Kuenssberg, Renate Katherine Von
Introduction: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a behaviourally defined disorder characterised by impairments in three domains of social interaction, communication, and repetitive/restricted interests and behaviours (DSM-IV-TR; APA, 2000; ICD-10; WHO, 1992). Recent research suggests that this diagnostic triad may no longer fit as the best way to conceptualise ASD. Although not due for publication until 2013, a proposed revision of autistic disorder for DSM-V has merged three do...
Full Text Available Music and speech are often placed alongside one another as comparative cases. Their relative overlaps and disassociations have been well explored (e.g. Patel, 2010. But one key attribute distinguishing these two domains has often been overlooked: the greater preponderance of repetition in music in comparison to speech. Recent fMRI studies have shown that familiarity – achieved through repetition – is a critical component of emotional engagement with music (Pereira et al., 2011. If repetition is fundamental to emotional responses to music, and repetition is a key distinguisher between the domains of music and speech, then close examination of the phenomenon of repetition might help clarify the ways that music elicits emotion differently than speech.
Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Newbold, Lex; Titchener, Kirsteen
Three experiments explore several factors which influence information transmission when warning messages are passed from person to person. In Experiment 1, messages were passed down chains of participants using five different modes of communication. Written communication channels resulted in more accurate message transmission than verbal. In addition, some elements of the message endured further down the chain than others. Experiment 2 largely replicated these effects and also demonstrated that simple repetition of a message eliminated differences between written and spoken communication. In a final field experiment, chains of participants passed information however they wanted to, with the proviso that half of the chains could not use telephones. Here, the lack of ability to use a telephone did not affect accuracy, but did slow down the speed of transmission from the recipient of the message to the last person in the chain. Implications of the findings for crisis and emergency risk communication are discussed. PMID:25683552
Silverman, J L; Pride, M C; Hayes, J E; Puhger, K R; Butler-Struben, H M; Baker, S; Crawley, J N
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed by two core behavioral criteria, unusual reciprocal social interactions and communication, and stereotyped, repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Excitatory/inhibitory imbalance is a prominent hypothesis for the etiology of autism. The selective GABAB receptor agonist R-baclofen previously reversed social deficits and reduced repetitive behaviors in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, and Arbaclofen improved some clinical symptoms in some Fragile X and ASD patients. To evaluate R-baclofen in a broader range of mouse models of ASD, we tested both the R-baclofen enantiomer and the less potent S-baclofen enantiomer in two inbred strains of mice that display low sociability and/or high repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. R-baclofen treatment reversed social approach deficits in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR), reduced repetitive self-grooming and high marble burying scores in BTBR, and reduced stereotyped jumping in C58/J (C58), at nonsedating doses. S-baclofen produced minimal effects at the same doses. These findings encourage investigations of R-baclofen in other preclinical model systems. Additional clinical studies may be warranted to further evaluate the hypothesis that the GABAB receptor represents a promising pharmacological target for treating appropriately stratified subsets of individuals with ASD. PMID:25754761
Tanner, Kelly; Hand, Brittany N; O'Toole, Gjyn; Lane, Alison E
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) commonly experience difficulties with social participation, play, and leisure along with restricted and repetitive behaviors that can interfere with occupational performance. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate current evidence for interventions within the occupational therapy scope of practice that address these difficulties. Strong evidence was found that social skills groups, the Picture Exchange Communication System, joint attention interventions, and parent-mediated strategies can improve social participation. The findings were less conclusive for interventions to improve play and leisure performance and to decrease restricted and repetitive behaviors, but several strategies showed promise with moderately strong supporting evidence. Occupational therapists should be guided by evidence when considering interventions to improve social participation, play, leisure, and restricted and repetitive behaviors in people with ASD. Additional research using more robust scientific methods is needed for many of the currently available strategies. PMID:26356653
Full Text Available This paper enlarges the concept of conditional repetitive group sampling plan. The' operating characteristic and average sample number functions of the generalised plan have been derived by graphical evaluation and review technique. Lastly, Poisson unity values have been tabulated to facilitate the operation and construction of the plan. The plan that provides a quick discrimination of good and bad quality lots, could be used for both the process control and goods acceptance or rejection in various stages of production in defence organisations.
Servaes, J.; Lie, R.
The article provides a survey of the field of sustainable social change and communication in the global context. It discusses the history of development communication as well as related policy and rights issues. It reviews approaches such as modernization, globalization and localization, multiplicity, and participation.
Full Text Available The communication represents a basic element for the marketing activity that helps companies to achieve their objectives. Building long-term relationships between brands and consumers is one of the most important objectives pursued by marketers. This involves brand communication and creating multiple connections with consumers, even in the online environment. From this point of view, social networks proved to be an effective way of linking brands and consumers online. This paper aims to present some aspects involved by the usage of social networks in brand communication by analyzing several examples of online marketing campaigns implemented on Facebook on the occasion of Valentine's Day by six different brands.
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As a focus of study, ‘social media’ tend to lack definitional clarity and grounding in theories of media and text. This paper establishes and discusses a conceptual framework for defining social media as communicative genres, constituted by the interplay between interactive functionalities configured at the software level and the invocation and appropriation of various software functionalities to achieve specific purposes in and through users’ actual communicative practices. I suggest that social media might be seen as particularly dynamic genres, subject to continuous disruption and uncertainty,owing to their deinstitutionalised and participatory character, and the shifting roles of producers and recipients in the networks and conversations that make up social media content.
Scheufele, Dietram A.
This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I dis...
Derek L. ANDERSON
Full Text Available The role of deliberate practice in the development of performance has been studied extensively in many contexts, such as in athletics. The construct of deliberate practice in the development of teacher performance has been receiving heightened examination lately, though the role of practice in the development of elementary social studies teachers remains essentially unexplored. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a repeated practice microteaching model on the teaching behaviors of 64 elementary preservice teachers (PSTs who taught the same social studies lessons to small groups of 4th-grade students four times in succession. PST reflection journals from all PSTs, observational transcripts of 14 teaching pairs, focus group interviews with the PSTs, and informal cooperating teacher interviews revealed that the PSTs’ lessons changed over the four successive teaching episodes. The PSTs became more comfortable and confident after teaching the same social studies lesson multiple times. PSTs also reported that their lessons became better, yet the qualitative data revealed that even though their teaching became more efficient and student work correctness improved, only a few PSTs increased the cognitive demand of their questions and activities. Nonetheless, most PSTs demonstrated increased use of social studies pedagogical content knowledge through their examples and discussions, as well as increased attention to student thinking. Repeated practice field experiences seem to hold potential for elementary PSTs to develop their use ofsocial studies pedagogical content knowledge
This article discusses whether commercial communication in social media is covered by the European opt in-model concerning unsolicited electronic mail for direct marketing purposes found in the directive on privacy and electronic communications (2002/58). It is concluded that messages in social media – in contrast to news feeds and advertisements – may be characterised as electronic mail. However, the EU provisions on unsolicited electronic mail is found in the regulatory framework for telecommunication which as a starting point does not regulate web-based content such as social media services. The ban on unsolicited electronic mail does not apply to messaging systems in social media unless the system gives access to sending traditional e-mail. Until 12 June 2013, Member States could – in national law – uphold a broader definition of electronic mail in the light of the minimum harmonisation found in the distance selling directive (1997/7). Now, the use of electronic mail for direct marketing purposes in social media must be assessed in accordance with the full harmonisation in the unfair commercial practices directive (2005/29). This directive does not contain a ban on »unsolicited« but »unwanted« solicitations by e-mail and other remote media – i.e. an opt-out solution. The development in platforms such as Facebook shows that such social media services are also used by businesses to communicate and interact with their »fans«. This article discusses the application of the European spam-provisions in the context of social media. In that vein it is important to understand both the definition of electronic mail and the scope of application of the regulatory framework for telecommunication in which the ban is found. The Nordic Consumer Ombudsmen approached EU Commissioner John Dalli on 3 May 2012 with a view to encourage discussions on whether the defi nition of electronic mail set out in the directive on privacy and electronic communications1 is up-to-date. The letter was sent in connection to the publishing of a common Nordic position paper on marketing in social media. The preceding discussions among the consumer ombudsmen questioned inter alia whether unsolicited commercial communications sent to users’ news feeds should be considered electronic mail or other un-solicited communications for the purposes of direct marketing. This and other related questions are dealt with in this article.
