?  

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... know what causes gallbladder cancer? What are the risk factors for gallbladder cancer? A risk factor is anything ... such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like ...

258

What Are the Risk Factors for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma?  

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... what causes non-Hodgkin lymphoma? What are the risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma? A risk factor is ... such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed; others, like ...

259

What Are the Risk Factors for Cancer of the Pancreas?  

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... know what causes pancreatic cancer? What are the risk factors for pancreatic cancer? A risk factor is anything ... these are risk factors for exocrine pancreatic cancer. Risk factors that can be changed Tobacco use Smoking is ...

260

What Are the Risk Factors for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia?  

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... what causes acute lymphocytic leukemia? What are the risk factors for acute lymphocytic leukemia? A risk factor is ... risk of getting ALL. Uncertain, unproven or controversial risk factors Other factors that have been studied for a ...

 
 
 
 
261

Spatio-Temporal Variation of PM2.5 Concentrations and Their Relationship with Geographic and Socioeconomic Factors in China  

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Full Text Available The air quality in China, particularly the PM2.5 (particles less than 2.5 ?m in aerodynamic diameter level, has become an increasing public concern because of its relation to health risks. The distribution of PM2.5 concentrations has a close relationship with multiple geographic and socioeconomic factors, but the lack of reliable data has been the main obstacle to studying this topic. Based on the newly published Annual Average PM2.5 gridded data, together with land use data, gridded population data and Gross Domestic Product (GDP data, this paper explored the spatial-temporal characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations and the factors impacting those concentrations in China for the years of 2001–2010. The contributions of urban areas, high population and economic development to PM2.5 concentrations were analyzed using the Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR model. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of PM2.5 concentrations in China remained stable during the period 2001–2010; high concentrations of PM2.5 are mostly found in regions with high populations and rapid urban expansion, including the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in North China, East China (including the Shandong, Anhui and Jiangsu provinces and Henan province. Increasing populations, local economic growth and urban expansion are the three main driving forces impacting PM2.5 concentrations.

Gang Lin

2013-12-01

262

Maternal Socioeconomic Status and the Risk of Congenital Heart Defects in Offspring: A Meta-Analysis of 33 Studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Background We conducted this meta-analysis to address the open question of a possible association between maternal socioeconomic status and congenital heart defects (CHDs). Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from their inception to January 1, 2014 for case-control and cohort studies that assessed the association between maternal socioeconomic status and the risk of CHDs. Study-specific relative risk estimates were polled according to random-effect or fixed-effect models. Results From 3343 references, a total of 31 case-control studies and 2 cohort studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis, including more than 50,000 cases. We observed that maternal educational attainment, family income and maternal occupation were negatively associated with an 11% (pooled RR?=?1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21), 5% (pooled RR?=?1.05, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.09) and 51% (pooled RR?=?1.51, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.24) increased risk of CHDs, respectively. In a subgroup analysis by geographic region, the results were inconsistent for the European region (RR?=?1.29, 95% CI: 0.99–1.69) and USA/Canada region (RR?=?1.06, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.16) in maternal educational attainment. Conclusion In summary, this meta-analysis suggests that a lower degree of maternal socioeconomic status is modestly associated with an increased risk of CHDs. However, further investigations are needed to confirm the association. PMID:25347676

Yang, Lei; Da, Min; Fan, Changfeng; Wang, Song; Mo, Xuming

2014-01-01

263

Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Yield of Arable Crop in Osun State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study determined socio-economic factors influencing yield of arable crops in Osun State. Primary data were collected from 150 arable crop farmers from 5 cells in each of the three agricultural zones in the state using purposive and random sampling methods. The data were analysed with descriptive statistics and regression techniques. Result of the analysis showed that the mean age of arable crops farmers was 52 years, the mean years of formal education was 9 years with household size of about 11 and mean farm size was about 3.5 ha. The yield of arable crops slightly increased in 1998 to 2000. Multiple regression analysis showed that R and R2 for all the variables investigated was 0.687 and 0.472, respectively. Training and demonstrations attended by farmers with Beta Coefficient of (0.123 was the best factor-influencing yield of arable crop in Osun State. Other factors in descending order are access to agricultural input (0.119; farm size (0.052 and age (0.042 Agricultural policy effort should be directed at increasing agricultural extension activities to farmers and agricultural input should be made available at affordable prices to arable crop farmers to increase their yield.

S.A. Adesoji

2006-01-01

264

Socioeconomic factors influencing antipsychotic prescription for schizophrenia inpatients in China: a cross-sectional study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medication is critical in schizophrenia therapy, and prescription patterns have changed considerably over the past 20 years in China. This study attempts to evaluate the prescription patterns of antipsychotics for inpatients with schizophrenia in China and to identify factors influencing these patterns. Claims data of inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia in 2010 were derived from the reimbursement database of Wuhan and Wuxi. A total of 5251 inpatients received antipsychotic medications, of whom 29.0% received second-generation antipsychotics apart from clozapine (SGAs#), 13.7% received clozapine (CLO), 13.5% received first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), 43.8% received at least both drug classes, and 5.1% used FGAs, CLO as well as SGAs#. Multinomial logistic regression for 2904 identified inpatients showed that factors of drug reimbursement policy, duration of hospitalization, age group, and municipality were statistically significant in antipsychotic medication. Drug list B and the 25-45 age group presented a significant relationship with SGAs# prescription (FGAs vs. SGAs#). Furthermore, the 12-30-day duration of hospitalization and the 25-45 age group showed a significant relationship with SGAs# prescription (CLO vs. SGAs#). Socioeconomic factors such as health insurance policies, especially reimbursement policy of drugs and payment system, as well as mental health resource distribution are important in antipsychotic prescription in China. PMID:24323200

Xue, Qiuji; Xiong, Xianjun; Feng, Yi; Yao, Lan; Chen, Shanquan; Xiang, Li

2014-09-01

265

Homocysteine as risk factor for coronary artery disease in pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistani people belong to an ethnic group which has the highest rate of coronary artery disease. There are a number of risk factors for developing the coronary artery disease (CAD). Homocysteine, a sulphur containing amino acid, has been reported to be an independent risk factor for CAD. The present study was done to find out the role of hyperhomocysteinemia in the development of coronary artery disease in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out. There were 40 angiographically diagnosed male patients of coronary artery disease between 30 - 40 years of age taken as cases and 40 age, sex and socioeconomically matched healthy subjects with normal carotid doppler study taken as controls. Fasting venous blood from cases and controls was taken in E.D.T.A vacationers. Plasma was analyzed for homo-cysteine level by enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Mean plasma concentration of homocysteine in coronary artery disease patients i.e. cases was 13.5 +- 6.8 mu mol/L and was higher than the mean for controls (10.76 +- 2.27 mu mol/L) to a significant extent. Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia through inter-play with the classical cardiovascular risk factors may be aggravating the risk of coronary artery disease in Pakistani people. (author)

266

Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ? 94 cm (men or ? 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are positively associated with overweight, while educational level and health related sports are negatively related to overweight in both genders. In men, alcohol consumption and smoking in the past are also among the lifestyle factors associated with overweight. This study also indicates that BMI and WC do not have the same discriminative function regarding different lifestyle factors.

Duvigneaud Nathalie

2007-02-01

267

Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes  

Science.gov (United States)

In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11 different NHL subtypes, including less common subtypes.

268

Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

2002-01-01

269

A Social Enterprise as a Socio-Economic Development Potential Increase Factor  

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Full Text Available It has been defined that social enterprise development represents a meaningful factor in the Ukrainian regions’ increase in potential of economic development; the priority is to identify strategies of their socio-economic development. Social enterprise has been proven to be a relatively new phenomenon in the Ukrainian practice; there is a need to utilize the state government more actively as one of tools for solving socio-economic problems of society. It has to be directed at the population’s living conditions improvement with the help of producing necessary goods and services; provision of services in such areas as healthcare, employment, education, environmental protection etc.; catering and social adaptation for vulnerable groups of population (disabled, unemployed, national minorities. The social enterprise development is the "bridge" between social and commercial interests necessary for social welfare and effective social goals’ achievement.Ukraine’s necessity to follow the path of social enterprise recognition as an effective tool for achieving the stable social and economic development, and the recognition of social entrepreneurs as transformation leaders has been grounded. Social entrepreneurs need support – financial, informational, and consultative one – from the government. Human talents are revealed anddeveloped only in case they are needed by the society. There is a need to provide a certain platform for the dialogue between business and social sector. Social enterprise emerges and functions when the ideas and capital are combined. A new entrepreneurial type in Ukraine has to be formed – the one of social innovators. The benefit is evident for everyone; nonetheless, the social enterprise has to be developed and supported at the present stage of economic development.

O. Yevseeva

2011-03-01

270

Socioeconomic Factors Of Primary School Drop Out In Kamrup Tribal Belt: A Case Study Of Dakhin Rani Part  

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Full Text Available It is seen that primary school dropout among tribal students is generally high. Socioeconomic factors among others are also responsible for that. This study tried to find out the significant factors responsible for primary school dropout among the tribal students in Kamrup district of Assam. It is found that household income, household size and parent’s education are some of the significant factors having influence on school dropout. Some policy suggestions are also provided in conclusion.

Jyotisikha Dutta

2012-09-01

271

The risk factors of head and neck cancer and their general patterns in Australia: a descriptive review and update.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive review of risk factors of head and neck cancer (HNC), with particular interest in their general patterns in Australia. All these risk factors are deeply perplexing, with socioeconomic, cultural, and geographic variables. We reviewed articles from PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar by using keywords such as risk factors, alcohol, tobacco, human papilloma virus (HPV), environmental risk factors, and other risk factors. We selected relevant articles after they completely fit into the inclusion criteria for this review. Previous reports highlight that smoking tobacco, consuming alcohol, and HPV infection are the major risk factors for HNC. Geographical variations in incidence rates are indicative of differences in the prevalence of risk factors among countries. HNC could be prevented by reducing the prevalence of established risk factors. PMID:24579809

Singh, Jagtar; Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Baxi, Siddhartha; Jayaraj, Rama; Thomas, Mahiban

2014-01-01

272

A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight  

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Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases� and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control� group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

Deswal B S

1999-01-01

273

A holistic evaluation of risks in coastal regions under changing climatic, environmental and socioeconomic conditions: the Theseus Decision Support System.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a general acceptance that global changes associated with natural hazards and socioeconomic processes are occurring at a faster pace than ever, with deep implications in terms of risk exposure and environmental impact. The capacity of coastal areas to adapt and react to these changes will be a key factor in the future preservation of life standards and represents a great challenge for politicians, scientists and professionals at any level. Within the large scope of Theseus Project (EU 7th Framework Program), one of the main objectives is to design a tool to help decision makers in defining optimal strategies to minimize risks within a certain city or coastal area in a three-fold sense: economic losses, human damages and environmental impacts. The resulting software, the Theseus-DSS, links the most relevant physical processes (waves, sea-levels, hard and soft structures, coastal erosion and inland flooding) with the potential impact zones (marine and inland), considering their functions (ecosystems) and uses (economic units), and the dependence of this functions and uses upon the prevailing physical conditions. The new software tries to fill a gap among the existing tools, based on the following pillars: • Seamless integration of disciplines: physics, engineering, ecology, social sciences and economy. • Intermediate spatial scales (1- 10 km) and medium-to- long time spans (1-10 years). • Decision-making based on a balance between deterministic models and expert, discussion-based assumptions. The user of the Theseus-DSS will be able either to check the consequences of predefined scenarios at a particular study site, or to create user-defined scenarios, run them and compare the results with other scenarios. The results are expressed, locally and at an aggregate level, in the three aforementioned dimensions: economic losses (€/year), mean annual expected live losses (persons/year) and impact on habitats (null, low, medium and high).

