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Sample records for socioeconomic risk factors

  1. When does cardiovascular risk start? Past and present socioeconomic circumstances and risk factors in adulthood

    Brunner, E; Shipley, M J; Blane, D.; Smith, G.D.; Marmot, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To compare associations of childhood and adult socioeconomic position with cardiovascular risk factors measured in adulthood. To estimate the effects of adult socioeconomic position after adjustment for childhood circumstances. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey, using the relative index of inequality method to compare socioeconomic differences at different life stages. SETTING: The Whitehall II longitudinal study of men and women employed in London offices of the Civil S...

  2. School-related risk factors for drunkenness among adolescents: risk factors differ between socio-economic groups

    Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjørn E; Due, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine, separately for boys and girls, whether socio-economic differences in drunkenness exist in adolescence, whether the level of exposure to school-related risk factors differ between socio-economic groups, and whether the relative contribution of school-related risk factors to...... drunkenness differ between socio-economic groups. METHODS: The study population was a random sample of 1453 Danish 15-year-old students. The outcome measure was drunkenness 10 times or more, as a lifetime measure. Predictor variables comprised five aspects of well-being at school. Socio-economic position (SEP......) was measured by parental occupation. RESULTS: Among girls, exposures to school-related risk factors were more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups. Poor school satisfaction was associated with drunkenness among girls from high SEP, odds ratio (OR) = 2.98 (0.73-12.16). Among boys from high SEP...

  3. Socioeconomic Factors in Childhood and the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis

    Nielsen, N. M.; Jorgensen, K. T.; Bager, P.; Stenager, E.; Pedersen, B. V.; Hjalgrim, H.; Koch-Henriksen, N.; Frisch, M.

    2013-01-01

    In a national cohort comprising 1.5 million Danes born from 1966 to 1992, we studied the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) from 1981 to 2007 using information about household income and parental educational levels at the persons 15th...... with children of mothers with a basic education (P for trend 0.02). Results were practically unchanged in an analysis restricted to persons aged 1529 years, among whom the possible effect of own SES on MS risk is considered limited. Overall, SES in childhood seems of no major importance for the...

  4. Socio-economic & household risk factors of malaria in tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh, central India

    Ravendra K Sharma; Singh, Mrigendra P; Saha, Kalyan B.; Bharti, Praveen K.; Jain, Vidhan; Singh, P. P.; Silawat, Nipun; Patel, R.; Hussain, M.; Chand, S.K.; Pandey, Arvind; Singh, Neeru

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Malaria is a major public health problem in many States of the country, particularly, in Madhya Pradesh where both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum are endemic. Although many studies have been conducted to investigate risk factors for malaria, but only a few have examined household and socio-economic risk factors. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to explore the relationship of different socio-demographic, socio-economic and behavioural risk factors with ...

  5. Effects of socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors on spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth

    Joseph, Ks; FAHEY, John; Shankardass, Ketan; Allen, Victoria M; O’Campo, Patricia; Dodds, Linda; Liston, Robert M; Allen, Alexander C

    2014-01-01

    Background The literature shows a variable and inconsistent relationship between socioeconomic position and preterm birth. We examined risk factors for spontaneous and iatrogenic preterm birth, with a focus on socioeconomic position and clinical risk factors, in order to explain the observed inconsistency. Methods We carried out a retrospective population-based cohort study of all singleton deliveries in Nova Scotia from 1988 to 2003. Data were obtained from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Da...

  6. Socioeconomic factors associated with risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in Europe.

    Conway, D I

    2010-02-01

    In the European Union, there are 180,000 new cases of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer cases per year--more than half of whom will die of the disease. Socioeconomic inequalities in UADT cancer incidence are recognised across Europe. We aimed to assess the components of socioeconomic risk both independently and through their influence on the known behavioural risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption and diet.

  7. Oral-Dental Health Problems and Related Risk Factors Among Low Socio-Economic Status Students

    Deniz Kocoglu

    2014-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Poor socio-economic situation is considered a major risk for dental health however parents with low education, not having toothbrush and not to consume milk per day were risk factors for dental health negatively affect. Providing toothbrush for students with low socioeconomic status and distribution of milk in school can decrease the problems of in terms of dental health for this group [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(6.000: 479-486

  8. Relationships between Family Levels of Socioeconomic Status and Distribution of Breast Cancer Risk Factors

    Pegah Mohaghegh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Not only the expand development of knowledge for reducing risk factors, but also the improvement in early diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and socioeconomic inequalities could affect cancer incidence, diagnosis stage, and mortality. The aim of this study was investigation the relationships between family levels of socioeconomic status and distribution of breast cancer risk factors. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study has conducted on 526 patients who were suffering from breast cancer, and have registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2008 to December 2013. A reliable and valid questionnaire about family levels of socioeconomic status has filled by interviewing the patients via phone. For analyzing the data, Multinomial logistic regression, Kendal tau-b correlation coefficient and Contingency Coefficient tests have executed by SPSS19. Results: The mean age of the patients was 48.30 (SD=11.41. According to the results of this study, there was a significant relationship between family socioeconomic status and patient's age at diagnosis of breast cancer (p value 0.001. In the multiple logistic regressions, the relationship between excellent socioeconomic status and number of abortions was significant (p value> 0.007. Furthermore, the relationships between moderate and good socioeconomic statuses and smoking were significant (p value=0.05 and p value=0.02, respectively. Conclusion: The results have indicated that among those patients having better socioeconomic status, age at cancer diagnosis, number of pregnancies and duration of breast feeding was lower, and then number of abortions was more than the others. According to the results of this study, it was really important to focus on family socioeconomic status as a critical and effective variable on breast cancer risk factors among the Iranian women.

  9. Risk factors for suicidal attempts among lower socioeconomic rural population of Telangana region

    Sandeep Krishna Murthy Kosaraju; Lakshmi Naresh Vadlamani; Mohammed Shakeel Mohammed Bashir; Lokesh Kumar Kalasapati; G. L. V. Chalapathi Rao; G Prasad Rao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicide is an act of intentionally causing one′s own death. Number of suicidal incidences is proportional to attempted suicide cases hence if attempt cases are reduced, number of suicidal death can also be decreased and for that purpose risk factors should be identified and reduced. Therefore, this study is planned to identify risk factors among lower socioeconomic rural population of surrounding areas of Hyderabad in India. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study in w...

  10. Risk Factors for Suicidal Attempts Among Lower Socioeconomic Rural Population of Telangana Region

    Kosaraju, Sandeep Krishna Murthy; Vadlamani, Lakshmi Naresh; Mohammed Bashir, Mohammed Shakeel; Kalasapati, Lokesh Kumar; Rao, G. L. V. Chalapathi; Rao, G Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Suicide is an act of intentionally causing one's own death. Number of suicidal incidences is proportional to attempted suicide cases hence if attempt cases are reduced, number of suicidal death can also be decreased and for that purpose risk factors should be identified and reduced. Therefore, this study is planned to identify risk factors among lower socioeconomic rural population of surrounding areas of Hyderabad in India. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study in w...

  11. Socioeconomic and Other Social Stressors and Biomarkers of Cardiometabolic Risk in Youth: A Systematic Review of Less Studied Risk Factors

    Slopen, Natalie Bea; Goodman, Elizabeth; Karestan C. Koenen; Kubzansky, Laura Diane

    2013-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic disadvantage and other social stressors in childhood have been linked with cardiometabolic diseases in adulthood; however the mechanisms underlying these observed associations and the timing of their emergence are unclear. The aim of this review was to evaluate research that examined relationships between socioeconomic disadvantage and other social stressors in relation to less-studied cardiometabolic risk factors among youth, including carbohydrate metabolism-relate...

  12. Socioeconomic and occupational risk factors for venous thromboembolism in Sweden: a nationwide epidemiological study.

    Zller, Bengt; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-05-01

    Our aims were to investigate possible associations between hospitalisation for venous thromboembolism (VTE) and socioeconomic and occupational factors. A nationwide database was constructed by linking Swedish census data to the Hospital Discharge Register (1990-2007). Hospital diagnoses of VTE were based on the International Classification of Diseases. Standardised incidence ratios were calculated for different socioeconomic and occupational groups. A total of 43063 individuals aged >20 years were hospitalised for VTE. Individuals with >12 years of education were at lower risk for VTE. Blue-collar workers, farmers, and non-employed individuals had higher risks for VTE, and white collar workers and professionals lower risks. In males and/or females, risks for VTE were increased for assistant nurses; farmers; miners and quarry workers; mechanics, iron and metalware workers; wood workers; food manufacture workers; packers; loaders and warehouse workers; public safety and protection workers; cooks and stewards; home helpers; building caretakers; and cleaners. Decreased risks were observed for technical, chemical, physical, and biological workers; physicians; dentists; nurses; other health and medical workers; teachers, religious, juridical, and other social science-related workers; artistic workers; clerical workers; sale agents; and fishermen, whalers and sealers. High educational level and several occupations requiring high levels of education were protective against VTE, while the risks for VTE were increased for farmers, blue-collar workers and non-employed individuals. The mechanisms are unknown but it might involve persistent psychosocial stress related to low socioeconomic and occupational status. PMID:21868069

  13. A Statistical Study of Socio-economic and Physical Risk Factors of Myocardial Infarction

    M. Alamgir

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 506 patients from various hospitals in Peshawar was examined to determine significant socio-economic and physical risk factors of Myocardial Infarction (heart attack. The factors examined were smoking (S, hypertension (H, cholesterol (C, diabetes (D, family history (F, residence (R, own a house (OH, number of dependents (ND, household income (I, obesity and lack of exercise (E. The response variable MI was binary. Therefore, logistic regression was applied (using GLIM and SPSS packages to analyze the data and to select a parsimonious model. Logistic regression models have been obtained indicating significant risk factors for both sexes, for males and for females separately. The best-selected model for both sexes is of factors S, F, D, H and C. The best-selected model for males is of factors CIFH, S, H, D, C and F, while the best-selected model for females is of factors D, H, C and F.

  14. Risk factors for suicidal attempts among lower socioeconomic rural population of Telangana region

    Sandeep Krishna Murthy Kosaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is an act of intentionally causing one′s own death. Number of suicidal incidences is proportional to attempted suicide cases hence if attempt cases are reduced, number of suicidal death can also be decreased and for that purpose risk factors should be identified and reduced. Therefore, this study is planned to identify risk factors among lower socioeconomic rural population of surrounding areas of Hyderabad in India. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study in which all the suicide attempt cases reported at Bhaskar Medical College and General Hospital were included. The study period was from January 2013 to July 2013. They were undergone a detailed psychiatric interview, including their demographic details, and complete suicide risk assessment was done using Beck′s suicide intent scale. Results: It was found that females in the age group of 20-30 years, uneducated, married and daily laborers by occupation had higher incidence of suicidal attempts. Depressive disorder is the most common associated psychiatric disorder in both the genders, followed by alcohol use related problems. Family disputes are the other major risk factors. Most common mode for attempt was organophosphorous poisoning followed by ingestion of calotropis. Conclusion: Risk of suicide attempt is almost equal in terms of medium and high category of suicide assessment scale in both genders. We suggest that all individuals with alcohol related disorders must be screened for suicidal ideation so that appropriate methods can be adopted to reduce the risk.

  15. Socioeconomic position in childhood and adult cardiovascular risk factors, vascular structure, and function: cardiovascular risk in Young Finns study

    Kivimäki, M; Davey Smith, G.; Juonala, M; Ferrie, J. E.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, L; Elovainio, M; Pulkki-Råback, L; Vahtera, J.; Leino, M.; Viikari, J. S. A.; Raitakari, O. T.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) with adult cardiovascular risk factors, vascular structure, and vascular function in a contemporary population of young adults. Design: Population based prospective cohort study with baseline assessment in 1980. Setting: Finland. Participants: 856 men and 1066 women whose childhood SEP was determined by parental occupational status (manual, lower non-manual, upper non-manual) at age 3–18 years. Mai...

  16. Socio-economic profile and risk factors among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Madurai, India: a cross sectional study

    Saleem Mohamed; Shankar Kanagasabapathy; Sabeetha Kalifulla

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study has been carried out to assess the socio-economic profile and underlying risk factors of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients registered under RNTCP programme of India and to find the differences based on their residential place. Methods: The study design was cross sectional consisting of 167 PTB patients from three DOTS centres in Madurai, Tamilnadu during August 2015. Data was collected using a questionnaire that included personal details, socio-economic and risk ...

  17. The Analysis of Socio-Economic and Demographic Factors Effecting the Risk Taking Behaviour of Individual Investors

    Sarac, Mehmet; Mehmet Burak KAHYAOGLU

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 financial crisis are quite noteworthy in terms of exposing the volatility in the risk appetite of the global markets. The instantaneous and collective movements of the investors’ risk preferences have attracted the attentions to the concept of risk, which is one of the fundamental criteria of the investment decisions. Personal characteristics, socio-economic and psychological factors determine the risk level that investors take by effecting their risk perceptions. The purpose of this...

  18. Role of socio-economic and reproductive factors in the risk of multiple sclerosis

    Magyari, Melinda

    2015-01-01

    data on social behaviour regarding educational level income and relationship stability did not indicate reverse causality. A greater likelihood to be exposed to common infections did not show any effect on the risk of MS neither in puberty nor in adulthood. Socio-economic status and lifestyle expressed...... in educational level and sanitary conditions in youth were not associated with the risk of MS....

  19. Socio-economic profile and risk factors among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Madurai, India: a cross sectional study

    Saleem Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The study has concluded that the usual epidemiological pattern of PTB has been observed in both urban and rural setup as reported by other researchers. Socio-economic status and risk factors have played a vital role for treatment success. To eradicate Tuberculosis (TB, a holistic and interdisciplinary approach would be necessary to improve the socio-economic status along with proper screening and treatment of underlying risk factors. More precise health education and proper awareness programmes have to be implemented from the grass-root level to get rid of TB. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3490-3498

  20. A low socio-economic status is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in high risk Hong Kong Chinese

    To examine whether a low socio-economic status (SES) is an additional risk factor for glucose intolerance in Hong Kong Chinese with known risk factors for glucose intolerance, a total of 2847 Chinese subjects (473 men and 2374 women) were recruited from the community for assessment. They had known risk factors for glucose intolerance including a previous history of gestational diabetes, positive family history of diabetes in first degree relatives and equivocal fasting plasma glucose concentrations between 7 and 8 mmol/l or random plasma glucose concentrations between 8 and 11 mmol/l. The 2847 subjects were classified according to their education levels and occupations: education group 1 = high school or university, group 2 = middle school, group 3 = illiterate or up to elementary school; occupational group 1 = professional or managerial, group 2 = non-manual, group 3 = manual, group 4 = unskilled, group 5 = housewife or unemployed. Different socio-economic groups were well represented in this selected population. The distribution of educational groups in this study was similar to that recorded in the 1991 Hong Kong Census. When analysed according to education levels and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma glucose concentrations. Men with the lowest education level had the highest prevalence of diabetes after age adjustment. The age-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of having diabetes was 2.3 (1.3, 4.3) in female subjects and 2.5 (1.2, 5.4) in male subjects with the lowest SES compared to subjects with the highest SES. When categorised according to occupation and after adjustment for age, women in the lowest social class had the highest prevalence of diabetes and glycaemic indexes. The age-adjusted odds ratio of having diabetes was 4.5 (1.9, 10.9) in female subjects with the lowest SES compared to those with the highest SES. The corresponding age-adjusted odds ratio in male subjects was 1.9 (0.9, 3.9) but this was not statistically significant. In conclusion, a lower socio-economic class, categorised either by occupational or educational level, was an additional risk factor for diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese who had known risk factors for glucose intolerance. These subjects should have increased priority for health education and regular diabetes screening. Our findings further emphasise the complex relationships between societal affluence, personal income and educational level

  1. Is high socioeconomic status a risk factor for multiple sclerosis? A systematic review.

    Goulden, R; Ibrahim, T; Wolfson, C

    2015-06-01

    High socioeconomic status (SES) is generally associated with better health outcomes, but some research has linked it with an increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). The evidence for this association is inconsistent and has not previously been systematically reviewed. A systematic review of cohort and case-control studies in any language was conducted looking at the association between MS and SES. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for articles in all languages published up until 23 August 2013. Twenty-one studies from 13 countries were included in the review. Heterogeneity of study settings precluded carrying out a meta-analysis, and a qualitative synthesis was performed instead. Five studies, all from more unequal countries, reported an association between high SES and MS. Thirteen studies reported no evidence of an association, and three studies reported an association with low SES. These 16 studies largely came from more egalitarian countries. The evidence for an association between high SES and increased MS risk is inconsistent but with some indication of a stronger effect in countries and time periods with higher inequality. Firm conclusions are hampered by the failure of most studies to control for other important risk factors for MS. PMID:25370720

  2. The Prevalence of Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Low Socioeconomic Use individuals in Birjand 2008 (East IRAN)

    Toba Kazemi; Mohamad Reza Rezvani; Gholam-Reza Sharifzadeh; Ali Sadri; Hamid Reza Mashraghi Moghaddam; Mahmood Hosseinzadeh Maleki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : Studying the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in low socioeconomic groups is of great importance. People who are under the supervisioin and care of Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation are the most deprived in Iran. The present survey aimed at investigating the prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors among  the citizens who are under the supervision of Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation (IKRF). Mathrials and Methods: This cross-sectional  study was done on 1008 i...

  3. Socioeconomic status and risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    Pedersen, Line Merete Blak; Jacobsen, Søren; Klarlund, Mette; Frisch, Morten

    2006-01-01

    To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association.......To examine whether markers of socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and if so, whether selected lifestyle-related factors could explain this association....

  4. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    Tamayo Teresa; Christian Herder; Rathmann Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in po...

  5. Socioeconomic status and trends in risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the Danish MONICA population, 1982-1992

    Osler, M; Gerdes, L U; Davidsen, M; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Madsen, M; Jørgensen, Torben; Schroll, M

    2000-01-01

    The decline in cardiovascular mortality in Denmark during the 1980s has been greatest in the highest socioeconomic groups of the population. This study examines whether the increased social inequality in cardiovascular mortality has been accompanied by a different trend in cardiovascular risk...... factors in different educational groups....

  6. Dynamics of Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Neglected Tropical Diseases and Malaria in an Armed Conflict

    Frst, Thomas; Raso, Giovanna; Acka, Cinthia A.; Tschannen, Andres B.; N'Goran, Elizer K.; Utzinger, Jrg

    2009-01-01

    Background Armed conflict and war are among the leading causes of disability and premature death, and there is a growing share of civilians killed or injured during armed conflicts. A major part of the civilian suffering stems from indirect effects or collateral impact such as changing risk profiles for infectious diseases. We focused on rural communities in the western part of Cte d'Ivoire, where fighting took place during the Ivorian civil war in 2002/2003, and assessed the dynamics of socioeconomic risk factors for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and malaria. Methodology The same standardized and pre-tested questionnaires were administered to the heads of 182 randomly selected households in 25 villages in the region of Man, western Cte d'Ivoire, shortly before and after the 2002/2003 armed conflict. Principal Findings There was no difference in crowding as measured by the number of individuals per sleeping room, but the inadequate sanitation infrastructure prior to the conflict further worsened, and the availability and use of protective measures against mosquito bites and accessibility to health care infrastructure deteriorated. Although the direct causal chain between these findings and the conflict are incomplete, partially explained by the very nature of working in conflict areas, the timing and procedures of the survey, other sources and anecdotal evidence point toward a relationship between an increased risk of suffering from NTDs and malaria and armed conflict. Conclusion New research is needed to deepen our understanding of the often diffuse and neglected indirect effects of armed conflict and war, which may be worse than the more obvious, direct effects. PMID:19907632

  7. Socio-economic status and lifestyle factors are associated with achalasia risk: A population-based case-control study

    Coleman, Helen G; Gray, Ronan T; Lau, Kar W; McCaughey, Conall; Coyle, Peter V; Murray, Liam J; Johnston, Brian T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between various lifestyle factors and achalasia risk. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Northern Ireland, including n = 151 achalasia cases and n = 117 age- and sex-matched controls. Lifestyle factors were assessed via a face-to-face structured interview. The association between achalasia and lifestyle factors was assessed by unconditional logistic regression, to produce odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Individuals who had low-class occupations were at the highest risk of achalasia (OR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.02-3.45), inferring that high-class occupation holders have a reduced risk of achalasia. A history of foreign travel, a lifestyle factor linked to upper socio-economic class, was also associated with a reduced risk of achalasia (OR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.35-0.99). Smoking and alcohol consumption carried significantly reduced risks of achalasia, even after adjustment for socio-economic status. The presence of pets in the house was associated with a two-fold increased risk of achalasia (OR = 2.00, 95%CI: 1.17-3.42). No childhood household factors were associated with achalasia risk. CONCLUSION: Achalasia is a disease of inequality, and individuals from low socio-economic backgrounds are at highest risk. This does not appear to be due to corresponding alcohol and smoking behaviours. An observed positive association between pet ownership and achalasia risk suggests an interaction between endotoxin and viral infection exposure in achalasia aetiology. PMID:27099443

  8. Investigating maternal risk factors as potential targets of intervention to reduce socioeconomic inequality in small for gestational age: a population-based study

    Hayward Irene; Malcoe Lorraine; Cleathero Lesley A; Janssen Patricia A; Lanphear Bruce P; Hayes Michael V; Mattman Andre; Pampalon Robert; Venners Scott A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA) might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality) in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. Methods This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver) from January 1, 2006 to September 17,...

  9. Child mental health in socioeconomically disadvantaged contexts: risk and protective factors

    Thelma Simes Matsukuraa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to identify and compare different situations of risk or protection in the socio-emotional development of children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged contexts. Seven (7 children aged eight to ten and their respective parents participated in the present survey. The children were 2nd to 5th grade students at an elementary public school in the countryside of Sao Paulo state. The subjects involved in this survey were divided into two different groups: one composed of children evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ with clinical symptoms (Group with Clinical Symptoms of Mental Health - GSC; the other group was composed of children that did not present clinical symptoms (Group with Typical Development - GDT and their parents. Two different interview scripts were used for data collection: one answered by the children and the other responded by the parents. Data analysis was based on the technique of Collective Subject Discourse (CSD. The results showed similarities and differences between the GSC and GDT groups. Regarding the similarities, all the children have rules and responsibilities, and all the parents seek assistance in the care of their children by means of social, health and educational services. Concerning the differences, children in the GSC group refer to school in a negative way and have less support from their parents in school activities. It is worth mentioning that studies of this nature can contribute to the debate on public policies and practices aimed at this population.

  10. Low socioeconomic status of the opposite sex is a risk factor for middle aged mortality

    Kopp, M.; Skrabski, A.; Kawachi, I.; Adler, N.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relations between subjective social status, and objective socioeconomic status (as measured by income and education) in relation to male/female middle aged mortality rates across 150 sub-regions in Hungary.

  11. Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis

    Geater Alan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined independent influences of contextual variables on cardiovascular risk factors in Shilin county, Yunnan province, South-west China. Methods Three villages were selected from each of the ten townships based on probability proportional to size. In each selected village, 200 individuals aged ≥ 45 years were chosen based on simple random sampling method. From 6006 individuals, information on demographic characteristics, smoking and drinking status was obtained by interview. Blood pressure, height, weight, and waist and hip girth were measured. Fasting blood sugar was measured in a 10-percent subsample. Contextual data were from official reports. Multi-level regression modelling with adjustment for individual and contextual variables was used. Results Contextual variables associated with CVD risk factors included: remoteness of village with higher blood pressure and fasting blood sugar, high proportion of Yi minority with drinking, high literacy rate with a lower rate of smoking and a lower mean waist-hip ratio, and high average income with lower systolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI but higher FBS. Conclusion While contextual SES is associated with a few CVD risk factors, villages with high level of income are worse off in fasting blood sugar. Strategies of economic development should be reviewed to avoid adverse effects on health.

  12. Differences in risk factors for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) receiving needed specialty care by socioeconomic status

    Bae Sejong; Fulda Kimberly G; Lykens Kristine A; Singh Karan P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting CSHCN's receiving needed specialty care among different socioeconomic levels. Previous literature has shown that Socioeconomic Status (SES) is a significant factor in CHSHCN receiving access to healthcare. Other literature has shown that factors of insurance, family size, race/ethnicity and sex also have effects on these children's receipt of care. However, this literature does not address whether other factors suc...

  13. Association of Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Acculturation, and Environmental Factors with Risk of Overweight Among Adolescents in California, 2003

    Joel Gittelsohn, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLittle has been published about racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of overweight among adolescents that accounts in detail for socioeconomic status, acculturation, and behavioral and environmental factors. Increased understanding of factors associated with overweight can provide a rational basis for developing interventions to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.MethodsUsing a cross-sectional analysis of data from adolescents who participated in the California Health Interview Survey 2003, we estimated the prevalence of overweight and at risk of overweight, combined as a single measure (AROW, body mass index ≥85th percentile. We used logistic regression models to examine associations between AROW and risk factors.ResultsTwenty-nine percent of California adolescents were AROW. The prevalence of AROW differed significantly by sex and race. Boys were more likely than girls to be AROW (33% vs 25%. American Indians/Pacific Islanders/others (39% were at highest risk, followed by Hispanics (37%, blacks (35%, whites (23%, and Asians (15%. For boys, older age, Hispanic or American Indian/Pacific Islander/other race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and longer residence in the United States were significantly associated with AROW. For girls, Hispanic or black race/ethnicity, lower education of parents, and poor dietary habits were significantly associated with AROW.ConclusionThe high prevalence of AROW among California adolescents in most racial/ethnic groups indicates the need for culturally specific and appropriate interventions to prevent and treat overweight.

  14. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients – risk and prognosis

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Osler, Merete; Jepsen, Peter; Krarup, Henrik; Weis, Nina; Christensen, Peer Brehm; Roed, Casper; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Obel, Niels

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection.......It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection or a prognostic factor following infection....

  15. Male Factors and socioeconomic indicators correlate with the risk of spontaneous abortion

    Olsen, Jørn; Basso, Olga; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    environmental factors by studying reproductive histories in population based cohorts. We based the study upon two cohorts. The 'abortion cohort' consisted of 55 259 women who had a hospitalised spontaneous abortion in Denmark between 1980 and 1992 and who had a subsequent non-terminated pregnancy. The 'birth......No less than 10% of clinically recognised pregnancies end as spontaneous abortions and the recurrence risk is high. Due to lack of data and appropriate study design only little is known about preventable causes of miscarriage. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of paternal and...... cohort'was based upon a 5% random sample of all women who in the same time period gave birth and subsequently had a non-terminated pregnancy (11 269 women). Data on change of partner, residence, mother's social status or occupation between the two pregnancies were linked to these two cohorts using the...

  16. Socioeconomic factors and the risk of anencephaly in a Mexican population: a case-control study.

    Blanco Muñoz, Julia; Lacasaña, Marina; Borja Aburto, Victor Hugo; Torres Sánchez, Luisa Elvira; García García, Ana María; López Carrillo, Lizbeth

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to evaluate the association between socioeconomic level (as measured by maternal education, maternal occupation, and monthly family income) and anencephaly. METHODS: The authors conducted a case-control study using data from the Epidemiological Surveillance System Register for Neural Tube Defects for three states of the Mexican Republic: Puebla, Guerrero and the State of Mexico. Mothers of 151 cases of infants born with anencephaly and mothers of 151 control ...

  17. Tracking and prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors across socio-economic classes: A longitudinal substudy of the European Youth Heart Study

    Bai Charlotte N; Andersen Lars B; Møller Niels C; Wedderkopp Niels; Kristensen Peter L; Froberg Karsten

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The highest prevalence of several cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, smoking and low physical activity level is observed in adults of low socioeconomic status. This study investigates whether tracking of body mass index and physical fitness from childhood to adolescence differs between groups of socioeconomic status. Furthermore the study investigates whether social class differences in the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness exist or deve...

  18. Cardiovascular disease risk factors among children of different socioeconomic status in Istanbul, Turkey: Directions for public health and nutrition policy

    Keskin Yasar

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES on physiological (lipid profile, obesity indices and behavioral (dietary habits, physical activity cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among primary schoolchildren in Istanbul. Design Cross sectional study. Setting One private school and two public schools from different SES districts in Istanbul. Participants 510 randomly selected children aged 12 and 13 years old (257 boys, 253 girls. Results The prevalence of overweight (15.2% and the energy intake (p Conclusion The findings of the current study revealed a coexistence of both overweight and higher energy intake in middle/ high SES children, as well as a coexistence of underweight and lower physical activity levels in low SES children. These observations should guide the public health policy in developing appropriate intervention strategies to efficiently tackle these health and social issues early in life.

  19. Adverse life events, area socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychopathology and resilience in young children: the importance of risk factors' accumulation and protective factors' specificity.

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

    2010-06-01

    Few studies on resilience in young children model risk appropriately and test theory-led hypotheses about its moderation. This study addressed both issues. Our hypothesis was that for preschool children's emotional/behavioral adjustment in the face of contextual risk protective factors should be located in the cognitive domain. Data were from the first two sweeps of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study. The final study sample was 4,748 three-year-old children clustered in 1,549 Lower layer Super Output Areas in nine strata. Contextual risk was measured at both area (with the Index of Multiple Deprivation) and family (with proximal and distal adverse life events experienced) level. Moderator variables were parenting, verbal and non-verbal ability, developmental milestones, and temperament. Multivariate multilevel models-that allowed for correlated residuals at both individual and area level-and univariate multilevel models estimated risk effects on specific and broad psychopathology. At baseline, proximal family risk, distal family risk and area risk were all associated with broad psychopathology, although the most parsimonious was the proximal family risk model. The area risk/broad psychopathology association remained significant even after family risk was controlled but not after family level socioeconomic disadvantage was controlled. The cumulative family risk was more parsimonious than the specific family risks model. Non-verbal ability moderated the effect of proximal family risk on conduct and emotional problems, and developmental milestones moderated the effect of proximal family risk on conduct problems. The findings highlight the importance of modeling contextual risk appropriately and of locating in the cognitive domain factors that buffer its effect on young children's adjustment. PMID:19820985

  20. Association of childhood and adult socioeconomic indicators with cardiovascular risk factors and its modification by age : the CARLA Study 2002-2006

    Werdan Karl; Tiller Daniel; Kluttig Alexander; Schumann Barbara; Haerting Johannes; Greiser Karin H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors is widely known, although the role of different SES indicators is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of different SES indicators for cardiovascular disease risk factors in a middle and old aged East German population. Methods Cross-sectional data of an East German population-based cohort study (1779 men and women aged 45 to 83) were used to assess th...

  1. Cumulative Socioeconomic Status Risk, Allostatic Load, and Adjustment: A Prospective Latent Profile Analysis with Contextual and Genetic Protective Factors

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Evans, Gary W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Windle, Michael; Simons, Ronald L.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The health disparities literature has identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative socioeconomic status (SES) risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental…

  2. Tracking and prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors across socio-economic classes: A longitudinal substudy of the European Youth Heart Study

    Bai Charlotte N

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highest prevalence of several cardiovascular disease risk factors including obesity, smoking and low physical activity level is observed in adults of low socioeconomic status. This study investigates whether tracking of body mass index and physical fitness from childhood to adolescence differs between groups of socioeconomic status. Furthermore the study investigates whether social class differences in the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness exist or develop within the age range from childhood to adolescence. Methods In all, 384 school children were followed for a period of six years (from third to ninth grade. Physical fitness was determined by a progressive maximal cycle ergometer test and the classification of overweight was based on body mass index cut-points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. Socioeconomic status was defined according to The International Standard Classification of Occupation scheme. Results Moderate and moderately high tracking was observed for physical fitness and body mass index, respectively. No significant difference in tracking was observed between groups of socioeconomic status. A significant social gradient was observed in both the prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness in the 14–16-year-old adolescents, whereas at the age of 8–10 years, only the prevalence of low physical fitness showed a significant inverse relation to socioeconomic status. The odds of both developing and maintaining risk during the measurement period were estimated as bigger in the group of low socioeconomic status than in the group of high socioeconomic status, although differences were significant only with respect to the odds of developing overweight. Conclusion The results indicate that the fundamental possibilities of predicting overweight and low physical fitness at an early point in time are the same for different groups of socio-economic status. Furthermore, the observed development of social inequalities in the absolute prevalence of overweight and low physical fitness underline the need for broad preventive efforts targeting children of low socioeconomic status in early childhood.

  3. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    Tamayo Teresa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of psychological factors such as traumata and childhood adversities for the future risk of type 2 diabetes or obesity is too small to draw conclusions. Thus, more population-based longitudinal studies and international standards to assess psychosocial factors are needed to clarify the mechanisms leading to the observed health disparities.

  4. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels

    A study on risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 250 male and female adult subjects 20 years of age and over, pertaining to different socio-economic levels is being conducted in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Measurements of weight, height, waist/hip ratio, blood pressure, oral glucose tolerance test, blood levels of total of cholesterol, tryglicerides, LDL and HDL-cholesterol are being obtained. Body composition is being determined by deuterium dilution and infrared spectroscopy, air displacement plethysmography, skinfold thickness and bio-electrical impedance. Physical activity by questionnaire and diet by non-consecutive multiple 24 h recalls (to account for seasonal and inter-individual variability), will provide information on lifestyle and diet. At present, analysis of 141 subjects has been completed. Preliminary results showed high levels of overweight, 55% with BMI>25, and obesity, 17% with BMI>30. Subjects with abnormal glucose levels had significantly higher weight (p<0.008), larger waist/hip ratio (p<0.003), higher % body fat (p<0.01), higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.01; p<0.009 respectively) than normal subjects, after adjusting for sex and age. Serum tryglicerides were significantly higher in obese subjects with central adiposity than non-obese subjects. Body composition by deuterium dilution was determined by infrared spectroscopy and by air displacement plethysmography in a preliminary pilot study. Finally, a physical activity questionnaire was tested in two groups of subjects with different lifestyles. (author)

  5. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adults from different socio-economic levels

    Background: Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In Northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher the in the rest of the country. Objective: To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socio-economic levels in north-west Mexico. Methods: Non probabilistic sample selection by invitation was used to recruit subjects, completing quotas by age groups, gender and socio-economic status. The study included 350 men and women, 20-84 years pertaining to low and high income groups from the city of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. All subjects were measured for body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, skinfolds, bioimpedance analysis (BIA), systolic and diastolic blood pressure SBP, DBP). Body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio were calculated. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) after a 12 hour fast was performed and blood samples were taken for analysis of insulin, leptin, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL-cholesterol and serum triglycerides. In 273 of the 350 subjects physical activity was studied by questionnaire. Activity was calculated as in categories of low, medium and high intensity and expressed as hours/day with respect to occupational and recreational activities. Physical activity level (PAL) was also calculated from the questionnaires. Body composition was investigated in more detail by air displacement plethysmography (densitometry) and by deuterium dilution in 200 subjects. Diet by 24 hour non-consecutive recalls in another sub-group of 135 male and female subjects. Statistical analysis was performed using NCSS statistical software using ANCOVA and regression procedures. Result: High levels of overweight (BMI >25) and obesity BMI>30) were found in this population group with 65 and 23.4% of them being in these categories respectively. After adjusting for sex and age, results showed that subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance levels had significantly higher weight (p0,120. In terms of body composition percent body fat by BL4 showed the best relationship to insulin sensitivity with the same index. Conclusions: Total body fat and regional fat distribution rather than body size may be a better alternative to assess risk levels for Type 2 diabetes and CVD. For population studies, this has to rely on appropriate field methods such as BIA. However, this has to be validated by recognised methodology such as deuterium dilution, DEXA or body density determinations that can provide the necessary information for specific predictive equation development. Work in Progress: Body composition by deuterium dilution determined by IR spectroscopy and plethysmography to validate BL4 are still in progress bt preliminary results show that either method can be used for validation purposes. Diet and physical activity data analysis will be completed by recruiting 50 mores subjects. Further analysis combining all possible risk indicators through multiple regression procedures are still pending as well as HOAL4 calculations. Take Home Message: The anthropometric evaluation of regional fat distribution and total body fat by BL4 might be an important field technique for type 2 diabetes and C VD risk assessment. Intervention studies that may use the findings in this study for this population would be warranted. (author)

  6. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Mexican adult from different socio-economic levels. Highlights and achievements

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are a major concern in many parts of the world. In northern Mexico, these problems have been reported to be higher than in the rest of the country. To assess the different risk factors based on body status (body composition, body size, fat distribution) and lifestyle factors (diet and physical activity) for the development of type 2 diabetes and CVD in men and women from different socioeconomic levels in north-west Mexico

  7. Differences in risk factors for children with special health care needs (CSHCN receiving needed specialty care by socioeconomic status

    Bae Sejong

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting CSHCN's receiving needed specialty care among different socioeconomic levels. Previous literature has shown that Socioeconomic Status (SES is a significant factor in CHSHCN receiving access to healthcare. Other literature has shown that factors of insurance, family size, race/ethnicity and sex also have effects on these children's receipt of care. However, this literature does not address whether other factors such as maternal education, geographic location, age, insurance type, severity of condition, or race/ethnicity have different effects on receiving needed specialty care for children in each SES level. Methods Data were obtained from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, 2000–2002. The study analyzed the survey which studies whether CHSCN who needed specialty care received it. The analysis included demographic characteristics, geographical location of household, severity of condition, and social factors. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed for SES levels defined by federal poverty level: Results For the poorest children (,199% FPL being uninsured had a strong negative effect on receiving all needed specialty care. Being Hispanic was a protective factor. Having more than one adult in the household had a positive impact on receipt of needed specialty care but a larger number of children in the family had a negative impact. For the middle income group of children (200–299% of FPL severity of condition had a strong negative association with receipt of needed specialty care. Children in highest income group (> 300% FPL were positively impacted by living in the Midwest and were negatively impacted by the mother having only some college compared to a four-year degree. Conclusion Factors affecting CSHCN receiving all needed specialty care differed among socioeconomic groups. These differences should be addressed in policy and practice. Future research should explore the CSHCN population by income groups to better serve this population

  8. Socioeconomic inequalities in risk of congenital anomaly

    Vrijheid, M; DOLK, H; STONE, D.; Abramsky, L; Alberman, E; Scott, J.

    2000-01-01

    AIMSTo investigate socioeconomic inequalities in the risk of congenital anomalies, focusing on risk of specific anomaly subgroups.?METHODSA total of 858 cases of congenital anomaly and 1764 non-malformed control births were collected between 1986 and 1993 from four UK congenital malformation registers, for the purposes of a European multicentre case control study on congenital anomaly risk near hazardous waste landfill sites. As a measure of socioeconomic status, cases ...

  9. Combining individual and ecological data to determine compositional and contextual socio-economic risk factors for suicide

    Agerbo, Esben; Sterne, J.A.; Gunnell, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    ) measures of income, marital and employment status were obtained. There were 9011 suicides and 180,220 controls. Individual-level associations with these risk factors were little changed when controlling for contextual effects. In contrast, ecological associations of increased suicide risk with declining...... area levels of employment and income and increasing proportions of people living alone were much attenuated after controlling for compositional effects. We found no consistent evidence that associations with individual-level risk factors differed depending on the areas' characteristics (cross-level...

  10. Combining individual and ecological data to determine compositional and contextual socio-economic risk factors for suicide

    Agerbo, Esben; Sterne, J.A.; Gunnell, D.J.

    ) measures of income, marital and employment status were obtained. There were 9011 suicides and 180,220 controls. Individual-level associations with these risk factors were little changed when controlling for contextual effects. In contrast, ecological associations of increased suicide risk with declining...... area levels of employment and income and increasing proportions of people living alone were much attenuated after controlling for compositional effects. We found no consistent evidence that associations with individual-level risk factors differed depending on the areas' characteristics (cross-level...

  11. Do factors in the psychosocial work environment mediate the effect of socioeconomic position on the risk of myocardial infarction? Study from the Copenhagen Centre for Prospective Population Studies

    Andersen, I; Burr, H; Kristensen, T S; Gamborg, M; Osler, M; Prescott, E; Diderichsen, Finn

    2004-01-01

    To investigate whether the effect of socioeconomic position on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by differential exposure or differential susceptibility to psychosocial work environment.......To investigate whether the effect of socioeconomic position on risk of myocardial infarction (MI) is mediated by differential exposure or differential susceptibility to psychosocial work environment....

  12. Socioeconomic status and trends in risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in the Danish MONICA population, 1982-1992

    Osler, M; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Davidsen, Mette; Brønnum-Hansen, H; Madsen, M; Jørgensen, Torben; Schroll, M

    2000-01-01

    cardiovascular risk factors in different educational groups. DESIGN: Data from three cross sectional WHO MONICA surveys conducted in 1982-84, 1987, and 1991-92, were analysed to estimate trends in biological (weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure, and serum lipids) and behavioural (smoking, physical...... activity during leisure, and eating habits) risk factors in relation to educational status. SETTING: County of Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 6695 Danish men and women of ages 30, 40, 50, and 60 years. MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking and heavy smoking decreased during the study but only in the...... most educated groups. In fact, the prevalence of heavy smoking increased in the least educated women. There was no significant interaction for the remaining biological and behavioural risk factors between time of examination and educational level, indicating that the trend was the same in the different...

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in risk factors for non communicable diseases in low-income and middle-income countries: results from the World Health Survey

    Hosseinpoor Ahmad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monitoring inequalities in non communicable disease risk factor prevalence can help to inform and target effective interventions. The prevalence of current daily smoking, low fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and heavy episodic alcohol drinking were quantified and compared across wealth and education levels in low- and middle-income country groups. Methods This study included self-reported data from 232,056 adult participants in 48 countries, derived from the 20022004 World Health Survey. Data were stratified by sex and low- or middle-income country status. The main outcome measurements were risk factor prevalence rates reported by wealth quintile and five levels of educational attainment. Socioeconomic inequalities were measured using the slope index of inequality, reflecting differences in prevalence rates, and the relative index of inequality, reflecting the prevalence ratio between the two extremes of wealth or education accounting for the entire distribution. Data were adjusted for confounding factors: sex, age, marital status, area of residence, and country of residence. Results Smoking and low fruit and vegetable consumption were significantly higher among lower socioeconomic groups. The highest wealth-related absolute inequality was seen in smoking among men of low- income country group (slope index of inequality 23.0 percentage points; 95% confidence interval 19.6, 26.4. The slope index of inequality for low fruit and vegetable consumption across the entire distribution of education was around 8 percentage points in both sexes and both country income groups. Physical inactivity was less prevalent in populations of low socioeconomic status, especially in low-income countries (relative index of inequality: (men 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.33, 0.64; (women 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42, 0.65. Mixed patterns were found for heavy drinking. Conclusions Disaggregated analysis of the prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors demonstrated different patterns and varying degrees of socioeconomic inequalities across low- and middle-income settings. Interventions should aim to reach and achieve sustained benefits for high-risk populations.

  14. Association of childhood and adult socioeconomic indicators with cardiovascular risk factors and its modification by age: the CARLA Study 2002-2006

    Werdan Karl

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of socioeconomic status (SES on cardiovascular diseases and risk factors is widely known, although the role of different SES indicators is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of different SES indicators for cardiovascular disease risk factors in a middle and old aged East German population. Methods Cross-sectional data of an East German population-based cohort study (1779 men and women aged 45 to 83 were used to assess the association of childhood and adulthood SES indicators (childhood SES, education, occupational position, income with cardiovascular risk factors. Adjusted means and odds ratios of risk factors by SES indicators with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated by linear and logistic regression models, stratified by sex. The interaction effect of education and age on cardiovascular risk factors was tested by including an interaction term. Results In age-adjusted models, education, occupational position, and income were statistically significantly associated with abdominal obesity in men, and with smoking in both sexes. Men with low education had a more than threefold risk of being a smoker (OR 3.44, CI 1.58-7.51. Low childhood SES was associated with higher systolic blood pressure and abdominal obesity in women (OR 2.27, CI 1.18-4.38 for obesity; a non-significant but (in terms of effect size relevant association of childhood SES with smoking was observed in men. In women, age was an effect modifier for education in the risk of obesity and smoking. Conclusions We found considerable differences in cardiovascular risk factors by education, occupational position, income, and partly by childhood social status, differing by sex. Some social inequalities levelled off in higher age. Longitudinal studies are needed to differentiate between age and birth cohort effects.

  15. Risk Factors

    ... cells do not invade nearby tissues or spread. Risk Factors Key Points Factors That are Known to ... chemicals . Factors That are Known to Increase the Risk of Cancer Cigarette Smoking and Tobacco Use Tobacco ...

  16. Socioeconomic development, family income, and psychosocial risk factors: a study of families with children in public elementary school.

    Assis, Simone Gonalves de; Pires, Thiago; Pesce, Renata Pires; Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Oliveira, Raquel V C

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the effects of Brazil's recent economic growth on the monetary income, consumption patterns, and risk exposures of families with children enrolled in the public elementary school system in So Gonalo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The article analyzes the following information on families of 447 children that participated in two waves in a longitudinal study: social stratum, per capita family income, evolution in income over a three-year period, and psychosocial factors. The findings showed a 74.8% increase in the families' income, accompanied by an increase in the consumption of material assets and access to health services. This increase should not be interpreted as a guarantee of improved living and health conditions, since it was spent on basic products and needs that do not substantially affect the families' form of social inclusion. Psychosocial risk factors were frequent among the families, but decreased during the study period, which may either reflect the improved family situation or result from the later stage in child development. PMID:21789414

  17. Socioeconomic status and injury risk in children

    Catherine S. Birken; MacArthur, Colin

    2004-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with an increased risk of poor health and death in adults and children. Studies from around the world have shown an inverse relationship between SES and childhood injury morbidity and mortality. For example, compared with children with high SES, children with low SES are at an increased risk of death from pedestrian collisions, fires, falls and drownings, and at an increased risk of hospitalization from recreati...

  18. Socioeconomic Factors and Childhood Overweight in Europe

    Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke; Lanfer, A.; Barba, G.; De Henauw, Stefaan; Eiben, G.; Fernandez-Alvira, J. M.; Kovács, E.; Lissner, L.; Moreno, L. A.; Tornaritis, M.; Veidebaum, T.; Pigeot, I.

    2013-01-01

    What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient....... Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi......-centre study with highly standardized study protoco. The strength of association between SES and overweight and obesity varies across European regions. In our study, the SES gradient is correlated with the regional mean income and the country-specific Human development index indicating a strong influence not...

  19. Obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors in urban adults of Benin: Relationship with socio-economic status, urbanisation, and lifestyle patterns

    Delisle Hélène

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on diet-related chronic diseases in West Africa. This cross-sectional study assessed the rate of obesity and other cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in a random sample of 200 urban adults in Benin and explored the associations between these factors and socio-economic status (SES, urbanisation as well as lifestyle patterns. Methods Anthropometric parameters (height, weight and waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and serum lipids (HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. WHO cut-offs were used to define CVD risk factors. Food intake and physical activity were assessed with three non-consecutive 24-hour recalls. Information on tobacco use and alcohol consumption was collected using a questionnaire. An overall lifestyle score (OLS was created based on diet quality, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. A SES score was computed based on education, main occupation and household amenities (as proxy for income. Results The most prevalent CVD risk factors were overall obesity (18%, abdominal obesity (32%, hypertension (23%, and low HDL-cholesterol (13%. Diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia were uncommon. The prevalence of overall obesity was roughly four times higher in women than in men (28 vs. 8%. After controlling for age and sex, the odds of obesity increased significantly with SES, while a longer exposure to the urban environment was associated with higher odds of hypertension. Of the single lifestyle factors examined, physical activity was the most strongly associated with several CVD risk factors. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the likelihood of obesity and hypertension decreased significantly as the OLS improved, while controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion Our data show that obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors are highly prevalent among urban adults in Benin, which calls for urgent measures to avert the rise of diet-related chronic diseases. People with higher SES and those with a longer exposure to the urban environment are priority target groups for interventions focusing on environmental risk factors that are amenable to change in this population. Lifestyle interventions would appear appropriate, with particular emphasis on physical activity.

  20. Environmental and socio-economic change in Thailand: quantifying spatio-temporal risk factors of dengue to inform decision making

    Rodo, X.; Lowe, R.; Karczewska-Gibert, A.; Cazelles, B.