Bagneres, A. G.; Hanus, Robert
Cham : Springer, 2015 - (Aquiloni, L.; Tricarico, E.), s. 193-248 ISBN 978-3-319-17598-0 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : termites * communication * chemical communication * pheromones * mechanical communication * social regulation Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry
Landa, Rebecca J.
This paper orients the reader to social communication assessment and reviews methods for assessing social communication behavior in children from toddlerhood through the preschool years. Most standardized, normed tests of language in this age range focus on morpho-syntactic and semantic comprehension and production abilities. While social…
In this short article, I will discuss what I consider the important characteristics, opportunities and challenges offered by social media when used for professional communication purposes. The insights – or perhaps rather points of discussion - put forth here are based on my own experiences as practicing social media communicator and Danish research blogger, as well as on my general research into the use of social media for professional communication purposes, by for instance Danish politicia...
Candidi, Matteo; Curioni, Arianna; Donnarumma, Francesco; Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Pezzulo, Giovanni
Non-verbal communication is the basis of animal interactions. In dyadic leader-follower interactions, leaders master the ability to carve their motor behaviour in order to 'signal' their future actions and internal plans while these signals influence the behaviour of follower partners, who automatically tend to imitate the leader even in complementary interactions. Despite their usefulness, signalling and imitation have a biomechanical cost, and it is unclear how this cost-benefits trade-off is managed during repetitive dyadic interactions that present learnable regularities. We studied signalling and imitation dynamics (indexed by movement kinematics) in pairs of leaders and followers during a repetitive, rule-based, joint action. Trial-by-trial Bayesian model comparison was used to evaluate the relation between signalling, imitation and pair performance. The different models incorporate different hypotheses concerning the factors (past interactions versus online movements) influencing the leader's signalling (or follower's imitation) kinematics. This approach showed that (i) leaders' signalling strategy improves future couple performance, (ii) leaders used the history of past interactions to shape their signalling, (iii) followers' imitative behaviour is more strongly affected by the online movement of the leader. This study elucidates the ways online sensorimotor communication help individuals align their task representations and ultimately improves joint action performance. PMID:26333815
Araceli Castelló-Martínez, Ph.D.
Full Text Available Online social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have become essential channels in business strategies. Corporate Social Responsibility communication faces new challenges in these spaces of the Web 2.0, where companies can interact with users, generate a brand community, increase their visibility, and strengthen their position in the market. This research study aims to analyse the way companies use the major online social media to communicate their Corporate Social Responsibility programmes. The methodology involves the examination of the presence in online social platforms and the online corporate reputation of ten companies/brands. The results show that companies use these spaces as channels for business and advertising communication, but not so much for Corporate Social Responsibility communication, despite these social media offer many possibilities for interaction and dialogue.
As often happens, I submitted my title before I knew what I wanted to talk about. I do want to speak about communication research as a field, but not only as a field of social science. To try to contain communication in actually existing social science would be to reduce it in unfortunate ways. But at the same time, as someone much invested in social science, I harbor hopes that communication research will be deeply and widely integrated into social science more generally. I belie...
With the advent of communication technology, access to interaction and communication data has increased dramatically. We can now trace communication events such as sending and receiving emails, text messages, and other forms of interaction via ICT. But how can we use this data to understand the structure of social networks and their development?
Greiner, Ben; Güth, Werner; Zultan, Ro'i
We report on an experiment using video technology to manipulate pre-play communication protocols in the lab and to study purely social effects of communication on donations and discrimination between potential receivers. The experimental design eliminates strategic factors by allowing two receivers to unilaterally communicate with an anonymous dictator before the latter decides on her gifts. Through the use of three communication setups (none, audio, and audio-visual) we show and analyze the ...
Konst, Matthew J; Matson, Johnny L; Goldin, Rachel L; Williams, Lindsey W
Emphasis on early identification of atypical development has increased as evidence supporting the efficacy of intervention has grown. These increases have also directly affected the availability of funding and providers of early intervention services. A majority of research has focused on interventions specific to an individual's primary diagnoses. For example, interventions for those with cerebral palsy (CP) have traditionally focused on physiological symptoms, while intervention for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) focus on socialization, communication, and restricted interests and repetitive behaviors. However deficits in areas other than those related to their primary diagnoses (e.g., communication, adaptive behaviors, and social skills) are prevalent in atypically developing populations and are significant predictors of quality of life. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine impairments in socialization and nonverbal communication in individuals with Down's syndrome (DS), CP, and those with CP and comorbid ASD. Individuals with comorbid CP and ASD exhibited significantly greater impairments than any diagnostic group alone. However, individuals with CP also exhibited significantly greater impairments than those with DS. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25200676
Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth
Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding s...
Mark-Herbert, Cecilia; von Schantz, Carolina
Corporate action is subject to more scrutiny than ever. An attempt to legitimize the corporate role is seen in corporate social responsibility as a part of a triple bottom line framework. Corporate principles are communicated in various forms to a wide set of stakeholders. Ideally, what is communicated in terms of principles is also seen in business practice. In cases where the principles and actions differ, the platform for creating a brand territory is limited. The communication platf...
In 1984, Niklas Luhmann published Soziale Systeme in which he applies the idea of autopoiesis (= self-production) to social systems. Abstracted from its biological connotations, the concept of autopoiesis leads to a sharp distinction between different kinds of autopoietic organization, i.e. between life, consciousness and communication. According to Luhmann, the relationship between social systems and human beings cannot be adequately analysed except by taking into account that they are environments for one another. If this theoretical background is accepted, the concepts and theory of socialization need to be revised. Luhmann takes issues with classical notions such as internalization, inculcation, or 'socialization to the grounds of consensus' (Talcott Parsons). After a historical overview of social systems research and general systems theory, it is indicated how communications trigger further communications and realize the autopoiesis of social systems. In the second part of the article, the distinction between social systems and psychic systems is used to discuss issues crucial to socialization theory. Both a revision of the concept of socialization, and lines for an empirical research programme are proposed in accordance with Luhmann's theory of social systems. PMID:11038137
Haustein, Stefanie; Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Larivière, Vincent
Social media metrics - commonly coined as "altmetrics" - have been heralded as great democratizers of science, providing broader and timelier indicators of impact than citations. These metrics come from a range of sources, including Twitter, blogs, social reference managers, post-publication peer review, and other social media platforms. Social media metrics have begun to be used as indicators of scientific impact, yet the theoretical foundation, empirical validity, and exte...
Full Text Available The emergence and spread of Internet communication has led to changes in social relationships, abuse of the Internet and maladaptive behavior. Among the authors who have studied the impact of these changes there is no consensus, and the results of their research are often contradictory. Some authors conclude that Internet communication strengthens networks of its users, while others believe that such communication leads to reduced participation in real social life. In a number of people, excessive use of the Internet adversely affects the mental health and social life and can lead to obsession at the expense of other aspects of life and creating addiction. The greatest risk of negative impacts of online communication is among children and young people. This paper is meant to indicate, the good sides as well as the negative consequences of excessive and non-functional Internet use
Haerter, Jan O.; Jamtveit, Bjorn; Mathiesen, Joachim
In communication networks structure and dynamics are tightly coupled. The structure controls the flow of information and is itself shaped by the dynamical process of information exchanged between nodes. In order to reconcile structure and dynamics, a generic model, based on the local interaction between nodes, is considered for the communication in large social networks. In agreement with data from a large human organization, we show that the flow is non-Markovian and contro...