Losada, I. J.; Garcia Alonso, E.; Mendez, F. J.; Zanuttigh, B.; Nicholls, R. J.; Thompson, R.; Vanderlinden, J. P.; Fernandez, F.; Ondiviela, B.; Diaz-Simal, P.; Bagli, S.

2012-04-01

274

[Risk factors of bronchial asthma in children].  

Science.gov (United States)

Case representative selective study of children from 1 to 15 years old age in Batumi, with 2110 children population has been carried out. Risk factors were studied by interviewing method, using two step estimation (on the basis of primary and secondary questionnaire) of the disease developing risk. For statistical analysis of the data SPSS v. 12 was used. Study findings confirm causal connection (with high relative risk) and significant probability of the disease (with high attributive risk), with "major risk factors": allergic diseases and atopic dermatitis in relatives and with "minor risk factors": allergic rhinitis. Relatively weak risk factors (with low relative risk), but with high prevalence in child population in Batumi were found: respiratory infections and bottle-feeding. Revealing individual and population risk phenomenology of bronchial asthma in children population in Batumi, on the basis of that the most of risk factors can be monitored, will promote asthma prevention and population health care, which is more rational and cost-effective. PMID:16636389

Katamadze, N D; Zhorzholiani, L D; Chkhartishvili, E S; Adamia, N A

2006-03-01

275

Risk Factors for Obesity among Saudi Female College Students  

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Full Text Available Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported information to meet study objectives. Around 32 % of females were either overweight or obese and the study subjects with a family history of maternal obesity and habit of limited snacking had higher odds for obesity. No associations were found between obesity and parental income and education status; and skipping breakfast and physical activity behaviours of the subjects. Maternal obesity could be a considerable risk factor for obesity in female subjects.

Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen

2014-05-01

276

Risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder after an earthquake disaster.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from women's reproductive health events after an earthquake experience. Data on antenatal care, pregnancy outcomes, family planning, socioeconomic status, earthquake experiences, and mental health were collected from a random sample of 425 women of reproductive age using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Reproductive Health Assessment Toolkit and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis to predict PTSD symptoms from posttrauma care variables and reproductive health events. Restricted social participation, use of temporary accommodation, pregnancy complications, and use of injectable contraceptives were significant risk factors of PTSD. These factors may be exacerbated by the social context of conservative societies, traditions about health care-seeking behavior, and access to health care. Antecedent reproductive health events influence women's reaction to major trauma including events such as an earthquake. PMID:24284639

Anwar, Jasim; Mpofu, Elias; Matthews, Lynda R; Brock, Kaye E

2013-12-01

277

Caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia. This study was conducted in 160 children with sickle cell anemia aged 3 to 12 years attending the Center for Hematology in Recife, Brazil . Data collection included interv [...] iews with guardians concerning social factors and oral examinations to determine the caries prevalence. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's chi-square tests at a 5% significance level. The caries prevalence was 55.0%. The dmft index was 2.12, and the DMFT index was 1.50. Income significantly influenced dmft; the mean dmft was 4.57 in children whose family income was less than the Brazilian minimum wage (BMW), whereas in children with a family income three times the BMW or higher, the mean dmft was 2.27. No statistically positive association was found between the educational level of parents and guardians and the caries indices. A statistically significant association was found between dental caries prevalence and family income.

Ana Cláudia Alves e, Luna; Maria José, Rodrigues; Valdenice Aparecida, Menezes; Kátia Maria Gonçalves, Marques; Fabiano Almeida dos, Santos.

2012-02-01

278

Decomposing Indigenous life expectancy gap by risk factors: a life table analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The estimated gap in life expectancy (LE between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians was 12 years for men and 10 years for women, whereas the Northern Territory Indigenous LE gap was at least 50% greater than the national figures. This study aims to explain the Indigenous LE gap by common modifiable risk factors. Methods This study covered the period from 1986 to 2005. Unit record death data from the Northern Territory were used to assess the differences in LE at birth between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations by socioeconomic disadvantage, smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, pollution, and intimate partner violence. The population attributable fractions were applied to estimate the numbers of deaths associated with the selected risks. The standard life table and cause decomposition technique was used to examine the individual and joint effects on health inequality. Results The findings from this study indicate that among the selected risk factors, socioeconomic disadvantage was the leading health risk and accounted for one-third to one-half of the Indigenous LE gap. A combination of all six selected risks explained over 60% of the Indigenous LE gap. Conclusions Improving socioeconomic status, smoking cessation, and overweight reduction are critical to closing the Indigenous LE gap. This paper presents a useful way to explain the impact of risk factors of health inequalities, and suggests that reducing poverty should be placed squarely at the centre of the strategies to close the Indigenous LE gap.

Zhao Yuejen

2013-01-01

279

Risk Factors For Coronary Heart Disease : A Case Control Study  

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Full Text Available Research question: What is the role of different risk factors in causation of CHD. Objective: To identify the risk factors contributing to the outcome of CHD. Design: Pair matched case-control study. Setting: Government Medical college, Nagpur, India, a tertiary care hospital. Participants: The study included 294 incident cases of CHD diagnosed by standard criteria. Each case was pair matched with one control for age and sex. Controls were selected from subjects attending the hospital for conditions other than CHD. Main Outcome Measure: CHD. Study variable: Socio-economic status (SES, physical inactivity (PI, family history of CHD, type A personality (TAP, cigarette smoking (CS, alcohol consumption (AC, obesity, oral contraceptive use (OC use, diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension (HT and total serum cholesterol TSC. Results: On univariate analysis all the 11 risk factors were significantly associated with CHD. Conditional multiple logistic regression identified significant association of SES (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.28-3.73, PI (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.56-2.62, OC use (OR 3.96, 95% CI 1.11-14.02, obesity (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.15-2.27, DM (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.13-4.13, HT (OR 4.23, 95% CI 2.56-6399, TSC (OR 3.84, 95% CI 2.58-5.72 and CHD. Estimates of attributable risk proportion and population attributable risk proportion for the significant factors confirmed their etiological role and impact of these factors on the development of CHD in this population. Conclusion: This study identified significance of SES, PI, OC use, obesity, DM, HT and TSC in multivariate environment in the outcome of CHD.

Zodpey Sanjay P

1998-01-01

280

Plasmodium infection and its risk factors in eastern Uganda  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of disease burden in Uganda, although surprisingly few contemporary, age-stratified data exist on malaria epidemiology in the country. This report presents results from a total population survey of malaria infection and intervention coverage in a rural area of eastern Uganda, with a specific focus on how risk factors differ between demographic groups in this population. Methods In 2008, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in four contiguous villages in Mulanda, sub-county in Tororo district, eastern Uganda, to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of Plasmodium species infection. All permanent residents were invited to participate, with blood smears collected from 1,844 individuals aged between six months and 88 years (representing 78% of the population. Demographic, household and socio-economic characteristics were combined with environmental data using a Geographical Information System. Hierarchical models were used to explore patterns of malaria infection and identify individual, household and environmental risk factors. Results Overall, 709 individuals were infected with Plasmodium, with prevalence highest among 5-9 year olds (63.5%. Thin films from a random sample of 20% of parasite positive participants showed that 94.0% of infections were Plasmodium falciparum and 6.0% were P. malariae; no other species or mixed infections were seen. In total, 68% of households owned at least one mosquito although only 27% of school-aged children reported sleeping under a net the previous night. In multivariate analysis, infection risk was highest amongst children aged 5-9 years and remained high in older children. Risk of infection was lower for those that reported sleeping under a bed net the previous night and living more than 750 m from a rice-growing area. After accounting for clustering within compounds, there was no evidence for an association between infection prevalence and socio-economic status, and no evidence for spatial clustering. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that mosquito net usage remains inadequate and is strongly associated with risk of malaria among school-aged children. Infection risk amongst adults is influenced by proximity to potential mosquito breeding grounds. Taken together, these findings emphasize the importance of increasing net coverage, especially among school-aged children.

Snow Robert W

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Factores socioeconómicos asociados al tipo de denuncias Socioeconomic factors associated to the type of denounces  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El control del gasto público y las necesidades de recursos humanos, materiales y de capacitación del recurso humano médico y administrativo, tanto como los derechos de los usuarios de los servicios de salud, justifican el estudio de la distribución, los determinantes y la frecuencia de los servicios que estos reciben. En este contexto se plantea si existe alguna relación entre los factores socioeconómicos y el tipo de denuncia por la que consultan los usuarios de la Clínica Médico Forense. Del análisis estadístico realizado, se desprende que existen relaciones significativas entre los tipos de denuncia planteados y las variables: edad, sexo, estado civil, ocupación y nivel educativoThe control of the public finance and the need of human resources, materials and training of the human medical resource, justify the study of the distribution, determinants, and the frequency of the services that they receive. In this context, it is stand in this study, where or not a relation exists between the socio economical factors and the type of denounce that is made by the consultant of the Medical Forensic Clinic. From the statistical analysis made, it shows us significant relationships between the denounce made and these variables: age, sex, civil state, occupation, education level.

Grettchen Flores Sandí

2005-03-01

282

Factores socioeconómicos asociados al tipo de denuncias / Socioeconomic factors associated to the type of denounces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El control del gasto público y las necesidades de recursos humanos, materiales y de capacitación del recurso humano médico y administrativo, tanto como los derechos de los usuarios de los servicios de salud, justifican el estudio de la distribución, los determinantes y la frecuencia de los servicios [...] que estos reciben. En este contexto se plantea si existe alguna relación entre los factores socioeconómicos y el tipo de denuncia por la que consultan los usuarios de la Clínica Médico Forense. Del análisis estadístico realizado, se desprende que existen relaciones significativas entre los tipos de denuncia planteados y las variables: edad, sexo, estado civil, ocupación y nivel educativo Abstract in english The control of the public finance and the need of human resources, materials and training of the human medical resource, justify the study of the distribution, determinants, and the frequency of the services that they receive. In this context, it is stand in this study, where or not a relation exist [...] s between the socio economical factors and the type of denounce that is made by the consultant of the Medical Forensic Clinic. From the statistical analysis made, it shows us significant relationships between the denounce made and these variables: age, sex, civil state, occupation, education level.