    2013-12-01

    Dengue is a peri-urban mosquito-transmitted disease, ubiquitous in the tropics and the subtropics. The geographic distribution of dengue and its more severe form, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), have expanded dramatically in the last decades and dengue is now considered to be the world's most important arboviral disease. Recent demographic changes have greatly contributed to the acceleration and spread of the disease along with uncontrolled urbanization, population growth and increased air travel, which acts as a mechanism for transporting and exchanging dengue viruses between endemic and epidemic populations. The dengue vector and virus are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity and precipitation that influence mosquito biology, abundance and habitat and the virus replication speed. In order to control the spread of dengue and impede epidemics, decision support systems are required that take into account the multi-faceted array of factors that contribute to increased dengue risk. Due to availability of seasonal climate forecasts, that predict the average climate conditions for forthcoming months/seasons in both time and space, there is an opportunity to incorporate precursory climate information in a dengue decision support system to aid epidemic planning months in advance. Furthermore, oceanic indicators from teleconnected areas in the Pacific and Indian Ocean, that can provide some indication of the likely prevailing climate conditions in certain regions, could potentially extend predictive lead time in a dengue early warning system. In this paper we adopt a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling framework for dengue in Thailand to support public health decision making. Monthly cases of dengue in the 76 provinces of Thailand for the period 1982-2012 are modelled using a multi-layered approach. Explanatory variables at various spatial and temporal resolutions are incorporated into a hierarchical model in order to make spatio-temporal probabilistic predictions of dengue. Potential risk factors considered include altitude, land cover, proximity to road/rail networks and water bodies, temperature and precipitation, oceanic indicators, intervention activities, air traffic volume, population movement, urbanisation and sanitation indicators. In order to quantify unknown or unmeasured dengue risk factors, we use spatio-temporal random effects in the model framework. This helps identify those available indicators which could significantly contribute to a dengue early warning system. We use this model to quantify the extent to which climate indicators can explain variations in dengue risk. This allows us to assess the potential utility of forecast climate information in a dengue decision support system for Thailand. Taking advantage of lead times of several months provided by climate forecasts, public health officials may be able to more efficiently allocate intervention measures, such as targeted vector control activities and provision of medication to deal with more deadly forms of the disease, well ahead of an imminent dengue epidemic.

  1. Socioeconomic factors and water quality in California

    Farzin, Y. Hossein; Grogan, Kelly A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the relationships between water quality and socioeconomic factors in California at the county level for the years 1993 to 2006 using 24 water quality indicators coming from seven different types of water bodies. We estimate these relationships using three classes of models: the traditional per capita income-pollution level - Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) - specifications, a more inclusive model containing main socioeconomic variables such as agricultural intensity, land use...

  2. The effects of socioeconomic status on stroke risk and outcomes.

    Marshall, Iain J; Wang, Yanzhong; Crichton, Siobhan; McKevitt, Christopher; Rudd, Anthony G; Wolfe, Charles D A

    2015-12-01

    The latest evidence on socioeconomic status and stroke shows that stroke not only disproportionately affects low-income and middle-income countries, but also socioeconomically deprived populations within high-income countries. These disparities are reflected not only in risk of stroke but also in short-term and long-term outcomes after stroke. Increased average levels of conventional risk factors (eg, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, excessive alcohol intake, smoking, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle) in populations with low socioeconomic status account for about half of these effects. In many countries, evidence shows that people with lower socioeconomic status are less likely to receive good-quality acute hospital and rehabilitation care than people with higher socioeconomic status. For clinical practice, better implementation of well established treatments, effective management of risk factors, and equity of access to high-quality acute stroke care and rehabilitation will probably reduce inequality substantially. Overcoming barriers and adapting evidence-based interventions to different countries and health-care settings remains a research priority. PMID:26581971

  3. Cumulative Socioeconomic Status Risk, Allostatic Load, and Adjustment: A Prospective Latent Profile Analysis With Contextual and Genetic Protective Factors

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Evans, Gary W.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Windle, Michael; SIMONS, RONALD L.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    The health disparities literature identified a common pattern among middle-aged African Americans that includes high rates of chronic disease along with low rates of psychiatric disorders despite exposure to high levels of cumulative SES risk. The current study was designed to test hypotheses about the developmental precursors to this pattern. Hypotheses were tested with a representative sample of 443 African American youths living in the rural South. Cumulative SES risk and protective proces...

  4. Association between migraine, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors

    Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether sex-specific associations exist between migraine, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. We distinguished between the subtypes migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). In 2002, a questionnaire containing validated questions to diagnose migraine and questions on ...

  5. Does IQ explain socio-economic differentials in total and cardiovascular disease mortality? Comparison with the explanatory power of traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Vietnam Experience Study

    Batty, G David; Shipley, Martin J; Dundas, Ruth; Macintyre, Sally; Der, Geoff; Mortensen, Laust H; Deary, Ian J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the explanatory power of intelligence (IQ) compared with traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the relationship of socio-economic disadvantage with total and CVD mortality, that is the extent to which IQ may account for the variance in this...

  6. Adverse life events, area socioeconomic disadvantage, and psychopathology and resilience in young children: the importance of risk factors' accumulation and protective factors' specificity

    Flouri, Eirini; Tzavidis, Nikos; Kallis, Constantinos

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Few studies on resilience in young children model risk appropriately and test theory-led hypotheses about its moderation. This study addressed both issues. Our hypothesis was that for preschool children?s emotional/behavioral adjustment in the face of contextual risk protective factors should be located in the cognitive domain. Data were from the first two sweeps of the UK?s Millennium Cohort Study. The final study sample was 4,748 three-year-old children clustered in 1,54...

  7. Risk factors

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  8. Socioeconomic factors effecting polio vaccination in Pakistan

    Midhat Ali; Atif Abbasi; Sitwat Ali; Nimra Baber; Sheeba Arooj

    2013-01-01

    Background: Child vaccinations are one of most cost effective health programs that have weakened a number of child morbidity and mortality rate all over the world. Pakistan is considered one of the major country of the world, where people especially children are bound by many harmful infectious diseases like polio, hepatitis, viral infections etc. The effectiveness of routine childhood immunization programs relies on multiple factors. Socio-economic determinants have the potential to affect ...

  9. Time trends in socio-economic factors and risk of hospitalisation with infectious diseases in pre-school children 1985-2004

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Søndergaard, Grethe; Vitting Andersen, Karen; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2012-01-01

    life until the children reached the age of 6 years or the end of 2004, whichever came first. Information on parental socio-economic position (education, labour market attachment and household income) was gathered through record linkage with administrative registries. Infections were grouped into upper...... respiratory, lower respiratory, gastrointestinal, ear and fever infections. The data were analysed using Cox regression. Children of parents on sick leave or early retirement had an increased risk of being hospitalised with an infection compared with children of employed parents. A clear inverse educational....... The association between socio-economic status and hospitalisation was strongest for lower respiratory, gastrointestinal and ear infections. This study documented a socially patterned hospitalisation of pre-school children in Denmark. Future studies should investigate possible explanations for the...

  10. Local modelling techniques for assessing micro-level impacts of risk factors in complex data: understanding health and socioeconomic inequalities in childhood educational attainments.

    Zhou, Shang-Ming; Lyons, Ronan A; Bodger, Owen G; John, Ann; Brunt, Huw; Jones, Kerina; Gravenor, Mike B; Brophy, Sinead

    2014-01-01

    Although inequalities in health and socioeconomic status have an important influence on childhood educational performance, the interactions between these multiple factors relating to variation in educational outcomes at micro-level is unknown, and how to evaluate the many possible interactions of these factors is not well established. This paper aims to examine multi-dimensional deprivation factors and their impact on childhood educational outcomes at micro-level, focusing on geographic areas having widely different disparity patterns, in which each area is characterised by six deprivation domains (Income, Health, Geographical Access to Services, Housing, Physical Environment, and Community Safety). Traditional health statistical studies tend to use one global model to describe the whole population for macro-analysis. In this paper, we combine linked educational and deprivation data across small areas (median population of 1500), then use a local modelling technique, the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy system, to predict area educational outcomes at ages 7 and 11. We define two new metrics, "Micro-impact of Domain" and "Contribution of Domain", to quantify the variations of local impacts of multidimensional factors on educational outcomes across small areas. The two metrics highlight differing priorities. Our study reveals complex multi-way interactions between the deprivation domains, which could not be provided by traditional health statistical methods based on single global model. We demonstrate that although Income has an expected central role, all domains contribute, and in some areas Health, Environment, Access to Services, Housing and Community Safety each could be the dominant factor. Thus the relative importance of health and socioeconomic factors varies considerably for different areas, depending on the levels of each of the other factors, and therefore each component of deprivation must be considered as part of a wider system. Childhood educational achievement could benefit from policies and intervention strategies that are tailored to the local geographic areas' profiles. PMID:25409038

  11. Breast cancer and socio-economic factors

    Anees B. Chagpar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is twofold – on the one hand, to analyze the relationship between incidence of breast cancer, income per capita and medical equipment across countries; after that, the study here discusses the drivers of the incidence of breast cancer across countries in order to pinpoint differences and similarities. Methods: The indicators used are incidence of breast cancer based on Age-standardized rate (ASW; Gross domestic product (GDP per capita by purchasing power parity (current international $; computed tomography (CT for cancer diagnosis. Data include 52 countries. The statistical analysis is carried out by correlation, ANOVA and an econometric modeling based on a multiple regression model of the breast cancer incidence on two explanatory variables. Results: Partial correlation is higher: rbreast cancer, GDP  CT=60.3% (sign.0.00. The estimated relationship shows an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 0.05% for a GDP increase of 1% and an expected incidence of breast cancer increase of approximately 3.23% for a CT increase of 1%. ANOVA confirms that incidence of breast cancer is higher across richer countries, ceteris paribus.Conclusions: Empirical evidence shows that the breast cancer tends to be higher across richer countries, measured by GDP per capita and number of Computed Tomography. The main determinants of these findings can be due to several socio-economic factors, mainly localized in richer countries. In addition, this research may provide an alternative interpretation to the theory of Oh et al. (2010 on the influence of latitude on breast cancer, focusing on socio-economic factors rather than biologic root causes.

  12. IMPACT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS ON DIFFERENTIATION OF LAW

    Petrov, Dmitriy

    2014-01-01

    The article considers socio-economic prerequisites of differentiation in law. The origins of the notion «differentiation of law» are analyzed. Differentiation of law is determined by both external (socio-economic) and internal (special legal) factors, but external factors play a crucial role in the process of differentiation.

  13. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse…

  14. Risk factors.

    Robbins, Catherine J; Connors, K C; Sheehan, Timothy J; Vaughan, James S

    2005-06-01

    Minimize surprises on your financial statement by adopting a model for integrated risk management that: Examines interrelationships among operations, investments, and financing. Incorporates concepts of the capital asset pricing model to manage unexpected volatility PMID:17240669

  15. Socioeconomic determinants of geographic disparities in campylobacteriosis risk: a comparison of global and local modeling approaches

    Weisent Jennifer; Rohrbach Barton; Dunn John R; Odoi Agricola

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors play a complex role in determining the risk of campylobacteriosis. Understanding the spatial interplay between these factors and disease risk can guide disease control programs. Historically, Poisson and negative binomial models have been used to investigate determinants of geographic disparities in risk. Spatial regression models, which allow modeling of spatial effects, have been used to improve these modeling efforts. Geographically weighted regres...

  16. UNIVERSITIES AND INCUBATORS: KEY FACTORS DRIVING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Liane Mahlmann Kipper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic diversification is an utterly important factor for regions that are directly or indirectly related to any productive mechanisms and seek to strengthen their foundations for the generation of jobs and income. Within this context, to invest in business preparation and maturation, especially in the ones related to the technological area, turns out to be an interesting mean of diversifying a regional economy that is facing the risk of stagnation. This study considers the importance of the role taken on by universities and their incubators in driving entrepreneurship and supporting the creation of new companies and the innovative capacity of a country through knowledge transfer amongst universities and companies, generating benefits and socioeconomic progress in a country. It also conducts a case study on a company of the information technology area, recently incubated and whose major objective consists in becoming part of this economic diversification basis.

  17. Hypnotics and mortality-partial confounding by disease, substance abuse and socioeconomic factors?

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Hendriksen, C.; Vass, Mikkel; Mortensen, E.L.; Osler, Merete

    2016-01-01

    ) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: When covariates were entered one at a time, the changes in HR estimates showed that psychiatric disease, socioeconomic position and substance abuse reduced the excess risk by 17-36% in the low user group and by 45-52% in the high user group. Somatic disease...... this study point at psychiatric disease, substance abuse and socioeconomic position as potential confounding factors partly explaining the association between use of hypnotics and all-cause mortality....

  18. Risk Factors and Prevention

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  19. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  20. Is socioeconomic status a risk factor for children´s overweight and obesity? - Mun-SI Portugal, A Community Based Program

    Rito, Ana; Doroana, Érica; Garcia, Rita; Alves, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    MUN-Si (www.mun-si.com) is an on-going Portuguese community-based program at local level which aims to promote lifestyles changes in the long-term particularly to children and families that do not have adequate resources. The objective of this study was to address the association between socioeconomic (SE) indicators and children´s nutritional status (NS) of the two rounds of the MUN-SI NS surveys (2009 and 2011). A total of 2726 children (round 1 (R1) = 1126; round 2 (R2)= 1600) aged betwee...

  1. Socio-economic determinants for malaria transmission risk in an endemic primary health centre in Assam, India

    Yadav, Kavita; Dhiman, Sunil; Rabha, Bipul; Saikia, PK; Veer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Northeast India. As there is limited information available on the potential influence of socio-economic variables on malaria risk, the present study was conducted to assess the influence of demographic factors, the socio-economic status, and knowledge, awareness and education on malaria occurrence. Methods Demographics, malaria knowledge and socio-economic variables were collected in four randomly selected health sub-centres of...

  2. Profiles of Risk: Maternal Health, Socioeconomic Status, and Child Health

    Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Nancy S. Landale

    2013-01-01

    Child health is fundamental to well-being and achievement throughout the life course. Prior research has demonstrated strong associations between familial socioeconomic resources and childrens health outcomes, with especially poor health outcomes among disadvantaged youth who experience a concentration of risks, yet little is known about the influence of maternal health as a dimension of risk for children. This research used nationally representative U.S. data from the National Health Interv...

  3. Association between migraine, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Le, Ngoc Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    risk of migraine was significantly associated with lower level of schooling and education, retirement, unemployment, and smoking. A decreased risk of migraine was significantly associated with heavy physical exercise and intake of alcohol. Direct comparison between the subtypes showed a decreased risk...... or studying. The risk was increased for men compared to women in subjects with heavy physical exercise, intake of alcohol, and body mass index >25. Migraine was associated with several lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Most associations such as low education and employment status were probably due...... to the negative effects of having migraine while others such as smoking were risk factors for migraine....

  4. An analysis of socioeconomic factors associated with fertility in vietnam.

    Matsuda, S

    1996-10-01

    Socioeconomic factors associated with the fertility level in Vietnam were investigated using the data of 44 provinces derived from the 1989 census. According to simple correlation analysis, variables that significantly correlated with the total fertility rate (TFR) at a 5% risk level, were the proportion married among women of reproducitive age (r=0.634), the literacy rate among women of reproductive age (r=-0.796), the proportion of the urban population (r=-0.394), the proportion of women of reproductive age in the labor force (r=0.349), the population engaged in primary industries (r=0.547), the infant and early childhood mortality rate (r=0.679), the percentage of communes with communal health stations (r=-0.571), the average age at the first marriage of women (r=-0.743) and the sex ratio (male/female)(r=0.399).In multiple regression analysis (stepwise method), four variables were included in the equation as factors with statistical significance. While the literacy rate among women of reproductive age showed a negative relation with TFR (? =-0.499), the infant and early childhood mortality rate (? =0.338), the proportion married among women of reproductive age (? =0.283), and the total migration rate (? =0.174) showed a positive relation with TFR. These four variables explained 80.0% of the total variance in the observed TFR. These results suggest that the replacement or hoarding theory is applicable to Vietnamese reproductive behavior. PMID:21432439

  5. Socioeconomic status in HCV infected patients – risk and prognosis

    Oml

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lars Haukali Omland,1 Merete Osler,2 Peter Jepsen,3,4 Henrik Krarup,5 Nina Weis,6 Peer Brehm Christensen,7 Casper Roed,1 Henrik Toft Sørensen,3 Niels Obel1 On behalf of the DANVIR Cohort Study1Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Research Center for Prevention and Health, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Glostrup, Denmark; 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 4Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 5Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aalborg Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 6Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark; 7Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, DenmarkBackground and aims: It is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES is a risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection or a prognostic factor following infection.Methods: From Danish nationwide registries, we obtained information on three markers of SES: employment, income, and education. In a case control design, we examined HCV infected patients and controls; conditional logistic regression was employed to obtain odds ratios (ORs for HCV infection for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity, and substance abuse. In a cohort design, we used Cox regression analysis to compute mortality rate ratios (MRRs for each of the three SES markers, adjusting for the other two SES markers, comorbidity level, age, substance abuse, and gender.Results: When compared to employed persons, ORs for HCV infection were 2.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24–3.26 for disability pensioners and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.83–2.72 for the unemployed. When compared to persons with a high income, ORs were 1.64 (95% CI: 1.34–2.01 for low income persons and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.02–1.40 for medium income persons. The OR was 1.35 (95% CI: 1.20–1.52 for low education (no more than basic schooling. When compared to employed patients, MRRs were 1.71 (95% CI: 1.22–2.40 for unemployed patients and 2.24 (95% CI: 1.63–3.08 for disability pensioners. When compared to high income patients, MRRs were 1.47 (95% CI: 1.05–2.05 for medium income patients and 1.64 (95% CI: 1.13–2.34 for low income patients. Educational status was not associated with mortality.Conclusion: Low SES was associated with an increased risk of HCV infection and with poor prognosis in HCV infected patients.Keywords: survival, socioeconomic status, risk factor, prognosis

  6. The effect of environmental factors on breast lumps of Egyptian women in different socioeconomic levels

    The environmental risk factors related to the breast tumors (lumps) are essential in order to build strategies to decrease cancer incidence and mortality among different socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. A case control study of 70 cases and 52 controls were classified into high, middle and low socioeconomic classes. The results revealed significant increased risk of breast tumors among working females, having positive family history, married with lower mean parity, with higher consumption of fatty meals, lesser meat intake. Non significant risk factors were the social class, exposure to ionizing radiation, non lactating. wearing tight bra, consumption of vegetables and fruits, oral contraceptive pill users and exposure to outdoor air pollution or indoor pollution as floors and wall paintings. In conclusion, this study highlights the positive life style for egyptian women so they can prevent some of the environmental risks of breast tumors. Increasing the awareness of breast diseases and regular examination remains the corner stone for early detection management of breast lumps.

  7. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715

  8. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    ... Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Heart Disease Risk Factors Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Smoking is a key risk factor for heart disease. Several health conditions, your lifestyle, and your age and family ...

  9. Socioeconomic factors related to attendance at a Type 2 diabetes screening programme

    Dalsgaard, E.M.; Lauritzen, T.; Christiansen, T.; Mai, K.S.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Sandbaek, A.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing, and screening of high-risk populations is recommended. A low attendance rate has been observed in many Type 2 diabetes screening programmes, so that an analysis of factors related to attendance is therefore relevant. This paper analyses the associat...... to uncover barriers to screening of Type 2 diabetes in socioeconomically deprived persons Udgivelsesdato: 2009/5......AIMS: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing, and screening of high-risk populations is recommended. A low attendance rate has been observed in many Type 2 diabetes screening programmes, so that an analysis of factors related to attendance is therefore relevant. This paper analyses the...... association between socioeconomic factors and attendance for Type 2 diabetes screening. METHODS: Persons aged 40-69 years (n = 4603) were invited to participate in a stepwise diabetes screening programme performed in general practitioners' offices in the county of Aarhus, Denmark in 2001. The study was...

  10. Sexual health and socioeconomic-related factors in Spain

    Ruiz Muñoz, Dolores; Wellings, Kaye; Castellanos Torres, Esther; Álvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos; Casals Cases, Mariona; Pérez, Glòria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to describe sexual health in Spain according to three important indicators of the World Health Organization definition and explore the influence of socioeconomic factors. Methods: We performed a population-based cross-sectional study of sexually active people aged 16-44 years residing in Spain in 2009 (2365 women and 2532 men). Three main aspects of sexual health were explored: sexual satisfaction, safe sex, and sexual abuse. The independent variables...

  11. Socio-economic factors influencing small ruminant breeding in Kenya

    Verbeek, E; Kanis, E.; Bett, R.C.; Kosgey, I.S.

    2006-01-01

    In order to design an effective small ruminant (i.e., goats and sheep) breeding program in Kenya and other areas with similar production circumstances, it is important to understand the socio-economic factors applying to the relevant production system. Information on these was obtained from a questionnaire carried out on both smallholders and pastoral/ extensive farmers in seven selected districts. From the 458 responding households, 18% kept only goats, 34% kept only sheep, and 48% kept both...

  12. Global flood risks under changing climate and socioeconomic conditions

    Sperna Weiland, Frederiek; Ward, Philip; Bouwman, Arno; Ligtvoet, Willem; van Beek, Rens; Winsemius, Hessel

    2013-04-01

    Worldwide major flood events result in both economic losses and large numbers of casualties. Recent global scale studies indicate that in many regions of the world discharge extremes are likely to increase under changing climate conditions. However, few studies have so far examined how these changes in climate conditions may affect flood risk (defined here as the probability of a flood multiplied by the consequences). In the current study we investigate the impacts of changing climate and socioeconomic conditions on flood extents and depths, and also assess the potential impacts on flood risk. The study is conducted on a global scale, thereby indicating in which regions of the world flood risk is likely to change most. To assess global food risk under changing conditions, we combined socio-economic data from the Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment (IMAGE) framework of the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL) with high resolution maps of inundation depth (1 km). To this end, projections from a number of GCMs were bias-corrected and used to force the global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB which simulates (amongst other variables) global maps with daily flood volumes on a 0.5 degree resolution. These time series were used to derive flood volume maps for multiple return periods, which were downscaled to inundation depth maps at 1 km resolution using a 1 km resolution DEM. Finally, these high resolution flood maps were combined with spatial datasets on future GDP and population density from the IMAGE model. Results are presented on both the global scale and at the country level. We believe that the obtained flood extend and flood risk maps can assist development agencies in planning climate adaptation investments that aim to reduce flood risks.

  13. Diet, risk of obesity and socioeconomic circumstances of individuals in the UK: A seemingly unrelated approach

    Damilola Olajide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Understanding the link between diet, risk of obesity and the underlying socioeconomic circumstances of the individual is useful for health promotion and improvement interventions. In this study, we examined the socioeconomic factors that jointly affect food consumption choices and risk of obesity. We analyse the National Dietary and Nutrition Survey (2000/01 of adults aged 19-64 years living in private households in the UK, using a health production framework. We used information on the complete food history on individuals in the previous week to create eight common food groups. We estimated a system of linear risk of obesity (as measured by Body Mass Index and eight diet equations with error terms that are correlated across equations for a given individual, but are uncorrelated across individuals, using the seemingly unrelated regression method. Our findings indicate that the socioeconomic factors (e.g. income and education associated with sources of healthy eating differ. While increasing household purchasing power may be more effective for increasing consumption of healthier foods such as fruit and vegetables, more knowledge and information about healthy eating may be more effective for cutting down on consumption of less healthy foods (e.g. preserves and savoury foods. An understanding of these different healthy eating contexts is essential for the development of effective targeted food based policies aimed at reducing the risk of obesity. Link to Appendix

  14. Association of Socioeconomic Factors and Sedentary Lifestyle in Belgrade’s Suburb, Working Class Community

    Slavica KONEVIC; Martinovic, Jelena; DJONOVIC, Nela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sedentary lifestyle represents a growing health problem and considering that there is already a range of unhealthy habits that are marked as health risk factors and the increasing prevalence of sedentary lifestyle worldwide, we aimed to investigate association of sedentary way of living in suburb, working class local community with socioec-onomic determinants such as educational level, occupation and income status.Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, 1126 indepe...

  15. Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes

    Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Nyberg, Solja T; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjørner, Jakob; Borritz, Marianne; Brunner, Eric J; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Hamer, Mark; Heikkilä, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Jokela, Markus

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We...... identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (cohort study); investigation of the effect of working hours or overtime work; incident diabetes as an outcome......; and relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, or sufficient information to calculate these estimates. Additionally, we used unpublished individual-level data from 19 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working-Populations Consortium and...

  16. SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS AND ADOPTION OF ENERGY CROPS

    Haluk Gedikoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current study analyzes the socio-economic factors that impact farmers’ willingness to grow switchgrass and miscanthus in Missouri and Iowa. The results of the current study show that current level of farmers’ willingness to grow for either crop is low. Hence, there are barriers to accomplishing the goal of producing 21 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuel by 2022. It is also found that currently growing energy crops is more attractive to small farms as a source of crop diversification, rather than an alternative crop production system in the big scale by large farms.

  17. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact. PMID:26059537

  18. Principal component analysis of socioeconomic factors and their association with malaria in children from the Ashanti Region, Ghana

    Adu-Sarkodie Yaw

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The socioeconomic and sociodemographic situation are important components for the design and assessment of malaria control measures. In malaria endemic areas, however, valid classification of socioeconomic factors is difficult due to the lack of standardized tax and income data. The objective of this study was to quantify household socioeconomic levels using principal component analyses (PCA to a set of indicator variables and to use a classification scheme for the multivariate analysis of children Methods In total, 1,496 children presenting to the hospital were examined for malaria parasites and interviewed with a standardized questionnaire. The information of eleven indicators of the family's housing situation was reduced by PCA to a socioeconomic score, which was then classified into three socioeconomic status (poor, average and rich. Their influence on the malaria occurrence was analysed together with malaria risk co-factors, such as sex, parent's educational and ethnic background, number of children living in a household, applied malaria protection measures, place of residence and age of the child and the mother. Results The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that the proportion of children with malaria decreased with increasing socioeconomic status as classified by PCA (p Conclusions The socioeconomic situation is significantly associated with malaria even in holoendemic rural areas where economic differences are not much pronounced. Valid classification of the socioeconomic level is crucial to be considered as confounder in intervention trials and in the planning of malaria control measures.

  19. The Ecology of Young Children's Behaviour and Social Competence: Child Characteristics, Socio-Economic Factors and Parenting

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Using a longitudinal, UK representative sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, the present study examined the effects of socio-economic factors on mother- and teacher-rated behaviour, and the unique and cumulative contribution of both risk and protective factors inherent in children's proximal and distal influences to behaviour during the…

  20. Pain among employees : risk factors and consequences

    Saastamoinen, Peppiina

    2010-01-01

    The overall objective of this study was to gain epidemiological knowledge about pain among employee populations. More specifically, the aims were to assess the prevalence of pain, to identify socio-economic risk groups and work-related psychosocial risk factors, and to assess the consequences in terms of health-related functioning and sickness absence. The study was carried out among the municipal employees of the City of Helsinki. Data comprised questionnaire survey conducted in years 2...

  1. Lifestyle factors and risk of venous thromboembolism

    Enga, Kristin Fjeldstad

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY There is little knowledge about the association between lifestyle factors and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this thesis was to investigate the relation between coffee consumption, emotional states, cigarette smoking and socioeconomic status and future risk of incident VTE in a prospective, population-based cohort study. Our study population consisted of more than 27 000 men and women, who participated in the fourth Tromsø study (1994-95). All adult inhabitants of t...

  2. Socioeconomic factors relating to diabetes and its management in India.

    Shrivastava, Usha; Misra, Anoop; Gupta, Rajeev; Viswanathan, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is an escalating problem in India and has major socioeconomic dimensions. Rapid dietary changes coupled with decreased levels of physical activity have resulted in increases in obesity and diabetes in rural and semi-urban areas, as well as in urban-based people living in resettlement colonies. Increasing risk has also been recorded in those who suffered from poor childhood nutrition and in rural-to-urban migrants. Social inequity manifests in disparities in socioeconomic status (SES), place of residence, education, gender, and level of awareness and affects prevention, care, and management. All these population subsets have major socioeconomic challenges: low levels of awareness regarding diabetes and prevention, inadequate resources, insufficient allotment of healthcare budgets, and lack of medical reimbursement. Unawareness and delays in seeking medical help lead to complications, resulting in many-fold increased costs in diabetes care. These costs plunge individuals and households into a vicious cycle of further economic hardship, inadequate management, and premature mortality, resulting in more economic losses. At the societal level, these are massive losses to national productivity and the exchequer. Overall, there is an immediate need to strengthen the healthcare delivery system to generate awareness and for the prevention, early detection, cost-effective management, and rehabilitation of patients with diabetes, with a focus on people belonging to the lower SES and women (with a particular focus on nutrition before and during pregnancy). Because of an enhanced awareness campaign spearheaded through the National Program on Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, Diabetes and Stroke (NCPCDS) initiated by Government of India, it is likely that the level of awareness and early detection of diabetes may increase. PMID:26019052

  3. Socioeconomic determinants of geographic disparities in campylobacteriosis risk: a comparison of global and local modeling approaches

    Weisent Jennifer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors play a complex role in determining the risk of campylobacteriosis. Understanding the spatial interplay between these factors and disease risk can guide disease control programs. Historically, Poisson and negative binomial models have been used to investigate determinants of geographic disparities in risk. Spatial regression models, which allow modeling of spatial effects, have been used to improve these modeling efforts. Geographically weighted regression (GWR takes this a step further by estimating local regression coefficients, thereby allowing estimations of associations that vary in space. These recent approaches increase our understanding of how geography influences the associations between determinants and disease. Therefore the objectives of this study were to: (i identify socioeconomic determinants of the geographic disparities of campylobacteriosis risk (ii investigate if regression coefficients for the associations between socioeconomic factors and campylobacteriosis risk demonstrate spatial variability and (iii compare the performance of four modeling approaches: negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR. Methods Negative binomial, spatial lag, global and local Poisson GWR modeling techniques were used to investigate associations between socioeconomic factors and geographic disparities in campylobacteriosis risk. The best fitting models were identified and compared. Results Two competing four variable models (Models 1 & 2 were identified. Significant variables included race, unemployment rate, education attainment, urbanicity, and divorce rate. Local Poisson GWR had the best fit and showed evidence of spatially varying regression coefficients. Conclusions The international significance of this work is that it highlights the inadequacy of global regression strategies that estimate one parameter per independent variable, and therefore mask the true relationships between dependent and independent variables. Since local GWR estimate a regression coefficient for each location, it reveals the geographic differences in the associations. This implies that a factor may be an important determinant in some locations and not others. Incorporating this into health planning ensures that a needs-based, rather than a one-size-fits-all, approach is used. Thus, adding local GWR to the epidemiologists toolbox would allow them to assess how the impacts of different determinants vary by geography. This knowledge is critical for resource allocation in disease control programs.

  4. [Studies of obstetric and socioeconomic factors in the origins of prematurity].

    Rosanelli, K; Kowatsch, A; Haas, J

    1987-01-15

    Data of 400 term deliveries and 100 preterm deliveries were analyzed to determine the effect of the socio-economic situation, prior abortion, premature birth and other complications on current pregnancy outcome. Of special interest was the question if pregnancy complications in an antecedent pregnancy would lead to intensified care in a following pregnancy. A prior premature birth increases the risk for prematurity significantly. In contrast to earlier studies illegitimacy has no influence on rate and outcome of preterm birth. It is the most striking result of this study that a high risk factor as previous abortion, stillbirth or prematurity gives no cause for improved or intensified prenatal care. PMID:3590811

  5. Risk factors for neoplasms

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG)

  6. FACTORS OF RISE OF LEVEL OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ENTERPRISES OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Zorina, O.

    2014-01-01

    In the article the analysis of factors, which affects socio-economic development of railway transport of Ukraine, is definite, priority of basic factors affecting socio-economic development of railway transport of Ukraine is offered, and the spheres of influence of external environment on development of railway transport are selected, the factors of rise of level of socio-economic development of enterprises of railway transport are grounded, influence of social factors on the change of level ...

  7. Socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk in rural indian adolescents: evidence from the Andhra Pradesh children and parents study (APCAPS)

    Kinra, S.; Johnson, M; Kulkarni, B; Rameshwar Sarma, K.V.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Smith, G.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined association between socio-economic position and cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents to investigate whether childhood socio-economic position is a risk factor for future cardiovascular disease, independently of adult behaviours. Study design and methods Participants (n = 1128, 46% girls, aged 13–18 years) were members of a birth cohort (Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study or APCAPS) established to investigate long-term effects of a pregnancy and chil...

  8. Socioeconomic factors and adolescent pregnancy outcomes: distinctions between neonatal and post-neonatal deaths?

    Flick Louise H

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young maternal age has long been associated with higher infant mortality rates, but the role of socioeconomic factors in this association has been controversial. We sought to investigate the relationships between infant mortality (distinguishing neonatal from post-neonatal deaths, socioeconomic status and maternal age in a large, retrospective cohort study. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked birth-death certificate data for Missouri residents during 1997–1999. Infant mortality rates for all singleton births to adolescent women (12–17 years, n = 10,131; 18–19 years, n = 18,954 were compared to those for older women (20–35 years, n = 28,899. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for all potential associations. Results The risk of infant (OR 1.95, CI 1.54–2.48, neonatal (1.69, 1.24–2.31 and post-neonatal mortality (2.47, 1.70–3.59 were significantly higher for younger adolescent (12–17 years than older (20–34 years mothers. After adjusting for race, marital status, age-appropriate education level, parity, smoking status, prenatal care utilization, and poverty status (indicated by participation in WIC, food stamps or Medicaid, the risk of post-neonatal mortality (1.73, 1.14–2.64 but not neonatal mortality (1.43, 0.98–2.08 remained significant for younger adolescent mothers. There were no differences in neonatal or post-neonatal mortality risks for older adolescent (18–19 years mothers. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors may largely explain the increased neonatal mortality risk among younger adolescent mothers but not the increase in post-neonatal mortality risk.

  9. Understanding the relative importance of global dengue risk factors.

    Lowe, Rachel

    2015-10-01

    Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted viral infection of major international public health concern. Global environmental and socio-economic change has created ideal conditions for the global expansion of dengue transmission. Innovative modelling tools help in understanding the global determinants of dengue risk and the relative impact of environmental and socio-economic factors on dengue transmission and spread. While climatic factors may act as a limiting factor on the global scale, other processes may play a dominant role at the local level. Understanding the spatial scales at which environmental and socio-economic factors dominate can help to target appropriate dengue control and prevention strategies. PMID:26311416

  10. Accumulation of health risk behaviours is associated with lower socioeconomic status and women's urban residence: a multilevel analysis in Japan

    Takano Takehito

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours in Japan. The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of individual and regional socioeconomic factors on selected health risk behaviours among Japanese adults, with a particular focus on regional variations. Methods In a nationally representative sample aged 25 to 59 years old (20,030 men and 21,076 women, the relationships between six risk behaviours (i.e., current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, poor dietary habits, physical inactivity, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups, individual characteristics (i.e., age, marital status, occupation and household income and regional (N = 60 indicators (per capita income and unemployment rate were examined by multilevel analysis. Results Divorce, employment in women, lower occupational class and lower household income were generally associated with a higher likelihood of risk behaviour. The degrees of regional variation in risk behaviour and the influence of regional indicators were greater in women than in men: higher per capita income was significantly associated with current smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and non-attendance of health check-ups in women. Conclusion Individual lower socioeconomic status was a substantial predictor of risk behaviour in both sexes, while a marked regional influence was observed only in women. The accumulation of risk behaviours in individuals with lower socioeconomic status and in women in areas with higher income, reflecting an urban context, may contribute to their higher mortality rates.

  11. Land Use Change and Its Determinant Factors in Northern Laos: Spatial and Socio-economic Analysis

    Southavilay Boundeth; Teruaki Nanseki; Shigeyoshi Takeuchi; Tetsuo SATHO

    2012-01-01

    Changes in land use areoften associated with policy implementation and socio-economic factors. The objective of this study was to interpret the patterns of land use and changes in land cover with a watershed area, especially focusing on the detection of change of agricultural land. The socio-economic factors contributing to land change was also analyzed. This study adopted both spatial and socio-economic analysis with remote sensing and logistic regression model. Land use maps of the study ar...

  12. Factores de riesgo de fallecer en domicilio por neumonía, de niños chilenos de estratos socioeconómicos bajos, Santiago de Chile (1990-1994 Risk factors for home deaths due to pneumonia among low socioeconomic level Chilean children

    Leonardo Véjar E

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pneumonia is the main cause of late infant mortality in Chile. Over 60% of these deaths occur at home. The lack of hospital beds and the inadequate outpatient management are contributing factors. Aim: To assess risk factors for home deaths due to pneumonia in Chilean children. Patients and methods: The clinical and environmental histories of 53 (39 male children that died due to pneumonia in their homes were analyzed. The cause of death was confirmed by necropsy with histopathological studies in all cases. These cases were compared with 88 control children of similar age, gender, socioeconomic status and living in the same geographical area of Metropolitan Santiago. Results: Fifty four percent of deceased children were of less than 3 months of age and only 3 cases and their controls were above1 year old. Identified risk factors for death were malnutrition with an odds ratio of 30.6 (CI 3.9-64.8, p< 0.001, low birth weight with an odds ratio of 5 (CI 1.8-14.1, p< 0.001, previous admissions to hospitals with an odds ratio of 5.79 (CI 2-17.1, p< 0.001, congenital malformations (mainly cardiac with an odds ratio of 8.4 (CI 2-39.9, p= 0.001 and a history of bronchial obstruction with an odds ratio of 5.68 (p< 0.001. Identified maternal risk factors were smoking with an odds ratio of 4.13 (CI 1.6-10.7 p< 0.001 and being a teenager with an odds ratio of 4.3 (CI 1.7-11, p<0.001. Malnutrition, low birth weight, history of previous hospital admissions and having a teenager or smoker mother were considered as independent risk factors using a stepwise analysis. Conclusions: Chilean low income children have identifiable risk factors for death at their homes due to pneumonia, that can be preventively managed. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 627-32

  13. Brain Tumor Risk Factors

    ... Upcoming Webinars Anytime Learning About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor Statistics ABTA Publications Brain Tumor ...

  14. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors as predictors of low birth weight in term pregnancies in Niš

    Stojanović Miodrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Low birth weight (LBW is a result of preterm birth or intrauterine growth retardation, and in both cases is the strongest single factor associated with perinatal and neonatal mortality. It is considered that socioeconomic factors, as well as mothers bad habits, play the most significant role in the development of LBW, which explains notable number of researches focused on this particular problem. The aim of this study was to characterize socioeconomic factors, as well as smoking habits of the mothers, and their connection with LBW. Methods. The questionnaire was carried out among mothers of 2 years old children (n = 956, born after 37 gestational weeks. The characteristics of mothers who had children with LBW, defined as < 2 500 g, (n = 50, were matched with the characteristics of mothers who had children ≥ 2 500 g, (n = 906. For defining risk factors, and protective factors as well, we used univariant and multivariant logistic modeles. Results. As significant risk factors for LBW in an univariant model we had education level of the mothers, smoking during pregnancy, smoking before pregnancy, the number of daily cigarettes, the number of cigarettes used during pregnancy, paternal earnings and socioeconomic factors. In a multivariant model the most significant factors were socioeconomic factors, education level of the mothers, paternal earnings and mothers smoking during pregnancy. Conclusion. Smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors have great influence on LBW. Future studies should be carried out in different social groups, with the intention to define their influence on LBW and reproduction, as well. This should be the proper way of adequate health breeding planning for giving up smoking, the prevention of bad habits and melioration of mothers and children health, as the most vulnerable population.

  15. Risk factors of teenage pregnancy

    Maria Siettou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United Kingdom has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy in Europe and in contrast to the decline in the rate of teenage pregnancy, recorded in the remaining countries of Western Europe, this figure has remained relatively stable, especially in adolescents aged 16 years and below. In Greece, according to National Statistics Office, in 2007, we had 3.129 births by teenagers under 18, with 75 births by teenagers under 15. The main factors contributing to the incidence of teenage pregnancy are socioeconomic factors, the family, the education and the sexual behavior of teenagers. Conclusions.It is necessary the state, through the health services and the education programs, to provide modern sex education in schools, as well as programs of prevention and health education in primary health care. The cooperation of these authorities is essential, to better address the extent and consequences of teenage pregnancy.

  16. Socioeconomic Status and Psychological Factors Involved in Suicide

    Marius MOGA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The high number of suicides drew attention to medical professionals. In Europe suicide is one of the leading cause of death caused by intentional and unintentional injuries. We tried to evaluate the suicide rates and methods of suicide during a 3 years period. There were collected all the date provided by the archives of forensic services of Brasov county between 2011 and 2013 regarding age, sex, marital status, occupation, socio-economic status, methods of suicide and alcohol consumption before suicide. The statistics included 545 subjects included in the study, 293 were male (53.8%, and 252 were female (46.2% who were admitted at the ER of Brasov County Emergency Hospital during study period. Of 545 patients with suicide attempt, 355 (65.15% survived and were referred to the Psychiatry and Neurology Hospital for psychiatric treatment and psychological counseling. The number of male who died after a suicide attempt was significantly higher than in female cases (134 vs.56, p<0.001. Previous suicide attempts, depression, alcohol abuse and unemployment are strong factors for fatal suicide. Poor economic status and life events may contribute to suicide attempt in those individuals.

  17. Socio-economic factors influencing sustainable water supply in Botswana.

    Lado, C

    1997-01-01

    This study examined water use patterns in Botswana, and socioeconomic and political factors that influence sustainable water supply, and discusses water conservation and high sustainable levels of supply and demand; the market structure and its prices, costs, and subsidies; and sustainable water supplies. Data were obtained from unpublished workshop papers on integrated water resource management from seminars conducted in 1994, at the University of Botswana's Department of Environmental Science. Rainfall varied by location. Evaporation is about 4 times the average annual precipitation, which leads to continual water deficiency. Water supplies are based on ground and surface water in the ratio of 2:1. Groundwater is only partly renewable. Surface water is renewable only under the circumstance of sufficient rain and maintained storage capacity. Conservation of water is affected by the high rates of evaporation, few suitable dam sites, high temporal variability of runoff and large surface water storage capacity, the constraints of semi-arid environments, the normally critical water balance, rapid population growth and concentrations in urban areas, economic conditions, and the general increase in living conditions. The governments need to strengthen control over non-market water use and to provide sufficient incentives for efficient water use. Water prices should increase in order to reflect the total economic value, regardless of the political consequences. There are needs to protect water catchment areas and to clarify ownership of water resources. Control of demand should include prioritizing water consumption. PMID:12348506

  18. Polygenic Risk Score, Parental Socioeconomic Status, Family History of Psychiatric Disorders, and the Risk for Schizophrenia

    Agerbo, Esben; Sullivan, Patrick F; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Mors, Ole; Børglum, Anders D; Hougaard, David M; Hollegaard, Mads V; Meier, Sandra; Mattheisen, Manuel; Ripke, Stephan; Wray, Naomi R; Mortensen, Preben B

    2015-01-01

    , 2006, and 871 matched control individuals. Genome-wide data and family psychiatric and socioeconomic background information were obtained from neonatal biobanks and national registers. Results from a separate meta-analysis (34 600 cases and 45 968 control individuals) were applied to calculate.......01; 95% CI, 4.53-14.16 for highest vs lowest decile), socioeconomic status (OR, 8.10; 95% CI, 3.24-20.3 for 6 vs no exposures), and a history of schizophrenia/psychoses (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.57-6.79). The R2 values were 3.4% (95% CI, 2.1-4.6) for the polygenic risk score, 3.1% (95% CI, 1.9-4.3) for...

  19. Socioeconomic factors may influence the surgical technique for benign hysterectomy

    Daugbjerg, Signe B; Ottesen, Bent; Diderichsen, Finn; Frederiksen, Birgitte L; Osler, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Owing to significantly improved outcomes, vaginal hysterectomy is the recommended standard approach when feasible in preference to abdominal hysterectomy. It is, however, not clear whether the use of vaginal hysterectomy varies with the women's socioeconomic background....

  20. Socioeconomic status, occupation, and risk of hospitalisation due to coxarthrosis in Denmark 1981–99

    Tuchsen, F.; Hannerz, H; Jensen, M.; Krause, N.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To predict the relative risk and time trend in hospitalisation due to coxarthrosis (CA) among groups of different socioeconomic status and occupations in order to test existing aetiological hypotheses.

  1. [Laryngeal cancer risk factors].

    Jurkiewicz, Dariusz; Dzaman, Karolina; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2006-07-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the most common of head and neck cancers. Neoplasm used to develop basing on DNA mutation which leads to uncontrolled growth and cells' division. It is due to spontaneous mutations or influence of chemical, biological and physical factors. Laryngeal cancer generation is conditioned by many synergic factors. Some of them certainly participate in cancer genesis and this thesis is accepted by medical environment and other of them have been discussed giving different information. Definition of the risk factors role in laryngeal cancer etiology is very difficult especially regarding their contemporary occurrence in one person. Most common risk factors are environmental factors, gastroesophageal reflux, viral infections, diet, radiation, individual predisposition. Some of them, such as cigarette smoking and abuse alcohol are significantly oftener confirmed in patients with neoplasm diagnosis and others' role in developing of illness has been still researched. Thus the purpose of the study was to present so far achievements in laryngeal cancer etiology and to emphasize controversies relating to some factors' role in cancer genesis. PMID:17007303

  2. Financial capability, money attitudes and socioeconomic status: risks for experiencing adverse financial events

    von Stumm, Sophie; Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The risk of experiencing adverse financial events (e.g. bankruptcy) depends on the world economy and on individual differences in financial and psychological variables. Analysing data from 109,472 British survey respondents, this study reports the risks associated with financial capabilities, money attitudes, and socio-economic status for suffering negative financial outcomes. The results show that (1) socio-economic status is associated with financial capabilities but not with money attitude...

  3. Breast cancer risk factors.

    Kamińska, Marzena; Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  4. Breast cancer risk factors

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  5. Breast cancer risk factors

    Marzena Kamińska; Tomasz Ciszewski; Karolina Łopacka-Szatan; Paweł Miotła; Elżbieta Starosławska

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neopla...

  6. Association between obesity and socioeconomic factors and lifestyle

    Grujić Vera

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and it is a manifestation of the epidemics of a sedentary lifestyle and excessive energy intake. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population of the Province of Vojvodina, Serbia, and to examine the association between obesity and socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Methods. A cross-sectional study conducted in the Province of Vojvodina in 2006 involved 3 854 participants aged 20 years and over (1 831 men and 2 023 women. The study was a countinuation of the baseline study conducted in 2000 (n = 2 840, 1 255 men and 1 585 women. The main outcome measures were overweight and obesity (Body Mass Index - BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, sociodemographic factors, including nutrition habits - having breakfast everyday and television watching frequency. Results. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in both sexes in 2006 was 57.4% (35.7% were overweight and 21.7% obese. The prevalence of overweight was higher in men (41.1% than in women (30.9% (p < 0.001 while obesity was higher in women (23.1% as compared to men (20.2% (p = 0.035. For both sexes, overweight rates were highest at the age 60-69 (men 44.8% and women 39.1% while obesity rates were peaked to men aged 50-59 (25.1% and women aged 60-69 years (37.8%. Increasing ageing, males, rural population, single examinees, lower educational level, improved income, examinees that never/sometimes have breakfast and frequently watch TV were associated with obesity. Conclusions. The population of Vojvodina, with 23.1% obese women and 20.2% obese men is one of severely affected European populations. High prevalence of obesity requires urgent public health action. Healthy lifestyle, balanced nutrition with low energy intake and increased physical activity have to be promoted within a prevention strategy and obesity management.

  7. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances

  8. Risk Factors for Eating Disorders

    Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…

  9. Risk Parity Portfolios with Risk Factors

    Roncalli, Thierry; Weisang, Guillaume

    2012-01-01

    Portfolio construction and risk budgeting are the focus of many studies by academics and practitioners. In particular, diversification has spawn much interest and has been defined very differently. In this paper, we analyze a method to achieve portfolio diversification based on the decomposition of the portfolio's risk into risk factor contributions. First, we expose the relationship between risk factor and asset contributions. Secondly, we formulate the diversification problem in terms of ri...

