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Socioeconomic disparities in risk factors for cardiovascular disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite a general decline in mortality rates in recent decades, these rates are substantially higher among lower socioeconomic groups. To determine target groups for preventive health promotion programs, the prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic group in Canadian adults aged 20 to 69 years was examined through comparison of estimates from the 1978-79 Canada Health Survey, the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey and the labour force smoking surveys of 1975 and 1983. Lev...

Millar, W. J.; Wigle, D. T.

1986-01-01

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School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents : risk factors differ between socio-economic groups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors to drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups.

Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E

2007-01-01

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Pathways between Socioeconomic Status and Modifiable Risk Factors Among African American Smokers  

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Although socioeconomic status is a major contributing factor to health disparities, the mechanisms through which socioeconomic status influences health remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an a priori conceptual model of the pathways between socioeconomic status and modifiable health risk factors in a sample of 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment. A latent variable modeling approach was utilized to characterize the interrelationships among soc...

Kendzor, Darla E.; Businelle, Michael S.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-woerpel, Ludmila M.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Li, Yisheng; Costello, Tracy J.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Wetter, David W.

2009-01-01

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Socioeconomic Factors in Childhood and the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In a national cohort comprising 1.5 million Danes born from 1966 to 1992, we studied the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) from 1981 to 2007 using information about household income and parental educational levels at the persons 15th birthday. The association between childhood SES and MS was evaluated using MS incidence rate ratios with 95 confidence intervals obtained in log-linear Poisson regression analyses. We found no strong association between childhood SES and MS but did observe a tendency toward a reduced risk of MS among children from households with more highly educated parents, particularly mothers. Children whose mothers had a secondary (rate ratio 0.95, 95 confidence interval: 0.86, 1.04) or higher (rate ratio 0.86, 95 confidence interval: 0.76, 0.97) education had reduced risks of MS (5 and 14, respectively) compared with children of mothers with a basic education (P for trend 0.02). Results were practically unchanged in an analysis restricted to persons aged 1529 years, among whom the possible effect of own SES on MS risk is considered limited. Overall, SES in childhood seems of no major importance for the subsequent risk of MS; however, offspring of well-educated mothers may be at a slightly reduced risk of MS.

Jorgensen, K. T.; Stenager, E.

2013-01-01

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Socioeconomic factors associated with risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in Europe.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

In the European Union, there are 180,000 new cases of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer cases per year--more than half of whom will die of the disease. Socioeconomic inequalities in UADT cancer incidence are recognised across Europe. We aimed to assess the components of socioeconomic risk both independently and through their influence on the known behavioural risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption and diet.

Conway, D I

2010-02-01

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Socioeconomic Status, Negative Affect, and Modifiable Cancer Risk Factors in African American Smokers  

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The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of co-occurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment, and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had a...

Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-woerpel, Ludmila M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Costello, Tracy J.; Businelle, Michael S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

2008-01-01

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Risk factors for myocardial infarction among low socioeconomic status South Indian population  

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Abstract Background As longevity increases, cases of myocardial infarction (MI) are likely to be more. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major global health problem reaching epidemic proportions in the Indian subcontinent, also among low socio-economic status (SES) and thin individuals. Objectives The present study was undertaken to elicit risk factors for MI among low SES Southern Indians and to find out its association with body mass index (BMI). Materi...

Meenakshisundaram Ramachandran; Agarwal Dipti; Rajendiran Chinnaswamy; Thirumalaikolundusubramanian Ponniah

2010-01-01

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Socioeconomic and Behavioral Risk Factors for Mortality in a National 19-Year Prospective Study of U.S. Adults  

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Many demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral risk factors predict mortality in the United States. However, very few population-based longitudinal studies are able to investigate simultaneously the impact of a variety of social factors on mortality. We investigated the degree to which demographic characteristics, socioeconomic variables and major health risk factors were associated with mortality in a nationally-representative sample of 3,617 U.S. adults from 1986-2005, using data from the ...

Lantz, Paula M.; Golberstein, Ezra; House, James S.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.

2010-01-01

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Distribution of cardiovascular disease risk factors by socioeconomic status among Canadian adults  

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BACKGROUND: This study was designed to describe the distribution of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status in adult men and women across Canada using the Canadian Heart Health Surveys Database. METHODS: The data were derived from provincial cross-sectional surveys done between 1986 and 1992. Data were obtained through a home interview and a clinic visit using a probability sample of 29,855 men and women aged 18-74 years of whom 23,129 (77%) agreed to participate. The ...

Choinie?re, R.; Lafontaine, P.; Edwards, A. C.

2000-01-01

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Risk factors for myocardial infarction among low socioeconomic status South Indian population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background As longevity increases, cases of myocardial infarction (MI are likely to be more. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a major global health problem reaching epidemic proportions in the Indian subcontinent, also among low socio-economic status (SES and thin individuals. Objectives The present study was undertaken to elicit risk factors for MI among low SES Southern Indians and to find out its association with body mass index (BMI. Materials and methods A case-control study of patients with MI matched against healthy control subjects was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Standard methods were followed to elicit risk factors and BMI. Chi-square and Fishers exact test for categorical versus categorical, to show relationship with risk factors were analyzed. Results A total of 949 patients (male (M = 692 and post menopausal female (F = 257 and 611 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. In our study, BMI was below 23 in 48.2% of patients and below 21 in 22.5%. The risk of developing MI was significantly more in males (odds ratio (OR = 3.3, 95% confidence interval (C.I. = 2.69-4.13, among females with post-menopausal duration (PMD of more than or equal to 3 years (OR = 9.27, 95% C.I. = 6.36-13.50 and in those with BMI less than 23 with one or other risk factors (P = 0.002, OR = 1.38, 95% C.I. = 1.13-1.70. Conclusion BMI cannot be considered as a lone independent risk factor, as the study population had low BMI but had one or more modifiable risk factors. It would be advisable to keep BMI at least 21 kg/m2 for screening program. Health education on life style modification and programs to diagnose and control diabetes and hypertension have to be initiated at community level in order to reduce the occurrence.

Meenakshisundaram Ramachandran

2010-05-01

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Investigating maternal risk factors as potential targets of intervention to reduce socioeconomic inequality in small for gestational age: a population-based study  

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Abstract Background The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA) might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality) in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. Methods This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver) from J...

2012-01-01

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Investigating Maternal Risk Factors as Potential Targets of Intervention to Reduce Socioeconomic Inequality in Small for Gestational Age: A Population-Based Study  

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BACKGROUND:The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA) might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality) in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada.METHODS:This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver) from January 1, 2006 to September 17, 2009. To ...

2012-01-01

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Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with the risk of prostate cancer  

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International and interethnic differences in prostate cancer incidence suggest an environmental aetiology, and lifestyle and socio-economic factors have been studied, but with divergent results. Information on a cohort of 22 895 Norwegian men aged 40 years and more was obtained from a health examination and two self-administered questionnaires. Information on incident cases of prostate cancer was made available from the Cancer Registry. We used the Cox proportional hazards model to calculate ...

Nilsen, T. I. Lund; Johnsen, R.; Vatten, L. J.

2000-01-01

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Do changes in cardiovascular risk factors explain the increasing socioeconomic difference in mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Finland?  

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STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which changes in blood pressure, smoking, and serum cholesterol concentration explain the observed increase in socioeconomic differences in mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in Finland during the past 20 years. DESIGN: Predicted changes in mortality from IHD were calculated using logistic regression models with the risk factor levels assessed by cross sectional population surveys conducted in 1972, 1977, 1982, and 1987. The subjects ...

1998-01-01

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Investigating the spatial variability in incidence of coronary heart disease in the Gazel cohort: the impact of area socioeconomic position and mediating role of risk factors.  

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STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to improve understanding of the relationships between contextual socioeconomic characteristics and coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence in France. Several authors have suggested that CHD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol, overweight, tobacco consumption) may partly mediate associations between socioeconomic environmental variables and CHD. Studies have assessed the overall mediating role of CHD risk factors, but have never investigat...

Silhol, Romain; Zins, Marie; Chauvin, Pierre; Chaix, Basile

2011-01-01

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Association of Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Acculturation, and Environmental Factors with Risk of Overweight Among Adolescents in California, 2003  

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Full Text Available IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the California Health Interview Survey 2003, we estimated the prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight, combined as a single measure (AROW, body mass index ?85th percentile. We used logistic regression models to examine associations between AROW and risk factors.ResultsTwenty-nine percent of California adolescents were AROW. The prevalence of AROW differed significantly by sex and race. Boys were more likely than girls to be AROW (33% vs 25%. American Indians/Pacific Islanders/others (39% were at highest risk, followed by Hispanics (37%, blacks (35%, whites (23%, and Asians (15%. For boys, older age, Hispanic or American Indian/Pacific Islander/other race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and longer residence in the United States were significantly associated with AROW. For girls, Hispanic or black race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and poor dietary habits were significantly associated with AROW.ConclusionThe high prevalence of AROW among California adolescents in most racial/ethnic groups indicates the need for culturally specific and appropriate interventions to prevent and treat overweight.

Joel Gittelsohn, PhD

2008-07-01

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Diabetes mortality in Panama and related biological and socioeconomic risk factors / Mortalidad por diabetes en Panamá y factores de riesgo biológicos y socioeconómicos relacionados con la enfermedad  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Calcular la mortalidad por diabetes sacarina durante el período del 2001 al 2011 en la República de Panamá por provincias o comarcas indígenas, y determinar su relación con los factores de riesgo biológicos y socioeconómicos de aparición de la enfermedad. MÉTODOS: Se escogieron del Registr [...] o Nacional de Mortalidad de Panamá del 2001 al 2011 los casos en los cuales la diabetes constituyó la principal causa de muerte. Se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad brutas y ajustadas desglosadas por sexo, edad y zona geográfica. Mediante análisis de regresión lineal se determinó la relación entre la mortalidad por diabetes y los factores de riesgo socioeconómicos y biológicos y se calculó un índice de salud compuesto con base en cada tipo de factores de riesgo en cada provincia o comarca indígena de Panamá. RESULTADOS: Las tasas de mortalidad por diabetes no aumentaron en los hombres ni las mujeres del 2001 al 2011. De los factores de riesgo biológicos, el exceso de peso exhibió la asociación más fuerte con la mortalidad por diabetes y el factor de riesgo socioeconómico que presentó una mayor asociación con la mortalidad fue un ingreso mensual inferior a US$ 100. Las puntuaciones más altas del índice de salud compuesto desde el punto de vista socioeconómico se obtuvieron en una provincia que es rural en su mayor parte y en zonas con poblaciones indígenas. Las puntuaciones más altas con los factores biológicos se observaron en las provincias urbanas y rurales y en las que contaban con el porcentaje más alto de personas ancianas. CONCLUSIONES: Las disparidades regionales de la asociación entre la mortalidad por diabetes sacarina y los factores de riesgo de padecer la enfermedad reafirman la composición heterogénea de la población de Panamá y la distribución desigual de los factores determinantes de riesgo biológicos y sociales en el país y ponen en evidencia la necesidad de diversificar las estrategias de manejo de esta importante causa de discapacidad y muerte, en función de las zonas geográficas en Panamá. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality from diabetes mellitus (DM) for the period 2001-2011 in the Republic of Panama, by province/indigenous territory, and determine its relationship with biological and socioeconomic risk factors. METHODS: Cases for the years 2001-2011 with DM listed as the principal cau [...] se of death were selected from Panama's National Mortality Registry. Crude and adjusted mortality rates were generated by sex, age, and geographic area. Linear regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between DM mortality and biological and socioeconomic risk factors. A composite health index (CHI) calculated from biological and socioeconomic risk factors was estimated for each province/indigenous territory in Panama. RESULTS: DM mortality rates did not increase for men or women during 2001-2011. Of the biological risk factors, being overweight had the strongest association with DM mortality. Of the socioeconomic risk factors, earning less than US$ 100 per month had the strongest association with DM mortality. The highest socioeconomic CHI scores were found in a province that is predominantly rural and in areas with indigenous populations. The highest biological CHI scores were found in urban-rural provinces and those with the highest percentage of elderly people. CONCLUSIONS: Regional disparities in the association between DM mortality and DM risk factors reaffirm the heterogeneous composition of the Panamanian population and the uneven distribution of biological and social determinant risk factors in the country and point to the need to vary management strategies by geographic area for this important cause of disability and death in Panama.

Jorge A., Motta; Luis G., Ortega-Paz; Carlos A., Gordón; Beatriz, Gómez; Eva, Castillo; Víctor, Herrera Ballesteros; Manuel, Pereira.

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Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Czech Republic and Germany. Methods We combined datasets from two population based studies, one in Germany ('Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR Study', and one in the Czech Republic ('Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE Study'. Participation rates were 56% in the HNR and 55% in the HAPIEE study. The subsample for this particular analysis consists of 11,554 men and women from nine German and Czech towns. Census based information on social characteristics of 326 neighbourhoods were collected from local administrative authorities. We used unemployment rate and overcrowding as area-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES. The cardiovascular risk factors obesity, hypertension, smoking and physical inactivity were used as response variables. Regression models were complemented by individual-level social status (education and relevant covariates. Results Smoking, obesity and low physical activity were more common in deprived neighbourhoods in Germany, even when personal characteristics including individual education were controlled for. For hypertension associations were weak. In the Czech Republic associations were observed for smoking and physical inactivity, but not for obesity and hypertension when individual-level covariates were adjusted for. The strongest association was found for smoking in both countries: in the fully adjusted model the odds ratio for 'high unemployment rate' was 1.30 [95% CI 1.02–1.66] in the Czech Republic and 1.60 [95% CI 1.29–1.98] in Germany. Conclusion In this comparative study, the effects of neighbourhood deprivation varied by country and risk factor; the strongest and most consistent effects were found for smoking. Results indicate that area level SES is associated with health related lifestyles, which might be a possible pathway linking social status and cardiovascular disease. Individual-level education had a considerable influence on the association between neighbourhood characteristics and risk factors.

Erbel Raimund

2007-09-01

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Tracking and prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors across socio-economic classes: A longitudinal substudy of the European Youth Heart Study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest prevalence of several cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, smoking and low physical activity level is observed in adults of low socioeconomic status. This study investigates whether tracking of body mass index and physical fitness from childhood to adolescence differs between groups of socioeconomic status. Furthermore the study investigates whether social class differences in the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness exist or develop within the age range from childhood to adolescence. Methods In all, 384 school children were followed for a period of six years (from third to ninth grade. Physical fitness was determined by a progressive maximal cycle ergometer test and the classification of overweight was based on body mass index cut-points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Socioeconomic status was defined according to The International Standard Classification of Occupation scheme. Results Moderate and moderately high tracking was observed for physical fitness and body mass index, respectively. No significant difference in tracking was observed between groups of socioeconomic status. A significant social gradient was observed in both the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness in the 14–16-year-old adolescents, whereas at the age of 8–10 years, only the prevalence of low physical fitness showed a significant inverse relation to socioeconomic status. The odds of both developing and maintaining risk during the measurement period were estimated as bigger in the group of low socioeconomic status than in the group of high socioeconomic status, although differences were significant only with respect to the odds of developing overweight. Conclusion The results indicate that the fundamental possibilities of predicting overweight and low physical fitness at an early point in time are the same for different groups of socio-economic status. Furthermore, the observed development of social inequalities in the absolute prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness underline the need for broad preventive efforts targeting children of low socioeconomic status in early childhood.

Bai Charlotte N

2006-01-01

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Risk factors and socioeconomic condition effects on periodontal and dental health: A pilot study among adults over fifty years of age  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Observational studies on the association among systemic/general and oral cavity indices, tooth loss, periodontal conditions, and socioeconomic inequalities are to be still performed in the population of Southern Europe. This study aims to determine the extent of this relationship among Italian healthy adults 50 years of age and above. Materials and Methods: Socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, cardiovascular indicators, and systemic indices were examined by contrasting the dental indices among adult people of Northern Italy. Data were processed through correlation analysis, and multivariate analysis was carried out using seemingly unrelated regressions. Results: A total of 118 adults 50 years of age and above, after anamnesis, underwent systemic and dental examination. Their socioeconomic status was found to be inversely associated only with smoking and dental parameters. Unexpected outcomes between lifestyle and risk factors were detected. The statistical analysis showed an uneven correlation among dental indices and between those indices and the socioeconomic status, such as, a periodontal condition, apparently free from influences, unusually became worse as the socioeconomic status enhanced. Conclusions: The study outcomes indicate a relationship between tooth loss and conservative endodontic therapy, but they result in alternative choices. Nevertheless, the socioeconomic status has an inverse relationship with tooth loss and conservative endodontic therapy, but a direct relation with worsening of the periodontal condition. This pilot study highlights a need for the public health administration to adopt a socioeconomic assessment not only based on the household income, but also to accordingly improve its therapeutic course.

Bertoldi, Carlo; Lalla, Michele; Pradelli, John Mauricio; Cortellini, Pierpaolo; Lucchi, Andrea; Zaffe, Davide

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
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The use of socioeconomic factors in mapping tuberculosis risk areas in a city of northeastern Brazil  

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Full Text Available In Brazil the challenge of meeting the needs of those living in deprived areas has generated discussions on replacing the existing approach to epidemiological surveillance with an integrated public health surveillance system. This new approach would supplant the traditional focus on high-risk individuals with a method for identifying high-risk populations and the areas where these persons live. Given the magnitude of the problem that tuberculosis (TB poses for Brazil, we chose that disease as an example of how such a new, integrated public health surveillance system could be constructed. We integrated data from several sources with geographic information to create an indicator of tuberculosis risk for Olinda, a city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. In order to stratify the urban space in Olinda and to check for an association between the resulting TB risk gradient and the mean incidence of the disease between 1991 and 1996, we applied two different methods: 1 a "social deprivation index" and 2 principal component analysis followed by cluster analysis. Our results showed an association between social deprivation and the occurrence of TB. The results also highlighted priority groups and areas requiring intervention. We recommend follow-up that would include treating acid-fast bacilli smear-positive pulmonary TB cases, tracing of these persons' contacts, and monitoring of multidrug-resistant cases, all in coordination with local health services.

Souza Wayner V.

2000-01-01

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Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 250 male and female adult subjects 20 years of age and over, pertaining to different socio-economic levels is being conducted in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Measurements of weight, height, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test, blood levels of total of cholesterol, tryglicerides, LDL and HDL-cholesterol are being obtained. Body composition is being determined by deuterium dilution and infrared spectroscopy, air displacement plethysmography, skinfold thickness and bio-electrical impedance. Physical activity by questionnaire and diet by non-consecutive multiple 24 h recalls (to account for seasonal and inter-individual variability), will provide information on lifestyle and diet. At present, analysis of 141 subjects has been completed. Preliminary results showed high levels of overweight, 55% with BMI>25, and obesity, 17% with BMI>30. Subjects with abnormal glucose levels had significantly higher weight (p<0.008), larger waist/hip ratio (p<0.003), higher % body fat (p<0.01), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.01; p<0.009 respectively) than normal subjects, after adjusting for sex and age. Serum tryglicerides were significantly higher in obese subjects with central adiposity than non-obese subjects. Body composition by deuterium dilution was determined by infrared spectroscopy and by air displacement plethysmography in a preliminary pilot study. Finally, a physical activity questionnaire was tested in two groups of subjects with different lifestyles. (author)

1999-05-03

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Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of psychological factors such as traumata and childhood adversities for the future risk of type 2 diabetes or obesity is too small to draw conclusions. Thus, more population-based longitudinal studies and international standards to assess psychosocial factors are needed to clarify the mechanisms leading to the observed health disparities.

Tamayo Teresa

2010-09-01

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Mood after stroke: a case control study of biochemical, neuro-imaging and socio-economic risk factors for major depression in stroke survivors  

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Abstract Background Though vascular factors may be important in the aetiology of late-life depression, it is not clear whether they have a major effect on the risk of depression after a stroke. We investigated the relationship between physiological, biochemical, neuro-imaging and socio-economic factors and late-phase post-stroke depression in a cross-sectional case-control study. Methods People living at home at least 9 months after a stroke were interviewed usi...

2010-01-01

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Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background: Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In Northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher the in the rest of the country. Objective: To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socio-economic levels in north-west Mexico. Methods: Non probabilistic sample selection by invitation was used to recruit subjects, completing quotas by age groups, gender and socio-economic status. The study included 350 men and women, 20-84 years pertaining to low and high income groups from the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. All subjects were measured for body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, skinfolds, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure SBP, DBP). Body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio were calculated. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 12 hour fast was performed and blood samples were taken for analysis of insulin, leptin, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. In 273 of the 350 subjects physical activity was studied by questionnaire. Activity was calculated as in categories of low, medium and high intensity and expressed as hours/day with respect to occupational and recreational activities. Physical activity level (PAL) was also calculated from the questionnaires. Body composition was investigated in more detail by air displacement plethysmography (densitometry) and by deuterium dilution in 200 subjects. Diet by 24 hour non-consecutive recalls in another sub-group of 135 male and female subjects. Statistical analysis was performed using NCSS statistical software using ANCOVA and regression procedures. Result: High levels of overweight (BMI >25) and obesity BMI>30) were found in this population group with 65 and 23.4% of them being in these categories respectively. After adjusting for sex and age, results showed that subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance levels had significantly higher weight (p0,120. In terms of body composition percent body fat by BL4 showed the best relationship to insulin sensitivity with the same index. Conclusions: Total body fat and regional fat distribution rather than body size may be a better alternative to assess risk levels for Type 2 diabetes and CVD. For population studies, this has to rely on appropriate field methods such as BIA. However, this has to be validated by recognised methodology such as deuterium dilution, DEXA or body density determinations that can provide the necessary information for specific predictive equation development. Work in Progress: Body composition by deuterium dilution determined by IR spectroscopy and plethysmography to validate BL4 are still in progress bt preliminary results show that either method can be used for validation purposes. Diet and physical activity data analysis will be completed by recruiting 50 mores subjects. Further analysis combining all possible risk indicators through multiple regression procedures are still pending as well as HOAL4 calculations. Take Home Message: The anthropometric evaluation of regional fat distribution and total body fat by BL4 might be an important field technique for type 2 diabetes and C VD risk assessment. Intervention studies that may use the findings in this study for this population would be warranted. (author)

2001-06-25

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Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors: a multilevel analysis of nine cities in the Czech Republic and Germany  

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Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that deprived neighbourhoods have higher cardiovascular mortality and morbidity rates. Inequalities in the distribution of behaviour related risk factors are one possible explanation for this trend. In our study, we examined the association between cardiovascular risk factors and neighbourhood characteristics. To assess the consistency of associations the design is cross-national with data from nine industrial towns from the Cze...

Dragano Nico; Bobak Martin; Wege Natalia; Peasey Anne; Verde Pablo E; Kubinova Ruzena; Weyers Simone; Moebus Susanne; Möhlenkamp Stefan; Stang Andreas; Erbel Raimund; Jöckel Karl-Heinz; Siegrist Johannes; Pikhart Hynek

2007-01-01

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Association of childhood and adult socioeconomic indicators with cardiovascular risk factors and its modification by age: the CARLA Study 2002-2006  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of socioeconomic status (SES on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors is widely known, although the role of different SES indicators is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of different SES indicators for cardiovascular disease risk factors in a middle and old aged East German population. Methods Cross-sectional data of an East German population-based cohort study (1779 men and women aged 45 to 83 were used to assess the association of childhood and adulthood SES indicators (childhood SES, education, occupational position, income with cardiovascular risk factors. Adjusted means and odds ratios of risk factors by SES indicators with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated by linear and logistic regression models, stratified by sex. The interaction effect of education and age on cardiovascular risk factors was tested by including an interaction term. Results In age-adjusted models, education, occupational position, and income were statistically significantly associated with abdominal obesity in men, and with smoking in both sexes. Men with low education had a more than threefold risk of being a smoker (OR 3.44, CI 1.58-7.51. Low childhood SES was associated with higher systolic blood pressure and abdominal obesity in women (OR 2.27, CI 1.18-4.38 for obesity; a non-significant but (in terms of effect size relevant association of childhood SES with smoking was observed in men. In women, age was an effect modifier for education in the risk of obesity and smoking. Conclusions We found considerable differences in cardiovascular risk factors by education, occupational position, income, and partly by childhood social status, differing by sex. Some social inequalities levelled off in higher age. Longitudinal studies are needed to differentiate between age and birth cohort effects.

Werdan Karl

2011-05-01

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Neighborhood-level socioeconomic and urban land use risk factors of canine leptospirosis: 94 cases (2002-2009).  

Science.gov (United States)

Associations of housing, population, and agriculture census variables, and presence near public places were retrospectively evaluated as potential risk factors for canine leptospirosis using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The sample population included 94 dogs positive for leptospirosis based on a positive polymerase chain reaction test for leptospires on urine, isolation of leptospires on urine culture, a single reciprocal serum titer of 12,800 or greater, or a four-fold rise in reciprocal serum titers over a 2-4 week period; and 185 dogs negative for leptospirosis based on a negative polymerase chain reaction test and reciprocal serum titers less than 400. Multivariable logistic regressions revealed different risk factors among different census units; however, houses lacking complete plumbing facilities [OR=2.80, 95% C.I.=1.82, 4.32 (census unit, block group); OR=1.36, 95% C.I.=1.28, 1.45 (census tract); OR=3.02, 95% C.I.=2.60, 3.52 (county)]; and poverty status by age (18-64) [OR=2.04, 95% C.I.=1.74, 2.39 (block group); OR=1.53, 95% C.I.=1.41, 1.67 (census tract); and OR=1.62, 95% C.I.=1.50, 1.76 (county)] were consistent risk factors for all census units. Living within 2500 m of a university/college and parks/forests were also significantly associated with leptospirosis status in dogs. Dogs that live under these circumstances are at higher risk for leptospirosis and pet owners should consider vaccination. PMID:22626864

Raghavan, R K; Brenner, K M; Higgins, J J; Shawn Hutchinson, J M; Harkin, K R

2012-10-01

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Socioeconomic factors and water quality in California  

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We investigate the relationships between water quality and socioeconomic factors in California at the county level for the years 1993 to 2006 using 24 water quality indicators coming from seven different types of water bodies. We estimate these relationships using three classes of models: the traditional per capita income-pollution level - Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) - specifications, a more inclusive model containing main socioeconomic variables such as agricultural intensity, land use...

Farzin, Y. Hossein; Grogan, Kelly A.

2011-01-01

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Does IQ explain socio-economic differentials in total and cardiovascular disease mortality? Comparison with the explanatory power of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Vietnam Experience Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance in this well-documented association.

Batty, G David; Shipley, Martin J

2009-01-01

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Visual impairment and socioeconomic factors  

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BACKGROUND—Information about socio economic factors associated with visual impairment can assist in the design of intervention programmes. Such information was collected by the Melbourne Visual Impairment Project (Melbourne VIP).?METHODS—The Melbourne VIP was a population based study of non-institutionalised permanent residents in nine suburbs of the Melbourne metropolitan area aged 40 years of age and older. A standardised eye examination was provided to eligible residents which i...

1997-01-01

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Relationship between socioeconomic factors and severe childhood injuries  

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The objective was to examine the relationship between injury rates and socioeconomic factors for children in Hamilton County, Ohio, using small-area analysis. The subjects were county residents less than 15 years old who were hospitalized or died of injuries between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 1995; they were identified through a population-based trauma registry. The census tract was the unit of analysis; the rate of injury per 100,000 population was the dependent variable. Risk factors...

2001-01-01

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Prevalence of hypertension in Bangladesh: effect of socioeconomic risk factor on difference between rural and urban community.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies reported that migrant Bangladeshis had greater risk for hypertension, diabetes and coronary heart disease compared with the Europeans and other migrant South Asians. So far, there has been no such study among the native population. This paper reports the hypertension prevalence and related risks among native Bangladeshis. A total of 2,361 subjects over 20 years of age were investigated. Overall prevalence rates of systolic and diastolic hypertension in the study population were 14.4 and 9.1 percent respectively. The prevalence of systolic hypertension was significantly higher in rural than in urban participants (P < 0.001). Compared with the poor the rich class had significantly higher prevalence of both systolic (P = 0.002) and diastolic (P = 0.041) hypertension. With increase of age, body mass index (BMI) and blood glucose level were significantly related to hypertension (P < 0.0001); whereas the trend for increasing waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for social class, was not significant. Regression analysis showed that age, BMI, rural area and rich class were the strong predictors for hypertension. This study explored that hypertension prevalence in the native Bangladeshis is almost comparable to that of other Asian populations and South Asian migrants. PMID:12587756

Sayeed, M A; Banu, A; Haq, J A; Khanam, P A; Mahtab, H; Azad Khan, A K

2002-04-01

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Influence of socioeconomic factors on medically unnecessary ambulance calls  

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Abstract Background Unnecessary ambulance use has become a socioeconomic problem in Japan. We investigated the possible relations between socioeconomic factors and medically unnecessary ambulance calls, and we estimated the incremental demand for unnecessary ambulance use produced by socioeconomic factors. Methods We conducted a self-administered questionnaire-based survey targeting residents of Yokohama, Japan. The questionnaire included questions pertaining to...

Kawakami Chihiro; Ohshige Kenji; Kubota Katsuaki; Tochikubo Osamu

2007-01-01

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Socioeconomic differentials in divorce risk by duration of marriage  

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Full Text Available Using register-based data on Finnish first marriages that were intact at the end of 1990 (about 2.1 million marriage-years and followed up for divorce in 1991-1993 (n = 21,204, this research explored the possibility that the effect of spouses' socioeconomic position on divorce risk varies according to duration of marriage. The comparatively high divorce risks for spouses with little formal education and for spouses in manual worker occupations were found to be specific to marriages of relatively short duration. In contrast, such factors as unemployment, wife's high income, and living in a rented dwelling were found to increase divorce risk at all marital durations.

2002-11-01

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Breast cancer and socio-economic factors  

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Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW; Gross domestic product (GDP per capita by purchasing power parity (current international $; computed tomography (CT for cancer diagnosis. Data include 52 countries. The statistical analysis is carried out by correlation, ANOVA and an econometric modeling based on a multiple regression model of the breast cancer incidence on two explanatory variables. Results: Partial correlation is higher: rbreast cancer, GDP ? CT=60.3% (sign.0.00. The estimated relationship shows an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 0.05% for a GDP increase of 1% and an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 3.23% for a CT increase of 1%. ANOVA confirms that incidence of breast cancer is higher across richer countries, ceteris paribus.Conclusions: Empirical evidence shows that the breast cancer tends to be higher across richer countries, measured by GDP per capita and number of Computed Tomography. The main determinants of these findings can be due to several socio-economic factors, mainly localized in richer countries. In addition, this research may provide an alternative interpretation to the theory of Oh et al. (2010 on the influence of latitude on breast cancer, focusing on socio-economic factors rather than biologic root causes.

Anees B. Chagpar

2012-01-01

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Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health  

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Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…

Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

2013-01-01

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Risk factors for presbycusis in a socio-economic middle-class sample / Estudo de fatores de risco para presbiacusia em indivíduos de classe sócio-econômica média  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A presbiacusia é consequência de lesões histopatológicas da orelha interna e nervo coclear e leva à deficiência auditiva sensório-neural. Fatores de risco como doenças sistêmicas e hábitos inadequados são agravantes para presbiacusia. A identificação destes fatores é relevante para sua prevenção. OB [...] JETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência da presbiacusia e correlacionar eventuais fatores de risco numa amostra populacional. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de série de casos com amostragem aleatória de 625 prontuários de indivíduos sem e com presbiacusia determinada por avaliação audiológica convencional. Foi feita a análise da associação da presbiacusia com fatores de risco pré-estabelecidos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência da presbiacusia foi de 36,1% na amostra, com idade média de 50,5 anos e variou de 40 anos a 86 anos e foi constituída de 85,5% do gênero masculino e 14,5% do gênero feminino. Os fatores de risco associados foram idade, gênero masculino, diabetes melito e história familiar de presbiacusia. Não houve associação entre presbiacusia e profissão, hipertensão arterial sistêmica, dislipidemia, hábitos de fumar e de beber. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstram que, embora a presbiacusia apresente múltiplos fatores de risco enumerados na literatura, estes fatores na presente amostra foram limitados ao antecedente familiar de presbiacusia, idade, gênero masculino e diabetes melito. Abstract in english Presbycusis, or the aging ear, involves mainly the inner ear and the cochlear nerve, causing sensorineural hearing loss. Risk factors include systemic diseases and poor habits that cause inner ear damage and lead to presbycusis. Correct identification of these risk factors is relevant for prevention [...] . AIM: To evaluate the prevalence and to identify the risk factors of presbycusis in a sample aged over 40 years. Study design: a retrospective case series. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: medical records of 625 patients were evaluated. Presbycusis was identified using pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry and impedance testing of all patients. RESULTS: The prevalence of presbycusis was 36.1%; the mean age was 50.5 years ranging from 40 to 86 years; 85.5% were male and 14.5% werf female. Age, the male gender, diabetes mellitus, and hereditary hearing loss were identified as risk factors. Cardiovascular diseases, smoking and consumption of alcohol were not confirmed as risk factors, although these have often been mentioned as risk factors for presbycusis. CONCLUSION: Notwithstanding the idea that presbycusis has multiple risk factors, this study identified few risk factors for this disease.

Sousa, Cláudia Simônica de; Castro Júnior, Ney de; Larsson, Erkki Juhani; Ching, Ting Hui.

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Influence of socioeconomic factors on medically unnecessary ambulance calls  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Unnecessary ambulance use has become a socioeconomic problem in Japan. We investigated the possible relations between socioeconomic factors and medically unnecessary ambulance calls, and we estimated the incremental demand for unnecessary ambulance use produced by socioeconomic factors. Methods We conducted a self-administered questionnaire-based survey targeting residents of Yokohama, Japan. The questionnaire included questions pertaining to socioeconomic characteristics, dichotomous choice method questions pertaining to ambulance calls in hypothetical nonemergency situations, and questions on the city's emergency medical system. The probit model was used to analyze the data. Results A total of 2,029 out of 3,363 targeted recipients completed the questionnaire (response rate, 60.3%. Probit regression analyses showed that several demographic and socioeconomic factors influence the decision to call an ambulance. Male respondents were more apt than female respondents to state that they would call an ambulance in nonemergency situations (p Conclusion Results of the study suggest that several socioeconomic factors, i.e., age, gender, household income, and possession of a car, influence a person's decision to call an ambulance in nonemergency situations. Hesitation to use an ambulance and knowledge of the city's primary emergency medical center are likely to be important factors limiting ambulance overuse. It was estimated that unnecessary ambulance use is increased approximately 10% to 20% by socioeconomic factors.

Kubota Katsuaki

2007-07-01

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Behavioral and Socioeconomic Risk Factors Associated with Probable Resistance to Ceftriaxone and Resistance to Penicillin and Tetracycline in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Shanghai  

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Globally, incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection is once again the highest of the bacterial sexually transmitted infections. The bacterium can produce serious complications in those infected, and emerging resistance to third generation cephalosporins could usher in an era of potentially untreatable gonorrhea. This research aimed to identify risk factors for antibiotic resistant gonorrhea infection among clients at a Shanghai sexually transmitted infection clinic over two time periods, 2004–2005 and 2008–2011. Demographic and risk factor behavior data, and biological samples for antimicrobial resistance analysis, were collected. Statistical models were built to identify risk factors associated with probable resistance to ceftriaxone and resistance to penicillin and tetracycline. High levels of ciprofloxacin resistance (98%) in our sample precluded examining its risk factors; all isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. Overall (P<0.001), chromosomal (P<0.001), and plasmid-mediated (P?=?0.01) penicillin resistance decreased from the first to second period of the study. For tetracycline, chromosomal resistance decreased (P?=?0.01) and plasmid-mediated resistance increased (P<0.001) between the first and second periods of study. In multi-level multivariable regression models, male gender (P?=?0.03) and older age (P?=?0.01) were associated with increased minimum inhibitory concentrations to ceftriaxone. Male gender (P?=?0.03) and alcohol use (P?=?0.02) were associated with increased odds of overall tetracycline resistance. Male gender was associated with increased odds of chromosomally-mediated tetracycline resistance (P?=?0.04), and alcohol use was associated with increased odds of plasmid-mediated tetracycline resistance (P?=?0.02). Additionally, individuals in middle-salary categories were found to have lower odds of plasmid-mediated resistance to tetracycline compared with those in the lowest salary category (P?0.02). This study is one of the first to use multilevel analysis to consider the association between risk factors for gonorrhea infections and mechanisms of resistance to individual antibiotics. Such information is urgently needed to combat the growing threat of untreatable gonorrhea.

Trecker, Molly A.; Waldner, Cheryl; Jolly, Ann; Liao, Mingmin; Gu, Weiming; Dillon, Jo-Anne R.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Relationship between socioeconomic factors and severe childhood injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to examine the relationship between injury rates and socioeconomic factors for children in Hamilton County, Ohio, using small-area analysis. The subjects were county residents less than 15 years old who were hospitalized or died of injuries between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 1995; they were identified through a population-based trauma registry. The census tract was the unit of analysis; the rate of injury per 100,000 population was the dependent variable. Risk factors included median income, level of education, percentage below the poverty level, percentage unemployment, percentage non-Caucasian, and percentage families headed by females. There were 2,437 children meeting the case definition; injuries per census tract ranged from 0 to 2,020.2 per 100,000 per year. Census tracts with higher injury rates had lower median incomes, more people with less than a high school education, more unemployment, more families headed by females, more people living below the poverty level, and more non-Caucasians than those with lower rates. In a regression model, percentage of people living below the poverty level, percentage of those who did not graduate from high school, and percentage unemployment were significant risk factors for injuries, P graduates and more unemployment. PMID:11368193

Pomerantz, W J; Dowd, M D; Buncher, C R

2001-03-01

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Fatores socioeconômicos e dietéticos de risco para a anemia em crianças de 6 a 59 meses de idade Socioeconomic and dietary risk factors for anemia in children aged 6 to 59 months  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo tem como objetivo identificar, utilizando modelagem estatística, os fatores de risco da anemia em crianças de 6 a 59 meses de idade no estado de Pernambuco, contemplando aspectos socioeconômicos e da dieta. MÉTODOS: A amostra constou de 746 crianças de 6 a 59 meses do estado de Pernambuco, nas quais foram realizados dosagem de hemoglobina e inquérito dietético recordatório de 24 horas. Foi analisado o risco de anemia em relação às variáveis socioeconômicas e de consumo alimentar, utilizando modelos de análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: Os fatores de risco para a anemia foram: alta proporção de calorias do leite de vaca, baixa densidade de ferro não-heme, baixa idade e baixa escolaridade materna, destacando-se que as crianças com menos de 24 meses apresentaram risco 3,61 vezes maior de serem anêmicas em relação às demais. CONCLUSÕES: O presente estudo reforça a importância de se conhecer o consumo alimentar das crianças no país para melhor estabelecer a sua associação com a ocorrência da anemia. Os resultados revelaram que os fatores que mais explicaram o risco de anemia foram, com relação à dieta, a maior proporção de calorias do leite de vaca e menor densidade de ferro não-heme, além de idade menor de 24 meses e baixa escolaridade materna.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to use statistical modeling to identify risk factors for anemia in children aged 6 to 59 months in the state of Pernambuco, covering socioeconomic and dietary aspects. METHODS: The sample comprised 746 children aged between 6 and 59 months from the state of Pernambuco. Their hemoglobin was assayed and a 24-hour dietary recall performed. Risk of anemia was analyzed with relation to socioeconomic variables and to dietary intakes, using multivariate analysis models. RESULTS: The risk factors for anemia were: a high proportion of calories from cow's milk, low density of nonheme iron, low age and low maternal educational level; age was the most prominent factor, with children under 24 months exhibiting 3.61 times greater risk of being anemic than the older children. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the need for a clear picture of the dietary intake of children in Brazil, in order that associations with anemia can be better understood. Our results revealed that the dietary factors which were most responsible for risk of anemia were a greater proportion of calories from cow's milk and lower density of nonheme iron, in addition to age below 24 months and low maternal educational level.