The focus of the article is centered on society through the prism of communication. Modern data extraction and information retrieval methods allow building a new vision of communicative process. The article is focused on the example of language idiom representations and omnibus survey, which help concentrate on the most stable human society ways of expression. There is also an attempt to carry out a comparative analysis of social features of the East and the West with the help of on-line nati...
Mittal, Prateek; WRIGHT, MATTHEW; Borisov, Nikita
The architectures of deployed anonymity systems such as Tor suffer from two key problems that limit user's trust in these systems. First, paths for anonymous communication are built without considering trust relationships between users and relays in the system. Second, the network architecture relies on a set of centralized servers. In this paper, we propose Pisces, a decentralized protocol for anonymous communications that leverages users' social links to build circuits for...
Ryan, Bryce C.; Young, Nancy B.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; James W. Bodfish; Moy, Sheryl S
Mouse lines with behavioral phenotypes relevant to symptoms in neurodevelopmental disorders may provide models to test hypotheses about disease etiology and to evaluate potential treatments. The present studies were designed to confirm and expand earlier work on the intriguing behavioral profile of the C58/J inbred strain, including low social approach and aberrant repetitive movements. Additional tests were selected to reflect aspects of autism, a severe neurodevelopmental disorder character...
Whitehurst, Grover J.; Crone, Deanne A.
This response to Green and Shane (EC 609 759) and Biklen and Duchan (EC 609 760), which presented opposing views of facilitated communication (FC) with people having severe disabilities, focuses on science as viewed through positivist and constructivist lenses. The paper uses Biklen and Duchan's social constructivist approach to identify three…
Full Text Available This paper reviews literature on creativity, innovations, and creative organizations. An analytical approach has been undertaken using various articles to identify the need of innovation and creativity in today's world and how the innovation of social networking is changing business activities. Creativity and innovation are crucial factors for the endurance and progression of organizations in today's world. From the macroeconomic perspective, innovation is also related with economic growth, development of living standards and a country's international competiveness. The need for innovation is assisted by Information technology in a range of ways and in this contemporary era it is hard to separate innovation and technology due to its incredible offerings in all kinds of industries and sectors. One such innovation was 'social networking and social media.' In this epoch of social media, businesses are obliged to be extra transparent and more personal. This does not eradicate the need of customary advertising, but social networks allow an innovative form of communication which altered the approach of doing businesses. Businesses must concentrate on developing real and direct connections with customers. Companies which lag behind to change to this new trend and culture will be in damaging situation, as competitors will progressively try to reap the benefits out of it. All in all businesses need to adapt with the growing importance and impact of social networking as a means of communication.
Full Text Available This paper present the role and interaction between communication and Corporate Social Responsibility, strengtheningin the same time that communication it is a key factor to begin and keep a proper Sustainable Development strategy. The importance of communication is essential, taking in consideration the awareness in the interior and in the exterior of organization strategy, ethical, ecological and socio-economical objectives, since information regarding the impact of the company’s activities, products and services as well as regarding the impacts of changes that can supervene in time, can only be provided in this way. Since there are many ways to communicate regarding the actions of CSR, it is important to know what kind of messages and ideas can resonate with a certain audience, considering the stage in which the ISO 26000 standard’s development stands.
Dowe, David L.; Hernández Orallo, José; Das, Paramjit K,
Compression has been advocated as one of the principles which pervades inductive inference and prediction - and, from there, it has also been recurrent in definitions and tests of intelligence. However, this connection is less explicit in new approaches to intelligence. In this paper, we advocate that the notion of compression can appear again in definitions and tests of intelligence through the concepts of `mind-reading¿ and `communication¿ in the context of multi-agent systems and social en...
DICHTER, GABRIEL S.; Lam, Kristen S. L.; Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; HOLTZCLAW, TIA N.; James W. Bodfish
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often demonstrate impaired generativity that is thought to mediate repetitive behaviors in autism (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 40(6):839–849, 1999a). The present study evaluated generativity in children with and without ASD via the use-of-objects task (Turner in J Child Psychol Psychiatry, 40(2):189–201, 1999b) and an Animals Fluency Task (Lezak in Neuropsychological assessment. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995). Groups differed ...
Professional development is a desideratum both the organization and for each employee, in part, and interpersonal communication is the means of safe fulfillment, especially in social systems. No matter what ways of professional development are chosen, organizations (considered as major social systems) works on communication processes. Moreover, social systems are at the same time, communication systems. As so, the importance of interpersonal communication in providing professional development...
Today, social media is changing the way people communicate by giving the influence to the hands of the people. For organizations, it means that the issues of stakeholders are the focus of the communication, not the organizations. The question no longer is whether to use social media in public relations, but how to use it. In this research the social media communication of the Finnish missions abroad is studied. The missions have implemented social media as a part of their communication m...
Saramäki, Jari; Leicht, E A; López, Eduardo; Roberts, Sam G B; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Dunbar, Robin I M
The social network maintained by a focal individual, or ego, is intrinsically dynamic and typically exhibits some turnover in membership over time as personal circumstances change. However, the consequences of such changes on the distribution of an ego's network ties are not well understood. Here we use a unique 18-mo dataset that combines mobile phone calls and survey data to track changes in the ego networks and communication patterns of students making the transition from school to university or work. Our analysis reveals that individuals display a distinctive and robust social signature, captured by how interactions are distributed across different alters. Notably, for a given ego, these social signatures tend to persist over time, despite considerable turnover in the identity of alters in the ego network. Thus, as new network members are added, some old network members either are replaced or receive fewer calls, preserving the overall distribution of calls across network members. This is likely to reflect the consequences of finite resources such as the time available for communication, the cognitive and emotional effort required to sustain close relationships, and the ability to make emotional investments. PMID:24395777
Full Text Available Communicating socially responsible activities is a crucial element in the discussion on social involvement and it is of great interest both to the enterprise and its stakeholders. This paper highlights some of the most interesting elements regarding the communication of socially responsible activities.
Full Text Available The focus of the article is centered on society through the prism of communication. Modern data extraction and information retrieval methods allow building a new vision of communicative process. The article is focused on the example of language idiom representations and omnibus survey, which help concentrate on the most stable human society ways of expression. There is also an attempt to carry out a comparative analysis of social features of the East and the West with the help of on-line national languages’ corpuses. Omnibus survey results testify to the fact that low income people are reluctant to admit the influence of idioms on their day-to-day communicative practices, while rich people stress the significance of stable communicative formulae in their life. Societies are described through their attitude to labor, expressed in the idioms with a ‘hand’ component. With the help of electronic linguistic corpuses (Corpus of the Internet and business Chinese, KOTONOHA (Balanced Corpus of Contemporary Written Japanese, BNC (British National Corpus, COCA (Corpus of Contemporary American English the research analyzes labor stereotypes on the basis of idiom frequency indexes. In practice the results of this study can be implemented in a special socio-cultural dictionary, where the most frequent idioms are given as social stereotypes and the most powerful symbolic tools of influence and manipulation. The results of these findings are relevant to multicultural societies, migration adaptation practices and global business development. The research results have been processed into a database, marked with the Rospatent Certificate (No. 2013620397, dated 03/13/2013. Rightholder: Limited Liability Company 'Content-Press' (RU. First Author: Yakovlev Igor Gennadievich (RU. Second Author: Zavyalova Natalya Alekseevna (RU.