  10. Strong regional links between socio-economic background factors and disability and mortality in Oslo, Norway

    Study objective: To study geographical differences in mortality and disability and sosio-economic status in Oslo, Norway. Setting: A total of 25 local authority districts within the city of Oslo. Design: Analysis of age adjusted mortality rates aged 0-74 in the period 1991-1994, and cross sectional data on disability pensioners aged 50-66 and socio-economic indicators (low education, single parenthood, unemployment, high income) in 1994. Main outcome measures: The levels of correlation between the health outcomes (mortality and disability) and sosio-economic exposure variables. Main results: The geographical patterns of mortality and disability display substantial similarities and show strong linear correlation with area measures of socio-economic deprivation. The ratios between the highest and lowest area mortality rates were 3.3 for men and 2.1 for women, while the high-low ratios of disability were 7.0 for men and 3.8 for women. For women deprivation measures are better correlated with disability than mortality. While disability and mortality display similar correlations with deprivation measures for men. Conclusions: The social gradients in health are substantial in Oslo. Further ecological analysis of cause specific morbidity and mortality and the distribution of risk factors ought to be done to identify problem areas suitable for interventions. However, to understand the mechanisms and the relative importance of each etiological factor, studies based on individual data have to be performed

  11. Socioeconomic and lifestyle factors associated with chronic conditions among older adults in Ecuador

    Pilar Egez Guevara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore socioeconomic and lifestyle factors associated with the prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions among older adults in Ecuador. METHODS: The sample was drawn from the nationally representative observational cross-sectional data of the Health, Well-Being, and Aging survey conducted in Ecuador in 2009. Logistic regression models were used to explore the association between socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and the prevalence of selected chronic conditions. RESULTS: Older women in Ecuador are more likely than men to have been previously diagnosed with diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and arthritis. Results suggest no difference by education or health insurance on number and type of self-reported chronic conditions. However, older adults who resided in the coastal area were more likely to report having diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke than those in the highlands. Living in rural areas was associated with lower odds of having diabetes and high blood pressure. Compared to white older adults, indigenous older adults were less likely to report having high blood pressure, but more likely to report having arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: Older age in Ecuador is marked by low educational levels and poverty. Female gender and living in coastal areas were associated with higher risks of self-reported chronic conditions.

  12. Risk factors associated with craniosynostosis

    Ardalan, Maryam; H.Rafati, Ali; Nejat, Farideh; Farazmand, Behnood; Majed, Masood; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    Craniosynostosis is a relatively common congenital abnormality. The underlying etiology and most probable risk factors of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis are unknown. We conducted a study to identify the risk factors for craniosynostosis....

  13. Combined effects of socioeconomic position, smoking, and hypertension on risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke

    Nordahl, Helene; Osler, Merete; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva; Overvad, Kim; Diderichsen, Finn; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Combined effects of socioeconomic position and well-established risk factors on stroke incidence have not been formally investigated. METHODS: In a pooled cohort study of 68 643 men and women aged 30 to 70 years in Denmark, we examined the combined effect and interaction......, particularly among men: 134 (95% confidence interval, 49-219) extra cases per 100 000 person-years because of interaction, adjusted for age, cohort study, and birth cohort. There was no clear evidence of interaction between low education and hypertension. The combined effect of current smoking and hypertension...... was more than expected by the sum of their separate effects on ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence. This effect was most pronounced for ischemic stroke among women: 178 (95% confidence interval, 103-253) extra cases per 100 000 person-years because of interaction, adjusted for age, cohort study...

  14. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  15. Spatiotemporal analysis of the relationship between socioeconomic factors and stroke in the Portuguese mainland population under 65 years old

    Andr Oliveira; Antnio J.R. Cabral; Mendes, Jorge M.; Maria R.O. Martins; Pedro Cabral

    2015-01-01

    Stroke risk has been shown to display varying patterns of geographic distribution amongst countries but also between regions of the same country. Traditionally a disease of older persons, a global 25% increase in incidence instead was noticed between 1990 and 2010 in persons aged 20-?64 years, particularly in low- and medium-income countries. Understanding spatial disparities in the association between socioeconomic factors and stroke is critical to target public health initiatives aiming to ...

  16. Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from 222 120 individuals

    Kivimaki, M.; Virtanen, M.; Kawachi, I; Nyberg, ST; Alfredsson, L.; Batty, GD; Bjorner, JB; Borritz, M.; Brunner, EJ; Burr, H.; Dragano, N.; Ferrie, JE; Fransson, EI; Hamer, M.; Heikkila, K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Methods We identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (c...

  17. Socioeconomic status and overweight prevalence in polish adolescents: the impact of single factors and a complex index of socioeconomic status in respect to age and sex.

    Joanna Kowalkowska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex.This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and age was used. The SES was determined by: place of residence, self-declared economic situation, and parental education level. Respondents with low, average or high SES index (SESI were identified. The level of overweight was assessed using Polish and international standards.The odds ratio (OR for overweight prevalence in the oldest girls (aged 17.0-18.9 years with high SESI was 0.34 (95%CI:0.13-0.92; P < 0.05 by Polish standards and 0.22 (95%CI:0.05-0.95; P < 0.05 by international standards, in comparison to the reference group (low SESI. In total girls who had mothers with higher education level, the OR adjusted for age was 0.44 (95%CI:0.21-0.90; P <0.05 by Polish standards and 0.35 (95%CI:0.15-0.81; P < 0.05 by international standards, in comparison to the reference group (maternal elementary education. The other single SES factors were not significant for overweight prevalence.The relationship between socioeconomic status and prevalence of overweight was related to sex and age. The high socioeconomic status strongly lowered the risk of overweight prevalence in the oldest girls, but not in boys, irrespective of age. Maternal education level lowered risk of overweight prevalence in girls.

  18. Spatiotemporal analysis of the relationship between socioeconomic factors and stroke in the Portuguese mainland population under 65 years old

    Andr Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Stroke risk has been shown to display varying patterns of geographic distribution amongst countries but also between regions of the same country. Traditionally a disease of older persons, a global 25% increase in incidence instead was noticed between 1990 and 2010 in persons aged 20-?64 years, particularly in low- and medium-income countries. Understanding spatial disparities in the association between socioeconomic factors and stroke is critical to target public health initiatives aiming to mitigate or prevent this disease, including in younger persons. We aimed to identify socioeconomic determinants of geographic disparities of stroke risk in people <65 years old, in municipalities of mainland Portugal, and the spatiotemporal variation of the association between these determinants and stroke risk during two study periods (1992-1996 and 2002-2006. Poisson and negative binomial global regression models were used to explore determinants of disease risk. Geographically weighted regression (GWR represents a distinctive approach, allowing estimation of local regression coefficients. Models for both study periods were identified. Significant variables included education attainment, work hours per week and unemployment. Local Poisson GWR models achieved the best fit and evidenced spatially varying regression coefficients. Spatiotemporal inequalities were observed in significant variables, with dissimilarities between men and women. This study contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between stroke and socioeconomic factors in the population <65 years of age, one age group seldom analysed separately. It can thus help to improve the targeting of public health initiatives, even more in a context of economic crisis.

  19. Risk factors for cancer

    It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer

  20. SOCIO-ECONOMICS FACTORS INFLUENCING LITERACY IN THE WESTERN SATPURA REGION: A GEOGRAPHICAL STUDY

    R. C. AHIRE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Literacy is a dynamic process. The distribution of literacy is uneven in different parts of a region. The various geographical factors like the nature of relief, amount of rainfall, agricultural productivity, availability of water, accessibility etc. influence the distribution of population. The influence of these factors is clearly seen in the socioeconomic development of the region. This socio-economic development directly and indirectly accelerates the rate of literacy. As the Western Satpura region is socioeconomically less developed, therefore, the proportion of literate population is less and the rate of acceleration is also rather slow.

  1. The Influence of Socio-Economic Factors upon Public Health on the Example of Podkarpackie Voivodship

    Kretowicz Paweł

    2010-01-01

    This study concentrates on intraregional disparities in health and spatial distribution of socio-economic factors that may affect health outcomes. The example of Podkarpackie voivodship rural and urban areas provides viable evidence for at least the partial importance of socio-economic variables in explaining intraregional health disparities. A total of eight factors that influence hospitalization rate were distinguished for urban and rural areas. Global regression models were created using t...

  2. Multidimensional health modeling: Association between socioeconomic and psychosocial factors and health in Latvia

    Irina, Mozhaeva

    2009-01-01

    This research aims at estimating association between socioeconomic and psychosocial factors on the one hand and health in Latvia on the other hand. While information on association between socioeconomic determinants of population health in Latvia is scarce, effect of psychosocial resources on individual health in this country hasn’t been estimated before. We find empirical support for the association between different psychosocial factors and physical health in Latvia. This paper proposes ...

  3. Association between migraine, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors: a population-based cross-sectional study

    Le, Han; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether sex-specific associations exist between migraine, lifestyle or socioeconomic factors. We distinguished between the subtypes migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). In 2002, a questionnaire containing validated questions to diagnose migraine and questions on lifestyle and socioeconomic factors was sent to 46,418 twin individuals residing in Denmark. 31,865 twin individuals aged 20–71 were included. The twins are representative of the Danish population wit...

  4. Stroke - risk factors

    ... Risk of stroke goes up with age. Your gender. Men have a higher risk of getting heart disease than women, except in older adults. Your genes and race. If your parents had a stroke, you are at higher risk. ...

  5. Socioeconomic context in area of living and risk of myocardial infarction: results from Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program (SHEEP)

    Kölegård Stjärne, M; Diderichsen, F; Reuterwall, C; Hallqvist, J

    2002-01-01

    ; class structure, social exclusion and poverty. Among men, there were increased relative risks of similar magnitudes (1.28 to 1.33) in the more deprived areas according to all three dimensions of the socioeconomic context. However, when adjusting for individual exposures, the poverty factor had the......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse if socioeconomic characteristics in area of living affect the risk of myocardial infarction in a Swedish urban population, and to evaluate to what extent the contextual effect is confounded by the individual exposures. DESIGN: A population based case-referent study...... (SHEEP). SETTING: Cases (n=1631) were all incident first events of myocardial infarction during 1992-1994. The study base included all Swedish citizens aged 45-70 years, living in Stockholm metropolitan area during these years. The social context of all metropolitan parishes (n=89) was determined by...

  6. Association of Socioeconomic Factors and Sedentary Lifestyle in Belgrade's Suburb, Working Class Community

    Slavica KONEVIC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sedentary lifestyle represents a growing health problem and considering that there is already a range of unhealthy habits that are marked as health risk factors and the increasing prevalence of sedentary lifestyle worldwide, we aimed to investigate association of sedentary way of living in suburb, working class local community with socioec-onomic determinants such as educational level, occupation and income status.Methods: In this community-based cross-sectional study, 1126 independently functioning adults were enrolled into the study. The study protocol included a complete clinical and biochemical investigation revealing age, gender, lipid status, height, weight and blood pressure. Trained interviewers (nurses collected information from patients about cur-rent state of chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension smoking, medication and other socioeconomic data. Descriptive analysis, Chi-square and logistic regression were performed as statistical calculations.Results: Patients with elementary school were seven times more likely to be classified in category with sedentary life-style compared to patients with college or faculty degree. Being retired and reporting low income were significantly associated with higher odds of sedentary behavior when compared with students and patients with high-income status, respectively.Conclusions: The significance of this study lies in the fact that our results may help to easier identification of patients who may have a tendency towards a sedentary lifestyle.

  7. Socio-Economic Factors, Food Habits and Phosphorus Levels in Patients on Hemodialysis

    Santoro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Hyperphosphoremia is one of the most important risk factors for morbidity and mortality for chronic kidney disease (CKD patients, and also, for the general population. Excessive dietary intake of phosphate (P is one of the key factors. In particular, P in its inorganic form, which is contained in food additives, is more readily absorbed. Unfortunately, these food additives are mostly present in convenience so called “fast foods” (pre-cooked, soft drinks, which represent the typical food consumed by our hemodialysis (HD population, composed by elderly people, mostly low-socio economic class, who often live alone. Objectives We performed an observational retrospective multicenter study to find any association between social, cultural and economic situation, as well as food habits, and P levels in a cohort of patients on HD. Secondarily; we also examined the association between the fast food consumption and increased P levels, as well as patient compliance for P binding products. Patients and Methods To explore the association between socio-economic factors and serum P levels, we enrolled 100 patients on periodic HD treatment from three different units. Information on social, cultural, economic, diet habits, therapy for hyperphosphoremia and hematological and clinical parameters had been collected through specific questionnaires, administered by a physician. Results Results showed serum P level was reduced in patients who live alone compared to patients in family (P = 0.04, in self-sufficient (P = 0.05 and in patients belonging to middle-upper class, versus low-class (P = 0.003. Fast foods intake correlates with increase in P serum levels (P = 0.002, whilst the same correlation was not found for cheese intake. Our data show that socio-economic status and food habits are useful predictors of P serum levels. Conclusions In conclusion, dietary counseling of patients on HD is mandatory. Interventions that consider the socio-economic situation allow delivering important messages on foods with the least amount of P and adequate protein content, and they may be a successful strategy in targeting patients at a higher risk of hyperphosphoremia.

  8. Socioeconomic position and the risk of preterm birth--a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bjørk, Christina; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2008-01-01

    mediating role of selected individual level risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain) were estimated, using Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Mothers with <10 years of education had an elevated risk of preterm birth compared with...... mediate the association. METHODS: The hazard ratios (HR) of preterm birth associated with five different measures of socioeconomic position and three degrees of preterm birth were analysed in a dataset of 75 890 singleton pregnancies (1996-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. This, and the...

  9. Spatiotemporal analysis of the relationship between socioeconomic factors and stroke in the Portuguese mainland population under 65 years old.

    Oliveira, Andr; Cabral, Antnio J R; Mendes, Jorge M; Martins, Maria R O; Cabral, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Stroke risk has been shown to display varying patterns of geographic distribution amongst countries but also between regions of the same country. Traditionally a disease of older persons, a global 25% increase in incidence instead was noticed between 1990 and 2010 in persons aged 20-?64 years, particularly in low- and medium-income countries. Understanding spatial disparities in the association between socioeconomic factors and stroke is critical to target public health initiatives aiming to mitigate or prevent this disease, including in younger persons. We aimed to identify socioeconomic determinants of geographic disparities of stroke risk in people Poisson and negative binomial global regression models were used to explore determinants of disease risk. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) represents a distinctive approach, allowing estimation of local regression coefficients. Models for both study periods were identified. Significant variables included education attainment, work hours per week and unemployment. Local Poisson GWR models achieved the best fit and evidenced spatially varying regression coefficients. Spatiotemporal inequalities were observed in significant variables, with dissimilarities between men and women. This study contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between stroke and socioeconomic factors in the population <65 years of age, one age group seldom analysed separately. It can thus help to improve the targeting of public health initiatives, even more in a context of economic crisis. PMID:26618315

  10. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  11. Substance abuse: risk factors for Turkish youth

    andres j. pumariega

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Substance abuse amongst youth has been growing in developed and developing nations, including Turkey. This growth is related to a number of factors, not the least of which are forces associated with development, globalization, and youth culture. The identification of risk factors for youth substance abuse for particular populations is an important approach to the development of prevention and intervention strategies. Methods: We analyzed the data from a survey of 31,272 youth ages 14 to 18 years enrolled in high schools in Istanbul that covered the use of various substances as well as a number of demographic, socioeconomic, cultural, psychopathological, and psychosocial risk factors. Our data consisted of answers to similar questions that were asked in European School Survey Project (ESPAD, Youth in Europe (YIE, and Monitoring of the Future Survey and the National Household Survey in USA. We used binary logistic regression analyses to generate risk profiles for each of the following categories of lifetime use: tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, other illicit drugs, and multiple (two or more other illicit drugs. Results: We identified statistically significant risk profiles for these different substance categories. All the different risk factor categories contributed variably to the use of gateway drugs (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and other illicits, but the multiple use of other illicit drugs was associated primarily with a narrower set of psychopathological (suicidality, irritability, and antisocial problems and psychosocial variables (family substance abuse and peer inşuence. Conclusions: These risk profiles share some commonality with those found amongst other populations. However, these unique risk profiles for Turkish youth can be useful in developing primary and secondary preventive interventions to address the growing substance use and abuse problems. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, focusing on time trends and risk factors of substance use in youth of emerging countries including Turkey, are needed.

  12. Genetic Risk Factors

    Full Text Available ... of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, causes a greatly increased risk of breast cancer. Zora and her relatives who carry the gene also have an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Interviewer: When there was a ...

  13. Some Socio-economic Factors affecting Solid Wastes Generation and Disposal in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria

    Kayode, A. M.; Omole, F. K.

    2011-01-01

    This study adopted a survey design. Questionnaire was administered on 215 respondents in Ibadan metropolis selected randomly. The objectives of the study are to examined the influence of some socio-economic factors on solid waste generation and disposal in Ibadan Metropolis. The nature and composition of solid waste generated, methods of disposal and relationship that exist between the socio-economic characteristics of the people and solid waste generation and disposal were also identified...

  14. Socioeconomic factors and adolescent pregnancy outcomes: distinctions between neonatal and post-neonatal deaths?

    Flick Louise H; Cook Rebeka; Markovitz Barry P; Leet Terry L

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Young maternal age has long been associated with higher infant mortality rates, but the role of socioeconomic factors in this association has been controversial. We sought to investigate the relationships between infant mortality (distinguishing neonatal from post-neonatal deaths), socioeconomic status and maternal age in a large, retrospective cohort study. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using linked birth-death certificate data for Missouri resident...

  15. Relation between socioeconomic deprivation and pathological prognostic factors in women with breast cancer.

    Carnon, A. G.; Ssemwogerere, A; Lamont, D W; Hole, D. J.; Mallon, E A; George, W.D.; Gillis, G. R.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between socioeconomic deprivation and pathological prognostic factors in women with breast cancer as a possible explanation for socioeconomic differences in survival. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of data from cancer registry and from pathology and biochemistry records. SETTING--Catchment areas of two large teaching hospitals in Glasgow. SUBJECTS--1361 women aged under 75 who had breast cancer diagnosed between 1980 and 1987. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Tumo...

  16. Overweight among Four-Year-Old Children in Relation to Early Growth Characteristics and Socioeconomic Factors

    Staffan Mårild; Jörgen Thorn; Maria Johansson; Maria Waller

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. To assess early growth characteristics and socioeconomic factors of children in relation to body mass index (BMI) and presence of overweight among four-year-old children. Methods. Two Child Health Centres (CHC) participated in the study. They were selected to obtain two populations of children featuring divergent socio-economic characteristics. Growth data registered at the CHCs from birth to the 4-year check-up were recovered. Overweight was defined by the BMI cut-offs establishe...

  17. Musculoskeletal diseases and subsequent onset of need of help to mobility among nondisabled old people. Is the relationship influenced by socio-economic, psychosocial and behavioral factors

    Avlund, Kirsten; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Schroll, Marianne; Osler, Merete; Christensen, Ulla

    2000-01-01

    Social medicine, musculoskeletal diseases, changes, mobility, ageing, functional ability, socio-economic factors, psychosocial factors, behavioral factors......Social medicine, musculoskeletal diseases, changes, mobility, ageing, functional ability, socio-economic factors, psychosocial factors, behavioral factors...

  18. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  19. Is elevated risk of child maltreatment in immigrant families associated with socioeconomic status? Evidence from three sources.

    Alink, Lenneke R A; Euser, Saskia; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2013-01-01

    In this study we tested whether children from Dutch-immigrant families are at increased risk for maltreatment, and if so, what factors could explain this risk. Three data sources from the second Netherlands Prevalence Study of Maltreatment of Youth (NPM-2010) were used to answer these questions. First, 1127 professionals from various occupational branches (sentinels) were asked to report each child (including some background information on the child and family) for whom they suspected child maltreatment during a period of three months. Second, we included the 2010 data from the Dutch Child Protective Services and third, 1759 high school students aged 11-17 years filled out a questionnaire on their experiences of maltreatment in the past year. We found that children from traditional immigrant families with a relatively long migration history in the Netherlands (Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, and Antillean) and from nontraditional immigrant families (African [except Morocco], Eastern European, Central Asian, and South and Central American; often refugees) were at increased risk for child maltreatment compared to native Dutch families. However, in the professionals' and CPS data this risk disappeared for the traditional immigrant families after correction for educational level of the parents and for step-parenthood. Within the group of families with low education or step-parents, the risk for child maltreatment was similar for traditional immigrant families as for native Dutch families. Nontraditional families remained at increased risk after correction for sociodemographic and family factors. In conclusion, we found that children from both traditional and nontraditional immigrant families are at increased risk for maltreatment as compared to children from native Dutch families. For the traditional immigrants this risk could partially be explained by socioeconomic status. This implies that socioeconomic factors should be taken into account when outlining policies to fight child maltreatment. PMID:23597011

  20. Impact of socioeconomic deprivation on screening for cardiovascular disease risk in a primary prevention population: a cross-sectional study

    Abel, Gary A; Mant, Jonathan; Mullis, Ricky

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Investigate the association between socioeconomic deprivation and completeness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor recording in primary care, uptake of screening in people with incomplete risk factor recording and with actual CVD risk within the screened subgroup. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Nine UK general practices. Participants 7987 people aged 50–74 years with no CVD diagnosis. Methods CVD risk was estimated using the Framingham equation from data extracted from primary care electronic health records. Where there was insufficient information to calculate risk, patients were invited to attend a screening assessment. Analysis Proportion of patients for whom clinical data were sufficiently complete to enable CVD risk to be calculated; proportion of patients invited to screening who attended; proportion of patients who attended screening whose 10-year risk of a cardiovascular event was high (>20%). For each outcome, a set of logistic regression models were run. Crude and adjusted ORs were estimated for person-level deprivation, age, gender and smoking status. We included practice-level deprivation as a continuous variable and practice as a random effect to account for clustering. Results People who had lower Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) scores (less deprived) had significantly worse routine CVD risk factor recording (adjusted OR 0.97 (0.95 to 1.00) per IMD decile; p=0.042). Screening attendance was poorer in those with more deprivation (adjusted OR 0.89 (0.86 to 0.91) per IMD decile; p20% (OR 1.09 (1.03 to 1.15) per IMD decile; p=0.004). Conclusions Our data suggest that those who had the most to gain from screening were least likely to attend, potentially exacerbating existing health inequalities. Future research should focus on tailoring the delivery of CVD screening to ensure engagement of socioeconomically deprived groups. PMID:27000783

  1. The Influence Factors and Mechanism of Societal Risk Perception

    Zheng, Rui; Shi, Kan; Li, Shu

    Risk perception is one of important subjects in management psychology and cognitive psychology. It is of great value in the theory and practice to investigate the societal hazards that the public cares a lot especially in Socio-economic transition period. A survey including 30 hazards and 6 risk attributes was designed and distributed to about 2, 485 residents of 8 districts, Beijing. The major findings are listed as following: Firstly, a scale of societal risk perception was designed and 2 factors were identified (Dread Risk & Unknown Risk). Secondly, structural equation model was used to analyze the influence factors and mechanism of societal risk perception. Risk preference, government support and social justice could influence societal risk perception directly. Government support fully moderated the relationship between government trust and societal risk perception. Societal risk perception influenced life satisfaction, public policy preferences and social development belief.

  2. Role Models and the Psychological Characteristics That Buffer Low-Socioeconomic-Status Youth from Cardiovascular Risk

    Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163…

  3. Mental Disorders and Socioeconomic Status: Impact on Population Risk of Attempted Suicide in Australia

    Page, Andrew; Taylor, Richard; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The population attributable risk (PAR) of mental disorders compared to indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) for attempted suicide was estimated for Australia. For mental disorders, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide was for anxiety disorders (males 28%; females 36%). For SES, the highest PAR% for attempted suicide in males was for…

  4. Role Models and the Psychological Characteristics That Buffer Low-Socioeconomic-Status Youth from Cardiovascular Risk

    Chen, Edith; Lee, William K.; Cavey, Lisa; Ho, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Little is understood about why some youth from low-socioeconomic-status (SES) environments exhibit good health despite adversity. This study tested whether role models and "shift-and-persist" approaches (reframing stressors more benignly while persisting with future optimism) protect low-SES youth from cardiovascular risk. A total of 163

  5. An analysis of socio-economic factors on poverty in Nyakallong (Matjhabeng Municipality) / Sefako Samuel Ramphoma

    Ramphoma, Sefako Samuel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation was to analyse the effect of socio-economic factors on poverty in Nyakallong. Nyakallong is a former Black township in the Free State Province of South Africa. The effect of the socio economic factors on poverty was analysed using an econometric model. The analysis was based on data collected by the researcher and three fieldworkers who conducted a survey of 412 households in Nyakallong in 2009. To calculate poverty rates and the effect of socio-economic factors, ...

  6. Socioeconomic Position and HIV Risk-Relevant Behavior Among Lower-Income Heterosexuals in San Francisco

    Arnold, Michael P.; Fisher, H. Raymond; Mcfarland, Willi

    2010-01-01

    We assess whether there is evidence of an association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and HIV risk-relevant behavior among lower income heterosexual men and women in San Francisco. Respondents residing in low income areas with high heterosexual AIDS case burden in San Francisco were recruited through long-chain referral in 2006–2007. Risk measures included unprotected vaginal intercourse, concurrency and exchange sex. SEP was defined as household annual income, per capita income, and emp...

  7. Environmental risk factors and pressures

    In this chapter the physical risk factors (as radiation [air contamination, contamination of the environment components and food contamination], radon and its radioactive decay products, radioactive wastes, noise), chemical risk factors [chemical substances, xenobiotics in the food chain the ozone depletion], wastes (waste generation, waste management, municipal waste management, import, export and transit of waste) and natural an technological hazards (water quality deterioration as a result of various accidents and fire risk) in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed

  8. Coherent measurement of factor risks

    Cherny, A S; Cherny, Alexander S.; Madan, Dilip B.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new procedure for the risk measurement of large portfolios. It employs the following objects as the building blocks: - coherent risk measures introduced by Artzner, Delbaen, Eber, and Heath; - factor risk measures introduced in this paper, which assess the risks driven by particular factors like the price of oil, S&P500 index, or the credit spread; - risk contributions and factor risk contributions, which provide a coherent alternative to the sensitivity coefficients. We also propose two particular classes of coherent risk measures called Alpha V@R and Beta V@R, for which all the objects described above admit an extremely simple empirical estimation procedure. This procedure uses no model assumptions on the structure of the price evolution. Moreover, we consider the problem of the risk management on a firm's level. It is shown that if the risk limits are imposed on the risk contributions of the desks to the overall risk of the firm (rather than on their outstanding risks) and the desks are al...

  9. Social Class Differences in Secular Trends in Established Coronary Risk Factors over 20 Years: A Cohort Study of British Men from 1978–80 to 1998–2000

    Ramsay, S. E.; Whincup, P. H.; Hardoon, S. L.; L. T. Lennon; Morris, R. W.; Wannamethee, S. G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in the UK since the late 1970s has declined more markedly among higher socioeconomic groups. However, little is known about changes in coronary risk factors in different socioeconomic groups. This study examined whether changes in established coronary risk factors in Britain over 20 years between 1978-80 and 1998-2000 differed between socioeconomic groups.Methods and Findings: A socioeconomically representative cohort of 7735 British men aged...

  10. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection

    Egidia MIFTODE

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in adults is the leading cause of chronic disease and cirrhosis. Globally, an estimated 200 million persons are chronically infected with HCV and 3 to 4 million persons are newly infected each year. Improved sanitary and socioeconomic conditions over time have greatly affected the frequency of HCV infection causing a decreased risk of infection along generation. However, the younger population is particularly at risk due to certain practices (use of intravenous drugs, tattooing, piercing known to favor HCV transmission. Such practices often begin during adolescence when awareness of hepatitis C is low. We have conducted a prospective study in which have been included 286 patients with chronic hepatitis C hospitalized in the Clinic Hospital of Infectious Diseases Iasi between 2004 and 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for the acquisition of hepatitis C virus in patients with chronic hepatitis. The study confirms that the most relevant risk factors for the acquisition of HCV are transfusions of blood before 1993 (32% followed by dental procedures (25,5% and health care related procedures (20%. Accidental needlstick, was reported by 16 patients (5,6%. Patients older than 40 years had a significant higher rate of declared risk factors compared with younger patients (p=0,038. The results of this study stress the need of strict adherence to universal precautionary measures. Because the quality of knowledge regarding hepatitis C is very poor among adolescents it would be beneficial for public health a strong intervention to present the most relevant risk factors for the acquisition of this virus.

  11. Risk factors for periodontal disease.

    Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2013-06-01

    Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors for periodontal disease, such as smoking, diabetes and obesity, and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, are relatively common and can be expected to affect most patients with periodontal disease seen in clinics and dental practices. Hence, risk factor identification and management has become a key component of care for periodontal patients. PMID:23574464

  12. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals.

  13. Geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Cambodia: do socioeconomic factors improve predictions?

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an aggregated large-scale analysis due to their large between- and within-village heterogeneity. Specific information of both the infection risk and potential predictors might be needed to obtain any existing association. The presented soil-transmitted helminth infection risk estimates for Cambodia can be used for guiding and evaluating control and elimination efforts. PMID:25205492

  14. SOCIOECONOMIC, CULTURAL, AND BEHAVIORAL FACTORS AFFECTING HISPANIC HEALTH OUTCOMES

    MORALES, LEO S.; Lara, Marielena; Raynard S. Kington; VALDEZ, ROBERT O.; Jos J. Escarce

    2002-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and economic factors are important determinants of health. Yet, despite higher poverty rates, less education, and worse access to health care, health outcomes of many Hispanics living in the United States today are equal to, or better than, those of non-Hispanic whites. This paradox is described in the literature as the epidemiological paradox or Hispanic health paradox. In this paper, the authors selectively review data and research supporting the existence of t...

  15. Teachers' Knowledge of Children's Exposure to Family Risk Factors: Accuracy and Usefulness

    Dwyer, Sarah B.; Nicholson, Jan M.; Battistutta, Diana; Oldenburg, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Teachers' knowledge of children's exposure to family risk factors was examined using the Family Risk Factor Checklist-Teacher. Data collected for 756 children indicated that teachers had accurate knowledge of children's exposure to factors such as adverse life events and family socioeconomic status, which predicted children's mental health…

  16. Are familial factors underlying the association between socioeconomic position and prescription medicine?

    Madsen, Mia; Andersen, Per Kragh; Gerster, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Osler, Merete; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although well established, the association between socioeconomic position and health and health behaviour is not clearly understood, and it has been speculated that familial factors, for example, dispositional factors or exposures in the rearing environment, may be underlying the...... was still strongly associated with income in the intrapair analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Familial factors seem to account for part of the observed social inequality in filling of prescription medicine....

  17. Sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries - international perspectives

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2005-01-01

    Diseases probably have their roots in a complex chain of environmental and behavioural events which are shaped by broader socioeconomic determinants. Most studies of sociobehavioural risk factors in dental caries have been carried out in industrialized countries, but such reports from low- and...... across oral health care systems. The paper highlights the challenges to dental public health practice, particularly the importance of risk assessment in estimating the potential for prevention. In future public health programmes, systematic risk factor assessment may therefore be instrumental in the...... planning and surveillance of oral health promotion and oral disease intervention programmes....

  18. Stroke Hospitalizations and Risk Factors

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA determined rates of acute stroke hospitalization and the prevalence of stroke risk factors among children and young adults hospitalized for acute stroke, 1995-2008.

  19. Stroke Risk Factors and Symptoms

    ... Symptoms Brain Attack Risk Factors for a Stroke Stroke prevention is still the best medicine. The most important treatable conditions linked to stroke are: High blood pressure. Treat it. Eat a ...

  20. The impact of socio-economic factors and incentives on farmers' inestment behaviour

    Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund; Lund, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how socio-economic factors and incentives affect farmers’ investment behaviour. The motivation is a need for a better quantitative knowledge of investment behaviour in order to support farmers’ investment decisions through extension services and public investment support...

  1. CONTRIBUTION OF SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS TO REPRODUCTIVE TRACT INFECTIONS AND INFERTILITY IN RURAL INDIA

    Minakeshi; Virender Mohan; Surinder Kumar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to find out how socioeconomic, cultural, educational and religious factors play a role in causation of RTI/STD. STUDY DESIGN: This study was conducted at Gynae, OPD of Dist. Hospital Samba, Jammu, J&K. 200 patients coming for infertility check u p and treatment between Feb. 2013 to Jan. 2014 were inclu...

  2. New Perspectives on the Correlation of SAT Scores, High School Grades, and Socioeconomic Factors

    Zwick, Rebecca; Greif Green, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    In studies of the SAT, correlations of SAT scores, high school grades, and socioeconomic factors (SES) are usually obtained using a university as the unit of analysis. This approach obscures an important structural aspect of the data: The high school grades received by a given institution come from a large number of high schools, all of which have…

  3. Linking Socioeconomic Status to Social Cognitive Career Theory Factors: A Partial Least Squares Path Modeling Analysis

    Huang, Jie-Tsuen; Hsieh, Hui-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of socioeconomic status (SES) in predicting social cognitive career theory (SCCT) factors. Data were collected from 738 college students in Taiwan. The results of the partial least squares (PLS) analyses indicated that SES significantly predicted career decision self-efficacy (CDSE);

  4. The role of climate and socioeconomic factors on the spatiotemporal variability of cholera in Nigeria

    Abdussalam, Auwal; Thornes, John; Leckebusch, Gregor

    2015-04-01

    Nigeria has a number of climate-sensitive infectious diseases; one of the most important of these diseases that remains a threat to public health is cholera. This study investigates the influences of both meteorological and socioeconomic factors on the spatiotemporal variability of cholera in Nigeria. A stepwise multiple regression models are used to estimate the influence of the year-to-year variations of cholera cases and deaths for individual states in the country and as well for three groups of states that are classified based on annual rainfall amount. Specifically, seasonal mean maximum and minimum temperatures and annual rainfall totals were analysed with annual aggregate count of cholera cases and deaths, taking into account of the socioeconomic factors that are potentially enhancing vulnerability such as: absolute poverty, adult literacy, access to pipe borne water and population density. Result reveals that the most important explanatory meteorological and socioeconomic variables in explaining the spatiotemporal variability of the disease are rainfall totals, seasonal mean maximum temperature, absolute poverty, and accessibility to pipe borne water. The influences of socioeconomic factors appeared to be more pronounced in the northern part of the country, and vice-versa in the case of meteorological factors. Also, cross validated models output suggests a strong possibility of disease prediction, which will help authorities to put effective control measures in place which depend on prevention, and or efficient response.

  5. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; á Rogvi, Sofie; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Per Kragh; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Design Cohort study. Setting 1996–2002, Denmark. Participants All first time participants, a total of 89 829 pregnant women, enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were included in the present study. Overall, 4062 pregnancies ended in spontaneous abortion. Information on education, income and labour market attachment in the year before pregnancy was dra...

  6. Parkinson's disease: A risk factor for osteoporosis.

    Malochet-Guinamand, Sandrine; Durif, Franck; Thomas, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease. On the long term, it may be complicated by various musculoskeletal problems, such as osteoporotic fractures, that have significant socioeconomic consequences. Indeed, patients suffering from Parkinson's disease have a higher fracture risk, particularly hip fracture risk, than other subjects of the same age because of both a higher risk of falls and lower bone mineral density. Bone loss in Parkinson's disease may be associated with the severity and duration of the disease. We review here the different suspected mechanisms of accelerated bone loss in Parkinson's disease, amongst which weight loss and reduced mobility appear to play key roles. Antiparkinsonian drugs, particularly levodopa, may also be associated with decreased bone mineral density as a result of hyperhomocysteinaemia. We discuss the role of other nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin B12, folate or vitamin K. In conclusion, it seems necessary to screen for and treat osteoporosis in this at-risk population, while actions to prevent falls are still disappointing. A better understanding of the factors explaining bone loss in this population would help implementing preventive actions. PMID:26453100

  7. Growth evaluation of a group of children enrolled in public schools in Rabat, Morocco: the role of socioeconomic factors

    Cherkaoui Dekkaki I

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Imane Cherkaoui Dekkaki,1 Said Ettair,1 Toufik Meskini,1 Nabil Khalloufi,2 Nezha Mouane,1 Amina Barkat21Unité de Pédagogie et de Recherche en Nutrition, 2CRECET, Université Mohammed V, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie de Rabat, Souissi, Rabat, MoroccoObjectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and the socioeconomic risk factors among children enrolled in primary public schools in Rabat, Morocco.Methods: Twenty-three schools were randomly selected. A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2010. The survey was conducted on the basis of two questionnaires for both parents and children. The references used were from the World Health Organization, 2007.Results: Our study focused on a sample of 1569 children whose average age was 9.7 ± 0.95 years. The prevalence of underweight among girls and boys was 43.1%, while that of stunting was 18.2%. The majority of the children in our population come from a low socioeconomic level. While 59% of fathers are laborers, 85% of mothers are unemployed.Conclusion: In our study, we demonstrated that child malnutrition is strongly linked to a low socioeconomic level. These observations suggest that besides income, schooling and food quality may also be important factors that can affect growth. Educational programs, whether held in schools or informally, such as literacy or parenting classes, are valuable complements to other nutrition sustaining activities.Keywords: underweight, stunting, malnutrition, children, low socioeconomic level

  8. Creativity as a Factor for Socio-economic Development of Polish Regions

    Kola-Bezka, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to verify the hypothesis that creativity is an important factor for socio-economic development of Polish regions. The first part of the paper clarifies the idea of regional creativity, its factors and method of measurement. Following two parts present meth­odology and results of the research concerning creativity and development which uses multi­variate comparative analysis. The next one examines relationship between these phenomena. The research revealed that there is stron...

  9. Socio-economic Factors for Ensuring Accessibility to Higher Education in Latvia

    Daina Vasiļevska

    2014-01-01

    Abstract of the Doctoral Thesis The aim of the doctoral thesis “Socio-Economic Factors for Ensuring Accessibility to Higher Education in Latvia” is to explore, on the basis of scientific literature and statistical data analysis, the key socio-economic factors (or conditions) in accessibility to higher education and to assess the significance of their impact. In the first chapter, the author has analyzed the scientific literature on accessibility to higher education published over the last ...

  10. Socio-Economic Factors in Measuring the Demand for Residential Neighbourhood in Nigeria

    Babatunde Femi Akinyode; Tareef Hayat Khan; Abdullah Sani Bin Hj Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Socio-economic factor plays an important role in housing decision making through which demand for housingtypes and residential neighbourhood are made. This study aims at examining the relationship betweensocio-economic factors and the demand for residential neighbourhood in Nigeria within the context of Ibadanurban cenre. The study utilised the quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative approach was employed bythe administration of questionnaire among 494 respondents while the qualita...

  11. Regional and geographical variations in infertility: effects of environmental, cultural, and socioeconomic factors.

    Leke, R J; Oduma, J A; Bassol-Mayagoitia, S; Bacha, A M; Grigor, K. M.

    1993-01-01

    Fertility is affected by many different cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors, especially in developing countries where poverty and infections are commonplace. Environmental factors play a major role in infertility in Africa. One of the most important health problems in sub-Saharan Africa is the high rate of infertility and childlessness. The African society has a strong traditional heritage, and the study of the patterns of infertility in this part of the world would be incomple...

  12. Association between sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic factors, diet and lifestyle among the Balearic Islands adolescents

    Bibiloni Maria del Mar; Pich Jordi; Córdova Alfredo; Pons Antoni; Tur Josep A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many different factors influenced food habits and physical activity patterns of adolescents in a complex interactive way. The aim of this study was to assess association between sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic factors, diet and lifestyle among the Balearic Islands adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n = 1961; 12–17 years old) was carried out. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents (IPAQ-A). Se...

  13. Children's health and parental socioeconomic factors: a population-based survey in Finland

    Savolainen Piia H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in health are a global problem, not only among the adult population but also among children. However, studies concerning young children especially are rare. The aim of this study was to describe the health of Finnish children under 12 years of age, and the socioeconomic factors associated with health. The socioeconomic factors were parental education level, household net income, and working status. Methods A population-based survey among Finnish children aged under 12 years (n = 6,000 was conducted in spring 2007. A questionnaire was sent to parents, and a response rate of 67% was achieved. Each child's health was explored by asking a parent to report the child's health status on a 5-point Likert scale, current symptoms from a symptoms list, and current disease(s diagnosed by a physician. The final three outcome measures were poor health, the prevalences of psychosomatic symptoms, and long-term diseases. Data were analysed using Pearson's Chi-Square tests, and logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. P-values ?0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results In total, 3% of parents reported that their child's health status was poor. The prevalences of psychosomatic symptoms and long-term diseases were both 11%. The probability for poor health status was lowest among children aged 3-6 and 7-11 years, and for psychosomatic symptoms among 3-6-year-old children, whereas the odds ratios for long-term diseases was highest among children aged 7-11 years. Parental socioeconomic factors were not associated with the children's health. Conclusions Most of the children were reported by their parent to have good health status, and approximately one tenth had experienced some psychosomatic symptoms or long-term diseases. Our study suggests that parental socioeconomic factors are not associated with the health of children aged under 12 years in Finland.

  14. Socioeconomic and clinical factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in Brazilian preschool children

    Chaiana Piovesan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to assess the epidemiology of traumatic dental injury (TDI in preschool children and its relation to socioeconomic and clinical factors. This study was carried out in Santa Maria, Brazil, during National Children's Vaccination Day, and 441 children aged 12 to 59 months were included. Data about socioeconomic status were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to parents. Calibrated examiners evaluated the prevalence of TDI, overjet, and lip coverage. Data were analyzed with a Poisson regression model (PR; 95% confidence intervals. The TDI prevalence was 31.7%. The maxillary central incisors were the most frequently traumatized teeth. The most common TDI was enamel fracture. No association was found between TDI prevalence and the socioeconomic status of children. After adjustments were performed, the eldest children with an overjet > 3 mm were more likely to have TDI than their counterparts. The data indicated a high prevalence of TDI. Only overjet was a strong predictor for TDI, whereas socioeconomic factors were not associated with TDI in this age group.

  15. Socio-Economic Factors in Measuring the Demand for Residential Neighbourhood in Nigeria

    Babatunde Femi Akinyode

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economic factor plays an important role in housing decision making through which demand for housingtypes and residential neighbourhood are made. This study aims at examining the relationship betweensocio-economic factors and the demand for residential neighbourhood in Nigeria within the context of Ibadanurban cenre. The study utilised the quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative approach was employed bythe administration of questionnaire among 494 respondents while the qualitative aspect dealt with directinterviews through the use of unstructured questionnaire among 27 participants. Correlation, regression andcontent analyses were used to evaluate the results of the methods. The findings revealed that, these factors have agreat influence on the social status of housing consumers and affect their demand for residential neighbourhood.In conclusion, the demand for residential neighbourhood in Ibadan urban centre has the potential to be explainedby the socio-economic status such as; educational level, employment status, official status and monthly incomeof housing consumers.

  16. Spatial Distribution of Dengue in a Brazilian Urban Slum Setting: Role of Socioeconomic Gradient in Disease Risk

    Kikuti, Mariana; Cunha, Geraldo M.; Paploski, Igor A. D.; Kasper, Amelia M.; Silva, Monaise M. O.; Tavares, Aline S.; Cruz, Jaqueline S.; Queiroz, Tssia L.; Rodrigues, Moreno S.; Santana, Perla M.; Lima, Helena C. A. V.; Calcagno, Juan; Takahashi, Daniele; Gonalves, Andr H. O.; Arajo, Joslio M. G.; Gauthier, Kristine; Diuk-Wasser, Maria A.; Kitron, Uriel; Ko, Albert I.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies of dengue have shown group-level associations between demographic, socioeconomic, or geographic characteristics and the spatial distribution of dengue within small urban areas. This study aimed to examine whether specific characteristics of an urban slum community were associated with the risk of dengue disease. Methodology/Principal Findings From 01/2009 to 12/2010, we conducted enhanced, community-based surveillance in the only public emergency unit in a slum in Salvador, Brazil to identify acute febrile illness (AFI) patients with laboratory evidence of dengue infection. Patient households were geocoded within census tracts (CTs). Demographic, socioeconomic, and geographical data were obtained from the 2010 national census. Associations between CTs characteristics and the spatial risk of both dengue and non-dengue AFI were assessed by Poisson log-normal and conditional auto-regressive models (CAR). We identified 651 (22.0%) dengue cases among 2,962 AFI patients. Estimated risk of symptomatic dengue was 21.3 and 70.2 cases per 10,000 inhabitants in 2009 and 2010, respectively. All the four dengue serotypes were identified, but DENV2 predominated (DENV1: 8.1%; DENV2: 90.7%; DENV3: 0.4%; DENV4: 0.8%). Multivariable CAR regression analysis showed increased dengue risk in CTs with poorer inhabitants (RR: 1.02 for each percent increase in the frequency of families earning ?1 times the minimum wage; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04), and decreased risk in CTs located farther from the health unit (RR: 0.87 for each 100 meter increase; 95% CI: 0.80-0.94). The same CTs characteristics were also associated with non-dengue AFI risk. Conclusions/Significance This study highlights the large burden of symptomatic dengue on individuals living in urban slums in Brazil. Lower neighborhood socioeconomic status was independently associated with increased risk of dengue, indicating that within slum communities with high levels of absolute poverty, factors associated with the social gradient influence dengue transmission. In addition, poor geographic access to health services may be a barrier to identifying both dengue and non-dengue AFI cases. Therefore, further spatial studies should account for this potential source of bias. PMID:26196686

  17. Macular Degeneration Prevention and Risk Factors

    ... up You can help find a cure for macular degeneration Give now Prevention & Risk Factors Medical experts are ... preventing macular degeneration Risk Factors for Age-Related Macular Degeneration Age The number one risk factor is age. ...

  18. Associations of Motor Developmental Risks with the Socioeconomic Status of Preschool Children in North-Eastern Germany

    Annika Gottschling-Lang; Marco Franze; Wolfgang Hoffmann

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The study is part of the pilot project “children in preschools” and aims to detect developmental risks of preschool children in the context of their socioeconomic status (SES) as a base to initiate individual intervention strategies. Methods. The “Dortmund Developmental Screening for the Kindergarten” was used in 12 preschools in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (MWP) to detect early developmental risks in children aged 3 to 6 years (n=870). Socioeconomic data from n=530 parents were colle...

  19. Scenarios for the risk of hunger in the twenty-first century using Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are being developed internationally for cross-sectoral assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. These are five scenarios that include both qualitative and quantitative information for mitigation and adaptation challenges to climate change. In this study, we quantified scenarios for the risk of hunger in the 21st century using SSPs, and clarified elements that influence future hunger risk. There were two primary findings: (1) risk of hunger in the 21st-century greatly differed among five SSPs; and (2) population growth, improvement in the equality of food distribution within a country, and increases in food consumption mainly driven by income growth greatly influenced future hunger risk and were important elements in its long-term assessment. (letter)

  20. Scenarios for the risk of hunger in the twenty-first century using Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    Hasegawa, Tomoko; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) are being developed internationally for cross-sectoral assessments of climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation. These are five scenarios that include both qualitative and quantitative information for mitigation and adaptation challenges to climate change. In this study, we quantified scenarios for the risk of hunger in the 21st century using SSPs, and clarified elements that influence future hunger risk. There were two primary findings: (1) risk of hunger in the 21st-century greatly differed among five SSPs; and (2) population growth, improvement in the equality of food distribution within a country, and increases in food consumption mainly driven by income growth greatly influenced future hunger risk and were important elements in its long-term assessment.