Grettchen, Flores Sandí.

283

Factores socioeconómicos asociados al tipo de denuncias / Socioeconomic factors associated to the type of denounces  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El control del gasto público y las necesidades de recursos humanos, materiales y de capacitación del recurso humano médico y administrativo, tanto como los derechos de los usuarios de los servicios de salud, justifican el estudio de la distribución, los determinantes y la frecuencia de los servicios [...] que estos reciben. En este contexto se plantea si existe alguna relación entre los factores socioeconómicos y el tipo de denuncia por la que consultan los usuarios de la Clínica Médico Forense. Del análisis estadístico realizado, se desprende que existen relaciones significativas entre los tipos de denuncia planteados y las variables: edad, sexo, estado civil, ocupación y nivel educativo Abstract in english The control of the public finance and the need of human resources, materials and training of the human medical resource, justify the study of the distribution, determinants, and the frequency of the services that they receive. In this context, it is stand in this study, where or not a relation exist [...] s between the socio economical factors and the type of denounce that is made by the consultant of the Medical Forensic Clinic. From the statistical analysis made, it shows us significant relationships between the denounce made and these variables: age, sex, civil state, occupation, education level.

Grettchen, Flores Sandí.

2005-03-01

284

Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, tumor subtypes, and causes of death after non-metastatic invasive breast cancer diagnosis: a multilevel competing-risk analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to examine the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype with causes of death [breast cancer (BC)-specific and non-BC-specific] among non-metastatic invasive BC patients. We identified 3,312 patients younger than 75 years (mean age 53.5 years; 621 [18.8 %] TNBC) with first primary BC treated at an academic medical center from 1999 to 2010. We constructed a census-tract-level socioeconomic deprivation index using the 2000 U.S. Census data and performed a multilevel competing-risk analysis to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) of BC-specific and non-BC-specific mortality associated with neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and TNBC subtype. The adjusted models controlled for patient sociodemographics, health behaviors, tumor characteristics, comorbidity, and cancer treatment. With a median 62-month follow-up, 349 (10.5 %) patients died; 233 died from BC. In the multivariate models, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was independently associated with non-BC-specific mortality (the most- vs. the least-deprived quartile: HR = 2.98, 95 % CI = 1.33-6.66); in contrast, its association with BC-specific mortality was explained by the aforementioned patient-level covariates, particularly sociodemographic factors (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI = 0.71-1.87). TNBC subtype was independently associated with non-BC-specific mortality (HR = 2.15; 95 % CI = 1.20-3.84), while the association between TNBC and BC-specific mortality approached significance (HR = 1.42; 95 % CI = 0.99-2.03, P = 0.057). Non-metastatic invasive BC patients who lived in more socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods were more likely to die as a result of causes other than BC compared with those living in the least socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods. TNBC was associated with non-BC-specific mortality but not BC-specific mortality. PMID:25234843

Lian, Min; Pérez, Maria; Liu, Ying; Schootman, Mario; Frisse, Ann; Foldes, Ellen; Jeffe, Donna B

2014-10-01

285

Socioeconomic inequalities in risk of hospitalization for community-acquired bacteremia : a Danish population-based case-control study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a Danish population-based case-control study, we examined the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk of community-acquired bacteremia, as well as the contribution of chronic diseases and substance abuse to differences in bacteremia risk. Analyses were based on 4,117 patients aged 30-65 years who were hospitalized with first-time community-acquired bacteremia during 2000-2008 and 41,170 population controls matched by sex, age, and region of residence. Individual-level information on SES (education and income), chronic diseases, and substance abuse was retrieved from public and medical registries. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios for bacteremia. Persons of low SES had a substantially higher risk of bacteremia than those of high SES (for short duration of education vs. long duration, odds ratio = 2.30 (95% confidence interval: 2.10, 2.52); for low income vs. high income, odds ratio = 2.77 (95% confidence interval: 2.54, 3.02)). A higher prevalence of chronic diseases and substance abuse in low-SES individuals versus high-SES individuals explained 43%-48% of the socioeconomic differences in bacteremia risk. In a country with a universal welfare system, differences in the burden of chronic diseases and substance abuse seem to have major importance in explaining inequalities in bacteremia risk.

Koch, Kristoffer; SØgaard, Mette

2014-01-01

286

Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ? Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ? Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ? “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ? A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ? Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Sociantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.

287

The public mental health significance of research on socio-economic factors in schizophrenia and major depression  

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This paper reviews the epidemiological research evidence on the role of socio-economic factors in the origins and disease experience of schizophrenia and major depression. The studies were conducted in different countries over many years. Although their findings are divided in their support of either the social causation or the drift hypothesis, all of them agree that persons with these disorders are at high disadvantage in society. Several factors for this have been identif...

Saraceno, Benedetto; Levav, Itzhak; Kohn, Robert

2005-01-01

288

What Are the Risk Factors for Acute Myeloid Leukemia?  

Science.gov (United States)

... what causes acute myeloid leukemia? What are the risk factors for acute myeloid leukemia? A risk factor is ... this are not clear. Uncertain, unproven or controversial risk factors Other factors that have been studied for a ...

289

What Are the Risk Factors for Endometrial Cancer?  

Science.gov (United States)

... know what causes endometrial cancer? What are the risk factors for endometrial cancer? A risk factor is anything ... smoking, exercising, body weight, drinking, or diet. Some factors influence risk more than others. Although certain factors increase a ...

290

Are good ideas enough?: The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO commercialisation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors [...] on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance.

Núria, Vàzquez-Salat.

291

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Farmers’ Awareness of Clean Development Mechanism Projects: Case of Smallholder Forest Carbon Projects  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify the socio-economic and institutional factors which influence the level of awareness of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM projects and in so doing to highlight the policy implications for the stakeholders when designing clean development mechanism projects among smallholder farmers. Findings shows that 23% of the farmers were correctly aware of the project and the results of the ordered logit model indicate that age, gender, education level, group membership, existence of tree farming and contact with extension services was found to influence awareness level of smallholder forest Carbon projects. To assist the community to adapt to climate change and produce sufficiently on a sustainable basis and achieve the desired food security under climate change challenges, the study recommends policies to increase awareness of such agro-environmental initiatives and that of extension providers should distinguish their clientele anchored on vital demographic characteristics such as age and gender. If the probability of younger farmers to be aware this initiative is higher, extension communications should be directed to such age group, particularly during initial stages project information dissemination.

Oscar I. Ayuya

2011-05-01

292

Sex as suicidal risk factor  

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Introduction. The rates of suicide are two to three times higher in men than in women in all communities. This “gender paradox” can be explained by various factors, such as more impulsive nature of men and their choice of more efficient (more lethal) methods to commit suicide. This study was aimed at finding the correlation between the gender and other suicidal factors. Material and Methods. The study sample consisted of persons who committed suicide on the territory of Kragujevac i...

Koci? Sanja; Radovanovi? Snežana; Vasiljevi? Dragan; Milosavljevi? Mirjana; ?or?evi? Gordana; Živanovi? Sandra

2012-01-01

293

The role of age, ethnicity and environmental factors in modulating malaria risk in Rajasthali, Bangladesh  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic in the Rajasthali region of the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh and the Rajasthali region is the most endemic area of Bangladesh. Quantifying the role of environmental and socio-economic factors in the local spatial patterns of malaria endemicity can contribute to successful malaria control and elimination. This study aimed to investigate the role of environmental factors on malaria risk in Rajasthali and to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Method A total of 4,200 (78.9%; N = 5,322 households were targeted in Rajasthali in July, 2009, and 1,400 individuals were screened using a rapid diagnostic test (Falci-vax. These data were linked to environmental and socio-economic data in a geographical information system. To describe the association between environmental factors and malaria risk, a generalized linear mixed model approach was utilized. The study investigated the role of environmental factors on malaria risk by calculating their population-attributable fractions (PAF, and used residual semivariograms to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Results Overall malaria prevalence was 11.7%. Out of 5,322 households, 44.12% households were living in areas with malaria prevalence of ? 10%. The results from statistical analysis showed that age, ethnicity, proximity to forest, household density, and elevation were significantly and positively correlated with the malaria risk and PAF estimation. The highest PAF of malaria prevalence was 47.7% for third tertile (n = 467 of forest cover, 17.6% for second tertile (n = 467 of forest cover and 19.9% for household density >1,000. Conclusion Targeting of malaria health interventions at small spatial scales in Bangladesh should consider the social and socio-economic risk factors identified as well as alternative methods for improving equity of access to interventions across whole communities.

Haque Ubydul

2011-12-01

294

Socio-economic factors and virological suppression among people diagnosed with HIV in the United Kingdom: results from the ASTRA study  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction In the United Kingdom, rates of virological suppression on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are very high, but there remain a small but significant number of people on ART with detectable viraemia. The impact of socio-economic factors on virological suppression has been little studied. Materials and Methods We used data from ASTRA, a cross-sectional, questionnaire study of >3000 individuals from 8 clinics in the United Kingdom in 2011–2012, linked to clinical records to address this question. Included participants had received ART for >6 months with a recorded current viral load (VL) (latest at the time of questionnaire). Participants provided data on demographic factors: gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity and age; and socio-economic factors: UK birth/English reading ability, employment, housing, education and financial hardship. To assess non-adherence, participants were asked if in the past 3 months, they had missed ART for ?2 days at a time. Virological suppression was defined as VL?50 cps/mL. For each socio-economic factor, we calculated prevalence ratios using modified Poisson regression, first adjusting for demographic factors, then also for non-adherence. Results A total of 2445 people fulfilled the inclusion criteria (80% male, 69% MSM, median age: 46 years, median CD4 count: 556 cells/mm3); 10% (234/2445) had VL>50 cps/mL. After adjusting for demographic factors, non-fluent English, not being employed, not home owning, education below university level and increasing financial hardship were each associated with higher prevalence of VL>50 cps/mL. Additional adjustment for non-adherence largely attenuated each association, but did not fully explain them (see Table 1). After adjustment for non-adherence and demographic factors, younger age was also associated with VL>50 cps/mL: for each additional 10 years an individual was 0.80 (95% CI 0.70–0.92) times as likely to have VL>50 cps/mL (p=0.0019). Adjusted prevalence ratios for VL>50cps/mL were 0.91 (0.62–1.34) for women and 1.25 (0.85–1.84) for non-MSM men versus MSM, and 1.29 (0.92–1.80) for white versus non-white people. Conclusions Among people on ART in the United Kingdom, the proportion with detectable VL is low. Poorer socio-economic status is associated with increased probability of virological non-suppression. It is likely that much of this association is mediated through difficulties in taking ART. Emphasis should be put on aiding the adherence of people in these higher risk groups. PMID:25394042

Burch, Lisa; Smith, Colette; Anderson, Jane; Sherr, Lorraine; Rodger, Alison; O'Connell, Rebecca; Gilson, Richard; Elford, Jonathan; Phillips, Andrew; Speakman, Andrew; Johnson, Margaret; Lampe, Fiona

2014-01-01

295

Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at [...] the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1) socio-demographic variables; 2a) variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b) variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth > 4 mm and an attachment loss > 3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.