Waite, Jane; Moss, Joanna; Beck, Sarah R.; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy; Oliver, Chris
Syndrome specific repetitive behavior profiles have been described previously. A detailed profile is absent for Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire and Social Communication Questionnaire were completed for children and adults with RTS (N = 87), Fragile-X (N = 196) and Down (N = 132) syndromes, and individuals…
Merola, I; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S; Prato-Previde, E
Cats' (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner's emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats' social organization and domestication history. PMID:25573289
Krantz, D. H.
In 2009 our center (CRED) published a first version of The Psychology of Climate Change Communication. In it, we attempted to summarize facts and concepts from psychological research that could help guide communication. While this work focused on climate change, most of the ideas are at least partly applicable for communication about a variety of natural hazards. Of the many examples in this guide, I mention three. Single-action bias is the human tendency to stop considering further actions that might be needed to deal with a given hazard, once a single action has been taken. Another example is the importance of group affiliation in motivating voluntary contributions to joint action. A third concerns the finding that group participation enhances understanding of probabilistic concepts and promotes action in the face of uncertainty. One current research direction, which goes beyond those included in the above publication, focuses on how time horizons arise in the thinking of individuals and groups, and how these time horizons might influence hazard preparedness. On the one hand, individuals sometimes appear impatient, organizations look for immediate results, and officials fail to look beyond the next election cycle. Yet under some laboratory conditions and in some subcultures, a longer time horizon is adopted. We are interested in how time horizon is influenced by group identity and by the very architecture of planning and decision making. Institutional changes, involving long-term contractual relationships among communities, developers, insurers, and governments, could greatly increase resilience in the face of natural hazards. Communication about hazards, in the context of such long-term contractual relationships might look very different from communication that is first initiated by immediate threat. Another new direction concerns the social scale of institutions and of communication about hazards. Traditionally, insurance contracts share risk among a large number of insurees: each contributes a small premium toward a fund that is adequate to cover the large losses that occasionally occur. Participatory processes are needed that extend risk sharing to larger social scales and that reduce adversarial relationships between insurers, insurees, insurance regulators, and governments that intervene or fail to intervene on an ad hoc rather than a contractual basis.
Full Text Available Do your corporate communications suffer from a lack of trust by your target audience? If so, your marketing professionals can benefit from these seven social media lessons that help guide you towards making your communications more trustworthy.
Do your corporate communications suffer from a lack of trust by your target audience? If so, your marketing professionals can benefit from these seven social media lessons that help guide you towards making your communications more trustworthy.
Freeberg, TM; Ord, TJ; Dunbar, RI
The complex social worlds of many animal species may be linked to complex communicative systems in those species. We now have evidence in diverse taxa and in different communicative modalities suggesting that complexity in social groups can drive complexity in signalling systems. The aim of this theme issue is to develop the theory behind this link between social complexity and communicative complexity, and to provide an overview of the lines of research testing this link.
This thesis explores the impact of social media on leadership. For this purpose, it presents a new model for the communication of leaders. This builds on the empirical finding; that leaders must optimize two elements in order to communicate effectively; communication channel and communication style. It then seeks to explore the impact of social media on this model. On a general level, this impact is categorized into five subparts; openness, transparency, personification, power, and control. O...
The aim of the present article is to discuss several consequences of the Open Science from a perspective of science communication and philosophy of communication. Apart from the purely communicative and philosophical issues, the paper deals with the questions that concern the science popularization process through social media (especially Twitter and blogs). The article consists of three sections: the first one suggests a definition of science communication and social media, the second examin...
Parr, Jeremy R.; Dale, Naomi J.; Shaffer, Lara M.; Salt, Alison T.
Aim: The aim of this study was to study systematically social, communication, and repetitive/restrictive (SCRR) behavioural difficulties and clinical autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) and/or septo-optic dysplasia (SOD), and to investigate the relationship between visual impairment, SCRR difficulties, ASD,…
Dickinson, Dwight; BELLACK, ALAN S.; Gold, James M.
Deficits in social/communications skills have been documented in schizophrenia, but it is unclear how these deficits relate to cognitive deficits and to everyday functioning. In the current study, social/communication skills performance was measured in 29 schizophrenia patients with a history of good vocational functioning (GVF) and 26 with a history of poor vocational functioning (PVF) using a role-play–based social skills assessment, the Maryland Assessment of Social Competence (MASC). A ba...
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare patients with Asperger syndrome (AS and control participants on social cognition tasks and communication skills. Twenty young adults were assessed in three social cognition domains; recognition of basic emotions, recognition of complex emotions and Theory of Mind (ToM. In addition participants completed a self-report questionnaire as a measure of social communication skills. The results indicate that adults with AS perform below neurotypical control participants in emotion processing, ToM and communication skills. There were no significant correlations between the variables of social cognition and communication skills in the group of AS. Taken together, results suggest that people with a diagnosis of AS present a deficit in ToM and emotional processing as well as in communication skills. However, it was not possible to identify a significant association between the variables of social cognition and communication skills.
Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo
Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…
Moraes, Jorge C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
Based on a concrete case, the negotiation of compensation and reparation for environmental damage in the state of Rio de Janeiro, this paper deals with the role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as main strategic instrument to set up a relationship among state, businesses and the civil society in the process of licensing and deploying gas pipelines. In this kind of process, a few cultural aspects, such as a social pattern based in philanthropy and paternalism, make difficult for any agreement to be reached among the stake holders. As a result, the process of licensing becomes slow and fragile. In some cases, negotiation ends up unsuccessful. This mental model coexists with an imperious need for investments in energy, leading to a hard contradiction between a traditional behavior and the surge of modern consumerism habits. Besides, local legislation and bureaucracy allow for few or no options to solve the conflict. In this context, as will be seen, CSR is a preferential way to establish fruitful dialog. By means of Corporate Social Investments (CSI), it is possible to create a common experience of local development among entrepreneurs, the state and the community, by this breaking communication barriers and providing alternatives to solve the original contradiction. (author)
Nagaraja, Shishir; Piyawongwisal, Pratch; Singh, Vijit; Agarwal, Pragya; Borisov, Nikita
We propose the construction of an unobservable communications network using social networks. The communication endpoints are vertices on a social network. Probabilistically unobservable communication channels are built by leveraging image steganography and the social image sharing behavior of users. All communication takes place along the edges of a social network overlay connecting friends. We show that such a network can provide decent bandwidth even with a far from optimal routing mechanism such as restricted flooding. We show that such a network is indeed usable by constructing a botnet on top of it, called Stegobot. It is designed to spread via social malware attacks and steal information from its victims. Unlike conventional botnets, Stegobot traffic does not introduce new communication endpoints between bots. We analyzed a real-world dataset of image sharing between members of an online social network. Analysis of Stegobot's network throughput indicates that stealthy as it is, it is also functionally p...
Westman, Daniel; Lindfors, Peter
The purpose of this study is to create understanding for how social media affects the relationship between employees and leaders in organizations, and how social media could be used to improve internal communication. We also want to explore how this type of internal communication could be implemented in large organizations. From a theoretical perspective our ambition is to see how our findings relate to the theoretical field of internal communication and human resource management. The empiric...
This paper aims to identify and analyze the extent to which new media have penetrated the Romanian organizations’ internal communication and have influenced the leadership. We intend also to consider how social media becomes a tool for organizational communication and contributes to the creation of a new kind of leadership associated with open communication. We start from the premise that new media and social media can contribute to the leader’s mission to create around him a vision and makes...