Maria A. A. Oliveira

2007-02-01

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Mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo: influência do peso ao nascer e de fatores sócio-demográficos e assistenciais Neonatal mortality: socio-economic, health services risk factors and birth weight in the City of São Paulo  

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Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo, apesar da sua tendência decrescente, constitui em um importante problema para a saúde pública. Os principais fatores de risco podem ser agrupados em quatro categorias básicas de variáveis: características do recém-nascido, características maternas, condições socioeconômicas e características dos serviços de saúde. O peso ao nascer e a prematuridade constituem fatores dominantes, compondo complexas redes de articulação com os demais. METODOLOGIA: Este é um estudo caso-controle, com base em dados vinculados do SIM e SINASC no Município de São Paulo, no primeiro semestre de 1995. Foi utilizada análise hierárquica, considerando quatro blocos de variáveis (características socioeconômicas, do recém-nascido, maternas e serviços de saúde para o conjunto de recém-nascidos e para três grupos de peso ao nascer: BACKGROUND: Although neonatal mortality has been declining in the City of São Paulo, it still is an important public health problem. Four basic categories constitute risk factors: newborn characteristics, maternal characteristics, socio-economic conditions and quality of health care. Low birth weight and prematurity are the dominant factors and constitute a complex network with other factors. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out based on linked birth and death certificates of the City of São Paulo for the first semester of 1995. The study performed a hierarchical analysis, considering four blocks of variables (characteristics of the new-born; mothers, health care and socio-economic status for all birth-weight groups together and separately for three birth-weight groups: 2,500g. RESULTS: The final model for all newborns together showed statistical significant association for mothers under 20 years of age, being born in a SUS hospital, birth weight <2,500g and prematurity. The three birth weight groups showed distinctive patterns of risk factors. Those <1,500g had lower mortality when born in a university hospital and caesarean section. The 1,500-2,499g group had increased risk for mortality with prematurity, male sex and high parity of mother. In the more than 2,500g group, risk factors for mortality were prematurity, adolescent mother, living in an area with low quality of life, being born in a SUS hospital and caesarean section. CONCLUSION: This study, while pointing out the enormous influence of low birth weight on neonatal mortality in São Paulo, demonstrated that different birth weight categories have distinct biological and social vulnerabilities with complex links, and that health services have an important role to play for each of them.

Marcia Furquim de Almeida

2002-04-01

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Mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo: influência do peso ao nascer e de fatores sócio-demográficos e assistenciais / Neonatal mortality: socio-economic, health services risk factors and birth weight in the City of São Paulo  

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Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo, apesar da sua tendência decrescente, constitui em um importante problema para a saúde pública. Os principais fatores de risco podem ser agrupados em quatro categorias básicas de variáveis: características do recém-nascido, características [...] maternas, condições socioeconômicas e características dos serviços de saúde. O peso ao nascer e a prematuridade constituem fatores dominantes, compondo complexas redes de articulação com os demais. METODOLOGIA: Este é um estudo caso-controle, com base em dados vinculados do SIM e SINASC no Município de São Paulo, no primeiro semestre de 1995. Foi utilizada análise hierárquica, considerando quatro blocos de variáveis (características socioeconômicas, do recém-nascido, maternas e serviços de saúde) para o conjunto de recém-nascidos e para três grupos de peso ao nascer: Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Although neonatal mortality has been declining in the City of São Paulo, it still is an important public health problem. Four basic categories constitute risk factors: newborn characteristics, maternal characteristics, socio-economic conditions and quality of health care. Low birth weigh [...] t and prematurity are the dominant factors and constitute a complex network with other factors. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out based on linked birth and death certificates of the City of São Paulo for the first semester of 1995. The study performed a hierarchical analysis, considering four blocks of variables (characteristics of the new-born; mothers, health care and socio-economic status) for all birth-weight groups together and separately for three birth-weight groups: 2,500g. RESULTS: The final model for all newborns together showed statistical significant association for mothers under 20 years of age, being born in a SUS hospital, birth weight

Marcia Furquim de, Almeida; Hillegonda Maria Dutilh, Novaes; Gizelton Pereira, Alencar; Laura C., Rodrigues.

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Mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo: influência do peso ao nascer e de fatores sócio-demográficos e assistenciais / Neonatal mortality: socio-economic, health services risk factors and birth weight in the City of São Paulo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A mortalidade neonatal no Município de São Paulo, apesar da sua tendência decrescente, constitui em um importante problema para a saúde pública. Os principais fatores de risco podem ser agrupados em quatro categorias básicas de variáveis: características do recém-nascido, características [...] maternas, condições socioeconômicas e características dos serviços de saúde. O peso ao nascer e a prematuridade constituem fatores dominantes, compondo complexas redes de articulação com os demais. METODOLOGIA: Este é um estudo caso-controle, com base em dados vinculados do SIM e SINASC no Município de São Paulo, no primeiro semestre de 1995. Foi utilizada análise hierárquica, considerando quatro blocos de variáveis (características socioeconômicas, do recém-nascido, maternas e serviços de saúde) para o conjunto de recém-nascidos e para três grupos de peso ao nascer: Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Although neonatal mortality has been declining in the City of São Paulo, it still is an important public health problem. Four basic categories constitute risk factors: newborn characteristics, maternal characteristics, socio-economic conditions and quality of health care. Low birth weigh [...] t and prematurity are the dominant factors and constitute a complex network with other factors. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out based on linked birth and death certificates of the City of São Paulo for the first semester of 1995. The study performed a hierarchical analysis, considering four blocks of variables (characteristics of the new-born; mothers, health care and socio-economic status) for all birth-weight groups together and separately for three birth-weight groups: 2,500g. RESULTS: The final model for all newborns together showed statistical significant association for mothers under 20 years of age, being born in a SUS hospital, birth weight

Marcia Furquim de, Almeida; Hillegonda Maria Dutilh, Novaes; Gizelton Pereira, Alencar; Laura C., Rodrigues.

46

Family history and socioeconomic risk factors for non-syndromic cleft lip and palate: A matched case-control study in a less developed country Factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos para labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en México: estudio de casos y controles pareado  

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Introduction. From an epidemiological point of view, non-syndromic orofacial clefts are the most common oral congenital deformities worldwide.
Objective. Family histories were traced and socioeconomic risk factors were identified for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.
Material and methods. A case-control study was carried out with 208 cases of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and matched by age and sex with 416 controls. C...

Gladys Acuña-González; Medina-soli?s, Carlo E.; Gerardo Maupomé; Mauricio Escoffie-Ramírez; Jesús Hernández-Romano; Ma?rquez-corona, Mari?a L.; Islas-ma?rquez, Arturo J.; Villalobos-rodelo, Juan J.

2011-01-01

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Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan  

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Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women), the relationships between six risk behavio...

Fukuda Yoshiharu; Nakamura Keiko; Takano Takehito

2005-01-01

48

Socioeconomic differentials in divorce risk by duration of marriage  

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Using register-based data on Finnish first marriages that were intact at the end of 1990 (about 2.1 million marriage-years) and followed up for divorce in 1991-1993 (n = 21,204), this research explored the possibility that the effect of spouses' socioeconomic position on divorce risk varies according to duration of marriage. The comparatively high divorce risks for spouses with little formal education and for spouses in manual worker occupations were found to be specific to marriages of relat...

2002-01-01

49

Associations between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors in an urban population in China / Association entre le niveau socio-économique et les facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaire dans une population urbaine de Chine / Relación entre la situación socioeconómica y los factores de riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares en una población urbana de China  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se ha demostrado que la situación socioeconómica (SSE) es un factor importante en la progresión de las enfermedades cardiovasculares en los países desarrollados. En cambio, hay pocos datos sobre la relación entre la SSE y los factores de riesgo de contraer dichas enfermedades en los países en desarr [...] ollo. China es el país en desarrollo más grande del mundo, pero los informes precedentes de ese país en que se cuantifican los efectos de diferentes dimensiones de la SSE en los factores de riesgo cardiovascular son escasos. Por esta razón, realizamos una evaluación transversal para investigar la relación entre el grado de instrucción, la ocupación, los ingresos y el estado civil, por un lado, y tres factores de riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular - tensión arterial, índice de masa corporal y hábito de fumar - entre la población urbana de Tianjin, la tercera ciudad más populosa de China. En 1996 se realizó una encuesta de población transversal en Tianjin. La muestra para ese estudio se obtuvo por un procedimiento en dos etapas. Primero se tomaron al azar en la zona urbana 14 comunidades con un total de 400 000 habitantes. En la segunda etapa se tomaron al azar de los registros de población, en las comunidades muestreadas, 4000 personas de edad comprendida entre 15 y 69 años. La muestra se estratificó por sexos y grupos de edad (el grupo de más edad, 55-69 años). El presente estudio se ha limitado a las personas entrevistadas de edad comprendida entre 25 y 69 años (1615 varones y 1592 mujeres). Se determinaron en la encuesta cuatro indicadores socioeconómicos (grado de instrucción, ocupación, ingresos y estado civil), así como la tensión arterial, el índice de masa corporal y el hábito de fumar de los participantes. El grado de instrucción parece ser el más importante de los cuatro indicadores socioeconómicos en relación con los factores de riesgo cardiovascular en la población estudiada. En general, las personas con SSE más baja tenían niveles más altos de factores de riesgo cardiovascular, y la relación entre la SSE y los factores de riesgo cardiovascular fue más sistemática en las mujeres que en los varones. Asimismo, las diferencias fueron más amplias en las mujeres que en los varones. Nuestros hallazgos no parecen diferir de los observados en los países desarrollados. Abstract in english INTRODUCTIONS: In developed countries socioeconomic status has been proven to be an important factor in the progression of cardiovascular disease. The present article reports the results of a cross-sectional assessment to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular ri [...] sk factors in a Chinese urban population. METHODS: In 1996, a behavioural risk factor survey was carried out in Tianjin, the third largest city in China. A sample of 4000 people aged 15-69 years, stratified by sex and 10-year age groups, was drawn randomly from urban areas of the city. The present study covers respondents aged 25-69 years (1615 men and 1592 women). Four socioeconomic indicators (education, occupation, income, and marital status), blood pressure, body mass index, and cigarette smoking were determined in the survey. RESULTS: Educational level seemed to be the most important measure of the four socioeconomic indicators in relation to the cardiovascular risk factors in the study population. People with lower socioeconomic status had higher levels of cardiovascular risk factors. The association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular risk factors was more consistent among women than men. DISCUSSION: Our findings do not seem to differ from those observed in developed countries.

Zhijie, Yu; Aulikki, Nissinen; Erkki, Vartiainen; Guide, Song; Zeyu, Guo; Gengwen, Zheng; Jaakko, Tuomilehto; Huiguang, Tian.

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Suicide in young adults: psychiatric and socio-economic factors from a case-control study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Suicide in young adults remains an important public health issue in Australia. The attributable risks associated with broader socioeconomic factors, compared to more proximal psychiatric disorders, have not been considered previously in individual-level studies of young adults. This study compared the relative contributions of psychiatric disorder and socio-economic disadvantage associated with suicide in terms of relative and attributable risk in young adults. Method A population-based case–control study of young adults (18–34 years) compared cases of suicide (n?=?84) with randomly selected controls (n?=?250) from population catchments in New South Wales (Australia), with exposure information collected from key informant interviews (for both cases and controls). The relative and attributable risk of suicide associated with ICD-10 defined substance use, affective, and anxiety disorder was compared with educational achievement and household income, adjusting for key confounders. Prevalence of exposures from the control group was used to estimate population attributable fractions (PAF). Results Strong associations were evident between mental disorders and suicide for both males and females (ORs 3.1 to 18.7). The strongest association was for anxiety disorders (both males and females), followed by affective disorders and substance use disorders. Associations for socio-economic status were smaller in magnitude than for mental disorders for both males and females (ORs 1.1 to 4.8 for lower compared to high SES groups). The combined PAF% for all mental disorders (48% for males and 52% for females) was similar in magnitude to socio-economic status (46% for males and 58% for females). Conclusion Socio-economic status had a similar magnitude of population attributable risk for suicide as mental disorders. Public health interventions to reduce suicide should incorporate socio-economic disadvantage in addition to mental illness as a potential target for intervention.

2014-01-01

51

Risk Factors in Pemphigus  

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Full Text Available Background and Design: There have been reports suggesting the involvement of environmental factors in the disease process of pemphigus. In this study, we aimed to find out the risk factors which could play role in the etiopathogenesis in our pemphigus patients.Material and method: A total of 42 patients (15 male and 27 female who were diagnosed as pemphigus with histopathological and direct immunoflurosence examinations in our clinic between the years 1998-2004, were interviewed for assessment of regarding with the subjects of the demographic properties, occupational groups, educational level, the number of pregnancies, stressfull life events, diet habits, smoking and alcohol consumption before the onset of the disease and the results were compared to 42 age and gender-matched controls with similar socioeconomic circumstances. Results: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were found to be statistically significant in pemphigus patients than in controls. Conclusion: Working in agriculture and livestock, multi-parity, absence of smoking and stressfull life events were assumed to play role in the etiopathogenesis and course of pemphigus.

Gül?en Tükenmez Demirc

2011-09-01

52

Why and How Socioeconomic Factors Should Be Used in Selective College Admissions  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter describes and discusses the socioeconomic factors pressing for consideration in selective college admission policies and processes. It also presents an institutional example of using socioeconomic factors in a selective college admission process. (Contains 1 table.)

Ballinger, Philip

2007-01-01

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Socio-economic factors influencing small ruminant breeding in Kenya  

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In order to design an effective small ruminant (i.e., goats and sheep) breeding program in Kenya and other areas with similar production circumstances, it is important to understand the socio-economic factors applying to the relevant production system. Information on these was obtained from a questionnaire carried out on both smallholders and pastoral/ extensive farmers in seven selected districts. From the 458 responding households, 18% kept only goats, 34% kept only sheep, and 48% kept bot...

2006-01-01

54

Socio-economic factors influencing small ruminant breeding in Kenya  

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In order to design an effective small ruminant (i.e., goats and sheep) breeding program in Kenya and other areas with similar production circumstances, it is important to understand the socio-economic factors applying to the relevant production system. Information on these was obtained from a questionnaire carried out on both smallholders and pastoral/ extensive farmers in seven selected districts. From the 458 responding households, 18% kept only goats, 34% kept only sheep, and 48% kept bo...

2007-01-01

55

Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to thirdhand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715

Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

2014-06-01

56

Principal component analysis of socioeconomic factors and their association with malaria in children from the Ashanti Region, Ghana  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The socioeconomic and sociodemographic situation are important components for the design and assessment of malaria control measures. In malaria endemic areas, however, valid classification of socioeconomic factors is difficult due to the lack of standardized tax and income data. The objective of this study was to quantify household socioeconomic levels using principal component analyses (PCA to a set of indicator variables and to use a classification scheme for the multivariate analysis of children Methods In total, 1,496 children presenting to the hospital were examined for malaria parasites and interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. The information of eleven indicators of the family's housing situation was reduced by PCA to a socioeconomic score, which was then classified into three socioeconomic status (poor, average and rich. Their influence on the malaria occurrence was analysed together with malaria risk co-factors, such as sex, parent's educational and ethnic background, number of children living in a household, applied malaria protection measures, place of residence and age of the child and the mother. Results The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the proportion of children with malaria decreased with increasing socioeconomic status as classified by PCA (p Conclusions The socioeconomic situation is significantly associated with malaria even in holoendemic rural areas where economic differences are not much pronounced. Valid classification of the socioeconomic level is crucial to be considered as confounder in intervention trials and in the planning of malaria control measures.

Adu-Sarkodie Yaw

2010-07-01

57

Socioeconomic determinants of geographic disparities in campylobacteriosis risk: a comparison of global and local modeling approaches  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors play a complex role in determining the risk of campylobacteriosis. Understanding the spatial interplay between these factors and disease risk can guide disease control programs. Historically, Poisson and negative binomial models have been used to investigate determinants of geographic disparities in risk. Spatial regression models, which allow modeling of spatial effects, have been used to improve these modeling efforts. Geographically weighted regression (GWR takes this a step further by estimating local regression coefficients, thereby allowing estimations of associations that vary in space. These recent approaches increase our understanding of how geography influences the associations between determinants and disease. Therefore the objectives of this study were to: (i identify socioeconomic determinants of the geographic disparities of campylobacteriosis risk (ii investigate if regression coefficients for the associations between socioeconomic factors and campylobacteriosis risk demonstrate spatial variability and (iii compare the performance of four modeling approaches: negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR. Methods Negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR modeling techniques were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic factors and geographic disparities in campylobacteriosis risk. The best fitting models were identified and compared. Results Two competing four variable models (Models 1 & 2 were identified. Significant variables included race, unemployment rate, education attainment, urbanicity, and divorce rate. Local Poisson GWR had the best fit and showed evidence of spatially varying regression coefficients. Conclusions The international significance of this work is that it highlights the inadequacy of global regression strategies that estimate one parameter per independent variable, and therefore mask the true relationships between dependent and independent variables. Since local GWR estimate a regression coefficient for each location, it reveals the geographic differences in the associations. This implies that a factor may be an important determinant in some locations and not others. Incorporating this into health planning ensures that a needs-based, rather than a “one-size-fits-all”, approach is used. Thus, adding local GWR to the epidemiologists’ toolbox would allow them to assess how the impacts of different determinants vary by geography. This knowledge is critical for resource allocation in disease control programs.

Weisent Jennifer

2012-10-01

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Family history and socioeconomic risk factors for non-syndromic cleft lip and palate: A matched case-control study in a less developed country Factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos para labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en México: estudio de casos y controles pareado  

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Full Text Available

Introduction. From an epidemiological point of view, non-syndromic orofacial clefts are the most common oral congenital deformities worldwide.
Objective. Family histories were traced and socioeconomic risk factors were identified for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.
Material and methods. A case-control study was carried out with 208 cases of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and matched by age and sex with 416 controls. Cases were patients attending a referral clinic from 2002 through 2004 in Campeche, Mexico. A questionnaire was administered to collect sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables as well as familial background relevant to non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Conditional logistic regression models were used; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Results. In the multivariate model, the following risk factors were identified: 1 low socioeconomic status; 2 birth in the southern region of Campeche state; 3 home delivery or delivery in a publicly funded hospital; 4 occurrence of prior non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate cases in the father's or mother's family: 5 having a sibling with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate; 6 the proband having another malformation, and 7 a history of infections during pregnancy. Prenatal care consisting of vitamin supplementation was a protective factor for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (odds ratio=0.29.
Conclusions. A "social gradient in health" was seen to link oral malformation with diet components, and several socioeconomic and socio-demographic factors broadly encompassed in low socioeconomic status. Further characterization of risk factors will guide the assemblage of a pro-active counseling and prevention program for families at risk for non-syndromic cleft lip and cleft palate.

Introducción. Desde el punto de vista epidemiológico, las hendiduras faciales son las deformidades orales más comunes alrededor del mundo.
Objetivo. Identificar los factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos relacionados con la presencia de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome.
Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de casos y controles en el que se incluyeron 208 casos con diagnóstico de labio, paladar hendido o ambos no asociados a un síndrome, los cuales fueron pareados por edad y sexo con 416 controles. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes quirúrgicos atendidos durante el periodo 2002-2004 en el programa estatal de labio o paladar hendido de Campeche, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario en el que se recogió información sobre variables sociodemográficas y socioeconómicas, así como sobre antecedentes hereditarios de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en la familia. Debido a que el diseño fue pareado, el análisis se hizo con regresión logística condicionada.
Resultados. En el modelo multivariado para labio o paladar hendido no asociado a un síndrome se identificaron de forma significativa (p<0,05 los siguientes factores de riesgo: nivel socioeconómico bajo (razón de momios, RM=2,02, nacimiento en el sur del estado (RM=3,96, nacimiento en casa (RM=2,51 o nacimiento en hospital público (RM=4,08, antecedentes heredofamiliares paternos (RM=5,38, antecedentes heredofamiliares maternos (RM=4,11, tener otro hijo con labio o paladar hendido en la familia (RM=46,02, presentar algún otro defecto congénito asociado (RM=8,20 e infección en el embarazo (RM=2,90, y como factor protector, el cuidado prenatal y el uso de vitaminas (RM=0,29.
Conclusiones. El mayor riesgo en nuestra muestra para labio, paladar hendido o ambos, no asociados a un síndrome, radica en las variables relaci

Juan J. Villalobos-Rodelo

2011-03-01

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Epidemiological & Risk Factors In Childhood Bronchial Asthma  

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Research question: What are the epidemiological and risk factors associated with asthma in children. Objective: To determine epidemiological and risk factors in childhood bronchial asthma. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting Hospital based. Participants: Children suffering from bronchial asthma and their parents/ attendants. Sample size: 235 children. Study variables: Age, sex place of residence, socio-economic status, age of onset of asthma, no of siblings, fuel used for cooking, smoking,...

Singh Harmesh; Soni R. K; Gill P J S

1998-01-01

60

Socioeconomic factors and complete edentulism in north karnataka population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Complete edentulism is the terminal outcome of a multifactorial process involving biological factors and patient related factors. Tooth loss associated with periodontal disease and caries has an apparent impact on an individual's quality of life, and has been associated with lower levels of satisfaction with life and a lower morale. The rate of total edentulism is said to be increasing in developing countries and this had been attributed mainly to the high prevalence of periodontal diseases and caries. The distribution and prevelance of complete edentulism between developed and less developed countries may be associated with a complex interrelationship between cultural, individual, attitude, behavior, dental attendance, etiopathogenesis of edentulism, access to care and socioeconomic factors. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between socio-demographic factors and edentulism. In order to plan for future oral health care provisions for the society, collecting epidemiological data on oral health particularly related to prosthodontics and its related issues are very important. PMID:24604994

Nagaraj, E; Mankani, N; Madalli, P; Astekar, D

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation modeling  

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Full Text Available Abstract Title An exploration of socioeconomic variation in lifestyle factors and adiposity in the Ontario Food Survey through structural equation models. Background Socioeconomic indicators have been inversely associated with overweight and obesity, with stronger associations observed among women. The objective of the present secondary analysis was to examine the relationships among socioeconomic measures and adiposity for men and women participating in the Ontario Food Survey (OFS, and to explore lifestyle factors as potential mediators of these associations. Methods The cross-sectional 1997/98 OFS collected anthropometric measurements, a food frequency questionnaire, data on socio-demographics (age, sex, income, and education and physical activity from 620 women and 467 men, ages 18 to 75. Based on the 2003 Health Canada guidelines, waist circumference and BMI values were used to derive least risk, increased risk, and high risk adiposity groups. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine increased risk and high risk adiposity in relation to education and income, with leisure time physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, and smoking status included as potential mediators of these associations. Results The probability of high risk adiposity was directly associated with education (?-0.19, p Conclusion The socioeconomic context of adiposity continues to differ greatly between men and women. For women only in the OFS, fruit and vegetable intake contributed to the inverse association between education and high risk adiposity; however, additional explanatory factors are yet to be determined.

Mendelson Rena

2007-03-01

62

Family history and socioeconomic risk factors for non-syndromic cleft lip and palate: A matched case-control study in a less developed country / Factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos para labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en México: estudio de casos y controles pareado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción. Desde el punto de vista epidemiológico, las hendiduras faciales son las deformidades orales más comunes alrededor del mundo. Objetivo. Identificar los factores de riesgo hereditarios y socioeconómicos relacionados con la presencia de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome. [...] Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de casos y controles en el que se incluyeron 208 casos con diagnóstico de labio, paladar hendido o ambos no asociados a un síndrome, los cuales fueron pareados por edad y sexo con 416 controles. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes quirúrgicos atendidos durante el periodo 2002-2004 en el programa estatal de labio o paladar hendido de Campeche, México. Se aplicó un cuestionario en el que se recogió información sobre variables sociodemográficas y socioeconómicas, así como sobre antecedentes hereditarios de labio o paladar hendido no asociados a un síndrome en la familia. Debido a que el diseño fue pareado, el análisis se hizo con regresión logística condicionada. Resultados. En el modelo multivariado para labio o paladar hendido no asociado a un síndrome se identificaron de forma significativa (p Abstract in english Introduction. From an epidemiological point of view, non-syndromic orofacial clefts are the most common oral congenital deformities worldwide. Objective. Family histories were traced and socioeconomic risk factors were identified for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Material and [...] methods. A case-control study was carried out with 208 cases of non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate, and matched by age and sex with 416 controls. Cases were patients attending a referral clinic from 2002 through 2004 in Campeche, Mexico. A questionnaire was administered to collect sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables as well as familial background relevant to non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Conditional logistic regression models were used; adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results. In the multivariate model, the following risk factors were identified: 1) low socioeconomic status; 2) birth in the southern region of Campeche state; 3) home delivery or delivery in a publicly funded hospital; 4) occurrence of prior non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate cases in the father´s or mother´s family: 5) having a sibling with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate; 6) the proband having another malformation, and 7) a history of infections during pregnancy. Prenatal care consisting of vitamin supplementation was a protective factor for non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (odds ratio=0.29). Conclusions. A “social gradient in health” was seen to link oral malformation with diet components, and several socioeconomic and socio-demographic factors broadly encompassed in low socioeconomic status. Further characterization of risk factors will guide the assemblage of a pro-active counseling and prevention program for families at risk for non-syndromic cleft lip and cleft palate.

Acuña-González, Gladys; Medina-Solís, Carlo E; Maupomé, Gerardo; Escoffie-Ramírez, Mauricio; Hernández-Romano, Jesús; Márquez-Corona, María de L; Islas-Márquez, Arturo J; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan J.

63

The Hidden Risk Factor  

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Full Text Available To achieve maximum returns consistent with an investor’s appetite for risk, the correct identification and estimation of all relevant risk factors in a portfolio are necessary. In this paper, we identify the role of foreign currency as an important risk factor from an international investor’s point of view.

J. H. Witte

2013-10-01

64

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Adoption of Sunflower Varieties in Sindh  

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Full Text Available This research study is based on primary data collection from sunflower growers to assess the socioeconomic factors that are affecting the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.Data samples have been selected from two districts; Badin and Thatta, as these districts are considered main sunflower growing areas in Sindh. The results reveal that Sunflower growers are using Hybrid varieties i.e. 43 percent planted Hysun-33, 29 percent Hysun-38 and 28 percent Hysun-37 varieties. The finding of research using multinomial logistic regression suggests that farm size and level of education significantly affected the adoption of sunflower varieties. These factors are statistically significant at p<0.05. Theother variables such as tenancy status and source of income are not statistically significant in the adoption of sunflower varieties in Sindh.

Ghulam Ali Jariko (Corresponding Author

2011-09-01

65

Socioeconomic factors and adolescent pregnancy outcomes: distinctions between neonatal and post-neonatal deaths?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Young maternal age has long been associated with higher infant mortality rates, but the role of socioeconomic factors in this association has been controversial. We sought to investigate the relationships between infant mortality (distinguishing neonatal from post-neonatal deaths, socioeconomic status and maternal age in a large, retrospective cohort study. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked birth-death certificate data for Missouri residents during 1997–1999. Infant mortality rates for all singleton births to adolescent women (12–17 years, n = 10,131; 18–19 years, n = 18,954 were compared to those for older women (20–35 years, n = 28,899. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for all potential associations. Results The risk of infant (OR 1.95, CI 1.54–2.48, neonatal (1.69, 1.24–2.31 and post-neonatal mortality (2.47, 1.70–3.59 were significantly higher for younger adolescent (12–17 years than older (20–34 years mothers. After adjusting for race, marital status, age-appropriate education level, parity, smoking status, prenatal care utilization, and poverty status (indicated by participation in WIC, food stamps or Medicaid, the risk of post-neonatal mortality (1.73, 1.14–2.64 but not neonatal mortality (1.43, 0.98–2.08 remained significant for younger adolescent mothers. There were no differences in neonatal or post-neonatal mortality risks for older adolescent (18–19 years mothers. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors may largely explain the increased neonatal mortality risk among younger adolescent mothers but not the increase in post-neonatal mortality risk.

Flick Louise H

2005-07-01

66

Lifestyle factors and risk of venous thromboembolism  

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SUMMARY There is little knowledge about the association between lifestyle factors and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this thesis was to investigate the relation between coffee consumption, emotional states, cigarette smoking and socioeconomic status and future risk of incident VTE in a prospective, population-based cohort study. Our study population consisted of more than 27 000 men and women, who participated in the fourth Tromsø study (1994-95). All adult inhabitants of ...

Enga, Kristin Fjeldstad

2013-01-01

67

Risk Factors for Glaucoma Needing More Attention  

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Glaucoma is defined as a chronic progressive optic neuropathy, for which elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor. Emerging research indicates that modifiable factors besides IOP may be associated with the presence of glaucoma. In this review, we discuss the role of modifiable determinants, specifically socioeconomic status, nutritional intake, body mass index and obesity, exercise, smoking, and sleep apnea, in the presence of glaucoma. Preliminary studies sugges...

Coleman, Anne L.; Kodjebacheva, Gergana

2009-01-01

68

Financial capability, money attitudes and socioeconomic status: risks for experiencing adverse financial events  

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The risk of experiencing adverse financial events (e.g. bankruptcy) depends on the world economy and on individual differences in financial and psychological variables. Analysing data from 109,472 British survey respondents, this study reports the risks associated with financial capabilities, money attitudes, and socio-economic status for suffering negative financial outcomes. The results show that (1) socio-economic status is associated with financial capabilities but not with money attitude...

2013-01-01

69

The use of socioeconomic factors in mapping tuberculosis risk areas in a city of northeastern Brazil Uso de factores socioeconómicos en la localización de áreas con riesgo de tuberculosis en una ciudad del nordeste de Brasil  

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In Brazil the challenge of meeting the needs of those living in deprived areas has generated discussions on replacing the existing approach to epidemiological surveillance with an integrated public health surveillance system. This new approach would supplant the traditional focus on high-risk individuals with a method for identifying high-risk populations and the areas where these persons live. Given the magnitude of the problem that tuberculosis (TB) poses for Brazil, we chose that disease a...

Souza, Wayner V.; Ricardo Ximenes; Albuquerque, Maria F. M.; Lapa, Tiago M.; Portugal, Jose? L.; Lima, Maria L. C.; Martelli, Celina M. T.

2000-01-01

70

Causes and Risk Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

... Causes and Risk Factors Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis NHL Subtypes NHL Staging Before Treatment Questions to Ask Treatment Chemotherapy ... Cell Transplantation Watch and Wait Treatment for Aggressive NHL Subtypes Treating Specific Aggressive Subtypes Treatment for Indolent ...

71

Risk factors for neoplasms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG)

1991-01-01

72

Association between socioeconomic factors and sleep quality in an urban population-based sample in Germany  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Good sleep quality is essential for recovery. The risk factors of sleep disorders have been extensively investigated, but there is sparse information on the association of socioeconomic factors with a person's sleep quality. The aim of the present analysis is to investigate this association, taking particularly the effect of health confounders into consideration. METHODS: The data were extracted from the cross-sectional QUEBEB Study. In total, the study sample consisted of 3281 participants (1817 women and 1464 men, aged 16-72 years). Here socioeconomic status (SES) was collected from the baseline survey taken in 2004. Sleep quality for the same participants was measured with in-depth personal interviews in 2006 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, together with other relevant characteristics (e.g. anxiety, depression and health status). Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: People living in an urban environment with a high or medium SES have a greater probability of good sleep quality (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.14; odds ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.69) than persons with a low SES. Anxiety and depression, but also health status, are also associated with sleep quality and can influence in part the socioeconomic levels seen in sleep quality. CONCLUSION: SES and sleep quality are associated. However, there are important additional determinants that influence the level of association between SES and sleep quality. Several factors, such as anxiety, depression and health status, are associated with poorer sleep quality, but at the same time, these factors occur more often within lower social classes.

Anders, Markus P; Breckenkamp, Jürgen

2014-01-01

73

Risk Factors of Cholangiocarcinoma  

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Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy after hepatocellular cancer. It accounts for approximately 10–25% of all hepatobiliary malignancies. There are considerable geographic and demographic variations in the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma. There are several established risk factors for CC including parasitic infections, primary sclerosing cholangitis, biliary-duct cysts, hepatolithiasis, and toxins. Other less-established, potential risk factors include inf...

Tyson, Gia L.; El-serag, Hashem B.

2011-01-01

74

Contribution of Psychosocial Factors to Socioeconomic Differences in Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The National Survey of Mid-life Developments in the United States (MIDUS) is one of several studies that demonstrate socioeconomic gradients in mortality during midlife. When MIDUS findings on self-reported health, waist to hip ratio, and psychological well-being were analyzed for their possible roles in generating socioeconomic differences in health, they revealed clear educational gradients for women and men (i.e., higher education predicted better health). Certain potential mediating varia...

Marmot, Michael G.; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Ettner, Susan L.; Marks, Nadine F.; Bumpass, Larry L.; Ryff, Carol D.

1998-01-01

75

Adapting to Risk, Learning to Trust: Socioeconomic Insecurities and Feelings of Disconnectedness in Contemporary Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the past two decades, topics related to social inequality have come to dominate public discourse in Japan. Over the same time span, the number of Japanese who experience socioeconomic anxiety in their everyday life has increased. Analysis of data from a nationwide survey carried out by the German Institute for Japanese Studies (DIJ) in 2009 shows that an increase of social risks is not only perceived as something affecting others, but that strong socioeconomic anxieties and fears of soci...

Hommerich, Carola

2013-01-01

76

Is the Scottish population living dangerously? Prevalence of multiple risk factors: the Scottish Health Survey 2003  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Risk factors are often considered individually, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of combinations of multiple behavioural risk factors and their association with socioeconomic determinants. Methods Multinomial logistic regression was used to model the associations between socioeconomic factors and multiple risk factors from data in the Scottish Health Survey 2003. Prevalence of five key risk - smoking, alcohol, diet, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity, and their risk in relation to demographic, individual and area socioeconomic factors were assessed. Results Full data were available on 6,574 subjects (80.7% of the survey sample. Nearly the whole adult population (97.5% reported to have at least one behavioural risk factor; while 55% have three or more risk factors; and nearly 20% have four or all five risk factors. The most important determinants for having four or five multiple risk factors were low educational attainment which conferred over a 3-fold increased risk compared to high education; and residence in the most deprived communities (relative to least deprived which had greater than 3-fold increased risk. Conclusions The prevalence of multiple behavioural risk factors was high and the prevalence of absence of all risk factors very low. These behavioural patterns were strongly associated with poorer socioeconomic circumstances. Policy to address factors needs to be joined up and better consider underlying socioeconomic circumstances.

Brewster David H

2010-06-01

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The use of socioeconomic factors in mapping tuberculosis risk areas in a city of northeastern Brazil / Uso de factores socioeconómicos en la localización de áreas con riesgo de tuberculosis en una ciudad del nordeste de Brasil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish En Brasil, el reto de satisfacer las necesidades de los residentes en zonas pobres ha generado discusiones sobre la sustitución del actual abordaje de la vigilancia epidemiológica por un sistema integrado de vigilancia de la salud pública. Este nuevo abordaje debería sustituir el tradicional enfoque [...] en los individuos de alto riesgo por un método destinado a identificar las poblaciones de alto riesgo y las zonas en las que viven. Dada la magnitud del problema de la tuberculosis en Brasil, elegimos esta enfermedad como un ejemplo de cómo se podría concebir este nuevo sistema integrado de vigilancia de la salud pública. Se reunieron los datos de varias fuentes y la información geográfica para crear un indicador del riesgo de tuberculosis en Olinda, ciudad del estado de Pernambuco. Con el fin de estratificar el espacio urbano de Olinda y de buscar una asociación entre el gradiente del riesgo de tuberculosis y la incidencia media de la enfermedad entre 1991 y 1996, se aplicaron dos métodos diferentes: 1) un "índice social de pobreza", y 2) un análisis de componentes principales seguido de un análisis por grupos. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron una asociación entre la pobreza y la aparición de la tuberculosis y también señalaron grupos y zonas prioritarias que requerían intervención. Se recomienda un seguimiento que debería incluir el tratamiento de los casos de tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia positiva, la identificación de los contactos de estos individuos y el control de los casos resistentes a múltiples fármacos, todo ello en coordinación con los servicios de salud locales. Abstract in english In Brazil the challenge of meeting the needs of those living in deprived areas has generated discussions on replacing the existing approach to epidemiological surveillance with an integrated public health surveillance system. This new approach would supplant the traditional focus on high-risk indivi [...] duals with a method for identifying high-risk populations and the areas where these persons live. Given the magnitude of the problem that tuberculosis (TB) poses for Brazil, we chose that disease as an example of how such a new, integrated public health surveillance system could be constructed. We integrated data from several sources with geographic information to create an indicator of tuberculosis risk for Olinda, a city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. In order to stratify the urban space in Olinda and to check for an association between the resulting TB risk gradient and the mean incidence of the disease between 1991 and 1996, we applied two different methods: 1) a "social deprivation index" and 2) principal component analysis followed by cluster analysis. Our results showed an association between social deprivation and the occurrence of TB. The results also highlighted priority groups and areas requiring intervention. We recommend follow-up that would include treating acid-fast bacilli smear-positive pulmonary TB cases, tracing of these persons' contacts, and monitoring of multidrug-resistant cases, all in coordination with local health services.

Wayner V., Souza; Ricardo, Ximenes; Maria F. M., Albuquerque; Tiago M., Lapa; José L., Portugal; Maria L. C., Lima; Celina M. T., Martelli.

78

Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors in Patients with Essential Hypertension  

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Full Text Available Systemic hypertension is a common disease in the population and is one of the most important risk factors whose prevalence reaches 28% in U.S.A, 44% in Europe, so that in 2025, it is estimated that hypertensive persons will reach 1.56 billion worldwide. In our country, the overall prevalence was 44.92%, mainly higher in males (50.17% than females (41.11%. We conducted an assessment of social and psychological factors in association with medical and biological routine quantification in a group of 80 hypertensives newly diagnosed, compared with a control group. Questionnaires were for studying the marital status, education level, quantifying the number of working hours per day, the level of physical training and professional socio-familial stress, smoking, alcohol consumption, after which patients were tested to assess the psychometric anxiety and depression using the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression and the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. The results may support an increased risk of hypertension in individuals who are undergoing to social and family stress, working over 10 hours/day and who record mild or moderate levels of anxiety and depression at evaluation tests. These data support the implementation of complex programs to decrease the risk of hypertension by working professionals in the medical, social and psychological fields of expertise.

Corina DIMA-COZMA

2014-03-01

79

Strong regional links between socio-economic background factors and disability and mortality in Oslo, Norway  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Study objective: To study geographical differences in mortality and disability and sosio-economic status in Oslo, Norway. Setting: A total of 25 local authority districts within the city of Oslo. Design: Analysis of age adjusted mortality rates aged 0-74 in the period 1991-1994, and cross sectional data on disability pensioners aged 50-66 and socio-economic indicators (low education, single parenthood, unemployment, high income) in 1994. Main outcome measures: The levels of correlation between the health outcomes (mortality and disability) and sosio-economic exposure variables. Main results: The geographical patterns of mortality and disability display substantial similarities and show strong linear correlation with area measures of socio-economic deprivation. The ratios between the highest and lowest area mortality rates were 3.3 for men and 2.1 for women, while the high-low ratios of disability were 7.0 for men and 3.8 for women. For women deprivation measures are better correlated with disability than mortality. While disability and mortality display similar correlations with deprivation measures for men. Conclusions: The social gradients in health are substantial in Oslo. Further ecological analysis of cause specific morbidity and mortality and the distribution of risk factors ought to be done to identify problem areas suitable for interventions. However, to understand the mechanisms and the relative importance of each etiological factor, studies based on individual data have to be performed

1998-07-01

80

Dietary and socio-economic factors in relation to Helicobacter pylori re-infection  

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Full Text Available AIM: To examine if dietary and socio-economic factors contribute to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori re-infection.METHODS: The population of patients consisted of subjects in whom H pylori infection had been successfully treated in the past. Patients were divided into two groups:?I-examined group (111 persons with H pylori re-infection and II-control group (175 persons who had not been re-infected. The respondents were interviewed retrospectively on their dietary habits and socio-economic factors.RESULTS: A statistically significant lower frequency of fermented dairy products (P < 0.0001, vegetables (P = 0.02, and fruit (P = 0.008 consumption was noted among patients with H pylori re-infection as compared to those who had not been re-infected.CONCLUSION: High dietary intake of probiotic bacteria, mainly Lactobacillus, and antioxidants, mainly vitamin C (contained in fruit and vegetables, might decrease the risk of H pylori re-infection.

Miros?aw Jarosz, Ewa Rychlik, Magdalena Siuba, Wioleta Respondek, Ma?gorzata Ry?ko-Skiba, Iwona Sajór, Sylwia Guga?a, Tomasz B?a?ejczyk, Janusz Ciok

2009-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

Risk factors of teenage pregnancy  

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Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United Kingdom has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy in Europe and in contrast to the decline in the rate of teenage pregnancy, recorded in the remaining countries of Western Europe, this figure has remained relatively stable, especially in adolescents aged 16 years and below. In Greece, according to National Statistics Office, in 2007, we had 3.129 births by teenagers under 18, with 75 births by teenagers under 15. The main factors contributing to the incidence of teenage pregnancy are socioeconomic factors, the family, the education and the sexual behavior of teenagers. Conclusions.It is necessary the state, through the health services and the education programs, to provide modern sex education in schools, as well as programs of prevention and health education in primary health care. The cooperation of these authorities is essential, to better address the extent and consequences of teenage pregnancy.