Maria Dilma Bezerra de Vasconcellos, Piscoya; Ricardo Arraes de Alencar, Ximenes; Genivaldo Moura da, Silva; Sílvia Regina, Jamelli; Sonia Bechara, Coutinho.

296

Consumo de alimentos, factores socioeconómicos y anemia en mujeres gestantes / Food intake, socioeconomic factors and anemia in pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizó la prevalencia de anemia en mujeres embarazadas y su asociación con el consumo de alimentos, estado nutricional y variables socioeconómicas. La muestra fue de 299 mujeres que asistieron a la consulta prenatal en los ambulatorios del Municipio Libertador Estado Mérida año 2009, en edades d [...] e 13 y 45 años. Los datos recolectados fueron, hemoglobina y hematocrito de los tres trimestres de embarazo, paridad, nivel de instrucción, ocupación, ingresos económicos y gastos en alimentación. Se aplicó encuesta de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, se determinó el Riesgo de Inseguridad Alimentaria (RIA) y el IMC para conocer el estado nutricional. El 25,75 % de las mujeres son anémicas con valores de Hb Abstract in english The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and his association with foods intake, nutritional state and socio-economic variables has been analyzed. The sample was about 299 women that assist to a prenatal consultation in the health center Libertador Municipality, State of Merida 2009, in ages betwee [...] n 13 and 45 years. The obtained data was: haemoglobin and haematocrit of the three pregnancy quarters, parity, instruction level, occupation, incomes and foods expenditure. It was applyed a survey of "foods intake frequency" and it was determined Alimentary Insecurity Risk (RIA) and the IMC to the knowledge their nutritional state. 25, 75% of the women are anemics with values of HB

Yurimay, Quintero de Rivas; Gladys, Bastardo; Coromoto, Angarita; Mariela, Paoli; Belquis, Sanz; Lizbeth, Rojas; Glenda, Da Silva; Lelis, Rodríguez.

297

Consumo de alimentos, factores socioeconómicos y anemia en mujeres gestantes / Food intake, socioeconomic factors and anemia in pregnant women  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizó la prevalencia de anemia en mujeres embarazadas y su asociación con el consumo de alimentos, estado nutricional y variables socioeconómicas. La muestra fue de 299 mujeres que asistieron a la consulta prenatal en los ambulatorios del Municipio Libertador Estado Mérida año 2009, en edades d [...] e 13 y 45 años. Los datos recolectados fueron, hemoglobina y hematocrito de los tres trimestres de embarazo, paridad, nivel de instrucción, ocupación, ingresos económicos y gastos en alimentación. Se aplicó encuesta de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, se determinó el Riesgo de Inseguridad Alimentaria (RIA) y el IMC para conocer el estado nutricional. El 25,75 % de las mujeres son anémicas con valores de Hb Abstract in english The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and his association with foods intake, nutritional state and socio-economic variables has been analyzed. The sample was about 299 women that assist to a prenatal consultation in the health center Libertador Municipality, State of Merida 2009, in ages betwee [...] n 13 and 45 years. The obtained data was: haemoglobin and haematocrit of the three pregnancy quarters, parity, instruction level, occupation, incomes and foods expenditure. It was applyed a survey of "foods intake frequency" and it was determined Alimentary Insecurity Risk (RIA) and the IMC to the knowledge their nutritional state. 25, 75% of the women are anemics with values of HB

Yurimay, Quintero de Rivas; Gladys, Bastardo; Coromoto, Angarita; Mariela, Paoli; Belquis, Sanz; Lizbeth, Rojas; Glenda, Da Silva; Lelis, Rodríguez.

2012-12-01

298

Influence of socioeconomic factors on survival after breast cancer-A nationwide cohort study of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 1983-1999  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The reasons for social inequality in breast cancer survival are far from established. Our study aims to study the importance of a range of socioeconomic factors and comorbid disorders on survival after breast cancer surgery in Denmark where the health care system is tax-funded and uniform. All 25,897 Danish women who underwent protocol-based treatment for breast cancer in 1983-1999 were identified in a clinical database and information on socioeconomic variables and both somatic and psychiatric comorbid disorders was obtained from population-based registries. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between socioeconomic position and overall survival and further to analyse breast cancer specific deaths in a competing risk set-up regarding all other causes of death as competing risks. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death was reduced in women with higher education (HR, 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-0.98), with higher income (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98) and with larger dwellings (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96 for women living in houses larger than 150 m(2)). Presence of comorbid disorders increased the HR. An interaction between income and comorbid disorders resulting in a 15% lower survival 10 year after primary surgery in poor women with low-risk breast cancer having comorbid conditions ( approximately 65%) compared to rich women with similar breast cancer prognosis and comorbid conditions ( approximately 80%) suggests that part of the explanation for the social inequality in survival after breast cancer surgery in Denmark lies in the access to and/or compliance with management of comorbid conditions in poorer women. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Ross, Lone

2007-01-01

299

Modifiable risk factors for ischemic stroke  

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Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death after cardiac disease and cancer in the developed countries. In patients older than 65 years old, ischemic stroke is one of the main causes of disability. They are also responsible for approximately 4.5 million deaths each year globally.The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the modifiable risk factors related to the development of ischemic stroke.The method ?f this study included bibliographic research from both reviews and researches from literature, mainly of the last 8 years. The words used in pub med data base, referred to the modifiable risk factors related to the development of ischemic stroke.Results: In the majority of research studies, responsible risk factors for ischemic stroke are classified according to their ability of modification, in modifiable and non–modifiable risk factors. Some of the modifiable risk factors have been fully documented whereas some others need further research. The main modifiable risk factor is hypertension because on the one hand it promotes atherosclerosis and, on the other hand, leads to deteriorative changes and constrictions of small brain vessels. Atrial fibrillation is the most significant risk factor for ischemic stroke, since it is responsible for more than 50% of thromboembolic cases. Also, patients with diabetes mellitus are in higher risk for developing ischemic stroke compared to healthy population, whereas the danger is increasing in insuline-depented individuals. Increase of lipids in blood and disorders of cholesterol are responsible for atherosclerosis in coronary vessels and carotid. More in detail, carotid stenosis >50% in individuals over than 65 years old consist a significant risk factor for ischemic stroke. Though, the relation of smoking to ischemic stroke is still not fully understood, however smokers are in high risk for developing ischemic stroke for the reason that smoking is significantly related to atherosclerosis. Furthermore, blood diseases and mainly sickle-cell disease is responsible for ischemic stroke because the progressive narrowing of blood vessels prevents oxygen from reaching the brain and other tissues.Conclusions: As it is supported by published evidence, the main modifiable risk factors for stroke are hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, carotid stenosis, smoking and sickle-cell disease. Taking into account that these factors are modifiable and consequently predictable, the organization of educational programs in individuals of high risk is a matter of great importance.

Alexandros Gianoulakis

2010-07-01

300

Insomnia as a health risk factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviewed insomnia epidemiological research, identifying areas where insomnia was a risk factor and isolating areas deserving of further investigation. Insomnia was consistently predictive of depression, anxiety disorders, other psychological disorders, alcohol abuse or dependence, drug abuse or dependence, and suicide, indicating insomnia is a risk factor for these difficulties. Additionally, insomnia was related to decreased immune functioning. The data were inconclusive regarding insomnia as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality, but sleep medication use was predictive of mortality. These results must be tempered with the knowledge that significant weaknesses existed in the studies reviewed. The main weaknesses were inadequate definition of insomnia and inadequate control for alternative explanations. Despite these limitations, this review suggests that insomnia is a risk factor for poor mental and physical health. PMID:15600216

Taylor, Daniel J; Lichstein, Kenneth L; Durrence, H Heith

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Risk Factors Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the studies reviewed here is to consider the risk factors associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. In order to abstract general features meta-analysis is utilized as the review tool.

Anthony Shannon

2010-04-01

302

POTENTIAL RISK FACTORS FOR THE ... - ARCHIVE: Defra  

Feb 8, 2010 ... Equine Infectious Anaemia: Potential Risk Factors for the. Introduction of ..... \\genus Equus of the family Equidae, and their crosses (European ... presence of \\the virus in sufficient quantities to initiate infection are also required.

303

Risk Factors for P.A.D.  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... conditions and habits increase your risk of developing P.A.D. Andrew: I smoked like a house ... being high could be a contributing factor to P.A.D. Mike: I have a heart condition ...

304

Oral mucosa alterations in a socioeconomically deprived region: prevalence and associated factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with oral mucosa alterations in patients from Vale do Jequiti-nhonha, Brazil. The sample consisted of 511 patients of both genders. Questionnaires were used to obtain information about patient gender, age, race, systemic disease state, medication use, cigarette use and alcohol consumption. Physical examinations were then performed to identify lesions of the oral mucosa. Descriptive analyses, Chi-squared tests and logistic regressions were then used to analyze the results (p < 0.05, 95% CI. In this population, 84.9% (434/511 of patients were found to have alterations in their oral mucosa. The most common alterations were melanotic maculae (36.0%, linea alba (33.9%, traumatic ulcers (21.5%, Fordyce's granules (20.4%, coated tongue (12.5% and fissured tongue (10.0%. Melanotic maculae were more frequently observed in black patients, with an odds ration (OR of 7.51. Being female was a statistically significant predictive factor for having a visible linea alba (OR: 1.90 and a fissured tongue (OR: 2.11. No statistically significant association was found between the presence of oral lesions and systemic disease, medication use, alcohol use and smoking. The high observed prevalence of melanotic maculae and Fordyce's granules suggests that these alterations could be considered typical characteristics of the population of the Vale do Jequitinhonha. Coated tongue may be related to the socioeconomic deprivation in the region. Furthermore, the high prevalence of traumatic ulcers may be associated with the traumatic agents that caused patients to seek dental care.