Sewall, Kendra B
Cognition and communication both can be essential for effectively navigating the social environment and thus, social dynamics could select for enhanced abilities for communication and superior cognition. Additionally, social experience can influence both the ability to communicate effectively and performance in cognitive tasks within an individual's lifetime, consistent with phenotypic plasticity in these traits. Historically, research in animal cognition and animal communication has often addressed these traits independently, despite potential commonalities in social function and underlying mechanisms of the brain. Integrating research on animal communication and cognition will provide a more comprehensive understanding of how the social environment may shape behavior and specializations of the brain for sociality through both evolutionary and developmental processes. This selective review of research on the impacts of social dynamics on cognition and communication in animals aims to highlight areas for future research at both the ultimate and proximate levels. In particular, additional work on the effects of the social environment on cognitive performance over an individual's lifetime, and comparative studies of specialized abilities for communication, should be pursued. PMID:26078368
Fudenberg, Drew; Ellison, Glenn
This paper studies the way that word-of-mouth communication aggregates the information of individual agents. We find that the structure of the communication process determines whether all agents end up making identical choices, with less communication making this conformity more likely. Despite the players' naive decision rules and the stochastic decision environment, word-of-mouth communication may lead all players to adopt the action that is on average superior. These socially efficient out...
Raúl Navarro; Santiago Yubero
The present research examined online communication behaviour in a sample of preadolescents (10-12 years, n= 812). In addition, we examined the effect of social anxiety, social skills and experiences of cyberbullying on online communication behaviour. Online communication measures included items related to time online, platforms used, relationships and motives to go online. Social anxiety was assessed using the Social Anxiety Scale of Children Revised, social skills were measured using the Mat...
Sergey Petrovich Kushneruk
Full Text Available Some results of the official-and-business texts’ qualities revealed on communication level are presented in this article. The system of axes used for national-and-social evaluations of the business communicative instruments is under analysis. The influences of unstable social-and-cultural conditions on technological and organizational circumstances of document-oriented communication are analyzed. Some results of the out-of-officinal factors origin’ and level’s evaluation in their influence on unified forms and textual peculiarities of communicative acts in the forms of “business papers” are presented.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-44
Verlinde Evelyn; De Laender Nele; De Maesschalck Stéphanie; Deveugele Myriam; Willems Sara
Abstract Objective In recent years, the importance of social differences in the physician-patient relationship has frequently been the subject of research. A 2002 review synthesised the evidence on this topic. Considering the increasing importance of social inequalities in health care, an actualization of this review seemed appropriate. Methods A systematic search of literature published between 1965 and 2011 on the social gradient in doctor-patient communication. In this review social class ...
McKelvey, Karissa; Rudnick, Alex; Conover, Michael D.; Menczer, Filippo
The broad adoption of the web as a communication medium has made it possible to study social behavior at a new scale. With social media networks such as Twitter, we can collect large data sets of online discourse. Social science researchers and journalists, however, may not have tools available to make sense of large amounts of data or of the structure of large social networks. In this paper, we describe our recent extensions to Truthy, a system for collecting and analyzing ...
Nowak, G; Cole, G; Kirby, S; Freimuth, V; Caywood, C
Influencing consumer behavior is a difficult and often resource-intensive undertaking, with success usually requiring identifying, describing, and understanding target audiences; solid product and/or service positioning relative to competitors; and significant media and communication resources. Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is a new way of organizing and managing persuasive communication tools and functions which involves realigning communications to consider the flow of information from an organization from the viewpoint of end consumers. Although the application of IMC to social marketing remains relatively unexplored, the IMC literature and recent efforts by the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control suggest that integrated communication approaches have much to offer social marketing and health communication efforts. IMC, IMC and social marketing, and implications of IMC for public and private sector social marketing programs are discussed. PMID:12348831
Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael; Denke, Claudia
In the philosophical theory of communicative action, rationality refers to interpersonal communication rather than to a knowing subject. Thus, a social view of rationality is suggested. The theory differentiates between two kinds of rationality, the emancipative communicative and the strategic or instrumental reasoning. Using experimental designs in an fMRI setting, recent studies explored similar questions of reasoning in the social world and linked them with a neural network including prefr...
Kossinets, Gueorgi; Kleinberg, Jon; Watts, Duncan
Social networks are of interest to researchers in part because they are thought to mediate the flow of information in communities and organizations. Here we study the temporal dynamics of communication using on-line data, including e-mail communication among the faculty and staff of a large university over a two-year period. We formulate a temporal notion of "distance" in the underlying social network by measuring the minimum time required for information to spread from one ...
Meredith, Michael J.
Social media offers an exciting new area for our discipline to produce research and pedagogy that is in high demand by students, industry constituents, and other disciplines. This article discusses why business communication scholars should focus on social media as an important stream of study and outlines an MBA course in social media strategy…
An important aspect of human behavior in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is team interaction since operating NPPs involves the coordination of several team members among and within workplaces. Since operators in main control room (MCR) get a great deal of information through communication to perform a task, communication is one of the important characteristics for team characteristics. Many researchers have been studying how to understand the characteristics of communication. Social network analysis (SNA) which is considered as an objective and easily applicable method has been already applied in many fields to investigate characteristics of team communication. Henttonen (2010) has struggled to perform the research on the impact of social networks in a team and he found some team communication characteristics could be obtained using some properties of SNA. In this paper, SNA is used to understand communication characteristics within operators in NPPs
Full Text Available This article presents a model of marketing communications using social network by sports clubs. It presents the links between the sports club and its environment and uses of the Internet to promote it. The model of communication is composed of the elements responsible for the success of marketing in the web. Article also includes recommendations for using the model in practice.
Sigmar, Lucia Stretcher; Hynes, Geraldine E.; Hill, Kathy L.
Incorporating social and emotional skills (EI) training into the business communication curriculum is important for preparing students to function effectively in a global workplace with its complex informal networks, intercultural issues, team emphasis, and participatory leadership. EI skills enhance communication behavior in work groups and…
Kendrick, Alice; Fullerton, Jami A.; Kim, Yeo Jung
Although advertising has played a key role in bringing corporate social responsibility (CSR) to the public agenda on behalf of agency clients, little effort has been made to define what social responsibility means in advertising. A national survey of 1,045 advertising and marketing communications students from 176 colleges and universities were…
One hundred repetitions--100 "useful" repetitions. This notion has guided the author's work in alternative education programs for almost 20 years, dealing with the most challenging students, from addicts to conduct-disordered adolescents to traumatized 5th graders. There are no magic tricks. The role of educators is to align with the healthy…
Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L
The landscape of sending and receiving information has changed dramatically in the past 25 years. The communication process is changing from being unidirectional to multidirectional as consumers are becoming active participants by creating, seeking, and sharing information using a variety of channels and devices. The purpose of this article is to describe how this shift in the communication process- where gatekeepers control the creation and content of information and consumers are less active recipients to one that reflects a multidirectional and more dynamic process with participative consumers-will affect the social marketing process. This shift in communication does not represent an option for social marketers so much as a necessity. As professionals respond to this evolving communication model, the practice of social marketing can remain vibrant as a relevant consumer-oriented approach to behavior change. PMID:19372278
Hartnett, Stephen John
Combining an overview of the history of communication scholarship with lessons learned from 20 years of experience as a prison abolitionist and peace activist, Hartnett argues that the discipline of communication can be enriched intellectually and made more politically relevant by turning our efforts toward community service, problem-based…
Full Text Available Studies of the quality of online social relationships are divided in their conclusions regarding the strength of social ties. Early conceptualizations described the weakness of electronic media in supporting social ties. By contrast, others have emphasized the compensating character of the Internet for specific social groups. This study investigated differences between adolescents who created online friendships and those who did not, and how far the place where a friend was met (online or face to face was related to the quality of social relationships, namely the perceived strength of social ties. Examining the dyadic friendship structure of a representative sample of Israeli adolescents, the study provides important contributions to the rapidly growing literature on online social relationships in general, and on youth networks in particular. The results support the social compensation approach to the study of online social relationship formation. The motivation for online friendship formation proved to be related to adolescents’ attempts to compensate for a lack of social support by using the Internet for communication. Furthermore, while face-to-face relationships remained highly important, for those adolescents who found in the Internet others with whom they developed intimacy, online ties were strong and meaningful. Additionally, adolescents with strong virtual ties were found to be distinctive in their social background. Our findings call for a qualification of the theoretical approach to online social ties, and imply that it is not the technology per se that obstructs or facilitates the formation of social friendship but the social embeddedness of the ties.