  1. CONTRIBUTION OF SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS TO REPRODUCTIVE TRACT INFECTIONS AND INFERTILITY IN RURAL INDIA

    Minakeshi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to find out how socioeconomic, cultural, educational and religious factors play a role in causation of RTI/STD. STUDY DESIGN: This study was conducted at Gynae, OPD of Dist. Hospital Samba, Jammu, J&K. 200 patients coming for infertility check u p and treatment between Feb. 2013 to Jan. 2014 were included in the study. It was an observational cross - sectional study. A pretested, semi - structured questionnaire was administered which included information about demographic, socioeconomic profile, menstrual and sexual practices, obstetrics treatment and family history. Complaints suggestive of RTI/STI were noted. RESULTS: Maximum incidence of RTI/STI was observed in th e age group 25 – 30 years. RTI/STI was more in illiterate patients (64 as compared to literate patients (53 % . A negative correlation between income and prevalence of RTI was found. Prevalence of RTI was slightly more in patients from joint families (67 % as compared to women from nuclear families ( 33%. Similarly people living in Kutcha houses showed more prevalence of RTI ( 66% as compared to pucca houses ( 48%. Correlation between RTI and housing was not significant (p > 0.005 . Tap water supplied residents showed less prevalence of RTI 50% as compared to hand pump using residents 65%, however, correlation was not statistically significant (p > 0.05 . The incidence of RTI was 54% in daily bathers and among irregular bathers, the incidence was 66%. The prevalence of RTI was 54%in regular wearers of underwear whereas in irregular wearers the prevalence was 75%. Genital hygiene correlation, the prevalence of RTI in pad users was 42.8% whereas the prevalence in non – pad users was 61%. There was statistically significant correlation between the use of rag during menses and the prevalence of RTI. RTI was more prevalent (64.8 % in women sharing toilets with others while same was 45.6% in women among having separate toilet facilities. CONCLUSION: RTI/STI is increasing worldwide. HIV and RTI/STI share the same mode of transmission and the persons suffering from STI/RTI practice the risk behavior which increases the probability of acquiring HIV. There is great need to develop strategies for awareness generation and management of these diseases

  2. Potential Risk Factors for Schizophrenia

    Burçin N. AKAL

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that affects the individualin various ways. Many risk factors have been suggested in the emergenceof the illness. The aim of this study is to identify the potential risk factors forschizophrenia considering the characteristics of patients.Methods: The study included 164 patients diagnosed with schizophreniaaccording to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, FourthEdition (DSM-IV diagnostic criteria and a control group consisting of a matchingnumber of healthy people. The subjects were given questionnaire formson potential risk factors (prenatal and postnatal, sociodemographic, illnessrelatedinformation. Student’s t-test, chi-square test and logistic regressionanalysis were used to evaluate the data.Results: Significant differences were identified between the patient group andhealthy control group in terms of: for the mother- use of medication , history ofinflammatory disease, or a psychical or physical trauma during pregnancy;-for the patient- being born in hospital, prolonged delivery, growth during childhood,relatives with a history of schizophrenia, and school history. Among thesubtypes of schizophrenia, significant differences were identified in terms ofeducational level, birth rank and school history.Conclusion: Identification of the potential risk factors for schizophrenia and ofsubjects at risk will provide important individual and social advantages, such associal health, health expenses and protection of individuals and society from theadverse effects of schizophrenia. (Archives of Neuropsychiatry 2010; 47: 230-6

  3. A Study Of Risk Factors Of Diabetes Mellitus

    Banerjee P

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A case control study of risk factors of Diabetes Mellitus was carried out among 75 diabetic cases attending the clinic, and an equal number of matched controls from inpatients of the surgical department of R .G Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Diabetes Mellitus was found significantly higher among those persons having family history of similar illness, belonging to the socio-economic class (Kuppuwami’s classification and non-vegetarian dietary habit.

  4. A Study Of Risk Factors Of Diabetes Mellitus

    Banerjee P; Ghosh M M; Biswas R; Bhattacharya S K

    1993-01-01

    A case control study of risk factors of Diabetes Mellitus was carried out among 75 diabetic cases attending the clinic, and an equal number of matched controls from inpatients of the surgical department of R .G Kar Medical College, Calcutta. Diabetes Mellitus was found significantly higher among those persons having family history of similar illness, belonging to the socio-economic class (Kuppuwamiâ€s classification) and non-vegetarian dietary habit.

  5. Risk factors and diabetic retinopathy

    Vahid Jusufovi?

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between risk factors and diabetic retinopathy, which is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries for patients aged 20 to 65.We compared risk factors between patients without retinopathy, with non-proliferate and with proliferate retinopathy (p< 0.05. Duration of diabetes is most important for the development of retinopathy. Hyperglycaemia and high blood pressure are important for progression. Better control of blood sugar and elevated blood pressure can reduce progression of retinopathy and riskof vision loss.

  6. [Risk factors in problem children].

    Gerstl, W

    1985-06-30

    Results of a study on 2000 children an adolescents with behavioural and psychosomatic disorders, who were treated by the department of neuropsychiatry, Kinderspital Linz, are presented. After the formation of a new station for neuropsychiatry in child and adolescent age we constituted a interdisciplinary teamwork for ambulatory and stationary treatment. This team consists of psychologists, educators and specialized staff. All kinds of neuropsychiatric diseases are to treat, the catamnesis include their prenatal risk factors and all disturbances of development. We tried to correlate the preexistent risk factors with actual troubles and found that intervention would have been possible long before the disturbance in child was apparent (5, 3). PMID:4036142

  7. Intake of wholegrain products is associated with dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric and socio-economic factors in Denmark

    Egeberg, Rikke; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Olsen, Anja; Johnsen, Nina F; Loft, Steffen; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2009-01-01

    collected by trained professionals. Multiple linear and principal components regression analyses were used in statistical analyses. SETTING: Part of the Diet, Cancer and Health study, a prospective cohort study to evaluate the aetiological role of diet on cancer risk, conducted in the greater Copenhagen and...... identified by principal components analysis yielded similar results. Also, wholegrain products intake was positively associated with cycling, taking dietary supplements and high school education, and negatively associated with intake of alcohol, BMI and smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Intake of wholegrain products is...... associated with other dietary factors, healthier lifestyle habits and higher socio-economic status. Therefore future studies need to account for the possible confounding by other dietary and lifestyle-related parameters when investigating relationships between wholegrain products intake and disease risk....

  8. Assessing Freshwater Ecosystem Service Risk over Ecological, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Gradients: Problem Space Characterization and Methodology

    Harmon, T. C.; Villamizar, S. R.; Conde, D.; Rusak, J.; Reid, B.; Astorga, A.; Perillo, G. M.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zilio, M.; London, S.; Velez, M.; Hoyos, N.; Escobar, J.

    2014-12-01

    Freshwater ecosystems and the services they provide are under increasing anthropogenic pressure at local (e.g., irrigation diversions, wastewater discharge) and global scales (e.g., climate change, global trading). The impact depends on an ecosystem's sensitivity, which is determined by its geophysical and ecological settings, and the population and activities in its surrounding watershed. Given the importance of ecosystem services, it is critical that we improve our ability to identify and understand changes in aquatic ecosystems, and translate them to risk of service loss. Furthermore, to inspire changes in human behavior, it is equally critical that we learn to communicate risk, and pose risk mitigation strategies, in a manner acceptable to a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Quantifying the nature and timing of the risk is difficult because (1) we often fail to understand the connection between anthropogenic pressures and the timing and extent of ecosystem changes; and (2) the concept of risk is inherently coupled to human perception, which generally differs with cultural and socio-economic conditions. In this study, we endeavor to assess aquatic ecosystem risks across an international array of six study sites. The challenge is to construct a methodology capable of capturing the marked biogeographical, socioeconomic, and cultural differences among the sites, which include: (1) Muskoka River watershed in humid continental Ontario, Canada; (2) Lower San Joaquin River, an impounded snow-fed river in semi-arid Central California; (3) Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, a tropical coastal lagoon in Colombia; (4) Senguer River basin in the semi-arid part of Argentina; (5) Laguna de Rocha watershed in humid subtropical Uruguay; and (6) Palomas Lake complex in oceanic Chilean Patagonia. Results will include a characterization of the experimental gradient over the six sites, an overview of the risk assessment methodology, and preliminary findings for several of the sites.

  9. Individual, life events, family and socio-economic factors associated with young people with intellectual disability and with and without behavioural/emotional problems.

    Taggart, L; Taylor, D; McCrum-Gardner, E

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a range of individual, life events, family and socio-economic factors associated with young people with intellectual disabilities and with and without behavioural/emotional problems. Teachers in 16 schools in one region of the UK completed a postal questionnaire on 249 young people with intellectual disabilities aged between 11 and 19 years. There were two groups: 155 young people with behavioural/emotional issues, and 94 without. Using a binary logistic regression analysis, a number of individual, life events, family and socio-economic risk factors were found to be significantly associated with emotional/behavioural problems. The results are discussed alongside findings from other studies. The importance of a multidimensional assessment is highlighted, as well as the interdependent nature of the risk factors. PMID:21285121

  10. Psychological distress, health, and socio-economic factors in caregivers of terminally ill patients

    Nielsen, Mette Kjaergaard; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Bro, Flemming; Guldin, Mai-Britt

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, caregiver studies with a population-based approach are needed. We aimed to describe socio-economic characteristics, situational factors, pre-loss grief symptoms, depressive symptoms, caregiver burden, and health status in a general population of caregivers to terminally ill patients. METHOD: We...... conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study. Caregivers were systematically recruited through patients registered with drug reimbursement for terminal illness in 2012. Data on socio-economic characteristics was mainly obtained from Danish registries, whereas data on situational factors, distress...... % reported severe pre-loss grief symptoms, 16.1 % had moderate to severe depressive symptoms, and 12 % experienced high caregiver burden. Partners had the highest levels of pre-loss grief and depressive symptoms, while adult children reported the highest levels of caregiver burden. CONCLUSIONS: From this...

  11. Behavioural, physical and socio-economic factors in household cooling energy consumption

    As global warming continues, the current trend implies that the uptake of air conditioning in the residential sector will go up, thus potentially increasing domestic cooling energy consumption. In this context, this paper investigates the significance of behavioural, physical and socio-economic parameters on cooling energy in order to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings. It demonstrates that such factors exert a significant indirect as well as direct influence on energy use, showing that it is particularly important to understand indirect relationships. An initial study of direct factors affecting cooling energy reveals that occupant behaviour is the most significant issue (related to choices about how often and where air conditioning is used). This is broadly confirmed by path analysis, although climate is seen to be the single most significant parameter, followed by behavioural issues, key physical parameters (e.g. air conditioning type), and finally socio-economic aspects (e.g. household income).

  12. Risk factors for persistent diarrhoea.

    Shahid, N S; Sack, D. A.; Rahman, M.; Alam, A. N.; Rahman, N.

    1988-01-01

    With a systematically sampled population of children aged under 5 attending this centre for diarrhoeal disease research during 1983-5 a retrospective analysis of persistent diarrhoea (defined as greater than 14 days' duration) was performed to identify the possible risk factors for this syndrome. Of the 4155 children included in the analysis, 410 (10%) gave a history of persistent diarrhoea. A comparison with children with acute diarrhoea matched for age showed that 11 factors were correlated...

  13. Sexual harassment: identifying risk factors.

    O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W

    1998-12-01

    A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures. PMID:9883305

  14. Modeling the Travel Behavior Impacts of Micro-Scale Land Use and Socio-Economic Factors

    Houshmand Ebrahimpour Masoumi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of neighborhood-level land use characteristics on urban travel behavior of Iranian cities are under-researched. The present paper examines such influences in a microscopic scale. In this study the role of socio-economic factors is also studies and compared to that of urban form. Two case-study neighborhoods in west of Tehran are selected and considered, first of which is a centralized and compact neighborhood and the other is a sprawled and centerless one. A Multinomial Logit Regression model is developed to consider the effects of socio-economic and land use factors on urban travel pattern. In addition, to consider the effective factors, cross-sectional comparison between the influences of local accessibility and attractiveness of the neighborhood centers of the two case-study areas are undertaken. Also the causality relationships are considered according to the findings of the survey. The findings indicate significant effects of age and household income as socio-economic factors on transportation mode choice in neighborhoods with central structure. One the other hand, no meaningful association between socio-economic or land use variables are resulted by the model for the sprawled case. The most effective land use concept in micro-scale is considered to be satisfaction of entertainment facilities of the neighborhood. Also the descriptive findings show that the centralized neighborhood that gives more local accessibility to shops and retail generates less shopping trips. In considering the causal relations, the study shows that providing neighborhood infrastructures that increase or ease the accessibility to neighborhood amenities can lead to higher shares of sustainable transportation modes like walking, biking, or public transportation use.

  15. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

    Peter A. Ekunwe; FIONA O. OGBEIDE

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets) in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. ...

  16. Effects on birth weight of smoking, alcohol, caffeine, socioeconomic factors, and psychosocial stress.

    Brooke, O G; Anderson, H. R.; Bland, J. M.; Peacock, J. L.; Stewart, C. M.

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the effects of smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and socio-economic factors and psychosocial stress on birth weight. DESIGN--Prospective population study. SETTING--District general hospital in inner London. PARTICIPANTS--A consecutive series of 1860 white women booking for delivery were approached. 136 Refused and 211 failed to complete the study for other reasons (moved, abortion, subsequent refusal), leaving a sample of 1513. Women who spoke no English, bo...

  17. Socio-economic factors associated with delivery assisted by traditional birth attendants in Iraq, 2000

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel; Muula Adamson S.; Siziya Seter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) are likely to deliver lower quality maternity care compared to professional health workers. It is important to characterize women who are assisted by TBAs in order to design interventions specific to such groups. We thus conducted a study to assess if socio-economic status and demographic factors are associated with having childbirth supervised by traditional birth attendants in Iraq. Methods Iraqi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS...

  18. The Effect of Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors on Contraceptive Use and Induced Abortion in Turkey

    Ozlem Alpu; Gunseli Kurt

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the parameters of the heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model established for the induced abortion and the contraceptive use by using socioeconomic and demographic factors and their effects by eliminating the observed heteroscedasticity. Using a heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model and Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (1998) data on married women aged 15 through 49 years, we estimated the probabilities of their having an induced abortion, if induced ...

  19. Contribution of Psychosocial Factors to the Association between Socioeconomic Position and Takeaway Food Consumption

    Miura, Kyoko; Turrell, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether psychosocial factors mediate (explain) the association between socioeconomic position and takeaway food consumption. Design A cross-sectional postal survey conducted in 2009. Setting Participants reported their usual consumption of 22 takeaway food items, and these were grouped into a “healthy” and “less healthy” index based on each items' nutritional properties. Principal Components Analysis was used to derive three psychosocial scales that measured beliefs about...

  20. Potential socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with sexual dissatisfaction among men and women

    Anquetil, M.; Baumann, Michèle

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the associations between potential socio-economic and lifestyle factors with sexual dissatisfaction and gender disparities in north-eastern France. In total 6216 subjects (randomly selected subjects completed a postal questionnaire gathering socio-demographic characteristics, occupation, living alone, income, tobacco use, alcohol abuse (Deta questionnaire), heath status, fatigue, sleep disorders, diseases, depression/sadness and sexual dissatisfaction. Data were analyzed u...

  1. Pathways linking socioeconomic status to obesity through depression and lifestyle factors among young US adults

    Beydoun, May A; Wang, Youfa

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and depression are two diseases of major public health importance. While both correlate with each other, potential pathways involving depression that would link socioeconomic status (SES) to lifestyle factors and obesity have not been systematically examined using nationally representative data. Using rich data on 2,217 US young adults aged 20–39 years from the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) and multivariate linear and logistic regression models, we examined ...

  2. Study on the water related disaster risks using the future socio-economic scenario in Asia

    Kiguchi, M.; Hatono, M.; Ikeuchi, H.; Nakamura, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, flood risks in the present and the end of the 21st century in Asia are estimated using a future socio-economic scenario. Using the runoff data of 7 GCMs (RCP 8.5) of CMIP5, the river discharge, inundation area, and inundation depth are calculated for the assessment of flood risk. Finally, the flood risk is estimated using a function of damage. The flood frequency in the end of the 21st century in Asia tends to increase. Inundation area in Japan, Taiwan, and Kyrgyz is almost unchanged. At the same time, that in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Laos, and Myanmar reached about 1.4-1.6 times compared to present. Damage cost is largely influenced by economic growth, however, we show that it is important that we distinguish the influence of climate change from economic development and evaluate it when we think about an adaptation.

  3. Detecting Risk Factor of Diseases

    Zvárová, Jana

    1995-01-01

    Roč. 15, 1/2 (1995), s. 203-212. ISSN 0208-5216. [Seminar on Statistics and Clinical Practice. Warsaw, 20.06.1994-23.06.1994] Keywords : risk factors * genetics * association * epidemilogy * measures of association * screening * genetics

  4. Risk factors for eating disorders

    Monterrosa-Castro Álvaro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: eating disorders (ED are characterized by the excessive worry aboutphysical appearance. They have high incidence in young population with more frequencyin women than in men.Objective: to identify the risk factors for ED.Methods: thematic review of publications in which are described and evaluated thedifferent risk factors to develop ED. It was done an electronic search since 1984 to2011, in english and spanish, in which were included all the methods of publications.There were reviewed the summaries to find the complete articles that treated about riskfactors associate with the development of the ED.Results: there were found 48203 about ED. 96 tried specifically about risk factors. 35(36.4% complete articles were obtained and the review was done with them.Conclusion: principal risk factors are: To be an adolescent, woman, to have distortedperception of the corporal image and the use of diet to lose weight. Rev.cienc.biomed.2012;3(2:300-305

  5. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Alves, Luis; Bobak, Martin; Bongard, Vanina; Clays, Els; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Elosua, Roberto; Ferrieres, Jean; Guessous, Idris; Igland, Jannicke; Jørgensen, Torben; Nikitin, Yuri; O'Doherty, Mark G; Palmieri, Luigi; Ramos, Rafel; Simons, Judith; Sulo, Gerhard; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vila, Joan; Barros, Henrique; Borglykke, Anders; Conen, David; De Bacquer, Dirk; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Giampaoli, Simona; Giles, Graham G; Iacoviello, Licia; Kee, Frank; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Marrugat, Jaume; Prescott, Eva; Ruidavets, Jean Bernard; Scragg, Robert; Simons, Leon A; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Tell, Grethe S; Vollenweider, Peter; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist cir...

  6. Impact of socioeconomic factors on nutritional status in primary school children

    Child malnutrition is a major public health and development concern in most of the poor communities leading to high morbidity and mortality. Various studies have highlighted the factors involved. The present study focuses on socioeconomic inequality resulting in malnutrition. Objectives of the Study were to find the Impact of socio-economic factors on nutritional status in primary school children. Methods: It was a cross sectional survey conducted at Lahore from February to August 2005 among primary schools from public and private sectors to assess the nutritional status of primary school going children age 5-11 years belonging to different socio economic classes of the society. Systematic random sampling technique was applied to collect the sample. Body Mass Index in relation to NHANES reference population was used for assessing nutritional status. Results: The nutritional status of children from lower socio economic class was poor as compared to their counter parts in upper socio economic class. Children with BMI <5 percentile were 41% in lower class while in upper class it was 19.28%. Prevalence of malnutrition was 42.3% among children of illiterate mothers as compare to 20% in those of literate mothers. Conclusion: Poverty, low literacy rate, large families, food insecurity, food safety, women's education appears to be the important underlying factors responsible for poor health status of children from low socioeconomic class. It requires economic, political and social changes as well as changes for personal advancement mainly through educational opportunities to improve the nutritional status of the children. (author)

  7. Socioeconomic disadvantage and changes in health risk behaviours in Australia: 1989-90 to 2001.

    Najman, Jake M.; Toloo, Ghasem; Siskind, Victor

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated in industrialized countries with unhealthy lifestyle characteristics, such as smoking, physical inactivity and being overweight or obese. This paper examines changes over time in the association between SES and smoking status, physical activity and being overweight or obese in Australia. METHODS: Data were taken from three successive national health surveys in Australia carried out in 1989-90 (n = 54,576), 1995 (n = 53,828) and 2001 (n = 26,863). Participants in these surveys were selected using a national probability sampling strategy, and aggregated data for geographical areas are used to determine the changing association between SES and lifestyle over time. FINDINGS: Overall, men had less healthy lifestyles. In 2001 inverse SES trends for both men and women showed that those living in lower SES areas were more likely to smoke and to be sedentary and obese. There were some important socioeconomic changes over the period 1989-90 to 2001. The least socioeconomically disadvantaged areas had the largest decrease in the percentage of people smoking tobacco (24% decrease for men and 12% for women) and the largest decrease in the percentage of people reporting sedentary activity levels (25% decrease for men and 22% for women). While there has been a general increase in the percentage over time of those who are overweight or obese, there is a modest trend for being overweight to have increased (by about 16% only among females) among those living in areas of higher SES. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic inequalities have been increasing for several key risk behaviours related to health; this suggests that specific population-based prevention strategies intended to reduce health inequalities are needed. PMID:17242834

  8. Socioeconomic disadvantage and changes in health risk behaviours in Australia: 1989-90 to 2001

    Jake M. Najman

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated in industrialized countries with unhealthy lifestyle characteristics, such as smoking, physical inactivity and being overweight or obese. This paper examines changes over time in the association between SES and smoking status, physical activity and being overweight or obese in Australia. METHODS: Data were taken from three successive national health surveys in Australia carried out in 1989-90 (n = 54 576, 1995 (n = 53 828 and 2001 (n = 26 863. Participants in these surveys were selected using a national probability sampling strategy, and aggregated data for geographical areas are used to determine the changing association between SES and lifestyle over time. FINDINGS: Overall, men had less healthy lifestyles. In 2001 inverse SES trends for both men and women showed that those living in lower SES areas were more likely to smoke and to be sedentary and obese. There were some important socioeconomic changes over the period 1989-90 to 2001. The least socioeconomically disadvantaged areas had the largest decrease in the percentage of people smoking tobacco (24% decrease for men and 12% for women and the largest decrease in the percentage of people reporting sedentary activity levels (25% decrease for men and 22% for women. While there has been a general increase in the percentage over time of those who are overweight or obese, there is a modest trend for being overweight to have increased (by about 16% only among females among those living in areas of higher SES. CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic inequalities have been increasing for several key risk behaviours related to health; this suggests that specific population-based prevention strategies intended to reduce health inequalities are needed.

  9. Prevalence of risk factors for fractures and use of DXA scanning in Danish women. A regional population-based study

    Rubin, K H; Abrahamsen, B; Hermann, A P; Bech, M; Gram, J; Brixen, K

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relationship between risk factors and use of DXA scans. Our study showed a relatively high use of DXA in low-risk women and the relatively low coverage in women with multiple risk factors. Moreover, distance to DXA clinics, age, and socio-economic factors are associated with the...... use of DXA. Introduction To determine the relationship between risk factors for fracture and use of DXA scans in Danish women in relation to distance to DXA clinics and socio-economic factors. Methods From the Danish National Civil Register we randomly selected 5,000 women aged 40–90 years living in......, and income were significantly associated with having a history of DXA. Conclusions Our study showed a relatively high use of DXA in low-risk women and the relatively low coverage in women with multiple risk factors. Moreover, distance to DXA clinics, age, and a number of socio-economic factors are...

  10. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were

  11. Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Parents' Involvement in Homework: Practices and Perceptions from Eight Johannesburg Public Primary Schools

    Ndebele, Misheck

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines socio-economic factors influencing parental involvement in homework at the Foundation Phase in eight Johannesburg public primary schools. The research was conducted among over 600 parents from schools in different geographical and socio-economic areas such as the inner city, suburban and township. Two primary schools were…

  12. Families' Social Backgrounds Matter: Socio-Economic Factors, Home Learning and Young Children's Language, Literacy and Social Outcomes

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…

  13. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  14. Yucca Mountain socioeconomic project report on the 1987 risk perception telephone surveys

    The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples' perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain

  15. Yucca Mountain socioeconomic project report on the 1987 risk perception telephone surveys

    Kunreuther, H. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Wharton School of Finance and Commerce; Slovic, P. [Decision Research, Eugene, OR (United States); Nigg, J. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Desvousges, W.H. [Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1987-09-01

    The measurement of the risk-related impacts from the siting of a high-level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository represents a new and important addition to conventional socioeconomic impact studies. In particular, the driving forces behind these impacts are the risks people perceive to be associated with the repository. Measuring the risk impacts requires a complementary set of approaches, of which, risk surveys are the cornerstone.a The purpose of these surveys is to provide scientifically defensible measures of the risk-related impacts. The risk surveys follow directly from a conceptual framework of how the HLNW repository affects peoples` perceptions and, ultimately, their behaviors. These surveys describe and measure: Characteristics of individuals, Risks people perceive from the HLNW repository, Views, or mind sets, they form about the HLNW repository, Changes in behaviors--e.g., changes in retirement decisions or industrial relocations--induced by the location of the repository, and Changes in well-being of Nevada citizens, if the repository were located at Yucca Mountain.

  16. The relations between musculoskeletal diseases and mobility among old people: Are they influenced by socio-economic, psychosocial, and behavioral factors?

    Avlund, Kirsten; Osler, Merete; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Christensen, Ulla; Schroll, Marianne

    2000-01-01

    Social medicin, musculoskeletal diseases, mobility, physical activity, social relations, well-being, socio-economic factors......Social medicin, musculoskeletal diseases, mobility, physical activity, social relations, well-being, socio-economic factors...

  17. Building a Complex Scorecard on the Basis of Assessment of Influence of Socio-economic Factors of Enterprise Development

    Verbitska Tetiana V.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in building a complex scorecard used for assessment of influence of socio-economic factors of enterprise development. The article specifies such groups of socio-economic factors as factors of organisational and managerial impact; workers potential and their professional development; social protection of workers; labour protection and healthcare; and social infrastructure. Having analysed and compared concepts and approaches to assessment of enterprise activity, th...

  18. Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Knowledge on Tuberculosis among Adults in Ethiopia

    Gelaw, Sifrash Meseret

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ethiopia is among highly tuberculosis affected countries. This might be related to low level of awareness on the disease in the population. The objective of the study was to determine the level of tuberculosis knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with it. Methods. The 2011 Ethiopia health and demographic survey data were used. Overall tuberculosis knowledge score was computed to evaluate the outcome variable. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify independent socioeconomic factors associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Results. The overall tuberculosis knowledge was low, 44.05% (95% CI: 42.05–46.24%) among women and 32.3% (95% CI: 30.34–34.32%) among men. Rural women (AOR = 1.22) and youth, no formal education (women: AOR = 3.28, men: AOR = 7.42), attending only primary education (women: AOR = 1.95, men: AOR = 3.49), lowest wealth quintiles (women: AOR = 1.4, Men: AOR = 1.28), unskilled female manual workers (AOR = 4.15), female agricultural employee (AOR = 2.28), and lack of access to media (women: AOR = 1.52, men: AOR = 1.71) are significantly associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Conclusion. The level of tuberculosis knowledge among adults in Ethiopia is low and varied by socioeconomic groups. Tuberculosis control programs should consider appropriate strategies for tuberculosis education, promotion, communication, and social mobilization to address the rural women, youths, the poor, less educated people, and unskilled workers. PMID:26949546

  19. Socioeconomic Factors and Access to Health Services for Malaria Control in Mamuju District, West Sulawesi Indonesia

    Puji Astuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The malaria cases were increasing in Mamuju district. Several factors influence of the malaria prevention specifically socioeconomic and access to health services. The objectives of the study were to find out socioeconomic determinants, access to health services and behaviour towards prevention of malaria in Mamuju district, West Sulawesi. The design study was cross sectional. The population of this study was the residence in Mamuju District, number sample 739 respondents taken by random sampling and data analysis by using Chi-square and logistic regression in a 5%. Results of the study reveal that 51% of respondents have done malaria control in the Mamuju District. Socioeconomic factors like education (p = 0.000, income (p = 0.004, knowledge (p = 0.000 and attitude (p = 0.000 were significant to prevent malaria. Variables that are not related were employed (p = 0.060 and access to health services (p = 0.223. Logistic regression analysis showed that behavior; knowledge and attitude most impact for prevention of malaria in the district Mamuju. This research recommended the dissemination of health information about malaria prevention to the public through various media both of print and written media also counseling.

  20. Gender Inequalities in Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factors Among Indonesian Urban Population.

    Christiani, Yodi; Byles, Julie E; Tavener, Meredith; Dugdale, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Gender is an important determinant of health. We conducted a study to examine hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking behavior among adults aged >15 years in urban Indonesia. We compared the prevalence, predicted socioeconomic factors, the gender inequalities, and the contributing factors to the inequalities. Women had a higher risk of obesity and hypercholesterolemia and raised blood pressure in later life (Pgender inequalities in hypertension, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia can be accounted for by disparities in socioeconomic factors between men and women, particularly involvement in paid work. However, the inequalities were also accounted for by different effects of the socioeconomic factors in men and women. Gender is interlinked with socioeconomic and biological factors in determining health. This emphasizes the need of gender responsive policies to control and prevent chronic disease. PMID:26733115

  1. Estimating the relationship between rate of time preferences and socio-economic factors in Russia

    Tatiana Kossova; Elena Kossova; Maria Sheluntcova

    2012-01-01

    Rate of time preferences reflect an individual’s opinion on how to distribute consumption over time. In this paper we examine various socio-economic factors that are related to rate of time preferences in Russia. The data are obtained from a survey from the Yuri Levada Analytical Center that was conducted in 2011. Our findings suggest that time preferences of men and women should be analyzed separately in Russia. Factors such as age, income, educational level, the size and structure of a hous...

  2. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection

    Egidia MIFTODE; Daniela LECA; Radu, Mihaela; Razvan MIFTODE

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adults is the leading cause of chronic disease and cirrhosis. Globally, an estimated 200 million persons are chronically infected with HCV and 3 to 4 million persons are newly infected each year. Improved sanitary and socioeconomic conditions over time have greatly affected the frequency of HCV infection causing a decreased risk of infection along generation. However, the younger population is particularly at risk due to certain practices (use of intraveno...

  3. Socioeconomic, psychiatric and materiality determinants and risk of postpartum depression in border city of ilam, Western iran.

    Taherifard, Pegah; Delpisheh, Ali; Shirali, Ramin; Afkhamzadeh, Abdorrahim; Veisani, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Background. Postpartum depression (PPD) is considered as one of the mood disturbances occurring during 2-3 months after delivery. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of PPD and its associated risk factors in border city of Ilam, western Iran. Methods. Through a descriptive cross-sectional study in 2011, overall, 197 women who attended Obstetrics & Gynecology clinics postpartumly in the border city of Ilam, western Iran, were randomly recruited. A standard questionnaire that was completed by a trained midwife through face to face interviews was used for data gathering. Results. Mean age ± standard deviations was 27.9 ± 5.2 years. Prevalence of PPD was estimated to be 34.8% (95% CI: 27.7-41.7). A significant difference was observed among depression scores before and after delivery (P ≤ 0.001). Type of delivery (P = 0.044), low socioeconomic status (P = 0.011), and women having low educational level (P = 0.009) were the most important significant risk factors associated with PPD. The regression analysis showed that employed mothers compared to housekeepers were more at risk for PPD (adjusted OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.22-2.28, P = 0.003). Conclusions. Prevalence of PPD in western Iran was slightly higher than the corresponding rate from either national or international reports. PMID:23984055

  4. Is adolescent pregnancy a risk factor for low birth weight?

    Alzira Maria D'avila Nery Guimarães

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether adolescent pregnancy is a risk factor for low birth weight (LBW babies. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of mothers and their newborns from a birth cohort in Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected consecutively from March to July 2005. Information collected included socioeconomic, biological and reproductive aspects of the mothers, using a standardized questionnaire. The impact of early pregnancy on birth weight was evaluated by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We studied 4,746 pairs of mothers and their babies. Of these, 20.6% were adolescents (< 20 years of age. Adolescent mothers had worse socioeconomic and reproductive conditions and perinatal outcomes when compared to other age groups. Having no prenatal care and smoking during pregnancy were the risk factors associated with low birth weight. Adolescent pregnancy, when linked to marital status "without partner", was associated with an increased proportion of low birth weight babies. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescence was a risk factor for LBW only for mothers without partners. Smoking during pregnancy and lack of prenatal care were considered to be independent risk factors for LBW.

  5. Cold - an underrated risk factor for health

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are responsible for around 20% of all deaths worldwide (approximately 14 million) and are the principal cause of death in all developed countries, accounting for 50% of all deaths. Variations in the annual per capita death rates in different countries are well documented. Less well known are seasonal variations in death rates, with the highest levels occurring during the colder winter months, which have been described in many countries. This phenomenon is referred to as excess winter mortality. CVD-related deaths account for the majority of excess winter deaths (up to 70% in some countries), while about half of the remaining are due to increases in respiratory diseases. Paradoxically, CVD mortality increases to a greater extent with a given fall in temperature in regions with warm winters. While much of the indirect evidence points to the notion that cold is somehow involved in explaining excess winter deaths, the mechanism by which seemingly mild exposure to cold ambient conditions can increase the risk of death remains unclear. The strong indirect epidemiological evidence coupling cold climate to mortality may be related to indoor rather than outdoor climatic conditions (e.g., cold/damp houses versus arm/dry houses) coupled with a plethora of factors including health status, ageing-related deterioration in physiological and behavioral thermoregulation, toxicology, and socioeconomic factors

  6. Disability as a risk factor?

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological...

  7. Associations between socioeconomic, parental and home environment factors and fruit and vegetable consumption of children in grades five and six in British Columbia, Canada

    Attorp, Adrienne; Scott, Jenny E; Ann C. Yew; Rhodes, Ryan E; Barr, Susan I.; Naylor, Patti-Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Regular fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption has been associated with reduced chronic disease risk. Evidence from adults shows a social gradient in FV consumption. Evidence from pre-adolescent children varies and there is little Canadian data. This study assessed the FV intake of school children in British Columbia (BC), Canada to determine whether socio-economic status (SES), parental and the home environment factors were related to FV consumption. Methods As part of the BC School...

  8. Macroeconomic Factors and Bank Risk

    Prieto, Esteban; Buch, Claudia M.; Eickmeier, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The interplay between banks and the macroeconomy is of key importance for financial and economic stability. We analyze this link using a Factor Augmented Vector Autoregressive Model (FAVAR) which extends a standard VAR for the U.S. macroeconomy with a set of factors summarizing conditions in the banking sector. We use the model to analyze bank risk, bank returns, and bank lending. We take data of more than 2,000 commercial banks from the U.S. Call Reports. We assess the importance of common v...

  9. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemiological investigations have been valuable in confirming both the increasing incidence of asthma and the differences in prevalence in certain population groups. The observance of this phenomenon has led to much speculation and a lot of attempts to identify the reasons behind the rising prevalence. Risk factors. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for the development of childhood asthma and provided insight into natural history of disease and prognosis. Factors ranging from increased numbers of immunizations to increased air pollution have been suggested, but subsequent analysis has failed to provide the supporting evidence to implicate most of these possibilities. The concept known as the hygiene hypothesis has gained some support from epidemiological studies. Conclusion. The development of asthma as well as its severity are affected by numerous factors and their interactions can be explained by the heterogeneous nature of this disease.

  10. Cultural and socio-economic factors in health, health services and prevention for indigenous people

    SHEIKH MASHHOOD AHMED

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous people across the world experience more health related problems as compared to the population at large. So, this review article is broadly an attempt to highlight the important factors for indigenous peoples’ health problems, and to recommend some suggestions to improve their health status. Standard database for instance, Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar, and Google book searches have been used to get the sources. Different key words, for example, indigenous people and health, socio-economic and cultural factors of indigenous health, history of indigenous peoples’ health, Australian indigenous peoples’ health, Latin American indigenous peoples’ health, Canadian indigenous peoples’ health, South Asian indigenous peoples’ health, African indigenous peoples’ health, and so on, have been used to find the articles and books. This review paper shows that along with commonplace factors, indigenous peoples’ health is affected by some distinctive factors such as indigeneity, colonialand post-colonial experience, rurality, lack of governments’ recognition etc., which nonindigenous people face to a much lesser degree. In addition, indigenous peoples around the world experience various health problems due to their varied socio-economic and cultural contexts. Finally, this paper recommends that the spiritual, physical, mental, emotional, cultural, economic, socio-cultural and environmental factors should be incorporated into the indigenous health agenda to improve their health status.

  11. Risk Factors for Hyperglycaemia in Pregnancy in Tamil Nadu, India

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Hyperglycaemia in pregnancy (HIP), i.e. gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and diabetes in pregnancy (DIP), increases the risk of various short- and long-term adverse outcomes. However, much remains to be understood about the role of different risk factors in development of...... Nadu, India. Methodology Pregnant women underwent a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Data on potential risk factors was collected and analysed using logistical regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were calculated for...... scoring variable differed substantially between the three health centres, but none of them were good enough to discriminate between those with and without HIP. Conclusions The findings highlight the importance of socio-economic circumstances and intergenerational risk transmission in the occurrence of HIP...

  12. Perception of Farmers Towards Small Scale Feed Mill in Terms of Socio-economic Factors in Sindenreng Rappang Regency

    Rohani, St; Irmasusanti; A.R Siregar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze farmers??? perception towards small scale feed mill in terms of socio-economic factors. The study was conducted with purposive sampling. Data were analyzed descriptively and likert scale analysis. The results showed that the perception of farmer laying on the socio-economic factors of the small scale feed mill is quite good and positive to support the sustainability of small and medium scale enterprise.

  13. The Effects of Socioeconomic Status, Clinical Factors, and Genetic Ancestry on Pulmonary Tuberculosis Disease in Northeastern Mexico

    Young, Bonnie N.; Rendón, Adrian; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian; Baker, Jack; Healy, Meghan; Gross, Jessica M.; Long, Jeffrey; Burgos, Marcos; Hunley, Keith L.

    2014-01-01

    Diverse socioeconomic and clinical factors influence susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) disease in Mexico. The role of genetic factors, particularly those that differ between the parental groups that admixed in Mexico, is unclear. The objectives of this study are to identify the socioeconomic and clinical predictors of the transition from latent TB infection (LTBI) to pulmonary TB disease in an urban population in northeastern Mexico, and to examine whether genetic ancestry plays an independ...

  14. Socioeconomic-related Risk and STI Infection among African-American Adolescent Females

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica L.; Swartzendruber, Andrea; Brown, Jennifer L.; Brody, Gene; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Virtually no studies have examined the potential role that chronic stress, particularly the stress associated with socioeconomic (SES) strain, may play on STI risk. This study examined the association between SES-related risk at baseline to STI acquisition and reinfection over 36 months of follow-up. Methods 627 African-American female adolescents, ages 14–20 years, recruited from sexual health clinics in Atlanta, GA participated in a randomized controlled HIV prevention trial, and returned for at least 1 follow-up assessment. Following baseline assessment, 6 waves of data collection occurred prospectively over 36 months. Chronic SES-related risk was assessed as a sum of yes-no exposure to seven risk indicators. Laboratory confirmed tests for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrheoea were performed at each follow-up. Results In multivariable regression analysis, SES-related risk significantly predicted STI acquisition over 36 months (AOR = 1.22) and STI reinfection (AOR = 1.16) above and beyond other known correlates of STI. Discussion Findings demonstrate that SES-related risk was predictive of both STI acquisition and reinfection among young African-American females. They are consistent with propositions that some health disparities observed in adulthood may be linked to earlier chronically stress-inducing life experiences, particularly experiences associated with low SES conditions. Although various explanations exist for the observed connection between SES-related risk and subsequent STI acquisition and/or reinfection across 36 months of follow-up, these findings highlight the need for further research to elucidate the exact pathway(s) by which SES-related risk influences later STI acquisition in order to refine STI prevention interventions for this population. PMID:24974317

  15. The impact of socioeconomic factors on 30-day mortality following elective colorectal cancer surgery: A nationwide study

    Frederiksen, B L; Osler, M; Harling, H; Ladelund, Steen; Jørgensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    We investigated postoperative mortality in relation to socioeconomic status (SES) in electively operated colorectal cancer patients, and evaluated whether social inequalities were explained by factors related to patient, disease or treatment. Data from the nationwide database of Danish Colorectal...... surgery. Postoperative mortality was significantly lower in patients with high income (odds ratio (OR)=0.82 (0.70-0.95) for each increase in annual income of EUR 13,500), higher education versus short education (OR)=0.60 (0.41-0.87), and owner-occupied versus rental housing (OR)=0.73 (0.......58-0.93). Differences in comorbidity and to a lesser extent lifestyle characteristics accounted for the excess risk of postoperative death among low-SES patients....

  16. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG)

  17. Socio-economic and demographic factors related to HIV status in urban informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Steenkamp, Liana; Venter, Danie; Walsh, Corinna; Dana, Pelisa

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of HIV&AIDS is embedded in social and economic inequity and the relationship between social determinants and HIV incidence is well established. The aim of this study was to determine which socio-economic and demographic factors are related to HIV status in the age group 18 to 49 years in informal settlements in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 informal settlements (n = 752) during March 2013 within the Nelson Mandela Bay and Buffalo City districts. A proportional cluster sample was selected and stratified by area and formal plot/squatter households in open areas. Respondents who volunteered to participate had to provide informed written consent before trained, bilingual peer educators interviewed them and completed the structured questionnaire. HIV status was determined and information on demographic and socio-economic variables was included in the bivariate analysis. The prevalence of HIV was higher, at 17.3%, than the 2011 estimated national prevalence among the general population in South Africa. The level of education (?(2) = 5.50, df = 1, p cast iron pots (?(2) = 15.0, df = 3, p failure to graduate from high school, future interventions should focus on HIV prevention in female schoolchildren. However, HIV infection is also prevalent among wealthier individuals in informal settlements, which indicates that renewed efforts should be made to improve sexual risk behaviour within this group. PMID:25388981

  18. Socioeconomic position and risk of short-term weight gain: Prospective study of 14,619 middle-aged men and women

    Luben Robert N

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between socioeconomic position in middle age and risk of subsequent, short-term weight gain is unknown. We therefore assessed this association in a prospective population based cohort study in Norfolk, UK. Methods We analysed data on 14,619 middle-aged men and women (aged between 40–75 at baseline with repeated objective measures of weight and height at baseline (1993–1997 and follow up (1998–2000. Results During follow up 5,064 people gained more than 2.5 kg. Compared with the highest social class, individuals in the lowest social class had around a 30% greater risk of gaining more than 2.5 kg (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.11–1.51; p for trend = 0.002. This association remained statistically significant following adjustment for sex, age, baseline BMI, smoking, and follow up time (OR 1.25; CI 1.07–1.46; p for trend Conclusion Individuals of low socioeconomic position are at greatest risk of gaining weight during middle age, which is not explained by classical correlates of socioeconomic position and risk factors for obesity.

  19. Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Customary Marine Tenure in the Indo-Pacific

    Joshua Cinner

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available For generations communities in the Western Pacific have employed a range of resource management techniques (including periodic reef closures, gear restrictions, entry limitations, and the protection of spawning aggregations to limit marine resource use. Localized control over marine resources, commonly known as customary marine tenure (CMT, is the legal and cultural foundation for many of these practices. Because of their perceived potential to meet both conservation and community goals, these traditional resource management techniques are being revitalized by communities, governments, and NGOs as an integral part of national and regional marine conservation plans in the Pacific. However, the viability of conservation strategies built on a foundation of marine tenure may be in question, as it remains unclear whether marine tenure systems will be able to withstand the profound social and economic changes sweeping the Pacific region. Numerous studies have suggested that changes in marine tenure are attributed to social and economic factors, however, specific relationships between socioeconomic conditions and marine tenure are still not well understood. This paper examines the social and economic characteristics of 21 coastal communities in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, and explores the characteristics of the communities that employ exclusive marine tenure to answer the following questions: Which socioeconomic factors are related to the presence of CMT regimes? How might socioeconomic factors influence the ability of communities to employ or maintain CMT regimes? Distance to market, immigration, dependence on fishing, and conflicts were found to be related to the presence of highly exclusive marine tenure systems. Exploring these relationships will help conservation practitioners better understand how future social changes may influence the foundation of conservation and development projects.

  20. Depression Symptom Trajectories and Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents in Chile

    Stapinski, Lexine A.; Montgomery, Alan A.; Heron, Jon; Jerrim, John; Vignoles, Anna; Araya, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period for studying the development of depression, with studies in Europe and North America showing a pattern of elevated risk that begins in early adolescence and continues to increase as adolescents age. Few studies have examined the course of adolescent depression and associated risk factors in low and middle-income countries. This longitudinal cohort study examined depression symptom trajectories and risk factors in a sample of socio-economically disadvantaged adolesc...

  1. Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women

    Duvigneaud Nathalie; Wijndaele Katrien; Matton Lynn; Deriemaeker Peter; Philippaerts Renaat; Lefevre Johan; Thomis Martine; Duquet William

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC) ≥ 94 cm (men) or ≥ 80 cm (women) and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods T...

  2. On the impact of socio-economic factors on power load forecasting

    Michiardi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a public dataset of electricity consumption collected over 3,800 households for one year and half. We show that some socioeconomic factors are critical indicators to forecast households' daily peak (and total) load. By using a random forests model, we show that the daily load can be predicted accurately at a fine temporal granularity. Differently from many state-of-the-art techniques based on support vector machines, our model allows to derive a set of heuristic rule...

  3. Socio-economic factors affecting the level of adoption of innovations in dairy cattle enterprises

    ÇİÇEK, Hasan; CEVGER, Yavuz; TANDOĞAN, Murat

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine the socio-economic factors which are effective in helping dairy cattleenterprises to adopt some innovations in Afyonkarahisar. The data acquired from questionnaires of 80 randomly selected enterpriseswere analyzed with chi-square test in May 2006. Enterprises those have 1-10, 11-35 and more than 35 cattle were classified as small,medium and high scale, respectively. It was found that 12% of enterprises adopt innovations at low level, 65% of them at med...

  4. Socioeconomic position, type 2 diabetes and long-term risk of death

    Dalsgaard, Else-Marie; Skriver, Mette Vinther; Sandbk, Annelli; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both socioeconomic position (SEP) and type 2 diabetes have previously been found to be associated with mortality; however, little is known about the association between SEP, type 2 diabetes and long-term mortality when comorbidity is taken into account. METHODS: We conducted a populat...... associated with the overall mortality. The relation between type 2 diabetes, SEP, and all-cause mortality was only partly explained by comorbidity.......BACKGROUND: Both socioeconomic position (SEP) and type 2 diabetes have previously been found to be associated with mortality; however, little is known about the association between SEP, type 2 diabetes and long-term mortality when comorbidity is taken into account. METHODS: We conducted a...... rate (MR) and performed Poisson regression to estimate the mortality-rate-ratio (MRR) by educational level, income and cohabiting status among people with and without type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: We followed 2,330,206 people for 22,971,026 person-years at risk and identified 139,681 individuals with type...

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Heitmann, B L; Skakkebaek, N E; Juul, A

    2001-01-01

    -sectional designed study of 508 healthy males, aged 41 to 72 years. We determined total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), and estradiol (E2) and studied their relationship to body fat mass (BF), blood pressure (BP), aortic compliance, left ventricular mass (LVM), and......Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...... steroids and lipids with and without SHBG adjustment. Atherogenic lipid profile in males is associated with low SHBG, low T levels, and a high FAI. Males with high E2 levels may have a less atherogenic lipid profile and lower LVM. SHBG is a key hormone in the association between sex hormones and plasma...

  6. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  7. Risk factors for mental retardation.

    Rantakallio, P; von Wendt, L

    1985-01-01

    Risk factors for mental retardation were studied prospectively in 12 000 children born in northern Finland in 1966 and followed to the age of 14 years. The number of untraced children was less than 2 per 1000. Altogether 326 children had an IQ less than 86, and the incidence of severe retardation (IQ less than 50) was especially high. An incidence figure for children with mental retardation, a separate figure for healthy children, and also the death rate were calculated for each disease. Only...

  8. School difficulties in immigrant adolescent students and roles of socioeconomic factors, unhealthy behaviours, and physical and mental health

    Chau Kénora

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School is a multi-cultural setting where students need social, material, physical, and mental resources to attain school achievement. But they are often lacking, especially for immigrant students. In an early adolescence context, this study assessed risk for school difficulties among European and non-European immigrants and the roles of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1,559 middle-school adolescents from north-eastern France, who completed a self-administered questionnaire including socioeconomic characteristics (gender, age, family structure, father’s occupation, and family income, WHO-Quality of life (measuring the four dimensions physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and living environment, unhealthy behaviours (last-30-day uses of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit drugs and no regular sports/physical activities, grade repetition, low school performance ( Results Grade repetition affected 14.8% of students, low school performance 8.2%, and school dropout ideation 3.9%. European immigrants had a higher risk for grade repetition only with a gender-age-adjusted odds ratio (OR of 2.44, vs. French students. This odds ratio decreased to 1.76 (contribution 47% with further adjustment for all confounders (family structure, father’s occupation, family income, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours. Non-European immigrants had a statistically higher risk for all grade repetition, low school performance, and school dropout ideation with ORs of 3.29, 3.02, and 3.42, respectively vs. French students. These odds ratios decreased to 1.76, 1.54, and 1.54, respectively (contributions 66%, 73%, and 78% with further adjustment for all confounders. Conclusions Compared with French students, European immigrant students were more affected only by grade repetition while non-European immigrant students by all grade repetition, low school performance, and school dropout ideation. The contribution of socioeconomic characteristics, physical health, psychological health, social relationships, living environment, and unhealthy behaviours was very high and much higher for non-European than for European immigrant students. Public policy should focus on these factors and services to reduce school difficulties.