Raquel Gonçalves Vieira-Andrade

2011-10-01

305

Intake of whole grains in Scandinavia is associated with healthy lifestyle, socio-economic and dietary factors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To identify the dietary, lifestyle and socio-economic factors associated with the intake of whole grains (WG) in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Subsample of the Scandinavian cohort 'HELGA' consisting of three prospective cohorts: The Norwegian Women and Cancer Study; The Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study; and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study. SUBJECTS: A total of 8702 men and women aged 30-65 years. Dietary data are from one 24 h dietary recall and data on socio-economic status and lifestyle factors including anthropometric values are from the baseline collection of data. RESULTS: Vegetables, fruits, dairy products, fish and shellfish, coffee, tea and margarine were directly associated with the intake of WG, whereas red meat, white bread, alcohol and cakes and biscuits were inversely associated. Smoking and BMI were consistently inversely associated with the intake of WG. Furthermore, length of education was directly associated with the intake of WG among women. CONCLUSIONS: The intake of WG was found to be directly associated with healthy diet, lifestyle and socio-economic factors and inversely associated with less healthy factors, suggesting that these factors are important for consideration as potential confounders when studying WG intake and disease associations.

KyrØ, Cecilie; Skeie, Guri

2011-01-01

306

Risk factors in childhood eczema.  

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The cumulative rate of childhood eczema during the first three years was studied in a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand infants. A parental history of eczema was the strongest predictor of rates of childhood eczema but parental asthma was also related to childhood eczema. Children exposed to an early diverse solid-food diet also had increased risks of eczema, but there was no evidence to suggest that breast-feeding practices had any effect on rates of eczema. Analysis of the data suggested tha...

Fergusson, D. M.; Horwood, L. J.; Shannon, F. T.

1982-01-01

307

Relationship between premature mortality and socioeconomic factors in black and white populations of US metropolitan areas.  

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OBJECTIVE: examined the association of mortality with selected socioeconomic indicators of inequality and segregation among blacks and whites younger than age 65 in 267 US metropolitan areas. The primary aim of the analysis was to operationalize the concept of institutional racism in public health. METHODS: Socioeconomic indicators were drawn from Census and vital statistics data for 1989-1991 and included median household income; two measures of income inequality; percentage of the populatio...

Cooper, R. S.; Kennelly, J. F.; Durazo-arvizu, R.; Oh, H. J.; Kaplan, G.; Lynch, J.

2001-01-01

308

Lifestyle Factors and Stroke Risk  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... substantially may come down to 5 key lifestyle factors. A new study published in the online issue of the journal Neurology, followed more than 31,600 women for an average of ten years. At the start, each completed an in- ...

309

HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

310

White Rice Consumption and CVD Risk Factors among Iranian Population  

Science.gov (United States)

Association between white rice intake and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases remained uncertain. Most of the previous published studies have been done in western countries with different lifestyles, and scant data are available from the Middle East region, including Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the structure of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) to assess the association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, 3,006 men were included from three counties of Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak by multistage cluster random-sampling method. Dietary intake was assessed with a 49-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Laboratory assessment was done in a standardized central laboratory. Outcome variables were fasting blood glucose, serum lipid levels, and anthropometric variables. Socioeconomic and demographic data, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) were considered covariates and were adjusted in analysis. In this study, Student's t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Means of BMI among those subjects who consumed white rice less than 7 times per week and people who consumed 7-14 times per week were almost similar—24.8±4.3 vs 24.5±4.7 kg/m2. There was no significant association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, such as fasting blood sugar and serum lipid profiles. Although whole grain consumption has undeniable effect on preventing cardiovascular disease risk, white rice consumption was not associated with cardiovascular risks among Iranian men in the present study. Further prospective studies with a semi-quantitative FFQ or dietary record questionnaire, representing type and portion-size of rice intake as well as cooking methods and other foods consumed with rice that affect glycaemic index (GI) of rice, are required to support our finding and to illustrate the probable mechanism. PMID:23930344

Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Asgari, Sedigheh; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

311

Lung cancer epidemiology, risk factors, and prevention.  

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The greatest risk by far for developing lung cancer is cigarette smoking, but age, radon exposure, environmental pollution, occupational exposures, gender, race, and pre-existing lung disease also are important contributors. However, not all people with these risk factors develop lung cancer, and some without any known risk factor do, indicating the importance of genetic influences. Future advances in understanding and treating lung cancer will be based on genetic analysis. The most effective preventive measure is to never start or to stop cigarette smoking. PMID:22974775

de Groot, Patricia; Munden, Reginald F

2012-09-01

312

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Well-Being, Home Literacy, and Early Literacy Skills of At-Risk Preschoolers  

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In response to growing research and policy interest in the developmental contexts of early literacy, this study examined relations between neighborhood socioeconomic well-being, home literacy (parent-child shared reading and number of books at home), and directly assessed early literacy outcomes among 551 Head Start students in the fall of…

Froiland, John Mark; Powell, Douglas R.; Diamond, Karen E.; Son, Seung-Hee Claire

2013-01-01

313

Risk factors for lower respiratory tract infections in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: Acute respiratory tract infections are divided into two groups as upper and lower respiratory tract infections. These are very common diseases in childhood. In this study, we aimed to determine risk factors for lower respiratory tract in this region. Methodology: Hospital were included in our study. Their examinations, backgrounds, family histories and information about environmental factors were recorded in questionnaire forms. Results: Lack of vaccination, duration of breast feeding, onset age of cow's milk, family history for asthma and food allergy, number of hospitalized people in the same room, number of people who live in same house and smoking around the children were evaluated for the presence of LRTI, and LRTI risks of these factors were respectively observed as 1.69, 1.71, 1.61, 1.69, 1.20, 1.47, 1.56 and 2.63 fold increased. Conclusion: Standardization of clinical diagnosis, accurate and realistic use of antibiotics, correction of nutrition, improvement of socio-economic situation and the elimination of Respiratory Infections. (author)

314

HIV and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status, Popayan-Colombia (2008-2009  

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Full Text Available Objective: to determine HIV presence and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status in the city of PopayanColombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study; between 2008 and 2009, 363 participants of Popayan signed informed consent and received pre and post HIV test counseling. Socio-demographic characteristics and history of STDs, risk behaviors and previous HIV testing were assessed. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multivariate logistic regression were calculated Results: Mean age 33,5±10,2; 66%women.Frequency of HIV-positive patients was 3.86% (95% CI: 1.87-5.85, greater in men (7.38%; p=0,013. Greater frequency of HIV-positive patients was observed in people age 29-37, those without a stable partner, and those with history of risky alcohol consumption (more than five drinks in 2 hours . Conclusions: HIV-positive patients frequency in this population was greater than national estimate for general population, aged 15-49 in Colombia, with even greater frequency in men. This study suggests that characteristics associated with low socioeconomic status, in economically active population, without a stable partner and with risky alcohol use, can potentially increase risk of HIV infection

Mueses, Hector Fabio

2013-03-01

315

Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue  

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Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, sedentariness, metabolic syndrome

Rodrigues AN

2013-03-01

316

SMART risk factor screening in patients at high vascular risk  

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Studies presented in this thesis focused on the relationship between the presence of coronary heart disease and intra-abdominal fat, and the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and the presence of metabolic syndrome, incidence of type 2 diabetes and recurrence of vascular events in high-risk patients. In addition, two risk factor management strategies in patients with clinical manifest vascular disease were evaluated. We demonstrated that waist circumference had the strongest ...

Brouwer, B. G.

2008-01-01

317

Childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood: mental health and socioeconomic status as explanatory factors and buffers  

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Full Text Available Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.

SusanM Arai

2011-01-01

318

Cross-sectional Study on the Effects of Socioeconomic Factors on Lead Exposure in Children by Gender in Serpong, Indonesia  

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Full Text Available To elucidate the socioeconomic factors influencing lead exposure in elementary school children by gender, 108 children (56 male, 52 female, aged 6–7 years, were randomly selected from 39 elementary state schools in Serpong, Banten, Indonesia. Their parents were interviewed to obtain information on sociodemographic characteristics. Their blood lead (BPb levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. BPb concentrations were significantly higher in males than in females, i.e., 6.8 ± 2.0 (2.9–12.5 µg/dL and 5.9 ± 1.9 (3.1–11.7 µg/dL, respectively (p < 0.05. Lower socioeconomic status and well water use were associated with increased BPb concentrations, especially in females. The proportion of well water use was related to lower socioeconomic status. Lower socioeconomic status linked with well water drinking seemed to be associated with increased lead exposure in children in Serpong. Their exposure levels possibly varied according to gender differences in behavior. An intervention should be instituted among children in Serpong with BPb concentrations of 10 µg/dL or above.

Hiroaki Itoh

2012-11-01

319

What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?  

Science.gov (United States)

... know what causes testicular cancer? What are the risk factors for testicular cancer? A risk factor is anything ... testicular cancer and body weight. Unproven or controversial risk factors Prior trauma to the testicles and recurrent actions ...

320

Heart Disease Risk Factors | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

Science.gov (United States)

... disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk factors. Risk factors also increase the chance that existing CHD ... CHD, talk with your doctor or healthcare provider. Risk Factors You Can Control Smoking —Smoking is the most ...

 
 
 
 
321

Heart Disease Risk Factors for Children and Teenagers  

Science.gov (United States)

... of developing heart disease. These are called risk factors . Some risk factors can be changed, treated, or modified, and some cannot. Many risk factors can be controlled early in life, lowering the ...

322

Sex as suicidal risk factor  

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Full Text Available Introduction. The rates of suicide are two to three times higher in men than in women in all communities. This “gender paradox” can be explained by various factors, such as more impulsive nature of men and their choice of more efficient (more lethal methods to commit suicide. This study was aimed at finding the correlation between the gender and other suicidal factors. Material and Methods. The study sample consisted of persons who committed suicide on the territory of Kragujevac in the period from 1996 to 2001. This study was based on the records kept by the Ministry of the Interior as well as by the Psychiatric Clinic of the Clinical Centre ”Kragujevac”. Data for weather were obtained from the Serbian Meteorological Institute reports. Results. During the analyzed period 121 suicides were committed on the territory of Kragujevac. The gender structure showed that within persons who committed suicide there were 78.5% men and 21.5% women (p<0.01. As for diseases which had existed before suicide, women suffered from the underlying psychic disorder in 65.3%, while 50.5% of men had both a psychic disorder and addiction problem. Hanging was the most frequently used method by both men and women (57.9% and 65.4%, respectively; and home was chosen as the place to commit suicide by 49.5% men and 42.3% women. Both men and women had a behaviour disorder before suicide, in 75.8% and 88.4% of the cases, respectively, (p<0.01. The dominating motive was a disease in 17.9% of men, whereas family problems prevailed in 11.5% of women (p<0.01. Conclusion. There is a statistically important difference between men and women considering pre-suicidal behaviour, suicidal motive and suicidal frequency.