Maria Siettou

2011-01-01

82

Comparison of HPV prevalence in HNSCC patients with regard to regional and socioeconomic factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

HPV infection is considered as an independent risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Due to highly variable prevalence results in numerous studies, it is, however, difficult to estimate the relevance of HPV infection as risk factor for a specific patient collective. This study aimed to elucidate the disparities of HPV prevalence by analyzing socioeconomically and regionally different patient collectives. Two age, gender, stage and tumor location matched cohorts of 18 private health insured (PHIP) and 16 statutory health insured patients (SIP) suffering from an oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and treated at a university hospital were screened for p16 overexpression and HPV infection by immunohistochemistry and PCR. In addition 85 HNSCC patients of an otolaryngology private practice (PPP) in a rural area were screened for p16 overexpression and positive cases were tested for HPV infection. HPV prevalence was 72.2 % in the PHIP collective in comparison to 25.0 % (p = 0.015) in the SIP collective with a significantly improved 5-year overall survival (p = 0.003) of the PHIP collective. The total HPV prevalence of PPP group was 7.1 % with the highest infection rate in tonsillar carcinomas (33.3 %) and a larger percentage of female patients in the HPV positive group (p = 0.037). This study shows that variable HPV infection rates in HNSCC can be caused by the selection of particular patient collectives, which suggest taking socioeconomic and regional factors into account for a decision on HPV testing, if it is not performed on a routine basis. PMID:24065189

Krupar, Rosemarie; Hartl, Michael; Wirsching, Kornelia; Dietmaier, Wolfgang; Strutz, Juergen; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand

2014-06-01

83

The Impact of Socioeconomic and Clinical Factors on Purchase of Prescribed Analgesics Before and After Hysterectomy on Benign Indication  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE:: Pelvic pain is a primary symptom of women referred for hysterectomy. This study identified risk factors for purchase of prescribed analgesics before and after hysterectomy and examined purchase changes after hysterectomy, specifically focusing on socioeconomic effects. METHODS:: Nearly all Danish women (n=13,420) with a hysterectomy on benign indication between 2004 and 2006 were included in a registry-based follow-up study. Information on prescription analgesic purchase was from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Factors associated with a purchase and associations between socioeconomic factors and changes in analgesic purchase were assessed. RESULTS:: Analgesic purchase after hysterectomy was independently predicted by age below 35 or above 65 years, body mass index >29.9, high American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, uterus weight

Daugbjerg, Signe B; Brandsborg, Birgitte

2013-01-01

84

Association Between Socioeconomic Factors and the Choice of Dentifrice and Fluoride Intake by Children  

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Full Text Available It is questionable whether socioeconomic factors influence the choice of marketed children’s dentifrices and whether these products are associated with greater fluoride (F intake in children. The present cross-sectional study involving 197 children (mean age: 40.98 ± 6.62 months was carried out in Montes Claros, Brazil. Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic status and the tooth brushing habits of their children. The children brushed their teeth and saliva residues were collected for F analysis. F intake from dentifrice was determined with an ion-specific electrode. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to test whether the type of dentifrice (children’s or family and F dose (< 0.05 and ?0.05 mg F/Kg of body weight/day were associated with the independent variables (p < 0.05. No differences were found between children’s and family dentifrices regarding daily F intake (0.046 and 0.040 mg F/Kg/day, respectively; p = 0.513. The following were strong predictors for the use of a children’s dentifrice: studying at a private kindergarten (OR: 6.89; p < 0.001; age that the child begun to tooth brush < 2 years (OR: 2.93; p = 0.041, and the interaction between the variables “use of the same dentifrice as parents” and “type of tooth brush used” (OR: 27.20; p < 0.001. “The amount of dentifrice used” and “frequency of tooth brushing” (p ? 0.004 had a statistically and synergistic effect over the daily F dose. The present study found a social influence over the choice of dentifrice: children with a high socioeconomic status tend to use a children’s dentifrice. The amount of dentifrice used can strongly increase the risk of exposure to higher doses of F, regardless of the type of dentifrice.

Maria José Oliveira

2011-11-01

85

Prediction of high-risk areas for visceral leishmaniasis using socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial heterogeneity in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important aspect to be considered in planning control actions for the disease. The objective of this study was to predict areas at high risk for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) based on socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data. We applied classification and regression trees to develop and validate prediction models. Performance of the models was assessed by means of sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve. The model developed was able to discriminate 15 subsets of census tracts (CT) with different probabilities of containing CT with high risk of VL occurrence. The model presented, respectively, in the validation and learning samples, sensitivity of 79% and 52%, specificity of 75% and 66%, and area under the ROC curve of 83% and 66%. Considering the complex network of factors involved in the occurrence of VL in urban areas, the results of this study showed that the development of a predictive model for VL might be feasible and useful for guiding interventions against the disease, but it is still a challenge as demonstrated by the unsatisfactory predictive performance of the model developed. PMID:24885128

Almeida, Andréa S; Werneck, Guilherme L

2014-01-01

86

Prediction of high-risk areas for visceral leishmaniasis using socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatial heterogeneity in the incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important aspect to be considered in planning control actions for the disease. The objective of this study was to predict areas at high risk for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) based on socioeconomic indicators and remote sensing data. We applied classification and regression trees to develop and validate prediction models. Performance of the models was assessed by means of sensitivity, specificity and area under the ROC curve. The model developed was able to discriminate 15 subsets of census tracts (CT) with different probabilities of containing CT with high risk of VL occurrence. The model presented, respectively, in the validation and learning samples, sensitivity of 79% and 52%, specificity of 75% and 66%, and area under the ROC curve of 83% and 66%. Considering the complex network of factors involved in the occurrence of VL in urban areas, the results of this study showed that the development of a predictive model for VL might be feasible and useful for guiding interventions against the disease, but it is still a challenge as demonstrated by the unsatisfactory predictive performance of the model developed.

2014-01-01

87

Association Between Socioeconomic Factors and the Choice of Dentifrice and Fluoride Intake by Children  

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It is questionable whether socioeconomic factors influence the choice of marketed children’s dentifrices and whether these products are associated with greater fluoride (F) intake in children. The present cross-sectional study involving 197 children (mean age: 40.98 ± 6.62 months) was carried out in Montes Claros, Brazil. Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic status and the tooth brushing habits of their children. The children brushed their teeth and saliva residues were colle...

Carolina Castro Martins; Maria José Oliveira; Isabela Almeida Pordeus; Jaime Aparecido Cury; Saul Martins Paiva

2011-01-01

88

Socioeconomic factors and incidence of erectile dysfunction: findings of the longitudinal Massachussetts Male Aging Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the well-documented relationship of socioeconomic factors (SEF) to various health problems, the relationship of SEF to erectile dysfunction (ED) is not well understood. As such, the goals of this paper are: (1) to determine whether incident ED is more likely to occur among men with low SEF; and (2) to determine whether incident ED varies by SEF after taking into consideration other well-established ED risk factors that are also associated with SEF such as smoking, diabetes, and high blood pressure. We used data from 797 participants in the longitudinal population-based Massachusetts Male Aging Study (baseline 1987-1989, follow-up 1995-1997) who were free of ED at baseline and had complete data on ED and all risk factors. ED was determined by a self-administered questionnaire and its relationship to SEF was assessed using logistic regression. We first analyzed the age-adjusted relationship of education, income, and occupation to incidence of ED. The results show that men with low education (O.R. = 1.46, 95% C.I. = 1.02-2.08) or men in blue-collar occupations (O.R. = 1.68, 95% C.I. = 1.16-2.43) are significantly more likely to develop ED. For the multivariate model, due to multicollinearity among education, income, and occupation, we ran three separate models. After taking into consideration all the other risk factors--age, lifestyle and medical conditions--the effect of occupation remained significant. Men who worked in blue-collar occupations were one and a half times more likely to develop ED compared to men in white-collar occupations (O.R. = 1.55, 95% C.I. = 1.06-2.28). PMID:10975236

Aytaç, I A; Araujo, A B; Johannes, C B; Kleinman, K P; McKinlay, J B

2000-09-01

89

Risk factors for cataract: A case control study  

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The present study was designed as a hospital-based, group-matched, case-control investigation into the risk factors associated with age-related cataract in central India. The study included 262 cases of age-related cataract and an equal number of controls. A total of 21 risk factors were evaluated: namely, low socioeconomic status (SES), illiteracy, marital status, history of diarrhoea, history of diabetes, glaucoma, use of cholinesterase inhibitors, steroids, spironolactone, nifedipine, anal...

1998-01-01

90

Relação entre determinantes socioeconômicos e hábitos bucais de risco para más-oclusões em pré-escolares The relationship between socioeconomic determinants and oral habits as risk factors for malocclusion in preschool children  

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Full Text Available Tendo por objetivo avaliar como determinantes socioeconômicos afetam a prevalência de hábitos bucais deletérios em pré-escolares, este estudo transversal foi desenvolvido. O inquérito epidemiológico foi realizado no período de outubro de 1994 a dezembro de 1995. A amostra probabilística foi constituída por 2.139 crianças, de ambos os sexos, na faixa etária de 3 a 5 anos, matriculadas em instituições públicas ou privadas do município de Bauru - SP - Brasil. Uma subamostra de 618 crianças apresentou resposta ao questionário socioeconômico. A partir da hipótese que determinantes socioeconômicos afetam o estado emocional da criança e isto se manifesta através de hábitos bucais, como sucção de chupeta e sucção digital, foram realizadas análises bivariadas envolvendo as respostas ao questionário socieconômico e algumas variáveis de exposição. Alguns determinantes socioeconômicos, como o trabalho materno e ocupação da pessoa de maior renda no domicílio estão relacionados com a maior prevalência de hábitos bucais (p In order to evaluate how socioeconomic determinants affect the prevalence of oral habits in preschool children, this cross-sectional study was developed. The survey was carried out from October, 1994 to December, 1995. A random sample of 2,139 children aged 3 to 5 years old was evaluated. The children were enrolled in private or public institutions in the Municipal District of Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. A sub-sample of 618 children presented response to the socioeconomic questionnaire. The considered hypothesis is that socioeconomic determinants affect the psychological status of the child, and it is observed through the development of deleterious oral habits, like dummy-sucking or digit-sucking. The results were tested by bivariate analysis (chi-square test. Some social determinants, like the mother?s employment and the occupation of the person who has the greater income in the household, are related to oral habits (p < 0.05, which in turn are strongly associated with malocclusion.

Nilce Emy TOMITA

2000-06-01

91

Socioeconomic development, family income, and psychosocial risk factors: a study of families with children in public elementary school / Desenvolvimento socioeconômico, renda monetária familiar e fatores de risco psicossociais: um estudo com famílias da rede pública do ensino fundamental  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar os reflexos do recente crescimento econômico brasileiro sobre o rendimento monetário, o padrão de consumo familiar e os riscos em que vivem famílias da rede pública do Ensino Fundamental do Município de São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. São analisadas as seguinte [...] s informações sobre as famílias de 447 crianças que participaram de duas ondas de estudo longitudinal: estrato social, renda familiar per capita, evolução de renda no período e fatores psicossociais. Os resultados indicam incremento financeiro em 74,8% das famílias, acompanhado de aumento no consumo de bens materiais e no acesso a serviços de saúde. Esse crescimento não pode ser tomado como garantia de melhoria nas condições de vida e saúde, já que é gasto com a aquisição de produtos e necessidades básicas que não chegam a afetar substancialmente a forma de inserção social em que vivem as famílias. Os fatores de risco psicossociais mostraram-se frequentes, porém decrescentes nas famílias estudadas, o que pode refletir a melhoria da situação de vida familiar ou ser decorrente da etapa do desenvolvimento infantil. Abstract in english This article aims to evaluate the effects of Brazil's recent economic growth on the monetary income, consumption patterns, and risk exposures of families with children enrolled in the public elementary school system in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The article analyzes the following inf [...] ormation on families of 447 children that participated in two waves in a longitudinal study: social stratum, per capita family income, evolution in income over a three-year period, and psychosocial factors. The findings showed a 74.8% increase in the families' income, accompanied by an increase in the consumption of material assets and access to health services. This increase should not be interpreted as a guarantee of improved living and health conditions, since it was spent on basic products and needs that do not substantially affect the families' form of social inclusion. Psychosocial risk factors were frequent among the families, but decreased during the study period, which may either reflect the improved family situation or result from the later stage in child development.

Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Pires, Thiago; Pesce, Renata Pires; Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Oliveira, Raquel V. C..

92

Socioeconomic development, family income, and psychosocial risk factors: a study of families with children in public elementary school / Desenvolvimento socioeconômico, renda monetária familiar e fatores de risco psicossociais: um estudo com famílias da rede pública do ensino fundamental  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar os reflexos do recente crescimento econômico brasileiro sobre o rendimento monetário, o padrão de consumo familiar e os riscos em que vivem famílias da rede pública do Ensino Fundamental do Município de São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. São analisadas as seguinte [...] s informações sobre as famílias de 447 crianças que participaram de duas ondas de estudo longitudinal: estrato social, renda familiar per capita, evolução de renda no período e fatores psicossociais. Os resultados indicam incremento financeiro em 74,8% das famílias, acompanhado de aumento no consumo de bens materiais e no acesso a serviços de saúde. Esse crescimento não pode ser tomado como garantia de melhoria nas condições de vida e saúde, já que é gasto com a aquisição de produtos e necessidades básicas que não chegam a afetar substancialmente a forma de inserção social em que vivem as famílias. Os fatores de risco psicossociais mostraram-se frequentes, porém decrescentes nas famílias estudadas, o que pode refletir a melhoria da situação de vida familiar ou ser decorrente da etapa do desenvolvimento infantil. Abstract in english This article aims to evaluate the effects of Brazil's recent economic growth on the monetary income, consumption patterns, and risk exposures of families with children enrolled in the public elementary school system in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The article analyzes the following inf [...] ormation on families of 447 children that participated in two waves in a longitudinal study: social stratum, per capita family income, evolution in income over a three-year period, and psychosocial factors. The findings showed a 74.8% increase in the families' income, accompanied by an increase in the consumption of material assets and access to health services. This increase should not be interpreted as a guarantee of improved living and health conditions, since it was spent on basic products and needs that do not substantially affect the families' form of social inclusion. Psychosocial risk factors were frequent among the families, but decreased during the study period, which may either reflect the improved family situation or result from the later stage in child development.

Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Pires, Thiago; Pesce, Renata Pires; Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Oliveira, Raquel V. C..

93

Socioeconomic development, family income, and psychosocial risk factors: a study of families with children in public elementary school Desenvolvimento socioeconômico, renda monetária familiar e fatores de risco psicossociais: um estudo com famílias da rede pública do ensino fundamental  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate the effects of Brazil's recent economic growth on the monetary income, consumption patterns, and risk exposures of families with children enrolled in the public elementary school system in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The article analyzes the following information on families of 447 children that participated in two waves in a longitudinal study: social stratum, per capita family income, evolution in income over a three-year period, and psychosocial factors. The findings showed a 74.8% increase in the families' income, accompanied by an increase in the consumption of material assets and access to health services. This increase should not be interpreted as a guarantee of improved living and health conditions, since it was spent on basic products and needs that do not substantially affect the families' form of social inclusion. Psychosocial risk factors were frequent among the families, but decreased during the study period, which may either reflect the improved family situation or result from the later stage in child development.O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar os reflexos do recente crescimento econômico brasileiro sobre o rendimento monetário, o padrão de consumo familiar e os riscos em que vivem famílias da rede pública do Ensino Fundamental do Município de São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. São analisadas as seguintes informações sobre as famílias de 447 crianças que participaram de duas ondas de estudo longitudinal: estrato social, renda familiar per capita, evolução de renda no período e fatores psicossociais. Os resultados indicam incremento financeiro em 74,8% das famílias, acompanhado de aumento no consumo de bens materiais e no acesso a serviços de saúde. Esse crescimento não pode ser tomado como garantia de melhoria nas condições de vida e saúde, já que é gasto com a aquisição de produtos e necessidades básicas que não chegam a afetar substancialmente a forma de inserção social em que vivem as famílias. Os fatores de risco psicossociais mostraram-se frequentes, porém decrescentes nas famílias estudadas, o que pode refletir a melhoria da situação de vida familiar ou ser decorrente da etapa do desenvolvimento infantil.

Simone Gonçalves de Assis

2011-01-01

94

Socioeconomic Factors and Childhood Overweight in Europe : Results from the Multi-centre IDEFICS Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient. Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi-centre study with highly standardized study protoco. The strength of association between SES and overweight and obesity varies across European regions. In our study, the SES gradient is correlated with the regional mean income and the country-specific Human development index indicating a strong influence not only of the family but also of region and country on the overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To assess the association between different macro- and micro-level socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight. Methods Data from the IDEFICS baseline survey is used to investigate the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic factors, like socioeconomic status (SES), and the prevalence of childhood overweight. Differences and similarities regarding this relationship in eight European regions (located in Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden) are explored. 11â??994 children (50.9% boys, 49.1% girls) and their parents were included in the analyses. Results In five of the eight investigated regions (in Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Spain and Sweden), the prevalence of childhood overweight followed an inverse SES gradient. In the other three regions (in Cyprus, Hungary and Italy), no association between SES and childhood overweight was found. The SES-overweight association in a region was best explained by the country-specific human development index and the centre-specific mean income. For the investigated association between other socioeconomic factors and overweight, no clear pattern could be found in the different regions. Conclusion The association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight was shown to be heterogeneous across different European regions. Further research on nationwide European data is needed to confirm the results and to identify target groups for prevention.

Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke

2013-01-01

95

Sociocultural and Socioeconomic Influences on Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Overweight/Obese African-American and Latino-American Children and Adolescents  

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Purpose. It is unclear whether sociocultural and socioeconomic factors are directly linked to type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese ethnic minority children and adolescents. This study examines the relationships between sociocultural orientation, household social position, and type 2 diabetes risk in overweight/obese African-American (n = 43) and Latino-American (n = 113) children and adolescents. Methods. Sociocultural orientation was assessed using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interest...

Hasson, Rebecca E.; Adam, Tanja C.; Pearson, Jay; Davis, Jaimie N.; Spruijt-metz, Donna; Goran, Michael I.

2013-01-01

96

Substance abuse: risk factors for Turkish youth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Substance abuse amongst youth has been growing in developed and developing nations, including Turkey. This growth is related to a number of factors, not the least of which are forces associated with development, globalization, and youth culture. The identification of risk factors for youth substance abuse for particular populations is an important approach to the development of prevention and intervention strategies. Methods: We analyzed the data from a survey of 31,272 youth ages 14 to 18 years enrolled in high schools in Istanbul that covered the use of various substances as well as a number of demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, psychopathological, and psychosocial risk factors. Our data consisted of answers to similar questions that were asked in European School Survey Project (ESPAD, Youth in Europe (YIE, and Monitoring of the Future Survey and the National Household Survey in USA. We used binary logistic regression analyses to generate risk profiles for each of the following categories of lifetime use: tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, other illicit drugs, and multiple (two or more other illicit drugs. Results: We identified statistically significant risk profiles for these different substance categories. All the different risk factor categories contributed variably to the use of gateway drugs (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicits, but the multiple use of other illicit drugs was associated primarily with a narrower set of psychopathological (suicidality, irritability, and antisocial problems and psychosocial variables (family substance abuse and peer in?uence. Conclusions: These risk profiles share some commonality with those found amongst other populations. However, these unique risk profiles for Turkish youth can be useful in developing primary and secondary preventive interventions to address the growing substance use and abuse problems. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, focusing on time trends and risk factors of substance use in youth of emerging countries including Turkey, are needed.

andres j. pumariega

2014-01-01

97

Interrelationships and causal linkages between socioeconomic and environmental factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this study was to examine interrelationship and causal linkages between socioeconomic and environmental variables in OECD countries. To aid this study, a LISREL modelling tool was implemented. The findings of the study indicated that gross public debt increases with deterioration in air quality in North America, Asia and the Pacific, Central, Eastern and Atlantic regions of Western Europe. Energy consumption contributes to deterioration of air quality in all regions. Economic growth, measured by growth in GDP, accelerates deterioration of air quality in all regions except in Southern and Eastern regions of Western Europe. Increases in energy consumption and economic growth contributes to declines in gross public debt in most OECD countries. Spending for environmental protection contributes to reduced emission of CO{sub 2} in all regions of Europe except Asia/Pacific and North America. Expenditure for environmental protection causes increases in public debt in all regions. However, environmental expenditure exerts positive impact on economic growth in Asia/Pacific and Central Europe. Spending in environmental protection is associated with reduction in emissions of most pollutants except in North America and Asia/Pacific and Southern regions of Western Europe. The findings also indicated that in regions where emissions of SO{sub 2} is the greatest, harvesting of forests increased while fish catches declined. Emission of NO{sub x} is associated with increases in agricultural production in most regions, except in Southern and Atlantic regions of Western Europe and North America. Emission of VOCs contributed to reduction in agricultural production in most regions except in Central regions of Western Europe. In summary, economic growth tend to significantly contribute to energy consumption and deterioration of air quality.

Mariam, Y.K.G.; Barre, M.; Urquart, L.; DeCivita, P. [Environment Canada, Hull, Quebec (Canada). Regulatory and Economic Assessment Branch

1997-12-31

98

Socioeconomic Disadvantage in Childhood and Later Risk of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses: National Register-Based Studies  

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Aim: The aim of this thesis was to analyse the association between various types of indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood and the risk of later developing schizophrenia and other psychoses. Furthermore, the importance of socioeconomic disadvantage was explored in relation to immigration, school performance, and an indicator of genetic liability for psychosis.

Wicks, Susanne

2010-01-01

99

Climatic, ecological and socioeconomic factors as predictors of Sindbis virus infections in Finland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mosquito-borne Sindbis virus (SINV) causes rash-arthritis syndrome in Finland. Major outbreaks with approximately 7-year cycles have caused substantial burden of illness. Forest dwelling grouse are suspected to be amplifying hosts, with the infection transmitted to humans by mosquito bites. SINV infection surveillance data for 1984–2010 were used to create a negative binomial hurdle model, with seasonality, long-term cycles, climatic, ecological and socioeconomic variables. Climatic factors during early summer and amount of snow in April described the occurrence and incidence of SINV infections. Regulated water shore and hatch-year black grouse density described the occurrence, while population working in agriculture, agricultural land(negative) and income (negative) described the incidence of the disease. The prediction for 2009 was 85 cases (95% prediction interval 2-1187), while the actual occurrence was 106. We identified novel and known risk factors. The prevention of SINV infections in regulated water areas by infected mosquito populations should be targeted. PMID:23158410

Jalava, K; Sane, J; Ollgren, J; Ruuhela, R; Rätti, O; Kurkela, S; Helle, P; Hartonen, S; Pirinen, P; Vapalahti, O; Kuusi, M

2013-09-01

100

Spatial analysis of scrub typhus infection and its association with environmental and socioeconomic factors in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

We analyzed the spatial distribution of human cases of scrub typhus on the main island of Taiwan from 2003 to 2008 and implemented an island-wide survey of scrub typhus vectors (trombiculid chiggers) in 2007 and 2008. The standardized incidence rate 'SIR' incorporating inter-district variations in population, gender and age was correlated with environmental and socioeconomic variables. Higher incidence and SIR rates were clustered in the less developed, mountainous regions of central and eastern Taiwan. Higher SIRs were also associated with a higher proportion of dry-field farmers in the population, a higher normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and lower mean annual temperature, but was not associated with rainfall. Small mammal hosts in high-SIR districts harbored more chiggers and had higher rates of seropositivity against Orientia tsutsugamushi Hyashi, the etiologic agent of scrub typhus, compared to low-SIR districts. The concurrence of a higher proportion of dry-field farmers and higher NDVI has likely led to the clustering of scrub typhus in the mountainous regions of Taiwan. Further individual-level study of the risk factors associated with scrub typhus, and a better understanding of the effect of environmental factors on chigger abundance, should help to prevent scrub typhus in Taiwan. PMID:21703220

Kuo, Chi-Chien; Huang, Jing-Lun; Ko, Chia-Ying; Lee, Pei-Fen; Wang, Hsi-Chieh

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The risk factor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An attempt is made to put the risk factor of nuclear energy in proper perspective in comparison with other sources of energy, particularly, coal and hydel. Risk factor which draws considerable public attention is radioactive release from nuclear power plants (NPPs) and consequent environmental impacts and radiation exposure of both plant personnel and public leading to biological effects which may even affect progeny. So far as design, construction and operation of Indian NPPs are concerned, a defence in depth approach is followed. This is illustrated by describing some major components of the approach followed in the case of Madras Atomic Power Station. They are uninterrupted power supply, reactor shutdown, adequate cooling at all times, multiple barriers to prevent release of fission products to the public domain, multi-layered safety analyses, explicit safety clearances, operator training and qualification, and radiation monitoring. Data collected for all operating Indian NPPs indicate that radiation exposure of plant personnel and public, and radioactivity release (both atmospheric and aquatic) are well below permissible levels recommended by ICRP. Increase in environmental radiation level is also found to be insignificant (4-6 mrem/year at the site boundary of NPPs) when compared to the variations in natural background. Accidents and waste effluents in the case of NPPs are several orders of magnitude less than those from coal-fired plants. Continued release of CO2 and SO2 from coal fired power plants is leading to greenhouse effect and acid rain respectively. Apprehension about leakage of radioactive wastes from containers is also out of proportion. Control and surveillance exercised over release of radioactive waste is more stringent than those over chemicals. (M.G.B.)

1992-05-02

102

Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception  

Science.gov (United States)

Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

Arma?, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; St?nciugelu, I.

2012-04-01

103

Prevalence of obesity and associated socioeconomic factors among Tunisian women from different living environments  

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OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity (general and central) in the Trabzon Region and its associations with demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, reproductive history in women, and level of education), socioeconomic factors (household income and occupation), family history of selected medical conditions (diabetes, hypertension, and obesity), lifestyle factors (smoking habits, physical activity, and alcohol consumption), and hypertension in the adult populati...

Beltai?fa, L.; Traissac, P.; El Ati, J.; Lefe?vre, P.; Romdhane, H. B.; Delpeuch, F.

2009-01-01

104

Pathways linking socioeconomic status to obesity through depression and lifestyle factors among young US adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity and depression are two diseases of major public health importance. While both correlate with each other, potential pathways involving depression that would link socioeconomic status (SES) to lifestyle factors and obesity have not been systematically examined using nationally representative data. Using rich data on 2,217 US young adults aged 20–39 years from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) and multivariate linear and logistic regression models, we examined associations between major depressive disorder (MDD), dietary intake, physical activity (PA), and measured body mass index (BMI) controlling for socio-demographic factors. Further, structural equations models (SEM) were fit to test pathway explaining SES disparities in BMI through MDD and lifestyle factors. Recent prevalence of MDD was lower among young US men than women (6.4% vs 9.2%) although their prevalence of obesity was similar (21.2% vs 22.7%). Among women, MDD was associated with higher BMI and inversely associated with PA, but not among men. MDD was specifically associated with increased risk of morbid obesity (BMI?40) among women (OR: 2.88 (1.32, 6.30)). Using SEM, a main pathway linking SES to BMI among women was that linking SES ? food insecurity ? MDD ? PA ? BMI. A main pathway linking MDD to BMI in both genders was that going through PA rather than overall dietary quality. Gender and ethnic differences existed underlying how MDD, SES and lifestyle factors were associated with adiposity. Future prospective studies are needed to examine potential mechanisms using physiological markers of depression, lifestyle and obesity.

Beydoun, May A.; Wang, Youfa

2009-01-01

105

Genetic Risk Factors  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... people of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, causes a greatly increased risk of breast cancer. Zora and her relatives who carry the gene also have an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Interviewer: When there was a ...

106

Risk factors associated with pelvic inflammatory disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To investigate factors associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). Methods A case–control study was used to investigate demographic and behavioural factors, and causative agents associated with PID. Results A total of 381 participants were recruited: 140 patients, and 105 and 136 controls in tubal ligation and general practice groups, respectively. When compared with a PID?free tubal ligation control group, increased risk of PID was associated with: age <25?years; age at first sexual intercourse <20?years; non?white ethnicity; not having had children; a self?reported history of a sexually transmitted disease; and exposure to Chlamydia trachomatis. When compared with a general practice control group, increased risk was associated with: age <25?years; age at first sexual intercourse <15?years; lower socioeconomic status; being single; adverse pregnancy outcome; a self?reported history of a sexually transmitted disease; and exposure to C trachomatis. Of the cases, 64% were not associated with any of the infectious agents measured in this study (idiopathic). Conclusions A high proportion of cases were idiopathic. PID control strategies, which currently focus on chlamydial screening, have to be reviewed so that they can prevent all cases of PID. Behavioural change is a key factor in the primary prevention of PID, and potential modifiable risk factors were associated with PID.

Simms, I; Stephenson, J M; Mallinson, H; Peeling, R W; Thomas, K; Gokhale, R; Rogers, P A; Hay, P; Oakeshott, P; Hopwood, J; Birley, H; Hernon, M

2006-01-01

107

Some Socio-economic Factors affecting Solid Wastes Generation and Disposal in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study adopted a survey design. Questionnaire was administered on 215 respondents in Ibadan metropolis selected randomly. The objectives of the study are to examined the influence of some socio-economic factors on solid waste generation and disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. The nature and composition of solid waste generated, methods of disposal and relationship that exist between the socio-economic characteristics of the people and solid waste generation and disposal were also identified. Data for this study were obtained through the administration of questionnaire and review of existing literature. The information obtained from the field was analyzed using frequency and correlation matrix. The finding showed that the composition of waste generated in Ibadan Metropolis was a reflection of variation of socio-economic factors of the people. Also, socio-economic factors such as income, age, education, occupation and building types had greater influence on the choice of method of disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. It was recommended therefore that effective solid waste management can be achieved through the adoption of urban renewal strategy on the chaotic areas, provision of sizable fund by the government and proper education to the people among others.

Kayode, A. M.

2011-04-01

108

Impact of socio-economic factors on stroke prevalence among urban and rural residents in Mainland China  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background An inverse relationship between better socioeconomic status (total household income, education or occupation and stroke has been established in developed communities, but family size has generally not been considered in the use of socioeconomic status indices. We explored the utility of Family Average Income (FAI as a single index of socioeconomic status to examine the association with stroke prevalence in a region of China, and we also compared its performance as a single index of socioeconomic status with that of education and occupation. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Nanjing municipality of China during the period between October 2000 and March 2001. A total of 45 administrative villages were randomly selected using a multi-stage sampling approach and all regular local residents aged 35 years or above were included. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used in analysis. Results The overall prevalence of diagnosed stroke was 1.54% in all 29,340 eligible participants. An elevated prevalence of stroke was associated with increasing levels of FAI. After adjustment for basic demographic variables (age, urban/rural area and gender and a group of defined conventional risk factors, this gradient still remained significant, with participants in the highest (OR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.40, 2.70 and middle (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01, 2.02 categories of FAI having higher risks compared with the lowest category. A significantly elevated OR of stroke prevalence was found in white collar workers compared to blue collar workers, while no significant relationship was observed with education. Conclusion Our study consistently revealed that the prevalence of stroke was associated with increasing levels of all SES indices, including FAI, education, and occupation. However, a significant gradient was only observed with FAI after controlling for important confounding factors. The findings suggested that, compared with occupation and education, FAI could be used as a more sensitive index of socio-economic status for public health studies in China.

Yin XiaoMei

2008-05-01

109

Socioeconomic development, family income, and psychosocial risk factors: a study of families with children in public elementary school Desenvolvimento socioeconômico, renda monetária familiar e fatores de risco psicossociais: um estudo com famílias da rede pública do ensino fundamental  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article aims to evaluate the effects of Brazil's recent economic growth on the monetary income, consumption patterns, and risk exposures of families with children enrolled in the public elementary school system in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The article analyzes the following information on families of 447 children that participated in two waves in a longitudinal study: social stratum, per capita family income, evolution in income over a three-year period, and psychosoci...

Simone Gonçalves de Assis; Thiago Pires; Renata Pires Pesce; Joviana Quintes Avanci; Oliveira, Raquel V. C.

2011-01-01

110

Caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia  

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The aim of the present study was to investigate caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia. This study was conducted in 160 children with sickle cell anemia aged 3 to 12 years attending the Center for Hematology in Recife, Brazil . Data collection included interviews with guardians concerning social factors and oral examinations to determine the caries prevalence. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's chi-square tes...

Luna, Ana Cla?udia Alves E.; Maria José Rodrigues; Valdenice Aparecida De Menezes; Kátia Maria Gonçalves Marques; Fabiano Almeida dos Santos

2012-01-01

111

Socioeconomic Status, Occupational Factors and Lifestyle as Predictors of Hospitalisation for Back Disorders  

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The aim of this dissertation was to examine the determinants of severe back disorders leading to hospital admission in Finland. First, back-related hospitalisations were considered from the perspective of socioeconomic status, occupation, and industry. Secondly, the significance of psychosocial factors at work, sleep disturbances, and such lifestyle factors as smoking and overweight was studied as predictors of hospitalisation due to back disorders. Two sets of data were used: 1) the pop...

Kaila-kangas, Leena

2006-01-01

112

Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals. The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.

Chaiana Piovesan

2012-10-01

113

Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI) in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months wer [...] e included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals). The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.

Chaiana, Piovesan; Renata Saraiva, Guedes; Luciano, Casagrande; Thiago Machado, Ardenghi.

114

Principal component analysis of socioeconomic factors and their association with malaria in children from the Ashanti Region, Ghana  

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Abstract Background The socioeconomic and sociodemographic situation are important components for the design and assessment of malaria control measures. In malaria endemic areas, however, valid classification of socioeconomic factors is difficult due to the lack of standardized tax and income data. The objective of this study was to quantify household socioeconomic levels using principal component analyses (PCA) to a set of indicator variables and to use a classification sche...

2010-01-01

115

Coherent measurement of factor risks  

CERN Multimedia

We propose a new procedure for the risk measurement of large portfolios. It employs the following objects as the building blocks: - coherent risk measures introduced by Artzner, Delbaen, Eber, and Heath; - factor risk measures introduced in this paper, which assess the risks driven by particular factors like the price of oil, S&P500 index, or the credit spread; - risk contributions and factor risk contributions, which provide a coherent alternative to the sensitivity coefficients. We also propose two particular classes of coherent risk measures called Alpha V@R and Beta V@R, for which all the objects described above admit an extremely simple empirical estimation procedure. This procedure uses no model assumptions on the structure of the price evolution. Moreover, we consider the problem of the risk management on a firm's level. It is shown that if the risk limits are imposed on the risk contributions of the desks to the overall risk of the firm (rather than on their outstanding risks) and the desks are al...

Cherny, A S; Cherny, Alexander S.; Madan, Dilip B.

2006-01-01

116

Yucca Mountain socioeconomic project report on the 1987 risk perception telephone surveys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples` perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain.

Kunreuther, H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Wharton School of Finance and Commerce; Slovic, P. [Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States); Nigg, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Desvousges, W.H. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1987-09-01

117

Social risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present case control study included 322 cases of sexually transmitted diseases and equal number of age group matched and sex pair matched controls from the Skin and Venereal Disease out patient department of Indira Gandhi Medical College, Nagpur. Of the six study factors viz. type of family, educational status, religion, socioeconomic status, marital status and social disharmony, except for religion and socioeconomic status other four factors were found to be significantly associated with sexually transmitted diseases?

Shendre Mohan

2002-01-01

118

Behavioural, physical and socio-economic factors in household cooling energy consumption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As global warming continues, the current trend implies that the uptake of air conditioning in the residential sector will go up, thus potentially increasing domestic cooling energy consumption. In this context, this paper investigates the significance of behavioural, physical and socio-economic parameters on cooling energy in order to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings. It demonstrates that such factors exert a significant indirect as well as direct influence on energy use, showing that it is particularly important to understand indirect relationships. An initial study of direct factors affecting cooling energy reveals that occupant behaviour is the most significant issue (related to choices about how often and where air conditioning is used). This is broadly confirmed by path analysis, although climate is seen to be the single most significant parameter, followed by behavioural issues, key physical parameters (e.g. air conditioning type), and finally socio-economic aspects (e.g. household income).

2011-06-01

119

Pathways linking socioeconomic status to obesity through depression and lifestyle factors among young US adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity and depression are two diseases of major public health importance. While both correlate with each other, potential pathways involving depression that would link socioeconomic status (SES) to lifestyle factors and obesity have not been systematically examined using nationally representative data. Using rich data on 2,217 US young adults aged 20–39 years from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) and multivariate linear and logistic regression models, we exami...

Beydoun, May A.; Wang, Youfa

2010-01-01

120

Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women  

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Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ? 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC) ? 94 cm (men) or ? 80 cm (women) and the combination of BMI and WC for...

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The Effect of Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors on Contraceptive Use and Induced Abortion in Turkey  

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The aim of the study was to estimate the parameters of the heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model established for the induced abortion and the contraceptive use by using socioeconomic and demographic factors and their effects by eliminating the observed heteroscedasticity. Using a heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model and Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (1998) data on married women aged 15 through 49 years, we estimated the probabilities of their having an induced abortion, if induced ...

Ozlem Alpu; Gunseli Kurt

2004-01-01

122

Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Farmers’ Awareness of Clean Development Mechanism Projects: Case of Smallholder Forest Carbon Projects  

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The objective of the study was to identify the socio-economic and institutional factors which influence the level of awareness of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects and in so doing to highlight the policy implications for the stakeholders when designing clean development mechanism projects among smallholder farmers. Findings shows that 23% of the farmers were correctly aware of the project and the results of the ordered logit model indicate that age, gender, education level, group mem...

2011-01-01

123

Family-related obesity risk factors and dietary behaviours in high-risk populations : associations with child weight development  

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Background Obesity rates in Swedish children are currently not increasing, however socioeconomic disparities are widening. Many children become obese as early as their preschool years. Hereditary and environmental family-related risk factors are the dominating determinants of child obesity, with parental obesity as the most important. Prevention is a high priority, and increased knowledge on risk factors specifically in high-risk populations is of vital importance for the development of e...

Svensson, Viktoria

2014-01-01

124

Impact of socioeconomic factors on nutritional status in primary school children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)

2010-01-01

125

Socioeconomic status and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk in Kashmir, India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have persistently associated esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) risk with low socioeconomic status (SES), but this association is unexplored in Kashmir, an area with a high incidence of ESCC in the northernmost part of India. We carried out a case-control study to assess the association of multiple indicators of SES and ESCC risk in the Kashmir valley. A total number of 703 histologically confirmed ESCC cases and 1664 controls matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence were recruited from October 2008 to January 2012. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Composite wealth scores were constructed based on the ownership of several appliances using multiple correspondence analyses. Higher education, living in a kiln brick or concrete house, use of liquefied petroleum gas and electricity for cooking, and higher wealth scores all showed an inverse association with ESCC risk. Compared to farmers, individuals who had government jobs or worked in the business sector were at lower risk of ESCC, but this association disappeared in fully adjusted models. Occupational strenuous physical activity was strongly associated with ESCC risk. In summary, we found a strong relationship of low SES and ESCC in Kashmir. The findings need to be studied further to understand the mechanisms through which such SES parameters increase ESCC risk. PMID:23721087

Dar, Nazir A; Shah, Idrees A; Bhat, Gulzar A; Makhdoomi, Muzamil A; Iqbal, Beenish; Rafiq, Rumaisa; Nisar, Iqra; Bhat, Arshid B; Nabi, Sumaiya; Masood, Akbar; Shah, Sajad A; Lone, Mohd M; Zargar, Showkat A; Islami, Farhad; Boffetta, Paolo

2013-09-01

126

Socioeconomic, psychiatric and materiality determinants and risk of postpartum depression in border city of ilam, Western iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Postpartum depression (PPD) is considered as one of the mood disturbances occurring during 2-3 months after delivery. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of PPD and its associated risk factors in border city of Ilam, western Iran. Methods. Through a descriptive cross-sectional study in 2011, overall, 197 women who attended Obstetrics & Gynecology clinics postpartumly in the border city of Ilam, western Iran, were randomly recruited. A standard questionnaire that was completed by a trained midwife through face to face interviews was used for data gathering. Results. Mean age ± standard deviations was 27.9 ± 5.2 years. Prevalence of PPD was estimated to be 34.8% (95% CI: 27.7-41.7). A significant difference was observed among depression scores before and after delivery (P ? 0.001). Type of delivery (P = 0.044), low socioeconomic status (P = 0.011), and women having low educational level (P = 0.009) were the most important significant risk factors associated with PPD. The regression analysis showed that employed mothers compared to housekeepers were more at risk for PPD (adjusted OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22-2.28, P = 0.003). Conclusions. Prevalence of PPD in western Iran was slightly higher than the corresponding rate from either national or international reports. PMID:23984055

Taherifard, Pegah; Delpisheh, Ali; Shirali, Ramin; Afkhamzadeh, Abdorrahim; Veisani, Yousef

2013-01-01

127

Socioeconomic and personal behavioral factors affecting children's exposure to VOCs in urban areas in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are known to cause adverse health effects. We investigated the relationships between children's VOC exposure and socioeconomic and human activity factors with passive personal samplers, questionnaires, and time-activity diaries (TAD). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS 9.1, and the results were organized using SigmaPlot 8.0 software. Chemicals such as benzene, toluene, 2-butanone, ethylbenzene, xylene, chloroform, n-hexane, heptane, and some kinds of decanes, which are known to adversely affect public health, were identified in measured samples. These were mainly emitted from outdoor sources (e.g., vehicular traffic) or indoor sources (e.g., household activities such as cooking and cleaning) or both. We concluded that region was the most important socioeconomic factor affecting children's VOC exposure, and the significant compounds were n-hexane (p = 0.006), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (p = 0.001), benzene (p = 0.003), toluene (p = 0.002), ethylbenzene (p = 0.020), m-, p-xylene (p = 0.014), dodecane (p = 0.003), and hexadecane (p = 0.001). Parental education, year of home construction and type of housing were also slightly correlated with personal VOC exposure. Only the concentration of o-xylene (p = 0.027) was significantly affected by the parental education, and the concentrations of benzene (p = 0.030) and 2-butanone (p = 0.049) by the type of housing. Also, tridecane (p = 0.049) and n-hexane (p = 0.033) were significantly associated with the year of home construction. When household activities such as cooking were performed indoors, children's VOC concentrations tended to be higher, especially for n-hexane, chloroform, heptane, toluene (p < 0.05), 1,1,1-trichloroethane, benzene, dodecane, and hexadecane (p < 0.01). However, smoking had a significant effect for only dodecane, and cleaning had no impact on any VOC concentrations. Considering both socioeconomic and personal behavioral factors simultaneously, socioeconomic factors such as region had a greater effect on children's VOC exposures than indoor activities. From this study, we can suggest that socioeconomic factors as well as environmental factors should be considered when formulating environmental policy to protect children's health. PMID:20145896

Byun, Hyaejeong; Ryu, Kyongnam; Jang, Kyungjo; Bae, Hyunjoo; Kim, Dongjin; Shin, Hosung; Chu, Jangmin; Yoon, Chungsik

2010-02-01

128

Socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence, mortality, and survival in a metropolitan area of Japan: a cross-sectional ecological study.  