  9. Ecological analysis of social risk factors for Rotavirus infections in Berlin, Germany, 2007–2009

    Wilking Hendrik; Höhle Michael; Velasco Edward; Suckau Marlen; Eckmanns Tim

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Socioeconomic factors are increasingly recognised as related to health inequalities in Germany and are also identified as important contributing factors for an increased risk of acquiring infections. The aim of the present study was to describe in an ecological analysis the impact of different social factors on the risk of acquiring infectious diseases in an urban setting. The specific outcome of interest was the distribution of Rotavirus infections, which are a leading ca...

  10. Risk factors for Charcot foot

    Marta Barreto de Medeiros, Nbrega; Roque, Aras; Eduardo Martins, Netto; Ricardo David, Couto; Alexandre Magno da Nbrega, Marinho; Joo Lus da, Silva; Vctor Nbrega Quintas, Colares; Priscilla Leite, Campelo; Marcos Andr Lima, Nunes.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective Diabetes mellitus is the main cause of Charcot neuroarthropathy and is clinically classified as follows: Charcot foot, acute Charcot foot (ACF) when there is inflammation, and inactive Charcot foot when inflammatory signs are absent. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors f [...] or ACF in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Materials and methods A matched case-control study was conducted to assess the factors associated with acute Charcot foot from February 2000 until September 2012. Four controls for each case were selected 47 cases of ACF and 188 controls without ACF were included. Cases and controls were matched by year of initialization of treatment. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate matched odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).Results In multivariate analysis, patients having less than 55 years of age (adjusted OR = 4.10, 95% CI = 1.69 9.94), literate education age (adjusted OR = 3.73, 95% CI = 1.40 9.92), living alone (adjusted OR = 5.84, 95% CI = 1.49 22.86), previous ulceration (adjusted OR = 4.84, 95% CI = 1.62 14.51) were at increased risk of ACF. However, peripheral arterial disease (adjusted OR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.05 0.52) of 6.25 (1.92 20.0) was a protective factor.Discussion The results suggest that PCA in type 2 diabetes primarily affects patients under 55 who live alone, are literate, and have a prior history of ulcers, and that peripheral arterial disease is a protective factor. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(3):226-30

  11. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  12. Risk Factors for Chronic Kidney Disease

    ... Renal. Home » Kidney Info » 1 in 9 Adults Risk Factors for CKD x What are you doing ... to prevent or delay kidney failure. Kidney Disease Risk Factors You Can Change Diabetes Type 2 diabetes ...

  13. Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide

    ... insomnia. Sleep Problems as a Risk Factor for Suicide As noted above, sleep problems are associated with ... disorders, both of which are risk factors for suicide (Wong & Brower, 2012). Overarousal, marked by agitation and ...

  14. Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins

    Dutta, Amit Kumar; Chacko, Ashok; George, Biju; Joseph, Joseph Anjilivelil; Nair, Sukesh Chandran; Mathews, Vikram

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT).

  15. Risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Mihajlović-Božić Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in human population. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in our country. The incidence of colorectal cancer increases in the fifth decade of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between colorectal cancer and potential risk factors. A case-control study of colorectal cancer was carried out between 1998 and 1999 in Clinical Center of Serbia, Center for Digestive Surgery. A total of 100 cases of newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer confirmed by histopathology and an equal number of controls, individually matched by gender and age (+/-5 years, were chosen from patients from the same hospital with no history of cancer at all. McNemar test and conditional logistic regression were used in the analysis. According to logistic regression analysis the following risk factors were independently related with the occurrence of colorectal cancer: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet rich in red meat and fat promote the carcinogenic process; food rich in vegetables, fruits, grains, vitamin C, physical activity, and oral contraceptive use inhibit the same process. A family history of cancer and long standing inflammatory bowel diseases also have significant role. There is convincing evidence that nutrition affects colorectal carcinogenesis in a complex fashion.

  16. Identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images; An annotated bibliography

    Nieves, L.A.; Wernette, D.R.; Hemphill, R.C.; Mohiudden, S.; Corso, J.

    1990-02-01

    In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to initiate the process of choosing a location to permanently store high-level nuclear waste from the designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only location to be studied as a candidate site for such a repository. The original acts and its amendments had established the grant mechanism by which the state of Nevada could finance an investigation of the potential socioeconomic impacts that could result from the installation and operation of this facility. Over the past three years, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM or RW) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved grant requests by Nevada to perform this investigation. This report is intended to update and enhance a literature review conducted by the Human Affairs Research Center (HARC) for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project that dealt with the psychological and sociological processes underlying risk perception. It provides addition information on the HARC work, covers a subsequent step in the impact-estimation process, and translates risk perception into decisions and behaviors with economic consequences. It also covers recently developed techniques for assessing the nature and magnitude of impacts caused by environmental changes focusing on those impacts caused by changes in perceived risks.

  17. Identification and estimation of socioeconomic impacts resulting from perceived risks and changing images

    In 1982, the US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to initiate the process of choosing a location to permanently store high-level nuclear waste from the designated Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as the only location to be studied as a candidate site for such a repository. The original acts and its amendments had established the grant mechanism by which the state of Nevada could finance an investigation of the potential socioeconomic impacts that could result from the installation and operation of this facility. Over the past three years, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM or RW) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) has approved grant requests by Nevada to perform this investigation. This report is intended to update and enhance a literature review conducted by the Human Affairs Research Center (HARC) for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project that dealt with the psychological and sociological processes underlying risk perception. It provides addition information on the HARC work, covers a subsequent step in the impact-estimation process, and translates risk perception into decisions and behaviors with economic consequences. It also covers recently developed techniques for assessing the nature and magnitude of impacts caused by environmental changes focusing on those impacts caused by changes in perceived risks

  18. Socioeconomic factors differentiating maternal and child health-seeking behavior in rural Bangladesh: A cross-sectional analysis

    Becker Stan; Shah Nirali M; Amin Ruhul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There has been an increasing availability and accessibility of modern health services in rural Bangladesh over the past decades. However, previous studies on the socioeconomic differentials in the utilization of these services were based on a limited number of factors, focusing either on preventive or on curative modern health services. These studies failed to collect data from remote rural areas of the different regions to examine the socioeconomic differentials in health...

  19. Socioeconomic factors affecting patients’ utilization of primary care services at a Tertiary Teaching Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Alsubaie, Abdulaziz M.; Almohaimede, Khaled A.; Aljadoa, Abdulrahman F.; Jarallah, Osamah J.; Althnayan, Yasser I.; Alturki, Yousef A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Primary care services utilization is dependent on socioeconomic factors. It is proven that variation in socioeconomic factors result in discrepancies in the use of such services. Admittedly, research is limited on the socioeconomic factors affecting the utilization of primary care services in Saudi Arabia. Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the effect of the main socioeconomic factors affecting patients' utilization of primary care services at a tertiary teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2014 in a primary care clinic of a tertiary teaching hospital in Riyadh city; subjects selected using a random consecutive sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire in Arabic was given to the participants to collect the data which comprised sociodemographic data, utilization measures, and health needs. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: A total of 358 subjects participated in the study. The main factors that best determine the utilization of primary health care clinic in a tertiary teaching hospital were the possession of a health insurance (P = 0.046, odds ratio [OR] = 8.333), and bad self-health-perception (P < 0.014, OR: 2.088). Chronic illness was also associated with higher utilization (OR = 2.003). Conclusion: Our results reveal that chronic health problems, self-health-perception, and health insurance are the most significant socioeconomic factors affecting the utilization of primary care services. PMID:26929723

  20. Socio-economic, Biophysical, and Perceptional Factors Associated with Agricultural Adaptation of Smallholder Farmers in Gujarat, Northwest India

    Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is predicted to negatively impact many agricultural communities across the globe, particularly smallholder farmers who often do not have access to appropriate technologies to reduce their vulnerability. To better predict which farmers will be most impacted by future climate change at a regional scale, we use remote sensing and agricultural census data to examine how cropping intensity and crop type have shifted based on rainfall variability across Gujarat, India from 1990 to 2010. Using household-level interviews, we then identify the socio-economic, biophysical, perceptional, and psychological factors associated with smallholder farmers who are the most impacted and the least able to adapt to contemporaneous rainfall variability. We interviewed 750 farmers in 2011 and 2012 that span a rainfall, irrigation, socio-economic, and caste gradient across central Gujarat. Our results show that farmers shift cropping practices in several ways based on monsoon onset, which farmers state is the main observable rainfall signal influencing cropping decisions during the monsoon season. When monsoon onset is delayed, farmers opt to plant more drought-tolerant crops, push back the date of sowing, and increase the number of irrigations used. Comparing self-reported income and yields, we find that switching crops does not improve agricultural income, shifting planting date does not influence crop yield, yet increasing the number of irrigations significantly increases yield. Future work will identify which social (e.g. social networks), psychological (e.g. risk preference), and knowledge (e.g. information sources) factors are associated with farmers who are best able to adapt to rainfall variability.

  1. Public safety risk management at socio-economic and / or historic-cultural significant dam sites

    Earle, Gordon D.; Ryan, Katherine; Pyykonen, Nicole K.; Pitts, Lucas [Otonabee Region Conservation Authority, Peterborough, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Lang Dam and adjoining gristmill, located near Peterborough are integral parts of the Lang Pioneer Village museum. Activities occurring within close proximity to the dam have led to safety issues. The owner (ORCA) has developed and implemented public safety management plans (PSMPs) for each of its water control structures, including the Lang Dam. ORCA gave special attention to the social, economic, aesthetic, historic and cultural dimensions associated the implementation of public safety management plans. These factors play a significant role in how well public safety measures (PSMs) are received by stakeholder groups and the general public. This paper reported the challenges of developing and implementing a PSMP for the Lang Dam, with the focus on property site-specific PSMS while preserving socio-economic and historic-cultural character and values. It was demonstrated that the dam owners, regulatory authorities, control agencies and preservationists need to come together to develop a holistic public safety management process.

  2. Associations of Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors With Complete Treatment and Follow up of Colon Cancer

    Esmat Davoudi Monfared

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Cancer is the second cause of death in the world, and colon cancer is the third cause of death and is one of the most common cancers which will cure with early diagnosis, treatment and sufficient follow up. Assessing factors which affect this cancer is important for prolonging patient survival. Socioeconomic factors are among effective factors of cancer morbidity and mortality. Because mortality rates for colon cancers vary by socioeconomic characteristics, this study has been performed to recognize the relationship between socioeconomic factors with treatment and follow up of colon cancer. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study for patients with colon cancer registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from April 2005 to November 2006. Patients were selected randomly, and the study was conducted using questionnaires filled by interviewing the patients via phone (if a patient was dead, the questions were asked from their family members. Data analysis was done using SPSS (version 19 software. Results: The study was performed on 520 colon cancer patients with age range of 23-88 years. The mean age of the patients was 63 (S.D. = 11.8 and the median age was 64.Two hundred thirty seven (45.4% patients were female and 283(54.4% were male. Using Chi- square test, age< 60 (P=0.002 and female gender (P=0.034 had a significant correlation with complete treatment and there was a significant relationship between complete follow up and age< 60 (P=0.037, academic education (P=0.02 and having insurance (P=0.021. Multiple logistic regression tests were used to evaluate concurrent effects of variables on treatment and follow up. Correlated variables to complete treatment include: age< 60 (P=0.001, and female gender (P=0.023.The Odds Ratio (OR of completing treatment for patients under 60 years of age versus patients above 60 years was 3.13 (95% C.I. 1.55 to 6.34, and the OR of completing treatment for women versus men was 1.91(95% C.I. 1.33 to 2.74. Correlated variables to follow up were academic education (P=0.018 and having insurance (P=0.046. The OR of cancer follow up in illiterate patients versus college-educated patients was 0.45(95% C.I. 0.24 to 0.82, and the OR of cancer follow up in patients without insurance versus patients with health was 0.46(95% C.I. 0.21 to 0.98. Conclusion: Age is a correlated factor on completing colon cancer treatment. Women have more complete colon cancer treatment than men. Academic education and having insurance were the most important factors among socioeconomic factors observed in a five-year follow up after treatment. As the population of the old is increasing, executing effective interventions to improve treatment and follow up procedures for old patients is of prime importance. It seems that increasing the insurance contribution in follow up measures may lead to increase in the regular follow up and may affect patients' survival.

  3. Associations of Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors with Complete Treatment and Follow-up of Colon Cancer

    Davoudi-Monfared, Esmat; Heidarnia, Mohammad Ali; Akbari, Mohammad Esmail; Yavari, Parvin; Abadi, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer is the second cause of death in the world, and colon cancer is the third cause of death and is one of the most common cancers which will cure with early diagnosis, treatment and sufficient follow up. Assessing factors which affect this cancer is important for prolonging patient survival. Socioeconomic factors are among effective factors of cancer morbidity and mortality. Because mortality rates for colon cancers vary by socioeconomic characteristics, this study has been performed to recognize the relationship between socioeconomic factors with treatment and follow up of colon cancer. Methods This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study for patients with colon cancer registered in Cancer Research Center of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from April 2005 to November 2006. Patients were selected randomly, and the study was conducted using questionnaires filled by interviewing the patients via phone (if a patient was dead, the questions were asked from their family members). Data analysis was done using SPSS (version 19) software. Results The study was performed on 520 colon cancer patients with age range of 23-88 years. The mean age of the patients was 63 (S.D.=11.8) and the median age was 64. Two hundred thirty seven (45.4%) patients were female and 283 (54.4%) were male. Using Chi-square test, age<60 (p=0.002) and female gender (p=0.034) had a significant correlation with complete treatment and there was a significant relationship between complete follow up and age<60 (p=0.037), academic education (p=0.02) and having insurance (p=0.021). Multiple logistic regression tests were used to evaluate concurrent effects of variables on treatment and follow up. Correlated variables to complete treatment include: age<60 (p=0.001), and female gender The Odds Ratio (OR) of completing treatment for patients under 60 years of age versus patients above 60 years was 3.13 (95% C.I. 1.55 to 6.34), and the OR of completing treatment for women versus men was 1.91(95% C.I. 1.33 to 2.74). Correlated variables to follow up were academic education ( ) and having insurance . The OR of cancer follow up in illiterate patients versus college-educated patients was 0.45 (95% C.I. 0.24 to 0.82), and the OR of cancer follow up in patients without insurance versus patients with health was 0.46 (95% C.I. 0.21 to 0.98). Conclusion Age is a correlated factor on completing colon cancer treatment. Women have more complete colon cancer treatment than men. Academic education and having insurance were the most important factors among socioeconomic factors observed in a five-year follow up after treatment. As the population of the old is increasing, executing effective interventions to improve treatment and follow up procedures for old patients is of prime importance. It seems that increasing the insurance contribution in follow up measures may lead to increase in the regular follow up and may affect patients' survival. PMID:25352971

  4. Parenting, Socioeconomic Status Risk, and Later Young Adult Health: Exploration of Opposing Indirect Effects via DNA Methylation

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Lei, Man-Kit; Brody, Gene H.; Kim, Sangjin; Barton, Allen W.; Dogan, Meesha V.; Philibert, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 398 African American youth, residing in rural counties with high poverty and unemployment, were followed from ages 11 to 19. Protective parenting was associated with better health, whereas elevated socioeconomic status (SES) risk was associated with poorer health at age 19. Genome-wide epigenetic variation assessed in young adulthood…

  5. Molecular Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

    Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment. PMID:26869297

  6. New risk factors for osteoporosis

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the distal radius continues to reveal unsuspected new risk factors for decreased bone mass in younger women. Findings in the patients the authors studied include the following (reported in mean Hounsfield units). Eight nonsmoking patients with regular menses (aged 29 +- 5 years):cortex = 1,268 +- 61, trabeculae = 258 +- 63; eight nonsmoking patients with irregular menses (aged 31 +- 4 years):cortex = 1,186 +- 120, trabeculae = 157 +- 55; ten smoking patients with regular menses (aged 33 +- 4 years):cortex = 1,159 +- 89, trabeculae = 127 +- 58; and 41 nonsmoking patients with endometriosis (aged 30 +- 6 years):cortex = 1,33 +- 103, trabeculae = 173 +- 60. For all but the first group of patients, P < 0.5 when compared with normal controls. Potential causes are presented, including the intriguing possibility that decreased bone mass in endometriosis is the result of interleukin-1 production

  7. Prevalence and Outcomes of Food Insecurity and Its Relationship with Some Socioeconomic Factors

    Mahjoobeh Safarpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Food insecurity can influence the individual physical and mental health. The present study aimed to investigate the food insecurity and some of its socioeconomic factors related to families having girl students at high school level in Bandar Anzali, located in the north of Iran. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study held on 400 families having a 9-11 year old girl.To determine the demographic and individual features and food insecurity of the families, subject mothers were invited to an interview to complete the socio-economic and the 18-item USDA food security questionnaires. To determine the economic status, possession of 9 household items was questioned. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and multivariate logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of food insecurity in samples was 51%. Food insecurity was significantly associated to economic level of the family, the number of employed people and the number of children in the family, the education level of parents, and ownership of house. In households group with food insecurity , children's average weight is significantly lower than other groups. Conclusion: Food insecurity was severly affected by economic level, education and job status of parents.

  8. Antimicrobial resistance among Enterobacteriaceae in South America: history, current dissemination status and associated socioeconomic factors.

    Bonelli, Raquel Regina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer; Picão, Renata Cristina

    2014-04-01

    South America exhibits some of the higher rates of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobactericeae worldwide. This continent includes 12 independent countries with huge socioeconomic differences, where the ample access to antimicrobials, including counterfeit ones, coexists with ineffective health systems and sanitation problems, favoring the emergence and dissemination of resistant strains. This work presents a literature review concerning the evolution and current status of antimicrobial resistance threats found among Enterobacteriaceae in South America. Resistance to β-lactams, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides was emphasized along with description of key epidemiological studies that highlight the success of specific resistance determinants in different parts of the continent. In addition, a discussion regarding political and socioeconomic factors possibly related to the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains in clinical settings and at the community is presented. Finally, in order to assess the possible sources of resistant bacteria, we compile the current knowledge about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in isolates in South American' food, food-producing animals and off-hospitals environments. By addressing that intensive intercontinental commerce and tourism neutralizes the protective effect of geographic barriers, we provide arguments reinforcing that globally integrated efforts are needed to decelerate the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistant strains. PMID:24618111

  9. The socio-economic dimension of flood risk assessment: insights of KULTURisk framework

    Giupponi, Carlo; Gain, Animesh; Mojtahed, Vahid; Balbi, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The approaches for vulnerability and risk assessment have found different and often contrasting solutions by various schools of thought. The two most prominent communities in this field are: climate change adaptation (CCA), and disaster risk reduction (DRR). Although those communities have usually in common the aim of reducing socio-economic vulnerability and risk to natural hazards, they have usually referred to different definitions and conceptualizations. For example, the DRR community has always driven more emphasis on the concept of risk and vulnerability is considered as a physical/environmental input for the quantification of risk, while the CCA research stream, mainly under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), considered vulnerability as an output deriving from social conditions and processes such as adaptation or maladaptation. Recently, with the publication of the IPCC Special Report on extreme events and disasters (IPCC-SREX), the notions of vulnerability and risk are somehow integrated in order to jointly consider both climate change adaptation and disaster risk management. The IPCC-SREX indeed is expected to significantly contribute to find common language and methodological approaches across disciplines and, therefore, the opportunity emerges for proposing new operational solutions, consistent with the most recent evolution of concepts and terminology. Based on the development of the IPCC Report, the KULTURisk project developed an operational framework to support integrated assessment and decision support through the combination of contributions from diverse disciplinary knowledge, with emphasis on the social and economic dimensions. KIRAF (KULTURisk Integrated Risk Assessment Framework) is specifically aimed at comprehensively evaluate the benefits of risk mitigation measures with consideration of the dynamic context deriving from the consideration of climatic changes and their effects on natural disasters, within the policy framework of climate change adaptation (CCA). Three main innovations are proposed with respect to the current state of the art: (1) to include the social capacities of reducing risk, (2) to go beyond the estimation direct tangible costs, and (3) to provide an operational solution for decision support to assess risks, impacts and the benefits of plausible risk reduction measures, compatible with both the DRR and the CCA literatures. As stated above, the proposed framework is the inclusion of social capacities (adaptive and coping capacities) in the process of translating risk into a comprehensive cost matrix considering not only direct tangible costs (damages), but also the three other components deriving from the combination of tangible/intangible and direct/indirect costs. The proposed KIRAF approach is thus expected to provide: 1) an operational basis for multidisciplinary integration; 2) a flexible reference to deal with heterogeneous case studies and potentially various types of hazards; and 3) a means to support the assessment of alternative risk prevention measures including consideration of social and cultural dimensions.

  10. Demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors affecting fertility differentials in Nepal

    Adhikari Ramesh

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditionally Nepalese society favors high fertility. Children are a symbol of well-being both socially and economically. Although fertility has been decreasing in Nepal since 1981, it is still high compared to many other developing countries. This paper is an attempt to examine the demographic, socio-economic, and cultural factors for fertility differentials in Nepal. Methods This paper has used data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2006. The analysis is confined to ever married women of reproductive age (8,644. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses have been performed to describe the fertility differentials. The bivariate analysis (one-way ANOVA was applied to examine the association between children ever born and women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural characteristics. Besides bivariate analysis, the net effect of each independent variable on the dependent variable after controlling for the effect of other predictors has also been measured through multivariate analysis (multiple linear regressions. Results The mean numbers of children ever born (CEB among married Nepali women of reproductive age and among women aged 40-49 were three and five children, respectively. There are considerable differentials in the average number of children ever born according to women's demographic, socio-economic, and cultural settings. Regression analysis revealed that age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, place of residence, literacy status, religion, mass media exposure, use of family planning methods, household headship, and experience of child death were the most important variables that explained the variance in fertility. Women who considered a higher number of children as ideal (β = 0.03; p Conclusion The average number of children ever born is high among women in Nepal. There are many contributing factors for the high fertility, among which are age at first marriage, perceived ideal number of children, literacy status, mass media exposure, wealth status, and child-death experience by mothers. All of these were strong predictors for CEB. It can be concluded that programs should aim to reduce fertility rates by focusing on these identified factors so that fertility as well as infant and maternal mortality and morbidity will be decreased and the overall well-being of the family maintained and enhanced.

  11. Socio-economic status may suppress the effect of knowledge on sexual risk among female sex workers

    Shervin Assari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socio-economic status (SES, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV knowledge and self-efficacy influence risky behaviors and female sex workers (FSWs are not exception. Aims: This study was aimed to investigate if SES, HIV knowledge and self-efficacy predict frequency of unprotected sex with injecting drug users (IDUs among a sample of FSWs in Iran. Setting and Design: Universal Network for Health Information Dissemination and Exchange HIV Risk Study was a survey of IDUs and FSWs, conducted in eight different provinces of Iran, 2009. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 FSWs were entered in this study. Frequency of unprotected sex with IDUs during the past 6 months was the dependent variable. Number of sexual partners during the past 6 month, SES, HIV Knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived HIV risk and intention for change were predictors. Statistical Analysis: We used hierarchical regression for data analysis. In each step, a block of predictors were added to the model. SES block composed of education level, owning a house and living alone. Results: In the absence of SES in the model, HIV knowledge and self-efficacy were not significantly associated with the frequency of unprotected sex with IDUs during the past 6 months, However, with adding SES block to the model, HIV knowledge became significant predictor of the outcome. Thus, among our sample of Iranian FSWs, SES has a suppressor effect for the effect of HIV knowledge on frequency of unprotected sex with IDUs during the past 6 months. Conclusion: Studies which wish to understand the role of theory-based psychological constructs such as HIV knowledge on high risk behaviors need to include SES an essential contextual factor. This finding may also explain why literature is mixed on the effect of HIV knowledge on HIV risk behaviors.

  12. Geographical variability and environmental risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Ng, Siew C; Bernstein, Charles N; Vatn, Morten H; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo; Loftus, Edward V; Tysk, Curt; O'Morain, Colm; Moum, Bjorn; Colombel, Jean-Frdric

    2013-04-01

    The changing epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) across time and geography suggests that environmental factors play a major role in modifying disease expression. Disease emergence in developing nations suggests that epidemiological evolution is related to westernisation of lifestyle and industrialisation. The strongest environmental associations identified are cigarette smoking and appendectomy, although neither alone explains the variation in incidence of IBD worldwide. Urbanisation of societies, associated with changes in diet, antibiotic use, hygiene status, microbial exposures and pollution have been implicated as potential environmental risk factors for IBD. Changes in socioeconomic status might occur differently in different geographical areas and populations and, consequently, it is important to consider the heterogeneity of risk factors applicable to the individual patient. Environmental risk factors of individual, familial, community-based, country-based and regionally based origin may all contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD. The geographical variation of IBD provides clues for researchers to investigate possible environmental aetiological factors. The present review aims to provide an update of the literature exploring geographical variability in IBD and to explore the environmental risk factors that may account for this variability. PMID:23335431

  13. Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins

    Amit Kumar Dutta, Ashok Chacko, Biju George, Joseph Anjilivelil Joseph, Sukesh Chandran Nair, Vikram Mathews

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT.METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients with abdominal venous thrombosis were studied. The patients were divided into Budd-Chiari group (hepatic vein, IVC thrombosis and splanchnic venous thrombosis group (portal, splenic, superior mesenteric veins based on the veins involved. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilic risk factors were evaluated in all patients.RESULTS: Twenty patients had SVT, 14 had BCS, and 2 had mixed venous thrombosis. Ten patients (28% had hereditary and 10 patients (28% acquired thrombophilic risk factors. The acquired risk factors were significantly more common in the SVT group (SVT vs BCS: 45% vs 7%, ?2 = 5.7, P = 0.02 while hereditary risk factors did not show significant differences between the two groups (SVT vs BCS: 25% vs 36%, ?2 = 0.46, P = 0.7. Multiple risk factors were present in one (7% patient with BCS and in 3 patients (15% with SVT. No risk factors were identified in 57% of patients with BCS and in 45% of patients with SVT.CONCLUSION: Hereditary and acquired risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of abdominal venous thrombosis. Acquired risk factors are significantly more common in SVT patients while hereditary factors are similar in both groups.

  14. The Effect of Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors on Contraceptive Use and Induced Abortion in Turkey

    Ozlem Alpu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to estimate the parameters of the heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model established for the induced abortion and the contraceptive use by using socioeconomic and demographic factors and their effects by eliminating the observed heteroscedasticity. Using a heteroscedastic bivariate Probit model and Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (1998 data on married women aged 15 through 49 years, we estimated the probabilities of their having an induced abortion, if induced abortion have, of their using contraceptive methods. The results of the research show that induced abortion is perceived and used as a contraceptive method among the women in Turkey. This shows that it is the correct way to examine those two variables, induced abortion and contraceptive use, together.

  15. Socioeconomic status and overweight prevalence in polish adolescents: the impact of single factors and a complex index of socioeconomic status in respect to age and sex.

    Joanna Kowalkowska; Lidia Wadolowska; Justyna Weronika Wuenstel; Małgorzata Anna Słowińska; Ewa Niedźwiedzka

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight prevalence and socioeconomic status (SES) measured by complex SES index and single SES factors in Polish adolescents in respect to age and sex. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010-2011. A total of 1,176 adolescents aged 13.0-18.9 years were included. The respondents were students of junior-high and high schools from northern, eastern and central Poland. Quota sampling by sex and ag...

  16. Risk factors for malaria: a microepidemiological study in a village in Sri Lanka

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Dijkstra, D S; Amerasinghe, P H; Amerasinghe, F P

    1998-01-01

    Environmental and socioeconomic risk factors for malaria were studied in a village in Sri Lanka. Over a period of one year, all 49 households in the village were visited every alternate day to obtain information on malaria episodes. Information on risk factors was obtained through questionnaires...... had a higher risk for malaria than people living in houses where they were not used (RR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.03-2.07). The build-up of Anopheles culicifacies populations before the start of the transmission season had taken place in a stream near the village. Living close to the stream was a risk factor...

  17. Psychotic Symptoms in Kenya Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Relationship with Common Mental Disorders

    David Kiima; Sally McManus; Nicola Singleton; James Ayuyo; Makheti Baraza; Pius Kigamwa; Marx Okonji; Frank Njenga; Rachel Jenkins

    2012-01-01

    There have been few epidemiological surveys to establish prevalence and associated risk factors of psychosis in Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports a population- based epidemiological survey in rural Kenya of the prevalence of psychotic symptoms and their relationship with demographic, socio-economic and other risk factors. A random sample of 2% of all adults living in Maseno, Kisumu District of Nyanza province, Kenya (50,000 population) were studied, aiming for a sample size of 1,000 peop...

  18. Area-Level Socioeconomic Characteristics, Prevalence and Trajectories of Cardiometabolic Risk

    Anh D. Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationships between area-level socioeconomic position (SEP and the prevalence and trajectories of metabolic syndrome (MetS and the count of its constituents (i.e., disturbed glucose and insulin metabolism, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. A cohort of 4,056 men and women aged 18+ living in Adelaide, Australia was established in 2000–2003. MetS was ascertained at baseline, four and eight years via clinical examinations. Baseline area-level median household income, percentage of residents with a high school education, and unemployment rate were derived from the 2001 population Census. Three-level random-intercepts logistic and Poisson regression models were performed to estimate the standardized odds ratio (SOR, prevalence risk ratio (SRR, ratio of SORs/SRRs, and (95% confidence interval (CI. Interaction between area- and individual-level SEP variables was also tested. The odds of having MetS and the count of its constituents increased over time. This increase did not vary according to baseline area-level SEP (ratios of SORs/SRRs ≈ 1; p ≥ 0.42. However, at baseline, after adjustment for individual SEP and health behaviours, median household income (inversely and unemployment rate (positively were significantly associated with MetS prevalence (SOR (95%CI = 0.76 (0.63–0.90, and 1.48 (1.26–1.74, respectively, and the count of its constituents (SRR (95%CI = 0.96 (0.93–0.99, and 1.06 (1.04–1.09, respectively. The inverse association with area-level education was statistically significant only in participants with less than post high school education (SOR (95%CI = 0.58 (0.45–0.73, and SRR (95%CI = 0.91 (0.88–0.94. Area-level SEP does not predict an elevated trajectory to developing MetS or an elevated count of its constituents. However, at baseline, area-level SEP was inversely associated with prevalence of MetS and the count of its constituents, with the association of area-level education being modified by individual-level education. Population-level interventions for communities defined by area-level socioeconomic disadvantage are needed to reduce cardiometabolic risks.

  19. All for One: Contributions of Age, Socioeconomic Factors, Executive Functioning, and Social Cognition to Moral Reasoning in Childhood.

    Vera-Estay, Evelyn; Seni, Anne G; Champagne, Caroline; Beauchamp, Miriam H

    2016-01-01

    Moral reasoning (MR) is a socio-cognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning (EF), theory of mind (ToM), empathy, and affect recognition. However, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative and combined contribution of these skills to MR. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the putative links between these factors in childhood, a period during which these skills are in maturation. The aim of this study was to explore what factors predict moral maturity in typically developing children (n = 76, 47.4% males, M = 9.2, SD = 1.67 years), explore the potential moderating and mediating role of executive functions and social cognition in the relationship between age and MR maturity, and identify the specific contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, EF, and social cognition, using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (So-Moral). The results indicate that MR maturity was correlated with age, EF (inhibition, verbal fluency, and attentional control), and social cognition (ToM and affect recognition). Neither EF nor social cognition moderated the effect of age on MR maturity. However, verbal fluency and third-order false beliefs had a moderating role in this link. MR maturity in children was predicted by three variables from each of the three domains: age, verbal fluency, and third-order ToM. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underpinnings of MR during childhood, suggesting that MR is not reducible to general developmental factors such as age, but that higher order skills, such EF and social cognition also contribute to moral maturity. The findings have relevance for both typically developing and clinical populations in which social skills may be reduced, as well as for the identification of potential loci for intervention in children at-risk for socially maladaptive behaviors. PMID:27014110

  20. All for One: Contributions of Age, Socioeconomic Factors, Executive Functioning, and Social Cognition to Moral Reasoning in Childhood

    Vera-Estay, Evelyn; Seni, Anne G.; Champagne, Caroline; Beauchamp, Miriam H.

    2016-01-01

    Moral reasoning (MR) is a socio-cognitive skill essential to appropriate social functioning in childhood, and evolves in quality and complexity during ontogenetic development. Past research suggests that MR is related to age, socioeconomic factors, as well as some social and cognitive skills, such as executive functioning (EF), theory of mind (ToM), empathy, and affect recognition. However, their contributions have been studied in silos rather than comprehensively, with little integration of the relative and combined contribution of these skills to MR. Furthermore, few studies have addressed the putative links between these factors in childhood, a period during which these skills are in maturation. The aim of this study was to explore what factors predict moral maturity in typically developing children (n = 76, 47.4% males, M = 9.2, SD = 1.67 years), explore the potential moderating and mediating role of executive functions and social cognition in the relationship between age and MR maturity, and identify the specific contributions of age, socioeconomic factors, EF, and social cognition, using an innovative visual MR assessment tool (So-Moral). The results indicate that MR maturity was correlated with age, EF (inhibition, verbal fluency, and attentional control), and social cognition (ToM and affect recognition). Neither EF nor social cognition moderated the effect of age on MR maturity. However, verbal fluency and third-order false beliefs had a moderating role in this link. MR maturity in children was predicted by three variables from each of the three domains: age, verbal fluency, and third-order ToM. These results contribute to a better understanding of the underpinnings of MR during childhood, suggesting that MR is not reducible to general developmental factors such as age, but that higher order skills, such EF and social cognition also contribute to moral maturity. The findings have relevance for both typically developing and clinical populations in which social skills may be reduced, as well as for the identification of potential loci for intervention in children at-risk for socially maladaptive behaviors. PMID:27014110

  1. The influence of financial incentives and other socio-economic factors on electric vehicle adoption

    Electric vehicles represent an innovation with the potential to lower greenhouse gas emissions and help mitigate the causes of climate change. However, externalities including the appropriability of knowledge and pollution abatement result in societal/economic benefits that are not incorporated in electric vehicle prices. In order to address resulting market failures, governments have employed a number of policies. We seek to determine the relationship of one such policy instrument (consumer financial incentives) to electric vehicle adoption. Based on existing literature, we identified several additional socio-economic factors that are expected to be influential in determining electric vehicle adoption rates. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we examined the relationship between those variables and 30 national electric vehicle market shares for the year 2012. The model found financial incentives, charging infrastructure, and local presence of production facilities to be significant and positively correlated to a country's electric vehicle market share. Results suggest that of those factors, charging infrastructure was most strongly related to electric vehicle adoption. However, descriptive analysis suggests that neither financial incentives nor charging infrastructure ensure high electric vehicle adoption rates. - Highlights: • This research analyzes electric vehicle adoption of 30 countries in 2012. • Financial incentives and charging infrastructure were statistically significant factors. • Country-specific factors help to explain diversity in national adoption rates. • Socio-demographic variables e.g., income and education level were not significant

  2. Sexual health and socioeconomic-related factors among HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Puerto Rico.

    Rodrguez-Daz, Carlos E; Jovet-Toledo, Gerardo G; Ortiz-Snchez, Edgardo J; Rodrguez-Santiago, Edda I; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L

    2015-10-01

    Most of the research among HIV-positive populations has been approached from behavioral risk models. This is particularly true for those otherwise socially vulnerable groups like men who have sex with men (MSM). As a response to this pattern, we examined data from an ongoing health promotion research being conducted in Puerto Rico (PR). The study is limited to HIV-positive MSM and consists of the participation in a survey interview that includes domains used to assess indicators of socio-economic-related factors (age, educational level, employment, religion, and partnership status) and sexual health (sexual satisfaction, condom use, and sexual health knowledge(SHK)). Participants reported a relatively high level (75%) of sexual satisfaction and inconsistent condom use (50.9% reported always using a condom). A deficient (61%) SHK was also reported. In multivariate analyses, a higher educational level was associated with higher sexual satisfaction (a?=3.223; 95% CI 0.291-6.156) and higher levels of SHK (a?=1.328; 95% CI 0.358-2.297), while unemployment was associated with less condom use (aOR 0.314; 95% CI 0.122-0.810). Not having a primary sexual partner was associated with less sexual satisfaction (a?=-3.871; 95% CI -7.534-0.208) and more condom use (aOR 4.292; 95% CI 1.310-14.068). Findings support the notion that men of a disadvantaged socioeconomic position may have a poorer sexual health status; with a lower level of education and unemployment leading this disparity. Findings also evidence that partnership status may have a role in the sexual health of HIV-positive MSM. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of sexual health and socioeconomic indicators among Hispanic/Latino HIV-positive MSM in PR and in the Caribbean. Findings provide valuable information to address the sexual health needs of an underserved population. PMID:26123066

  3. Risk Psychosocial Factors to School Dropout and Early Teenage Pregnancy

    Fabián Antonio Dávila Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To explore the frequency and weight that psychosocial risk factors predispose to outcomes of early pregnancy and scholar dropout, a descriptive review was conducted. Materials and Meth­ods: A search and review of the results reported by observational studies in the PubMed data­base indexed from July 27, 2010 until July 25, 2013 was performed, restricting the search to studies in humans, Spanish or English written, not made in countries in Africa or Asia. Search was widened to LILACS database for the years 2006 to 2013 for Latinamerican countries. For inclusion, all case-control studies comparing different types of interventions and psychosocial risk factors in adolescents were eligible. Results: The review suggests violence experienced dur­ing adolescence, sexual abuse, belonging to a low socioeconomic status, low self-esteem, eating behavior disorders, smoking, alcoholism and drug addiction, mental disorders, early initiation of sex, poor family ties, lack of access to information, and resources for family planning as main psychosocial factors related to early pregnancy and scholar dropout in adolescents. Conclusions: Both risk factors associated with pregnancy and scholar dropout were described, and interven­tions targeting the described risk factors could potentially contribute to the reduction of these outcomes were described.

  4. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  5. About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention

    ... Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Risk Factors and Prevention We can’t control some risk factors for ... Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease: What Do We Know? Alzheimer's Disease: Unraveling the Mystery ... Factors and Prevention News Summit sets the path ahead for Alzheimer's ...

  6. Association of coal, atomic energy, socio-economic and other environmental variables with the risk of dying

    Death rates have been calculated by cause, age, sex and race for each county, state economic area, and other groups of counties of the USA for the period 1959 to 1976, data being obtained from official sources. Attention has been given to appropriate methods of using these rates for epidemiological study. Within the USA there are marked and consistent differences in death rates for middle-aged white males: low in the west central plains area and high in the south-east coastal plain. If the USA as a whole had rates as low as in the low-rate areas, there would be 160,000 fewer deaths per year under the age of 75. Coal- and metal-mining is strongly associated with high rates for middle-aged females as well as males. The residents of an area around a nuclear plant, after 22 years of exposure to low levels of radiation from this plant, do not show clear evidence of either decreased or increased risk, for various forms of cancer and other causes, as compared with rates for those living further away in the same states, or as compared with US rates. In the USA, persons living at higher elevations tend to have lower death rates. A number of factors may be hypothesized as being responsible for these lower rates, including the higher levels of background radiation at higher elevations. Many other factors also present evidence of being associated with differences in risk, including cigarette-smoking and various socio-economic or cultural variables. (author)

  7. Acquired risk factors for colorectal cancer.

    Lin, Otto S

    2009-01-01

    The risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) is influenced by several acquired risk factors, including environmental exposures and comorbid medical conditions that are partially genetic in nature. These risk factors are based on data almost exclusively derived from observational studies. Because of the possibility of bias due to confounding, these acquired risk factors should not be automatically assumed to be causative, and in fact some may not be truly independent risk factors. Acquired risk factors include the following categories: 1) dietary factors, 2) lifestyle factors, 3) side-effects of medical interventions, and 4) comorbid medical conditions. Dietary factors that potentially increase the risk of CRC include low fruit, vegetable, or fiber intake, high red meat or saturated fat consumption, and exposure to caffeine or alcohol. Of these factors, the significance of low fruit, vegetable, and fiber intake has been called into question because of contradictory results from large observational studies and negative results from randomized trials. The association of high red meat or saturated fat consumption with increased CRC risk is supported by the preponderance of observational data. Lifestyle factors include lack of exercise and smoking. These risk factors are supported by observational data of moderate quality. Medical interventions that may increase the risk of CRC include pelvic irradiation, cholecystectomy, and ureterocolic anastomosis after major surgery of the urinary and intestinal tracts. Aside from cholecystectomy, these risk factors are supported by observational data from small studies only, therefore their validity is not well established. Finally, comorbid medical conditions that are associated with increased risk of CRC include Barrett's esophagus, human immunodeficiency virus infection, acromegaly, and inflammatory bowel disease. The association between inflammatory bowel disease and CRC is well established and it forms the basis for widely adopted colonoscopic surveillance recommendations from national medical organizations. The other factors are supported by limited observational data only and are still controversial. PMID:19107442

  8. Association between sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic factors, diet and lifestyle among the Balearic Islands adolescents

    Bibiloni Maria del Mar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many different factors influenced food habits and physical activity patterns of adolescents in a complex interactive way. The aim of this study was to assess association between sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic factors, diet and lifestyle among the Balearic Islands adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional survey (n = 1961; 12–17 years old was carried out. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for adolescents (IPAQ-A. Sedentary behaviour was defined as Results The prevalence of sedentary behaviour was 37.1% (22.0% boys, 50.8% girls. Active boys consumed frequently breakfast cereals and fresh fruit; active girls yogurt, cheese, breakfast cereals, and fresh fruit; and sedentary girls high fat foods and soft drinks. Sedentary behaviour of girls was directly associated to age, and time spent on media screen and homework, and inversely related to adherence to Mediterranean diet, and body composition. Sedentary behaviour of boys was inversely related to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and the desire to remain the same weight. Conclusions The prevalence of sedentary behaviour among Balearic Islands adolescents is high, mainly among girls. Age, sex, parental educational and profession levels, body size dissatisfaction, and poor quality diet are important factors of physical activity practice among adolescents.

  9. Health behaviour among adolescents in Denmark: influence of school class and individual risk factors

    Johansen, Anette; Rasmussen, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    2006-01-01

    consumption, and use of hashish and other euphoriants. Circumstances in the school class more profoundly influenced risk behaviour among adolescents (smoking, alcohol consumption, and use of hashish or other euphoriants) than their dietary habits (eating breakfast, frequent intake of fruit and vegetables, and......AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of school class on health behaviour among adolescents versus that of the family's socioeconomic status and individual factors among adolescents. METHODS: The material comprised 3,458 students in grades 8 and 9 in 244 school classes...... the mother's socioeconomic status and the included health behaviour measurements; however, adolescents from the lower socioeconomic groups had a higher risk of unhealthy dietary habits and adolescents whose mothers were unemployed had a significantly lower risk of drinking alcohol weekly versus all...

  10. Socio-economic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in Flemish adult men and women

    Duvigneaud Nathalie

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in lifestyles and in the environment over the last decades are probably the most important cause of the overweight epidemic, but the findings are inconsistent among studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of several socio-economic and lifestyle factors with overweight in Flemish adults, using BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC ≥ 94 cm (men or ≥ 80 cm (women and the combination of BMI and WC for identifying overweight. Methods This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted by the Flemish Policy Research Centre Sport, Physical Activity and Health between October 2002 and February 2004 in 46 Flemish communities. A total of 4903 Flemish adults (2595 men and 2308 women, aged 18 to 75 years, from a population-based random sample were included in the analysis. Body weight, height and WC were measured, and socio-economic and lifestyle factors were reported by means of validated questionnaires. Results The results of the logistic regressions revealed that age is positively associated with overweight in both genders. Alcohol consumption is associated with overweight only in men. Men smoking in the past and watching TV >11 h/week have significantly higher OR's for overweight, while men who participate in health related sports >4 h/week have significantly lower OR's for overweight. In women, watching TV >9 h/week was positively associated with overweight. Women who are current smokers or participate in health related sports >2.5 h/week or with a higher educational level have significantly lower odds for overweight. Different results are observed between the first (BMI and the second model (WC in both genders. In men, the models differ for education and health related sports, while in women they differ for smoking status and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion The present study confirms the contention that overweight is a multifactorial problem. Age and TV viewing are positively associated with overweight, while educational level and health related sports are negatively related to overweight in both genders. In men, alcohol consumption and smoking in the past are also among the lifestyle factors associated with overweight. This study also indicates that BMI and WC do not have the same discriminative function regarding different lifestyle factors.

  11. A Social Enterprise as a Socio-Economic Development Potential Increase Factor

    O. Yevseeva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been defined that social enterprise development represents a meaningful factor in the Ukrainian regions’ increase in potential of economic development; the priority is to identify strategies of their socio-economic development. Social enterprise has been proven to be a relatively new phenomenon in the Ukrainian practice; there is a need to utilize the state government more actively as one of tools for solving socio-economic problems of society. It has to be directed at the population’s living conditions improvement with the help of producing necessary goods and services; provision of services in such areas as healthcare, employment, education, environmental protection etc.; catering and social adaptation for vulnerable groups of population (disabled, unemployed, national minorities. The social enterprise development is the "bridge" between social and commercial interests necessary for social welfare and effective social goals’ achievement.Ukraine’s necessity to follow the path of social enterprise recognition as an effective tool for achieving the stable social and economic development, and the recognition of social entrepreneurs as transformation leaders has been grounded. Social entrepreneurs need support – financial, informational, and consultative one – from the government. Human talents are revealed anddeveloped only in case they are needed by the society. There is a need to provide a certain platform for the dialogue between business and social sector. Social enterprise emerges and functions when the ideas and capital are combined. A new entrepreneurial type in Ukraine has to be formed – the one of social innovators. The benefit is evident for everyone; nonetheless, the social enterprise has to be developed and supported at the present stage of economic development.

  12. Cleft deformities in Zimbabwe, Africa: socioeconomic factors, epidemiology, and surgical reconstruction.

    Pham, Annette M; Tollefson, Travis T

    2007-01-01

    In the African country of Zimbabwe, a variety of socioeconomic factors have contributed to a lack of specialty care and resources for the indigent population. Although cleft lip and palate has a lower incidence in Africa (0.67 per 1000 births) than in Latin America or Asia, access to reconstructive surgery is often difficult to obtain. A surgical team worked with Zimbabweans at the Harare Central Hospital, Harare, to perform cleft surgery for 39 patients. We review the epidemiology of cleft deformities in Africa, our experience with 39 patients with cleft lip and palate, and the techniques used to address 2 patients with midfacial clefts. To our knowledge, this retrospective case review and epidemiologic literature review is the first review of cleft care in Zimbabwe. Poverty in Zimbabwe, caused in part by the highest inflation rate in the world, has contributed to the emigration of a large number of specialists to other countries. In addition, the health care system is overwhelmed by a high prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (25%), leading to a drastically reduced parental life expectancy (mean life expectancy, 36 years). Primary and secondary cleft lip and palate repairs were completed without complications. Children requiring care beyond the scope of this mission were referred to the Republic of South Africa. The cooperation among the Zimbabwean administration, physicians, and nurses was integral to the organization and successful execution of this reconstructive surgical mission. Ultimately, until the socioeconomic conditions improve in Zimbabwe, training and continuing education of local physicians are imperative to advance the care of children with cleft lip and palate. PMID:17954508

  13. Cholera risk factors, Papua New Guinea, 2010

    Rosewell Alexander; Addy Benita; Komnapi Lucas; Makanda Freda; Ropa Berry; Posanai Enoch; Dutta Samir; Mola Glen; Man WY Nicola; Zwi Anthony; MacIntyre C Raina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cholera is newly emergent in Papua New Guinea but may soon become endemic. Identifying the risk factors for cholera provides evidence for targeted prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case–control study to identify cholera risk factors. Using stool culture as the standard, we evaluated a cholera point of care test in the field. Results 176 participants were recruited: 54 cases and 122 controls. Independent risk factors for cholera were: be...