Koci? Sanja

2012-01-01

323

[The prevalence of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease in black Africa. The impact of socioeconomic factors and cultural customs].  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of reliable and recent information about the oral and dental health conditions of many African countries is a serious object of concern. There is an urgent need of up-to-date information about the oral and dental diseases existing among the various African populations and about their deciding factors. This study takes stock of the periodontal diseases in black Africa and mention the influence of the socio-economic advancing and the cultural habits. PMID:11544924

Kamagate, A; Coulibaly, N T; Kone, D; Brou, E; Bakayoko, L R

2001-06-01

324

Risk Factors Associated with Clinical Malaria Episodes in Bangladesh: A Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Malaria is endemic to Bangladesh. In this longitudinal study, we used hydrologic, topographic, and socioeconomic risk factors to explain single and multiple malaria infections at individual and household levels. Malaria incidence was determined for 1,634 households in 54 villages in 2009 and 2010. During the entire study period 21.8% of households accounted for all (n = 497) malaria cases detected; 15.4% of households had 1 case and 6.4% had ? 2 cases. The greatest risk factors for malaria infection were low bed net ratio per household, house construction materials (wall), and high density of houses. Hydrologic and topographic factors were not significantly associated with malaria risk. This study identifies stable malaria hotspots and risk factors that should be considered for cost-effective targeting of malaria interventions that may contribute to potential elimination of malaria in Bangladesh. PMID:23419363

Haque, Ubydul; Glass, Gregory E.; Bomblies, Arne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Mitra, Dipak; Noman, Nawajish; Haque, Waziul; Kabir, M. Moktadir; Yamamoto, Taro; Overgaard, Hans J.

2013-01-01

325

MATERNAL RISK FACTORS IN HYPERTENSIVE´S SYNDROMES OF PREGNANCY: A REVIEW  

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Full Text Available The Hypertensive´s syndrome in pregnancy, represent the major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the country. That are so many risk factors for you unleashment and it can happen before pregnancy or arise in your course. Thus, the present study aimed to analyze the bibliographic production around the maternal risk factors associated with Hypertensive´s syndromes in pregnancy. Were analyzed 09 articles from national and international journals obtained through the LILACS database, between 2001 to 2010. Between the maternal risk factors for the development of Hypertensive´s syndrome in pregnancy were appointed chronic hypertension, preeclampsia, and gestational hypertension and prior gestational hypertension. The family history of hypertension, overweight and obesity; the tobaccoism; low socioeconomic status, stress / emotional conflicts and improper prenatal care. Emphasize the importance of early identification and intervention of risk factors in the prenatal, seeking a better maternal and fetal prognosis.

R. C. Bortoli

2014-07-01

326

Conversion risk factors in laparoscopic colorectal surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction This study is aimed at identifying important risk factors associated with conversion of laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Laparoscopic surgery is usually associated with less operative trauma, more favourable post-operative course and lower morbidity than open surgery. However, conversion is connected with some risks according to some authors. Aim To identify the risk factors associated with conversion and to create a model to predict possible conversion for a patient before surgery. Material and methods The source data file contained information about 649 patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery between 2001 and 2009 at the University Hospital Ostrava, Czech Republic. Conversion to open surgery was necessary in 54 cases. The variables gender, body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, stage of disease, number of previous operations and operation severity were included in the analysis as the potential risk factors of conversion. Discriminant analysis was used for the data evaluation; statistical software SPSS 17 and NCSS 2004 were used for the calculations. Results The created model had only low discriminating ability. The variable ASA classification was identified as the most important risk factor of conversion, followed by the variables operation severity, gender and BMI. Conclusions Discriminant analysis did not find the chosen input variables satisfactory enough to make a reasonable model for the prediction of conversion. The expected fact was confirmed that large bowel surgery and greater BMI mean greater risk of conversion, whereas there is no reason to refuse laparoscopy for a patient with higher ASA classification. PMID:23362422

Martinek, Lubomir

2012-01-01

327

The Influence of Socioeconomic Factors on Kentucky's Public School Accountability System:Does Poverty Impact School Effectiveness?  

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Full Text Available Under the Commonwealth Accountability Testing System (CATS, Kentucky's public schools have been assigned individualized baseline and improvement goal indices based upon past school performance in relation to the 2014 statewide index goal of 100. Each school's CATS Accountability Index, a measure of school performance based upon both cognitive and non-cognitive measures, has then been compared to these individualized improvement goals for the purpose of designating schools as Meet Goal, Progressing, and Assistance Level (Kentucky Department of Education (KDE, 2000. Considered an interim target model, the design of CATS has been intended to negate the biasing effects of socioeconomic factors on school performance on accountability tests through the individualization of school goals (Ladd. 2001. Results of this study showed that 39.9% to 55.5% of the variance of the CATS indices was shared by school socioeconomic factors. Analysis of this interim target model for the 2000-2002 biennium showed that for elementary and middle schools this model negated the biasing effects of socioeconomic factors, but not for high schools. Moreover, analysis of the progress of schools toward their Improvement Goals in 2001 showed that both elementary and high schools from higher poverty backgrounds lagged significantly behind their more affluent peers, indicating inequitable capacity to meet improvement goals between the poorest and most wealthy schools. Adaptations to the present accountability systems were suggested for the purpose of providing more accurate information to the public regarding the effectiveness of public schools in Kentucky.

Robert Lyons

2004-08-01

328

Socio-economic factors associated with delivery assisted by traditional birth attendants in Iraq, 2000  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional birth attendants (TBAs are likely to deliver lower quality maternity care compared to professional health workers. It is important to characterize women who are assisted by TBAs in order to design interventions specific to such groups. We thus conducted a study to assess if socio-economic status and demographic factors are associated with having childbirth supervised by traditional birth attendants in Iraq. Methods Iraqi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS data for 2000 were used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of having been delivered by a traditional birth attendant and other social characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between having been delivered by a TBA and wealth, area of residence (urban versus rural, parity, maternal education and age. Results Altogether 22,980 women participated in the survey, and of these women, 2873 had delivery information and whether they were assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs or not during delivery. About 1 in 5 women (26.9% had been assisted by TBAs. Compared to women of age 35 years or more, women of age 25–34 years were 22% (AOR = 1.22, 95%CI [1.08, 1.39] more likely to be assisted by TBAs during delivery. Women who had no formal education were 42% (AOR = 1.42, 95%CI [1.22, 1.65] more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those who had attained secondary or higher level of education. Women in the poorest wealth quintile were 2.52 (AOR = 2.52, 95%CI [2.14, 2.98] more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those in the richest quintile. Compared to women who had 7 or more children, those who had 1 or 2 were 28% (AOR = 0.72, 95%CI [0.59, 0.87] less likely to be delivered by TBAs. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that having delivery supervised by traditional birth attendants was associated with young maternal age, low education, and being poor. Meanwhile women having 1 or 2 children were less likely to be delivered by TBAs. These factors should be considered in the design of interventions to reduce the rate of deliveries assisted by TBAs in favour of professional midwives, and consequently reduce maternal and neonatal mortality rates and other adverse events.

Rudatsikira Emmanuel

2009-04-01

329

Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection  

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Full Text Available Introduction Hepatitis C viral infection represents a major health problem in the world. The estimated global incidence is about 3%, whereas the number of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV carriers worldwide is estimated to be between 150-300 million people. Material and methods This retrospective analysis included 82 patients whose diagnosis of viral hepatitis C infection was based upon the following criteria: case history, physical examination, laboratory and abdominal ultrasound examination, histological examination of the liver, radiological examination, serological analysis and viral analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe general data on patients of the study group, risk factor analysis and follow-up results. Results The most prominent risk factor in our study group was intravenous use of drugs in 37 patients (37%, and blood transfusion in 13 patients (13%. Less important risk factors of viral hepatitis C infection included: promiscuity (8%, sexual contact with hepatitis C carriers (5%, surgical intervention (5%, haemodialysis (3%, intranasal use of cocaine (2%. Discussion Hepatitis C viral infection has become the illness of young and middle-aged population. This is due to the epidemic profile of this illness, due to intravenous use of drugs as the most prominent risk factor. Conclusion Due to the number of infected, numerous risk factors and complications of viral hepatitis C, hepatitis C virus has become the most prominent hepatotrophic virus.

Mijailovi? Željko D.

2003-01-01

330

Fatores sócio-econômicos relacionados ao risco nutricional e sua associação com a freqüência de defeitos do esmalte em crianças da cidade de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil / Socioeconomic factors, nutritional risk, and enamel defects in children from João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar fatores associados ao risco nutricional ao longo do primeiro ano de vida em crianças de baixo nível sócio-econômico de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Região Nordeste do Brasil. E determinar a freqüência de defeitos do esmalte, associando-a ao risco nutricional. O estudo [...] foi realizado com 117 crianças, 56 com risco nutricional e 61 eutróficas. Em domicílio, realizaram-se avaliação nutricional, exame clínico dos elementos dentais e entrevistas com as mães. Na maternidade, registraram-se informações dos períodos gestacional e de nascimento. Utilizaram-se os testes qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e modelos de regressão logística. Os defeitos do esmalte estiveram associados ao risco nutricional após o primeiro ano de vida. O risco nutricional esteve associado à renda per capita, condições de peso ao nascimento e índice de crescimento intra-uterino. Conclui-se que na amostra investigada os defeitos do esmalte estiveram associados ao risco nutricional e este às condições sócio-econômicas desfavoráveis durante a gestação e o nascimento, sugerindo que estes são fatores relevantes na programação nutricional do indivíduo e na formação do esmalte dentário. Abstract in english This study focused on factors related to nutritional risk in children over one year of age from low-income families in João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil, and the frequency of related enamel defects. The study included 117 children, 56 at nutritional risk and 61 with normal growth. Nutriti [...] onal evaluation, clinical dental examination, and interviews with mothers were conducted at the homes. Gestational and birth records were examined in the maternity hospital. Data were analyzed using the chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Enamel defects were associated with nutritional risk after the first year of life. Nutritional risk was associated with per capita family income, birth weight, and intrauterine growth index. These are relevant factors for individual nutritional planning and formation of dental enamel.

Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino, Massoni; Andressa Feitosa Bezerra de, Oliveira; Ana Maria Barros, Chaves; Fábio Correia, Sampaio; Aronita, Rosenblatt.

331

Dietary factors and breast cancer risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

As part of a case-control study in northern Alberta, Canada, 577 women aged 30-80 with breast cancer diagnosed during 1976-77 and a population-based age-stratified random sample of 826 disease-free female controls were questioned about certain aspects of their diet. Computing relative risks (RRs) by tertiles, significant increasing trends were found with more frequent consumption of beef (RRs of 1.0, 2.3, 1.5; test for trends, p less than 0.001), pork (RRs of 1.0, 1.6, 2.2; test for trend, p less than 0.001), and sweet desserts (RRs of 1.0, 1.3, 1.5; test for trend, p = 0.01). Elevated risks were also noted for use of butter at the table and for frying with butter or margarine, as opposed to vegetable oils. The association of total beef and pork consumption with breast cancer was not materially affected by controlling for age at first birth, family history of breast cancer, previous benign breast biopsy or socioeconomic status. Nor was the association reduced by controlling for ages of menarche and menopause, even though within the control series the intake of beef and pork reported in adult life was higher among those with a lower age at menarche or a older age at natural menopause. PMID:7333703

Lubin, J H; Burns, P E; Blot, W J; Ziegler, R G; Lees, A W; Fraumeni, J F

1981-12-01

332

Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao  

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One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single parenthood, and unemployment increase the risk for women, but not for men. These findings are consistent with current literature on the subject. Further r...