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Cancer mortality is generally high in people of low socioeconomic status compared with people of high socioeconomic status (SES). Although these differences in mortality may be caused by differences in cancer incidence and survival, analysis of these factors has rarely been conducted. The objective of our cross-sectional ecological study was to analyze socioeconomic differences in cancer incidence, mortality and survival in a metropolitan area of Japan. The age-adjusted cancer incidence rates, age-adjusted mortality rates, relative 5-year survival, and proportions of early stage cancer were calculated for 67 municipalities in Osaka, Japan. For area-based socioeconomic variables, we used the percentages of male unemployment, college or graduate school graduates, home ownership, households receiving government assistance, and households below the subsistence habitation level in each municipality. We performed linear regression taking each municipality's population as weight to examine the relationships between measurements relating cancer and socioeconomic variables. Factor analysis of socioeconomic variables was carried out to determine whether a particular socioeconomic variable tended to be associated with another. Cancer incidence, cancer mortality, 5-year cancer survival, and proportion of early stage cancer were highly correlated with each socioeconomic variable at the municipality level. Five area-based socioeconomic variables could be explained by three factors: economic status, housing characteristics and educational attainment. Despite the major limitation of a lack of individual information about socioeconomic characteristics and outcomes related to cancer, we hypothesize that a municipal area's socioeconomic status might be a predictor of individual incidence, mortality, and survival of cancer. PMID:16232200

Ueda, Kimiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Ajiki, Wakiko; Oshima, Akira

2005-10-01

129

A Study Of Risk Factors Of Diabetes Mellitus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A case control study of risk factors of Diabetes Mellitus was carried out among 75 diabetic cases attending the clinic, and an equal number of matched controls from inpatients of the surgical department of R .G Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Diabetes Mellitus was found significantly higher among those persons having family history of similar illness, belonging to the socio-economic class (Kuppuwami�s classification and non-vegetarian dietary habit.

Banerjee P

1993-01-01

130

A Study Of Risk Factors Of Diabetes Mellitus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A case control study of risk factors of Diabetes Mellitus was carried out among 75 diabetic cases attending the clinic, and an equal number of matched controls from inpatients of the surgical department of R .G Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Diabetes Mellitus was found significantly higher among those persons having family history of similar illness, belonging to the socio-economic class (Kuppuwami�s classification) and non-vegetarian dietary habit.

Banerjee P; Ghosh M M; Biswas R; Bhattacharya S K

1993-01-01

131

Risk factor distribution among sociodemographically diverse African American adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because African Americans tend to have lower socioeconomic status (SES) than whites and numerous health indicators are related to SES variables, it is important when examining between-group differences in health indices to account for SES differences. This studyexamined the effects of income and education on several biologic and behavioral risk factors in a sample of sociodemographicallydiverse African American adults. Approximately 1,000 African American adults (aged 18–87) were recruited ...

Resnicow, Ken; Wang, Terry; Dudley, William N.; Jackson, Alice; Ahluwalia, J’asjit S.; Baranowski, Tom; Braithwaite, Ronald L.

2001-01-01

132

[Family cohesion associated with oral health, socioeconomic factors and health behavior].  

Science.gov (United States)

Overall health surveys have related family cohesion to socio-economic status and behavioral factors. The scope of this study was to investigate the association between family cohesion and socio-economic, behavioral and oral health factors. This was a, cross-sectional study with two-stage cluster sampling. The random sample consisted of 524 adolescents attending public schools in the city of Piracicaba-SP. Variables were evaluated by self-applied questionnaires and caries and periodontal disease were assessed by DMF-T and CPI indices. The adolescent's perception of family cohesion was assessed using the family adaptability and cohesion scale. Univariate and multinomial logistic regression shows that adolescents with low family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have low income (OR 2,28 95% CI 1,14- 4,55), presence of caries (OR 2,23 95% CI 1,21-4,09), less than two daily brushings (OR 1,91 95% CI 1,03-3,54). Adolescents with high family cohesion were more likely than those with medium family cohesion to have high income and protective behavior against the habit of smoking. Thus, the data shows that adolescent perception of family cohesion was associated with behavioral, socio-economic and oral health variables, indicating the importance of an integral approach to patient health. PMID:23896929

Ferreira, Luale Leão; Brandão, Gustavo Antônio Martins; Garcia, Gustavo; Batista, Marília Jesus; Costa, Ludmila da Silva Tavares; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Possobon, Rosana de Fátima

2013-08-01

133

Socioeconomic factors in the community fail to explain the high coronary mortality in cold parts of Sweden.  

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A regional association between cold climate and coronary mortality in Sweden has already been described. This study aimed to investigate whether this association can be explained by differences in socioeconomic factors and found that there was a regional association between coronary mortality and the following socioeconomic factors: prevalence of manual workers (D = 0.22), unemployment rates (D = 0.19), and proportion of low income earners (D = 0.17). However, these associations were substantially weaker than that between cold climate and coronary mortality (D = 0.39), and when cold climate was introduced into the statistical model the explanatory power of the socioeconomic factors diminished substantially and only the percentage of manual workers enhanced the explanatory power of cold climate. Regional variation in coronary mortality could not be attributed to long distance to emergency hospital. To conclude, the strong association between cold climate and coronary mortality could not be attributed to the influence of socioeconomic factors. PMID:1644075

Gyllerup, S; Lanke, J; Lindholm, L H; Scherstén, B

1992-07-01

134

Aldosterone: a cardiovascular risk factor?  

Science.gov (United States)

The hormone aldosterone has a well-recognized physiological role in epithelial fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and more recently defined pathophysiological roles in the cardiovascular system. The term "risk factor" implies an active role in pathophysiology, with levels lower (e.g. HDL) or higher (e.g. LDL, BP) than normal contributing to an increased likelihood of morbidity and/or mortality. In this regard, primary aldosteronism represents a classic illustration of aldosterone as a cardiovascular risk factor. In this syndrome of (relatively) autonomous aldosterone secretion, the effects of elevated hormone levels are on a range of organs and tissues-the heart, blood vessels and brain, inter alia. In other cardiovascular disorders (e.g. CCF, EH) while an elevation of aldosterone levels is often regarded as a risk factor, it is more correctly a response to the severity of disease (or to treatment intervention), rather than necessarily a risk factor with a primary role in disease progression. An enduring enigma relevant to any discussion of aldosterone as a risk factor is that very high levels of aldosterone in response to chronic sodium deficiency have homeostatic (and protective of cardiovascular) functions, while the considerably lower levels commonly seen in primary aldosteronism are incontrovertibly damaging. A final section of the paper will thus propose a mechanism which might solve this enigma, based on the commonalities-and a single crucial difference-in the factors stimulating the secretion of aldosterone and endogenous ouabain from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland. PMID:20713154

Funder, John W; Reincke, Martin

2010-12-01

135

Pneumococcal Disease Risk Factors and Transmission  

Science.gov (United States)

... page: About CDC.gov . Pneumococcal Disease Share Compartir Risk Factors & Transmission On this Page Children at Risk ... at increased risk for pneumococcal disease. Children at Risk for Pneumococcal Disease Children at higher risk for ...

136

Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people  

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Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

2010-12-01

137

Risk factor asbestos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the G.D.R. asbestos is used at a large industrial scale. The material is of interest for oncologists and industrial hygienists due to its fibrogenic and cancerogenic potencies. Both carcinomas of the respiratory organs and the rare malignant mesotheliomas are accepted as occupational diseases due to asbestos. In a retrospective study 915 cases of malignant mesotheliomas covered by the National Cancer Registry over a period of 6 years - all histologically established - were analysed. 36.7% originated from occupational handling of asbestos, 0.8% by non-occupational asbestos contacts. In another 9.1% of the cases asbestos may have been the underlying cause. 33.7% have had no asbestos contact; for 19.7% the data available were insufficient. Among the asbestos-containing materials used packing and insulating materials were prevailing in 47.7%, asbestos-containing talc in 19.6%. In 6.9% of the cases mesothelioma affection was due to wearing fire protective clothing. Different duration of exposure and especially long latency periods demonstrates difficulties interpretating the results concerning the relation between working conditions and illness. Primary (technical) prevention by reduction of asbestos dust emission, limited use of asbestos and lifelong monitoring of asbestos workers are necessary to reduce the tumour risk.

Konetzke, G.W.; Beck, B.

1981-01-01

138

Socio-economic factors in the differential upsurge of tick-borne encephalitis in Central and Eastern Europe.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), the most serious widespread vector-borne disease of humans in Europe, increased from 2- to 30-fold in many Central and Eastern European countries from 1992 to 1993, coinciding with independence from Soviet rule. Unemployment and low income have been shown in Latvia to be statistically associated with high-risk behaviour involving harvest of wild foods from tick-infested forests, and also with not being vaccinated against TBE. Archival data for 1970--2005 record major changes in the agricultural and industrial sectors, and consequent changes in the abiotic and biotic environment and socio-economic conditions, which could have increased the abundance of infected ticks and the contact of humans with those ticks. For example, abandoned agricultural fields became suitable for rodent transmission hosts; use of pesticides and emissions of atmospheric industrial pollutants plummeted; wildlife hosts for ticks increased; tick populations appear to have responded; unemployment and inequality increased in all countries. These factors, by acting synergistically but differentially between and within each country, can explain the marked spatio-temporal heterogeneities in TBE epidemiology better than can climate change alone, which is too uniform across wide areas. Different degrees of socio-economic upheaval caused by political transition in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovenia and the Czech Republic can apparently explain the marked variation in TBE upsurge. Causal linkage between national socio-economic conditions and epidemiology is strongly indicated by striking correlations across eight countries between the degree of upsurge of TBE and both poverty and household expenditure on food (R2 = 0.533 and 0.716, respectively). PMID:18183571

Sumilo, Dana; Bormane, Antra; Asokliene, Loreta; Vasilenko, Veera; Golovljova, Irina; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Hubalek, Zdenek; Randolph, Sarah E

2008-01-01

139

The Impact of Socioeconomic Factors and Financial Access on Microfinance Institutions  

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Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to unravel new factors that contribute to the success of microfinance institutions “MFIs.” We investigate whether countrywide socioeconomic characteristics and financial access can impact MFIs’ performance. Using data on 222 MFIs we find that countrywide socioeconomic characteristics such as fertility, income and education are important determinants of MFIs’ performance. For example, profitability of MFIs is more likely to fall and default on loans is more likely to rise if fertility rate increases. We also find that countrywide financial access indicators have significant impact on MFIs’ performance. For example, access to commercial banks deposit accounts has a significant and positive impact on MFIs’ success. Access to loans and commercial banks outreach appear to have a negative impact on MFIs’ performance. These results are important as they contradict the generally accepted assumption that commercial banks and MFIs operate in two different market segments and, hence, they are not direct competitors. Overall, the results suggest that several socioeconomic characteristics and financial access elements are important ingredients in evaluating MFIs’ performance.

Moh’d Al-Azzam

2012-03-01

140

The impact of socioeconomic factors on 30-day mortality following elective colorectal cancer surgery: A nationwide study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We investigated postoperative mortality in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) in electively operated colorectal cancer patients, and evaluated whether social inequalities were explained by factors related to patient, disease or treatment. Data from the nationwide database of Danish Colorectal Cancer Group were linked to individual socioeconomic information in Statistics Denmark. Patients born before 1921 and those having local surgical or palliative procedures were excluded. A total of 7160 patients, operated on in the period 2001-2004, were included, of whom 342 (4.8%) died within 30 days of surgery. Postoperative mortality was significantly lower in patients with high income (odds ratio (OR)=0.82 (0.70-0.95) for each increase in annual income of EUR 13,500), higher education versus short education (OR)=0.60 (0.41-0.87), and owner-occupied versus rental housing (OR)=0.73 (0.58-0.93). Differences in comorbidity and to a lesser extent lifestyle characteristics accounted for the excess risk of postoperative death among low-SES patients.

Frederiksen, B L; Osler, M

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Riscos para o excesso de peso entre adolescentes de diferentes classes socioeconômicas / Risk of overweight in adolescents from different socioeconomic levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre fatores de risco e a presença do excesso de peso entre adolescentes de diferentes classes socioeconômicas. MÉTODOS: Análise transversal, da qual participaram 888 jovens de ambos os sexos e com idade variando entre 11 e 17 anos. O índice de massa corporal foi cal [...] culado por meio dos valores de massa corporal e estatura, e utilizado como indicador do excesso de peso. A atividade física, a ingestão alimentar e a classe socioeconômica (alta e baixa) foram analisadas mediante a aplicação de questionários. Os dados foram analisados estatiscamente por meio dos testes Qui quadrado e regressão logística binária. RESULTADOS: Para os adolescentes de classe socioeconômica baixa, uma inadequada ingestão alimentar (Razão de chance [RC]= 4,59) e o sobrepeso dos pais (RC= 5,33) foram associados à presença do excesso de peso. Entre os adolescentes de classe socioeconômica alta, a escolaridade materna (RC= 0,57), estudar em escola privada (RC= 3,04) e o sobrepeso dos pais (RC= 3,47) foram associados à presença do excesso de peso. CONCLUSÃO: Em ambas as classes socioeconômicas, o sobrepeso dos pais foi um importante fator de risco associado ao excesso de peso. Os outros fatores de risco diferiram entre as classes socioeconômicas. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: To analyze the association between risk factors and presence of overweight in adolescents from different socioeconomic levels. METHODS: A cross-section analysis with 888 youths recruited from both genders with ages ranging from 11 to 17 years was carried out. The body mass index was calc [...] ulated through body mass and height values, and was used as the overweight indicator. Physical activity, food intake, and socioeconomic levels (high and low) were obtained by questionnaires. Data were analyzed by chi-square test and binary logistic regression. RESULTS: For adolescents in the lower socioeconomic level, both inadequate food intake (Odds Ratio [OR]= 4.59) and parent overweight (OR= 5.33) were associated to overweight. Among adolescents in the higher socioeconomic level, maternal education (OR= 0.57), study in private school (OR= 3.04), and parent overweight (OR= 3.47) were associated to development of overweight. CONCLUSION: In both socioeconomic levels, parent overweight was an important risk factor associated with overweight. The other risk factors were different among the socioeconomic levels.

Rômulo Araújo, Fernandes; Juliano, Casonatto; Diego Giuliano Destro, Christofaro; Enio Ricardo Vaz, Ronque; Arli Ramos de, Oliveira; Ismael Forte, Freitas Júnior.

142

Socio-economic determinants for malaria transmission risk in an endemic primary health centre in Assam, India  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Northeast India. As there is limited information available on the potential influence of socio-economic variables on malaria risk, the present study was conducted to assess the influence of demographic factors, the socio-economic status, and knowledge, awareness and education on malaria occurrence. Methods Demographics, malaria knowledge and socio-economic variables were collected in four randomly selected health sub-centres of the Orang primary health centre in the Udalguri district, Assam and the association of malaria occurrence with different variables were analysed. The trend of malaria occurrence for different income groups, proximity to health centres and number of mosquito bites per day was also determined using the chi-square test. Relative risk (RR) for gender, house type, knowledge and use of bed nets was determined using Katz approximation. Results Out of the 71 household heads interviewed, 70.4% (50/71) were males. About half (54.9%, 39/71) of the participants had a history of malaria in the last two years, of which 64.1% (25/39) were males, while 35.9% (14/39) were females (?2 = 5.13; p = 0.02; RR = 1.79). Of the total population surveyed, 49.3% lived in bamboo houses and 35.2% lived at a distance of >3 km from the nearest health centre. The number of participants who had a history of malaria decreased with an increasing monthly income (p bamboo houses (69.2%), as compared to Kucha houses (20.5%) and Pucca houses (10.3%). No significant association was observed between education level and malaria occurrence (p = 0.93). The participants who did not use bed nets regularly reported a high occurrence of malaria infection as compared to those who used bed nets everyday (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Lower income, house type, distance to health sub-centre, knowledge and awareness about malaria, number of mosquito bites per day and use of bed nets were positively associated with malaria occurrence. Increasing the number of health sub-centres close to rural areas, improving the economic status and increasing awareness about malaria prevention measures will thus help to reduce malaria-associated morbidities.

2014-01-01

143

Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and individual lung cancer risk: evaluating long-term exposure measures and mediating mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with numerous chronic diseases, yet little information exists on its association with lung cancer incidence. This outcome presents two key empirical challenges: a long latency period that requires study participants' residential histories and long-term neighbourhood characteristics; and adequate data on many risk factors to test hypothesized mediating pathways between neighbourhood SES and lung cancer incidence. Analysing data on urban participants of a large Canadian population-based lung cancer case-control study, we investigate three issues pertaining to these challenges. First, we examine whether there is an association between long-term neighbourhood SES, derived from 20 years of residential histories and five national censuses, and lung cancer incidence. Second, we determine how this long-term neighbourhood SES association changes when using neighbourhood SES measures based on different latency periods or at time of study entry. Third, we estimate the extent to which long-term neighbourhood SES is mediated by a range of individual-level smoking behaviours, other health behaviours, and environmental and occupational exposures. Results of hierarchical logistic regression models indicate significantly higher odds of lung cancer cases residing in the most compared to the least deprived quintile of the long-term neighbourhood SES index (OR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.13-1.89) after adjustment for individual SES. This association remained significant (OR: 1.38; 1.01-1.88) after adjusting for smoking behaviour and other known and suspected lung cancer risk factors. Important differences were observed between long-term and study entry neighbourhood SES measures, with the latter attenuating effect estimates by over 50 percent. Smoking behaviour was the strongest partial mediating pathway of the long-term neighbourhood SES effect. This research is the first to examine the effects of long-term neighbourhood SES on lung cancer risk and more research is needed to further identify specific, modifiable pathways by which neighbourhood context may influence lung cancer risk. PMID:24161094

Hystad, Perry; Carpiano, Richard M; Demers, Paul A; Johnson, Kenneth C; Brauer, Michael

2013-11-01

144

Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Customary Marine Tenure in the Indo-Pacific  

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Full Text Available For generations communities in the Western Pacific have employed a range of resource management techniques (including periodic reef closures, gear restrictions, entry limitations, and the protection of spawning aggregations to limit marine resource use. Localized control over marine resources, commonly known as customary marine tenure (CMT, is the legal and cultural foundation for many of these practices. Because of their perceived potential to meet both conservation and community goals, these traditional resource management techniques are being revitalized by communities, governments, and NGOs as an integral part of national and regional marine conservation plans in the Pacific. However, the viability of conservation strategies built on a foundation of marine tenure may be in question, as it remains unclear whether marine tenure systems will be able to withstand the profound social and economic changes sweeping the Pacific region. Numerous studies have suggested that changes in marine tenure are attributed to social and economic factors, however, specific relationships between socioeconomic conditions and marine tenure are still not well understood. This paper examines the social and economic characteristics of 21 coastal communities in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, and explores the characteristics of the communities that employ exclusive marine tenure to answer the following questions: Which socioeconomic factors are related to the presence of CMT regimes? How might socioeconomic factors influence the ability of communities to employ or maintain CMT regimes? Distance to market, immigration, dependence on fishing, and conflicts were found to be related to the presence of highly exclusive marine tenure systems. Exploring these relationships will help conservation practitioners better understand how future social changes may influence the foundation of conservation and development projects.

Joshua Cinner

2005-06-01

145

Identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to initiate the process of choosing a location to permanently store high-level nuclear waste from the designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only location to be studied as a candidate site for such a repository. The original acts and its amendments had established the grant mechanism by which the state of Nevada could finance an investigation of the potential socioeconomic impacts that could result from the installation and operation of this facility. Over the past three years, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM or RW) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved grant requests by Nevada to perform this investigation. This report is intended to update and enhance a literature review conducted by the Human Affairs Research Center (HARC) for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project that dealt with the psychological and sociological processes underlying risk perception. It provides addition information on the HARC work, covers a subsequent step in the impact-estimation process, and translates risk perception into decisions and behaviors with economic consequences. It also covers recently developed techniques for assessing the nature and magnitude of impacts caused by environmental changes focusing on those impacts caused by changes in perceived risks

1990-01-01

146

Maternal Beliefs and Socioeconomic Correlated Factors on Child Mortality from Drowning in Caspian Sea Coastline  

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Full Text Available Objective: To investigate maternal beliefs, practices about causes and determinant factors on drowning and maternal socioeconomic correlated factors on child mortality from drowning. Methods: From March 2005 to March 2009, in a register-based cohort study and household survey, individual records utilizing drowning registry data of northern Iran were enrolled. Mothers (n=276 who responded to multiple questions in a household survey were included. The patterns, interrelationships and effects of socioeconomic correlated factors on child mortality were analyzed. Results: A significant difference in relation to mother's educational level and age and family income distribution was noticed. Participants in household survey also reported that establishment of a multi-sectorial collaboration, integration of public health messages into local television, additional rescue stations and lifeguard, hazard environment fencing, increasing adult supervision, more support on increasing swimming ability among the children were all effective on reducing of drowning death. Conclusion: Due to the high rate of drowning in children and lack of attention among olders, a greater emphasis should be placed on educating mothers to assist a better supervision on their children.

Ali Davoudi-Kiakalayeh

2014-04-01

147

Oral mucosal conditions in preschool children of low socioeconomic status: prevalence and determinant factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal conditions and associated factors among 541 preschoolers of low socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Sociodemographic data and information on harmful oral habits were gathered with the use of a questionnaire. A clinical exam was performed for the determination of oral mucosal conditions, dental caries and level of oral hygiene. Data analysis involved statistical analysis, the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test, chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multivariate regression (p teeth clenching/grinding) was a predictive factor for angular cheilitis (OR, 5.55; 95 % CI, 1.9-16.3). The determinant factors for oral mucosal conditions were the female gender, age between 3 and 5 years, inadequate oral hygiene, low household income, residence in rural areas and presence of dental caries and bruxism. PMID:23354789

Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Martins-Júnior, Paulo Antônio; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Stella, Paulo Eduardo Melo; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

2013-05-01

148

Exploring Socio-Economic Factors Behind Domestic Violence Against Women in Sargodha District  

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Full Text Available Violence against Women has become a global concern because this specific issue affects the life of women adversely. Domestic violence is most persistent form of Violence against Women. It is a severe violation of human rights. Many demographic, economic, psychological factors may be responsible for the domestic violence but social factors contain prime importance in this regard. Pakistani society is facing the trouble of increase in domestic violence because this issue is still under acknowledged and underreported. An exploratory study was conducted to probe the socio-economic factors behind domestic violence. Interview schedule was utilized as a tool to accumulate concerning data. A representative sample of (N=100 was collected through purposive and snowball sampling techniques. 56% of women indicated that they have faced physical violence and a huge majority i.e., 71% has faced psychological violence. The results suggest that women are more prone to bear and face domestic violence due to economic dependence.

Zarqa Azhar

2012-09-01

149

Early childhood caries and its relationship with perinatal, socioeconomic and nutritional risks: a cross-sectional study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Socioeconomic, perinatal and other life cycle events can be important determinants of the health status of the individual and populations. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC), perinatal factors (gestational age, teenage pregnancy and birth weight), family income and nutritional risk in children. Methods A cross-sectional study in which 320 children were examined according to the criteria established by the World Health Organization. A previously validated questionnaire was used to obtain information from parents and guardians about family income, gestational age and birth weight. To check the nutritional risk, we used the criteria provided by the CDC (Center for Disease Control). For Statistics, Pearson’s, chi-square and the multivariate Poisson analyses were used to determine the association among variables. Results Approximately 20% of children had ECC, and the Poisson multivariate analyses indicated that family income (p?=?0.009), birth weight (p?Pregnancy in adolescence was not included in the regression analyses model because it was not statistically significant in the chi-square test (p?>?0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of ECC was related to low family income, premature birth and infant obesity.

2014-01-01

150

What Are the Risk Factors for Rhabdomyosarcoma?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Topic Do we know what causes rhabdomyosarcoma? What are the risk factors for rhabdomyosarcoma? A risk factor ... many years to influence cancer risk, and they are not thought to play much of a role ...

151

Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control  

Science.gov (United States)

... your risk Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease risk factors you can control Did you know? In ... Return to top More information on Heart disease risk factors you can control Read more from womenshealth. ...

152

Relationship Between Socioeconomic Factors and Coronary Artery Disease Among Under-45 Year-Old Individuals in Shahid Rajaee Hospital, Tehran, Iran: A Case-Control Study  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Previous studies show that disability and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases are closely related to socioeconomic status in a community. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between socioeconomic factors and coronary artery disease (CAD among people under 45 years old at Shahid Rajaei Hospital, Tehran, Iran.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Shahid Rajaei Hospital, Tehran, Iran in summer 2008. The participants were 100 CAD cases (<45 years old, mean age = 41.2 years; 85% men and 100 controls from among accompanying persons matched for age and gender. In order to assess the risk of factors related to such variables as educational level, occupation, income, social exclusion, social support, stress, exercise, nutritional status, smoking, etc, odds ratio (95% CI was used. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the synchronic effect of the risk factors, and the t-test was used to find differences between means.Results: The odds ratio (95% CI for smoking vs nonsmoking was 3.9 (1.9-7.9 for CAD. Individuals with a low educational level showed an odds ratio of 2.7 (1.9-7-9, compared to those with a high educational level. Eating fruits and vegetables at least seven servings a week has an odds ratio of 2.7 (1.01-7.4 vs eating fewer servings. Occupation, job grade and physical activity had statistically significant relationships with CAD. Mean BMI was different between cases and controls. The disease had no significant association with stress, social support, social exclusion or income."nConclusion: Smoking, a low educational level and eating small amounts of fruits and vegetables were the most important socioeconomic factors contributing to coronary artery disease. Policymaking and planning aiming at improving the socioeconomic situation of the people, particularly those under 45 years old, seem essential.

A Akbari Sari

2009-11-01

153

Risk assessment: the critical factors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper considers the primary elements in the risk assessment process in mining - hazard identification, risk estimation and hazard control and argues that, in terms of improvements to safety, both hazard identification and hazard control have a more significant role to play than the risk estimation element per se. In essence therefore, the risk assessment approach is one where the process is more important than the procedure, where the method is more important than the methodology. Having examined the primary elements, the paper then goes on to argue that the most important issue in hazard control effectiveness is the human factor using a series of examples taken from studies in both UK and RSA mining operations. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Simpson, G.C. [International Mining Consultants Ltd. (United Kingdom)

1996-07-01

154

Cold - an underrated risk factor for health  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are responsible for around 20% of all deaths worldwide (approximately 14 million) and are the principal cause of death in all developed countries, accounting for 50% of all deaths. Variations in the annual per capita death rates in different countries are well documented. Less well known are seasonal variations in death rates, with the highest levels occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon is referred to as excess winter mortality. CVD-related deaths account for the majority of excess winter deaths (up to 70% in some countries), while about half of the remaining are due to increases in respiratory diseases. Paradoxically, CVD mortality increases to a greater extent with a given fall in temperature in regions with warm winters. While much of the indirect evidence points to the notion that cold is somehow involved in explaining excess winter deaths, the mechanism by which seemingly mild exposure to cold ambient conditions can increase the risk of death remains unclear. The strong indirect epidemiological evidence coupling cold climate to mortality may be related to indoor rather than outdoor climatic conditions (e.g., cold/damp houses versus arm/dry houses) coupled with a plethora of factors including health status, ageing-related deterioration in physiological and behavioral thermoregulation, toxicology, and socioeconomic factors

2003-05-01

155

Importance of bio-medical and socio-economic factors for increase of life expectancy  

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Full Text Available This paper analyzes the connection between life expectancy according to sex and numerous factors on which its level depends on. Statistical analysis understood application of correlation and regression analysis for determining the connection strength of life expectancy and researched factors separately and then all factors together, as well as separately groups of health-medical and socio-economic factors. The analysis was carried out for a group of developed countries, medium developed, mixed group and Yugoslavia (now SCG on available data for the second half of the 20th century. Analysis results for Yugoslavia showed that the greatest influence on life expectancy of all factors together were setting aside funds for social security (p<0.05. If only health-medical factors are observed, then child mortality up to 5 years and tumor mortality are in question. With women, the greatest influence is with child mortality up to five years old among all factors (factor was statistically significant. In the mixed sample, the strongest connection with men was with gross national income per capita (p<0.01, and with women with child mortality up to five years old (p=0.017. Therefore on the basis of the determined statistical importance of certain factors analysis showed that the influence of socio-economic factors on life expectancy was very strong in present conditions of mortality, not only in positive, but in negative direction as well, and that their influence in that second half of the 20th century was greater than the influence of health-medical factors. Also, it seems that the males are more sensitive to these factors than women.

Radivojevi? Biljana M.

2004-01-01

156

Socio-economic, Biophysical, and Perceptional Factors Associated with Agricultural Adaptation of Smallholder Farmers in Gujarat, Northwest India  

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Climate change is predicted to negatively impact many agricultural communities across the globe, particularly smallholder farmers who often do not have access to appropriate technologies to reduce their vulnerability. To better predict which farmers will be most impacted by future climate change at a regional scale, we use remote sensing and agricultural census data to examine how cropping intensity and crop type have shifted based on rainfall variability across Gujarat, India from 1990 to 2010. Using household-level interviews, we then identify the socio-economic, biophysical, perceptional, and psychological factors associated with smallholder farmers who are the most impacted and the least able to adapt to contemporaneous rainfall variability. We interviewed 750 farmers in 2011 and 2012 that span a rainfall, irrigation, socio-economic, and caste gradient across central Gujarat. Our results show that farmers shift cropping practices in several ways based on monsoon onset, which farmers state is the main observable rainfall signal influencing cropping decisions during the monsoon season. When monsoon onset is delayed, farmers opt to plant more drought-tolerant crops, push back the date of sowing, and increase the number of irrigations used. Comparing self-reported income and yields, we find that switching crops does not improve agricultural income, shifting planting date does not influence crop yield, yet increasing the number of irrigations significantly increases yield. Future work will identify which social (e.g. social networks), psychological (e.g. risk preference), and knowledge (e.g. information sources) factors are associated with farmers who are best able to adapt to rainfall variability.

Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

2012-12-01

157

Risk Factors for Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia  

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Full Text Available Aim: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a chronic lung disease that develops in premature infants who were treated with oxygen and positive pressure ventilation. Although there are recent advances in neonatal care, it has been still the most common long term complication in preterm infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate infants who developed BPD throughout the clinical course of hospitalisation and to determine BPD frequency and also the risk factors associated with BPD.Materials and Method: A total of 276 infants who admitted to neonatal intensive care unit between January 2005 and January 2006 were included to this study. The infants with and without BPD were compared according to characteristic features and risk factors.Results: The mean gestational age and birth weight of all infants were 31±3.1(range, 24-36 weeks, and1607±610 (range, 500-4000 gram, respectively. BPD was diagnosed in 30% (84/276 of all infants. The mean gestational age and birth weight of infants with BPD were 30±3 (range, 24-36 weeks, and 1171±423 (range, 530-3700 gram, respectively. The 36% (31/84 of infants were smaller than 28 gestational age and 41.9% (26/84 were smaller than 1000 gram. Gestational age and birth weight were found to be the most important risk factors for development of BPD, and BPD risk increased as the gestational age and birth weight decreased. The duration of mechanical ventilation in infants with BPD and without BPD were found to be 40±4.3 days and, 17±2 days, respectively and this difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. Similarly, the duration of oxygen therapy was found to be statistically higher in infants with BPD compared with the infants without BPD (p<0.05. Also, respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis in mother, prolonged total parenteral nutrition, and frequent blood transfusion were also other risk factors that were significantly associated with development of BPD. Conclusion: The risk for BPD is multifactorial. It was observed that the most important risk factors for BPD were prematurity, low birth weight, mechanical ventilation and prolonged oxygen therapy. Preventing small gestational age and low birth weight prematurity, decreasing the duration of mechanical ventilation and also to give minimum oxygen supply in premature infants. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 66-71

Hilal Özkan

2008-10-01

158

Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors – a population-based study in Sweden  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. Methods The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18–84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investigated covers 55 municipalities with about one million inhabitants in central part of Sweden. The study population includes 42,448 respondents. Mental health was measured with self-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (EQ-5D, 5th question. The association between socio-economic conditions, lifestyle factors and mental health symptoms was investigated using multivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Results About 40% of women and 30% of men reported that they were moderately or extremely anxious or depressed. Younger subjects reported poorer mental health than older subjects, the best mental health was found at ages 65–74 years. Factors that were strongly and independently related to mental health symptoms were poor social support, experiences of being belittled, employment status (receiving a disability pension and unemployment, economic hardship, critical life events, and functional disability. A strong association was also found between how burdensome domestic work was experienced and anxiety/depression. This was true for both men and women. Educational level was not associated with mental health symptoms. Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol were independently associated with mental health symptoms. Conclusion Our results support the notion that a ground for good mental health includes balance in social relations, in domestic work and in employment as well as in personal economy both among men and women. In addition, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol are associated with mental health symptoms independent of socio-economic factors.

Persson Carina

2009-08-01

159

Perspectives for integrating human and environmental risk assessment and synergies with socio-economic analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

For more than a decade, the integration of human and environmental risk assessment (RA) has become an attractive vision. At the same time, existing European regulations of chemical substances such as REACH (EC Regulation No. 1907/2006), the Plant Protection Products Regulation (EC regulation 1107/2009) and Biocide Regulation (EC Regulation 528/2012) continue to ask for sector-specific RAs, each of which have their individual information requirements regarding exposure and hazard data, and also use different methodologies for the ultimate risk quantification. In response to this difference between the vision for integration and the current scientific and regulatory practice, the present paper outlines five medium-term opportunities for integrating human and environmental RA, followed by detailed discussions of the associated major components and their state of the art. Current hazard assessment approaches are analyzed in terms of data availability and quality, and covering non-test tools, the integrated testing strategy (ITS) approach, the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concept, methods for assessing uncertainty, and the issue of explicitly treating mixture toxicity. With respect to exposure, opportunities for integrating exposure assessment are discussed, taking into account the uncertainty, standardization and validation of exposure modeling as well as the availability of exposure data. A further focus is on ways to complement RA by a socio-economic assessment (SEA) in order to better inform about risk management options. In this way, the present analysis, developed as part of the EU FP7 project HEROIC, may contribute to paving the way for integrating, where useful and possible, human and environmental RA in a manner suitable for its coupling with SEA. PMID:23624004

Péry, A R R; Schüürmann, G; Ciffroy, P; Faust, M; Backhaus, T; Aicher, L; Mombelli, E; Tebby, C; Cronin, M T D; Tissot, S; Andres, S; Brignon, J M; Frewer, L; Georgiou, S; Mattas, K; Vergnaud, J C; Peijnenburg, W; Capri, E; Marchis, A; Wilks, M F

2013-07-01

160

Associations of Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors With Complete Treatment and Follow up of Colon Cancer  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background: Cancer is the second cause of death in the world, and colon cancer is the third cause of death and is one of the most common cancers which will cure with early diagnosis, treatment and sufficient follow up. Assessing factors which affect this cancer is important for prolonging patient survival. Socioeconomic factors are among effective factors of cancer morbidity and mortality. Because mortality rates for colon cancers vary by socioeconomic characteristics, this study has been performed to recognize the relationship between socioeconomic factors with treatment and follow up of colon cancer. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study for patients with colon cancer registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from April 2005 to November 2006. Patients were selected randomly, and the study was conducted using questionnaires filled by interviewing the patients via phone (if a patient was dead, the questions were asked from their family members. Data analysis was done using SPSS (version 19 software. Results: The study was performed on 520 colon cancer patients with age range of 23-88 years. The mean age of the patients was 63 (S.D. = 11.8 and the median age was 64.Two hundred thirty seven (45.4% patients were female and 283(54.4% were male. Using Chi- square test, age< 60 (P=0.002 and female gender (P=0.034 had a significant correlation with complete treatment and there was a significant relationship between complete follow up and age< 60 (P=0.037, academic education (P=0.02 and having insurance (P=0.021. Multiple logistic regression tests were used to evaluate concurrent effects of variables on treatment and follow up. Correlated variables to complete treatment include: age< 60 (P=0.001, and female gender (P=0.023.The Odds Ratio (OR of completing treatment for patients under 60 years of age versus patients above 60 years was 3.13 (95% C.I. 1.55 to 6.34, and the OR of completing treatment for women versus men was 1.91(95% C.I. 1.33 to 2.74. Correlated variables to follow up were academic education (P=0.018 and having insurance (P=0.046. The OR of cancer follow up in illiterate patients versus college-educated patients was 0.45(95% C.I. 0.24 to 0.82, and the OR of cancer follow up in patients without insurance versus patients with health was 0.46(95% C.I. 0.21 to 0.98. Conclusion: Age is a correlated factor on completing colon cancer treatment. Women have more complete colon cancer treatment than men. Academic education and having insurance were the most important factors among socioeconomic factors observed in a five-year follow up after treatment. As the population of the old is increasing, executing effective interventions to improve treatment and follow up procedures for old patients is of prime importance. It seems that increasing the insurance contribution in follow up measures may lead to increase in the regular follow up and may affect patients' survival.

Esmat Davoudi Monfared

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

Assessment of Socioeconomic Factors and Stakeholders Involved in Dzanga Sangha Complex Protected Area, Central African Republic  

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Full Text Available Dzanga Ndoki is the main National Park located in Dzanga Sangha Complex Protected Area, Central African Republic. This study assesses socioeconomic factors and different NGOs involved in management of the park. A questionnaire survey was used to collect data in 8 villages around the park. Results on socioeconomic study showed that younger people aged of 20-25 (36.55% and between 25-30 (27. 81% are more dynamic in the forest than elderly ones (age >35 who represented (5.61%. Better education may help in conservation of the Dzanga Ndoki due to different employment. Admittedly, 39.27% of people had primary education, (6.4% had secondary level, (1.33% had higher education and 53.18% were illiterate. Employment and access to market are missing. Participative management has mostly focused on villages of Mossapoula and Yandoumbe. Ba Aka people (60.52% were not satisfied with the project. In addition, poor conditions of local people let them very dependent to forest resources (illegal hunting and gathering. This project is however unable to provide financial support to national NGOs and associations for local people.