  14. The influence of socioeconomic factors on traditional knowledge: a cross scale comparison of palm use in northwestern South America

    Narel Y. Paniagua-Zambrana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored the power of 14 socioeconomic factors for predicting differences in traditional knowledge about palms (Arecaceae at the personal, household, and regional levels in 25 locations in the Amazon, Andes, and Choc of northwestern South America. Using semistructured interviews, we gathered data on palm uses from 2050 informants in 53 communities and four countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia . We performed multilevel statistical analyses, which showed that the influence of each socioeconomic factor differed depending on whether the analysis was performed on the overall palm knowledge or on individual use categories. At the general palm knowledge level, gender was the only factor that had a significant association in all five subregions, and showed that men had more knowledge than women, and age had a positive significant association only in the lowlands. Most of the analyzed socioeconomic factors had a greater influence on the lowland ecoregions of the Amazon and Choc, although there were mixed trends in these ecoregions. Our results show that there are no regional patterns in the predictive power of socioeconomic factors and that their influence on palm-use knowledge is highly localized. We can conclude that (1 conservation strategies of traditional knowledge of palm use in the region should be developed mainly at the local level, and (2 large-scale comparable ethnoecological studies are necessary to understand indigenous communities' livelihoods at different scales.

  15. Caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia

    Ana Cludia Alves e Luna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate caries prevalence and socioeconomic factors in children with sickle cell anemia. This study was conducted in 160 children with sickle cell anemia aged 3 to 12 years attending the Center for Hematology in Recife, Brazil . Data collection included interviews with guardians concerning social factors and oral examinations to determine the caries prevalence. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson's chi-square tests at a 5% significance level. The caries prevalence was 55.0%. The dmft index was 2.12, and the DMFT index was 1.50. Income significantly influenced dmft; the mean dmft was 4.57 in children whose family income was less than the Brazilian minimum wage (BMW, whereas in children with a family income three times the BMW or higher, the mean dmft was 2.27. No statistically positive association was found between the educational level of parents and guardians and the caries indices. A statistically significant association was found between dental caries prevalence and family income.

  16. Factores socioeconmicos asociados al tipo de denuncias / Socioeconomic factors associated to the type of denounces

    Grettchen, Flores Sand.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available El control del gasto pblico y las necesidades de recursos humanos, materiales y de capacitacin del recurso humano mdico y administrativo, tanto como los derechos de los usuarios de los servicios de salud, justifican el estudio de la distribucin, los determinantes y la frecuencia de los servicios [...] que estos reciben. En este contexto se plantea si existe alguna relacin entre los factores socioeconmicos y el tipo de denuncia por la que consultan los usuarios de la Clnica Mdico Forense. Del anlisis estadstico realizado, se desprende que existen relaciones significativas entre los tipos de denuncia planteados y las variables: edad, sexo, estado civil, ocupacin y nivel educativo Abstract in english The control of the public finance and the need of human resources, materials and training of the human medical resource, justify the study of the distribution, determinants, and the frequency of the services that they receive. In this context, it is stand in this study, where or not a relation exist [...] s between the socio economical factors and the type of denounce that is made by the consultant of the Medical Forensic Clinic. From the statistical analysis made, it shows us significant relationships between the denounce made and these variables: age, sex, civil state, occupation, education level.

  17. Tobacco production in R.Macedonia as a result of the effect of natural and socio-economic factors

    Miceski, Trajko

    2006-01-01

    A great number of factors affect the production of tobacco, one of the most frequently represented agricultural-industrial crops in the Republic of Macedonia. They are of both natural and socio-economic origin, including: geographic area, relief, climate, soil, hydrography, labour, tradition, culture and also the existential needs and improving the family budget.

  18. Postdischarge Environmental and Socioeconomic Factors and the Likelihood of Early Hospital Readmission among Community-Dwelling Medicare Beneficiaries

    Arbaje, Alicia I.; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Yu,Qilu; Powe, Neil R.; Anderson, Gerard F.; Boult, Chad

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study attempts to determine the associations between postdischarge environmental (PDE) and socioeconomic (SES) factors and early readmission to hospitals. Design and Methods: This study was a cohort study using the 2001 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey and Medicare claims for the period from 2001 to 2002. The participants were…

  19. Plasma lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in Costa Rican adolescents Lípidos plasmáticos y otros factores de riesgo cardiovascular en adolescentes costarricenses

    Michael S. Irwig; Xinia Siles; Antonio M. Gotto, Jr.; Nader Rifai; Hannia Campos

    2000-01-01

    This study assessed plasma lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents in a developing Latin American country and compared those risk factors to those of adolescents in the United States of America, where the risk of heart disease is high. In a cross-sectional study, data were collected from September 1998 to April 1999 on 161 Costa Rican adolescents between the ages of 12 and 20. A general questionnaire was used to collect demographic, smoking, socioeconomic, and women's heal...

  20. Neuroticism and cardiovascular disease mortality: socioeconomic status modifies the risk in women (UK Health and Lifestyle Survey).

    Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Roberts, Beverly; Boniface, David; Sabia, Séverine; Batty, David; ELBAZ, Alexis; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Deary, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The association between personality traits and mortality might differ as a function of socioeconomic status (SES). Our aim was to evaluate the all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer mortality risk associated with neuroticism or extraversion and their interactions with SES in a representative sample of the UK adult population. A total of 5450 participants (2505 men) from the Health and Lifestyle Survey completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory at baseline and were monitored for ...

  1. A holistic evaluation of risks in coastal regions under changing climatic, environmental and socioeconomic conditions: the Theseus Decision Support System.

    Losada, I. J.; Garcia Alonso, E.; Mendez, F. J.; Zanuttigh, B.; Nicholls, R. J.; Thompson, R.; Vanderlinden, J. P.; Fernandez, F.; Ondiviela, B.; Diaz-Simal, P.; Bagli, S.

    2012-04-01

    There is a general acceptance that global changes associated with natural hazards and socioeconomic processes are occurring at a faster pace than ever, with deep implications in terms of risk exposure and environmental impact. The capacity of coastal areas to adapt and react to these changes will be a key factor in the future preservation of life standards and represents a great challenge for politicians, scientists and professionals at any level. Within the large scope of Theseus Project (EU 7th Framework Program), one of the main objectives is to design a tool to help decision makers in defining optimal strategies to minimize risks within a certain city or coastal area in a three-fold sense: economic losses, human damages and environmental impacts. The resulting software, the Theseus-DSS, links the most relevant physical processes (waves, sea-levels, hard and soft structures, coastal erosion and inland flooding) with the potential impact zones (marine and inland), considering their functions (ecosystems) and uses (economic units), and the dependence of this functions and uses upon the prevailing physical conditions. The new software tries to fill a gap among the existing tools, based on the following pillars: • Seamless integration of disciplines: physics, engineering, ecology, social sciences and economy. • Intermediate spatial scales (1- 10 km) and medium-to- long time spans (1-10 years). • Decision-making based on a balance between deterministic models and expert, discussion-based assumptions. The user of the Theseus-DSS will be able either to check the consequences of predefined scenarios at a particular study site, or to create user-defined scenarios, run them and compare the results with other scenarios. The results are expressed, locally and at an aggregate level, in the three aforementioned dimensions: economic losses (€/year), mean annual expected live losses (persons/year) and impact on habitats (null, low, medium and high).

  2. Prevalence and socioeconomic factors associated with smoking in people living with HIV by sex, in Recife, Brazil

    Joanna d’Arc Lyra Batista

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the world. The prevalence of smoking is higher in people infected with HIV than in the general population. Although it is biologically plausible that smoking increases the morbidity and mortality of people living with HIV/AIDS, few studies in developing countries have analyzed the determinants and consequences of smoking in HIV infected people. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify the socioeconomic factors associated with smoking and smoking cessation in patients with HIV by sex. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with baseline data, obtained from an ongoing prospective cohort study of patients with HIV attending two referral centers in Recife, Northeast Region of Brazil, between July 2007 and October 2009. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 28.9%. For both sexes, smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol drinking and marijuana use. Among women, smoking was associated with living alone, not being married and illiteracy; and among men, being 40 years or older, low income and using crack. Compared with ex-smokers, current smokers were younger and more likely to be unmarried, heavy drinkers and marijuana users. Conclusions: It is important to incorporate smoking cessation interventions for the treatment of heavy alcohol drinkers and marijuana users with HIV/AIDS, which may increase life expectancy and quality of life, as smoking is related to risk of death, relapse of tuberculosis, and non communicable diseases.

  3. Abandonment of Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Socioeconomic Factors in Children and Adolescents: Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    Mendonça, Angela Marcia Cabral; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Sant’Anna, Clemax Couto

    2016-01-01

    Background Routine data on the use of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in children and adolescents are scarce in high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. Objective To describe the factors related to abandonment of IPT in children and adolescents with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) receiving routine care. Methods Retrospective (2005–2009) descriptive study of 286 LTBI cases with indication of IPT and serviced at a pediatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Survival analysis of the risk of abandonment of IPT over six months was performed, including multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Out of the 245 cases of LTBI included, 62 abandoned IPT (25.3%; 95% CI: 20%-31%). On multivariate analysis, the variables related to the IPT abandonment hazard ratio were the Human Development Index (HDI) (hazard ratio—HR: 0.004; 0.000–0.569) of the place of residence and the contact with adults that were not undergoing anti-TB treatment (HR: 7.30; 1.00–53.3). Conclusion This study reveals the relevance of the relation of abandonment of IPT to the socioeconomic conditions at the place of residence and poor adherence to the active TB treatment. Educational measures to stimulate preventive treatment of child contacts and curative treatment of index cases should target the full familial setting. PMID:27149514

  4. Environmental vascular risk factors: new perspectives for stroke prevention.

    Bernal-Pacheco, Oscar; Romn, Gustavo C

    2007-11-15

    Despite intensive evaluation of acute stroke patients, perhaps only half of the attributable stroke risk is usually identified. In addition to traditional and non-traditional vascular risk factors-including most recently homocysteine, inflammation, and alterations of coagulation-a number of environmental risk factors for stroke have been identified in the last decade. In this update we review the following: lower education and poor socioeconomic status (probable surrogates for exposure to traditional high-risk behaviors such as smoking, poor nutrition, lack of prenatal control, absence of preventive medical and dental care, and non-compliance of treatment of conditions such as hypertension); depression, stress and affective disorders; obstructive sleep apnea; passive smoking and environmental pollution; infections, in particular periodontal diseases that increase C-reactive protein (CRP); raised body mass index (obesity); exercise, and diet. The possible role of high-fructose corn syrup in the epidemic of obesity in the USA is reviewed. Protective diets include higher consumption of fish, olive oil, grains, fruits and vegetables (Mediterranean diet), as well as probiotic bacteria in yogurt and dairy products. Careful attention should be given to the patient's environment looking for modifiable factors. The effects of clean environmental air and water, adequate diet and appropriate nutrition, healthy teeth, exercise, and refreshing sleep in the prevention of stroke and cardiovascular disease appear to be quite compelling. Although some of these modifiable risk factors lack evidence-based information, judicious clinical sense should be used to counteract the potentially damaging effects of adverse environmental vascular risk factors. PMID:17655871

  5. Homocysteine as risk factor for coronary artery disease in pakistan

    Pakistani people belong to an ethnic group which has the highest rate of coronary artery disease. There are a number of risk factors for developing the coronary artery disease (CAD). Homocysteine, a sulphur containing amino acid, has been reported to be an independent risk factor for CAD. The present study was done to find out the role of hyperhomocysteinemia in the development of coronary artery disease in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out. There were 40 angiographically diagnosed male patients of coronary artery disease between 30 - 40 years of age taken as cases and 40 age, sex and socioeconomically matched healthy subjects with normal carotid doppler study taken as controls. Fasting venous blood from cases and controls was taken in E.D.T.A vacationers. Plasma was analyzed for homo-cysteine level by enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Mean plasma concentration of homocysteine in coronary artery disease patients i.e. cases was 13.5 +- 6.8 mu mol/L and was higher than the mean for controls (10.76 +- 2.27 mu mol/L) to a significant extent. Conclusion: Hyperhomocysteinemia through inter-play with the classical cardiovascular risk factors may be aggravating the risk of coronary artery disease in Pakistani people. (author)

  6. Sentinel conditions: estimating risk of residential burglary victimization using socio-economic proxies

    Wuschke, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    Sentinel indicators, regularly applied within the fields of biology, ecology and remote sensing, act as proxies to measure environmental phenomena that are difficult to assess directly. The well-developed sentinel framework can be adapted for use within a crime analysis setting, identifying the relative risk of residential burglary victimization without relying on the crime occurrence data alone. By selecting and combining theory-supported social and economic factors known to relate to the ex...

  7. What Are the Risk Factors?

    ... can cause lung cancer. Radiation Therapy to the Chest Cancer survivors who had radiation therapy to the chest are at higher risk of lung cancer. Diet Scientists are studying many different foods and ...

  8. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  9. Risk factors across the eating disorders

    Hilbert, Anja; Pike, Kathleen; Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise; Fairburn, Christopher; Dohm, Faith-Anne; Walsh, Timothy; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to examine risk and onset patterns in anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge eating disorder (BED). Women with AN (n=71), BN (n=66), BED (n=160) and non-psychiatric controls (n=323) were compared retrospectively on risk factors, symptom onset, and diagnostic migration. Eating disorder groups reported greater risk exposure than non-psychiatric controls. AN and BED differed on premorbid personality/behavioral problems, childhood obesity, and family overeating. Risk factors for BN were shared with AN and BED. Dieting was the most common onset symptom in AN, whereas binge eating was most common in BN and BED. Migration between AN and BED was rare, but more frequent between AN and BN and between BN and BED. AN and BED have distinct risk factors and onset patterns, while BN shares similar risk factors and onset patterns with both AN and BED. Results should inform future classification schemes and prevention programs. PMID:25103674

  10. Empirical risk factors in realized stock returns

    NOVÁK Jiří; Petr, Dalibor

    2009-01-01

    Measuring risk in the stock market context is one of the key challenges of modern finance. Despite of the substantial significance of the topic to investors and market regulators, there is a controversy over what risk factors should be used to price the assets or to determine the cost of capital. We empirically investigate the ability of several commonly proposed risk factors to predict Swedish stock returns. We consider the sensitivity of an asset returns to the variation in market returns, ...

  11. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  12. Movin' on Up: Socioeconomic Mobility and the Risk of Delivering a Small-for-Gestational Age Infant.

    Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Holzman, Claudia; Calloway, Danuelle; Tian, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Objective Poor fetal growth is associated with increased rates of adverse health outcomes in children and adults. The social determinants of poor fetal growth are not well understood. Using multiple socioeconomic indicators measured at the individual level, this study examined changes in maternal socioeconomic position (SEP) from childhood to adulthood (socioeconomic mobility) in relation to poor fetal growth in offspring. Methods Data were from the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study (September 1998-June 2004) that enrolled women in mid-pregnancy from 52 clinics in five Michigan communities (2463 women: 1824 non-Hispanic White, 639 non-Hispanic Black). Fetal growth was defined by birthweight-for-gestational age percentiles; infants with birthweight-for-gestational age class, and 0.44 (CI 0.28-1.04) for women who moved from middle to upper versus static middle class. There were no significant differences in SGA risk when women were compared to the SEP group they joined. Conclusions Our findings support a link between mother's socioeconomic mobility and SGA offspring. Policies that allow for the redistribution or reinvestment of resources may reduce disparities in rates of SGA births. PMID:26541591

  13. Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009

    Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of “environmental investment” to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) “population in mining sector” and “coverage of green space in built-up area” were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. - Highlights: ► Urban air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A was correlated to socio-economic variable groups. ► Variable groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A. ► “Coverage of green space in built-up area” was the most significant positive variable. ► A linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. ► Contributions of 21 socio-economic variables to AOFDAQ-A was quantified. - Socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment explained 43.5% of the variance in air quality of Chinese cities.

  14. Socioeconomic Position, Type 2 Diabetes and Long-Term Risk of Death

    Dalsgaard, Else-Marie; Skriver, Mette V.; Sandbaek, Annelli; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Background Both socioeconomic position (SEP) and type 2 diabetes have previously been found to be associated with mortality; however, little is known about the association between SEP, type 2 diabetes and long-term mortality when comorbidity is taken into account. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study of all Danish citizens aged 40-69 years with no history of diabetes during 2001-2006 (N=2,330,206). The cohort was identified using nationwide registers, and it was followed for up to 11 years (mean follow-up was 9.5 years (SD: 2.6)). We estimated the age-standardised mortality rate (MR) and performed Poisson regression to estimate the mortality-rate-ratio (MRR) by educational level, income and cohabiting status among people with and without type 2 diabetes. Results We followed 2,330,206 people for 22,971,026 person-years at risk and identified 139,681 individuals with type 2 diabetes. In total, 195,661 people died during the study period; 19,959 of these had type 2 diabetes. The age-standardised MR increased with decreasing SEP both for people with and without diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and SEP both had a strong impact on the overall mortality; the combined effect of type 2 diabetes and SEP on mortality was additive rather than multiplicative. Compared to women without diabetes and in the highest income quintile, the MRRs were 2.8 (95%CI 2.6, 3.0) higher for women with type 2 diabetes in the lowest income quintile, while diabetes alone increased the risk of mortality 2.0 (95%CI 1.9, 2.2) times and being in the lowest income quintile without diabetes 1.8 (95%CI 1.7,1.9) times after adjusting for comorbidity. For men, the MRRs were 2.7 (95%CI 2.5,2.9), 1.9 (95%CI 1.8,2.0) and 1.8 (95%CI 1.8,1.9), respectively. Conclusion Both Type 2 diabetes and SEP were associated with the overall mortality. The relation between type 2 diabetes, SEP, and all-cause mortality was only partly explained by comorbidity. PMID:25942435

  15. Role of socio-economic factors in cataract surgery utilization in JIPMER Pondicherry

    Prasanna T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This study was conducted in JIPMER & Kurusukuppam, Pondicherry. Objectives : To identify the socioeconomic factors influencing the utilization of cataract surgery & to identify the persons motivating the patients to utilize these services. This was a case-control study; cases were patients (age group 50-70 years who were operated in JIPMER for senile cataract without complications and one control was selected for each case. Controls were also of the same age group residing at Kurusukuppam with complaints of dimness of vision and who had not undergone cataract surgery, selected by random sampling. Both the groups were interviewed using a pretested interview schedule. Results : Subjects who were literate and with high school education and more and with income more than Rs.1050 (class III utilized the cataract surgery services more. In majority of cases, motivation for getting operated comes from relatives. Peer groups who have undergone the surgery before, were the predominant sources of health information about the surgery. Higher income & higher education affect the utilization significantly. Relatives & Previously operated peers play an important role.

  16. Patient socioeconomic status as a prognostic factor for allo-SCT.

    Silla, L; Fischer, G B; Paz, A; Daudt, L E; Mitto, I; Katz, B; da Graça Grossini, M; Bittencourt, H N; Jochims, A; Fogliatto, L; Bittar, C M; Friedrisch, J R; Bittencourt, R I

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of socioeconomic status (SeS) on the outcome of allo-SCT at a Brazilian SCT center. In total, 201 patients receiving HLA-identical related allo-SCTs were studied. The median age was 30 years. Overall, 163 patients had malignancies (CML 68, ALL/AML 63, myelodysplastic syndrome 12 and others 20). SeS was defined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies classification, where people are clustered in groups A-E (richest to poorest). In total, 146 patients (72%) were classified as richest (A+B+C) and 55 (28%) as poorest (D+E). The D+E SeS group was associated with a higher incidence of chronic GVHD and acute GVHD (hazard ratio (HR)=2.61; P=0.001 and HR=2.62; P=0.001, respectively), better platelet and neutrophil engraftment (HR=1.94; P=<0.001 and HR=2.12; P=0.001) and with a higher TRM in multivariate analysis (HR=1.92; P=0.039). Estimated overall survival at 5 years was 55.2%. A D+E SeS (HR=2.13; P=0.001) was associated with a worse survival on multivariate analysis. In conclusion, a lower SeS is a strong prognostic factor in patients undergoing allo-SCT in Brazil, influencing engraftment, TRM and overall survival. PMID:18978820

  17. Socioeconomic Factors Affecting Farmers Awareness of Clean Development Mechanism Projects: Case of Smallholder Forest Carbon Projects

    Oscar I. Ayuya

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to identify the socio-economic and institutional factors which influence the level of awareness of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM projects and in so doing to highlight the policy implications for the stakeholders when designing clean development mechanism projects among smallholder farmers. Findings shows that 23% of the farmers were correctly aware of the project and the results of the ordered logit model indicate that age, gender, education level, group membership, existence of tree farming and contact with extension services was found to influence awareness level of smallholder forest Carbon projects. To assist the community to adapt to climate change and produce sufficiently on a sustainable basis and achieve the desired food security under climate change challenges, the study recommends policies to increase awareness of such agro-environmental initiatives and that of extension providers should distinguish their clientele anchored on vital demographic characteristics such as age and gender. If the probability of younger farmers to be aware this initiative is higher, extension communications should be directed to such age group, particularly during initial stages project information dissemination.

  18. Are good ideas enough?: The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO commercialisation

    Nria, Vzquez-Salat.

    Full Text Available In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors [...] on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance.

  19. Are good ideas enough? The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO commercialisation.

    Vzquez-Salat, Nria

    2013-01-01

    In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM) animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study) and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study). The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance. PMID:24510133

  20. Are good ideas enough?: The impact of socio-economic and regulatory factors on GMO commercialisation

    Nria Vzquez-Salat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientific literature has seen an increase in publications describing new transgenic applications. Although technically-sound, these promising developments might not necessarily translate into products available to the consumer. This article highlights the impact of external factors on the commercial viability of Genetically Modified (GM animals in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Through the division of the production chain into three Policy Domains -Science, Market and Public- I present an overview of the broad range of regulatory and socio-economic components that impacts on the path towards commercialisation of GM animals. To further illustrate the unique combination of forces that influence each application, I provide an in-depth analysis of two real cases: GM rabbits producing human polyclonal antibodies (pharmaceutical case study and GM cows producing recombinant human lactoferrin (food case study. The inability to generalise over the commercial success of a given transgenic application should encourage researchers to perform these type of exercises early in the R & D process. Furthermore, through the analysis of these case studies we can observe a change in the biopolitics of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs. Contrary to the GM plant biopolitical landscape, developing states such as China and Argentina are placing themselves as global leaders in GM animals. The pro-GM attitude of these states is likely to cause a shift in the political evolution of global GMO governance.

  1. Socio-economic factors affecting the conservation of natural woodlands in Central Riyadh Area - Saudi Arabia.

    Al-Subaiee, Faisal Sultan

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to identify some socioeconomic factors affecting local people in central Riyadh area for the utilization of wood and other energy sources in cooking and heating in order to develop some recommendations for conserving woodlands. The study results revealed that gas is the most common energy source used for cooking with a mean usage level of 2.79 (SD = 0.58). On the other hand, wood ranked first for heating with the highest mean, usage level of 1.90 (SD = 1.06). However, electricity and gas as sources of energy for heating ranked second and third with mean usage level of 1.81 and 0.80 respectively. The study revealed that local people with the university education were significantly making higher use of electricity for both cooking and heating and those with no formal education ranked the highest on wood use for both cooking and heating. In addition, those living in traditional houses significantly used more wood for cooking than those living in villas and apartments. Also, local people with high income levels significantly were using more electricity for heating than others. The study recommended conducting extension and environmental awareness raising programs to enhance local residents' adoption of wood substitutes, promoting employment opportunities for unemployed locals, and subsidizing prices of alternative energy sources. PMID:27081355

  2. Risk Factor Frequency for Learning Disabilities in Low Socioeconomic Level Preschool Children in Mexico City Frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico en la Ciudad de México Frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem em pré-escolares com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México

    Elizabeth Zambrano-Sánchez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify the frequency of risk factors for Learning Disabilities (LD in low socioeconomic level children in Mexico City. We studied children by means of: Wechsler, Bender-Gestalt, and Human drawing tests. Average age of male subjects was 5.6±0.9 years, while that of the female group was 5.4±0.5 years. In male subjects, average Total intelligence quotient (T-IQ score was 98±12.2 while, in the female group, this was 99±12.2. On the Bender-Gestalt test, male subjects had a mental and visual-motor average age of Nuestro objetivo fue identificar la frecuencia de factores de riesgo para problemas de aprendizaje (PA en niños de bajo nivel socioeconómico de la Ciudad de México. Se utilizaron las pruebas de inteligencia de Wechsler, Gestáltica Visuomotora de Bender y del Dibujo de la figura humana. La edad promedio en el grupo masculino fue 5,6±0,9 años, del femenino fue 5,4±0,5. En los hombres, el cociente intelectual total (CI-T fue 98±12,2, en mujeres fue 99±12,2. En la prueba de Bender, los hombres mostraron una edad mental y visuomotora un año menor que la cronológica, las mujeres tuvieron una edad mental y visuomotora 7-8 meses por debajo de la norma. En la Prueba de la figura humana, los hombres y mujeres mostraron mayor frecuencia de: auto-aislamiento 25%, timidez 22,4% y controles internos pobres 22%. En conclusión encontramos una alta frecuencia de factores de riesgo en preescolares de bajo nivel socioeconómico, destacamos la importancia de identificar a los preescolares propensos a tener problemas de aprendizaje (PA.Este estudo objetivou identificar a frequência de fatores de risco para dificuldade de aprendizagem (DA em crianças com baixo nível socioeconômico, na Cidade do México. A escala de inteligência Wechsler, desenho da figura humana e o teste gestáltico visomotor de Bender foram utilizados. A idade média do grupo masculino foi de 5,6±0,9 anos e do grupo feminino 5,4±0,5 anos. O quociente intelectual total (QI-T foi de 98±12 no grupo masculino e 99±12,2 no grupo feminino. No teste de Bender, os meninos apresentaram idade mental e visomotora um ano abaixo da idade cronológica, enquanto que as meninas apresentaram idade mental e visomotora 7-8 meses abaixo do normal. As características de alto risco que apresentaram maior frequência, tanto nos meninos como nas meninas, no teste do desenho de figura humana, foram: autoisolamento 25%, timidez 22,4 e controle interno deficiente 22%. Concluindo, alta frequência de fatores de risco para DA foi encontrada em crianças de baixo nível socioeconômico. É importante destacar a importância de se identificar pré-escolares em risco de DA.

  3. Using risk analysis in Health Impact Assessment: the impact of different relative risks for men and women in different socio-economic groups

    Nilunger, Louise; Diderichsen, Finn; Burström, Bo; Ostlin, Piroska

    2004-01-01

    methodological considerations. The present study illustrates this by measuring the impact of changed distribution levels of smoking on lung cancer, ischemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive lung disorder (COLD) and stroke for the highest and lowest socio-economic groups measured in disability adjusted......The aim of this study is to contribute to the emerging field of quantification of Health Impact Assessment (HIA), by analysing how different relative risks affect the burden of disease for various socio-economic groups (SES). Risk analysis, utilising attributable and impact fraction, raises several...... life years (DALY). The material is based on relative risks obtained from various international studies, smoking prevalence (SP) data and the number of DALY based on data available for Sweden. The results show that if smoking would have been eliminated (attributable fraction, AF), the inequality between...

  4. Risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder after an earthquake disaster.

    Anwar, Jasim; Mpofu, Elias; Matthews, Lynda R; Brock, Kaye E

    2013-12-01

    This study sought to predict posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from women's reproductive health events after an earthquake experience. Data on antenatal care, pregnancy outcomes, family planning, socioeconomic status, earthquake experiences, and mental health were collected from a random sample of 425 women of reproductive age using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Reproductive Health Assessment Toolkit and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariate regression analysis to predict PTSD symptoms from posttrauma care variables and reproductive health events. Restricted social participation, use of temporary accommodation, pregnancy complications, and use of injectable contraceptives were significant risk factors of PTSD. These factors may be exacerbated by the social context of conservative societies, traditions about health care-seeking behavior, and access to health care. Antecedent reproductive health events influence women's reaction to major trauma including events such as an earthquake. PMID:24284639

  5. Associations of unhealthy Behaviors and Depressive Symptoms with School Difficulties and Role of Socioeconomics Factors in Early Adolescence

    Chau, Kénora; Baumann, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy behaviors such as alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and hard drugs uses and depressive symptoms are common in early adolescence and they are well known to affect physical, mental and cognitive functions. These factors can thus favor persistent school difficulties. Socioeconomic factors are known to favor unhealthy behaviors and depressive symptoms as well as school difficulties. This study assessed the associations of unhealthy and depressive symptoms with learning difficulty, low school p...

  6. Height, Socioeconomic and Subjective Well-Being Factors among U.S. Women, Ages 49-79

    Wyshak, Grace

    2014-01-01

    Background: A vast literature has associated height with numerous factors, including biological, psychological, socioeconomic, anthropologic, genetic, environmental, and ecologic, among others. The aim of this study is to examine, among U.S. women, height factors focusing on health, income, education, occupation, social activities, religiosity and subjective well-being. Methods/Findings: Data are from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants are 93,676 relatively ...

  7. Consumo de alimentos, factores socioeconmicos y anemia en mujeres gestantes / Food intake, socioeconomic factors and anemia in pregnant women

    Yurimay, Quintero de Rivas; Gladys, Bastardo; Coromoto, Angarita; Mariela, Paoli; Belquis, Sanz; Lizbeth, Rojas; Glenda, Da Silva; Lelis, Rodrguez.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiz la prevalencia de anemia en mujeres embarazadas y su asociacin con el consumo de alimentos, estado nutricional y variables socioeconmicas. La muestra fue de 299 mujeres que asistieron a la consulta prenatal en los ambulatorios del Municipio Libertador Estado Mrida ao 2009, en edades d [...] e 13 y 45 aos. Los datos recolectados fueron, hemoglobina y hematocrito de los tres trimestres de embarazo, paridad, nivel de instruccin, ocupacin, ingresos econmicos y gastos en alimentacin. Se aplic encuesta de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, se determin el Riesgo de Inseguridad Alimentaria (RIA) y el IMC para conocer el estado nutricional. El 25,75 % de las mujeres son anmicas con valores de Hb Abstract in english The prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and his association with foods intake, nutritional state and socio-economic variables has been analyzed. The sample was about 299 women that assist to a prenatal consultation in the health center Libertador Municipality, State of Merida 2009, in ages betwee [...] n 13 and 45 years. The obtained data was: haemoglobin and haematocrit of the three pregnancy quarters, parity, instruction level, occupation, incomes and foods expenditure. It was applyed a survey of "foods intake frequency" and it was determined Alimentary Insecurity Risk (RIA) and the IMC to the knowledge their nutritional state. 25, 75% of the women are anemics with values of HB

  8. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    Faheem Ul Haq; Fatima Jalil; Saman Hashmi; Maliha Iqbal Jumani; Aamer Imdad; Mehnaz Jabeen; Javad Tauseef Hashmi; Furqan Bin Irfan; Muhammad Imran; Mehnaz Atiq

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. Methods: A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospi...

  9. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to these lifestyle factors, recent research suggests that poor sleep may also be a risk factor of CVD. In this thesis, we focussed on a Mediterranean style diet, specific leisure time physical activities, and sleep dur...

  10. Plasmodium infection and its risk factors in eastern Uganda

    Snow Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of disease burden in Uganda, although surprisingly few contemporary, age-stratified data exist on malaria epidemiology in the country. This report presents results from a total population survey of malaria infection and intervention coverage in a rural area of eastern Uganda, with a specific focus on how risk factors differ between demographic groups in this population. Methods In 2008, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in four contiguous villages in Mulanda, sub-county in Tororo district, eastern Uganda, to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors of Plasmodium species infection. All permanent residents were invited to participate, with blood smears collected from 1,844 individuals aged between six months and 88 years (representing 78% of the population. Demographic, household and socio-economic characteristics were combined with environmental data using a Geographical Information System. Hierarchical models were used to explore patterns of malaria infection and identify individual, household and environmental risk factors. Results Overall, 709 individuals were infected with Plasmodium, with prevalence highest among 5-9 year olds (63.5%. Thin films from a random sample of 20% of parasite positive participants showed that 94.0% of infections were Plasmodium falciparum and 6.0% were P. malariae; no other species or mixed infections were seen. In total, 68% of households owned at least one mosquito although only 27% of school-aged children reported sleeping under a net the previous night. In multivariate analysis, infection risk was highest amongst children aged 5-9 years and remained high in older children. Risk of infection was lower for those that reported sleeping under a bed net the previous night and living more than 750 m from a rice-growing area. After accounting for clustering within compounds, there was no evidence for an association between infection prevalence and socio-economic status, and no evidence for spatial clustering. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that mosquito net usage remains inadequate and is strongly associated with risk of malaria among school-aged children. Infection risk amongst adults is influenced by proximity to potential mosquito breeding grounds. Taken together, these findings emphasize the importance of increasing net coverage, especially among school-aged children.

  11. Risk Factors For Coronary Heart Disease : A Case Control Study

    Zodpey Sanjay P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the role of different risk factors in causation of CHD. Objective: To identify the risk factors contributing to the outcome of CHD. Design: Pair matched case-control study. Setting: Government Medical college, Nagpur, India, a tertiary care hospital. Participants: The study included 294 incident cases of CHD diagnosed by standard criteria. Each case was pair matched with one control for age and sex. Controls were selected from subjects attending the hospital for conditions other than CHD. Main Outcome Measure: CHD. Study variable: Socio-economic status (SES, physical inactivity (PI, family history of CHD, type A personality (TAP, cigarette smoking (CS, alcohol consumption (AC, obesity, oral contraceptive use (OC use, diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension (HT and total serum cholesterol TSC. Results: On univariate analysis all the 11 risk factors were significantly associated with CHD. Conditional multiple logistic regression identified significant association of SES (OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.28-3.73, PI (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.56-2.62, OC use (OR 3.96, 95% CI 1.11-14.02, obesity (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.15-2.27, DM (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.13-4.13, HT (OR 4.23, 95% CI 2.56-6399, TSC (OR 3.84, 95% CI 2.58-5.72 and CHD. Estimates of attributable risk proportion and population attributable risk proportion for the significant factors confirmed their etiological role and impact of these factors on the development of CHD in this population. Conclusion: This study identified significance of SES, PI, OC use, obesity, DM, HT and TSC in multivariate environment in the outcome of CHD.

  12. Oral mucosa alterations in a socioeconomically deprived region: prevalence and associated factors

    Raquel Gonçalves Vieira-Andrade

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with oral mucosa alterations in patients from Vale do Jequiti-nhonha, Brazil. The sample consisted of 511 patients of both genders. Questionnaires were used to obtain information about patient gender, age, race, systemic disease state, medication use, cigarette use and alcohol consumption. Physical examinations were then performed to identify lesions of the oral mucosa. Descriptive analyses, Chi-squared tests and logistic regressions were then used to analyze the results (p < 0.05, 95% CI. In this population, 84.9% (434/511 of patients were found to have alterations in their oral mucosa. The most common alterations were melanotic maculae (36.0%, linea alba (33.9%, traumatic ulcers (21.5%, Fordyce's granules (20.4%, coated tongue (12.5% and fissured tongue (10.0%. Melanotic maculae were more frequently observed in black patients, with an odds ration (OR of 7.51. Being female was a statistically significant predictive factor for having a visible linea alba (OR: 1.90 and a fissured tongue (OR: 2.11. No statistically significant association was found between the presence of oral lesions and systemic disease, medication use, alcohol use and smoking. The high observed prevalence of melanotic maculae and Fordyce's granules suggests that these alterations could be considered typical characteristics of the population of the Vale do Jequitinhonha. Coated tongue may be related to the socioeconomic deprivation in the region. Furthermore, the high prevalence of traumatic ulcers may be associated with the traumatic agents that caused patients to seek dental care.

  13. Vehicle emission unit risk factors for transportation risk assessments

    When the transportation risk posed by shipments of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials is being assessed, it is necessary to evaluate the risks associated with both vehicle emissions and cargo-related risks. Diesel exhaust and fugitive dust emissions from vehicles transporting hazardous shipments lead to increased air pollution, which increases the risk of latent fatalities in the affected population along the transport route. The estimated risk from these vehicle-related sources can often by as large or larger than the estimated risk associated with the material being transported. In this paper, data from the US Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle-Related Air Toxics Study are first used to develop latent cancer fatality estimates per kilometer of travel in rural and urban areas for all diesel truck classes. These unit risk factors are based on studies investigating the carcinogenic nature of diesel exhaust. With the same methodology, the current per=kilometer latent fatality risk factor used in transportation risk assessment for heavy diesel trucks in urban areas is revised and the analysis expanded to provide risk factors for rural areas and all diesel truck classes. These latter fatality estimates may include, but are not limited to, cancer fatalities and are based primarily on the most recent epidemiological data available on mortality rates associated with ambient air PM-10 concentrations

  14. Relationship between premature mortality and socioeconomic factors in black and white populations of US metropolitan areas.

    Cooper, R S; Kennelly, J. F.; Durazo-Arvizu, R.; Oh, H. J.; Kaplan, G.; Lynch, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: examined the association of mortality with selected socioeconomic indicators of inequality and segregation among blacks and whites younger than age 65 in 267 US metropolitan areas. The primary aim of the analysis was to operationalize the concept of institutional racism in public health. METHODS: Socioeconomic indicators were drawn from Census and vital statistics data for 1989-1991 and included median household income; two measures of income inequality; percentage of the populatio...

  15. Socioeconomic factors and burn rates in persons hospitalized for burns in Massachusetts.

    Locke, J. A.; Rossignol, A M; Boyle, C M; Burke, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of routinely collected socioeconomic variables from the U.S. census in predicting burn incidence rates, burn rates and 25 socioeconomic variables were analyzed at the level of census tracts for the Boston Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. The burn rates were based on data collected during the National Burn Demonstration Project and consisted of patients who sustained burns between July 1, 1978, and June 30, 1979, and who required inhospital care. Analysis of the...

  16. The persistence of family farming: a review of explanatory socio-economic and historical factors

    Calus, Mieke; Huylenbroeck, Guido Van

    2010-01-01

    The family farm is a corner-institute of West European agriculture. This article highlights the main characteristics of the family farm and reviews both the socio-economic and political-institutional arguments used for the persistence of this structure in West European farming. At micro level, the socio-economic rationale behind the family farm states that economies of scale tend to increase the optimal farm size, but that this tendency is partly offset by the importance of transaction costs ...

  17. Heavy smoking during pregnancy as a marker for other risk factors of adverse birth outcomes: a population-based study in British Columbia, Canada

    Erickson Anders C; Arbour Laura T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking during pregnancy is associated with known adverse perinatal and obstetrical outcomes as well as with socio-economic, demographic and other behavioural risk factors that independently influence outcomes. Using a large population-based perinatal registry, we assess the quantity of cigarettes smoked for the magnitude of adverse birth outcomes and also the association of other socio-economic and behavioural risk factors documented within the registry that influence pre...

  18. Patterns and risk factors associated with speech sounds and language disorders in pakistan

    To observe the patterns of speech sounds and language disorders. To find out associated risk factors of speech sounds and language disorders. Background: Communication is the very essence of modern society. Communication disorders impacts quality of life. Patterns and factors associated with speech sounds and language impairments were explored. The association was seen with different environmental factors. Methodology: The patients included in the study were 200 whose age ranged between two and sixteen years presented in speech therapy clinic OPD Mayo Hospital. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire assessed the patient's bio data, socioeconomic background, family history of communication disorders and bilingualism. It was a descriptive study and was conducted through cross-sectional survey. Data was analysed by SPSS version 16. Results: Results reveal Language disorders were relatively more prevalent in males than those of speech sound disorders. Bilingualism was found as having insignificant effect on these disorders. It was concluded from this study that the socioeconomic status and family history were significant risk factors. Conclusion: Gender, socioeconomic status, family history can play as risk for developing speech sounds and language disorders. There is a grave need to understand patterns of communication disorders in the light of Pakistani society and culture. It is recommended to conduct further studies to determine risk factors and patterns of these impairments. (author)

  19. Dentine sensitivity risk factors: A case–control study

    Mafla, Ana Cristina; Lopez-Moncayo, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the clinical and psychological risk factors associated with dentine hypersensitivity (DH) in order to provide an early diagnosis and preventive therapy. Materials and Methods: A nested case–control study was design between 2011 and 2012. A total of 61 DH cases and 122 controls participated in this investigation. Cases and controls were matched for sex, group of age and socioeconomic status in a ratio of 1:2. DH to different stimuli such as cold, heat, acid, and sweet was asked in patient interviews, and dental examinations were used to detect DH. Clinical and psychological risk factors such as dental hygiene, periodontal disease, acid diet, alcohol consumption, psychological stress, and psychopathological symptoms were inquired. Psychological stress was measured through the PSS-10 and psychopathological symptoms were evaluated by SCL-90-R in Spanish. Descriptive and univariate binary logistic regression analysis were performed to estimate the association between clinical and psychological risk factors and the presence of DH. Results: Toothpaste abrasivity (odds ratio [OR] 1.881, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.010–3.502, P = 0.045), gingival recession (OR 2.196, 95% CI 1.020–4.728, P = 0.041), and periodontal therapy (OR 5.357, 95% CI 2.051–13.993, P Oral hygiene products and periodontal conditions are important risk factors for DH. Individuals with perceived stress, obsessive-compulsive, and hostility symptoms may increase a clinical risk for this entity. Targeting to dental counseling focused on oral hygiene products, periodontal therapy and a psychological evaluation may be promising in DH prevention.

  20. Individual risk factors for adolescent substance use.

    Swadi, H

    1999-07-01

    Identification of risk factors that influence initiation and escalation of drug use in the adolescent population is the approach which has gained currency. The wide array of risk factors involved can be condensed into three main domains: constitutional predisposition, environmental factors (family and peers) and life events. This has been complemented by a surging interest in protective factors. Recent research evidence has been helpful in defining the direction and strategy of prevention efforts. A definite trend has emerged in that family influences are being increasingly targeted. The rationale for this shift seems to come from the observation that home environment, family relationships and parenting styles are almost always involved as risk factors, mediators or as protective factors. PMID:10428362

  1. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  2. Socioeconomic factors contributing to exclusion of women from maternal health benefit in Abuja, Nigeria

    Tajudeen O. Oyewale

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: An understanding of the predictive effect of socioeconomic characteristics (SECs of women on maternal healthcare service utilisation is essential in order to maximise maternal health benefits and outcomes for the newborn.Objectives: To describe how SECs of women contribute to their exclusion from maternal health benefits in Abuja Municipal Areas Council (AMAC in Abuja, Nigeria.Method: A non-experimental, facility-based cross-sectional survey was done. Data were collected from 384 respondents using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The participants were sampled randomly at antenatal care (ANC clinics in the five district hospitals in AMAC. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations and measures of inequality. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the relationship between SECs (predictors and maternal healthcare service utilisation.Results: There were differentials in the utilisation of maternal healthcare services (ANC, delivery care, post natal care [PNC] and contraceptive services amongst women withdifferent SECs; and the payment system for maternal healthcare services was regressive. There were inconsistencies in the predictive effect of the SECs of women included in this study (age,education, birth order, location of residence, income group and coverage by health insurance on maternal healthcare service utilisation when considered independently (bivariate analysis as opposed to when considered together (logistic regression, with the exception of birth order, which showed consistent effect.Conclusion: SECs of women were predictive factors of utilisation of maternal healthcare services. There is a need for targeted policy measures and programme actions toward multiple SECs of women in their natural co-existing state in order to optimise maternal health benefits.

  3. Socio-Economic Factors Influencing Broiler Marketing in Benin City Metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria

    PETER A. EKUNWE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the socio-economic factors influencing broiler marketing in Benin City metropolis, Edo State, Nigeria. Purpose sampling of the three major markets (Oba, Oliha and New Benin markets in the study area was carried out. Twenty broiler marketers were randomly selected from each of three markets from the sampling frame, making a total of 60 marketers. Questionnaire were administered and scheduled interview conducted to collect all the relevant information from the respondents. Analytical techniques used were percentages, frequency counts, gross margin,profitability and multiple regression analysis. The results of the data analysis showed that majority (93% of the broiler marketers werefemale. The average age of the respondents was 42 years and the mean number of schooling years of the respondents was 8 years. The mean marketing margin per week was N350 ($2.17 while the mean gross margin per week was N5, 150 ($32. However, the average net returns per week for the entire markets were N4, 600 ($28.6. The result of the multiple regression analysis showed that the semi-log model gave the best fit with an adjusted R2 of 0.857 (85.7% and a F-ratio of 70.245. The age of broiler marketers, level of education and marketers income had positive coefficients. Thus, increase in these variables will increase the number of broilers handled per purchase. Major problems faced were loss of weight of broilers and mortality of broilers. Finance and processing were minor constraints faced by the marketer. The study recommended adequate feeding of broilers to maintain market weight, proper weighing of broiler chicken during sales, increase awareness about the need to purchase live broilers instead of frozen chicken and encouraging marketers into backward integration to increase profitability of the business. These recommendations would help to develop the poultry industry and increase marketing efficiency.

  4. Space-time clustering characteristics of dengue based on ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors in northern Sri Lanka.

    Anno, Sumiko; Imaoka, Keiji; Tadono, Takeo; Igarashi, Tamotsu; Sivaganesh, Subramaniam; Kannathasan, Selvam; Kumaran, Vaithehi; Surendran, Sinnathamby Noble

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify geographical areas and time periods of potential clusters of dengue cases based on ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors in northern Sri Lanka from January 2010 to December 2013. Remote sensing (RS) was used to develop an index comprising rainfall, humidity and temperature data. Remote sensing data gathered by the AVNIR-2 instrument onboard the ALOS satellite were used to detect urbanisation, and a digital land cover map was used to extract land cover information. Other data on relevant factors and dengue outbreaks were collected through institutions and extant databases. The analysed RS data and databases were integrated into a geographical information system (GIS) enabling space-time clustering analysis. Our results indicate that increases in the number of combinations of ecological, socio-economic and demographic factors that are present or above the average contribute to significantly high rates of space-time dengue clusters. The spatio-temporal association that consolidates the two kinds of associations into one can ensure a more stable model for forecasting. An integrated spatiotemporal prediction model at a smaller level using ecological, socioeconomic and demographic factors could lead to substantial improvements in dengue control and prevention by allocating the right resources to the appropriate places at the right time. PMID:26618322

  5. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    Maria Dilma Bezerra de Vasconcellos Piscoya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1 socio-demographic variables; 2a variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth > 4 mm and an attachment loss > 3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.

  6. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    de Vasconcellos Piscoya, Maria Dilma Bezerra; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; da Silva, Genivaldo Moura; Jamelli, Sílvia Regina; Coutinho, Sônia Bechara

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1) socio-demographic variables; 2a) variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b) variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth ≥4 mm and an attachment loss ≥3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene. PMID:22249477

  7. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey: 2014

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an annual statewide telephone surveillance system designed by the Centers for Disease Control and...

  8. Other Possible Heart Disease Risk Factors

    ... This fact sheet discusses how following a healthy lifestyle can reduce some of these risk factors. Connect with other organizations American Heart Association Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance National Center for Chronic ...

  9. The role of age, ethnicity and environmental factors in modulating malaria risk in Rajasthali, Bangladesh

    Haque Ubydul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is endemic in the Rajasthali region of the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh and the Rajasthali region is the most endemic area of Bangladesh. Quantifying the role of environmental and socio-economic factors in the local spatial patterns of malaria endemicity can contribute to successful malaria control and elimination. This study aimed to investigate the role of environmental factors on malaria risk in Rajasthali and to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Method A total of 4,200 (78.9%; N = 5,322 households were targeted in Rajasthali in July, 2009, and 1,400 individuals were screened using a rapid diagnostic test (Falci-vax. These data were linked to environmental and socio-economic data in a geographical information system. To describe the association between environmental factors and malaria risk, a generalized linear mixed model approach was utilized. The study investigated the role of environmental factors on malaria risk by calculating their population-attributable fractions (PAF, and used residual semivariograms to quantify the geographical clustering in malaria risk unaccounted by these factors. Results Overall malaria prevalence was 11.7%. Out of 5,322 households, 44.12% households were living in areas with malaria prevalence of ? 10%. The results from statistical analysis showed that age, ethnicity, proximity to forest, household density, and elevation were significantly and positively correlated with the malaria risk and PAF estimation. The highest PAF of malaria prevalence was 47.7% for third tertile (n = 467 of forest cover, 17.6% for second tertile (n = 467 of forest cover and 19.9% for household density >1,000. Conclusion Targeting of malaria health interventions at small spatial scales in Bangladesh should consider the social and socio-economic risk factors identified as well as alternative methods for improving equity of access to interventions across whole communities.