Wijk, N. Ph L.; Bruijn, J. G. M.

2012-01-01

333

Relación entre el Nivel Socioeconómico y Hábitos de Vida, con el Fibrinógeno y el Factor von Willebrand en Venezolanos Sanos y con Cardiopatía Isquémica / Relation between Socioeconomic Levels and Life Style with Fibrinogen and von Willebrand Factor in Venezuela.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Estudios epidemiológicos en Europa, EEUU y Japón, han revelado una relación inversa entre la concentración de fibrinógeno y del factor von Willebrand con el nivel socioeconómico. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la relación entre el fibrinógeno y el factor von Willebrand con el nivel s [...] ocioeconómico, los hábitos tabáquicos, alcohólicos, actividad física y la edad, en una población venezolana aparentemente sana de 978 hombres y 968 mujeres (grupo control), y en 172 hombres y 78 mujeres con Enfermedad Cardiovascular Isquémica. Se consideró factor de riesgo comportamiento para niveles altos de fibrinógeno y factor von Willebrand, la presencia de uno o más de los siguientes hábitos: ser fumador o ex-fumador de menos de 5 años, no ingerir alcohol o ingerirlo en exceso, y el tener una actividad física muy limitada. En los controles, la edad tuvo un efecto significativo y positivo sobre las dos variables hemostáticas, en ambos sexos. En relación al efecto del nivel socioeconómico, se observó una tendencia en ambas variables de mostrar las concentraciones más altas en los niveles más bajos, sólo significativa en las mujeres. En cambio, el factor de riesgo comportamiento no tuvo un efecto significativo sobre ninguna de las dos variables. En los pacientes, la edad no tuvo efecto sobre ninguna de las variables, el factor de riesgo comportamiento tuvo un efecto significativo positivo sólo sobre el fibrinógeno de los hombres, y el nivel socioeconómico sólo tuvo efectos significativos en la concentración de fibrinógeno de las mujeres: valores altos en niveles socioeconómicos bajos. Se recomienda continuar con estos estudios para entender mejor la relación entre el nivel socioeconómico, las variables hemostáticas y la incidencia de Enfermedad Cardiovascular Isquémica. Abstract in english Previous studies in Europe, USA and Japan have revealed an inverse relationship between socioeconomic levels and fibrinogen concentration. Similar results have been reported in a smaller number of studies for concentrations of von Willebrand factor. In this opportunity we present results on the rela [...] tionship between smoking, drinking, physical activity, age and socioeconomic level on fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor concentrations in a Venezuelan sample. The Control population consisted of 978 men and 968 women. Patients with Coronary Heart Disease were 172 males and 78 females. The presence of one or more of the following conditions: smoking or less than 5 years of having quit, non drinkers or drinking in excess, and a reduced physical activity, was considered a health related risk factor for high levels of these two haemostatic variables. Our results indicate that in Controls, the socioeconomic level had a significant effect on fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor levels, only in women: those of lower socioeconomic levels had the highest concentrations. This difference was maintained when age was taken into account. Health related behaviors had no significant effect on either variable. In Patients, age had no effect on either variable. The health behavior risk factor had a significant effect only on fibrinogen of male patients, and socioeconomic level had a significant effect only on the fibrinogen of female patients. More studies in Venezuela are recommended, in order to increase our knowledge on the relationship between socioeconomic levels, haemostatic markers and the occurrence of Coronary Heart Disease.

Álvaro, Rodríguez-Larralde; Mercedes E, Mijares; Elena, Nagy; Raul, Espinosa; Elena, Ryde; María P., Diez-Ewald; Enrique, Torres; Enriqueta, Coll-Sangrona; Elsy, Rodríguez- Roa; Zoila, Carvajal; Ulf, Lundberg; Gilberto, Campos; Amparo, Gi; Carmen L, Arocha-Piñango.

334

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Minority Physics Taking in U.S. High Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

In the September issue, we saw that a lower proportion of Hispanics and blacks take physics in U.S. high schools than do whites and Asians. Last month, we examined physics offerings and students by socioeconomic profile of the high school as reported by the principal. We saw that there were more physics classes and more physics students at…

Physics Teacher, 2011

2011-01-01

335

Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status  

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Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

Daniel Belstrøm

2014-04-01

336

Risk factors, pulmonary function, and mortality.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a genetic-epidemiologic study of obstructive airway disease (OAD), cross sectional and longitudinal data (4.7 year follow-up) were collected to investigate relationships among risk factors, pulmonary function, and mortality. In the cross sectional evaluation of 2539 non-patient adults, 11 potential risk factors were found to be significantly associated with airways obstruction. Most important among these were age and smoking. Others included: demographic variables (gender, SES, education); the intake of coffee and diet soda; genetic markers (protease inhibitor "Pi" type, ABO type, ABH secretor status); and familial pulmonary disease. Examination of combinations of risk factors in cross sectional data indicated that some of these factors were important risk factors in cigarette smokers but less evident in never smokers. For example, ABO type, familial component, coffee drinking and diet soda intake were related to marked differences in lung function in cigarette smokers, but had little impact in never smokers. Thus, interactions of factors must be considered when assessing risk of pulmonary dysfunction. In the longitudinal evaluation, 11 factors found to be significant on cross sectional study plus 4 tests of lung function (closing capacity, diffusing capacity, slope of Phase III, and flow volume curves) were examined for correlations with loss of forced expiratory volume. Consistently greater declines of lung function were noted in males, older subjects, smokers, whites, and individuals carrying the type A blood group allele. Increased initial visit closing capacity was also associated with increased deterioration. Together, however, these factors accounted for only a modest amount of observed variation in decline in lung function (17% in females and 12% in males). Initial visit characteristics were not only associated with deterioration of lung function in survivors, as described above, but with survivorship per se. Age, sex, race and cigarette smoking were associated with differences in mortality. In addition to these, pulmonary dysfunction itself at initial visit was an independent risk factor for increased mortality. For example, the mortality of unobstructed males in the 5th decade of life was 16 per thousand compared to 25 per thousand in obstructed males. For females, the mortality in the 5th decade of life was 7 per thousand if unobstructed and 12 per thousand if obstructed. We conclude: 1) In cross sectional evaluation, multiple factors are associated with airways obstruction. Of these, smoking appears to interact strongly with other factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6610878

Menkes, H A; Cohen, B H; Beaty, T H; Newill, C A; Khoury, M J

1984-01-01

337

Neighborhood socioeconomic status, Medicaid coverage and medical management of myocardial infarction: Atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC community surveillance  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacologic treatments are efficacious in reducing post-myocardial infarction (MI morbidity and mortality. The potential influence of socioeconomic factors on the receipt of pharmacologic therapy has not been systematically examined, even though healthcare utilization likely influences morbidity and mortality post-MI. This study aims to investigate the association between socioeconomic factors and receipt of evidence-based treatments post-MI in a community surveillance setting. Methods We evaluated the association of census tract-level neighborhood household income (nINC and Medicaid coverage with pharmacologic treatments (aspirin, beta [?]-blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors; optimal therapy, defined as receipt of two or more treatments received during hospitalization or at discharge among 9,608 MI events in the ARIC community surveillance study (1993-2002. Prevalence ratios (PR, 95% CI, adjusted for the clustering of hospitalized MI events within census tracts and within patients, were estimated using Poisson regression. Results Seventy-eight percent of patients received optimal therapy. Low nINC was associated with a lower likelihood of receiving ?-blockers (0.93, 0.87-0.98 and a higher likelihood of receiving ACE inhibitors (1.13, 1.04-1.22, compared to high nINC. Patients with Medicaid coverage were less likely to receive aspirin (0.92, 0.87-0.98, compared to patients without Medicaid coverage. These findings were independent of other key covariates. Conclusions nINC and Medicaid coverage may be two of several socioeconomic factors influencing the complexities of medical care practice patterns.

Wood Joy L

2010-10-01

338

Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers  

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Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

Victoria Gray

2010-06-01

339

Desigualdades socioeconômicas e demográficas como fatores de risco para a artrite autorreferida: estudo de base populacional em adultos no Sul do Brasil Socioeconomic and demographic inequalities as risk factors for self-reported arthritis: a population-based study in southern Brazil  

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Full Text Available Estimar a prevalência de artrite ou reumatismo autorreferido e os fatores associados. Realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, com 1.720 adultos entre 20 e 59 anos. A presença de artrite ou reumatismo autorreferido foi analisada por meio do modelo hierárquico de determinação no nível demográfico, socioeconômico, comportamental e uso de serviços de saúde. Utilizou-se análise de regressão logística para avaliar a associação entre as variáveis. A prevalência de artrite ou reumatismo autorreferido foi de 7,7% (IC95%: 6,4-8,9. A chance de artrite ou reumatismo autorreferido foi duas vezes maior entre as mulheres, maior entre aqueles com índice de massa corporal (IMC > 30kg/m²,diretamente proporcional à idade e inversamente proporcional à escolaridade. A prevalência de artrite ou reumatismo autorreferido foi maior do que a estimativa nacional no ano de 2008. Essa realidade sugere a necessidade de um planejamento de políticas públicas voltado para esse agravo de saúde.The study aimed to estimate prevalence of self-reported arthritis or rheumatism and associated factors. This was a cross-sectional population-based study in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, with 1,720 adults ranging from 20 to 59 years of age. Presence of self-reported arthritis or rheumatism was analyzed with a hierarchical approach, considering demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables and use of health services. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between the outcome and independent variables. Prevalence of self-reported arthritis or rheumatism was 7.7% (95%CI: 6.4-8.9. The odds of self-reported arthritis were twice as high in women, and increased self-reported arthritis was directly associated with BMI > 30kg/m² and increasing age and inversely proportional to schooling. Self-reported arthritis or rheumatism was higher in this sample than in Brazilian adults in general in 2008. The results suggest the need to plan public health policies to address this problem.

Rafael Santos Gomes

2012-08-01

340

Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability  

Science.gov (United States)

The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence  

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The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

2006-01-01

342

Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

2008-01-01

343

Child sexual assault: risk factors for girls.  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads. The data were collected from the girls' first year of life through their early twenties. Factors measured during childhood were used to predict whether the girls experienced a subsequent first sexual assault before the age of 18. Prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault. Research on behavioral health consequences of SA should control for preexisting SA risk factors to more accurately estimate the impact of child SA on subsequent behavioral health. PMID:23899536

Butler, Amy C

2013-09-01

344

Risk Factors for P.A.D.  