Ngbo-Ngbangbo Louis Maxime

2010-05-01

162

Socioeconomic indicators of heat-related health risk supplemented with remotely sensed data  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Extreme heat events are the number one cause of weather-related fatalities in the United States. The current system of alert for extreme heat events does not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature derived from thermal remote sensing data. Results Comparison of logistic regression models indicates that supplementing known sociodemographic risk factors with remote sensing estimates of land surface temperature improves the delineation of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat events. Conclusion Thermal remote sensing data can be utilized to improve understanding of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat. The refinement of current risk assessment systems could increase the likelihood of survival during extreme heat events and assist emergency personnel in the delivery of vital resources during such disasters.

Luber George C

2009-10-01

163

[Risk factors of endometrial carcinoma].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors base their experience on 12 women affected by endometrial carcinoma. Problems have been diagnosed in the post-menopausal and climacterium period, considering the clinical, hormonal and lipidic profile and some tumoral markers. The most risk factors for the endometrial adenocarcinoma have been collected in the adiposity with hypertension and hyperglycemia, above all in nullipara women with late menopause and dyslipidemia. PMID:8414144

Giannone, R; Bernorio, R; Poli, M

1993-01-01

164

Environmental risk factors for autism  

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Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most...

Dietert, Rodney R.; Dietert, Janice M.; Dewitt, Jamie C.

2010-01-01

165

Environmental risk factors for autism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most...

Dietert, Rodney R.; Dietert, Janice M.; Dewitt, Jamie C.

2011-01-01

166

Association of coal, atomic energy, socio-economic and other environmental variables with the risk of dying  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Death rates have been calculated by cause, age, sex and race for each county, state economic area, and other groups of counties of the USA for the period 1959 to 1976, data being obtained from official sources. Attention has been given to appropriate methods of using these rates for epidemiological study. Within the USA there are marked and consistent differences in death rates for middle-aged white males: low in the west central plains area and high in the south-east coastal plain. If the USA as a whole had rates as low as in the low-rate areas, there would be 160,000 fewer deaths per year under the age of 75. Coal- and metal-mining is strongly associated with high rates for middle-aged females as well as males. The residents of an area around a nuclear plant, after 22 years of exposure to low levels of radiation from this plant, do not show clear evidence of either decreased or increased risk, for various forms of cancer and other causes, as compared with rates for those living further away in the same states, or as compared with US rates. In the USA, persons living at higher elevations tend to have lower death rates. A number of factors may be hypothesized as being responsible for these lower rates, including the higher levels of background radiation at higher elevations. Many other factors also present evidence of being associated with differences in risk, including cigarette-smoking and various socio-economic or cultural variables. (author)

1981-06-26

167

Risk factors of type 2 diabetes among Korean adults: The 2001 Korean national health and nutrition examination survey  

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This study aimed to identify risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Korea, a rapidly changing country. Data of 5,132 adults aged 20-85 were used from the 2001 Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Multiple logistic regression was carried out to identify risk factors for T2D. Three models were specified: (i) socioeconomic and demographic factors (model 1: age, gender, education, poverty income ratio, employment), (ii) behavioral risk factors and covariates (model 2: obesity, physi...

Chung, Hae-rang; Pe?rez-escamilla, Rafael

2009-01-01

168

Do socioeconomic factors explain why maternal smoking during pregnancy is more frequent in a more developed city of Brazil?  

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Full Text Available The prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Ribeirão Preto, a rich Brazilian city, was significantly higher (21.4% than in São Luís (5.9%, a less developed city. To assess which variables explain the difference in prevalence of smoking during pregnancy, data from two birth cohorts were used, including 2846 puerperae from Ribeirão Preto, in 1994, and 2443 puerperae from São Luís, in 1997/98. In multivariable analysis, risk of maternal smoking during pregnancy was higher in São Luís for mothers living in a household with five or more persons (OR = 1.72, 95%CI = 1.12-2.64, aged 35 years or older (OR = 1.98, 95%CI = 0.99-3.96, who had five or more children (OR = 2.10, 95%CI = 1.16-3.81, and whose companion smoked (OR = 2.20, 95%CI = 1.52-3.18. Age of less than 20 years was a protective factor (OR = 0.55, 95%CI = 0.33-0.92. In Ribeirão Preto there was association with maternal low educational level (OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.30-3.65 and with a smoking companion (OR = 3.25, 95%CI = 2.52-4.18. Receiving prenatal care was a protective factor (OR = 0.24, 95%CI = 0.11-0.49. Mothers from Ribeirão Preto who worked outside the home were at a higher risk and those aged 35 years or older or who attended five or more prenatal care visits were at lower risk of smoking during pregnancy as compared to mothers from São Luís. Smoking by the companion reduced the difference between smoking rates in the two cities by 10%. The socioeconomic variables in the model did not explain the higher prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in the more developed city.

V.S. Ribeiro

2007-09-01

169

The Effect of Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors on Contraceptive Use and Induced Abortion in Turkey  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the parameters of the heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model established for the induced abortion and the contraceptive use by using socioeconomic and demographic factors and their effects by eliminating the observed heteroscedasticity. Using a heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model and Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (1998 data on married women aged 15 through 49 years, we estimated the probabilities of their having an induced abortion, if induced abortion have, of their using contraceptive methods. The results of the research show that induced abortion is perceived and used as a contraceptive method among the women in Turkey. This shows that it is the correct way to examine those two variables, induced abortion and contraceptive use, together.

Ozlem Alpu

2004-01-01

170

Risk factors of ?-hydroxybutyrate overdosing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to identify in recreational drug users the factors which increase the risk of overdosing (OD) with ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). A purposive sample of 45 experienced GHB users was interviewed, equally divided into three groups (never OD, occasional OD, and repeat OD). The repeat OD group scored highest on many risk factors regarding GHB use, the occasional OD group scored intermediate, and the never OD group scored lowest. Participants, whether or not they had overdosed on GHB, most often perceived GHB use (e.g. using more GHB than usual, using GHB doses too closely together) as the main reason for GHB OD, and many participants who had overdosed on GHB reported that they had taken more GHB than usual at their most recent occasion of GHB OD. No significant differences in co-use of GHB with other substances were found between the three groups. Our findings indicate that using GHB in the company of groups of friends probably reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of OD. PMID:24080792

Korf, Dirk J; Nabben, Ton; Benschop, Annemieke; Ribbink, Kim; van Amsterdam, Jan G C

2014-01-01

171

The Essential Role of Psychosocial Risk and Protective Factors in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Research  

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This article builds upon Traumatic Brain Injury Common Data Elements (TBI CDE) version 1.0 and the pediatric CDE Initiative by emphasizing the essential role of psychosocial risk and protective factors in pediatric TBI research. The goals are to provide a compelling rationale for including psychosocial risk and protective factors in addition to socioeconomic status (SES), age, and sex in the study design and analyses of pediatric TBI research and to describe recommendations for core common da...

2012-01-01

172

Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide  

Science.gov (United States)

... insomnia. Sleep Problems as a Risk Factor for Suicide As noted above, sleep problems are associated with ... disorders, both of which are risk factors for suicide (Wong & Brower, 2012). Overarousal, marked by agitation and ...

173

About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention We can’t control some risk factors for Alzheimer's disease such as age and genetic profile. But scientists ...

174

Other Possible Heart Disease Risk Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

... Heart Health and Stroke Other possible heart disease risk factors Related information Depression fact sheet Stress and ... top More information on Other possible heart disease risk factors Read more from womenshealth.gov Heart Disease ...

175

Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins  

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AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT).

Dutta, Amit Kumar; Chacko, Ashok; George, Biju; Joseph, Joseph Anjilivelil; Nair, Sukesh Chandran; Mathews, Vikram

2008-01-01

176

Socioeconomic factors and mortality in urban settings: the case of Barcelona, Spain.  

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STUDY OBJECTIVE--This study aimed to describe the relationship between health and socioeconomic indicators in the 38 neighbourhoods of the city of Barcelona, Spain. DESIGN--Mortality data for 1983-89 and socioeconomic data for each of the 38 neighbourhoods of Barcelona were used. Mortality indicators used were the comparative mortality figure, the ratio of potential years of life lost, and life expectancy at birth. Socioeconomic indicators were the percentage of unemployed, the percentage of ...

Borrell, C.; Arias, A.

1995-01-01

177

Risk factors of teenage pregnancy  

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Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United King...

2011-01-01

178

A holistic evaluation of risks in coastal regions under changing climatic, environmental and socioeconomic conditions: the Theseus Decision Support System.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a general acceptance that global changes associated with natural hazards and socioeconomic processes are occurring at a faster pace than ever, with deep implications in terms of risk exposure and environmental impact. The capacity of coastal areas to adapt and react to these changes will be a key factor in the future preservation of life standards and represents a great challenge for politicians, scientists and professionals at any level. Within the large scope of Theseus Project (EU 7th Framework Program), one of the main objectives is to design a tool to help decision makers in defining optimal strategies to minimize risks within a certain city or coastal area in a three-fold sense: economic losses, human damages and environmental impacts. The resulting software, the Theseus-DSS, links the most relevant physical processes (waves, sea-levels, hard and soft structures, coastal erosion and inland flooding) with the potential impact zones (marine and inland), considering their functions (ecosystems) and uses (economic units), and the dependence of this functions and uses upon the prevailing physical conditions. The new software tries to fill a gap among the existing tools, based on the following pillars: • Seamless integration of disciplines: physics, engineering, ecology, social sciences and economy. • Intermediate spatial scales (1- 10 km) and medium-to- long time spans (1-10 years). • Decision-making based on a balance between deterministic models and expert, discussion-based assumptions. The user of the Theseus-DSS will be able either to check the consequences of predefined scenarios at a particular study site, or to create user-defined scenarios, run them and compare the results with other scenarios. The results are expressed, locally and at an aggregate level, in the three aforementioned dimensions: economic losses (€/year), mean annual expected live losses (persons/year) and impact on habitats (null, low, medium and high).

Losada, I. J.; Garcia Alonso, E.; Mendez, F. J.; Zanuttigh, B.; Nicholls, R. J.; Thompson, R.; Vanderlinden, J. P.; Fernandez, F.; Ondiviela, B.; Diaz-Simal, P.; Bagli, S.

2012-04-01

179

Cardiovascular risk factors among Chamorros  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding the cardiovascular disease risk factors among Chamorros residing in the United States. Methods The Chamorro Directory International and the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Questionnaire (BRFSS were used to assess the health related practices and needs of a random sample of 228 Chamorros. Results Inactivity, hypertension, elevated cholesterol and diabetes mellitus were more prevalent in this Chamorro sample compared to the US average. Participants who were 50-and-older or unemployed were more likely to report hypertension, diabetes and inactivity, but they were also more likely to consume more fruits and vegetables than their younger and employed counterparts. Women were more likely to report hypertension and diabetes, whereas men were more likely to have elevated BMI and to have never had their blood cholesterol checked. Conclusion The study provides data that will help healthcare providers, public health workers and community leaders identify where to focus their health improvement efforts for Chamorros and create culturally competent programs to promote health in this community.

Wu Phillis L

2006-12-01

180

Risk factors for colorectal cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in human population. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in our country. The incidence of colorectal cancer increases in the fifth decade of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between colorectal cancer and potential risk factors. A case-control study of colorectal cancer was carried out between 1998 and 1999 in Clinical Center of Serbia, Center for Digestive Surgery. A total of 100 cases of newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer confirmed by histopathology and an equal number of controls, individually matched by gender and age (+/-5 years, were chosen from patients from the same hospital with no history of cancer at all. McNemar test and conditional logistic regression were used in the analysis. According to logistic regression analysis the following risk factors were independently related with the occurrence of colorectal cancer: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet rich in red meat and fat promote the carcinogenic process; food rich in vegetables, fruits, grains, vitamin C, physical activity, and oral contraceptive use inhibit the same process. A family history of cancer and long standing inflammatory bowel diseases also have significant role. There is convincing evidence that nutrition affects colorectal carcinogenesis in a complex fashion.

Mihajlovi?-Boži? Vesna

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia. This study was conducted in 160 children with sickle cell anemia aged 3 to 12 years attending the Center for Hematology in Recife, Brazil . Data collection included interv [...] iews with guardians concerning social factors and oral examinations to determine the caries prevalence. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's chi-square tests at a 5% significance level. The caries prevalence was 55.0%. The dmft index was 2.12, and the DMFT index was 1.50. Income significantly influenced dmft; the mean dmft was 4.57 in children whose family income was less than the Brazilian minimum wage (BMW), whereas in children with a family income three times the BMW or higher, the mean dmft was 2.27. No statistically positive association was found between the educational level of parents and guardians and the caries indices. A statistically significant association was found between dental caries prevalence and family income.

Luna, Ana Cláudia Alves e; Rodrigues, Maria José; Menezes, Valdenice Aparecida; Marques, Kátia Maria Gonçalves; Santos, Fabiano Almeida dos.

182

Caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia. This study was conducted in 160 children with sickle cell anemia aged 3 to 12 years attending the Center for Hematology in Recife, Brazil . Data collection included interviews with guardians concerning social factors and oral examinations to determine the caries prevalence. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's chi-square tests at a 5% significance level. The caries prevalence was 55.0%. The dmft index was 2.12, and the DMFT index was 1.50. Income significantly influenced dmft; the mean dmft was 4.57 in children whose family income was less than the Brazilian minimum wage (BMW, whereas in children with a family income three times the BMW or higher, the mean dmft was 2.27. No statistically positive association was found between the educational level of parents and guardians and the caries indices. A statistically significant association was found between dental caries prevalence and family income.

Ana Cláudia Alves e Luna

2012-02-01

183

Socioeconomic inequalities in risk of hospitalization for community-acquired bacteremia: a Danish population-based case-control study.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a Danish population-based case-control study, we examined the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and risk of community-acquired bacteremia, as well as the contribution of chronic diseases and substance abuse to differences in bacteremia risk. Analyses were based on 4,117 patients aged 30-65 years who were hospitalized with first-time community-acquired bacteremia during 2000-2008 and 41,170 population controls matched by sex, age, and region of residence. Individual-level information on SES (education and income), chronic diseases, and substance abuse was retrieved from public and medical registries. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios for bacteremia. Persons of low SES had a substantially higher risk of bacteremia than those of high SES (for short duration of education vs. long duration, odds ratio = 2.30 (95% confidence interval: 2.10, 2.52); for low income vs. high income, odds ratio = 2.77 (95% confidence interval: 2.54, 3.02)). A higher prevalence of chronic diseases and substance abuse in low-SES individuals versus high-SES individuals explained 43%-48% of the socioeconomic differences in bacteremia risk. In a country with a universal welfare system, differences in the burden of chronic diseases and substance abuse seem to have major importance in explaining inequalities in bacteremia risk. PMID:24682527

Koch, Kristoffer; Søgaard, Mette; Nørgaard, Mette; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

2014-05-01

184

Bullying: Risk Factors Becoming ‘Bullies’  

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Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of a classification of bullying outcomes, and to investigate the risk factors associated with bullying behaviour at Pattani primary schools, southern Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1,440 students. Factor analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s chi-squared test, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results showed that 20.9% of students in Pattani primary schools reported having bullied others. A four factors structure of bullying was clearly shown; serious, general physical, psychological-maligning parent and psychological-maligning student. Witnessing parental physical abuse was clearly the most strongly associated determinants, and much more strongly linked to bullying others than was the group who had never witnessed parental physical abuse (OR 7.60, 95% CI 5.60-10.31. The students who preferred action cartoons were more often bullies than were those who preferred comedy cartoons (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.91-430.

Kasetchai Laeheem

2009-04-01

185

Plasma lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in Costa Rican adolescents Lípidos plasmáticos y otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular en adolescentes costarricenses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study assessed plasma lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents in a developing Latin American country and compared those risk factors to those of adolescents in the United States of America, where the risk of heart disease is high. In a cross-sectional study, data were collected from September 1998 to April 1999 on 161 Costa Rican adolescents between the ages of 12 and 20. A general questionnaire was used to collect demographic, smoking, socioeconomic, and women's heal...

Irwig, Michael S.; Xinia Siles; Antonio M Gotto, Jr; Nader Rifai; Hannia Campos

2000-01-01

186

Influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individual interviews were conducted in 137 households using semi-structured questionnaires to determine the influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in the rural areas of South Africa. The major constraints to village chicken production were mortality (95 % of the households) followed by feed shortage (85 %) and low chicken sales (72 %). The logistic regression model showed that households that owned imported/crossbred chickens practiced extensive production system without housing structures and did not have vaccines were more likely to experience high levels of chicken mortality. Poor and youth-headed households with no supplements and vaccines had high probability of Newcastle disease. The probability of a household to experience chicken feed shortage was lower in households that owned indigenous chickens than those that owned imported/crossbred chickens (odds ratio, 11.68; 95 % confidence interval, 1.19-27.44). Youth-headed households that had small flocks and no access to veterinary services were not likely to sell chickens. It was concluded that gender, age, wealth status, production system, chicken flock size, type of chicken breed owned, accessibility of veterinary services, availability of supplements, vaccines and shelter influence village chicken farmer's production constraints such as feed availability, chicken mortality, prevalence of diseases and chicken sales. PMID:22610537

Mtileni, Bohani Joseph; Muchadeyi, Farai C; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy

2012-12-01

187

Are good ideas enough?: The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO commercialisation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors [...] on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance.

Vàzquez-Salat, Núria.

188

Influence of socioeconomic factors on survival after breast cancer-A nationwide cohort study of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 1983-1999  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The reasons for social inequality in breast cancer survival are far from established. Our study aims to study the importance of a range of socioeconomic factors and comorbid disorders on survival after breast cancer surgery in Denmark where the health care system is tax-funded and uniform. All 25,897 Danish women who underwent protocol-based treatment for breast cancer in 1983-1999 were identified in a clinical database and information on socioeconomic variables and both somatic and psychiatric comorbid disorders was obtained from population-based registries. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the association between socioeconomic position and overall survival and further to analyse breast cancer specific deaths in a competing risk set-up regarding all other causes of death as competing risks. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death was reduced in women with higher education (HR, 0.91; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-0.98), with higher income (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87-0.98) and with larger dwellings (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96 for women living in houses larger than 150 m(2)). Presence of comorbid disorders increased the HR. An interaction between income and comorbid disorders resulting in a 15% lower survival 10 year after primary surgery in poor women with low-risk breast cancer having comorbid conditions ( approximately 65%) compared to rich women with similar breast cancer prognosis and comorbid conditions ( approximately 80%) suggests that part of the explanation for the social inequality in survival after breast cancer surgery in Denmark lies in the access to and/or compliance with management of comorbid conditions in poorer women. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Ross, Lone

2007-01-01

189

Socioeconomic Status and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

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Socioeconomic status (SES) measured by educational and income levels has long been known to be associated with mortality from some diseases. Many studies from developed countries suggested that SES is associated with lung function and COPD exacerbation, prevalence and mortality. Socioeconomic disadvantage is an independent risk factor for COPD. The impact of low SES on respiratory disease in general has been attributed to poorer housing, more hazardous occupational exposure, poorer diet, a hi...

Zafer Kartaloglu

2013-01-01

190

Socioeconomic factors and burn rates in persons hospitalized for burns in Massachusetts.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To assess the usefulness of routinely collected socioeconomic variables from the U.S. census in predicting burn incidence rates, burn rates and 25 socioeconomic variables were analyzed at the level of census tracts for the Boston Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. The burn rates were based on data collected during the National Burn Demonstration Project and consisted of patients who sustained burns between July 1, 1978, and June 30, 1979, and who required inhospital care. Analysis of the...

Locke, J. A.; Rossignol, A. M.; Boyle, C. M.; Burke, J. F.

1986-01-01

191

Vegetarian diet as a risk factor for tuberculosis in immigrant south London Asians.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND--In a previous retrospective study of tuberculosis in south London among Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent Hindu Asians were found to have a significantly increased risk for tuberculosis compared with Muslims. This finding has been further investigated by examining the role of socioeconomic and lifestyle variables, including diet, as risk factors for tuberculosis in Asian immigrants from the Indian subcontinent resident in south London. METHODS--Using a case-control stu...

Strachan, D. P.; Powell, K. J.; Thaker, A.; Millard, F. J.; Maxwell, J. D.

1995-01-01

192

Risk Factors for Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Lower Respiratory Tract Infection  

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RSV infection is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infection, especially in High-risk infants with a history of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), congenital heart disease (CHD), neuromusculair impairment, immunodeficiency, and Down syndrome. Host related risk factors that have been identified to be associated with severe RSV related lower respiratory tract infection include young age below 6 months at the beginning of RSV season, multiple birth, male sex, low socioeconom...

Sommer, Constanze; Resch, Bernhard; Simo?es, Eric A. F.

2011-01-01

193

Indoor risk factors for asthma and wheezing among Seattle school children.  

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Indoor risk factors for physician-diagnosed asthma and wheezing in the past 12 months without previous asthma diagnosis were assessed in a survey of parents of 5-9-year-old Seattle primary school students. Among the 925 respondents, 106 (11%) reported a physician diagnosis of asthma, 66 (7%) had wheezing without diagnosis, and 753 (82%) were asymptomatic. After adjusting for age, sex, gender, ethnicity, medical history, socioeconomic status (SES) and parental asthma status, an increased risk ...

Maier, W. C.; Arrighi, H. M.; Morray, B.; Llewellyn, C.; Redding, G. J.

1997-01-01

194

Neonatal brain injury : associated risk factors  

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Our research focused on factors which may affect the vulnerability for the development of hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury in preterm and full-term infants. The aim was to improve our understanding of underlying mechanisms of injuries. We investigated factors concerning placental, clinical, and biochemical factors, and genetic susceptibility. In this thesis we have studied risk factors associated with neonatal brain injury in preterm and full-term infants. These risk factors include clin...

Harteman, J. C.

2013-01-01

195

Decomposing Indigenous life expectancy gap by risk factors: a life table analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The estimated gap in life expectancy (LE between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians was 12 years for men and 10 years for women, whereas the Northern Territory Indigenous LE gap was at least 50% greater than the national figures. This study aims to explain the Indigenous LE gap by common modifiable risk factors. Methods This study covered the period from 1986 to 2005. Unit record death data from the Northern Territory were used to assess the differences in LE at birth between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations by socioeconomic disadvantage, smoking, alcohol abuse, obesity, pollution, and intimate partner violence. The population attributable fractions were applied to estimate the numbers of deaths associated with the selected risks. The standard life table and cause decomposition technique was used to examine the individual and joint effects on health inequality. Results The findings from this study indicate that among the selected risk factors, socioeconomic disadvantage was the leading health risk and accounted for one-third to one-half of the Indigenous LE gap. A combination of all six selected risks explained over 60% of the Indigenous LE gap. Conclusions Improving socioeconomic status, smoking cessation, and overweight reduction are critical to closing the Indigenous LE gap. This paper presents a useful way to explain the impact of risk factors of health inequalities, and suggests that reducing poverty should be placed squarely at the centre of the strategies to close the Indigenous LE gap.

Zhao Yuejen

2013-01-01

196

Homocysteine as risk factor for coronary artery disease in pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pakistani people belong to an ethnic group which has the highest rate of coronary artery disease. There are a number of risk factors for developing the coronary artery disease (CAD). Homocysteine, a sulphur containing amino acid, has been reported to be an independent risk factor for CAD. The present study was done to find out the role of hyperhomocysteinemia in the development of coronary artery disease in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out. There were 40 angiographically diagnosed male patients of coronary artery disease between 30 - 40 years of age taken as cases and 40 age, sex and socioeconomically matched healthy subjects with normal carotid doppler study taken as controls. Fasting venous blood from cases and controls was taken in E.D.T.A vacationers. Plasma was analyzed for homo-cysteine level by enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Mean plasma concentration of homocysteine in coronary artery disease patients i.e. cases was 13.5 +- 6.8 mu mol/L and was higher than the mean for controls (10.76 +- 2.27 mu mol/L) to a significant extent. Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia through inter-play with the classical cardiovascular risk factors may be aggravating the risk of coronary artery disease in Pakistani people. (author)

2012-01-01

197

Childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood: mental health and socioeconomic status as explanatory factors and buffers  

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Full Text Available Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.

SusanM Arai

2011-01-01

198

A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight  

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Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases� and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control� group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

Deswal B S

1999-01-01

199

Risk Factors for Obesity among Saudi Female College Students  

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Full Text Available Obesity is alarmingly raising in young people necessitating foridentification of precise causes specific for populations. The aim of the present study is to determine independent contribution of parental socioeconomic variables and self-life style factors to obesity in Saudi female college students. We performed a cross-sectional study using a random selection of 300 women aged 18–26 years recruited from the female campus of University of Hail, Saudi Arabia and collected self-reported information to meet study objectives. Around 32 % of females were either overweight or obese and the study subjects with a family history of maternal obesity and habit of limited snacking had higher odds for obesity. No associations were found between obesity and parental income and education status; and skipping breakfast and physical activity behaviours of the subjects. Maternal obesity could be a considerable risk factor for obesity in female subjects.

Shahida Banu Shamsuddeen

2014-05-01

200

Determination of Range Units Size By Socioeconomic- Ecological Factors in the Northern Watershed of Kouhrang River  

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Full Text Available Northern watershed of Kouhrang River with the area of 68437 hectares is located in northwestern Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiary province within 49? 54? to 50? 9? E longitude and 32? 83? to 32? 36? N latitude.Making a balance and equilibrium between the number of ranchers, the rangeland production potential and appropriate flock size in each utilization unit is a necessary task. It is a matter of importance to determine suitable ranch size based on pastoral household but suitable household livelihood as well. The main goal of this study is to determine utilization unit size based on ecologic and socioeconomic factors for each household. Along with detecting the ranch allotments, the range capacity and its productivity potential were studied. Then, based on expenses and the revenues resulting from herdship,(on ranges, the suitable flock size for fulfillment of the household expenses regarding the range utilization periods, the suitable range size per household was determined. 10 vegetation types with 0.91 AUM per hectares grazing capacity were detected in studied area. There are 46 range allotments and some parts of other 6 range allotments in studied area with average area at 1510 hectares. Average pastoral household is 36.8 per unit range allotments. Pastoral households share at rangelands is 41 hectares now. The minimum and suitable ranch area for each pastoral household which can provide annual needs and costs is 520 hectares and 142 animal unit at a mix flock at 3 to 2 ratio of sheep to goat for a 100 – dayes grazing season. The result of this study showed that production potential at each range unit is influenced by flock size, household share on farming lands, and the household numbers on each ranch unit. Ranch unit and the livelihood level, have significant influence at 5% level on suitable ranch size per household.

S.J. Khajeddin

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Risk Factors for Suicide in Psychiatric Outpatients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the project is to determine the relationship of a variety of relevant risk factors to eventual suicide in patients evaluated at two psychiatric outpatient clinics. Data relevant to these factors have already been collected for 1987 - 1990...

A. T. Beck G. K. Brown

1993-01-01

202

Factors with an Impact on the Perception of the Value of Health and Disease in the Romanian Cultural and Socioeconomic Context  

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Full Text Available Morbid states are determined by complex factors acting in a synergistic system. Thus, population health is an integrated indicator of social development of a country, reflecting the socio-economic and moral welfare of the people, living conditions and consumption of health services, as well as the level of adequate education about risk factors and healthy behaviors. For these reasons, we decided to analyze the role of the person and of the health system for public health prosperity, given the responsibility assumed by each party, highlighting the specific cultural context of Romania. Based on the results of a qualitative study conducted on two groups of patients in the terminal stages of the disease in the general and in Rroma populations, some frequent perceptions of their own health and the role of the health system have been described.

Rodica GRAMMA

2013-03-01

203

Reducing flood vulnerability and risk under changing socio-economic conditions - A qualitative case study in Upper Austria  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the last decades severe flooding events occurred in many parts of Europe. Especially in 2002, Upper Austria was seriously affected. Beside the natural variability of precipitation events the increase of losses is strongly connected with socio-economic developments. Especially the increase of settlement areas and the specific values of such modern settlement areas in flood prone areas induced this increase of losses. The presented case study was initiated to analyse different consequences of the currently observed socio-economic trend and further socio-economic projections within the watershed of the so-called Ottnanger Redl in Upper Austria, a watershed which was affected by the event in 2002. The temporal dimension of this change in damage potential is analysed for the 1990s, current conditions and future scenarios (Statistics Austria). Beside the socio-economic development the common structural vulnerability but also the positive effect of legislation and standards concerning flood-adapted constructions are considered. The hydrological-hydraulic is realized based on a scaled scenario approach. Therefore, documented precipitation events at rain gauges are considered for precipitation run-off simulations. To include further events the gauged events are scalled in their intensity. The hydrological loads of these scenarios are considered within different 2D hydraulic simulations; representation of past, current and future settlement structure. Based on the current settlement structure and its transfer in an asset value database, the past structure of the 1990s is reconstructed with remote sensing methods. The future structure (different pragmatic scenarios) in contrast is estimated on the basis of the current situation, socio-economic projections of Statistics Austria, land-use planes and local development concepts of the individual communities and in cooperation with the Regional Government of Upper Austria. The monetary evaluation is conducted with visualized verified building footprints, high resolved building characteristics on address level, building cross cubature analyses based on LiDAR data and monetary evaluation guidelines for different sectors and building functionalities of the Oberösterreichische Versicherung (regional insurance companies). Furthermore, this monetary evaluation approach is crosschecked with further approaches. First, to analyse the flood risk situation under past, current and future socio-economic situations for the different hydraulic loads without any measures to reduce current vulnerability, common flood vulnerability approaches (loss ratio) are considered. In a next step, the introduced legislation and standards in Upper Austria concerning flood adapted constructions is implemented within the applied vulnerability approaches. Thus, the effect of flood adapted construction measures as well as different settlement scenarios on the risk situation can be analysed. The stochastic nature of flood events is furthermore considered within a Monte-Carlo based evaluation routine. The results of the study show exemplarily the positive effect of object-based measures to reduce the susceptibility of the elements at risk and, furthermore, demonstrate the consequences of different settlement scenarios on the flood risk situation within the study area. As the project is still in progress, the contribution will introduce the general framework and highlight some first results.

Huttenlau, Matthias; Reiss, Julia; Achleitner, Stefan; Plörer, Manuel; Hofer, Michael; Weingraber, Felix

2013-04-01

204

The Importance of Behavioral Risk Factors for Prevention of Chronic Diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2005, the cause for almost 60.0% of the deaths in the world is chronic diseases. In the word each year, due to die 5.1 million people from tobacco use, 3.2 million people from physical inactivity, 2.8 million people from overweight or obesity, and 2.7 million people from inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables. The relationships between environmental, socio-economic, cultural and individual characteristics of the risk factors were multi-dimensional and complex. Today, socio-economic burd...

Mahmut Kilic

2011-01-01

205

Shift work and risk factors for cardiovascular disease: a study at age 45 years in the 1958 British birth cohort  

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Abstract This study examined associations between exposure to shift-work and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and whether the associations are explained by socio-economic circumstances, occupational factors or health behaviours. Biological risk factors for CVD were measured in 7,839 participants of the 1958 British birth cohort at age 45 years who were in paid employment. Regular (?1/week) shift-workers included 46% working evenings (1800–2200), 28% weekends, 13% ...

2010-01-01

206

The Influence of Socioeconomic Factors on Kentucky's Public School Accountability System:Does Poverty Impact School Effectiveness?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Under the Commonwealth Accountability Testing System (CATS, Kentucky's public schools have been assigned individualized baseline and improvement goal indices based upon past school performance in relation to the 2014 statewide index goal of 100. Each school's CATS Accountability Index, a measure of school performance based upon both cognitive and non-cognitive measures, has then been compared to these individualized improvement goals for the purpose of designating schools as Meet Goal, Progressing, and Assistance Level (Kentucky Department of Education (KDE, 2000. Considered an interim target model, the design of CATS has been intended to negate the biasing effects of socioeconomic factors on school performance on accountability tests through the individualization of school goals (Ladd. 2001. Results of this study showed that 39.9% to 55.5% of the variance of the CATS indices was shared by school socioeconomic factors. Analysis of this interim target model for the 2000-2002 biennium showed that for elementary and middle schools this model negated the biasing effects of socioeconomic factors, but not for high schools. Moreover, analysis of the progress of schools toward their Improvement Goals in 2001 showed that both elementary and high schools from higher poverty backgrounds lagged significantly behind their more affluent peers, indicating inequitable capacity to meet improvement goals between the poorest and most wealthy schools. Adaptations to the present accountability systems were suggested for the purpose of providing more accurate information to the public regarding the effectiveness of public schools in Kentucky.

Robert Lyons

2004-08-01

207

Variation in Meal-skipping Rates of Korean Adolescents According to Socio-economic Status: Results of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To identify and evaluate the trend of meal-skipping rates among Korean adolescents with their contributing causes and the influence of household income level on meal skipping. Methods Using 2008, 2010, and 2012 data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey of 222 662 students, a cross-sectional study with subgroup analysis was performed. We calculated odds ratios for skipping each meal 5 or more times in a week by household socio-economic status using a multiple logistic regression model. The secular change in the meal-skipping rates by the students' family affluence scale was analyzed by comparing the meal-skipping students within each subgroup and odds ratios for the same event over time. Results Through 2008 to 2012, most of the meal-skipping rates generally showed a continuous increase or were almost unchanged in both sexes, except for breakfast skipping in several subgroups. Students in low-income households not living with both parents had the highest meal-skipping rates and odds ratios for frequent meal skipping. In a time-series subgroup analysis, the overall odds ratios for the same event increased during 2008 to 2012, with a slight reduction in the gap between low and higher income levels with regard to meal skipping during 2010 to 2012. Conclusions Household socio-economic status and several other factors had a significant influence on Korean adolescent meal-skipping rates. Although the gap in eating behavior associated with household socio-economic differences is currently decreasing, further study and appropriate interventions are needed.

Hong, Seri; Bae, Hong Chul; Kim, Hyun Soo

2014-01-01

208

Plasmodium infection and its risk factors in eastern Uganda  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of disease burden in Uganda, although surprisingly few contemporary, age-stratified data exist on malaria epidemiology in the country. This report presents results from a total population survey of malaria infection and intervention coverage in a rural area of eastern Uganda, with a specific focus on how risk factors differ between demographic groups in this population. Methods In 2008, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in four contiguous villages in Mulanda, sub-county in Tororo district, eastern Uganda, to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of Plasmodium species infection. All permanent residents were invited to participate, with blood smears collected from 1,844 individuals aged between six months and 88 years (representing 78% of the population. Demographic, household and socio-economic characteristics were combined with environmental data using a Geographical Information System. Hierarchical models were used to explore patterns of malaria infection and identify individual, household and environmental risk factors. Results Overall, 709 individuals were infected with Plasmodium, with prevalence highest among 5-9 year olds (63.5%. Thin films from a random sample of 20% of parasite positive participants showed that 94.0% of infections were Plasmodium falciparum and 6.0% were P. malariae; no other species or mixed infections were seen. In total, 68% of households owned at least one mosquito although only 27% of school-aged children reported sleeping under a net the previous night. In multivariate analysis, infection risk was highest amongst children aged 5-9 years and remained high in older children. Risk of infection was lower for those that reported sleeping under a bed net the previous night and living more than 750 m from a rice-growing area. After accounting for clustering within compounds, there was no evidence for an association between infection prevalence and socio-economic status, and no evidence for spatial clustering. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that mosquito net usage remains inadequate and is strongly associated with risk of malaria among school-aged children. Infection risk amongst adults is influenced by proximity to potential mosquito breeding grounds. Taken together, these findings emphasize the importance of increasing net coverage, especially among school-aged children.

Snow Robert W

2010-01-01

209

Risk factors for temporomandibular disorder: Binary logistic regression analysis  

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Objectives: To analyze the influence of socioeconomic and demographic factors (gender, economic class, age and marital status) on the occurrence of temporomandibular disorder. Study Design: One hundred individuals from urban areas in the city of Recife (Brazil) registered at Family Health Units was examined using Axis I of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) which addresses myofascial pain and joint problems (disc displacement, arthralgia, osteoarthritis and oesteoarthrosis). The Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria (CCEB) was used for the collection of socioeconomic and demographic data. Then, it was categorized as Class A (high social class), Classes B/C (middle class) and Classes D/E (very poor social class). The results were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square test for proportions, Fisher’s exact test, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test and Binary logistic regression analysis. Results: None of the participants belonged to Class A, 72% belonged to Classes B/C and 28% belonged to Classes D/E. The multivariate analysis revealed that participants from Classes D/E had a 4.35-fold greater chance of exhibiting myofascial pain and 11.3-fold greater chance of exhibiting joint problems. Conclusions: Poverty is a important condition to exhibit myofascial pain and joint problems. Key words:Temporomandibular joint disorders, risk factors, prevalence.

Magalhaes, Bruno G.; de-Sousa, Stephanie T.; de Mello, Victor V C.; da-Silva-Barbosa, Andre C.; de-Assis-Morais, Mariana P L.; Barbosa-Vasconcelos, Marcia M V.

2014-01-01

210

Socio-economic factors associated with delivery assisted by traditional birth attendants in Iraq, 2000  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional birth attendants (TBAs are likely to deliver lower quality maternity care compared to professional health workers. It is important to characterize women who are assisted by TBAs in order to design interventions specific to such groups. We thus conducted a study to assess if socio-economic status and demographic factors are associated with having childbirth supervised by traditional birth attendants in Iraq. Methods Iraqi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS data for 2000 were used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of having been delivered by a traditional birth attendant and other social characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between having been delivered by a TBA and wealth, area of residence (urban versus rural, parity, maternal education and age. Results Altogether 22,980 women participated in the survey, and of these women, 2873 had delivery information and whether they were assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs or not during delivery. About 1 in 5 women (26.9% had been assisted by TBAs. Compared to women of age 35 years or more, women of age 25–34 years were 22% (AOR = 1.22, 95%CI [1.08, 1.39] more likely to be assisted by TBAs during delivery. Women who had no formal education were 42% (AOR = 1.42, 95%CI [1.22, 1.65] more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those who had attained secondary or higher level of education. Women in the poorest wealth quintile were 2.52 (AOR = 2.52, 95%CI [2.14, 2.98] more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those in the richest quintile. Compared to women who had 7 or more children, those who had 1 or 2 were 28% (AOR = 0.72, 95%CI [0.59, 0.87] less likely to be delivered by TBAs. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that having delivery supervised by traditional birth attendants was associated with young maternal age, low education, and being poor. Meanwhile women having 1 or 2 children were less likely to be delivered by TBAs. These factors should be considered in the design of interventions to reduce the rate of deliveries assisted by TBAs in favour of professional midwives, and consequently reduce maternal and neonatal mortality rates and other adverse events.

Rudatsikira Emmanuel

2009-04-01

211

Empirical risk factors in realized stock returns  

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Measuring risk in the stock market context is one of the key challenges of modern finance. Despite of the substantial significance of the topic to investors and market regulators, there is a controversy over what risk factors should be used to price the assets or to determine the cost of capital. We empirically investigate the ability of several commonly proposed risk factors to predict Swedish stock returns. We consider the sensitivity of an asset returns to the variation in market returns, ...

Nova?k, Jir?i?; Petr, Dalibor

2009-01-01

212

Critical Success Factors for Risk Management Systems  

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Despite the existence of extensive literature regarding risk management, there still seems to be lack of knowledge in identification of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) in this area. In this research Grounded Theory is implemented to identify CSFs in Risk Management Systems (RMS). Factor analysis and one-sample t-test are then used to refine and rank the CSFs based on the results of a survey which has been performed among Risk Management practitioners in various types of Swedish corporations. ...

Yaraghi, Niam

2009-01-01

213

Biological, behavioral, and socioeconomic factors associated with death from AIDS in Brasília, Brazil, in 2007 Fatores biológicos, comportamentais e socioeconômicos associados ao óbito por AIDS em Brasília, Brasil, em 2007  

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INTRODUCTION: In the jurisdiction of Brasília, Brazil, significant reductions in mortality rates and lethality resulting from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were observed shortly after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. In recent years, however, the decline of these rates has not been as significant. Non-adherence to treatment and delayed diagnosis appear to be the main factors that increase the risk of death from AIDS. Behavioral, socioeconomic, and biologi...

Luiz Antonio Bueno Lopes; Edina Mariko Koga da Silva

2012-01-01

214

[Risk factors of bronchial asthma in children].  

Science.gov (United States)

Case representative selective study of children from 1 to 15 years old age in Batumi, with 2110 children population has been carried out. Risk factors were studied by interviewing method, using two step estimation (on the basis of primary and secondary questionnaire) of the disease developing risk. For statistical analysis of the data SPSS v. 12 was used. Study findings confirm causal connection (with high relative risk) and significant probability of the disease (with high attributive risk), with "major risk factors": allergic diseases and atopic dermatitis in relatives and with "minor risk factors": allergic rhinitis. Relatively weak risk factors (with low relative risk), but with high prevalence in child population in Batumi were found: respiratory infections and bottle-feeding. Revealing individual and population risk phenomenology of bronchial asthma in children population in Batumi, on the basis of that the most of risk factors can be monitored, will promote asthma prevention and population health care, which is more rational and cost-effective. PMID:16636389

Katamadze, N D; Zhorzholiani, L D; Chkhartishvili, E S; Adamia, N A

2006-03-01

215

Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, perceived neighborhood factors, and cortisol responses to induced stress among healthy adults.  