  10. Vascular risk factors and diabetic neuropathy

    Tesfaye, S; Chaturvedi, N; Eaton, S. E. M.; Ward, J. D.; Manes , C.; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, C.; Witte, D. R.; Fuller, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Other than glycemic control, there are no treatments for diabetic neuropathy. Thus, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for neuropathy is crucial. We studied risk factors for the development of distal symmetric neuropathy in 1172 patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus from 31 centers participating in the European Diabetes (EURODIAB) Prospective Complications Study. Methods: Neuropathy was assessed at baseline (1989 to 1991) and at follow-up (1997 to 1999), with a m...

  11. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Kimberly L. Henry; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at...

  12. Occupational risk factors for Parkinson disease

    Mark, M.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors probably play an important role in the etiology of Parkinson disease (PD). However, not many environmental factors have been identified for which unequivocal evidence is available for a relation with PD risk. The main focus of the research described in this thesis was on studying associations between occupational exposures and PD risk. A large case-control study was conducted, for which all patients diagnosed between 2006 and 2011 in five participating hospitals were inv...

  13. Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins

    Amit Kumar Dutta, Ashok Chacko, Biju George, Joseph Anjilivelil Joseph, Sukesh Chandran Nair, Vikram Mathews

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT).METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients with abdominal venous thrombosis were studied. The patients were divided into Budd-Chiari group (hepatic vein, IVC thrombosis) and splanchnic venous thrombosis group (portal, splenic, superior mesenteric ...

  14. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Design Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence. PMID:26950567

  15. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    Oanh Thi Hoang Trinh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective: This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS. Design: Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011 with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results: Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%. Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion: Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.

  16. Risk factors predisposing to congenital heart defects

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is associated with multiple risk factors, consanguinity may be one such significant factor. The role of consanguinity in the etiology of CHD is supported by inbreeding studies, which demonstrate an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance of some congenital heart defects. This study was done to find out the risk factors for CHD. A case-control study was done on pediatric patients at a tertiary care hospital, Aga Khan University Hospital, located in Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 500 patients, 250 cases and 250 controls were included in the study. Amongst the 250 cases (i.e. those diagnosed with CHD), 122 patients (48.8%) were born of consanguineous marriages while in the controls (i.e. non-CHD) only 72 patients (28.9%) showed a consanguinity amongst parents. On multivariate analysis, consanguinity emerged as an independent risk factor for CHD; adjusted odds ratio 2.59 (95% C. I. 1.73 - 3.87). Other risk factors included low birth weight, maternal co-morbidities, family history of CHD and first born child. On the other hand, medications used by the mother during the index pregnancy, maternal age and gender of the child did not significantly increase the risk of developing CHD. Analyses of our results show that parental consanguinity, family history of CHD, maternal co-morbidities, first born child and low birth weight are independent risk factors for CHD

  17. An Investigation of the Relationship Among Parental Involvement, Socio-economic Factors of Parents and Students? Academic Achievement

    Erdoğan, Yeliz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of 8th grade students‟ academic achievement with parental involvement and socio-economic factors of parents. Data were collected from the state schools in the Famagusta district of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). A total of 178 families (students and their parents) participated in the study. A quantitative research method was used to collect data. The questionnaires were prepared in the participants‟ mother tongue wh...

  18. Socio-economic factors related to moral reasoning in childhood and adolescence: the missing link between brain and behavior

    Simona Carla Silvia Caravita; Simona Giardino; Leonardo Lenzi

    2012-01-01

    Neuroscientific and psychological research on moral development has until now developed independently, referring to distinct theoretical models, contents, and methods. In particular, the influence of socio-economic and cultural factors on morality has been broadly investigated by psychologists but as yet has not been investigated by neuroscientists. The value of bridging these two areas both theoretically and methodologically has, however, been suggested. This study aims at providing a first ...

  19. Influence of Socioeconomic Factors and Family Social Support on Smoking and Alcohol Use among Health School Students

    Zuhal Bahar; Figen Çavusoglu

    2010-01-01

    Background: Substance dependence is a global problem threatening individuals and communities alike by negatively influencing public health and social cohesion.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of socioeconomic factors and family social support on substance use and/or dependence among health school students.Results: A significant difference was found between student substance users and nonusers in terms of age, grade level, educational level and vocational statu...

  20. Gender Differences in Obesogenic Behaviour, Socioeconomic and Metabolic Factors in a Population-based Sample of Iranians: The IHHP Study

    Tavassoli, Ali Akbar; Gharipour, Mojgan; Khosravi, Alireza; KELISHADI, Roya; Siadat, Zahra Dana; Bahonar, Ahmad; Sadri, Gholam Hosein; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Rabiei, Katayoun; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Zarfeshani, Sonia; Eshrati, Babak; Shirani, Shahin; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the gender differences in association of some behavioural and socioeconomic factors with obesity indices in a population-based sample of 12,514 Iranian adults. The mean body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were significantly higher in women than in men. Current and passive smoking had an inverse association with BMI among males whereas current smoking, transportation by a private car, and longer duration of watching televisi...

  1. Socio-economic factors associated with delivery assisted by traditional birth attendants in Iraq, 2000

    Rudatsikira Emmanuel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional birth attendants (TBAs are likely to deliver lower quality maternity care compared to professional health workers. It is important to characterize women who are assisted by TBAs in order to design interventions specific to such groups. We thus conducted a study to assess if socio-economic status and demographic factors are associated with having childbirth supervised by traditional birth attendants in Iraq. Methods Iraqi Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS data for 2000 were used. We estimated frequencies and proportions of having been delivered by a traditional birth attendant and other social characteristics. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between having been delivered by a TBA and wealth, area of residence (urban versus rural, parity, maternal education and age. Results Altogether 22,980 women participated in the survey, and of these women, 2873 had delivery information and whether they were assisted by traditional birth attendants (TBAs or not during delivery. About 1 in 5 women (26.9% had been assisted by TBAs. Compared to women of age 35 years or more, women of age 25–34 years were 22% (AOR = 1.22, 95%CI [1.08, 1.39] more likely to be assisted by TBAs during delivery. Women who had no formal education were 42% (AOR = 1.42, 95%CI [1.22, 1.65] more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those who had attained secondary or higher level of education. Women in the poorest wealth quintile were 2.52 (AOR = 2.52, 95%CI [2.14, 2.98] more likely to be delivered by TBAs compared to those in the richest quintile. Compared to women who had 7 or more children, those who had 1 or 2 were 28% (AOR = 0.72, 95%CI [0.59, 0.87] less likely to be delivered by TBAs. Conclusion Findings from this study indicate that having delivery supervised by traditional birth attendants was associated with young maternal age, low education, and being poor. Meanwhile women having 1 or 2 children were less likely to be delivered by TBAs. These factors should be considered in the design of interventions to reduce the rate of deliveries assisted by TBAs in favour of professional midwives, and consequently reduce maternal and neonatal mortality rates and other adverse events.

  2. Assessing the risk for dengue fever based on socioeconomic and environmental variables in a geographical information system environment

    Hassan M. Khormi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An important option in preventing the spread of dengue fever (DF is to control and monitor its vector (Aedes aegypti as well as to locate and destroy suitable mosquito breeding environments. The aim of the present study was to use a combination of environmental and socioeconomic variables to model areas at risk of DF. These variables include clinically confirmed DF cases, mosquito counts, population density in inhabited areas, total populations per district, water access, neighbourhood quality and the spatio-temporal risk of DF based on the average, weekly frequency of DF incidence. Out of 111 districts investigated, 17 (15%, covering a total area of 121 km², were identified as of high risk, 25 (22%, covering 133 km², were identified as of medium risk, 18 (16%, covering 180 km², were identified as of low risk and 51 (46%, covering 726 km², were identified as of very low risk. The resultant model shows that most areas at risk of DF were concentrated in the central part of Jeddah county, Saudi Arabia. The methods used can be implemented as routine procedures for control and prevention. A concerted intervention in the medium- and high-risk level districts identified in this study could be highly effective in reducing transmission of DF in the area as a whole.

  3. The use of socioeconomic factors in mapping tuberculosis risk areas in a city of northeastern Brazil Uso de factores socioeconómicos en la localización de áreas con riesgo de tuberculosis en una ciudad del nordeste de Brasil

    Wayner V. Souza

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil the challenge of meeting the needs of those living in deprived areas has generated discussions on replacing the existing approach to epidemiological surveillance with an integrated public health surveillance system. This new approach would supplant the traditional focus on high-risk individuals with a method for identifying high-risk populations and the areas where these persons live. Given the magnitude of the problem that tuberculosis (TB poses for Brazil, we chose that disease as an example of how such a new, integrated public health surveillance system could be constructed. We integrated data from several sources with geographic information to create an indicator of tuberculosis risk for Olinda, a city in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. In order to stratify the urban space in Olinda and to check for an association between the resulting TB risk gradient and the mean incidence of the disease between 1991 and 1996, we applied two different methods: 1 a "social deprivation index" and 2 principal component analysis followed by cluster analysis. Our results showed an association between social deprivation and the occurrence of TB. The results also highlighted priority groups and areas requiring intervention. We recommend follow-up that would include treating acid-fast bacilli smear-positive pulmonary TB cases, tracing of these persons' contacts, and monitoring of multidrug-resistant cases, all in coordination with local health services.En Brasil, el reto de satisfacer las necesidades de los residentes en zonas pobres ha generado discusiones sobre la sustitución del actual abordaje de la vigilancia epidemiológica por un sistema integrado de vigilancia de la salud pública. Este nuevo abordaje debería sustituir el tradicional enfoque en los individuos de alto riesgo por un método destinado a identificar las poblaciones de alto riesgo y las zonas en las que viven. Dada la magnitud del problema de la tuberculosis en Brasil, elegimos esta enfermedad como un ejemplo de cómo se podría concebir este nuevo sistema integrado de vigilancia de la salud pública. Se reunieron los datos de varias fuentes y la información geográfica para crear un indicador del riesgo de tuberculosis en Olinda, ciudad del estado de Pernambuco. Con el fin de estratificar el espacio urbano de Olinda y de buscar una asociación entre el gradiente del riesgo de tuberculosis y la incidencia media de la enfermedad entre 1991 y 1996, se aplicaron dos métodos diferentes: 1 un "índice social de pobreza", y 2 un análisis de componentes principales seguido de un análisis por grupos. Los resultados obtenidos revelaron una asociación entre la pobreza y la aparición de la tuberculosis y también señalaron grupos y zonas prioritarias que requerían intervención. Se recomienda un seguimiento que debería incluir el tratamiento de los casos de tuberculosis pulmonar con baciloscopia positiva, la identificación de los contactos de estos individuos y el control de los casos resistentes a múltiples fármacos, todo ello en coordinación con los servicios de salud locales.

  4. Factors with an Impact on the Perception of the Value of Health and Disease in the Romanian Cultural and Socioeconomic Context

    Rodica GRAMMA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Morbid states are determined by complex factors acting in a synergistic system. Thus, population health is an integrated indicator of social development of a country, reflecting the socio-economic and moral welfare of the people, living conditions and consumption of health services, as well as the level of adequate education about risk factors and healthy behaviors. For these reasons, we decided to analyze the role of the person and of the health system for public health prosperity, given the responsibility assumed by each party, highlighting the specific cultural context of Romania. Based on the results of a qualitative study conducted on two groups of patients in the terminal stages of the disease in the general and in Rroma populations, some frequent perceptions of their own health and the role of the health system have been described.

  5. HIV and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status, Popayan-Colombia (2008-2009

    Mueses, Hector Fabio

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine HIV presence and risk behaviors of persons of low socio-economic status in the city of PopayanColombia. Methods: Cross-sectional study; between 2008 and 2009, 363 participants of Popayan signed informed consent and received pre and post HIV test counseling. Socio-demographic characteristics and history of STDs, risk behaviors and previous HIV testing were assessed. Descriptive statistics, correlations and multivariate logistic regression were calculated Results: Mean age 33,5±10,2; 66%women.Frequency of HIV-positive patients was 3.86% (95% CI: 1.87-5.85, greater in men (7.38%; p=0,013. Greater frequency of HIV-positive patients was observed in people age 29-37, those without a stable partner, and those with history of risky alcohol consumption (more than five drinks in 2 hours . Conclusions: HIV-positive patients frequency in this population was greater than national estimate for general population, aged 15-49 in Colombia, with even greater frequency in men. This study suggests that characteristics associated with low socioeconomic status, in economically active population, without a stable partner and with risky alcohol use, can potentially increase risk of HIV infection

  6. Prevalence of health risk factors among fishermen

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf; Linos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that fishermen have a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and accidents. The majority of cardiovascular disease is caused by external risk factors such as the diet, tobacco, alcohol and lack of physical activity. The purpose of this paper was to...... review the available information on the prevalence of these preventable risk factors in order to strengthen the preventive strategies. Methods A search for the last decade was done via Medline, Google and Google Scholar with the keywords "diet, tobacco, alcohol, physical exercise, overweight AND...... Danish fishermen 25%-, 34% and 37% were obese in the 18-24, 25-44 and 45-64 years age groups. Conclusion Health risk factors among fishermen need to be highlighted and further investigated as they represent occupational risks of major impact to chronic diseases prevalence with projections to quality and...

  7. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiovascular Risk: Beyond Traditional Risk Factors.

    Delgado-Lista, Javier; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Perez-Caballero, Ana I; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco; Lopez-Miranda, Jose

    2016-04-01

    A strict adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) has repeatedly been linked to a low risk of cardiovascular disease in several situations. Initially, the mechanisms considered as possible causes of this were based on the effects of this dietary pattern on the so-called traditional risk factors (especially lipids and blood pressure). However, the high relative reduction in the prevalence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality were not proportional to the limited findings about regulation of those traditional risk factors. In addition to several studies confirming the above effects, current research on the MedDiet is being focused on defining its effects on non-traditional risk factors, such as endothelial function, inflammation, oxidative stress, or on controlling the conditions which predispose people to cardiovascular events, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the current article, after briefly reviewing the known effects of the MedDiet on the traditional risk factors, we will mainly focus on reviewing the current evidence about the effects that this dietary pattern exerts on alternative factors, including postprandial lipemia or coagulation, among others, as well as providing a short review on future directions. PMID:25118147

  8. Risk factors for lower respiratory tract infections in children

    Objectives: Acute respiratory tract infections are divided into two groups as upper and lower respiratory tract infections. These are very common diseases in childhood. In this study, we aimed to determine risk factors for lower respiratory tract in this region. Methodology: Hospital were included in our study. Their examinations, backgrounds, family histories and information about environmental factors were recorded in questionnaire forms. Results: Lack of vaccination, duration of breast feeding, onset age of cow's milk, family history for asthma and food allergy, number of hospitalized people in the same room, number of people who live in same house and smoking around the children were evaluated for the presence of LRTI, and LRTI risks of these factors were respectively observed as 1.69, 1.71, 1.61, 1.69, 1.20, 1.47, 1.56 and 2.63 fold increased. Conclusion: Standardization of clinical diagnosis, accurate and realistic use of antibiotics, correction of nutrition, improvement of socio-economic situation and the elimination of Respiratory Infections. (author)

  9. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

  10. Socioeconomic disadvantage and changes in health risk behaviours in Australia: 1989-90 to 2001.

    Jake M. Najman; Ghasem (Sam) Toloo; Victor Siskind

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) is associated in industrialized countries with unhealthy lifestyle characteristics, such as smoking, physical inactivity and being overweight or obese. This paper examines changes over time in the association between SES and smoking status, physical activity and being overweight or obese in Australia. METHODS: Data were taken from three successive national health surveys in Australia carried out in 1989-90 (n = 54 576), 1995 (n = 53 828) and 2001 (n...

  11. Cannabis use motives and personality risk factors.

    Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory. PMID:24368004

  12. Cervical artery dissection: emerging risk factors.

    Micheli, S; Paciaroni, M; Corea, F; Agnelli, G; Zampolini, M; Caso, V

    2010-01-01

    Cervical artery dissection (CAD) represents an increasingly recognized cause of stroke and the most common cause of ischemic stroke in young adults. Many factors have been identified in association with CAD such as primary disease of arterial wall (fibrodysplasia) and other non-specific diseases related to CAD like Ehlers Danlos-syndrome IV, Marfan's syndrome, vessel tortuosity. Moreover, an underlying arteriopathy which could be in part genetically determined, has been suspected. The rule of emerging risk factors for CAD such as recent respiratory tract infection, migraine and hyperhomocysteinemia are still a matter of research. Other known risks factors for CAD are major head/neck trauma like chiropractic maneuver, coughing or hyperextension injury associated to car. We examined emerging risks factors for CAD detected in the last years, as CAD pathogenesis is still not completely understood and needs further investigations. PMID:21270941

  13. Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Venous Thrombosis

    Cushman, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, occurs at an annual incidence of about 1 per 1000 adults. Rates increase sharply after around age 45 years, and are slightly higher in men than women in older age. Major risk factors for thrombosis, other than age, include exogenous factors such as surgery, hospitalization, immobility, trauma, pregnancy and the puerperium and hormone use, and endogenous factors such as cancer, obesity, and inherited and acquired disorde...

  14. SMART risk factor screening in patients at high vascular risk

    Brouwer, B.G.

    2008-01-01

    Studies presented in this thesis focused on the relationship between the presence of coronary heart disease and intra-abdominal fat, and the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and the presence of metabolic syndrome, incidence of type 2 diabetes and recurrence of vascular events in high-risk patients. In addition, two risk factor management strategies in patients with clinical manifest vascular disease were evaluated. We demonstrated that waist circumference had the strongest ...

  15. Portfolio Credit Risk Modelling With Heavy-Tailed Risk Factors

    Kostadinov, Krassimir

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, the dependencies between financial assets have increased due to globalization effects and relaxed market regulation. The standard industrial methodologies like RiskMetrics and CreditMetrics model the dependence structure in the derivatives or in the credit portfolio by assuming multivariate normality of the underlying risk factors. It has been well recognized that many financial assets exhibit a number of features which contradict the normality assumption - namely asym...

  16. Quantifying the impacts of socio-economic factors on air quality in Chinese cities from 2000 to 2009.

    Zhao, Juanjuan; Chen, Shengbin; Wang, Hua; Ren, Yin; Du, Ke; Xu, Weihua; Zheng, Hua; Jiang, Bo

    2012-08-01

    Socio-economic factors have significant influences on air quality and are commonly used to guide environmental planning and management. Based on data from 85 long-term daily monitoring cities in China, air quality as evaluated by AOFDAQ-A (Annual Occurrence Frequency of Daily Air Quality above Level III), was correlated to socio-economic variable groups of urbanization, pollution and environmental treatment by variation partitioning and hierarchical partitioning methods. We found: (1) the three groups explained 43.5% of the variance in AOFDAQ-A; (2) the contribution of "environmental investment" to AOFDAQ-A shown a time lag effect; (3) "population in mining sector" and "coverage of green space in built-up area" were respectively the most significant negative and positive explanatory socio-economic variables; (4) using eight largest contributing individual factors, a linear model to predict variance in AOFDAQ-A was constructed. Results from our study provide a valuable reference for the management and control of air quality in Chinese cities. PMID:22575095

  17. Reducing flood vulnerability and risk under changing socio-economic conditions - A qualitative case study in Upper Austria

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Reiss, Julia; Achleitner, Stefan; Plrer, Manuel; Hofer, Michael; Weingraber, Felix

    2013-04-01

    Within the last decades severe flooding events occurred in many parts of Europe. Especially in 2002, Upper Austria was seriously affected. Beside the natural variability of precipitation events the increase of losses is strongly connected with socio-economic developments. Especially the increase of settlement areas and the specific values of such modern settlement areas in flood prone areas induced this increase of losses. The presented case study was initiated to analyse different consequences of the currently observed socio-economic trend and further socio-economic projections within the watershed of the so-called Ottnanger Redl in Upper Austria, a watershed which was affected by the event in 2002. The temporal dimension of this change in damage potential is analysed for the 1990s, current conditions and future scenarios (Statistics Austria). Beside the socio-economic development the common structural vulnerability but also the positive effect of legislation and standards concerning flood-adapted constructions are considered. The hydrological-hydraulic is realized based on a scaled scenario approach. Therefore, documented precipitation events at rain gauges are considered for precipitation run-off simulations. To include further events the gauged events are scalled in their intensity. The hydrological loads of these scenarios are considered within different 2D hydraulic simulations; representation of past, current and future settlement structure. Based on the current settlement structure and its transfer in an asset value database, the past structure of the 1990s is reconstructed with remote sensing methods. The future structure (different pragmatic scenarios) in contrast is estimated on the basis of the current situation, socio-economic projections of Statistics Austria, land-use planes and local development concepts of the individual communities and in cooperation with the Regional Government of Upper Austria. The monetary evaluation is conducted with visualized verified building footprints, high resolved building characteristics on address level, building cross cubature analyses based on LiDAR data and monetary evaluation guidelines for different sectors and building functionalities of the Obersterreichische Versicherung (regional insurance companies). Furthermore, this monetary evaluation approach is crosschecked with further approaches. First, to analyse the flood risk situation under past, current and future socio-economic situations for the different hydraulic loads without any measures to reduce current vulnerability, common flood vulnerability approaches (loss ratio) are considered. In a next step, the introduced legislation and standards in Upper Austria concerning flood adapted constructions is implemented within the applied vulnerability approaches. Thus, the effect of flood adapted construction measures as well as different settlement scenarios on the risk situation can be analysed. The stochastic nature of flood events is furthermore considered within a Monte-Carlo based evaluation routine. The results of the study show exemplarily the positive effect of object-based measures to reduce the susceptibility of the elements at risk and, furthermore, demonstrate the consequences of different settlement scenarios on the flood risk situation within the study area. As the project is still in progress, the contribution will introduce the general framework and highlight some first results.

  18. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references

  19. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection

    Mijailovi? eljko D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hepatitis C viral infection represents a major health problem in the world. The estimated global incidence is about 3%, whereas the number of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV carriers worldwide is estimated to be between 150-300 million people. Material and methods This retrospective analysis included 82 patients whose diagnosis of viral hepatitis C infection was based upon the following criteria: case history, physical examination, laboratory and abdominal ultrasound examination, histological examination of the liver, radiological examination, serological analysis and viral analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to describe general data on patients of the study group, risk factor analysis and follow-up results. Results The most prominent risk factor in our study group was intravenous use of drugs in 37 patients (37%, and blood transfusion in 13 patients (13%. Less important risk factors of viral hepatitis C infection included: promiscuity (8%, sexual contact with hepatitis C carriers (5%, surgical intervention (5%, haemodialysis (3%, intranasal use of cocaine (2%. Discussion Hepatitis C viral infection has become the illness of young and middle-aged population. This is due to the epidemic profile of this illness, due to intravenous use of drugs as the most prominent risk factor. Conclusion Due to the number of infected, numerous risk factors and complications of viral hepatitis C, hepatitis C virus has become the most prominent hepatotrophic virus.

  20. Risk Factors for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Huang, Weimin; Han, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiang; Yu, Lili; Yu, Xiuchun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) is a common complication following primary discectomy. This systematic review aimed to investigate the current evidence on risk factors for rLDH. Cohort or case-control studies addressing risk factors for rLDH were identified by search in Pubmed (Medline), Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library from inception to June 2015. Relevant results were pooled to give overall estimates if possible. Heterogeneity among studies was examined and publication bias was also assessed. A total of 17 studies were included in this systematic review. Risk factors that had significant relation with rLDH were smoking (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.532.58), disc protrusion (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.152.79), and diabetes (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.061.32). Gender, BMI, occupational work, level, and side of herniation did not correlate with rLDH significantly. Based on current evidence, smoking, disc protrusion, and diabetes were predictors for rLDH. Patients with these risk factors should be paid more attention for prevention of recurrence after primary surgery. More evidence provided by high-quality observational studies is still needed to further investigate risk factors for rLDH. PMID:26765413

  1. Socioeconomic factors associated with compliance with mass drug administration for lymphatic filariasis elimination in Kenya: Descriptive study results

    Doris W Njomo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Annual Mass Drug Administration (MDA to at least 65 - 80% of the population at risk is necessary for Lymphatic Filariasis (LF elimination. In Kenya, MDA based on diethylcarbamazine and albendazole, using the community-directed treatment (ComDT approach has been implemented thrice in the Kwale and Malindi districts. To identify the socioeconomic factors influencing compliance with MDA, a retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in the two districts after the 2008 MDA. Materials and Methods: In Kwale, the Tsimba location was selected for high and Gadini for low coverage, while in Malindi, the Goshi location represented high and Gongoni, low coverage. Using systematic sampling, nine villages were selected from the four locations. Quantitative data was collected from 965 systematically selected household heads and analyzed using SPSS v. 15. For qualitative data, which was analyzed manually according to core themes of the study, 80 opinion leaders and 80 LF patients with clinical signs were purposively selected and interviewed, and 16 focus group discussions (FGDs conducted with adult and youth male and female groups. Results: Christians were slightly more (49.1% in the high compliance areas compared to Muslims (34.3%, while Muslims prevailed (40.6% in the low compliance areas compared to Christians (29%. On the income level, 27% from the low compared to 12.2% from the high compliance areas had a main occupation, indicative of a higher income, and 95% from the low compared to 78% from high compliance areas owned land, also an indicator of higher economic status. Accurate knowledge of the cause of swollen limbs was higher (37% in the high compared to 25.8% in the low compliance areas, and so was accurate knowledge about the cause of swollen genitals (26.8% in high compared to 14% in low. Risk perception was higher in the high compliance areas (52% compared to 45% and access to MDA information seemed to have been better in the high compared to low compliance areas. Patients from the high compliance areas had a higher mean number of years with chronic disease (15.2 compared to 9.7. Conclusions: There is a need for more investment in reaching out to groups that are often missed during MDAs. Different strategies have to be devised to reach those in specific religious groupings and those in casual employment. This could include prolonging the duration of MDA to capture those who are out during the week seeking for casual and other forms of employment.

  2. Risk factors of cardiac allograft vasculopathy

    Szczurek, Wioletta; Gąsior, Mariusz; Zembala, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in prevention and treatment of heart transplant rejection, development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains the leading factor limiting long-term survival of the graft. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, but a significant role is attributed to endothelial cell damage, caused by immunological and non-immunological mechanisms. Immunological factors include the differences between the recipient's and the donor's HLA systems, the presence of alloreactive antibodies and episodes of acute rejection. Among the non-immunological factors the most important are the age of the donor, ischemia-reperfusion injury and cytomegalovirus infection. The classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidemia) are also important. This study presents an up-to-date overview of current knowledge on the vasculopathy etiopathogenesis and the role played by endothelium and inflammatory processes in CAV, and it also investigates the factors which may serve as risk markers of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:26855649

  3. [Major risk factors of glucose metabolism abnormalities].

    Misnikova, I V; Dreval', A V; Barsukov, I A; Dzebisashvili, T G

    2011-01-01

    Using the data of population base study of adult residents of 2 districts of Moscow Region (2638 persons), prevalence is studied and influence on occurrence of glucose metabolism abnormalities of major risk factors is estimated. Influence of risk factors was estimated with Cox regression analyses. High prevalence undiagnosed glucose metabolism abnormalities among persons (24,9%) is taped; it is established that relative risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 significantly raised at persons is more than 50 years of age independently of BMI, at the same time first-degree obesity increased relative risk of diabetes mellitus type 2 in 4,3 times and third-degree obesity--in 9,0 times independently of age. PMID:22232886

  4. Safety Factors in Pesticide Risk Assessment

    Elmegaard, N.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G. A. J. M.

    Foreword It has become common practice to protect the environment from hazardous chemicals by use of risk assessment to establish environmental concentration at which only limited damage to the ecosystem can be expected. The methods and tools applied in the risk assessment need constant evaluation...... to secure that the methodology is adequate. As new knowledge surfaces the risk assessment procedures develops. The present report is a contribution to the development of safety factors used to account for the uncertainty when · extrapolating from the results of test with a single species in the...... safety factors used in pesticide risk assessment: the variability in species sensitivities, and the relationship between acute LC50's and chronic NOEC's....

  5. Selected Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer and Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening

    V. Szaboova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a review of literature on risk factors and cofactors for cervical cancer and barriers to cervical cancer screening. Cofactors of cervical cancer are risk factors that contribute to the development of cervical cancer but are not able to generate cancer on their own. Risk factors and cofactors of cervical cancer have been clearly identified in many studies. Therefore cervical cancer is a preventable type of cancer. The aim of this article was to describe in more detail the barriers to cervical cancer screening among women all over the world. The barriers to cervical cancer screening can be sorted according to the results of studies into five main groups: informational, psychological, socio-economic, behavioral and cultural, and geographical. Efforts to reduce risk factors and cofactors of HPV infection and cervical cancer and to increase knowledge about screening are necessary in a positive approach to preventing cervical cancer in society and to promote women’s health.

  6. The essential role of psychosocial risk and protective factors in pediatric traumatic brain injury research.

    Gerring, Joan P; Wade, Shari

    2012-03-01

    This article builds upon Traumatic Brain Injury Common Data Elements (TBI CDE) version 1.0 and the pediatric CDE Initiative by emphasizing the essential role of psychosocial risk and protective factors in pediatric TBI research. The goals are to provide a compelling rationale for including psychosocial risk and protective factors in addition to socioeconomic status (SES), age, and sex in the study design and analyses of pediatric TBI research and to describe recommendations for core common data elements in this domain. Risk and protective factor research is based on the ecological theory of child development in which children develop through a series of interactions with their immediate and more distant environments. Home, school, religious, and social influences are conceptualized as risk and/or protective factors. Child development and TBI researchers have interpreted risk and protective variables as main effects or as interactions and have used cumulative risk indices and moderation models to describe the relationship among these variables and outcomes that have to do with development and with recovery from TBI. It is likely that the number, type, and interaction among risk and protective factors each contribute unique variance to study outcomes. Longitudinal designs in TBI research will be essential to understanding the reciprocal relationships between risk/protective factors and the recovery/outcome made by the child. The search for effective interventions to hasten TBI recovery mandates the need to target modifiable risks and to promote protective factors in the child's environment. PMID:22091875

  7. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus H; Kirkby, Nikolai; Twetman, Svante; Heitmann, Berit L; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Paster, Bruce J; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. DESIGN......: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES), were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Using...... presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value) of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann-Whitney tests with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis...

  8. Rural-to-Urban Migration: Socioeconomic Status But Not Acculturation was Associated with Overweight/Obesity Risk.

    Hilmers, Angela; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Gilman, Robert H; McDermott, Ann Y; Smeeth, Liam; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-06-01

    To investigate whether socioeconomic status (SES) and acculturation predict overweight/obesity risk as well as the mediating effect of physical activity (PA) in the context of internal migration. Cross-sectional study of 587 rural-to-urban migrants participating in the PERU MIGRANT study. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression and structured equation modeling. Interaction effects of SES and acculturation were tested. Models were controlled for age, gender and education. Only SES was a significant predictor of overweight/obesity risk. Lower SES decreased the odds of being overweight/obese by 51.4 %. This association did not vary by gender nor was it explained by PA. Mechanisms underlying the relationship between SES and overweight/obesity may differ depending on the geographic location and sociocultural context of the population studied. Research on internal migration and health would benefit from the development of tailored acculturation measures and the evaluation of exploratory models that include diet. PMID:26087715

  9. [Coronary risk factors in the Mexican population].

    Zorrilla, E

    1985-01-01

    We review the coronary risk factors in the mexican population. The data suggest that there is a large reservoir of individuals who are candidates to develop coronary artery disease. Although coronary deaths still represent a small fraction of all deaths, mortality rates have increased recently. General preventive plans are therefore opportune and should be directed to the population at large as well as to high risk individuals and patients with clinical evidence of the disease. PMID:2935097

  10. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Silvia Di Legge; Giacomo Koch; Marina Diomedi; Paolo Stanzione; Fabrizio Sallustio

    2012-01-01

    Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI...

  11. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada; Fischer Pedersen, Anette; Runesdotter, Sara; Vedsted, Peter; Tishelman, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... was generally seen with increasing age in both countries, but deviating patterns were seen for alcohol intake, red/processed meat, obesity and age 70+. Conclusions: This study supports findings from other European studies that generally demonstrate modest public awareness of many established cancer...... risk factors. Efforts should be made to improve awareness of the cancer risk factors HPV-infection, low fruit and vegetable intake and alcohol intake, which showed particularly low awareness in both countries. Previous studies indicate that repeated, broad campaigns are successful, and suggest that a...

  12. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  13. Socioeconomic factors associated with drug consumption in prison population in Mexico

    Nevárez-Sida Armando; Constantino-Casas Patricia; Castro-Ríos Angélica

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Consumption of illegal drugs is a public health problem in Mexico, and the prison population is a vulnerable group with higher rates of prevalence than in the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the main socioeconomic variables associated with drug consumption in the prison population. Methods Utilizing data from the Second Incarcerated Population Survey carried out by the Centre of Research and Teaching of Economics (CIDE) in Mexico, a logisti...

  14. Socioeconomic, lifestyle and dietary factors associated with dietary supplement use during pregnancy

    Pouchieu, Camille; Rachel LEVY (LEREPS); Faure, Cline; Andreeva, Valentina; Galan, Maria del Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information on dietary supplement (DS) use during pregnancy is largely lacking. Besides, little is known about the share of DS use as self-medication versus such use following a physician's advice/prescription. Our aim was to evaluate DS use and its socioeconomic, lifestyle and dietary correlates among pregnant women participating in the French NutriNet-Sante cohort study. Method: Data were collected by self-administered web-based questionnaires. Food intake was assessed by repeat...

  15. Race and self assessed health status: the role of socioeconomic factors in the USA.

    Ren, X S; Amick, B C

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate relative odds ratios and to ascertain the relative contribution of each socioeconomic covariate in explaining racial disparities in self assessed health status (for example, global health perceptions and functional limitations of daily activities). DESIGN: National representative data from the 1987-88 national survey of families and households, a multistage, stratified probability sample of non-institutionalised American adults age 19 and older, were used. Logisti...

  16. Community-level risk factors for notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, 1991-2008

    Pardhan-Ali Aliya; Wilson Jeff; Edge Victoria L; Furgal Chris; Reid-Smith Richard; Santos Maria; McEwen Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Enteric pathogens are an important cause of illness, however, little is known about their community-level risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural and physical environmental conditions) in the Northwest Territories (NWT) of Canada. The objective of this study was to undertake ecological (group-level) analyses by combining two existing data sources to examine potential community-level risk factors for campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis, which are three noti...

  17. Risk Factors for Wound Complications Following Abdominoplasty

    Samir K. Jabaiti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Abdominoplasty has become an increasingly popular procedure. Risk factors affecting wound complications of abdominoplasty are not adequately defined in literature. Identification of these risk factors is crucial for better patient’s selection and counseling. The objectives of this study were to determine wound complication rate following abdominoplasty and to examine the relationship of a set of possible risk factors with the incidence of complications. Approach: We studied 116 patients (107 women and 9 men who underwent abdominoplasty at Jordan University Hospital, between June 1997 and June 2007. Data were collected from patients’ medical records and analyzed to determine types and rates of surgical wound complications. Fourteen possible risk factors were investigated using logistic regression analysis to evaluate their relationship with the occurrence of wound complications. Risk factors examined were: age, sex, body mass index, parity number, smoking history, history of diabetes mellitus, previous gastroplasty for morbid obesity, previous abdominal surgical scars, type of abdominoplasty, plication of recti, hernia repair, operative time and operative blood loss. Results: A total of 29 patients (two males and 27 females (25% had wound complications. The most common complication was seroma. It was encountered in 15 cases (12.9%. Six patients (5.2% had wound infection. Partial skin necrosis was encountered in four cases (3.4 %. Two patients (1.7% developed wound dehiscence and two patients (1.7% had hematoma. The only factors significantly increased the complication rate were: increased body mass index (p = 0.002 and history of smoking (p = 0.004. Conclusions and Recommendations: This study confirms the adverse effect of overweight and cigarette smoking on the incidence of wound complication rate following abdominoplasty. We recommend that overweight patients and smokers undergoing abdominoplasty should be adequately counseled and informed about the increased risks. In addition, prophylactic measures should be properly taken to decrease wound complication rate in these groups of patients.

  18. [Renal cancer in the Primorye Territory. Risk factors].

    Pisareva, L F; Ananina, O A; Odintsova, I N; Boiarkina, A P; Alekseeva, G N; Gurina, L I

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological study in Vladivostok and Primorye Territory in period 1999 to 2013 was performed. In the structure of cancer incidence at the evaluated areas, renal cancer occupies fifth place among male population (5.7 and 5.3%, respectively), and 11th place (3.5%) among female population. The problem of renal cancer in this region and the administrative center is relevant due to the increasing incidence: a standardized measures in the period of 2009-2013 were 12.5 ± 0.3 and 11.7 ± 0.50/0000, respectively. The Increase of the incidence can be explained by the integrating influence of complex of changing demographics and health, social, hygienic and other factors. The questionnaire survey has become one of the main methods to identify risk factors for the development of the disease. Risk factors for renal cancer were identified by the case-control method. 231 patients with renal cancer (mean age 58.2 ± 1.7 years) and 354 healthy men and women (mean age 57.4 ± 2.2 years) underwent questionnaire survey. Specific risk factors for renal cancer were identified: migration (OR = 1.6, P = 0.0149); low socio-economic status (secondary-level education, income per family member less than 10,000 rubles, OR = 1.5, P = 0.0349); started smoking before 18 years of age (OR = 1.5, P = 0.0349); trade with physical activity and occupational hazards (car drivers, sailors, house-painters, OR = 2.0, P = 0.0000); occupational hazard: contact with oil products (OR = 1.6, P = 0.0262), contact with lead, asbestos, dyes (OR = 3.5, P = 0.0000); length of time worked with occupational hazard over 5 years (OR = 1.6, P = 0.0126); occupational hazard in the form of an underground work (OR = 8.0, P = 0.0000) and the presence of large amounts of dust (OR = 1.2, P = 0.0381); location of industrial enterprises within 2 kilometers from homesite (OR = 2.5, P = 0.0000). Based on the identified risk factors, predictive model for the assessment of individual risk and the formation of groups at risk for renal cancer was developed. PMID:25807762

  19. Risk Factors for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Women

    Arzu Yakışan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the rural part of our country the use of traditional biomass was common and as a result of this, women who light the fire and bake bread and cook meals as well as children around them are exposed to the smoke that come out . The aim of this study was to to determine possible risk factors and associated conditions of COPD in women. The study was prospective and case-controlled. Fifty-two female patients with COPD followed up in Akdeniz University Hospital Department of Respiratory Medicine were included in this study. All cases were enrolled between December 2000 and October 2003. Fifty-four female non COPD subjects were chosen as the control group. These control subjects who did not have lung diseases were randomly selected in different outpatient clinics in the same hospital. Age, place of residence, comorbid conditions, cigarette smoking (active and passive, occupational exposure, air pollution, socio-economic status, education level, passive smoking in childhood, the fuel used for heating, cooking and baking bread and its duration were questioned. Results from this study suggest that exposure to cooking smoke, low education level, living in rural area, baking bread at home were associated risk factors with COPD among women.

  20. Relative deprivation and risk factors for obesity in Canadian adolescents

    Elgar, Frank J.; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11–15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions. PMID:26851410

  1. Relative deprivation and risk factors for obesity in Canadian adolescents.

    Elgar, Frank J; Xie, Annie; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; White, James; Pickett, Kate E

    2016-03-01

    Research on socioeconomic differences in overweight and obesity and on the ecological association between income inequality and obesity prevalence suggests that relative deprivation may contribute to lifestyle risk factors for obesity independently of absolute affluence. We tested this hypothesis using data on 25,980 adolescents (11-15 years) in the 2010 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation was applied to the HBSC Family Affluence Scale, an index of common material assets, with more affluent schoolmates representing the comparative reference group. Regression analysis tested the associations between relative deprivation and four obesity risk factors (skipping breakfasts, physical activity, and healthful and unhealthful food choices) plus dietary restraint. Relative deprivation uniquely related to skipping breakfasts, less physical activity, fewer healthful food choices (e.g., fruits, vegetables, whole grain breads), and a lower likelihood of dieting to lose weight. Consistent with Runciman's (1966) theory of relative deprivation and with psychosocial interpretations of the health consequences of income inequality, the results indicate that having mostly better off schoolmates can contribute to poorer health behaviours independently of school-level affluence and subjective social status. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the social origins of obesity and targeting health interventions. PMID:26851410

  2. Risk factors for laparoscopically confirmed pelvic inflammatory disease: findings from Mumbai (Bombay), India

    Gogate, A.; Brabin, L.; Nicholas, S.; Gogate, S.; Gaonkar, T.; Naidu, A.; Divekar, A; Karande, A; Hart, C A

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are an important cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) but have often not been detected in microbiological studies of Indian women admitted to hospital gynaecology wards or private clinics. In this cross sectional study, women living in the inner city of Mumbai (Bombay) were investigated for socioeconomic, clinical, and microbiological risk factors for PID. METHODS: Microbiological tests and laparoscopic examination were carried out ...

  3. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Giardia Infection among Indigenous Communities in Rural Malaysia

    Choy, Seow Huey; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Nasr, Nabil N.; Sulaiman, Maria; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Surin, Johari

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of Giardia infection among indigenous people in rural Malaysia. Faecal samples were collected from 1,330 participants from seven states of Malaysia and examined by wet mount and formalin-ether sedimentation methods while demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. The overall prevalence of Giardia infection was 11.6% and was significantly higher among those ag...

  4. Malaysian adolescent students' needs for enhancing thinking skills, counteracting risk factors and demonstrating academic resilience

    Kuldas, Seffetullah; Hashim, Shahabuddin; Ismail, Hairul Nizam

    2014-01-01

    The adolescence period of life comes along with changes and challenges in terms of physical and cognitive development. In this hectic period, many adolescents may suffer more from various risk factors such as low socioeconomic status, substance abuse, sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicate that such disadvantaged backgrounds of Malaysian adolescent students lead to failure or underachievement in their academic performance. This narrative review scrutinises how some of these stu...

  5. Protective and risk factors for toxocariasis in children from two different social classes of Brazil

    Vamilton Alvares Santarém; Flávia Noris Chagas Leli; Guita Rubinsky-Elefant; Rogério Giuffrida

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Toxocara spp. antibodies in children from two different socioeconomic classes in the Presidente Prudente municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, and the protective and risk factors associated with toxocariasis. One hundred and twenty-six middle-class (MC) and 126 disadvantaged children (DC) were included in this study. Anti-Toxocara ELISA test was performed in order to evaluate seroprevalence. A survey was applied to the children's guardia...

  6. The Effect of Socioeconomic Factors on Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    Purpose: To determine the effect of socioeconomic factors on quality of life (QoL) after treatment in patients with head and neck carcinoma (HNC). Patients and Methods: The study population included 50 HNC patients seen in their control examinations after radiotherapy during a 2-month interval and who were willing to complete the Short-Form 36 QoL questionnaire. Socioeconomic, demographic, and tumor- and treatment-related factors were analyzed for their effect on physical component summary score (PCS) and mental component summary score (MCS) using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: All patients received radiotherapy, and 33 patients (66%) underwent surgery for the primary tumor and/or neck disease. Chemotherapy was given in 9 patients (18%). Mean PCS and MCS were 47.9 (range, 24.8-59.3) and 46.7 (range, 22-63.3) for the whole patient population. There was no significant factor affecting PCS. Education level of 'middle school or higher,' perceived economic status of 'medium or higher,' social security status of not being 'absent or minimally covered,' and unilateral type of neck surgery were found to increase MCS significantly. According to separate linear regression analyses performed for three socioeconomic variables, the most significant factor for MCS was social security status compared with education level and perceived economic status. It was the only parameter that retained its significance when all five parameters were combined in a linear regression model. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that educational status, perceived economic status, and social security status showed a significant effect on the QoL of HNC patients after radiotherapy. When all variables were taken into account, only 'social security status' remained significant

  7. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  8. Suicide, unemployment and other socioeconomic factors: evidence from the economic crisis in Greece

    Michael G. Madianos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Economic adverse conditions are acknowledged as having a major impact on the exacerbation of mental disorders and suicides. The severity of current European crisis and the local unrelenting spending is affecting largely the economy of Greece. Methods: The aim of this study was to explore changes in suicides and their possible association with macroeconomic and behavioural factors. Data for the period 1990-2011 were drawn mainly from the Hellenic Statistical Authority and Eurostat. Suicide mortality rates were correlated with economic and behavioural factors. Results: Suicide mortality rates were increased by 55.8% between 2007 and 2011 while the total mortality was increased by 1.1% only. Significantly increasing trends in public debt, unemployment rates, consumption of daily units of antidepressants as well as divorces per 1000, homicides per 100,000 and persons with HIV per 100,000 were also observed. Suicides have been found to bear strong correlation with unemployment (r. 0.64. Significant associations were also found between suicide mortality and the percentage of public debt as percentage of GDP, the incidence of infections from HIV and homicides. Conclusions: People suffering from income and job losses, living in a demoralized social state caused by severe austerity measures and restrictive health policies, are exposed to risks for developing depression or commit suicide.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors following renal transplant.

    Neale, Jill; Smith, Alice C

    2015-12-24

    Kidney transplantation is the gold-standard treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease. Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) remain at an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events compared to the general population, although rates are lower than those patients on maintenance haemodialysis. Death with a functioning graft is most commonly due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and therefore this remains an important therapeutic target to prevent graft failure. Conventional CV risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and renal dysfunction remain a major influence on CVD in RTRs. However it is now recognised that the morbidity and mortality from CVD are not entirely accounted for by these traditional risk-factors. Immunosuppression medications exert a deleterious effect on many of these well-recognised contributors to CVD and are known to exacerbate the probability of developing diabetes, graft dysfunction and hypertension which can all lead on to CVD. Non-traditional CV risk factors such as inflammation and anaemia have been strongly linked to increased CV events in RTRs and should be considered alongside those which are classified as conventional. This review summarises what is known about risk-factors for CVD in RTRs and how, through identification of those which are modifiable, outcomes can be improved. The overall CV risk in RTRs is likely to be multifactorial and a complex interaction between the multiple traditional and non-traditional factors; further studies are required to determine how these may be modified to enhance survival and quality of life in this unique population. PMID:26722646

  10. Bullying: Risk Factors Becoming ‘Bullies’

    Kasetchai Laeheem; Metta Kuning; Nittaya McNeil

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of a classification of bullying outcomes, and to investigate the risk factors associated with bullying behaviour at Pattani primary schools, southern Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 1,440 students. Factor analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s chi-squared test, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results showed that 20.9% of students in Pa...

  11. Dietetic Risk Factors and Ischemic Heart Disease

    N Asasi; H. Eftekhar; H.H Salimzadeh; Salarifar, M; A.R Dorosty

    2004-01-01

    As adoptin and maintenance of healthy eating behaviours is an important factor for Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) prevention , this research was conducted to determin dietetic risk factors in relation to IHD. This is a case – control study conducted in fall 2003 in Tehran Heart Center and Tehran Shahid Rajaii hospital. 100 subjects with IHD, as cases and 100 controls with no cardiovascular disease in their medical history, participated in the study.Nutritional data was collected by Food Frequen...

  12. Patent Ductus Arteriosus: Perinatal Risk Factors

    Nizarali, Z; Marques, T; Costa, C; Barroso, R.; Cunha, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) is the most common heart disease among the newborn population. Besides prematurity, other factors are believed to play a significant role in this condition. Aims: Identification of perinatal risk factors associated with PDA in premature or Very Low Birth Weight Infants (VLBW). Material and methods: Transversal study including all infants admitted to a Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, from January 2005 to December 2009 and includ...

  13. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    English FA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction

  14. Genetic risk factors for spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage.

    Carpenter, Amanda M; Singh, Inder P; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2016-01-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is associated with the greatest morbidity and mortality of all stroke subtypes. Established risk factors for ICH include hypertension, alcohol use, current cigarette smoking, and use of oral anticoagulants and/or antiplatelet agents. Familial aggregation of ICH has been observed, and the heritability of ICH risk has been estimated at 44%. Few genes have been found to be associated with ICH at the population level, and much of the evidence for genetic risk factors for ICH comes from single studies conducted in relatively small and homogenous populations. In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge of genetic variants associated with primary spontaneous ICH. Two variants of the gene encoding apolipoprotein E (APOE) - which also contributes to the pathogenesis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy - are the most likely candidates for variants that increase the risk of ICH. Other promising candidates for risk alleles in ICH include variants of the genes ACE, PMF1/SLC25A44, COL4A2, and MTHFR. Other genetic variants, related to haemostasis, lipid metabolism, inflammation, and the CNS microenvironment, have been linked to ICH in single candidate gene studies. Although evidence for genetic contributions to the risk of ICH exists, we do not yet fully understand how and to what extent this information can be utilized to prevent and treat ICH. PMID:26670299

  15. Female Sexual Dysfunction: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Jaafarpour, Molouk; KHANI, Ali; Khajavikhan, Javaher; Suhrabi, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Sexual dysfunction adversely affects quality of life, self esteem and interpersonal relationships and it may often be responsible for psychopathological disturbances. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and associated risk factors for Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) in women with Kurdish culture from western Iran .