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Full Text Available ... and habits increase your risk of developing P.A.D. Andrew: I smoked like a house afire for many years. Rita: I did ... that my blood pressure being high could be a contributing factor to P.A.D. Mike: I ...

345

Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

2010-01-01

346

Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

2014-01-01

347

Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... studies did not find it any better than normal saline (salt water). Kidney Disease Risk Factors You Can't Change But Should Know About A Family History of Kidney ... that can crowd out normal kidney tissue. Diabetes and high blood pressure can ...

348

Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao  

Science.gov (United States)

One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

2012-01-01

349

Atherogenic Risk Factors and Hearing Thresholds  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models. Adjusted results suggested associations between smoking, high BMI and triglyceride level and low high-density lipoprotein level and increased low-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kHz). Furthermore, an increasing load of atherogenic risk factors seemed associated with increased low-frequency hearing thresholds, but only at a borderline level of statistical significance. Associations were generally strongest with hearing levels of the worst hearing ear. We found no statistically significant associations between atherogenic risk factors and high-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 4, 6 and 8 kHz). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia HØst

2014-01-01

350

Adolescent Suicide Risk: Four Psychosocial Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents. This study examined the suicidal ideation, behavior, and attempt history of 100 adolescents ages seventeen to nineteen. Four psychosocial factors were found to be important for overall suicide risk: hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept, and isolation. It is suggested that focusing on…

Rutter, Philip A.; Behrendt, Andrew E.

2004-01-01

351

[Sexual risk factors among European young people].  

Science.gov (United States)

The sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in Europe are still rising. In order to prioritize STI prevention strategies in Europe, it is important to describe the prevalence of different sexual risk factors for STIs among European young people. We carried out a systematic review of published articles and studies performed by European institutions. A total of 21 articles and 10 studies were identified. The data shows an increase in early sexual initiation and the number of sexual partners. Young people who use condoms inconsistently ranged from 15 to 20%. The observed risk factors are: unawareness about other STIs different from HIV, being in favour of casual sex, wrongly believing that some measures are effective in avoiding HIV, not being aware of the risks from having multiple sexual partners and unawareness about the sexual transmission of HIV. The data suggests the need to improve the information addressed to youth. PMID:22015005

Calatrava, María; López-Del Burgo, Cristina; de Irala, Jokin

2012-05-01

352

Epidemiology and risk factors for invasive candidiasis  

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Full Text Available Nur Yapar Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylül University, ?zmir, Turkey Abstract: The number of immunosuppressive patients has increased significantly in recent years. These patients are at risk for opportunistic infections, especially fungal infections. Candidiasis is one of the most frequent fungal infections determined in these immunosuppressive patients and its epidemiology has changed over the last two decades. Recently, new antifungal agents and new therapy strategies such as antifungal prophylaxis, secondary prophylaxis, and preemptive therapy have come into use. These changes resulted in the alteration of Candida species causing invasive infections. The incidence of Candida albicans was decreased in many countries, especially among patients with immunosuppressive disorders, while the incidence of species other than C. albicans was increased. In this review, incidence, risk factors, and species distribution of invasive candidiasis are discussed. Keywords: candidemia, invasive candidiasis, incidence, species distribution, risk factors

Yapar N

2014-02-01

353

Fatores sócio-econômicos relacionados ao risco nutricional e sua associação com a freqüência de defeitos do esmalte em crianças da cidade de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil / Socioeconomic factors, nutritional risk, and enamel defects in children from João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar fatores associados ao risco nutricional ao longo do primeiro ano de vida em crianças de baixo nível sócio-econômico de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Região Nordeste do Brasil. E determinar a freqüência de defeitos do esmalte, associando-a ao risco nutricional. O estudo [...] foi realizado com 117 crianças, 56 com risco nutricional e 61 eutróficas. Em domicílio, realizaram-se avaliação nutricional, exame clínico dos elementos dentais e entrevistas com as mães. Na maternidade, registraram-se informações dos períodos gestacional e de nascimento. Utilizaram-se os testes qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e modelos de regressão logística. Os defeitos do esmalte estiveram associados ao risco nutricional após o primeiro ano de vida. O risco nutricional esteve associado à renda per capita, condições de peso ao nascimento e índice de crescimento intra-uterino. Conclui-se que na amostra investigada os defeitos do esmalte estiveram associados ao risco nutricional e este às condições sócio-econômicas desfavoráveis durante a gestação e o nascimento, sugerindo que estes são fatores relevantes na programação nutricional do indivíduo e na formação do esmalte dentário. Abstract in english This study focused on factors related to nutritional risk in children over one year of age from low-income families in João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil, and the frequency of related enamel defects. The study included 117 children, 56 at nutritional risk and 61 with normal growth. Nutriti [...] onal evaluation, clinical dental examination, and interviews with mothers were conducted at the homes. Gestational and birth records were examined in the maternity hospital. Data were analyzed using the chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Enamel defects were associated with nutritional risk after the first year of life. Nutritional risk was associated with per capita family income, birth weight, and intrauterine growth index. These are relevant factors for individual nutritional planning and formation of dental enamel.

Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino, Massoni; Andressa Feitosa Bezerra de, Oliveira; Ana Maria Barros, Chaves; Fábio Correia, Sampaio; Aronita, Rosenblatt.

354

Pre-Diabetes Non-Modifiable Risk Factors  

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... Tools & Resources Stroke More Pre-diabetes Non-modifiable Risk Factors Updated:Mar 8,2014 What Factors Are Beyond ... Your Risks for Pre-diabetes Intro Modifiable Risk Factors Non-modifiable Risk Factors • Symptoms, Diagnosis & Monitoring • Prevention & Treatment Intro Medication ...

355

What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer?  

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... known risk factors. Risk factors for eye melanoma Race/ethnicity The risk of intraocular melanoma is much ... College Relay For Life Relay Recess Donate a Car About ACS About Us Contact Us Local Offices ...

356

Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?  

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... and Badges Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors? Your risk of getting colorectal cancer increases as you get ... who are 50 years old or older. Other risk factors include having— Inflammatory bowel disease Inflammatory bowel disease , ...

357

Critical analysis: Portuguese 9th grade exam results and socioeconomic factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The typical indicator used to assess school performance is average test score results. Literature has pointed out serious weaknesses of this measure as a school performance indicator. The strongest criticism resides in the bias that may exist in socially disadvantaged schools. In fact, this measure does not take into account socioeconomic and other variables which are relevant in determining student?s school performance and out of the scope of school control. Using school level cross-sectio...

Azevedo, Rita Ramos

2011-01-01

358

The Effect of Socioeconomic Factors on Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on quality of life (QoL) after treatment in patients with head and neck carcinoma (HNC). Patients and Methods: The study population included 50 HNC patients seen in their control examinations after radiotherapy during a 2-month interval and who were willing to complete the Short-Form 36 QoL questionnaire. Socioeconomic, demographic, and tumor- and treatment-related factors were analyzed for their effect on physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: All patients received radiotherapy, and 33 patients (66%) underwent surgery for the primary tumor and/or neck disease. Chemotherapy was given in 9 patients (18%). Mean PCS and MCS were 47.9 (range, 24.8-59.3) and 46.7 (range, 22-63.3) for the whole patient population. There was no significant factor affecting PCS. Education level of 'middle school or higher,' perceived economic status of 'medium or higher,' social security status of not being 'absent or minimally covered,' and unilateral type of neck surgery were found to increase MCS significantly. According to separate linear regression analyses performed for three socioeconomic variables, the most significant factor for MCS was social security status compared with education level and perceived economic status. It was the only parameter that retained its significance when all five parameters were combined in a linear regression model. Concombined in a linear regression model. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that educational status, perceived economic status, and social security status showed a significant effect on the QoL of HNC patients after radiotherapy. When all variables were taken into account, only 'social security status' remained significant

359

Intestinal helminthiases in Ecuador: the relatíonship between prevalence, genetic, and socioeconomic factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A prevalência de infecções com helmintos Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale e Strongyloides stercoralis foi examinada em 632 pessoas em diferentes comunidades na Região de Esmeraldas no Equador. Estas comunidades foram divididas em dois grupos conforme a área na qual re [...] sidem, o que reflete diferentes circunstâncias sócio- econômicas. Intentou-se correlacionar os tiposde infecção com a raça e os grupos sanguíneos ABO. Nestes grupos raciais estão incluídos negros, ameríndios Chachi, e mestiços. Notou-se a prevalência de infecções nas áreas sócio-econômicasmais baixas. Não se encontrou nenhuma relação com a infecção helmíntica e raça ou grupo sanguíneo depois de controlar-se o status sócio- econômico. Abstract in english Prevalence of infection with the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis was examinedin 632 residents of communities in Esmeraldas province of Ecuador. These communities were divided into two groups according to area of hab [...] itation which reflected different socioeconomic circumstances. Attempts were made to correlate infection status with race and ABO blood group phenotype. The racial groups included blacks, Chachi amerindians, and mixed-race mestizos. Greater prevalences of infection were seen in the area oflower socioeconomic status. No racial or blood group associations with helminth infection were seen controlling for socioeconomic status.

Philip J., Cooper; Angel Guevara, E.; Ronald H., Guderian.

1993-09-01

360

Intestinal helminthiases in Ecuador: the relatíonship between prevalence, genetic, and socioeconomic factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prevalence of infection with the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis was examinedin 632 residents of communities in Esmeraldas province of Ecuador. These communities were divided into two groups according to area of habitation which reflected different socioeconomic circumstances. Attempts were made to correlate infection status with race and ABO blood group phenotype. The racial groups included blacks, Chachi amerindians, and mixed-race mestizos. Greater prevalences of infection were seen in the area oflower socioeconomic status. No racial or blood group associations with helminth infection were seen controlling for socioeconomic status.A prevalência de infecções com helmintos Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale e Strongyloides stercoralis foi examinada em 632 pessoas em diferentes comunidades na Região de Esmeraldas no Equador. Estas comunidades foram divididas em dois grupos conforme a área na qual residem, o que reflete diferentes circunstâncias sócio- econômicas. Intentou-se correlacionar os tiposde infecção com a raça e os grupos sanguíneos ABO. Nestes grupos raciais estão incluídos negros, ameríndios Chachi, e mestiços. Notou-se a prevalência de infecções nas áreas sócio-econômicasmais baixas. Não se encontrou nenhuma relação com a infecção helmíntica e raça ou grupo sanguíneo depois de controlar-se o status sócio- econômico.

Philip J. Cooper

1993-09-01

 
 
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