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Associations between measures of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and health have been identified, yet work is needed to uncover explanatory mechanisms. One hypothesized pathway is through stress, yet the few studies that have evaluated associations between characteristics of deprived neighborhoods and biomarkers of stress are mixed. This study evaluated whether objectively measured neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and individual perceived neighborhood characteristics (i.e. social control and fear of crime) impacted cortisol responses to an induced stressor among older healthy adults. Data from Heart Scan, a sub-study of the Whitehall II cohort, were used to generate multilevel piecewise growth-curve models of cortisol trajectories after a laboratory stressor accounting for neighborhood and demographic characteristics. Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was significantly associated with individual perceptions of social control and fear of crime in the neighborhood while an association with blunted cortisol reactivity was only evidence among women. Social control was significantly associated with greater cortisol reactivity and mediation between neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and cortisol reactivity was suggested among women. These findings support a gender-dependent role of neighborhood in stress process models of health. PMID:24603009

Barrington, Wendy E; Stafford, Mai; Hamer, Mark; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas; Steptoe, Andrew

2014-05-01

216

Brain-Behavior Relationships in Reading Acquisition Are Modulated by Socioeconomic Factors  

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Functional neuroimaging may provide insights into the achievement gap in reading skill commonly observed across socioeconomic status (SES). Brain activation during reading tasks is known to be associated with individual differences in children's phonological language skills. By selecting children of equivalent phonological skill, yet diverse…

Noble, Kimberly G.; Wolmetz, Michael E.; Ochs, Lisa G.; Farah, Martha J.; McCandliss, Bruce D.

2006-01-01

217

Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status  

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Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

Daniel Belstrøm

2014-04-01

218

Socio-economic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the socioeconomic factors influencing climate change adaptation among crop farmers in Umuahia South Area of Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to determine socioeconomic characteristics of crop farmers in the area, determine farmers level of awareness of climate change in the area, ascertain effects of climate change in crop production, identify adaptation strategies adopted by the farmers in the area and determine socioeconomic factors influencing adaptation to climate change. Data were collected through a questionnaire distributed to 120 farmers. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as tables, likert type scale and multiple regression analysis. Results of data collected shows that the strategies adopted to combat the effects of climate change by farmers in the area include tree planting, cultivation of early maturing crops, mixed farming, use of improved crop varieties, increased use of family labour, engagement in complementary/diverse livelihoods, cover cropping, changes in planting and harvesting dates, irrigation practices, crop rotation, riverside/bank cultivation, increased frequency of weeding etc, Results reveal that farm size, farming experience, household size, and social organization (MEM COP were significant at 5%, sex was significant at 1% . Extension educational campaign should be intensified to increase the knowledge about climate change. Government should collaborate with meteorologists in forecasting about climate change and also in bringing about measures to control the adverse effect of climate change especially in agriculture.

N. O. Anyoha

2013-04-01

219

Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often by as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per=kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessment for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations

1999-12-01

220

Do the factors associated with female HIV infection vary by socioeconomic status in Cameroon?  

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One of the most consistent findings in social epidemiology is an inverse relationship between indicators of SES and most types of illness. However, a growing body of research on HIV in sub-Saharan Africa suggests an intriguing reversal of this pattern, particularly with respect to HIV among women. In Cameroon, specifically, high-SES women have higher rates of HIV infection compared with low-SES women. Using data from the 2004 Cameroon DHS, this study explored the relationships between SES and HIV and tested a multivariate model designed to highlight the distinctive factors associated with increased risk of HIV among women in different SES classes. The results revealed that high-SES women who reported engaging in riskier sexual behaviour had the highest levels of HIV infection. Surprisingly, among this group increased knowledge of HIV, more domestic decision-making authority and access to health care did not reduce vulnerability. Meanwhile, among low-SES women relative gender inequality was significantly related to HIV risk. Specifically, among this group of women, having a partner with higher education was strongly associated with greater HIV risk. The results suggest that different approaches targeting each sub-group are needed to effectively combat the disease. PMID:24871428

Mumah, Joyce N; Jackson-Smith, Douglas

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?  

Science.gov (United States)

... know what causes kidney cancer? What are the risk factors for kidney cancer? A risk factor is ... develop kidney cancer. Lifestyle-related and job-related risk factors Smoking Smoking increases the risk of developing ...

222

Healthcare access, socioeconomic factors and late-stage cancer diagnosis: an exploratory spatial analysis and public policy implication  

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Patients diagnosed with late-stage cancer have lower survival rates than those with early-stage cancer. This paper examines possible associations between several risk factors and late-stage diagnosis for four types of cancer in Illinois: breast cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer. Potential risk factors are composed of spatial factors and nonspatial factors. The spatial factors include accessibility to primary healthcare and distance or travel time to the nearest cance...

Wang, Fahui; Luo, Lan; Mclafferty, Sara

2010-01-01

223

Fatores sócio-econômicos relacionados ao risco nutricional e sua associação com a freqüência de defeitos do esmalte em crianças da cidade de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil / Socioeconomic factors, nutritional risk, and enamel defects in children from João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar fatores associados ao risco nutricional ao longo do primeiro ano de vida em crianças de baixo nível sócio-econômico de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Região Nordeste do Brasil. E determinar a freqüência de defeitos do esmalte, associando-a ao risco nutricional. O estudo [...] foi realizado com 117 crianças, 56 com risco nutricional e 61 eutróficas. Em domicílio, realizaram-se avaliação nutricional, exame clínico dos elementos dentais e entrevistas com as mães. Na maternidade, registraram-se informações dos períodos gestacional e de nascimento. Utilizaram-se os testes qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e modelos de regressão logística. Os defeitos do esmalte estiveram associados ao risco nutricional após o primeiro ano de vida. O risco nutricional esteve associado à renda per capita, condições de peso ao nascimento e índice de crescimento intra-uterino. Conclui-se que na amostra investigada os defeitos do esmalte estiveram associados ao risco nutricional e este às condições sócio-econômicas desfavoráveis durante a gestação e o nascimento, sugerindo que estes são fatores relevantes na programação nutricional do indivíduo e na formação do esmalte dentário. Abstract in english This study focused on factors related to nutritional risk in children over one year of age from low-income families in João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil, and the frequency of related enamel defects. The study included 117 children, 56 at nutritional risk and 61 with normal growth. Nutriti [...] onal evaluation, clinical dental examination, and interviews with mothers were conducted at the homes. Gestational and birth records were examined in the maternity hospital. Data were analyzed using the chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Enamel defects were associated with nutritional risk after the first year of life. Nutritional risk was associated with per capita family income, birth weight, and intrauterine growth index. These are relevant factors for individual nutritional planning and formation of dental enamel.

Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino, Massoni; Andressa Feitosa Bezerra de, Oliveira; Ana Maria Barros, Chaves; Fábio Correia, Sampaio; Aronita, Rosenblatt.

224

Fatores sócio-econômicos relacionados ao risco nutricional e sua associação com a freqüência de defeitos do esmalte em crianças da cidade de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil Socioeconomic factors, nutritional risk, and enamel defects in children from João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar fatores associados ao risco nutricional ao longo do primeiro ano de vida em crianças de baixo nível sócio-econômico de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Região Nordeste do Brasil. E determinar a freqüência de defeitos do esmalte, associando-a ao risco nutricional. O estudo foi realizado com 117 crianças, 56 com risco nutricional e 61 eutróficas. Em domicílio, realizaram-se avaliação nutricional, exame clínico dos elementos dentais e entrevistas com as mães. Na maternidade, registraram-se informações dos períodos gestacional e de nascimento. Utilizaram-se os testes qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e modelos de regressão logística. Os defeitos do esmalte estiveram associados ao risco nutricional após o primeiro ano de vida. O risco nutricional esteve associado à renda per capita, condições de peso ao nascimento e índice de crescimento intra-uterino. Conclui-se que na amostra investigada os defeitos do esmalte estiveram associados ao risco nutricional e este às condições sócio-econômicas desfavoráveis durante a gestação e o nascimento, sugerindo que estes são fatores relevantes na programação nutricional do indivíduo e na formação do esmalte dentário.This study focused on factors related to nutritional risk in children over one year of age from low-income families in João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil, and the frequency of related enamel defects. The study included 117 children, 56 at nutritional risk and 61 with normal growth. Nutritional evaluation, clinical dental examination, and interviews with mothers were conducted at the homes. Gestational and birth records were examined in the maternity hospital. Data were analyzed using the chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Enamel defects were associated with nutritional risk after the first year of life. Nutritional risk was associated with per capita family income, birth weight, and intrauterine growth index. These are relevant factors for individual nutritional planning and formation of dental enamel.

Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino Massoni

2007-12-01

225

Prevalence and risk factors of malaria in Ethiopia  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and the associated socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT survey results. Methods From December 2006 to January 2007, a baseline malaria indicator survey in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP regions of Ethiopia was conducted by The Carter Center. This study uses this data. The method of generalized linear model was used to analyse the data and the response variable was the presence or absence of malaria using the rapid diagnosis test (RDT. Results The analyses show that the RDT result was significantly associated with age and gender. Other significant covariates confounding variables are source of water, trip to obtain water, toilet facility, total number of rooms, material used for walls, and material used for roofing. The prevalence of malaria for households with clean water found to be less. Malaria rapid diagnosis found to be higher for thatch and stick/mud roof and earth/local dung plaster floor. Moreover, spraying anti-malaria to the house was found to be one means of reducing the risk of malaria. Furthermore, the housing condition, source of water and its distance, gender, and ages in the households were identified in order to have two-way interaction effects. Conclusion Individuals with poor socio-economic conditions are positively associated with malaria infection. Improving the housing condition of the household is one of the means of reducing the risk of malaria. Children and female household members are the most vulnerable to the risk of malaria. Such information is essential to design improved strategic intervention for the reduction of malaria epidemic in Ethiopia.

Ayele Dawit G

2012-06-01

226

Perinatal risk factors for hepatoblastoma  

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We confirmed the strong association of hepatoblastoma with very low birth weight (relative risk <1000?g vs ?2000?g=25.6; 95% confidence interval: 7.70–85.0) and demonstrated independent associations with congenital abnormalities and maternal Asian race in a population-based Minnesota study that included 36 cases and 7788 controls.

Spector, L. G.; Johnson, K. J.; Soler, J. T.; Puumala, S. E.

2008-01-01

227

The Effect of Socioeconomic Factors on Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on quality of life (QoL) after treatment in patients with head and neck carcinoma (HNC). Patients and Methods: The study population included 50 HNC patients seen in their control examinations after radiotherapy during a 2-month interval and who were willing to complete the Short-Form 36 QoL questionnaire. Socioeconomic, demographic, and tumor- and treatment-related factors were analyzed for their effect on physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: All patients received radiotherapy, and 33 patients (66%) underwent surgery for the primary tumor and/or neck disease. Chemotherapy was given in 9 patients (18%). Mean PCS and MCS were 47.9 (range, 24.8-59.3) and 46.7 (range, 22-63.3) for the whole patient population. There was no significant factor affecting PCS. Education level of 'middle school or higher,' perceived economic status of 'medium or higher,' social security status of not being 'absent or minimally covered,' and unilateral type of neck surgery were found to increase MCS significantly. According to separate linear regression analyses performed for three socioeconomic variables, the most significant factor for MCS was social security status compared with education level and perceived economic status. It was the only parameter that retained its significance when all five parameters were combined in a linear regression model. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that educational status, perceived economic status, and social security status showed a significant effect on the QoL of HNC patients after radiotherapy. When all variables were taken into account, only 'social security status' remained significant

2008-01-01

228

Dietetic Risk Factors and Ischemic Heart Disease  

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Full Text Available As adoptin and maintenance of healthy eating behaviours is an important factor for Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD prevention , this research was conducted to determin dietetic risk factors in relation to IHD. This is a case – control study conducted in fall 2003 in Tehran Heart Center and Tehran Shahid Rajaii hospital. 100 subjects with IHD, as cases and 100 controls with no cardiovascular disease in their medical history, participated in the study.Nutritional data was collected by Food Frequencey Quastionnaire. Some important risk factors including hypertention, hyperlipidemia,diabetes, Body Mass Index (BMI and physical activity were evaluated. There was a positive association between IHD and consumption of fats and a negative association between IHD and consumption of fruits and vegetables.The most important factors were low intake of fish and high intake of fried foods that increased the risk of disease 13.96 and 54.65 times, respectively. Also 73% of patients had high risk diet while only 17% of controls had high risk diet. High risk diet increased the risk of cardiovascular diseases approximately 20 times. The main dietetic risk factors in this study were : low intake of fish, fruits and vegetables and lower consumption of oiles; while hydrogenated fats with undesirable trans-fatty acid content, were the main source of dietary fat, in case group. Therefore; community-based educational programmes are nesseary to promote healty nutrition.

N Asasi

2004-10-01

229

Socioeconomic factors associated with drug consumption in prison population in Mexico  

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Abstract Background Consumption of illegal drugs is a public health problem in Mexico, and the prison population is a vulnerable group with higher rates of prevalence than in the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the main socioeconomic variables associated with drug consumption in the prison population. Methods Utilizing data from the Second Incarcerated Population Survey carried out by the Centre of Research and Teaching of Econom...

Nevárez-Sida Armando; Constantino-Casas Patricia; Castro-Ríos Angélica

2012-01-01

230

Disparities in health status and substance use: ethnicity and socioeconomic factors.  

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OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the literature on racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in morbidity and mortality, focusing on substance use and abuse. OBSERVATIONS: In most populations and societies, people of higher social position live longer and remain healthier than those of lower position. Disparities in morbidity and mortality across ethnic groups also exist. Mortality rates for African Americans are about 1.6 times higher than those for white, with much higher disparities for...

Buka, Stephen L.

2002-01-01

231

Intestinal helminthiases in Ecuador: the relatíonship between prevalence, genetic, and socioeconomic factors  

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Prevalence of infection with the intestinal helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Ancylostoma duodenale and Strongyloides stercoralis was examinedin 632 residents of communities in Esmeraldas province of Ecuador. These communities were divided into two groups according to area of habitation which reflected different socioeconomic circumstances. Attempts were made to correlate infection status with race and ABO blood group phenotype. The racial groups included blacks, Chachi am...

Cooper, Philip J.; Angel Guevara E; Guderian, Ronald H.

1993-01-01

232

Influence of socioeconomic factors on attaining targets for reducing teenage pregnancies.  

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OBJECTIVE--To determine the rate of pregnancy and outcome in teenagers in areas of different socioeconomic conditions, and to assess the implication for achievement of government and local targets in reducing unwanted pregnancies in teenagers. DESIGN--Records of pregnancies were obtained from hospital discharge files and rates of live and still births and abortions calculated for each postcode sector. Postcodes were grouped by categories of deprivation and by local government district. SETTIN...

1993-01-01

233

Uncertainty factors in ectotoxicological risk : uncertainty factors in ectotoxicological risk management.  

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Uncertainty factors (also known as extrapolation or safety factors) are widely used in lower tier ecotoxicological risk management in order to allow for sources of variability and uncertainty for which there is only limited information. From the point of view of probabilistic risk assessment, the rationale underlying both the use of uncertainty factors and the specific values chosen is often unclear. On the other hand, uncertainty factors are a convenient approach to lower tier risk assessme...

2006-01-01

234

Twin specific risk factors in primary school achievements.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main aim of this study was to examine twin specific risk factors that influence educational achievement in primary school. We included prenatal factors that are not unique to twins, except for zygosity, but show a higher prevalence in twins than in singletons. In addition, educational achievement was compared between twins and their nontwin siblings in a within-family design. Data were obtained from parents and teachers of approximately 10,000 twins and their nontwin siblings registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. Teachers rated the proficiency of the children on arithmetic, language, reading, and physical education, and reported a national educational achievement test score (CITO). Structural equation modeling showed that gestational age, birth weight, and sex were significant predictors of educational achievement, even after correction for socioeconomic status. Mode of delivery and zygosity did not have an effect, while parental age only influenced arithmetic. Mode of conception, incubator time, and birth complications negatively affected achievement in physical education. The comparison of educational achievement of twins and singletons showed significantly lower ratings on arithmetic, reading, and language in twins, compared to their older siblings, but not compared to their younger siblings. Low gestational age and low birth weight were the most important risk factors for lower educational achievement of twins in primary school. It seems that the differences observed between twins and their nontwin siblings in educational achievement can largely be explained by birth order within the family. PMID:22784460

de Zeeuw, Eveline L; van Beijsterveldt, Catherina E M; de Geus, Eco J C; Boomsma, Dorret I

2012-02-01

235

Risk factors for lower respiratory tract infections in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: Acute respiratory tract infections are divided into two groups as upper and lower respiratory tract infections. These are very common diseases in childhood. In this study, we aimed to determine risk factors for lower respiratory tract in this region. Methodology: Hospital were included in our study. Their examinations, backgrounds, family histories and information about environmental factors were recorded in questionnaire forms. Results: Lack of vaccination, duration of breast feeding, onset age of cow's milk, family history for asthma and food allergy, number of hospitalized people in the same room, number of people who live in same house and smoking around the children were evaluated for the presence of LRTI, and LRTI risks of these factors were respectively observed as 1.69, 1.71, 1.61, 1.69, 1.20, 1.47, 1.56 and 2.63 fold increased. Conclusion: Standardization of clinical diagnosis, accurate and realistic use of antibiotics, correction of nutrition, improvement of socio-economic situation and the elimination of Respiratory Infections. (author)

2012-01-01

236

Risk Factors for P.A.D.  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... smoked like a house afire for many years. Rita: I did not know that my blood pressure ... attack at one point. Narrator: Andrew, Mike, and Rita all had risk factors that made P.A. ...

237

Risk factors for polyoma virus nephropathy  

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Background. Polyoma virus-associated nephropathy (PVN) is a common cause of renal transplant failure. The risk factors for the development of PVN have not yet been studied in large cohorts of patients for periods of 20 years.

Prince, Olivier; Savic, Spasenija; Dickenmann, Michael; Steiger, Ju?rg; Bubendorf, Lukas; Mihatsch, Michael J.

2009-01-01

238

Chondrocalcinosis : risk factors and radiographic phenotype  

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Objectives: The objectives of this study were to a) examine the distribution of chondrocalcinosis (CC), b) determine the risk factors of CC, and c) examine the radiographic phenotype of osteoarthritis (OA) associated with CC.

2012-01-01

239

Risk Factors for P.A.D.  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... conditions and habits increase your risk of developing P.A.D. Andrew: I smoked like a house ... being high could be a contributing factor to P.A.D. Mike: I have a heart condition ...

240

Tourette Syndrome (TS): Risk Factors and Causes  

Science.gov (United States)

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tourette Syndrome (TS) National Center Homepage Facebook Recommend Twitter ... studying the causes of and risk factors for Tourette Syndrome (TS) in an effort to understand it ...

 
 
 
 
241

Homelessness Is a Risk Factor for TB  

Science.gov (United States)

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Homelessness is a risk factor for TB Learn how ... the United States, 1% of the population experiences homelessness in a given year, but 5.8% of ...

242

Risk Factors Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

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The purpose of the studies reviewed here is to consider the risk factors associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. In order to abstract general features meta-analysis is utilized as the review tool.

Anthony Shannon; Wong, C. K.

2010-01-01

243

Risk Factors Associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the studies reviewed here is to consider the risk factors associated with gestational diabetes mellitus. In order to abstract general features meta-analysis is utilized as the review tool.

Anthony Shannon

2010-04-01

244

Risk factors that affect recurrence in strokes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Recurrent stroke is defined as a new cerebrovascular event which occurs after the stabilization of the previous stroke. Recurrence of stroke increases likelihood of disability-mortality associated with stroke. Systematic evaluation of stroke cases can help to reduce the risk of recurrence. Objective: In order to predict strokes which carry the risk of recurrence, we aimed to compare data related to risk factors, stroke type, etiology and disability-mortality rates associated wit...

Sema Demirci; Yalc??ner, Betu?l Z.; Göksel Bakaç; Cengiz Dayan; Fikret Aysal; Sevim Bayba?

2010-01-01

245

Using an autologistic regression model to identify spatial risk factors and spatial risk patterns of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Mainland China  

Science.gov (United States)

Background There have been large-scale outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Mainland China over the last decade. These events varied greatly across the country. It is necessary to identify the spatial risk factors and spatial distribution patterns of HFMD for public health control and prevention. Climate risk factors associated with HFMD occurrence have been recognized. However, few studies discussed the socio-economic determinants of HFMD risk at a space scale. Methods HFMD records in Mainland China in May 2008 were collected. Both climate and socio-economic factors were selected as potential risk exposures of HFMD. Odds ratio (OR) was used to identify the spatial risk factors. A spatial autologistic regression model was employed to get OR values of each exposures and model the spatial distribution patterns of HFMD risk. Results Results showed that both climate and socio-economic variables were spatial risk factors for HFMD transmission in Mainland China. The statistically significant risk factors are monthly average precipitation (OR = 1.4354), monthly average temperature (OR = 1.379), monthly average wind speed (OR = 1.186), the number of industrial enterprises above designated size (OR = 17.699), the population density (OR = 1.953), and the proportion of student population (OR = 1.286). The spatial autologistic regression model has a good goodness of fit (ROC = 0.817) and prediction accuracy (Correct ratio = 78.45%) of HFMD occurrence. The autologistic regression model also reduces the contribution of the residual term in the ordinary logistic regression model significantly, from 17.25 to 1.25 for the odds ratio. Based on the prediction results of the spatial model, we obtained a map of the probability of HFMD occurrence that shows the spatial distribution pattern and local epidemic risk over Mainland China. Conclusions The autologistic regression model was used to identify spatial risk factors and model spatial risk patterns of HFMD. HFMD occurrences were found to be spatially heterogeneous over the Mainland China, which is related to both the climate and socio-economic variables. The combination of socio-economic and climate exposures can explain the HFMD occurrences more comprehensively and objectively than those with only climate exposures. The modeled probability of HFMD occurrence at the county level reveals not only the spatial trends, but also the local details of epidemic risk, even in the regions where there were no HFMD case records.

2014-01-01

246

BEHAVIORAL RISK FACTOR SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (BRFSS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), the world's largest telephone survey, tracks health risks in the United States. Information from the survey is used to improve the health of the American people. Since the early 1980s, BRFSS data have been used to identify e...

247

Risk Factors for Fluconazole-Resistant Candidemia ?  

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Previous studies have sought to determine the risk factors associated with candidemia caused by non-albicans Candida spp. or with potentially fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. (C. glabrata and C. krusei). Non-albicans Candida strains are a heterogeneous group that includes species with different levels of virulence, and only a limited number of C. glabrata isolates are resistant to fluconazole. We set out to identify the risk factors associated with microbiologically proven fluconazole-resis...

Garnacho-montero, Jose?; Di?az-marti?n, Ana; Garci?a-cabrera, Emilio; Ruiz Pe?rez Pipao?n, Maite; Herna?ndez-caballero, Clara; Aznar-marti?n, Javier; Cisneros, Jose? M.; Ortiz-leyba, Carlos

2010-01-01

248

Risk factors for osteoporosis and associated fractures.  

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Established risk factors for osteoporosis and associated fractures are increasing age, female sex, white race, removal of the ovaries at an early age, prolonged immobility, and prolonged use of corticosteroids. Obesity and use of estrogen replacement therapy are protective. Factors that probably or possibly increase risk in postmenopausal white women include a low calcium intake, cigarette smoking, and, at least for hip fractures, use of long half-life psychotrophic drugs and heavy alcohol co...

Kelsey, J. L.

1989-01-01

249

Self-management of vascular risk factors  

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Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing vascular risk factors in patients with established vascular diseases. Patients with different manifestations of vascular diseases appeared to have high levels of self-efficacy concerning the self-ma...

2009-01-01

250

Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010  

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Abstract Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls...

Rosewell Alexander; Addy Benita; Komnapi Lucas; Makanda Freda; Ropa Berry; Posanai Enoch; Dutta Samir; Mola Glen; Wy, Man Nicola; Zwi Anthony; Raina, Macintyre C.

2012-01-01

251

KNOWLEDGE OF CERVICAL CANCER RISK FACTORS AMONG CHINESE IMMIGRANTS IN SEATTLE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chinese American immigrants are a growing part of the United States population. Cervical cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among Chinese Americans. Pap smear testing is less common in Chinese American immigrants than in the general population. During 1999, we conducted a community-based survey of Chinese American women living in Seattle. We assessed knowledge of cervical cancer risk factors and history of Pap smear testing along with socioeconomic and acculturation char...

Ralston, James D.; Taylor, Victoria M.; Yasui, Yutaka; Kuniyuki, Alan; Jackson, J. Carey; Tu, Shin-ping

2003-01-01

252

Suicide, unemployment and other socioeconomic factors: evidence from the economic crisis in Greece  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Background and Objectives: Economic adverse conditions are acknowledged as having a major impact on the exacerbation of mental disorders and suicides. The severity of current European crisis and the local unrelenting spending is affecting largely the economy of Greece. Methods: The aim of this study [...] was to explore changes in suicides and their possible association with macroeconomic and behavioural factors. Data for the period 1990-2011 were drawn mainly from the Hellenic Statistical Authority and Eurostat. Suicide mortality rates were correlated with economic and behavioural factors. Results: Suicide mortality rates were increased by 55.8% between 2007 and 2011 while the total mortality was increased by 1.1% only. Significantly increasing trends in public debt, unemployment rates, consumption of daily units of antidepressants as well as divorces per 1000, homicides per 100,000 and persons with HIV per 100,000 were also observed. Suicides have been found to bear strong correlation with unemployment (r. 0.64). Significant associations were also found between suicide mortality and the percentage of public debt as percentage of GDP, the incidence of infections from HIV and homicides. Conclusions: People suffering from income and job losses, living in a demoralized social state caused by severe austerity measures and restrictive health policies, are exposed to risks for developing depression or commit suicide.

Michael G., Madianos; Tatiana, Alexiou; Athanasios, Patelakis; Marina, Economou.

253

Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors. PMID:23123588

Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

2013-05-01

254

Dietary sources of fiber intake and its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschool children  

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The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guid...

Yi Lin; Selin Bolca; Stefanie Vandevijvere; Willem De Keyzer; Herman van Oyen; John Van Camp; Guy De Backer; Stefaan De Henauw; Inge Huybrechts

2011-01-01

255

[Risk factors for preterm encephalopathy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Encephalopathy in a common neonatological sense is a term referring to a complex of clinical symptoms occurring in term infants in the first days of their life as a result of hypoxic-ischemic lesions. However, if we accept the encyclopedic definition of encephalopathy as a vast or multifocal brain lesions caused by a variety of factors, we may use the term to describe all patients with traumatic, hypoxic or toxic brain lesions, and therefore also newborns at different levels of maturity. Contrary to term newborns, in which case the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are mostly intrauterine, for preterm infants there is a number of factors which destroy neural tissue postnatally The occurrence of those factors is often influenced by elements of essential intensive care. The article describes the most common biochemical disturbances and clinical causes. PMID:19824462

Kornacka, Maria K; Bokiniec, Renata; Bargiel, Agata

2009-08-01

256

Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. Methods: A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Results: Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Conclusions: Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD.

Ul Haq, Faheem; Jalil, Fatima; Hashmi, Saman; Jumani, Maliha Iqbal; Imdad, Aamer; Jabeen, Mehnaz; Hashmi, Javad Tauseef; Irfan, Furqan Bin; Imran, Muhammad; Atiq, Mehnaz

2011-01-01

257

Risk factors in childhood eczema.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The cumulative rate of childhood eczema during the first three years was studied in a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand infants. A parental history of eczema was the strongest predictor of rates of childhood eczema but parental asthma was also related to childhood eczema. Children exposed to an early diverse solid-food diet also had increased risks of eczema, but there was no evidence to suggest that breast-feeding practices had any effect on rates of eczema. Analysis of the data suggested tha...

Fergusson, D. M.; Horwood, L. J.; Shannon, F. T.

1982-01-01

258

Socioeconomic and demographic factors modify the association between informal caregiving and health in the Sandwich Generation  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Nearly 50 million Americans provide informal care to an older relative or friend. Many are members of the “sandwich generation”, providing care for elderly parents and children simultaneously. Although evidence suggests that the negative health consequences of caregiving are more severe for sandwiched caregivers, little is known about how these associations vary by sociodemographic factors. Methods We abstracted data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to determine how the association between caregiving and health varies by sociodemographic factors, using ordinal logistic regression with interaction terms and stratification by number of children, income, and race/ethnicity. Results The association between informal caregiving and health varied by membership in the “sandwich generation,” income, and race/ethnicity. This association was significant among subjects with one (OR =?1.13, 95% CI [1.04, 1.24]) and two or more children (OR =?1.17, 95% CI =?1.09, 1.26]), but not in those without children (OR =?1.01, 95% CI [0.97, 1.05]). Associations were strongest in those earning $50,000-$75,000 annually, but these income-dependent associations varied by race/ethnicity. In Whites with two or more children, the strongest associations between caregiving and health occurred in lower income individuals. These trends were not observed for Whites without children. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the added burden of caregiving for both children and elderly relatives may be impacted by income and race/ethnicity. These differences should be considered when developing culturally appropriate interventions to improve caregiver health and maintain this vital component of the US health care system.

2014-01-01

259

Adolescent risk factors for child maltreatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at the last assessment (age 31), 80% were retained. Risk factors represent 10 developmental domains: area characteristics, family background/structure, parent stressors, exposure to family violence, parent-child relationships, education, peer relationships, adolescent stressors, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions to adulthood. Maltreatment is measured by substantiated reports from Child Protective Services records. Many individual risk factors (20 at early adolescence and 14 at later adolescence) are significantly, albeit moderately, predictive of maltreatment. Several developmental domains stand out, including family background/structure, education, antisocial behaviors, and precocious transitions. In addition, there is a pronounced impact of cumulative risk on the likelihood of maltreatment. For example, only 3% of the youth with no risk domains in their background at early adolescence were involved in later maltreatment, but for those with risk in 9 developmental domains the rate was 45%. Prevention programs targeting youth at high risk for engaging in maltreatment should begin during early adolescence when risk factors are already at play. These programs need to be comprehensive, capable of addressing the multiple and interwoven nature of risk that is associated with maltreatment. PMID:24075569

Thornberry, Terence P; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L; Smith, Carolyn A; Ireland, Timothy O

2014-04-01

260

Fatores sócio-econômicos relacionados ao risco nutricional e sua associação com a freqüência de defeitos do esmalte em crianças da cidade de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil / Socioeconomic factors, nutritional risk, and enamel defects in children from João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar fatores associados ao risco nutricional ao longo do primeiro ano de vida em crianças de baixo nível sócio-econômico de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Região Nordeste do Brasil. E determinar a freqüência de defeitos do esmalte, associando-a ao risco nutricional. O estudo [...] foi realizado com 117 crianças, 56 com risco nutricional e 61 eutróficas. Em domicílio, realizaram-se avaliação nutricional, exame clínico dos elementos dentais e entrevistas com as mães. Na maternidade, registraram-se informações dos períodos gestacional e de nascimento. Utilizaram-se os testes qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e modelos de regressão logística. Os defeitos do esmalte estiveram associados ao risco nutricional após o primeiro ano de vida. O risco nutricional esteve associado à renda per capita, condições de peso ao nascimento e índice de crescimento intra-uterino. Conclui-se que na amostra investigada os defeitos do esmalte estiveram associados ao risco nutricional e este às condições sócio-econômicas desfavoráveis durante a gestação e o nascimento, sugerindo que estes são fatores relevantes na programação nutricional do indivíduo e na formação do esmalte dentário. Abstract in english This study focused on factors related to nutritional risk in children over one year of age from low-income families in João Pessoa, Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil, and the frequency of related enamel defects. The study included 117 children, 56 at nutritional risk and 61 with normal growth. Nutriti [...] onal evaluation, clinical dental examination, and interviews with mothers were conducted at the homes. Gestational and birth records were examined in the maternity hospital. Data were analyzed using the chi-square, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. Enamel defects were associated with nutritional risk after the first year of life. Nutritional risk was associated with per capita family income, birth weight, and intrauterine growth index. These are relevant factors for individual nutritional planning and formation of dental enamel.

Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino, Massoni; Andressa Feitosa Bezerra de, Oliveira; Ana Maria Barros, Chaves; Fábio Correia, Sampaio; Aronita, Rosenblatt.

 
 
 
 
261

HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

262

Agricultural, socioeconomic and environmental variables as risks for human verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC infection in Finland  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Verotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC is the cause of severe gastrointestinal infection especially among infants. Between 10 and 20 cases are reported annually to the National Infectious Disease Register (NIDR in Finland. The aim of this study was to identify explanatory variables for VTEC infections reported to the NIDR in Finland between 1997 and 2006. We applied a hurdle model, applicable for a dataset with an excess of zeros. Methods We enrolled 131 domestically acquired primary cases of VTEC between 1997 and 2006 from routine surveillance data. The isolated strains were characterized by virulence type, serogroup, phage type and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. By applying a two-part Bayesian hurdle model to infectious disease surveillance data, we were able to create a model in which the covariates were associated with the probability for occurrence of the cases in the logistic regression part and the magnitude of covariate changes in the Poisson regression part if cases do occur. The model also included spatial correlations between neighbouring municipalities. Results The average annual incidence rate was 4.8 cases per million inhabitants based on the cases as reported to the NIDR. Of the 131 cases, 74 VTEC O157 and 58 non-O157 strains were isolated (one person had dual infections. The number of bulls per human population and the proportion of the population with a higher education were associated with an increased occurrence and incidence of human VTEC infections in 70 (17% of 416 of Finnish municipalities. In addition, the proportion of fresh water per area, the proportion of cultivated land per area and the proportion of low income households with children were associated with increased incidence of VTEC infections. Conclusions With hurdle models we were able to distinguish between risk factors for the occurrence of the disease and the incidence of the disease for data characterised by an excess of zeros. The density of bulls and the proportion of the population with higher education were significant both for occurrence and incidence, while the proportion of fresh water, cultivated land, and the proportion of low income households with children were significant for the incidence of the disease.

Jalava Katri

2011-10-01

263

Perception of adherence to treatment among patients with cardiovascular risk factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To identify the perceptions regarding adherence to treatment among patients with cardiovascular risk undergoing pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatment. Methodology: A transversal study using the instrument “issues influencing adherence to pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatments in patients with cardiovascular risk factors". The study assesses four major factors in 256 adults living in Medellín (Colombia, South America, namely: socio-economic factors, factors related to the healthcare service provider, factors related to the therapy itself, and patient-related factors. Results: In terms of the perception of treatment adherence, socio-economic factors had the lowest score. Additionally, the educational level of patients was found to be the factor with the strongest influence on adherence perception. Discussion: This study approaches the various aspects of the issue of treatment adherence with more extensive knowledge in order to contribute to the development of strategies for improving treatment adherence in patients with cardiovascular risk. The study also suggests communicating medical recommendations in different manners and in a patient-friendly language (i.e. a kind of language with no technical words. Likewise, establishing more effective strategies for diet management is suggested

Renato Zambrano C

2012-10-01

264

Portfolio Credit Risk Modelling With Heavy-Tailed Risk Factors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last decade, the dependencies between financial assets have increased due to globalization effects and relaxed market regulation. The standard industrial methodologies like RiskMetrics and CreditMetrics model the dependence structure in the derivatives or in the credit portfolio by assuming multivariate normality of the underlying risk factors. It has been well recognized that many financial assets exhibit a number of features which contradict the normality assumption - namely asym...

Kostadinov, Krassimir

2007-01-01

265

Technical, environmental, and socioeconomic factors associated with dry-cooled nuclear energy centers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The report includes a review of the current state-of-the-art of dry-cooling technology for industrial and power-generating facilities and an evaluation of its technical potential and cost for large nuclear power plants. Criteria are formulated for coarse screening of the arid regions of the Western United States to select a surrogate site for more detailed site-specific analyses. The screening criteria included seismic considerations, existing transportation facilities, institutional and jurisdictional constraints, waste heat dissipation effects, water requirements, and ecologic and socioeconomic considerations. The Galt site near Las Vegas, Nevada was selected for the surrogate site analysis to assess important issues related to the construction and operation of twelve dry-cooled nuclear power plants at an arid location remote from major load centers. The assessment covers geotechnical, atmospheric and hydrologic considerations, special aspects of transporting large equipment overland to the site from seaports, analyses of potential transmission routes to major load centers, local institutional and taxing provisions, and ecologic and socioeconomic impacts.

1976-04-01

266

Socioeconomic factors affecting farmers' perceptions of land degradation and stonewall terraces in central Palestine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Land degradation by soil erosion is a socioeconomic and environmental problem facing many developing countries. Application of stonewall terraces for soil moisture conservation is vital to reducing the environmental impacts of this phenomenon. To this end, a field plot experiment was conducted in the study area along with the use of a closed-ended questionnaire. The object of the experiment was to study the socioeconomic impacts of soil erosion on local farmers and their adoption of the stonewall terrace technique. The study showed a higher net profit in areas that had implemented terrace conservation practices than in areas that had not (i.e., 3.5 to 6 times higher net profit). Correlation analysis indicated that the farmers' perceptions, land ownership, and geomorphology were significantly related to the farmers' incentives and willingness to adopt terraces as soil conservation measures (P < 0.05), although the correlations were negative. Smallholder farmers (52% of the interviewed farmers) were involved in the sale of the agricultural land for urban uses, largely because of the high price and immediate returns offered. However, the associated land use changes warrant greater involvement of both the private and public sectors. This cooperation may be accomplished through the introduction of a long-term agricultural loan system and the development of proper legislation accompanied by a comprehensive and durable infrastructure and service system with the goal of reducing the negative impact of land use changes and encouraging sustainable use of resources. PMID:16456634

Hammad, Ahmad Abu; Børresen, Trond

2006-03-01

267

What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?  

Science.gov (United States)

... know what causes testicular cancer? What are the risk factors for testicular cancer? A risk factor is ... testicular cancer and body weight. Unproven or controversial risk factors Prior trauma to the testicles and recurrent ...

268

What Are the Risk Factors for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia?  

Science.gov (United States)

... lymphocytic leukemia? What are the risk factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia? A risk factor is something that affects a ... There are very few known risk factors for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Certain chemical exposures Some studies have linked ...

269

Relationship Between Socioeconomic Factors and Coronary Artery Disease Among Under-45 Year-Old Individuals in Shahid Rajaee Hospital, Tehran, Iran: A Case-Control Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aim: Previous studies show that disability and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases are closely related to socioeconomic status in a community. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between socioeconomic factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) among people under 45 years old at Shahid Rajaei Hospital, Tehran, Iran.Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted in Shahid Rajaei Hospital, Tehran, Iran in summer 2008. The participants w...

Pourreza, A.; Barat, A.; Hosseini, M.; Akbari Sari, A.; Oghbaie, H.

2009-01-01

270

Risk Factors for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the rural part of our country the use of traditional biomass was common and as a result of this, women who light the fire and bake bread and cook meals as well as children around them are exposed to the smoke that come out . The aim of this study was to to determine possible risk factors and associated conditions of COPD in women. The study was prospective and case-controlled. Fifty-two female patients with COPD followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital Department of Respiratory Medicine were included in this study. All cases were enrolled between December 2000 and October 2003. Fifty-four female non COPD subjects were chosen as the control group. These control subjects who did not have lung diseases were randomly selected in different outpatient clinics in the same hospital. Age, place of residence, comorbid conditions, cigarette smoking (active and passive, occupational exposure, air pollution, socio-economic status, education level, passive smoking in childhood, the fuel used for heating, cooking and baking bread and its duration were questioned. Results from this study suggest that exposure to cooking smoke, low education level, living in rural area, baking bread at home were associated risk factors with COPD among women.