Social media, online social networks and apps for smartphones and tablets are changing the way to communicate health and health issues to consumers and health professionals. Google, Facebook, Apple, and other companies have launched tools to make easier the doctor-patient communication, to group patients with similar diseases allowing them to share stories, experiences, and opinions, and to remotely track and monitor users health and wellbeing. However several concerns about patients' and consumers' privacy remain. Doctor-patient communication through e-mail and social media also introduces other ethical and privacy issues that were addressed only by few medical societies with appropriate guidelines and policies. In addition, pharmaceutical companies have started to use social media channels to communicate with doctors, patients and consumers. This type of communication has been only partially regulated by the Food and Drug Administration with the recently published guidelines for industries. Similar concerns exist for health and medical applications for smartphones and tablets for which only few agencies (including Food and Drug Administration) are requiring a formal (even if restricted in typology) validation. It's time for Europe and Italy to adopt appropriate guidelines for the use of the new media in health communication. PMID:25621774
Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Haerter, Jan O
Large parts of professional human communication proceed in a request-reply fashion, whereby requests contain specifics of the information desired while replies can deliver the required information. However, time limitations often force individuals to prioritize some while neglecting others. This dilemma will inevitably force individuals into defecting against some communication partners to give attention to others. Furthermore, communication entirely breaks down when individuals act purely egoistically as replies would never be issued and quest for desired information would always be prioritized. Here we present an experiment, termed "The expert game", where a number of individuals communicate with one-another through an electronic messaging system. By imposing a strict limit on the number of sent messages, individuals were required to decide between requesting information that is beneficial for themselves or helping others by replying to their requests. In the experiment, individuals were assigned the task t...
Purpose – Organization legitimacy is a general reflection of the relationship between an organization and its environment. By adopting an institutional approach and defining moral legitimacy as “a positive normative evaluation of the organization and its activities”, the goal of this paper is to investigate which corporate communication strategy adopted in online social media is more effective to create convergence between corporations' corporate social responsibility (CSR) agenda and stakeholders' social expectations, and thereby, to increase corporate legitimacy. Design/methodology/approach – Using the entire Twitter social graph, a network analysis was carried out to study the structural properties of the CSR community, such as the level of reciprocity, and advanced data mining techniques, i.e. topic and sentiment analysis, were carried out to investigate the communication dynamics. Findings – Evidence was found that neither the engaging nor the information strategies lead to alignment. The assumption of the more the dialog, the more the communality seems to fail to portray the complexity of the communicational dynamics, such as the persistence of different, or simply a dialog without alignment. Empirical findings show that, even when engaging in a dialogue, communication in social media is still conceived as a marketing practice to convey messages about companies. Originality/value – This paper originally investigates organizational legitimacy in the context of social media by applying advanced data-mining techniques that allow the analysis of large amounts of information available online.
Waite, Jane; Moss, Joanna; Beck, Sarah R; Richards, Caroline; Nelson, Lisa; Arron, Kate; Burbidge, Cheryl; Berg, Katy; Oliver, Chris
Syndrome specific repetitive behavior profiles have been described previously. A detailed profile is absent for Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire and Social Communication Questionnaire were completed for children and adults with RTS (N = 87), Fragile-X (N = 196) and Down (N = 132) syndromes, and individuals reaching cut-off for autism spectrum disorder (N = 228). Total and matched group analyses were conducted. A phenotypic profile of repetitive behavior was found in RTS. The majority of behaviors in RTS were not associated with social-communication deficits or degree of disability. Repetitive behavior should be studied at a fine-grained level. A dissociation of the triad of impairments might be evident in RTS. PMID:25491025
This thesis studies Finnish music industry startups’ viewpoints on marketing communica-tions and social media, as well as their views on the future of the music business. Four Finland based music industry startups were interviewed for the study. Separate chapters deal with the framework of the study: marketing communications, social media and music industry. During the past few years a number of startup companies have been established in Finland with the aim of providing online and digit...
Jack, Rachael E; Schyns, Philippe G
As a highly social species, humans frequently exchange social information to support almost all facets of life. One of the richest and most powerful tools in social communication is the face, from which observers can quickly and easily make a number of inferences - about identity, gender, sex, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, physical health, attractiveness, emotional state, personality traits, pain or physical pleasure, deception, and even social status. With the advent of the digital economy, increasing globalization and cultural integration, understanding precisely which face information supports social communication and which produces misunderstanding is central to the evolving needs of modern society (for example, in the design of socially interactive digital avatars and companion robots). Doing so is challenging, however, because the face can be thought of as comprising a high-dimensional, dynamic information space, and this impacts cognitive science and neuroimaging, and their broader applications in the digital economy. New opportunities to address this challenge are arising from the development of new methods and technologies, coupled with the emergence of a modern scientific culture that embraces cross-disciplinary approaches. Here, we briefly review one such approach that combines state-of-the-art computer graphics, psychophysics and vision science, cultural psychology and social cognition, and highlight the main knowledge advances it has generated. In the light of current developments, we provide a vision of the future directions in the field of human facial communication within and across cultures. PMID:26196493
Blázovics, L.; Varga, C.
In this work we are underlining the importance of social mobile networks for upcoming cooperative communication systems. The assumption of this work is that future mobile communication systems will incorporate user cooperation, i.e. a combination of cellular access in parallel with ongoing short range links to the neighboring devices. It has been shown that user cooperation enables higher data rates, better spectral efficiencies, and reduces the energy consumption of the mobile unit. In this work the social mobile networks are identified to be a fertile ground to facilitate the cooperative use cases. By the example of the Gedda-Headz gaming community, possible links between cooperative mobile communication and social mobile networks are shown.
Full Text Available The study aims to examine how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR projects are perceived from both an individual and organizational perspective. Using the framework used in studies on diffusion of innovations, the spread of CSR projects are examined. An online survey to identify individuals’ CSR and communication channel perception as well as interviews with CSR practitioners to have an organizational perspective is realized. Companies are using CSR as a tool to meet various objectives such as crisis management and recruiting talent. The CSR perception among individuals is shaped by interpersonal and mass media communication; companies are perceived as responsible if their communication is rich in information. The information sources are mostly television and radio but there is a growing part of online channels as well. The study also suggests several possibilities for future research including the role of social networks and social media platforms in the diffusion of CSR.
Full Text Available This paper aims to identify and analyze the extent to which new media have penetrated the Romanian organizations’ internal communication and have influenced the leadership. We intend also to consider how social media becomes a tool for organizational communication and contributes to the creation of a new kind of leadership associated with open communication. We start from the premise that new media and social media can contribute to the leader’s mission to create around him a vision and makes others to share this vision. In terms of open communication, the external image of organization reflects, in part, leadership practices within the organization. It is about the exercise of the shared collective leadership (Don Tapscott, 1996 that should strengthen the organization position.