  16. Environmental Factors and Breast Cancer Risk

    ... there is an unusually high incidence of breast cancer, environmental factors have been targeted as a possible cause ... electromagnetic fields from residential power use and breast cancer risk. 5 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Cancer-causing Substances whether these substances ...

  17. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single

  18. Adolescent Suicide Risk: Four Psychosocial Factors

    Rutter, Philip A.; Behrendt, Andrew E.

    2004-01-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents. This study examined the suicidal ideation, behavior, and attempt history of 100 adolescents ages seventeen to nineteen. Four psychosocial factors were found to be important for overall suicide risk: hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept, and isolation. It is suggested that focusing on…

  19. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  20. Risk factors of recurrent anal sphincter ruptures

    Jangö, Hanna; Langhoff-Roos, J; Rosthøj, Steen; Sakse, A

    2012-01-01

    augmentation, epidural, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, forceps, shoulder dystocia, delivery interval and year of second delivery. Results  Out of 159 446 women, 7336 (4.6%) experienced an ASR at first delivery, and 521 (7.1%) had a recurrent ASR (OR 5.91). The risk factors of recurrent ASR in the multivariate...

  1. Atherogenic Risk Factors and Hearing Thresholds

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann; Brødsgaard Grynderup, Matias; Hansen, Ase Marie; Lund, Søren Peter; Medom Vestergaard, Jesper; Kristiansen, Jesper; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2014-01-01

    . Adjusted results suggested associations between smoking, high BMI and triglyceride level and low high-density lipoprotein level and increased low-frequency hearing thresholds (average of pure-tone hearing thresholds at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kHz). Furthermore, an increasing load of atherogenic risk factors seemed...

  2. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  3. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  4. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression

    Srrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten; Vangsted, Annette J; stergaard, Brian; Gregersen, Henrik; Frlund, Ulf Christian; Andersen, Niels F; Helleberg, Carsten; Andersen, Kristian T; Pedersen, Robert S; Pedersen, Per; Abildgaard, Niels; Gimsing, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) patients have been proposed, however, all have been developed using single center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to Multiple Myeloma (MM) for SMM we analyzed a nationwide population......-based cohort of 321 newly diagnosed SMM patients registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ? 30g/l and immunoparesis significantly influenced...... TTP (HR 2.7, 95%CI(1.5;4.7), p=0.001, and HR 3.3, 95%CI(1.4;7.8), p=0.002 respectively). High free light chain (FLC) ratio did not significantly influence TTP in our cohort. Therefore, our data do not support the recent IMWG proposal of identifying patients with FLC ratio above 100 as having ultra...

  5. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8...... population reported some degree of vital exhaustion. The vital exhaustion score was associated with a higher risk of heart failure in a dose-response manner (P <0.002), with high vital exhaustion being associated with a 2-fold higher risk of heart failure in both men (hazard ratio = 1.93, 95% confidence...... interval: 1.20, 3.10) and women (hazard ratio = 2.56, 95% confidence interval: 1.80, 3.65). Contrary to expectation, major life events, social network, and sleeping medication did not play an individual role for heart failure hospitalization. Because of the high prevalence of vital exhaustion in the...

  6. An empirical study for ranking risk factors using linear assignment: A case study of road construction

    Amin Foroughi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Road construction projects are considered as the most important governmental issues since there are normally heavy investments required in such projects. There is also shortage of financial resources in governmental budget, which makes the asset allocation more challenging. One primary step in reducing the cost is to determine different risks associated with execution of such project activities. In this study, we present some important risk factors associated with road construction in two levels for a real-world case study of rail-road industry located between two cities of Esfahan and Deligan. The first group of risk factors includes the probability and the effects for various attributes including cost, time, quality and performance. The second group of risk factors includes socio-economical factors as well as political and managerial aspects. The study finds 21 main risk factors as well as 193 sub risk factors. The factors are ranked using groups decision-making method called linear assignment. The preliminary results indicate that the road construction projects could finish faster with better outcome should we carefully consider risk factors and attempt to reduce their impacts.

  7. Addressing risk factors for child abuse among high risk pregnant women: design of a randomised controlled trial of the nurse family partnership in Dutch preventive health care

    Mejdoubi Jamila; van den Heijkant Silvia; Struijf Elle; van Leerdam Frank; HiraSing Remy; Crijnen Alfons

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s). Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this progr...

  8. Survey of socio-economic and contextual factors of households׳ energy consumption

    Omar Jridi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG. The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015 [2].

  9. Prevalence of Violence against Children in Families in Tripura and Its Relationship with Socio-economic Factors

    Subhasis Modak; Sibnath Deb

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Violence against children is a deep-rooted social problem in India. The problem is also related to economic as well as cultural beliefs and practices. The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and nature of violence experienced by the children in families in Tripura, India and its relationship with socio-economic factors. Methods: A group of 320 children (160 males and 160 females) studying in Class VIII and IX and aged between 14-19 participated in the...

  10. Dietary sources of fiber intake and its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschool children

    Inge Huybrechts; Herman Van Oyen; John van Camp; Guy De Backer; Stefaan de Henauw; Stefanie Vandevijvere; Willem De Keyzer; Selin Bolca; Yi Lin

    2011-01-01

    The objectives were to assess total dietary fiber intake, identify the major sources of dietary fiber, and examine its association with socio-economic factors among Flemish preschoolers. Three-day estimated dietary records were collected from a representative sample of preschoolers 2.5–6.5 years old (n = 661; 338 boys, 323 girls). The mean dietary fiber intake (13.4 g/d) was lower than the intake level recommended by the Belgian Superior Health Council (70% boys and 81% girls below the guidel...

  11. Psychosocial factors of coronary heart disease and quality of life among Roma coronary patients: a study matched by socioeconomic position

    Skodova, Zuzana; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Nagyova, Iveta; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Ondusova, Daniela; Studencan, Martin; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life (HRQL) differ between Roma and non-Roma coronary patients and to what degree socioeconomic status (SES) explains these differences. We included 138 patients out of 437 interviewed: 46 Roma, all with low SES, 46 non-Roma with low SES, and 46 non-Roma with high SES. Groups were matched for age, gender and education. The GHQ-28 was used for measuring psychological well-being, the Maastricht interv...

  12. Oil Palm Boom and Land-Use Dynamics in Indonesia: The Role of Policies and Socioeconomic Factors

    Gatto, Marcel; Wollni, Meike; Qaim, Matin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate land-use dynamics in Jambi, Sumatra, one of the hotspots of Indonesia' recent oil palm boom. Data from a structured village survey are used to analyze the role of socioeconomic and policy factors. Oil palm is partly grown on large plantations, but smallholders are also involved significantly. We find that, in spite of significant oil palm expansion, rubber remains the dominant crop. Most of the oil palm growth takes place on previous fallow and rubber land. Oil palm has not bee...

  13. [Epidemiology and risk factors for gout].

    Gnjidić, Zoja

    2012-01-01

    Gout is the most prevalent form of inflammatory arthropathy, and affecting more than 2% of the population in industrialized countries. The development and expression of gout depends on three key steps:chronic hyperuricemia, the growth ofmonosodium urate crystals and interaction between this cristals and inflammatory system. Prevalence and incidence of gout have risen in recent decades. Numerous risk factors for the development of gout have been established, including hyperuricaemia, genetic factors, dietary factors, alcohol consumption, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, obesity, diuretic use and chronic renal disease. PMID:23745462

  14. Neighborhood Self-Selection: The Role of Pre-Move Health Factors on the Built and Socioeconomic Environment

    Peter James

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Residential self-selection bias is a concern in studies of neighborhoods and health. This bias results from health behaviors predicting neighborhood choice. To quantify this bias, we examined associations between pre-move health factors (body mass index, walking, and total physical activity and post-move neighborhood factors (County Sprawl Index, Census tract socioeconomic status (SES in the Nurses’ Health Study (n = 14,159 moves from 1986–2008. Individuals in the highest quartile of pre-move BMI (BMI > 28.4 compared to the lowest quartile (BMI < 22.5 moved to counties that averaged 2.57 points lower on the sprawl index (95% confidence interval −3.55, −1.59 indicating that individuals moved to less dense counties; however, no associations were observed for pre-move walking nor total physical activity. Individuals with higher pre-move BMI tended to move to Census tracts with lower median income and home values and higher levels of poverty. Analyses examining the change in neighborhood environments after a move demonstrated that healthy pre-move behaviors were associated with moves to worse socioeconomic environments. This type of self-selection would bias results downward, underestimating the true relationship between SES and physical activity. Generally, the magnitudes of associations between pre-move health factors and neighborhood measures were small and indicated that residential self-selection was not a major source of bias in analyses in this population.

  15. Neighborhood Self-Selection: The Role of Pre-Move Health Factors on the Built and Socioeconomic Environment.

    James, Peter; Hart, Jaime E; Arcaya, Mariana C; Feskanich, Diane; Laden, Francine; Subramanian, S V

    2015-10-01

    Residential self-selection bias is a concern in studies of neighborhoods and health. This bias results from health behaviors predicting neighborhood choice. To quantify this bias, we examined associations between pre-move health factors (body mass index, walking, and total physical activity) and post-move neighborhood factors (County Sprawl Index, Census tract socioeconomic status (SES)) in the Nurses' Health Study (n = 14,159 moves from 1986-2008). Individuals in the highest quartile of pre-move BMI (BMI > 28.4) compared to the lowest quartile (BMI physical activity. Individuals with higher pre-move BMI tended to move to Census tracts with lower median income and home values and higher levels of poverty. Analyses examining the change in neighborhood environments after a move demonstrated that healthy pre-move behaviors were associated with moves to worse socioeconomic environments. This type of self-selection would bias results downward, underestimating the true relationship between SES and physical activity. Generally, the magnitudes of associations between pre-move health factors and neighborhood measures were small and indicated that residential self-selection was not a major source of bias in analyses in this population. PMID:26457712

  16. Adding insult to injury: childhood and adolescent risk factors for psychosis predict lower fractional anisotropy in the superior longitudinal fasciculus in healthy adults

    DeRosse, Pamela; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Peters, Bart D.; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.; Szeszko, Philip R.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies provide strong support for demographic and environmental risk factors in psychotic disorders, few data examine how these risk factors relate to the putative aberrant neurodevelopment associated with illness. The present study examined how the accumulation of risk factors including low IQ, low parental socioeconomic status, history of adolescent cannabis use and childhood trauma, and high levels of subclinical psychotic-like experiences contributed to aberrant ...

  17. Cross sectional study of childhood obesity and prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes in children aged 11–13

    Brophy Sinead; Thomas Non; Rees Anwen; Knox Gareth; Williams Rhys

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Childhood obesity levels are rising with estimates suggesting that around one in three children in Western countries are overweight. People from lower socioeconomic status and ethnic minority backgrounds are at higher risk of obesity and subsequent CVD and diabetes. Within this study we examine the prevalence of risk factors for CVD and diabetes (obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension) and examine factors associated with the presence of these risk factors in school ch...

  18. Technical, environmental, and socioeconomic factors associated with dry-cooled nuclear energy centers

    1976-04-01

    The report includes a review of the current state-of-the-art of dry-cooling technology for industrial and power-generating facilities and an evaluation of its technical potential and cost for large nuclear power plants. Criteria are formulated for coarse screening of the arid regions of the Western United States to select a surrogate site for more detailed site-specific analyses. The screening criteria included seismic considerations, existing transportation facilities, institutional and jurisdictional constraints, waste heat dissipation effects, water requirements, and ecologic and socioeconomic considerations. The Galt site near Las Vegas, Nevada was selected for the surrogate site analysis to assess important issues related to the construction and operation of twelve dry-cooled nuclear power plants at an arid location remote from major load centers. The assessment covers geotechnical, atmospheric and hydrologic considerations, special aspects of transporting large equipment overland to the site from seaports, analyses of potential transmission routes to major load centers, local institutional and taxing provisions, and ecologic and socioeconomic impacts.

  19. Socioeconomic factors affecting farmers' perceptions of land degradation and stonewall terraces in central Palestine.

    Hammad, Ahmad Abu; Brresen, Trond

    2006-03-01

    Land degradation by soil erosion is a socioeconomic and environmental problem facing many developing countries. Application of stonewall terraces for soil moisture conservation is vital to reducing the environmental impacts of this phenomenon. To this end, a field plot experiment was conducted in the study area along with the use of a closed-ended questionnaire. The object of the experiment was to study the socioeconomic impacts of soil erosion on local farmers and their adoption of the stonewall terrace technique. The study showed a higher net profit in areas that had implemented terrace conservation practices than in areas that had not (i.e., 3.5 to 6 times higher net profit). Correlation analysis indicated that the farmers' perceptions, land ownership, and geomorphology were significantly related to the farmers' incentives and willingness to adopt terraces as soil conservation measures (P agricultural land for urban uses, largely because of the high price and immediate returns offered. However, the associated land use changes warrant greater involvement of both the private and public sectors. This cooperation may be accomplished through the introduction of a long-term agricultural loan system and the development of proper legislation accompanied by a comprehensive and durable infrastructure and service system with the goal of reducing the negative impact of land use changes and encouraging sustainable use of resources. PMID:16456634

  20. Technical, environmental, and socioeconomic factors associated with dry-cooled nuclear energy centers

    The report includes a review of the current state-of-the-art of dry-cooling technology for industrial and power-generating facilities and an evaluation of its technical potential and cost for large nuclear power plants. Criteria are formulated for coarse screening of the arid regions of the Western United States to select a surrogate site for more detailed site-specific analyses. The screening criteria included seismic considerations, existing transportation facilities, institutional and jurisdictional constraints, waste heat dissipation effects, water requirements, and ecologic and socioeconomic considerations. The Galt site near Las Vegas, Nevada was selected for the surrogate site analysis to assess important issues related to the construction and operation of twelve dry-cooled nuclear power plants at an arid location remote from major load centers. The assessment covers geotechnical, atmospheric and hydrologic considerations, special aspects of transporting large equipment overland to the site from seaports, analyses of potential transmission routes to major load centers, local institutional and taxing provisions, and ecologic and socioeconomic impacts

  1. Risk factors and their identification. First Part: What is a risk factor?

    Balkau, B; Eschwege, E

    1995-02-01

    This series of three articles reviews the designs of studies which can be used to identify risk factors of a disease, here: diabetes or complications of diabetes. In the present issue of Diabete & Metabolisme, the first article of the series, we give the definition of a risk factor, along with measures of its force--relative risk and odds ratio, followed by the epidemiological definitions of the diseases: diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Risk factors are further discussed and we complete the discussion by some observations on the bias which can arise from a study or from its analysis, which can lead the researcher to the wrong conclusion. The three types of epidemiological studies which are used to determine whether factors are associated with a disease: observational or cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and case-cohort studies will be described in the second of the series in the next issue of the journal. Examples will be provided of each of these study types; their advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. In a third issue, the final paper will provide some examples of the study types and the identification of risk factors. The first examples involve diabetes and pancreatic cancer, the second birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes. Having found an association between a risk factor and diabetes, then we will discuss whether it can be considered to be a risk factor and if so and whether it is likely to be a cause of the disease. PMID:7781849

  2. Risk factors and their identification second part: study designs for identification of risk factors.

    Balkau, B; Eschwege, E

    1995-06-01

    This is the second a series of three articles which reviews the identification of risk factors of a disease, here: diabetes or complications of diabetes. In the first of the series [1], we gave the definition of a risk factor, along with measures of its force-relative risk and odds ratio, followed by the epidemiological definitions of the diseases: diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Risk factors were further discussed and we completed the discussion by some observations on the bias which can arise from a study or from its analysis, which can lead the researcher to the wrong conclusion. In this second article we define the three types of epidemiological studies which are used to determine whether factors are associated with a disease: observational or cross-sectional studies, cohort studies and casecohort studies. Examples are provided of each of these study types; their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The final paper will provide some examples of the identification of risk factors from the literature. The first example involves diabetes and pancreatic cancer, the second birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes. Having found an association between a risk factor and diabetes, we will discuss whether it can be considered to be a risk factor, and if so whether it is likely to be a cause of the disease. PMID:7556816

  3. Contribution of socioeconomic status to the risk of small for gestational age infants – a population-based study of 1,390,165 singleton live births in Finland

    Räisänen, Sari; Gissler, Mika; Sankilampi, Ulla; Saari, Juho; Kramer, Michael R.; Heinonen, Seppo

    2013-01-01

    Background Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are at increased risk of short- and long-term adverse outcomes. Methods Population-based case–control study using data derived from the Finnish Medical Birth Register for the years 1987–2010 (total population of singleton live births n = 1,390,165). The aim was to quantify the importance of risk factors for SGA and describe their contribution to socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in SGA by using logistic regression analysis. Results Of al...

  4. Obesity, Diabetes, and Other Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Native Populations of South America.

    Ingaramo, Roberto A

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death in both developed and developing countries. In South America, the native population comprises a great number of different ethnic groups. The cardiovascular risk factors observed in these groups have proved similar to and even higher than those found in general non-native populations. Relatively recent epidemiologic information reveals that many native communities have healthy habits with low prevalence of risk factors such as hypertension and diabetes, while their prevalence is higher in those who have kept close contact with non-native populations and have westernized their habits. The differences in the presence of risk factors in these populations have been explained as the result of several interacting factors including genetic to environmental, socioeconomic, and cultural causes. PMID:26780771

  5. Socioeconomic Disparities in the Quality of Life in Children with Cancer or Brain Tumors: The Mediating Role of Family Factors

    Litzelman, Kristin; Barker, Emily; Catrine, Kristine; Puccetti, Diane; Possin, Peggy; Witt, Whitney P

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to determine if and to what extent: (1) socioeconomic disparities exist in the health-related quality of life (QOL) of children with cancer or brain tumors and healthy children; and (2) family functioning and burden mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status and children’s QOL. Methods In this cross-sectional study, parents of children ages 2–18 with (n=71) and without (n=135) cancer or brain tumors completed in-person interviewer-assisted surveys assessing sociodemographics (including income and parental education), child QOL (measure: PedsQL), family functioning (measure: FACES IV) and burden (measure: Impact on the Family Scale). For children with cancer, clinical characteristics were captured through medical record abstraction. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the relationship between income and child QOL; the interaction between group status and income was assessed. Staged multivariate regression models were used to assess the role of family factors in this relationship among children with cancer. Results In multivariate analyses, the effect of income differed by cancer status; lower income was associated with worse QOL in children with cancer, but not among healthy children. Among children with cancer, this relationship was significantly attenuated by family burden. Conclusions Significant socioeconomic disparities exist in the QOL of children with cancer. Family factors partially explain the relationship between low income and poor QOL outcomes among these children. Lower income families may have fewer resources to cope with their child’s cancer. Increased support, monitoring, and referrals to reduce burden for these families may lead to improved QOL in children with cancer. PMID:22645071

  6. What Are the Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors?

    ... carcinoid tumors? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. For example, exposure to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer, while smoking is a risk factor for cancer of the lung and several other cancers. But risk factors don’ ...

  7. What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Carcinoid Tumors?

    ... carcinoid tumors? What are the risk factors for lung carcinoid tumors? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like a person’s age ...

  8. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva; Schnohr, Peter; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2012-01-01

    patterns in the associations between social network, economic hardship and weight gain or obesity. The number of psychosocial risk factors, as an indicator for clustering, was not associated with weight gain or obesity. In conclusion, major life events and vital exhaustion seem to play a role for weight......The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline the...... participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants on...

  9. Risk factors for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    N.H. Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH is a form of pulmonary hypertension caused by obstruction and vascular remodelling of pulmonary arteries following pulmonary embolism. Risk factors that predispose patients to CTEPH include the size of the initial thrombus and numerous associated host or medical conditions. Haemostatic risk factors include elevated levels of factor VIII and phospholipid antibodies or intrinsic abnormalities in fibrinogen. Medical conditions that are associated with an increased risk of CTEPH include a history of splenectomy, cancer, ventriculoatrial shunt, chronic inflammatory disease, antiphospholipid antibodies and hypothyroidism. Although CTEPH is potentially curable by pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA, up to 40% of patients evaluated for PEA may be denied surgery depending on the level of surgical experience and disease accessibility after pre-operative assessment. Furthermore, an estimated 1015% of patients are at risk for residual pulmonary hypertension following PEA surgery, due to significant concomitant small-vessel disease. However, pre-operative identification of small-vessel involvement remains a challenge. The current medications effective in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension have not demonstrated efficacy in CTEPH. Accordingly, identification of CTEPH, followed by early referral for evaluation and treatment by an experienced PEA centre, is recommended.

  10. Risk factors for age-related maculopathy.

    Connell, Paul P

    2012-02-01

    Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Although beneficial therapeutic strategies have recently begun to emerge, much remains unclear regarding the etiopathogenesis of this disorder. Epidemiologic studies have enhanced our understanding of ARM, but the data, often conflicting, has led to difficulties with drawing firm conclusions with respect to risk for this condition. As a consequence, we saw a need to assimilate the published findings with respect to risk factors for ARM, through a review of the literature appraising results from published cross-sectional studies, prospective cohort studies, case series, and case control studies investigating risk for this condition. Our review shows that, to date, and across a spectrum of epidemiologic study designs, only age, cigarette smoking, and family history of ARM have been consistently demonstrated to represent risk for this condition. In addition, genetic studies have recently implicated many genes in the pathogenesis of age-related maculopathy, including Complement Factor H, PLEKHA 1, and LOC387715\\/HTRA1, demonstrating that environmental and genetic factors are important for the development of ARM suggesting that gene-environment interaction plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this condition.

  11. Physical inactivity : A cardiovascular risk factor

    Prasad D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence regarding health benefits of physical activity is overwhelming and plays a critical role in both the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD. Epidemiological investigations show approximately half the incidence of CAD in active compared to sedentary persons. A sedentary lifestyle is considered by various national and international organizations to be one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, a moderate level of occupational or recreational activity appears to confer a significant protective effect. Once coronary artery disease has become manifest, exercise training can clearly improve the functional capacity of patients and reduce overall mortality by decreasing the risk of sudden death. Well-designed clinical investigations, supported by basic animal studies, have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of exercise are related to direct and indirect protective mechanisms. These benefits may result from an improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, enhanced fibrinolysis, improved endothelial function, decreased sympathetic tone, and other as-yet-undetermined factors. Hence physical fitness, more than the absence of ponderosity or other factors, is the major determinant of cardiovascular and metabolic risk and long-term disease-free survival, in effect linking health span to life span. It is obviously in every individual′s interest to assume the responsibility for his or her own health and embrace this extremely effective, safe, and inexpensive treatment modality. The need for a comprehensive review of this particular topic has arisen in view of the high prevalence of physical inactivity and overwhelming evidence regarding CVD risk reduction with regular physical activity.

  12. Persistent postsurgical pain: risk factors and prevention

    Kehlet, Henrik; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2006-01-01

    chronic pain. Based on information about the molecular mechanisms that affect changes to the peripheral and central nervous system in neuropathic pain, several opportunities exist for multimodal pharmacological intervention. Here, we outline strategies for identification of patients at risk and for...... therapy for postoperative pain should be investigated, since the intensity of acute postoperative pain correlates with the risk of developing a persistent pain state. Finally, the role of genetic factors should be studied, since only a proportion of patients with intraoperative nerve damage develop...

  13. Risk factors that affect recurrence in strokes

    Sevim Baybaş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent stroke is defined as a new cerebrovascular event which occurs after the stabilization of the previous stroke. Recurrence of stroke increases likelihood of disability-mortality associated with stroke. Systematic evaluation of stroke cases can help to reduce the risk of recurrence. Objective: In order to predict strokes which carry the risk of recurrence, we aimed to compare data related to risk factors, stroke type, etiology and disability-mortality rates associated with stroke. Material And Method: Patients with stroke who referred to Bakırkoy Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases Training and Research State Hospital between June 1, 2002 and February 28, 2003 were recorded into the stroke database in a consecutive and prospective manner. Strokes were classified as ischemic/hemorrhagic and first/recurrent. For recurrent strokes, information about previous strokes was also recorded. Risk factors were classified as hypertension (HT, diabetes mellitus (DM, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation (AF, coronary artery disease (CAD, migraine, transient ischemic accident (TIA, family history of cerebrovascular accident (CVA, oral contraceptive use, PAD, congestive heart failure (CHF, other heart diseases, smoking cigarette and alcohol consumption. Disability-mortality rates associated with stroke were evaluated. All data were compared for first and recurrent strokes. Results: In our study, 631 patients were evaluated, 52.3% of whom were female and 47.7% male. Frequency of stroke was statistically high (p<0.001 in females over 70 years old. Recurrent strokes were of the same type. For the first and recurrent strokes, HT was the highest risk factor. AF frequency increased with age (p<0.001. The rate of disability-mortality was found high in strokes of undetermined and cardioembolic origin. Conclusion: Knowledge of etiologic group can help to predict recurrence of stroke and prevent death. We think that effective treatment of modifiable risk factors identified in stroke groups where recurrence is the highest, and prioritising the investigation of cardioembolic risk factors in elderly women are significant in terms of primary and secondary stroke prevention.

  14. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  15. Work Stress as a Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-09-01

    The role of psychosocial work stress as a risk factor for chronic disease has been the subject of considerable debate. Many researchers argue in support of a causal connection while others remain skeptical and have argued that the effect on specific health conditions is either negligible or confounded. This review of evidence from over 600,000 men and women from 27 cohort studies in Europe, the USA and Japan suggests that work stressors, such as job strain and long working hours, are associated with a moderately elevated risk of incident coronary heart disease and stroke. The excess risk for exposed individuals is 10-40 % compared with those free of such stressors. Differences between men and women, younger versus older employees and workers from different socioeconomic backgrounds appear to be small, indicating that the association is robust. Meta-analyses of a wider range of health outcomes show additionally an association between work stress and type 2 diabetes, though not with common cancers or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting outcome specificity. Few studies have addressed whether mitigation of work stressors would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the limited interventional evidence on benefits, harms and cost-effectiveness, definitive recommendations have not been made (e.g. by the US Preventive Services Taskforce) for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease via workplace stress reduction. Nevertheless, governments are already launching healthy workplace campaigns, and preventing excessive work stress is a legal obligation in several countries. Promoting awareness of the link between stress and health among both employers and workers is an important component of workplace health promotion. PMID:26238744

  16. Risk factors for Entamoeba histolytica infection in an agricultural community in Hanam province, Vietnam

    Nguyen-Viet Hung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entamoeba histolytica is an important protozoan intestinal infection in resource-poor settings, including Vietnam. The study objective was to assess risk factors of E. histolytica infection in a community in Vietnam, where wastewater and human excreta are used in agriculture. A case-control study was conducted among residents of Hanam province, Northern Vietnam. Cases (n = 46 infected with E. histolytica and non-infected controls (n = 138 were identified in a cross-sectional survey among 794 randomly selected individuals and matched for age, sex and place of residence. Potential risk factors including exposure to human and animal excreta and household wastewater were assessed with a questionnaire. Results People from households with an average socio-economic status had a much higher risk of E. histolytica infection (odds ratio [OR]=4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-14.0 compared with those from households with a good socioeconomic status. Those individuals who never or rarely used soap for hand washing had a 3.4 times higher risk for infection (OR=3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-10.0, compared to those who used always soap. In contrast, none of the factors related to use of human or animal excreta was statistically significant associated with E. histolytica infection. People having close contact with domestic animals presented a greater risk of E. histolytica infection (OR = 5.9, 95% CI: 1.8-19.0 than those without animal contact. E. histolytica infection was not associated with direct contact with Nhue river water, pond water and household's sanitary conditions, type of latrine or water source used. Conclusions Our study suggests that in settings where human and animal excreta and Nhue River water are intensively used in agriculture, socio-economic and personal hygiene factors determine infection with E. histolytica, rather than exposure to human and animal excreta in agricultural activities.

  17. Geopolitical and socioeconomic factors presently impacting on United States uranium supply

    The near-term availability of domestic and selected foreign uranium resources for use by United States electric utilities is considered in light of projected geopolitical and socioeconomic considerations. No attempt is made to analyze the impact on domestic uranium supply of inflation or cost-price considerations, the introduction of the breeder reactor, limitations in enrichment capacity, or the presently expanding uranium inventory. All data are current as of mid-1980. The period with which this research is concerned is 1980-1995. It is concluded that the United States must promote responsible, environmentally acceptable uranium resource exploration and development, if this nation is to remain self sufficient in this necessary energy commodity

  18. Risk factors for transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: a hospital based study

    Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the role of various known risk factors for the development of Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of urinary bladder in our set up. Study design: Case control study Place and duration of the study: Department of Radiology CMH Rawalpindi, from March 2007 to December 2007. Material and methods: 70 patients with TCC urinary bladder were included in the study. 70 controls were included. The patients were enquired about the risk factors. The data was analysed on SPSS version 12. Odds ratio for each factor was carried out. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Smoking was the most important factor in the development of TCC of urinary bladder with odds ratio of 3:1. Driving was the next common factor. Low socioeconomic conditions appear to be an important factor in our set up. The role of chemicals in industrial work could not be established. Conclusion: Differences from the West exist regarding the etiological factors for the development of TCC of urinary bladder. Males outnumber the females by a significant ratio. Smoking is an important factor in the development of TCC of urinary bladder. Most bladder cancers arise in low socioeconomic group in our set up. (author)

  19. Cerebrovascular Risk Factors - In View of Stroke Prevention

    Schreiber, Angela K.; Haberl, Roman L.

    2001-01-01

    Stroke risk factors can be divided into those with evidence-based relationship and those with supposed relationship to ischemic stroke, and into potentially treatable risk factors and risk factors with no therapeutic options. Age, gender and race are risk factors with no therapeutic options, while among treatable stroke risk factors most important are high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, patent foramen ovale, cardiac disorders, diabetes mellitus, hiperhomocysteinemia, hiperlipidemia, and...

  20. Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Ahola, Kirsi; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjørner, Jakob; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Goldberg, Marcel; Hamer, Mark; Jokela, Markus; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Koskinen, Aki; Kouvonen, Anne; Leineweber, Constanze; Madsen, Ida E H; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Marmot, Michael G; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Väänänen, Ari; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Batty, G David; Brunner, Eric J; Ferrie, Jane E; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimäki, Mika

    2014-01-01

    with baseline questionnaires. Incident type 2 diabetes at follow-up was ascertained using national health registers, clinical screening, and self-reports. We analyzed data for each study using Cox regression and pooled the study-specific estimates in fixed-effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: There were 3......,703 cases of incident diabetes during a mean follow-up of 10.3 years. After adjustment for age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES), the hazard ratio (HR) for job strain compared with no job strain was 1.15 (95% CI 1.06-1.25) with no difference between men and women (1.19 [1.06-1.34] and 1.13 [1......OBJECTIVE: The status of psychosocial stress at work as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes is unclear because existing evidence is based on small studies and is subject to confounding by lifestyle factors, such as obesity and physical inactivity. This collaborative study examined whether stress at...

  1. Early community contexts, race/ethnicity and young adult CVD risk factors: the protective role of education.

    Wickrama, K A S; O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lott, Ryan E

    2012-08-01

    Using a sample of 13,500 adolescents (53% female and 47% male) who participated in all four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study used multilevel regression to examine the influence of early structural community adversity (as measured by rates of community poverty, single-parent headed families, and two indicators of employment) and racial/ethnic status on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors of young adults (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial pressure). The moderating role of youth's socioeconomic attainment was also examined. Results indicate that early community adversity and African American racial status place young adults at risk for CVD. Youth's socioeconomic attainment does not erase the persistent influences of early community adversity and African American racial status on CVD risk. However, the level of education attained can protect African American young adults and those experiencing early community adversity from CVD risk factors. PMID:22101680

  2. Socio-economic factors and virological suppression among people diagnosed with HIV in the United Kingdom: results from the ASTRA study

    Lisa Burch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the United Kingdom, rates of virological suppression on antiretroviral therapy (ART are very high, but there remain a small but significant number of people on ART with detectable viraemia. The impact of socio-economic factors on virological suppression has been little studied. Materials and Methods: We used data from ASTRA, a cross-sectional, questionnaire study of >3000 individuals from 8 clinics in the United Kingdom in 2011–2012, linked to clinical records to address this question. Included participants had received ART for >6 months with a recorded current viral load (VL (latest at the time of questionnaire. Participants provided data on demographic factors: gender, sexual orientation, ethnicity and age; and socio-economic factors: UK birth/English reading ability, employment, housing, education and financial hardship. To assess non-adherence, participants were asked if in the past 3 months, they had missed ART for ≥2 days at a time. Virological suppression was defined as VL≤50 cps/mL. For each socio-economic factor, we calculated prevalence ratios using modified Poisson regression, first adjusting for demographic factors, then also for non-adherence. Results: A total of 2445 people fulfilled the inclusion criteria (80% male, 69% MSM, median age: 46 years, median CD4 count: 556 cells/mm3; 10% (234/2445 had VL>50 cps/mL. After adjusting for demographic factors, non-fluent English, not being employed, not home owning, education below university level and increasing financial hardship were each associated with higher prevalence of VL>50 cps/mL. Additional adjustment for non-adherence largely attenuated each association, but did not fully explain them (see Table 1. After adjustment for non-adherence and demographic factors, younger age was also associated with VL>50 cps/mL: for each additional 10 years an individual was 0.80 (95% CI 0.70–0.92 times as likely to have VL>50 cps/mL (p=0.0019. Adjusted prevalence ratios for VL>50cps/mL were 0.91 (0.62–1.34 for women and 1.25 (0.85–1.84 for non-MSM men versus MSM, and 1.29 (0.92–1.80 for white versus non-white people. Conclusions: Among people on ART in the United Kingdom, the proportion with detectable VL is low. Poorer socio-economic status is associated with increased probability of virological non-suppression. It is likely that much of this association is mediated through difficulties in taking ART. Emphasis should be put on aiding the adherence of people in these higher risk groups.

  3. Skin carcinoma and occupational risk factors

    To identify the relative contribution of different occupational risk factors associated with the occurrence of skin cancer in the provinces of Havana City and Havana, Cuba , in 2006-2007. It was designed a case-control study of hospital base that included 112 cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and 448 witnesses, following the inclusion-exclusion criteria preset. We considered the totality of patients diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell histological study of skin biopsy or surgical excision. Risk factors with possible association with the disease were studied, such as sun exposure, ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and a wide range of chemical and biological substances potentially carcinogenic

  4. Risk factors for suicide in multiple sclerosis

    Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for suicide in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study is based on available information about MS patients identified in the Danish MS Registry (DMSR) with onset in the period 1950-1985. We compared the MS...... suicides with the 1950-1985 onset cohort patients in the DSMR as to distribution of age at onset, presenting symptoms, and time from onset to diagnosis. We reviewed sociodemographic data, age of onset, the course of the disease, recent deterioration, type of deterioration, Kurtzke Disability Status Scale...... (DSS) score, previous mental disorder, type of mental disorder, previous suicide attempts, expression of suicidal intentions, circumstances at suicide, and suicide method for all MS patients who had committed suicide. In order to characterize MS suicides with respect to risk factors, comparisons were...

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus; Hansen, Peter R; Linneberg, Allan; Skov, Lone

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence of...... cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Results Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences...

  6. Hyperglycemia risk factors in leukemia: Case report

    Fatih Erbey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Asparaginase is an enzyme used in the treatment of leukemia. Its antileucemic effect is believed to result from the depletion of circulating asparagine. Major side effects are anaphylaxis, pancreatitis, diabetes, coagulation abnormalities, and thrombosis. Hyperglycemia is a well known but a rare side effect of L-asparaginase (L-ASP. The reported incidences vary widely from 1% to 14% in recipients of L-ASP alone, 2 to 11% in recipients of both L-ASP and prednisone, and only about 0.2% in those receiving prednisone alone. Age, obesity and Down syndrome were contributing factors to the increased risk of hyperglycemia. We evaluate hyperglycemia risk factors in leukemia by presenting a case who develops hyperglycemia during the treatment.

  7. Risk Factors for Preeclampsia in Multigravida Women

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertensive Diseases in Pregnancy (HDP are one of the leading causes of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The cause of preeclampsia-eclampsia remains unknown and risk factors for the development of preeclampsia are less well defined. We conducted a case-control study on pregnant women presenting to Tabriz Al-Zahra and Taleghani hospitals from August 2003 to August, 2004. Patients were studied in 2 groups of cases (64 and controls (64. Maternal age and BMI in case group was significantly higher than control group. The difference of education, gravidity, smoking and history of abortion between case and control groups was not significant. Preeclampsia history and inadequate prenatal care in case group were significantly high. The difference of previous SGA newborn, birth interval and same paternity between case and control groups was not significant. Preeclampsia risk factors in multigravida women include: High maternal age and BMI, history of preeclampsia, positive past medical history and inadequate prenatal care.

  8. Psychological Risk Factors in Acute Leukemia

    Gouva M.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Several theoretical models have been occasionally proposed to account for the involvement of psychological factors in cancer genesis. Family environment and relations as well as certain personality traits were correlated to cancer onset. However, little is known in the case of acute leukemia. The present study examined family environment, state-trait anxiety, hostility and the direction of hostility as well as alexithymia in 41 acute leukemia patients and their first degree relatives (70. In accordance with previous findings, the present results showed that family cohesion, conflict and organization as well as guilt, state anxiety and alexithymia were significant risk factors for the development of the disease.

  9. Risk factors for hypospadias in China

    Ling-Fan Xu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This case-controlled study was designed to evaluate the association between various baseline parental factors and the risk of hypospadias in China. Patients were selected from tertiary referral hospitals in Anhui, a province in mid-eastern China. A questionnaire was given to the parents of each patient. The final database included 193 cases and 835 controls. The incidence of additional coexistent anomalies was 13.0%, primarily cryptorchidism (9.8%. Ten patients (5.1% were from families with genital anomaly, including five families (2.6% with hypospadias. The risks of hypospadias was higher for children of mothers > 35 (odds ratio [OR] =1.47 and < 18 (OR = 2.95 years of age, and in mothers who had consumed alcohol (OR = 2.67, used drugs (OR = 1.53 and had an infection (OR = 1.87 during pregnancy. The risk of hypospadias was also higher when mothers (OR = 1.68 and fathers (OR = 1.74 were engaged in agriculture. Other factors assessed were not associated with the risk of hypospadias.

  10. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

    Tarlan B; Kiratli H

    2013-01-01

    Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In pa...

  11. Staphylococcus aureus: resistance pattern and risk factors

    Mohammad Naghavi-Behzad5; Mohammad-Taghi Akhi; Mahasti Alizadeh; Parviz Saleh; Sajed Jafarzadeh; Zahra Sohrab-Navi; Mohammad-Mahdi Bagheri-Asl; Sharare Barband; ghader sadeghi; Babak Asghari,2; Reza Piri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen of major worldwide importance and is an increasingly frequent cause of community-acquired infections. In this study, different risk factors and MRSA resistance pattern were investigated. Methods: In a 24 months period, all of the patients who were confined to bed in the surgery ward were included in the study. Then they were assessed to find out as if they had MRSA infection when hospitalized...

  12. CLIMATE AS A RISK FACTOR FOR TOURISM

    ÁKOS NÉMETH; JÁNOS MIKA

    2009-01-01

    Weather and climate risk factors for tourism are surveyed and illustrated with regard to the expected climate changes in Hungary. These changes are not at all advantageous and which affect the business in question both directly and indirectly. These are the summer resort tourism (characterised by bioclimatic indices). Green tourism is the next one to characterise, including skiing, mountain climbing and eco-tourism, as well. Here both day-to-day weather extremes and long-lasting effects on th...

  13. Risk factors of childhood epilepsy in Kerala

    Thomas Varghese Attumalil; Anil Sundaram; Vivek Oommen Varghese; K. Vijayakumar; P A Mohammed Kunju

    2011-01-01

    Background: We aimed to identify the risk factors for epilepsy in children. Materials and Methods: This case-control retrospective study was carried out in the pediatric neurology outpatient service of the Trivandrum Medical College. All children (1-12 years) with epilepsy satisfying the selection criteria were included, after obtaining consent from parents. Those with single seizures or febrile seizures were excluded. Controls were children without epilepsy attending the same hospital. Paren...

  14. Risk Factors for Jumper’s Knee

    Visnes, Håvard

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of jumper’s knee is high in sports characterized by high demands on leg extensor speed and power, such as volleyball, basketball, football and athletics. A prevalence up to 50% has been reported among male, elite volleyball players. The complex process from a healthy tendon to jumper’s knee is not fully understood. Jumper’s knee is usually described as an overuse injury, although previous studies on risk factors are not conclusive. Previous cross-...

  15. Recurrent erysipelas - risk factors and clinical presentation

    Inghammar, Malin; Rasmussen, Magnus; Linder, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Background Erysipelas is a common infection that often recurs, but the impact of specific risk factors for reoccurrence remains elusive. In the present study we aimed at clarifying predisposing conditions for reoccurrence. Methods Medical records were reviewed from all patients ≥18 years of age diagnosed with erysipelas at the Department of Infectious Diseases at Skåne University Hospital, Sweden, from January 2007 to February 2011. 502 patients were included, of which 357 were single episode...

  16. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still considered as neglected disease in the district. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of cases can save many lives. However, there is a need of integrated rodent control measures with great effort to increase awareness and education among subjects in controlling the disease.

  17. Risk Factor and Comorbidity of Migraine

    Woro Riyadina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a chronic daily headache which interfere a quality of life. The purpose of this research is to obtain the prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity of migraine. Methods: A cross sectional study involving 4771 subjects in 5 villages in the district of Central Bogor, Bogor City 2011–2012. Data collection was performed using WHO STEPS (interview, measurement, physical examination, and laboratory test. Results: In this study, the migraine prevalence was 22.43%, with significant risk factors were sex, age, and stress (p < 0.05. Comorbidity of migraine was coronary heart diseases (p < 0.05. There was no significant correlation between migraine with marital status, level of education, smoking, hypertension, obesity, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, trigliseride level, and diabetes mellitus (p > 0.05. Conclusions: Risk factors which have significant association with migraine are sex, age, and stress, whereas coronary heart disease existed as a comorbidity with migraine.

  18. Risk factors and management of diabetic nephropathy

    Mohamed Akheel Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the risk factors for nephropathy in diabetic patients and to study the management of diabetic nephropathy (DN, we conducted a hospital-based prospective study in the Internal Medicine department of our hospital on 60 patients with DN and 60 diabetic patients without DN. An odds ratio (OR disclosed the following risk factors: Hypertension (OR = 2.06, family history of diabetes (OR = 1.23, family history of DN (OR = 2.86, uncontrolled hyperglycemia (OR = 11.80, obesity (OR = 1.07, duration of diabetes between 11 and 20 years (OR = 4.69, smoking (OR = 2.79, alcohol consumption (OR = 3.75, other complications (OR = 2.03, lack of physical activity (OR = 1.51 and anemia (OR = 2.29. According to these risk factors, we suggest that improving patient′s knowledge on diabetes and its treatment, life style modifications and aggressive management of the disease may delay the progression of disease to advanced stages.

  19. Risk factors for psychopathology among Chinese children.

    Liu, X; Kurita, H; Sun, Z; Wang, F

    1999-08-01

    The present study was designed to examine the family environment and child characteristics associated with psychopathology among Chinese children. A large epidemiological sample of 1695 children aged 6-11 was drawn from 12 elementary schools in Linyi Prefecture of China. Parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist, the Family Environment Scale, and a self-administered questionnaire including a number of items with regard to family, parental, and child characteristics. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of child psychopathology was 17.2%. Logistic regression analyses showed that a number of family and parental, as well as prenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors had significant association with child psychopathology. The most notable risks were derived from poor parental rearing with regard to the child's misbehaviour, low birthweight, and poor marital relations of the parents after controlling for other factors. These findings are consistent with previously reported risk factors for child psychopathology, highlighting the importance of family and early childhood intervention as a measure to prevent child psychopathology in China. PMID:10498232

  20. Factores que condicionan la dismenorrea en adolescentes, segn estrato socioeconmico / Factors conditioning dysmenorrhea in adolescents according to socioeconomic strata

    Jos, Sandoval Paredes; Arnold, Madrid Jaramillo; Cindy, Sandoval Paz; Patricia, Paz Nez.

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de dismenorrea y sus factores asociados en estudiantes de tres colegios de Lima de estratos socioeconmicos diferentes. Diseo: Estudio de tipo observacional, de corte transversal y comparativo. Institucin: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participantes [...] : Adolescentes estudiantes de tres colegios. Intervenciones: Se realiz una encuesta annima a 392 adolescentes de 3 colegios: Newton College (estrato A), De Jess (estrato B) y Ciro Alegra (estrato C). Principales medidas de resultados: Presencia de dismenorrea. Resultados: La edad promedio de las adolescentes entrevistadas fue 14,8 1,0 aos e IMC 22,7 12,9, con edad de menarqua a los 11,9 aos. Los das promedio de sangrado menstrual fueron 4,9 das. El porcentaje de adolescentes con dismenorrea fue de 51,7%. El dolor menstrual dur en promedio 1,95 das. El ausentismo escolar fue sealado en 34,2%, 26,4% y 21,3%, en los estratos A, B y C, respectivamente. El antecedente materno tuvo un OR 1,85 (1,38 a 2,58) y p 0,0240, el ejercicio fsico OR 0,93 (0,81 a 1,25) y p 0,7794, el consumo de pescado OR 0,96 (0,66 a 1,40) y p 0,0836, el consumo de tabaco OR 1,33 (0,68 a 2,60) y p 0,4207. El consumo de tabaco fue claramente mayor en el estrato A, casi 16% frente al 4% del estrato C. Conclusiones: La edad de la menarqua fue la misma de estudios nacionales. La duracin del periodo menstrual fue 4,9 das, superior en un da a lo encontrado en mujeres adultas. Una de cada dos adolescentes present dismenorrea y el dolor menstrual dur en promedio dos das. Hubo ausentismo escolar en una de cada cuatro alumnas, por causa del dolor menstrual, mayor en el estrato social alto. La presencia de dismenorrea estuvo relacionada significativamente con el antecedente materno. El consumo de pescado, la actividad fsica y el hbito de fumar no estuvieron asociados a la presencia de dismenorrea. El consumo de tabaco fue elevado en los estratos sociales altos en comparacin con los bajos. Abstract in english Objectives: To determine dysmenorrhea prevalence and associated factors in three Lima schools students from different socioeconomic strata. Design: Observational, cross-sectional and comparative study. Setting: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participants: Adolescent students. Interventio [...] ns: Anonymous survey to 392 teenagers from three schools: Newton College (stratum A), De Jesus (stratum B) and Ciro Alegra (stratum C). Main outcome measures: Dysmenorrhea. Results: Average age of adolescents was 14.8 1.01 years, BMI was 22.7 12.9 and menarche was reported occurring at age 11.9 years average. Average menstrual bleeding was 4.9 days. Percentage of adolescents with dysmenorrhea was 51.7%. Menstrual pain lasted 1.95 days average. School absenteeism was 34.2%, 26.4%, 21.3% in strata A, B and C respectively. Maternal history of dysmenorrhea had an OR = 1.85 (1.38-2.58) and p = 0.0240; fish consumption had an OR = 0.96 (0.66-1.40) and p = 0.0836; tobacco consumption had an OR = 1.33 (0.68-2.60) and p = 0.4207. Tobacco consumption was clearly higher in stratum A, almost 16% compared with 4% in stratum C. Conclusions: Age of menarche was similar to national studies. Duration of menstrual period was 4.9 days, higher in one day to that reported in adult women. One in two teenagers presented dysmenorrhea and menstrual pain lasted 2 days average. School absenteeism was one in each four students because of menstrual pain, mainly in high social status students. Presence of dysmenorrhea was significantly related to maternal history. Fish consumption, physical activity and smoking were not associated with dysmenorrhea. Tobacco consumption was high in social strata A compared with low strata.