Arzu Yak??an

2006-01-01

271

Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue  

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Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, sedentariness, metabolic syndrome

Rodrigues AN

2013-03-01

272

Influence of socio-economic status and environmental factors on serologically diagnosed Japanese encephalitis cases in the state of West Bengal, India during 2005-2010  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of the current study is to examine the influence of socio-economic status and environmental factors on serologically diagnosed Japanese encephalitis cases in the state of West Bengal, India during 2005-2010. Materials and methods: A total of 648 blood/CSF specimens were collected and/or referred from the suspected AES cases, admitted in the different medical colleges and hospitals of the state during the year of 2005-2010. These specimens were subjected to JE Mac ELISA to determine the actual JE case amongst these AES. The association of the socio-economic status and environmental factors with the serologically diagnosed JE positive cases was studied by a statistical analysis through Normal Deviate test or Z test. Result: Out of 648 specimens, only 175 (27.0% specimens were reactive to JE IgM antibody, of which 60.0% were from the male individuals and 40.0% from the female population. Major cases were observed in the age group of 0 - 10 years; followed by 11 - 20 years. Regarding literacy, only 58.3% cases had no education and 41.7% were from the literate with varying level of education, i.e., from primary level to post gra- duate level. A total of 65.7% cases were from low income group where as only 34.3% cases were from high income group. Regarding house type, 62.3% cases lived in mud house and 37.7% cases lived in the brick house. In most of the cases (74.3%, persons were living in close proximity to rice fields/lakes/ponds. 69.7% cases were found to occur in the monsoon and post-monsoon period whereas 30.3% cases were reported in the pre-monsoon period. Conclusion: Our study concludes that socio-economic status and environmental conditions were statistically significant contextual risk factors for serologically diagnosed JE incidences in West Bengal where JE is proved to be endemic in nature and such study constitutes a new report of this kind in the region.

Subhra K. Mukhopadhyay

2012-01-01

273

Quantitative flood risk assessment in historic cities: sensitivity to hydraulic modeling and open socio-economic data.  

Science.gov (United States)

The assessment of flood risk in urban areas is considered nowadays a crucial issue to be addressed by technicians and public authorities and requires the estimation of hazard, vulnerability and exposure. Each step of the risk assessment brings its uncertainties to the final result, thus the analysis of the sensitivity to the different contributors is required. Since the damages are generally evaluated through stage-damage functions one of the most important contribution is the estimated value of the water depth. Water depth is the outcome of hydraulic models that can be implemented with different modeling approaches and levels of spatial detail, thus providing flood depth maps that may differ in the extension of the inundated area and in the flood depth value. It is generally argued that 2D models are the most suitable to describe flood behavior in the urban environment although most of applications are carried out in small and sparse urban areas. In the historic cities a 2D model provides reliable results if the grid size is small enough to describe the street/building pattern, implying long simulation runs. Another contribution is given by monetary values assigned to the damage categories that may come from different proxy variables and may oscillate according to the real estate quotations. The risk assessment here presented is made possible thanks to a methodology based on the open data, both socio-economic and territorial, that are available in the web. In this work the risk assessment procedure and the sensitivity analysis are applied to the main cities located along the Arno river, Pisa and Florence (Italy) that are usually considered of broad interest for the importance of urban and cultural heritage. The risk is estimated accounting for structures, household contents, commercial and tertiary sectors which are the most representative of the studied areas. The evaluation and mapping of micro-scale flood risk is carried out in a GIS environment using open data aggregated to the census polygons. It results that, for a flood event of similar magnitude as the one of 1966, the flood risk analysis for the city of Florence estimates a total damage of about 6 billion euros without considering the damage to cultural heritage. This value is larger than the annual income of the whole municipality. The average flood risk per unit surface of territory (m2) is about 10 â¬/year for the historic centre in Florence and 4 â¬/year for Pisa. A discussion of the sensitivity analysis is also presented.

Arrighi, Chiara; Castelli, Fabio; Brugioni, Marcello; Franceschini, Serena; Mazzanti, Bernardo

2014-05-01

274

An empirical study for ranking risk factors using linear assignment: A case study of road construction  

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Full Text Available Road construction projects are considered as the most important governmental issues since there are normally heavy investments required in such projects. There is also shortage of financial resources in governmental budget, which makes the asset allocation more challenging. One primary step in reducing the cost is to determine different risks associated with execution of such project activities. In this study, we present some important risk factors associated with road construction in two levels for a real-world case study of rail-road industry located between two cities of Esfahan and Deligan. The first group of risk factors includes the probability and the effects for various attributes including cost, time, quality and performance. The second group of risk factors includes socio-economical factors as well as political and managerial aspects. The study finds 21 main risk factors as well as 193 sub risk factors. The factors are ranked using groups decision-making method called linear assignment. The preliminary results indicate that the road construction projects could finish faster with better outcome should we carefully consider risk factors and attempt to reduce their impacts.

Amin Foroughi

2012-04-01

275

Understanding socioeconomic aspects of risk perception: Progress report, FY-1987: Working draft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report summarizes progress to date in understanding the issue of risk perception and its implications for the suitability of the Hanford Site in eastern Washington as a location for an underground radioactive waste repository. It presents some observations about the causes, consequences and processes of risk perception gained from a review of the professional literature. It also contains an extensive working bibliography of useful reference materials, and a compilation of abstracts from selected articles that are felt to be of particular relevance to the BWIP licensing and institutional support efforts. 293 refs

1987-01-01

276

Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references

1990-01-01

277

Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection  

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Full Text Available Introduction Hepatitis C viral infection represents a major health problem in the world. The estimated global incidence is about 3%, whereas the number of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV carriers worldwide is estimated to be between 150-300 million people. Material and methods This retrospective analysis included 82 patients whose diagnosis of viral hepatitis C infection was based upon the following criteria: case history, physical examination, laboratory and abdominal ultrasound examination, histological examination of the liver, radiological examination, serological analysis and viral analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe general data on patients of the study group, risk factor analysis and follow-up results. Results The most prominent risk factor in our study group was intravenous use of drugs in 37 patients (37%, and blood transfusion in 13 patients (13%. Less important risk factors of viral hepatitis C infection included: promiscuity (8%, sexual contact with hepatitis C carriers (5%, surgical intervention (5%, haemodialysis (3%, intranasal use of cocaine (2%. Discussion Hepatitis C viral infection has become the illness of young and middle-aged population. This is due to the epidemic profile of this illness, due to intravenous use of drugs as the most prominent risk factor. Conclusion Due to the number of infected, numerous risk factors and complications of viral hepatitis C, hepatitis C virus has become the most prominent hepatotrophic virus.

Mijailovi? Željko D.

2003-01-01

278

Geopolitical and socioeconomic factors presently impacting on United States uranium supply  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The near-term availability of domestic and selected foreign uranium resources for use by United States electric utilities is considered in light of projected geopolitical and socioeconomic considerations. No attempt is made to analyze the impact on domestic uranium supply of inflation or cost-price considerations, the introduction of the breeder reactor, limitations in enrichment capacity, or the presently expanding uranium inventory. All data are current as of mid-1980. The period with which this research is concerned is 1980-1995. It is concluded that the United States must promote responsible, environmentally acceptable uranium resource exploration and development, if this nation is to remain self sufficient in this necessary energy commodity

1980-10-28

279

Vaginal cuff dehiscence: Risk factors and management  

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Vaginal cuff dehiscence and evisceration are rare but serious complications of pelvic surgery, specifically hysterectomy. The data on risks of vaginal cuff dehiscence are variable and there is no consensus on how to manage this complication. In our review, we present a summary of the risk factors, presenting symptoms, precipitating events, and management options for patients who present with vaginal cuff dehiscence after pelvic surgery. In addition, we provide a review of the current literatu...

Cronin, Beth; Sung, Vivian W.; Matteson, Kristen A.

2012-01-01

280

Risk factors for severe ME/CFS  

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ME/CFS is a serious illness affecting several hundred thousand British people. Some 25% of people withME/CFS may be severely ill (housebound or bedbound), sometimes for decades. This observational,questionnaire-based study was designed to identify risk factors for severe disease. Exposure to potential riskfactors, including familial risks, personality, and early management of the illness, was compared in 124 peoplewith severe disease and 619 mildly ill controls. Severity was determined by sel...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Perspectives for integrating human and environmental risk assessment and synergies with socio-economic analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For more than a decade, the integration of human and environmental risk assessment (RA) has become an attractive vision. At the same time, existing European regulations of chemical substances such as REACH (EC Regulation No. 1907/2006), the Plant Protection Products Regulation (EC regulation 1107/2009) and Biocide Regulation (EC Regulation 528/2012) continue to ask for sector-specific RAs, each of which have their individual information requirements regarding exposure and hazard data, and als...

Pery, Alexandre; Schuurmann, Gerrit; Ciffroy, Philippe; Faust, Michael; Backhaus, T.; Aicher, Lothar; Mombelli, Enrico; Tebby, Cle?o; Cronin, Mark; Tissot, Sylvie; Andres, Sandrine; Brignon, Jean-marc; Frewer, L.; Georgiou, S.; Mattas, K.

2013-01-01

282

Risk factors for Entamoeba histolytica infection in an agricultural community in Hanam province, Vietnam  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Entamoeba histolytica is an important protozoan intestinal infection in resource-poor settings, including Vietnam. The study objective was to assess risk factors of E. histolytica infection in a community in Vietnam, where wastewater and human excreta are used in agriculture. A case-control study was conducted among residents of Hanam province, Northern Vietnam. Cases (n = 46 infected with E. histolytica and non-infected controls (n = 138 were identified in a cross-sectional survey among 794 randomly selected individuals and matched for age, sex and place of residence. Potential risk factors including exposure to human and animal excreta and household wastewater were assessed with a questionnaire. Results People from households with an average socio-economic status had a much higher risk of E. histolytica infection (odds ratio [OR]=4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-14.0 compared with those from households with a good socioeconomic status. Those individuals who never or rarely used soap for hand washing had a 3.4 times higher risk for infection (OR=3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-10.0, compared to those who used always soap. In contrast, none of the factors related to use of human or animal excreta was statistically significant associated with E. histolytica infection. People having close contact with domestic animals presented a greater risk of E. histolytica infection (OR = 5.9, 95% CI: 1.8-19.0 than those without animal contact. E. histolytica infection was not associated with direct contact with Nhue river water, pond water and household's sanitary conditions, type of latrine or water source used. Conclusions Our study suggests that in settings where human and animal excreta and Nhue River water are intensively used in agriculture, socio-economic and personal hygiene factors determine infection with E. histolytica, rather than exposure to human and animal excreta in agricultural activities.

Nguyen-Viet Hung

2011-06-01

283

Dietary Sources of Fiber Intake and Its Association with Socio-Economic Factors among Flemish Preschool Children  

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Full Text Available The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls. The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidelines. The most important contributor was the group of bread and cereals (29.5%, followed by fruits (17.8%, potatoes and grains (16.0%, energy-dense, low-nutritious foods (12.4%, and vegetables (11.8%. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that total fiber intake was associated with maternal education and parents’ employment. Overall, fiber intakes from high-nutritious foods (vegetables and fruits were higher in preschoolers of higher educated mothers and those with one or both parents being employed. In conclusion, the majority of the preschoolers had dietary fiber intakes below the recommended level. Hence, dietary fiber should be promoted among parents of preschoolers and low socio-economic status families should be addressed in particular.

Inge Huybrechts

2011-03-01

284

Age as a risk factor for suicide  

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Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO) in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of...

2008-01-01

285

Assessing risk factors for chronic diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pilot survey of men aged 35 and over in Buenos Aires indicated that many had one or more risk factors for chronic diseases. A low response rate hampered the investigation: on average it proved necessary to visit several homes in order to obtain one interview. Furthermore, at the cost of US$ 10 incurred per interview, large prospective investigations would be precluded in most developing countries, but case-control studies assessing tobacco use and other risk factors retrospectively would be a good alternative. PMID:9393000

Matos, E; Vilensky, M; Loria, D

1997-01-01

286

Hypomagnesemia, a risk factor in diabetic retinopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The serum magnesium concentration was measured in 71 insulin-treated diabetic outpatients who had had the disease for 10 to 20 years. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to the severity of their retinopathy. As a whole the patients exhibited a definite hypomagnesemia (P less than 0.001) that was most pronounced in the subgroup having the severest degree of retinopathy (P less than 0.01). The subgroups were comparable regarding known risk factors implicated in diabetic retinopathy. Thus, hypomagnesemia appears to be an additional risk factor in the development and progress of this complication. PMID:720767

McNair, P; Christiansen, C; Madsbad, S; Lauritzen, E; Faber, O; Binder, C; Transbøl, I

1978-11-01

287

Epidemiology, prognosis, and risk factors in mastocytosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article updates current knowledge about epidemiology, prognosis, and risk factors for major complications in mastocytosis. A prevalence of mastocytosis of 1 in 10000 inhabitants has been reported, but underdiagnosis is assumed. The prognosis for cutaneous and indolent systemic mastocytosis is excellent. For more advanced forms of disease, prognostic parameters have been identified. A high extent of skin involvement, increased basal serum tryptase values, and extensive blistering are risk factors for severe mast cell activation episodes in children, whereas these associations seem to be less strong or nonexistent for anaphylaxis and osteoporosis in adult patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis. PMID:24745674

Brockow, Knut

2014-05-01

288

Socioeconomic status, urbanicity and risk behaviors in Mexican youth: an analysis of three cross-sectional surveys  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between urbanicity and adolescent health is a critical issue for which little empirical evidence has been reported. Although an association has been suggested, a dichotomous rural versus urban comparison may not succeed in identifying differences between adolescent contexts. This study aims to assess the influence of locality size on risk behaviors in a national sample of young Mexicans living in low-income households, while considering the moderating effect of socioeconomic status (SES. Methods This is a secondary analysis of three national surveys of low-income households in Mexico in different settings: rural, semi-urban and urban areas. We analyzed risk behaviors in 15-21-year-olds and their potential relation to urbanicity. The risk behaviors explored were: tobacco and alcohol consumption, sexual initiation and condom use. The adolescents' localities of residence were classified according to the number of inhabitants in each locality. We used a logistical model to identify an association between locality size and risk behaviors, including an interaction term with SES. Results The final sample included 17,974 adolescents from 704 localities in Mexico. Locality size was associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, showing a similar effect throughout all SES levels: the larger the size of the locality, the lower the risk of consuming tobacco or alcohol compared with rural settings. The effect of locality size on sexual behavior was more complex. The odds of adolescent condom use were higher in larger localities only among adolescents in the lowest SES levels. We found no statically significant association between locality size and sexual initiation. Conclusions The results suggest that in this sample of adolescents from low-income areas in Mexico, risk behaviors are related to locality size (number of inhabitants. Furthermore, for condom use, this relation is moderated by SES. Such heterogeneity suggests the need for more detailed analyses of both the effects of urbanicity on behavior, and the responses--which are also heterogeneous--required to address this situation.

Gutiérrez Juan Pablo

2011-11-01

289

Risk factors for recurrent lumbar disc herniations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common complication after lumbar discectomy is reherniation. As the first step in reducing the rate of recurrence, many studies have been conducted to find out the factors that may increase the reherniation risk. Some reported factors are age, sex, the type of lumbar disc herniation, the amount of fragments removed, smoking, alcohol consumption and the length of restricted activities. In this review, the factors studied thus far are summarized, excepting factors which cannot be chosen or changed, such as age or sex. Apart from the factors shown here, many other risk factors such as diabetes, family history, history of external injury, duration of illness and body mass index are considered. Few are agreed upon by all. The reason for the diverse opinions may be that many clinical and biomechanical variables are involved in the prognosis following operation. For the investigation of risk factors in recurrent lumbar disc herniation, large-scale multicenter prospective studies will be required in the future. PMID:24761206

Shin, Byung-Joon

2014-04-01

290

Risk factors for transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: a hospital based study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the role of various known risk factors for the development of Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of urinary bladder in our set up. Study design: Case control study Place and duration of the study: Department of Radiology CMH Rawalpindi, from March 2007 to December 2007. Material and methods: 70 patients with TCC urinary bladder were included in the study. 70 controls were included. The patients were enquired about the risk factors. The data was analysed on SPSS version 12. Odds ratio for each factor was carried out. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Smoking was the most important factor in the development of TCC of urinary bladder with odds ratio of 3:1. Driving was the next common factor. Low socioeconomic conditions appear to be an important factor in our set up. The role of chemicals in industrial work could not be established. Conclusion: Differences from the West exist regarding the etiological factors for the development of TCC of urinary bladder. Males outnumber the females by a significant ratio. Smoking is an important factor in the development of TCC of urinary bladder. Most bladder cancers arise in low socioeconomic group in our set up. (author)

2011-06-01

291

Lung cancer incidence and risk factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

1993-09-06

292

Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

Victoria Gray

2010-06-01

293

Socio-economic factors influencing control of vector-borne diseases in the pastoralist system of south western Uganda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research in control of tick-borne diseases and trypanosomosis, and their vectors, namely, ticks and tsetse flies respectively, has been on going for decades. However, very little attention has been paid to the socio-economic factors that are likely to influence the outcome of the interventions in the control of these diseases. Thus, this study was designed to investigate these factors, mainly the intra-household factors influencing decision-making in the control of Vector-borne diseases in the pastoralist areas of Uganda. These factors included: indigenous technical knowledge, household economic factors, and gender. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in the collection and analysis of data. The tools used for data collection included among others, participatory learning and action (PLA), and Case studies. The findings included the following: In pastoralist households, a big proportion of the household budget was allocated to vector-borne diseases control. In the male-headed households, men dominated decision-making on vector-borne diseases control, although the goals and priorities of men and women in these households were not the same. Also, vector-borne disease control was predominantly by use of modern veterinary drugs, and pastoralists treated sick cattle by themselves even in situations where there were veterinary personnel. PMID:18557192

Mugisha, Anthony; McLeod, Anni; Percy, Rachel; Kyewalabye, Elizabeth

2008-05-01

294

SOCIOECONOMIC AND CULTURAL FACTORS OF LOW SHOLASTIC ACHIEVEMENT OF ROMA CHILDREN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated environmental influences on scholastic achievement of first-grade elementary school students. A total of 149 (average age 81 months first-grade children were classified in three groups. The first group comprised of 52 Roma children. Two other groups consisted of 48 non-Roma children classified as children belonging to an average socioeconomic status (SES group and 49 non-Roma children classified as children belonging to a below-average SES group. All 52 Roma children belonged to a below-average SES group. Children’s intellectual abilities were assessed by Test of School Maturity; their scholastic achievement was assessed by teachers, while data on SES and family’s educational climate were obtained through a semi structured interview with their parents. Intellectual abilities – strongly influenced by family’s SES and family’s educational climate – were most predictive of scholastic achievement. Our structural model suggests that family’s educational climate, defined by unfavorable educational stimulation and low parents’ ambition concerning education of their children, moderates effects of low SES on inferior scholastic achievement. This model may be especially relevant for Roma children, since Roma children are most affected by the lack of adequate educational climate within their families.

Snezana Tovilovic

2009-09-01

295

Cultural, religious and socio-economic factors affecting sex education in Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although professional pressure groups attempted to address the need for formal sex education in the 1970's, the Family Planning Association of Turkey (FPAT) has successfully introduced sex education subjects into school programs. It has also been endorsed as a major resource by the Ministry of Health; however, the Ministry of Education has been backsliding recently on sex education and in general has not generated zealous supporters of sex education. Different attitudes and practices prevail. Sex education is not usually discussed in the home, but there is support for sex education in schools. Its importance is recognized. Turkish society tends to be conservative particularly among middle socioeconomic stratum. Upper classes tend to be more liberal, and lower classes perceive sexuality as the normal way of life. The term sex is associated with eroticism, sex education as sex techniques; so sexuality must fall within the confines of health education. Within the Muslim faith, views on sex support discussion of sexual issues with couples, for example, or among students of Islamic jurisprudence. According to Quaranic teachings, women have a right to a sex life, including divorce options if sexuality is not fulfilled. Misinterpretations of Quaranic teachings have hindered the effort to plan an appropriate sex education program. Islamic values are liberal in their support for family planning. The FPAT's objective is to change the image of sex education and eliminate the fear that established values will be challenged by sex education. PMID:12343170

Koral, S

1991-05-01

296

Socioeconomic determinants of health. The contribution of nutrition to inequalities in health.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social class differences in health are seen at all ages, with lower socioeconomic groups having greater incidence of premature and low birthweight babies, heart disease, stroke, and some cancers in adults. Risk factors including lack of breast feeding, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, and poor diet are clustered in the lower socioeconomic groups. The diet of the lower socioeconomic groups provides cheap energy from foods such as meat products, full cream milk, fats, sugars...

James, W. P.; Nelson, M.; Ralph, A.; Leather, S.

1997-01-01

297

Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao  

Science.gov (United States)

One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

2012-01-01

298

Risk factors in oil and gas lending  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports that with the increasing internationalization of the petroleum industry, lenders to the industry must understand and overcome several new credit risk factors. As a result, new financial products are now available to reserve-based borrowers. Traditional project financing now also may include futures hedging, swaps, and collar elements

1991-01-01

299

Perinatal Risk Factors for Mild Motor Disability  

Science.gov (United States)

The aetiology of mild motor disability (MMD) is a complex issue and as yet is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of perinatal risk factors in a cohort of 10-year-old boys and girls with (n = 362) and without (n = 1193) MMD. Among the males with MMD there was a higher prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage,…

Hands, Beth; Kendall, Garth; Larkin, Dawne; Parker, Helen

2009-01-01

300

Risk factors and classifications of hilar cholangiocarcinoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma or Klatskin tumor represents more than 50% of all biliary tract cholangiocarcinomas. A wide range of risk factors have been identified among patients with Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma including advanced age, male gender, primary sclerosing cholangitis, choledochal cysts, cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, parasitic infection (Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis), inflammatory...

Miguel Angel Suarez-Munoz; Jose Luis Fernandez-Aguilar; Belinda Sanchez-Perez; Jose Antonio Perez-Daga; Beatriz Garcia-Albiach; Ysabel Pulido-Roa; Naiara Marin-Camero; Julio Santoyo-Santoyo

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Risk Factors for P.A.D.  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... point. Narrator: Andrew, Mike, and Rita all had risk factors that made P.A.D. more likely. And your chances of getting P.A.D. may be increased if you are over the age of 50, ...

302

Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology  

Science.gov (United States)

Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

2010-01-01

303

An Assessment of Preventable Risk Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases in an Adult Population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To assess the prevalence of selected risk factors for chronic disease and the association of these risk factors with sociodemographic variables, a cross sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of adults aged 40 years or more in the district of Shimoga. A sample of 992 subjects was selected from all the blocks of the district using the World Health Organizations STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors. The study participants blood pressure was measured; their body mass index calculated and collected information on self-reported smoking status. The extent to which, being overweight, hypertension, smoking and various combinations of these risk factors were associated with the study participants education level, occupational category and economic status was measured. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 14 and multivariate logistic regression model to note the associations between the outcome variables and select demographic variables. Mean blood pressure levels were higher among men than among women and increased progressively with age. Sixty three percent of men were current smokers and 58% were current daily smokers; less than 1% of women smoked. Mean body mass index was 19.6 among men and 19.9 among women and only 3.5% of the population was overweight. Education level was inversely associated with the prevalence of hypertension among both men and women and with the prevalence of smoking among men. Hypertension was directly associated with socioeconomic status among men but inversely associated with socioeconomic status among women. India is experiencing an increase in the prevalence of many risk factors for chronic diseases and is in urgent need of interventions to reduce the prevalence of these risk factors and to deal with the chronic diseases to which they contribute.

R. Revathy

2011-01-01

304

Risk factors for post-acute myocardial infarction depression in elderly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To determine risk factors for development of post-acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI depression in elderly. Material and Methods: We included 104 elderly patients diagnosed with STEMI. Clinical, lab and imagistic data was recorded in the first week after STEMI. Six months after STEMI patients were evaluated for the presence of depression. Results: Bivariate analysis showed statistically significant association between post-STEMI depression and sex, arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes, socio-economic status, presence of family, left ventricular ejection fraction, Lown classification and HDL-cholesterol values. Multivariate analysis determined that following parameters increased the probability of onset of depression six months post-STEMI in elderly: sex (OR – 3.2, type 2 diabetes (OR – 2.6, poor socio-economic status (OR – 3.5 and absence of family (OR – 4.2. Conclusion: diabetes, precarious socio-economic status, absence of family and female sex were risk factors for post-STEMI depression.

Cristina Mo?u?an

2011-12-01

305

Stroke mortality and its socioeconomic, racial, and behavioral correlates in Florida.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stroke mortality is associated both with being black and with having low socioeconomic status. However, it is uncertain to what extent that increased risk is related to rates of behavior-related risk factors, such as hypertension, cigarette smoking, obesity, or alcohol consumption. The investigators performed an ecologic analysis to estimate the contributions of behavioral risks, socioeconomic status, and black race to regional variations in stroke mortality rates among persons 55-84 years of...

Siegel, P. Z.; Deeb, L. C.; Wolfe, L. E.; Wilcox, D.; Marks, J. S.

1993-01-01

306

Acculturation, socioeconomic status, obesity and lifestyle factors among low-income Puerto Rican women in Connecticut, U.S., 1998-1999 Aculturación, clase social, obesidad y factores relacionados con el estilo de vida en mujeres puertorriqueñas de bajos ingresos residentes del estado de Connecticut, Estados Unidos, 1998-1999  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of socioeconomic status and acculturation with obesity and lifestyle characteristics that may be risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease among low-income Puerto Rican women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1998 and 1999 by interviewing a convenience sample of 200 low-income Puerto Rican female caretakers of young children in Hartford, Connecticut, United States of America. Various recruitment methods were used to e...

Nurgül Fitzgerald; David Himmelgreen; Grace Damio; Sofia Segura-Pérez; Yu-Kuei Peng; Rafael Pérez-Escamilla

2006-01-01

307

Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

Connell, Paul P

2012-02-01

308

Lifecourse socioeconomic trajectories and C-reactive protein levels in young adults: Findings from a Brazilian birth cohort  

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Socioeconomic factors are associated with cardiovascular disease. C-reactive protein (CRP) is increasingly implicated as a candidate linking conventional risk factors and atherosclerosis. The impact of early- and later-life socioeconomic status (SES) on CRP levels has not been widely investigated and a handful of studies from high-income countries are inconsistent. We set out to examine the associations between lifecourse socioeconomic indicators (family income at birth, maternal education, f...

Nazmi, Aydin; Oliveira, Isabel O.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Gigante, Denise P.; Victora, Cesar G.

2010-01-01

309

Correlates of socio-economic inequalities in women's television viewing: a study of intrapersonal, social and environmental mediators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Introduction Socio-economically disadvantaged women are at a greater risk of spending excess time engaged in television viewing, a behavior linked to several adverse health outcomes. However, the factors which explain socio-economic differences in television viewing are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of intrapersonal, social and environmental factors to mediating socio-economic (educational) inequalities in women's television viewing. <...

Teychenne Megan; Ball Kylie; Salmon Jo

2012-01-01

310

Physical inactivity : A cardiovascular risk factor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evidence regarding health benefits of physical activity is overwhelming and plays a critical role in both the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD. Epidemiological investigations show approximately half the incidence of CAD in active compared to sedentary persons. A sedentary lifestyle is considered by various national and international organizations to be one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, a moderate level of occupational or recreational activity appears to confer a significant protective effect. Once coronary artery disease has become manifest, exercise training can clearly improve the functional capacity of patients and reduce overall mortality by decreasing the risk of sudden death. Well-designed clinical investigations, supported by basic animal studies, have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of exercise are related to direct and indirect protective mechanisms. These benefits may result from an improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, enhanced fibrinolysis, improved endothelial function, decreased sympathetic tone, and other as-yet-undetermined factors. Hence physical fitness, more than the absence of ponderosity or other factors, is the major determinant of cardiovascular and metabolic risk and long-term disease-free survival, in effect linking health span to life span. It is obviously in every individual?s interest to assume the responsibility for his or her own health and embrace this extremely effective, safe, and inexpensive treatment modality. The need for a comprehensive review of this particular topic has arisen in view of the high prevalence of physical inactivity and overwhelming evidence regarding CVD risk reduction with regular physical activity.

Prasad D

2009-01-01

311

Adaptation in Europe. Addressing risks and opportunities from climate change in the context of socio-economic developments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 'Adaptation in Europe' report describes the policies and some of the measures taken at EU level and by European countries. So far half of the 32 EEA member countries have plans for adaptation, and some have started to take action, although all countries still have a lot of work to do. While global mitigation efforts should continue to aim to limit global temperature increases to 2 deg. C, the report states that it is necessary to prepare for a greater range of temperature increases and other climate changes. This is needed to properly account for the many uncertainties in climatic and socio-economic projections. The report recommends a combination of different measures - 'grey' measures such as technological and engineering projects, 'green' ecosystem-based approaches using nature, and so-called 'soft' measures such as policies to change governance approaches. The most effective adaptation projects often combine two or more different approaches, the report says. For example, adaptation on France's Mediterranean coast uses an integrated approach considering climate change, tourism, transport and biodiversity. In urban areas green spaces and water bodies work together with building design to reduce heatwave risks. Barcelona has also started to adapt to water shortages with a new highly efficient desalination plant. This 'grey' project works in tandem with other 'soft' initiatives such as incentives to reduce water consumption, reducing the impacts from prolonged droughts. While the cost of adaptation may be high in some cases, the report emphasises the overall savings from some adaptation actions. One of the largest ecosystem-based adaptation projects is restoring the Danube river basin to its previously natural state. Although it will cost an estimated Euro 183 million, it should help prevent flooding such as the 2005 event which alone cost Euro 396 million in damages. Early warning systems to help predict forest fires, floods and droughts have been set up in Europe. Such soft measures can help communities cope with risks, the report says. A similar project in Italy has set up early warning systems for mosquito-borne diseases expected to increase with climate change. Europe needs to adapt to climate change in a coherent way, ensuring adaptation is integrated in EU and national policies, the report says. There is no 'one-size-fits-all' approach - adapting to climate change should respond to national and local conditions. There is still uncertainty in climate change projections, and it is difficult to accurately estimate future risks as socio-economic aspects are also changing. For these reasons adaptation planning should be flexible enough to cope with unforeseen circumstances and a range of future climate changes, the report says. For example, the upgrade of the Thames Barrier which protects London from coastal flooding is being planned to keep options open, so it can be adjusted depending on the trend in sea level rise. (Author)

Isoard, S. [EEA (Denmark); Winograd, M. [Alterra (Netherlands)

2013-04-15

312

Adverse Socioeconomic Conditions and Oocyst-Related Factors Are Associated with Congenital Toxoplasmosis in a Population-Based Study in Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Congenital toxoplasmosis is a public health problem in Brazil. This study aimed to determine risk factors associated with congenital toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais which is the second largest Brazilian State based on number of inhabitants, and its territorial extension is larger than that of France. Methods: Population-based case-control study to assess the association between congenital toxoplasmosis and maternal exposure to infection risk factors. The study included mothers/children participating in the Minas Gerais Newborn Screening Program. The cases consisted of 175 mothers of infected children, and the controls consisted of 278 mothers of children without suspected infection. The associations were assessed through binomial logistic regression with p?0.05. Results The variables associated with lower probability of toxoplasmosis were: older mother age (OR?=?0.89; CI95%?=?0.85–0.93), higher level of education (OR?=?0.85; CI95%?=?0.78–0.92), access to potable water (OR?=?0.21; CI95%?=?0.08–0.51), and home with flush toilet (OR?=?0.18; CI95%?=?0.04–078). The variables associated with higher probability of infection were: cats in the neighborhood (OR?=?2.27; CI95%?=?1.27–4.06), owning or visiting homes with domestic cats (OR?=?1.90; CI95%?=?1.09–3.31), handling the soil (OR?=?2.29; CI95%?=?1.32–3.96), and eating fresh meat not previously frozen (OR?=?3.97; CI95%?=?2.17–7.25). After stratification according region of residence (rural or urban/peri-urban), home with flush toilet and consumption of treated water were protective against the disease only in the rural stratum. Conclusions In Minas Gerais, congenital toxoplasmosis has been associated with poor socioeconomic conditions. Considering maternal exposure to sources of Toxoplasma gondii, the predominating risk factors were those related to the ingestion of oocysts. It is expected that these results will contribute to development of a program for prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis adapted to the reality of the population of Minas Gerais. The differences between populations living in rural and urban areas regarding the main risk factors for toxoplasmosis point to the need of considering regional specificities in planning strategies to control congenital toxoplasmosis.

Carellos, Ericka Viana Machado; de Andrade, Glaucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januario, Jose Nelio; Romanelli, Roberta Maia Castro; Abreu, Mery Natali Silva; da Silva, Fabiana Maria; Loures, Ivy Rosa Coelho; de Andrade, Juliana Queiroz; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

2014-01-01

313

Risk factors that affect recurrence in strokes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent stroke is defined as a new cerebrovascular event which occurs after the stabilization of the previous stroke. Recurrence of stroke increases likelihood of disability-mortality associated with stroke. Systematic evaluation of stroke cases can help to reduce the risk of recurrence. Objective: In order to predict strokes which carry the risk of recurrence, we aimed to compare data related to risk factors, stroke type, etiology and disability-mortality rates associated with stroke. Material And Method: Patients with stroke who referred to Bak?rkoy Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases Training and Research State Hospital between June 1, 2002 and February 28, 2003 were recorded into the stroke database in a consecutive and prospective manner. Strokes were classified as ischemic/hemorrhagic and first/recurrent. For recurrent strokes, information about previous strokes was also recorded. Risk factors were classified as hypertension (HT, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation (AF, coronary artery disease (CAD, migraine, transient ischemic accident (TIA, family history of cerebrovascular accident (CVA, oral contraceptive use, PAD, congestive heart failure (CHF, other heart diseases, smoking cigarette and alcohol consumption. Disability-mortality rates associated with stroke were evaluated. All data were compared for first and recurrent strokes. Results: In our study, 631 patients were evaluated, 52.3% of whom were female and 47.7% male. Frequency of stroke was statistically high (p<0.001 in females over 70 years old. Recurrent strokes were of the same type. For the first and recurrent strokes, HT was the highest risk factor. AF frequency increased with age (p<0.001. The rate of disability-mortality was found high in strokes of undetermined and cardioembolic origin. Conclusion: Knowledge of etiologic group can help to predict recurrence of stroke and prevent death. We think that effective treatment of modifiable risk factors identified in stroke groups where recurrence is the highest, and prioritising the investigation of cardioembolic risk factors in elderly women are significant in terms of primary and secondary stroke prevention.

Sevim Bayba?

2010-01-01

314

Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

1997-09-01

315

Indices of Socioeconomic Position across the Life Course as Predictors of Coronary Calcification in Black and White Men and Women: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Few studies have investigated the association of socioeconomic status (SES) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) and only one study has examined African Americans separately from Caucasians, despite empirical evidence suggesting that blacks have equivalent or lower CAC, relative to whites. We tested the hypotheses that lower childhood SES and lower average education, occupation, and income and change in SES (slope) in adulthood are related to risk of CAC in blacks and whites in the US CARD...

Matthews, Karen A.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Cohen, Sheldon

2011-01-01

316

Are familial factors underlying the association between socioeconomic position and prescription medicine? : A register-based study on Danish twins  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: Although well established, the association between socioeconomic position and health and health behaviour is not clearly understood, and it has been speculated that familial factors, for example, dispositional factors or exposures in the rearing environment, may be underlying the association. The objective was to compare prescription fillings within twin pairs who are partly or fully genetically identical and share childhood exposures. PARTICIPANTS: Data from the Danish Twin Registry were linked to registers in Statistics Denmark and the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product statistics. A total of 8582 monozygotic (MZ) and 15 788 dizygotic same sex (DZSS) twins were included. OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of prescription fillings during follow-up (1995-2005) was analysed according to education and income. Results of unpaired and intrapair analyses were compared. RESULTS: An inverse social gradient in filling of prescriptions for all-purpose and system-specific drugs was observed in the unpaired analyses. In the intrapair analyses, associations were attenuated some in DZSS and more in MZ twins. Filling of drugs targeting the nervous system was still strongly associated with income in the intrapair analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Familial factors seem to account for part of the observed social inequality in filling of prescription medicine.

Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh

2013-01-01

317

Risk factors for cervical neoplasia in Denmark.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the overall goal of elucidating the risk factor pattern for cervical neoplasia, two case-control studies and a prospective cohort study were conducted. The first case-control study focused on female lifestyle risk factors. It was designed to include all women (aged 20-49 years) in Greater Copenhagen, diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer or carcinoma in situ (CIS) from January 1985 to December 1986. They were identified from the Danish Cancer Registry. An age-stratified control group was randomly selected from the study area by means of The Danish Central Population Register. Information on risk factors was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The study, which included 586 women with CIS, 59 women with cervical cancer, and 614 control subjects, confirmed that CIS and invasive cervical cancer share similar risk factors. Both disease entities were strongly associated with sexual and venereal factors. This applied especially to lifetime number of sexual partners and age at first episode with genital warts (proxy measure for human papillomavirus (HPV)), supporting that HPV infection in the adolescent cervix is associated with a higher risk of cervical neoplasia compared with such an infection later in life. Our results also suggested that parity, oral contraceptive use, and smoking may be important risk factors. In the second case-control study, we identified all women with one lifetime sexual partner based on the questionnaire information obtained in the first case-control study. To investigate the role of the "male factor", the women were invited to participate in the study together with their husband. In all, 41 case couples and 90 control couples were enrolled. Data collection included a personal interview, blood samples, and penile swabs from the males. The most significant risk determinants of cervical neoplasia were a history of genital warts in the male and non-use of condoms, emphasizing the venereal nature and pointing to HPV as an important agent. Genital warts are usually associated with the low-risk HPVs (types 6 and 11) rather than with the high-risk HPV types. However, an explanation for the observed relationship between risk of cervical neoplasia and genital warts in the woman herself and in her male partner could be, that they are more likely also to harbour the high-risk HPV types. Only 2 case husbands and no control husbands had HPV DNA detected in the penile swabs (ViraPapR, ViraTypeTM). As the number of cells in the swab always exceeded 3 x 10(4), the result may reflect shortcomings in the test kit used. From our population-based prospective cohort study of 11,088 women, we selected the prevalent cases (199 women with LSIL/HSIL(low-grade/high-grade squamous intraepithelial neoplasia), 131 women with ASCUS (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance)), and 1000 random controls (women and normal cervical cytology). At enrollment, the women were personally interviewed and had a gynecological examination including cervical swabs for HPV testing and a Pap smear. HPV DNA detection was done using polymerase-chain-reaction methods. Cervical HPV infection (especially with the high-risk types) was the out-standing risk factor for all grades of neoplasia, the association being strongest for HSIL. Women with high-risk HPV infection had a nearly 33-fold increased risk of HSIL compared to HPV-negative women. Possible risk factors for cervical neoplasia in HPV-positive women included smoking, non-use of barrier contraceptives and parity. If analysis was restricted to histologically confirmed high-grade lesions, the proportion of cases that could be attributed to HPV infections was 80%. The importance and urgent need for studies which include HPV as an adjunct to cervical cytology is emphasized. Greater effort should be made to determine the usefulness of this modality (HPV diagnostics) in cervical cancer screening or in the management of cervical neoplasia, especially ASCUS and LSIL. PMID:9693662

Kjaer, S K

1998-01-01

318

Risk factors with breast cancer among women in Delhi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The incidence of breast cancer is on the rise in India, breast cancer is the second most common malignancy in Indian women. Aim: The aim of this study was to find out the association of various risk factors with breast cancer among women in Delhi. Settings and Design: This was a case-control study in Lok Nayak Hospital, Delhi. Methods and Material: 332 women were studied. Subjects were women with breast cancer (N = 115 and age matched Control subjects (N-217 without breast cancer, attending Lok Nayak Hospital during 2006. Subjects were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. The risk factors studied were: age, parity, socioeconomic status, marital status, breast feeding, menarche, menopause, family history. Statistical Analysis: Data was expressed in proportion. Results and Conclusions: Age of the patient ranged from 25 to 80 years. In this study, 69 (60% cases and 127 (58.5% controls were illiterate, the mean duration sum of total breast feeding for all children was 6.58 years in cases and 7.4 years in controls (OR = 1.91; 95% CI, 1.17 - 3.13 (P < 0.006. In the present study 52.9% of the cases and 47.9% of controls had attained menopause before the age of 45 years, and a higher number of controls were living with spouses than cases (P < 0.0001. A larger number of controls (150, 69.1% were living in urban areas than cases (65, 56.5% (P< 0.05. There was a significant difference between breast cancer cases and controls in relation to place of residence, occupation, marital status, body mass index and breast feeding.