Social presence is a theory derived from social psychology to explain social interactions in a mediated communication and is defined as the degree to which interlocutors in a communications medium perceive each other as real. This study investigates the effect of computer-mediated communication on the social presence of international students who…
Improved udder health requires consistent application of appropriate management practices by those involved in managing dairy herds and the milking process. Designing effective communication requires that we understand why dairy herd managers behave in the way they do and also how the means of communication can be used both to inform and to influence. Social sciences- ranging from economics to anthropology - have been used to shed light on the behaviour of those who manage farm...
Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.
To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.
Guback, Thomas H.
In considering the creative process, author tried to build a bridge between two assumedly discrete areas, the arts and communication, by examining some conditions which impinge on the message-maker as he goes about formulating statements for dissemination to others. (Author/RK)
Kohr, M A; Parrish, J M; Neef, N A; Driessen, J R; Hallinan, P C
Coordination of professional services of behalf of children often hinges on the involvement of informed parents. The purposes of this study were to identify and experimentally and socially validate skills required of parents for effective communication with professionals. Target skills were identified on the basis of judges' social validation ratings of (a) sample interactions between parents and professionals and (b) the behaviors comprising a resultant task analysis. Eight parents were then...
Social Networking is a very wide concept, which means connecting of one being to another, either one or many. In this research paper, the author focusses on Social Networking and Communication, its importance in day to day life of professional, and its place in their busy schedule. This paper is mainly for the professionals who are newly entered in their professional field. To accomplish this research, the author conducted a survey of 50-60 sample size, which included Doctors, Professors, Ad...
Madsen, Vibeke ThØis
The aim of this paper is to present the findings of an exploratory case study of communication on internal social media within the Danish bank, Jyske Bank. The study involved an analysis of staff interaction on internal social media over three months, as well as interviews with 17 of the bank’s employees. The study not only answers questions about who participates in internal social media and the content of their communication, it also shows that when organizational culture and management support coworker communication, internal social media becomes a multi-vocal rhetorical arena where coworkers are likely to converse about how to solve product and customer-related challenges, and to discuss working conditions. In addition, this study shows that coworkers co-construct organizational identity when they discuss questions such as: Who are we as an organization? Which products should we provide for the customers? And how do we distinguish ourselves from the competitors?
Conover, Michael D; Ferrara, Emilio; McKelvey, Karissa; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro
Social movements rely in large measure on networked communication technologies to organize and disseminate information relating to the movements' objectives. In this work we seek to understand how the goals and needs of a protest movement are reflected in the geographic patterns of its communication network, and how these patterns differ from those of stable political communication. To this end, we examine an online communication network reconstructed from over 600,000 tweets from a thirty-six week period covering the birth and maturation of the American anticapitalist movement, Occupy Wall Street. We find that, compared to a network of stable domestic political communication, the Occupy Wall Street network exhibits higher levels of locality and a hub and spoke structure, in which the majority of non-local attention is allocated to high-profile locations such as New York, California, and Washington D.C. Moreover, we observe that information flows across state boundaries are more likely to contain framing lang...
Arguments about whether or not the Internet is creating new people or simply helping us to see ourselves in new ways are threaded through the literature on digital culture. People make new technology and exploit it for their own purposes and so it is reasonable to suggest that any changes in our social identities are wider in their reach than the…
MÓNICA, SALAZAR GÓMEZ; ROBERTO, SEPÚLVEDA.
Full Text Available Este artículo pretende conocer y hacer un análisis de las diferentes perspectivas que tienen estudiantes, académicos, empresarios y autoridades educativas acerca del devenir de la carrera de comunicación social. Nos interesa contrastar las diferentes miradas sobre la proyección de la comunicación so [...] cial, las diversas posturas sobre el deber ser de la carrera, las expectativas frente a lo que debe saber hacer un comunicador social y el devenir de la profesión en relación con las necesidades del país y del mercado laboral. La tesis central es contrastar las diferentes comprensiones que tienen algunos actores frente a la proyección de la carrera. Creemos que a pesar de la mirada mediática que generalmente se tiene, la comunicación social debe ser entendida más como constructora de sentidos, articuladora de procesos sociales y generadora de puentes entre diversos actores, para asumir un rol de transformación social. Abstract in english This article exposes and analyses the different perspectives of students, academics, entrepreneurs and educational authorities about the future of the social communication studies career. Our interest is to contrast the different views on the social communication studies projection; the many positio [...] ns about how the professional career should be; the expectative regarding what a social communicator should be able to know how to do; and the future of the profession in relation to the country needs and the labor market. The main thesis is to contrast some different ways of understanding the career projection. We believe that despite the generalized mediatic view of the social communication studies, they must be understood as sense-constructors, as articulators of social processes, and as generators of bridges among social actors in order to assume the role of social transformers.
The purpose of this thesis was to research email crisis communication and its effect on the social identity of an organization’s employees. Social identity is an individual’s sense and knowledge of being part of a group. It is a central paradigm in the social psychological theory known as the “social identity approach.” As crisis communication has never been researched from the viewpoint of social identity, a theory for crisis communication that supports social identity was developed in ...
Full Text Available The social experiences that I have studied have demanded me to develop an interculturalanalytical perspective that enlarges the field of applications of the ideas ofinterculturality and intercultural communication. This article discusses that perspective,which main characteristics are that it does not restrict the analysis to casesmarked by ethnic, national or linguistic referents, but it includes others associatedto professional, institutional, and political cultures, as well as that it does not limit itto the study of relationships between social agents, but it also includes relationshipswithin collective and institutional social agents.
Lopez Y Gonzalez, Manuel
The objective of this research work is to find out how to integrate social media in Off-Road’s Finnmark marketing communications. One of the aims of this research is to help the case company to increase the usage of social media in their marketing strategy. The next objective is to develop a marketing strategy for Off-Road Finnmark, in order to assist the organization to implement social media. Relevant articles and literature was reviewed in order to have data to develop the litera...
Weiss, Amy L.; Theadore, Geraldine
This article focuses on why and how speech-language pathologists and other professionals can encourage the involvement of parents in teaching social communication skills to their young children. Four main topics are explored: (1) the evidence that many of the children with special needs served by speech-language pathologists and other…
This paper reviews literature on creativity, innovations, and creative organizations. An analytical approach has been undertaken using various articles to identify the need of innovation and creativity in today's world and how the innovation of social networking is changing business activities. Creativity and innovation are crucial factors for the endurance and progression of organizations in today's world. From the macroeconomic perspective, innovation is also related with economic growth, d...
Twitter has become a household name, discussed both for its role in prominent national elections, natural disasters, and political movements, as well as for what some malign as narcissistic “chatter.” This book takes a critical step back from popular discourse and media coverage of Twitter, to present the first balanced, scholarly engagement of this popular medium. In this timely and comprehensive introduction, Murthy not only discusses Twitter’s role in our political, economic, and social...
Francesco La Barbera
Full Text Available The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants’ motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants’ actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual’s level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.
Full Text Available The Internet has a major impact when it comes to marketing tools, providing new opportunities that were not previously available is the traditional marketing environment. Each traditional communication channel has its obvious advantages and organizations must continue to use it, but the Internet is a channel in constant development, enjoying high attention and being currently used by more than a third of the global population. Knowing the different advantages and disadvantages of both traditional and online marketing, a good marketer may be able to make the right decision when developing integrated marketing strategies.
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This article deals with the studying of the peculiarities of social and communicative competence in teenage years. The paper provides the results of the comparative analysis of the peculiarities of social and communicative competence of teenagers with different thinking styles.
St John, C.; Marx, S.; Markowitz, E.