Pakseresht S

2009-01-01

319

Vascular risk factor detection and control may prevent Alzheimer's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The vascular hypothesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), first proposed by us in 1993, provides substantial evidence that suggests vascular risk factors (VRF) play a critical role in the development of cognitive decline and AD during aging. Cardiovascular and carotid artery disease, two major risk factors to AD, can conspire or independently induce chronic brain hypoperfusion (CBH) decades before any symptoms of cognitive impairment are expressed. The pathologic construct linking CBH to cognitive impairment and AD remains unclear but evidence shows that it may provide an opportunity to intervene in the prevention or delay of dementia onset. A preliminary randomized clinical study in cognitively healthy middle age individuals to undergo screening using carotid Doppler ultrasound, echocardiography and ankle-brachial index is proposed. These office tools are non-invasive, cost-effective, easily applied in one session and relatively accurate procedures with no inherent harmful effects. More importantly, ultrasound can help identify asymptomatic patients most likely to develop progressive cognitive decline due to persistent CBH secondary to progressive cardiovascular or carotid artery pathology. When these VRF are detected within the heart or carotid arteries, optimal medical treatment or management may be indicated to prevent or slow down further disease progression that fosters cognitive deterioration generated from such conditions. Secondary screening tools such as neuroimaging, neurocognitive testing and CSF markers may be used to confirm ultrasound findings. Prevention-by-detection of VRF and target treatment, if found effective, could significantly promote healthier mental and physical aging and lessen the socio-economic calamity anticipated from the growing prevalence of dementia. PMID:20385255

de la Torre, Jack C

2010-07-01

320

Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy. PMID:22880546

Zimi?, Jadranka Ivandi?; Juki?, Vlado

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Risk Factors for Preeclampsia in Multigravida Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hypertensive Diseases in Pregnancy (HDP are one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The cause of preeclampsia-eclampsia remains unknown and risk factors for the development of preeclampsia are less well defined. We conducted a case-control study on pregnant women presenting to Tabriz Al-Zahra and Taleghani hospitals from August 2003 to August, 2004. Patients were studied in 2 groups of cases (64 and controls (64. Maternal age and BMI in case group was significantly higher than control group. The difference of education, gravidity, smoking and history of abortion between case and control groups was not significant. Preeclampsia history and inadequate prenatal care in case group were significantly high. The difference of previous SGA newborn, birth interval and same paternity between case and control groups was not significant. Preeclampsia risk factors in multigravida women include: High maternal age and BMI, history of preeclampsia, positive past medical history and inadequate prenatal care.

2008-01-01

322

Hyperglycemia risk factors in leukemia: Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Asparaginase is an enzyme used in the treatment of leukemia. Its antileucemic effect is believed to result from the depletion of circulating asparagine. Major side effects are anaphylaxis, pancreatitis, diabetes, coagulation abnormalities, and thrombosis. Hyperglycemia is a well known but a rare side effect of L-asparaginase (L-ASP. The reported incidences vary widely from 1% to 14% in recipients of L-ASP alone, 2 to 11% in recipients of both L-ASP and prednisone, and only about 0.2% in those receiving prednisone alone. Age, obesity and Down syndrome were contributing factors to the increased risk of hyperglycemia. We evaluate hyperglycemia risk factors in leukemia by presenting a case who develops hyperglycemia during the treatment.

Fatih Erbey

2006-01-01

323

Dynamic risk factors: the Kia Marama evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Risk assessment is an essential part of clinical practice. Each of the three aspects of risk (static, stable, and acute dynamic) are important at various points of contact between the man and the systems that are responsible for providing service. Dynamic factors, the typical treatment and supervision targets, have received less research attention than static factors. This paper examined the extent to which pretreatment, posttreatment and change scores were associated with reoffending among men incarcerated for sexually molesting. The results were generally supportive of change in prooffending attitudes as the key to not reoffending and suggested that the perspective-taking component of empathy and the use of fantasy may be important mechanisms. Affect scales generally failed to show any relationship with reoffending, outside decreases in trait and suppressed anger. Moreover, these data suggest that we could improve our assessments and treatment through increased sensitivity to offense pathways. PMID:11961886

Hudson, Stephen M; Wales, David S; Bakker, Leon; Ward, Tony

2002-04-01

324

Fuzzy MCDM Model for Risk Factor Selection in Construction Projects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Risk factor selection is an important step in a successful risk management plan. There are many risk factors in a construction project and by an effective and systematic risk selection process the most critical risks can be distinguished to have more attention. In this paper through a comprehensive literature survey, most significant risk factors in a construction project are classified in a hierarchical structure. For an e...

Pejman Rezakhani

2012-01-01

325

Early socioeconomic position and blood pressure in childhood and adulthood: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies have found an association between low socioeconomic position in childhood and high adult blood pressure. It is unclear whether this association is explained by a pathway directly linking disadvantage to elevated blood pressure in childhood and adolescence, which then tracks into adulthood. We assessed parental socioeconomic position and systolic blood pressure in 1807 children and adolescents ages 3 to 18 years at baseline. Adult systolic blood pressure was measured 21 years later at ...

Kivima?ki, M.; Lawlor, D. A.; Smith, G. D.; Keltikangas-ja?rvinen, L.; Elovainio, M.; Vahtera, J.; Pulkki-ra?back, L.; Taittonen, L.; Viikari, J. S.; Raitakari, O. T.

2006-01-01

326

Risk factors of intestinal obstruction in pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Objective: to study risk factors and options for clinical course of acute intestinal obstruction in pregnancy. Materials and methods. A detailed study of history, clinical course, diagnosis and treatment characteristics of acute intestinal obstruction in 79 pregnant women was undertaken. Results: It was determined that a combination of intestinal obstruction, and pregnancy is more common for II and III trimester of gestation (88,5%, with more likely to develop mechanical obstruction caused by the adhesive process (77,2%. Risk factors for intestinal obstruction in pregnancy are: chronic diseases of gastrointestinal tract, surgery of abdominal cavity and pelvis, burdened obstetric and gynecological history and long-term use of progestogens during pregnancy. Difficulties in diagnosis are associated with absence of classical symptoms of disease that is caused by changes in topographical relations of abdominal cavity, increasing size of uterus, as well as lack of immune response to the emergence of a pathological process. Conclusion. Formation of pregnant women at risk for development of intestinal obstruction and preventive measures to address violations of intestinal motor function can reduce the risk of disease. Algorithm of medical tactics for suspected acute intestinal obstruction in pregnancy, allowing to reduce time of diagnosis and provision of medical care.

Khvorostukhina N.F.

2012-09-01

327

Obesity Policy Research - Risk Factor Monitoring & Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a risk factor for various types of cancer and for other chronic diseases and conditions such as type II diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Obesity prevalence in the United States has risen substantially in the last 50 years, particularly since the early 1980s. Experiences with tobacco control and other public health initiatives suggest that public policy may be a powerful tool to improve diet and physical activity behavior at the population level.

328

Risk factors for thrombosis in lupus patients.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lupus anticoagulant, concentrations of anticardiolipin antibodies, antithrombin III, plasminogen, (free) protein S, protein C, prothrombin, platelet counts, and bleeding times were determined in 74 lupus patients (58 with systemic lupus erythematosus; 16 with lupus-like disease) to establish the presence of risk factors for thrombosis in these patients. Of the variables evaluated, lupus anticoagulant had the strongest association with a history of thrombosis. Both positive anticardiolipin ant...

Hasselaar, P.; Derksen, R. H.; Blokzijl, L.; Hessing, M.; Nieuwenhuis, H. K.; Bouma, B. N.; Groot, P. G.

1989-01-01

329

Optic nerve hypoplasia: Risk factors and epidemiology.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To study the epidemiology of optic nerve hypoplasia. DESIGN AND METHODS: Children with optic nerve hypoplasia and visual impairment were identified through the Swedish Register of Visually Impaired Children. Pre- and perinatal characteristics were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry and by scrutinizing pregnancy and delivery records. Clinical characteristics of children with optic nerve hypoplasia are described. The following risk factors were studied: maternal age, parity, m...

Tornqvist, Kristina; Ericsson, Anders; Ka?lle?n, Bengt

2002-01-01

330

Spatial distribution and risk factors of Brucellosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The role of wildlife as a brucellosis reservoir for humans and domestic livestock remains to be properly established. The aim of this work was to determine the aetiology, apparent prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for brucellosis transmission in several Iberian wild ungulates. Methods: A multi-species indirect immunosorbent assay (iELISA) using Brucella S-LPS antigen was developed. In several regions having brucellosis in livestock, individual serum samples were ta...

Mun?oz Alvaro, Pilar Mari?a; Boadella, Mariana; Arnal Barrera, Maricruz; Miguel Lo?pez, Mari?a Jesu?s; Revilla Calavia, Miguel; Marti?nez, David; Vicente Ban?os, Joaqui?n; Acevero Lavandera, Pelayo; Oleaga Ruiz Escudero, Alvaro; Ruiz Fons, Jose? Francisco; Mari?n Alcala?, Clara Mari?a; Prieto Marti?n, Jose? Miguel; Fuente Garci?a, Jose? Jesu?s La; Barral, Marta; Barbera?n Pelegri?n, Montserrat

2010-01-01

331

Risk Factors of Erythrocytosis Post Renal Transplantation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Post-transplant erythrocytosis (PTE) is characterized by persistently ele-vated hematocrit level 0 51%. This complication is reported to develop in 10-20% of renal allografts recipients, mostly 2 years after kidney transplantation. PTE is self-limited in 25% of the patients; however it may persist in patients with an increased susceptibility for thrombosis and potential fatal outcome. To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of PTE in our center, we reviewed the record...

2008-01-01

332

Treatment of Risk Factors to Prevent Stroke  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Much of the decline in stroke incidence and mortality for the past several decades in Western countries has been attributed to better treatment of risk factors. Many epidemiological studies and clinical trials confirmed the importance of managing hypertension. Comparative trials of anti-hypertensive drugs or drug classes have not yielded clear results, but blood pressure variability may play an important role beyond the absolute value of blood pressure. Diabetes therapy remains a conundrum. A...

Aoki, Junya; Uchino, Ken

2011-01-01

333

Hepatocellular carcinoma: Epidemiology, risk factors and pathogenesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignant cancer of the liver in the world. Given that the burden of chronic liver disease is expected to rise owing to increasing rates of alcoholism, hepatitis B and C prevalence and obesity-related fatty liver disease, it is expected that the incidence of HCC will also increase in the foreseeable future. This article summarizes the international epidemiology, the risk factors and the pathogenesis of HCC, including the roles of viral h...

Gomaa, Asmaa Ibrahim; Khan, Shahid A.; Toledano, Mireille B.; Waked, Imam; Taylor-robinson, Simon D.

2008-01-01

334

Allergy: A Risk Factor for Suicide?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy.

Postolache, Teodor T.; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H.

2008-01-01

335

Child abuse and neglect on Oahu, Hawaii: description and analysis of four purported risk factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four factors are commonly considered to indicate "high risk" for child abuse/neglect: (1) low birth weight, (2) young maternal age, (3) mother with single marital status, and (4) low socioeconomic status (SES). These factors were investigated for Oahu, Hawaii, in four separate retrospective studies (using 100 abused cases and 100 controls), to evaluate their usefulness for screening at delivery. Data were obtained from a sample of 2,036 confirmed cases, during the period from 1977 to 1979. Contrary to many studies from mainland United States, low birth weight and single marital status were not associated with increased risk of child abuse/neglect. Single marital status in Hawaii may not be associated with increased risk because it does not have the same social and cultural connotations as it does on the mainland United States. This observation suggests a need to consider regional and cultural variations in investigating and screening for child abuse/neglect. PMID:6609172

Starbuck, G W; Krantzler, N; Forbes, K; Barnes, V

1984-04-01

336

Studying Risk Factors Associated with Human Leptospirosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression) was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA) to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0), presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02) and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73) and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67) were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still considered as neglected disease in the district. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of cases can save many lives. However, there is a need of integrated rodent control measures with great effort to increase awareness and education among subjects in controlling the disease.

Kamath, Ramachandra; Swain, Subhashisa; Pattanshetty, Sanjay; Nair, N Sreekumaran

2014-01-01

337

Determination of risk factors of neonatal pneumonia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pneumonia is an important cause of neonatal infection and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. The best way to reduce the high prevalence of pneumonia at this age group is through identification and elimination of its risk factors. This case-control study was conducted in the department of Pediatrics, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital during Nov 2007 to Nov 2008 with an aim to identify the risk factors of pneumonia. Data were collected from 100 neonates, 50 cases and 50 controls who met the predefined inclusion criteria. Results shows mean birth weight (p<0.05), inadequate antenatal care (p<0.001), normal vaginal delivery (p<0.05), home delivery (p<0.001), delivery by untrained personnel (p<0.001), neonatal resuscitation (p<0.001), intrapartum fever (p<0.01), obstetric problem of mother (p<0.001), foul smelling liquor (p<0.01), prolonged rupture of membrane (p<0.001), prolonged labour (p<0.05) were significantly associated with pneumonia. Multivariate analysis showed inadequate antenatal care (OR 168.9), home delivery (OR 13.8), intrapartum fever (OR 225.9), obstetric problem of mother (OR 33.4), requirement of resuscitation (OR 12.5), prolonged labour (OR 15.2) as significant risk factors of neonatal pneumonia. PMID:20639820

Choudhury, A M; Nargis, S; Mollah, A H; Kabir, L M; Sarkar, R N

2010-07-01

338

Risk factors for mortality in burn children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Studies about risk factors for mortality in burn children are scarce. We conducted this study to evaluate the risk factors for mortality in pediatric burn patients. We included 110 patients. Mean age was 31.5 months (range: 1 to 204). The burn surface was between 1% and 95%(median 27%) Type of burn [...] was: A or superfitial in 39 patients (36%), AB or intermediate in 19 (17%), and B or full thickness in 52 (47%). Inhalatory injury was present in 52 patients (47%). Invasive procedures were: venous catheter, 90 patients (82%), arterial catheter, 83patients (75.5%), urinary catheter, 86 patients (78%), and mechanical ventilation, 75 patients (68%). In 84 patients, 128 infections were diagnosed. in 53 cases (48%). Multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acynetobacter baumannii were the most common organisms isolated. The median length of hospital stay was 33 days (r: 8-139 days). Seventeen patients (15%) died and 14 of them of infection-related causes. Age 40% burn surface, presence of inhalatory syndrome, use of venous catheter, arterial catheter, urinary catheter and mechanical ventilation, positive blood cultures, colistin use in documented multiresistant infections, antifungal use and graft requirement, were identified as risks factors for mortality in the univariate analysis. By multivariate analysis: age

Maria Teresa, Rosanova; Daniel, Stamboulian; Roberto, Lede.

339

Selection bias in a population survey with registry linkage: potential effect on socioeconomic gradient in cardiovascular risk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Non-participation in population studies is likely to be a source of bias in many types of epidemiologic studies, including those describing social disparities in health. The objective of this paper is to present a non-attendance analysis evaluating the possible impact of selection bias, when investigating the association between education level and cardiovascular risk factors. Data from the INTERGENE research programme including 3,610 randomly selected individuals aged 25?...

2010-01-01

340

Individual/neighborhood social factors and blood pressure in the RECORD Cohort Study: which risk factors explain the associations?  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have started to suggest that, beyond effects of individual socioeconomic profiles, socioeconomic characteristics of residential neighborhoods are independently associated with blood pressure. However, mechanisms involved in these associations remain unknown. To distinguish between different mechanisms, we investigated whether specific risk factors of hypertension (physical inactivity, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, and resting heart rate) intervene as mediators in the associations between individual or neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics and systolic blood pressure. We relied on data from the RECORD Cohort Study (Residential Environment and CORonary heart Disease) on 5941 participants recruited in 2007-2008, aged 30 to 79 years, residing in 1824 neighborhoods in the Paris metropolitan area. Systolic blood pressure increased independently and regularly with both decreasing individual education and decreasing residential neighborhood education. Body mass index/waist circumference and resting heart rate mediated an appreciable share of the associations between education and blood pressure and, adding validity to the finding, were the 2 most significant mediators for the effects of both individual education and neighborhood education. We found that 52% (95% CI: 25% to 79%) of the association between neighborhood education and blood pressure was mediated by body mass index/waist circumference and 20% (95% CI: 5% to 36%) by resting heart rate. Future research will have to clarify the exact mechanisms through which body weight and shape and resting heart rate intervene as mediators in the associations between individual/neighborhood education and blood pressure. PMID:20100998

Chaix, Basile; Bean, Kathy; Leal, Cinira; Thomas, Frédérique; Havard, Sabrina; Evans, David; Jégo, Bertrand; Pannier, Bruno

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
341

Socioeconomic Forecasting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of the REMI Policy Insight+ model in socioeconomic forecasting and economic impact analysis of transportation projects was assessed. The REMI PI+ model is consistent with the state of the practice in forecasting and impact analysis. REMI PI+, lik...

J. D. Fricker J. W. Longley K. T. McNamara Y. Xiong

2012-01-01

342

Methodological Approaches concerning Steady Socio-Economic Development of City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The urgent for today problem of socio-economic development of cities of Ukraine is explored there. Modeling is the methodological basis of research.On the basis of the detailed analysis of works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of socio-economic development there has been defined basic types of models (linear, partial improvement, multiple-line, actor, structural, generalized the developments in relation to territorial development, to which in particular belong: analysis of functional-spatial development of city, forecasts of socio-economic development of region with the use of complex simulation model, automated system which provides decision support concerning the socio-economic development of city, ground of instrumental decision modeling of dynamics of difficult economic systems. In addition, there has been studied the advantages and disadvantages of application of unclear mathematical decision models in the socio-economic development of city.For the modeling of the socio-economic development of cities there has been suggested to take into account the specific features, which will allow to develop an effective model of provision of socio-economic development of city, which would combine the possible variants of research methods, program modules and variants of calculations which will be utilized for the analysis of socio-economic development of city; this model would take into account the risks, administrative decisions and influence of factors of internal and external environment.

A. Berezhna

2010-12-01

343

Health, cultural and socioeconomic factors related to self-rated health of long-term jewish residents, immigrants, and arab women in midlife in Israel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Self-rated health (SRH) has been found to predict future health, yet its importance is unique in the information it captures, beyond more objective measures. This information can include psychosocial and cultural factors that can be important in understanding women's health. Our goal was to test whether long-term Jewish residents (LTJR), immigrant, and Arab women differed in their SRH, whether these differences were maintained after controlling for indicators of health status, and, if so, whether the differences among the three groups reflected psychosocial or socioeconomic factors. A nationally representative sample of 814 women in Israel aged 45-64 years was interviewed (between June 2004 and March 2006) regarding socio-demographics, physical health, health behaviors, and psychosocial aspects. Both immigrant and Arab women reported poorer SRH, physical and mental health, and socioeconomic status. Differences between Arab women and LTJR were mostly explained by differences in health measures (e.g., medications and symptoms) and psychosocial measures (e.g., caregiving load and depressive symptoms) and were eliminated when socioeconomic measures were added to the multiple regression models. Differences in SRH between immigrants and LTJR remained after multiple adjustments, suggesting that they reflected unmeasured cultural factors. Even with universal healthcare coverage in a small country (i.e., with minimal financial and geographical barriers to healthcare) minority groups' health suffers in relation to their socioeconomic and life circumstances. PMID:24791665

Benyamini, Yael; Boyko, Valentina; Blumstein, Tzvia; Lerner-Geva, Liat

2014-07-01

344

Prevalence of risk factors for fractures and use of DXA scanning in Danish women. A regional population-based study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To determine the relationship between risk factors and use of DXA scans. Our study showed a relatively high use of DXA in low-risk women and the relatively low coverage in women with multiple risk factors. Moreover, distance to DXA clinics, age, and socio-economic factors are associated with the use of DXA. INTRODUCTION: To determine the relationship between risk factors for fracture and use of DXA scans in Danish women in relation to distance to DXA clinics and socio-economic factors. METHODS: From the Danish National Civil Register we randomly selected 5,000 women aged 40-90 years living in the region of Southern Denmark to receive a mailed questionnaire concerning risk factors for fractures. RESULTS: The respondents rate was 84% and 77% of the invited population were available for analysis. A total of 10.3% of the women without risk factors and only 36% of the women with three or more risk factors had a history of DXA. The likelihood of a history of DXA was higher with increasing FRAX() 10-year risk; i.e.,8.7% and 30.2% in patients with a 10-year fracture risk of 0-14.9% and 25-100%, respectively. In women with less than 10 km to nearest DXA facility, 20.2% had a history of DXA, while 11.5% of those with more than 40 km to the nearest scanner had a history of DXA. Logistic regression analysis showed that distance, fracture risk, oral glucocorticoids, low-energy fracture, conditions associated with secondary osteoporosis, low BMI, history of falls, age 65-79 years, spouse status, and income were significantly associated with having a history of DXA. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a relatively high use of DXA in low-risk women and the relatively low coverage in women with multiple risk factors. Moreover, distance to DXA clinics, age, and a number of socio-economic factors are associated with the use of DXA.

Rubin, Kathrine Hass; Abrahamsen, B

2011-01-01

345

Oral mucosa alterations in a socioeconomically deprived region: prevalence and associated factors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with oral mucosa alterations in patients from Vale do Jequiti-nhonha, Brazil. The sample consisted of 511 patients of both genders. Questionnaires were used to obtain information about patient gender, age, race, systemic disease stat [...] e, medication use, cigarette use and alcohol consumption. Physical examinations were then performed to identify lesions of the oral mucosa. Descriptive analyses, Chi-squared tests and logistic regressions were then used to analyze the results (p

Raquel Gonçalves, Vieira-Andrade; Flávia de Faria, Zuquim Guimarães; Charlles da Silva, Vieira; Sarah Teixeira Carvalho, Freire; Maria Letícia, Ramos-Jorge; Anacélia Mendes, Fernandes.

346

Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus & associated risk factors at a tertiary care hospital in Haryana  

Science.gov (United States)

Background & objectives: Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is known to vary widely depending on the region of the country, dietary habits, and socio-economic status. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of GDM and risk factors associated with it, in women attending an antenatal care (ANC) clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Haryana. Methods: This study enrolled women, with their estimated gestational age between 24th and 28th week, attending antenatal care (ANC) clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Rohtak. After informing, women who consented to participate were given a standardized 2-h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A proforma containing general information on demographic characteristics, socio-economic status, education level, parity, family history of diabetes and/or hypertension and past history of GDM was filled up. American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria for 75 g 2-h OGTT was used for diagnosing GDM. Results: A total of 607 women participated in the study and GDM was diagnosed in 43 (7.1%) women. A single abnormal value was observed in additional 66 (10.87%) women. On bivariate analysis risk factors found to be significantly associated with GDM were age, educational level, socio-economic status, pre-pregnancy weight and BMI, weight gain, acanthosis nigricans, family history of diabetes or hypertension and past history of GDM but on multivariate analysis only upper middle class and presence of acanthosis nigricans were found to be significantly associated with GDM. Interpretation & conclusions: The prevalence of GDM was found to be 7.1 per cent in a tertiary care hospital in Haryana. Appropriate interventions are required for control and risk factor modifications.

Rajput, Rajesh; Yadav, Yogesh; Nanda, Smiti; Rajput, Meena

2013-01-01

347

Allergy: a risk factor for suicide?  

Science.gov (United States)

The rates of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance (suicide risk factors) are greater in patients with allergic rhinitis than in the general population. The rate of allergy is also greater in patients with depression. Preliminary data suggest that patients with a history of allergy may have an increased rate of suicide. Clinicians should actively inquire to diagnose allergy in patients with depression and depression in patients with allergy. Spring peaks of suicide are highly replicated, but their origin is poorly understood. Preliminary epidemiologic data suggest that seasonal spring peaks in aeroallergens are associated with seasonal spring peaks in suicide. Our research in Brown Norway rats demonstrates that sensitization and exposure to aeroallergens induces anxiety-like and aggressive behaviors as well as allergy-related helper T-cell type 2 (Th2) cytokine gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. Thus, it is possible that sensitization and exposure to aeroallergens, which peak in spring, may be conducive to seasonal exacerbation of suicide risk factors such as anxiety, depression, hostility/aggression, and sleep disturbance. Connecting allergy with suicide and suicide risk factors adds to previous neurologic literature connecting allergy with migraines and seizure disorders. Our recent report of Th2 (allergy-mediating) cytokine expression in the orbitofrontal cortex of suicide victims should lead to future studies to test the hypothesis that mediators of allergic inflammation in the nasal cavities may result in Th2 cytokine expression in the brain, influencing affect and behavioral modulation. Certain medications used to treat allergy can exacerbate suicide risk factors, potentially worsening suicide risk and even triggering suicide. Systemic (but not topical) corticosteroids have been associated with manic and depressive episodes and mixed mood states. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration started investigating the possibility that montelukast may trigger suicide. Although this association requires further exploration and confirmation, clinicians should err on the side of caution, inquiring about past suicide attempts; hopelessness; reasons for living; and suicidal ideation, intent, or plan; and referring the patient to a mental health professional for evaluation if appropriate. PMID:18782509

Postolache, Teodor T; Komarow, Hirsh; Tonelli, Leonardo H

2008-09-01

348

[Smoking as a risk factor in arteriopathies].  

Science.gov (United States)

Tobacco use represents the most powerful chemical addiction, which has been defined as "the inability to discontinue smoking" and it is one of the main cardiovascular risk factors. It produces alterations in platelet activity, blood viscosity and vascular wall and clinical signs related to the different vascular districts. The probability of carotid lesions increases up to 32% for 10 years/smoking and the progression of the disease is proportional to tobacco consumption; on the contrary smoking cessation may be helpful. Furthermore the risk of PAOD increases 2 to 9-fold, irrespective the number of cigarettes and these modify significantly the long-term patency of the femoro-distal reconstructions (57% vs 78% at 2 years). Very impressive indeed the data concerning major amputations (21% vs 2%) and the mortality rate for cardiovascular diseases (83% vs 33%) between smokers and non-smokers. For the abdominal aortic aneurysm too smoking represents the main independent risk factor and the mortality rate rises 6 to 25-fold compared to the normal population. The conclusions are obvious and can be shortly summarized in the following sentence: "Stop smoking and keep walking". PMID:8090297

Simoni, G; Baiardi, A; Galleano, R; Bonalumi, U; Mondini, G; Bachi, V

1994-05-01

349

Self-reporting and measurement of body mass index in adolescents: refusals and validity, and the possible role of socioeconomic and health-related factors.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Body mass index assessment using self-reported height and weight (BMIsr) can encounter refusals and under/over-reporting while for assessment with measured data (BMIm) refusals can be more frequent. This could relate to socioeconomic and health-related factors. We explored these issues by investigating numerous potential factors: gender, age, family structure, father's occupation, income, physical/sports activity, subjective weight perception, school performance, unhealthy behavio...

2013-01-01

350

Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for project risk management process, especially for the beginning phases which require identification of risk factors.

Andrzej Partyka

2009-09-01

351

Splash!: a prospective birth cohort study of the impact of environmental, social and family-level influences on child oral health and obesity related risk factors and outcomes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Dental caries (decay) is the most prevalent disease of childhood. It is often left untreated and can impact negatively on general health, and physical, developmental, social and learning outcomes. Similar to other health issues, the greatest burden of dental caries is seen in those of low socio-economic position. In addition, a number of diet-related risk factors for dental caries are shared risk factors for the development of childhood obesity. These incl...

de Silva-Sanigorski Andrea M; Waters Elizabeth; Calache Hanny; Smith Michael; Gold Lisa; Gussy Mark; Scott Anthony; Lacy Kathleen; Virgo-Milton Monica

2011-01-01

352

The impact of socio-economic factors on small business success  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Small enterprises play a vital role in economic development as they can provide the economy with efficiency, innovation, competition and employment. Entrepreneurs are responsible for the success of their businesses and have to face up with definite challenges in doing so. To know what constitute critical determinants of small business success data were collected from 60 randomly selected respondents in the Dera Ismail Khan district, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan, who were administered with structured questionnaires. Regression analyses of the findings showed the positive and significant impact factors of investment, entrepreneurial experience, business profile and culture with R2=0.638 and F= 11.222. The provision of ample opportunities to develop skills for business enhancement is suggested as the rational way forward.

Muhammad Amjad Saleem

2012-01-01

353

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Rural Kazakh Population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs have remained a leading cause of mortality in Kazakhstan. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the prevalence of CVD risk factors (RFs among the Kazakh population, and their ability to identify those CVD RFs. We interviewed 611 subjects aged 25–65 years using a structured self-administered questionnaire from April to July, 2008. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated to determine associations between CVD RFs and its correlations, such as socioeconomic status and level of knowledge of CVD RFs through a logistic regression model. Mean age of the respondents was 43.2 years, and 49.8% were male. Tobacco smoking, overweight (body mass index ? 25.0, hypertension (systolic blood pressure ? 140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure ??? 90 mm Hg, and alcohol drinking were identified as important CVD RFs. Risk of overweight was greatest among the population aged 45–54 years, with an OR of 5.3 (95% CI=3.1–9.2. The overweight population was significantly associated with higher income (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1–2.4 and knowledge of RF (OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.2–2.4, with p<0.05. Only 25.0% of respondents had good knowledge about CVD RFs. Alcohol drinking was inversely related to the level of knowledge about CVD RFs (OR=0.7, 95% CI=0.5–0.9. We concluded that CVD RFs were very high among the Kazakh population, although their level of knowledge to identify those RFs was very low. Increasing knowledge about CVD RFs through awareness campaign activities can reduce CVD-related morbidity and mortality and ensure a better quality of life for the Kazakh population.

GULNARA KULKAYEVA

2012-02-01

354

Cyanotoxins: New health risk factor in Serbia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are responsible for poisoning numerous cases of livestock and other animals, but sometimes they induce serious problems in humans. Mass occurrence and blooms of cyanobacteria were studied in rivers, canals, lakes, and accu­mulations that had been examined in Serbia during period 1980-2002. Because of massive blooming of cyanobacteria, when they produce cyanotoxins, which could be responsible for poisoning, and damage of organs, studies are steered to better understanding cyanotoxins effects on human health. The investigation on microcystins, as one of many cyanotoxins, is increas­ing due to the related ecological and public health risks. There is evidence that microcystins have a tumor promoting activity and microcystin-LRcould be tumor initiator and possibly cancerogenic to humans. Epidemiological studies have suggested that there is connection between primary liver cancer (PLC and microcystins, as one of risk factor for high incidence rate of PLC in Serbia.

Jukovi? Mirela F.

2008-01-01

355

Study of Association of Some Risk Factors & Cervical Dysplasia/Cancer among Rural Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: At the beginning of this century, cancer was 6th cause of death in industrialized countries, today it is the second leading cause of death. Cervical cancer contributes about 25-30% of all cancer cases. Various other risk factors for cervical cancer are early age at marriage, multiparty with poor birth spacing between pregnancies, poor personal hygiene are common among the rural women, so this study is carried out to study the association of these risk factors with cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Aims and Objectives: 1 To study the association of these risk factors with cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer 2 To give recommendations based on study. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried among the rural women in Beed district .All the married women undergoing pap smear were interviewed and pretested proforma was filled and pap smear were taken. Results: out of total 462 women 399 (86.4% were married before 17 yr of age and prevalence of dysplasia is about 19.04%among the women married before 17yrs. Of age and about 7.94 among the women married after 17yr of age. of the total 81 women 74 had their I st child before 20yrs of age,26.31% women had more than four children and dysplasia was common in lower socioeconomic group. Conclusion: present study highlights the significant association between risk factors so there is need to reduce these risk factors among rural women.

Mayavati Mhaske, Jawadekar S J, Saundale S G

2011-01-01

356

Assessing risk factors for periodontitis using regression  

Science.gov (United States)

Multivariate statistical analysis is indispensable to assess the associations and interactions between different factors and the risk of periodontitis. Among others, regression analysis is a statistical technique widely used in healthcare to investigate and model the relationship between variables. In our work we study the impact of socio-demographic, medical and behavioral factors on periodontal health. Using regression, linear and logistic models, we can assess the relevance, as risk factors for periodontitis disease, of the following independent variables (IVs): Age, Gender, Diabetic Status, Education, Smoking status and Plaque Index. The multiple linear regression analysis model was built to evaluate the influence of IVs on mean Attachment Loss (AL). Thus, the regression coefficients along with respective p-values will be obtained as well as the respective p-values from the significance tests. The classification of a case (individual) adopted in the logistic model was the extent of the destruction of periodontal tissues defined by an Attachment Loss greater than or equal to 4 mm in 25% (AL>=4mm/>=25%) of sites surveyed. The association measures include the Odds Ratios together with the correspondent 95% confidence intervals.

Lobo Pereira, J. A.; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Oliveira, Teresa

2013-10-01

357

Risk factors affecting pancreatic fistulas after pancreaticoduodenectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the risk factors of pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 172 consecutive patients who had undergone pancreatico-duodenectomy at Inha University Hospital between April 1996 and March 2006. We analyzed the pancreatic fistula rate according to the clinical characteristics, the pathologic and laboratory findings, and the anastomotic methods.RESULTS: The incidence of developing pancreatic fistulas in patients older than 60 years of age was 21.7% (25/115, while the incidence was 8.8% (5/57 for younger patients; the difference was significant (P = 0.03. Patients with a dilated pancreatic duct had a lower rate of post-operative pancreatic fistulas than patients with a non-dilated duct (P = 0.001. Other factors, including clinical features, anastomotic methods, and pathologic diagnosis, did not show any statistical difference.CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that pancreatic fistulas are related to age and a dilated pancreatic duct. The surgeon must take these risk factors into consideration when performing a pancre-aticoduodenectomy.

Yun-Mee Choe, Keon-Young Lee, Cheong-Ah Oh, Joung-Bum Lee, Sun Keun Choi, Yoon-Seok Hur, Sei-Joong Kim, Young Up Cho, Seung-Ik Ahn, Kee-Chun Hong, Seok-Hwan Shin, Kyung-Rae Kim

2008-12-01

358

Frequency and risk factors of the use of psychoactive substances among the young  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background/Aim. Socio-economic changes that occurred in the wake of dismemberment of former Yugoslavia resulted in the appearance of social pathology, one of which was the increase in the use of psychoactive substances. The over whole epidemiological research in the use of psychoactive substances has not been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to establish the type and form of the use of psychoactive substances considering sex and age, as well as risk factors for the use of psychoact...

Pavlovi? Zorana; Jakovljevi? Branko

2008-01-01

359

A characterization of the Estonian social security regime through impact on poverty risk factors  

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The purpose of the thesis is to provide a critical analysis of the regime of social security in current-day Estonia in terms of its poverty-alleviating potential and effect on the significant income disparities between the winners and losers of market-liberalism. The analysis is carried out in three steps. The first step determines risk factors for poverty among a household’s socio-economic characteristics in a hypothetical natural market situation. An overview of the dynamics of poverty in...

Peil, Nele

2010-01-01

360

Preoperative risk factors for postoperative delirium.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this article was to estimate the incidence of delirium in a sample of patients undergoing elective surgery and to identify the preoperative factors most closely associated with developing this complication. Consecutive patients (n=500) underwent a full preoperative medical evaluation including assessment of cognitive and functional status. Daily evaluation on postoperative days 1 through 4 included medical record review and direct standardized patient interviews. Logistic regression was used to explore the associations between preoperative factors and postoperative delirium. Delirium was detected in 57 (11.4%) patients. Univariate factors associated with delirium included age> or =70 years (RR=3.1 [1.75,5.55]), preexisting cognitive impairment (RR=3.1 [1.73, 5.43]), greater preoperative functional limitations (RR=1.57 [1.27, 1.94]), and a history of prior delirium (RR 4.1 [1.98 to 8.27]. Adjusting for other factors, previous delirium (OR=4.08 [1.85, 9.0]), age> or =70 years (OR=3.2 [1.6, 6.0], and preexisting cognitive impairment (OR=2.16 [1.15, 4.0] remained predictive of delirium. Patients' perceptions that alcohol had affected their health (OR=6.53 [1.58 to 28.1]) and use of narcotic analgesics just prior to admission (OR=2.7 [1.37 to 5.3]) were also significantly associated with delirium postoperatively. Several easily obtained preoperative clinical factors can be used to identify patients at risk for postoperative delirium. This approach, when combined with specialized delirium teams using established guidelines, may be more effective in targeting patients at risk, thus reducing the number of episodes and days of delirium. PMID:11313076

Litaker, D; Locala, J; Franco, K; Bronson, D L; Tannous, Z

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

What Are the Risk Factors for Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia?  

Science.gov (United States)

... a person more likely to develop Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (WM). But most people with these risk factors never develop the disease. Even if a patient with WM does have one or more risk factors, it ...

362

Risk factors associated with craniosynostosis : a case control study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Craniosynostosis is a relatively common congenital abnormality. The underlying etiology and most probable risk factors of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis are unknown. We conducted a study to identify the risk factors for craniosynostosis.

Ardalan, Maryam; H.Rafati, Ali

2012-01-01

363

Risk Factors in ERP Implementation Projects for Process Oriented  

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This paper present review and analysis of risk factors, which could affect successful implementation of ERP system, for project performed in project oriented organizations. Presented risk breakdown structure and the list of common risk factors, are well-suited for ERP implementation projects. Considered risk categories allow for complex risk analysis. Additionally, mapping of risk importance for particular implementation phases is presented. Making presented model an important input for proje...

2009-01-01

364

Age as a risk factor for suicide  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. World Health Organization (WHO in its plan for health policy until the year 2010, has taken reduction of risk factors of suicide as its 12th aim. Because of the fact that the problem of suicide is also significant health problem in our society, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of life period as a risk factor for suicide in the area of the town of Kragujevac. Methods. In total 211 persons, both sexes, aged between 17 and 91 years, from the area of the town of Kragujevac, who had been committed a suicide during the period from 1996 to 2005, were included in a retrospective study. This study included the analysis of: conditions prior to suicide, locations of suicide, motives for suicide, the ways of committing suicide. For statistical analysis ?2 test and univariante regression model were used. Results. Average rate of suicide, in analyzed period, moved from 8.7 to 27 with a mean value of 14.6± 6.9. Suicide rates were the lowest in the age group from 15 to 24 years and the highest in the age group above 65 years (p < 0.05. Among the presuicidal conditions, within any age groups the presence of mental disease dominated as a factor for suicide, but within the oldest one in which organic diseases prevailed as a factor for suicide (p < 0.05. Statistically significant fact is that a house (flat was the main location for committing suicide in any age groups. Motives for suicide were significantly different within the groups and they were mostly unknown. Committing suicide by hanging was the most frequent way of suicide among any age groups. Univariant regression analysis failed to show any impact of age on the analyzed factors. Conclusion. Because of the fact that an average rate of suicide in elderly increases it is obligatory to primarily determine risk factors for suicide among people more than 65 years of age. Physicians should play the most important role in that.

Koci? Sanja S.

2008-01-01

365

Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: being over 20 years of age (aOR 2.5; 95%CI 1.1, 5.4, defecating in the open air (or river (aOR 4.5; 95% CI 1.4, 14.4 and knowing someone who travelled to a cholera affected area (aOR 4.1; 95%CI 1.6, 10.7; while the availability of soap for handwashing at home was protective (aOR 0.41; 95%CI 0.19, 0.87. Those reporting access to a piped water distribution system in the home were twice as likely to report the availability of soap for handwashing. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test were 72% (95% CI 47–90 and 71% (95%CI 44–90%. Conclusions Improving population access to the piped water distribution system and sanitation will likely reduce transmission by enabling enhanced hygiene and limiting the contamination of water sources. The One step V. cholerae O1/O139 Antigen Test is of limited utility for clinical decision making in a hospital setting with access to traditional laboratory methods. Settlement dwellers and mobile populations of all age groups should be targeted for interventions in Papua New Guinea.

Rosewell Alexander

2012-11-01

366

Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Adoption of Soya Bean Production Technologies in Takum Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available The study examined socio-economic factors affecting the adoption of soya bean production technologies in Takum Local Government Area of Taraba State, Nigeria. Interview schedules were administered to 180 respondents which were analyzed by the use of descriptive (frequencies and percentages and inferential (multiple regression analysis statistics. The study revealed that majority of the respondents adopted the recommended technologies with respect to improved seeds, planting time and harvesting time representing 52.20%, 50.70% and 68.90% respectively. While on the other hand, majority of the respondents did not adopt the recommended technologies with regards to fertilizer application, spacing, weeding frequency and the use of chemicals with 52.20%, 53.30%, 61.10% and 67.80% respectively. The regression analysis revealed that educational level, farming experience and sources of information had significantly and positively influenced the adoption of improved soya bean production technologies by respondents. The major constraints to adoption of soya bean production technologies by respondents were poor extension services (75.60% and lack of credit facilities (72.20%. The study recommends that agricultural extension services should adequately be provided with input support services in the form of credit facilities among others.

Mustapha, S. B.

2012-06-01

367

Grape products and cardiovascular disease risk factors  

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Many in vivo trials have evaluated the effects of grape products on different CVD risk factors. Most published studies have dealt with some specific aspects of mechanisms of grape flavonoid action or have focused only on one product, such as wine. The aim of the present paper is to review trials dealing with grape products and CVD published during the last 13 years (seventy-five trials). Polyphenols, alcohol and dietary fibre are the main constituents of the tested products. In animal and hum...

Pe?rez Jime?nez, Jara; Saura Calixto, Fulgencio D.

2008-01-01