Researchers from the Center for Research on Environmental Decisions (CRED) published "The Psychology of Climate Change Communication: A Guide for Scientists, Journalists, Educators, Political Aides, and the Interested Public" in 2009. This landmark guide provided climate change communicators a synthesis of the social science research that was pertinent to understanding how people think about climate change and how the practice could be improved. In the fall of 2014 this guide will be rereleased, with a new title, and in a partnership between CRED and ecoAmerica. The updated guide addresses how and why Americans respond in certain ways to climate change and explains how communicators can apply best practices to their own work. The guide, which includes research from a range of social science fields including psychology, anthropology, communications, and behavioral economics, is designed to be useful for experienced and novice communicators alike. Included in the guide are strategies to boost engagement, common mistakes to avoid, and best practices that organizations around the world have used to meaningfully engage individuals and groups on climate change. The proposed presentation will provide an overview of the main findings and tips from the 2014 climate change communication guide. It will provide a deeper look at a few of the key points that are crucial for increasing audience engagement with climate change including understanding how identity shapes climate change, how to lead with solutions, and how to bring the impacts of climate change close to home. It will highlight tips for motivating positive behavior change that will lead people down the path toward solutions. Finally, it will address the benefits and challenges associated with producing a communication guide and insight into synthesizing social science research findings into a usable format for a variety of audiences.
Yoder, Paul J; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Sandbank, Michael
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have difficulty communicating in ways that are primarily for initiating and maintaining social relatedness (i.e., social communication). We hypothesized that the way researchers measured social communication would affect whether treatment effects were found. Using a best evidence review method, we found that treatments were shown to improve social communication outcomes approximately 54% of the time. The probability that a treatment affected s...
In education, argumentation has an increasing importance because it can be used to foster learning in various fields including philosophy, history, sciences, and mathematics. Argumentation is also at the heart of scientific inquiry. Many educational technology researchers have been interested in finding out how technologies can be employed to improve students' learning of argumentation. Therefore, many computer-based tools or argumentation systems have been developed to assist students in their acquisition of argumentation skills. While the argumentation systems incorporating online debating tools present a good resource in formal settings, there is limited research revealing what argumentative skills students are portraying in informal online settings without the presence of a moderator. This dissertation investigates the nature of argumentative practices in a massively multiplayer online game where the system successfully incorporates the authentic use of online synchronous communication tools and the patterns that emerge from the interplay between a number of contextual variables including synchronicity, interest, authenticity, and topical knowledge.
The sociological domain is different from the psychological one insofar as meaning can be communicated at the supra-individual level (Schutz, 1932; Luhmann, 1984). The computation of anticipatory systems enables us to distinguish between these domains in terms of weakly and strongly anticipatory systems with a structural coupling between them (Maturana, 1978). Anticipatory systems have been defined as systems which entertain models of themselves (Rosen, 1985). The model provides meaning to the modeled system from the perspective of hindsight, that is, by advancing along the time axis towards possible future states. Strongly anticipatory systems construct their own future states (Dubois, 1998a and b). The dynamics of weak and strong anticipations can be simulated as incursion and hyper-incursion, respectively. Hyper-incursion generates "horizons of meaning" (Husserl, 1929) among which choices have to be made by incursive agency.
Hillmann, Robert; Trier, Matthias
Previous research suggests the existence of sentiments in online social networks. In comparison to real life human interaction, in which sentiments have been shown to have an influence on human behaviour, it is not yet completely understood which mechanisms explain how sentiments influence users in online environments. We develop a theoretical framework that tries to bridge the gap between social influence theories that focus on offline interactions on one hand and online interaction in social networks on the other hand. We then test our hypothesis about the influence and dissemination of sentiments in a quantitative analysis that is based on retrieved textual messages of communication patterns in over 12000 online social networks. Our empirical results suggest a general influence of sentiments on node communication patterns that is evidenced by increased occurrences of subsequent messages that express the same sentiment polarization. We interpret these findings and suggest future research to advance our currently limited theories that assume perceived and generalized social influence to path-dependent social influence models that consider actual behaviour.
Conditions and notions of corporate reputation underwent in the last years a fundamental change. Economic and technological processes of globalization, modernization, and rationalization enforced the institutionalization of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the corporate world. It is often assumed, that CSR positively affects corporate reputation and leads to financial benefits, although empirical evidence and an appropriate conceptualization of reputation are often missing. This chapter discusses the relation between CSR and reputation by taking a meta-perspective: it presents and critically discusses insights from instrumental perspectives and from political-normative perspectives (legitimacy, business ethics). It alternatively develops a constructivist communication view on CSR, building on the “communication constitutes organizations” perspective and a non-dualist turn. It argues that CSR is a symbolically mediated, communicative event, which, based on the underlying dynamics of moral communication, does not simply produce reputation, but also result in dysfunctional effects.
Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia
Since the emerging omnipresence of social media usage in Western societies, marketers have been eager to harness the strategic communication potential of new media (e.g. blogs, wikis, visual content sharing sites and online communities. This is also apparent in event tourism; for instance music festivals have proved to be early adopters of Facebook fan sites and Twitter in order to distribute information, campaigns and celebrity rumors to their potential visitors in an inexpensive way. On the other hand, the strategic use of social media has also been hypothesized to be paved with a number of challenges. In order to fill a void of empirical studies of managing festival communications, this paper explores how social media is used as a tool for marketing and service innovation. By conducting focus groups and personal interviews with larger music events (Storsjöyran, Way Out West and Roskilde festival), we investigate current practices, perceived risks and opportunities for revitalizingevent communications in general. During the inventory phase of the research project, two distinctive fields of knowledge gaps have been identified, namely (1) the effect and efficiency measurement methods in a social medial mix and (2) dilemmas of crowdsourcing as an institutionalized practice.
Itaya, Satoko; Yoshinaga, Naoki; Davis, Peter; Tanaka, Rie; Konishi, Taku; Doi, Shinich; Yamada, Keiji
The study of communication activity in social networks is aimed at understanding and promoting communications in groups, organizations and communities. In this paper, we propose a method for the analysis of communication records to extract content-based network activity, with a focus on first-use. Links between people in a social network are defined based on content and temporal relation of messages sent and received. We introduce the notion of first-use, first-use paths, and classes of users based on first-usage. First-use is defined with respect to a specific time period and specific communication content. It refers to the sending of messages containing the specified contents for the first time before being receiving them from any other user in the specified time period. First-use paths are defined as sequences of first-use events in communication networks, and m-ary classes of users are defined recursively as users who receive for the first time from (m-1)-ary users. We present an example of application of the analysis to the email records of a large company.
Cristina Maria Vieira da Rocha
Full Text Available As campanhas de imunização vêm passando, ao longo dos anos, por um processo de aperfeiçoamento, especialmente com o advento dos dias nacionais de vacinação contra a poliomielite, realizados a partir de 1980. Há uma preocupação com o resultado do esforço em convocar pais e responsáveis por crianças menores de cinco anos. Várias estratégias são utilizadas. Foi criada uma marca que simbolizava, inicialmente, o compromisso com a erradicação da poliomielite e, posteriormente, com todas as vacinas previstas para o primeiro ano de vida. Foi o marco da comunicação que buscava dar unidade a esse processo sem perder as características mais localizadas. O Zé Gotinha é, até hoje, símbolo de vacina. Para além da polêmica sobre se campanha educa ou deseduca, fica o saldo positivo de uma experiência e a certeza de que é preciso buscar os motivos, continuar pesquisando, identificando metodologias e técnicas de maior aproximação com a população para que ela perceba a oferta de serviços e ações de saúde como direito de cidadania.Over the years, various efforts have been made to improve immunization campaigns, especially through the 1980 introduction of National Vaccination Days against polio. Concern has been shown over the results of attempts to reach parents and others responsible for children under the age of five, and a variety of strategies have been tried. A trademark was created in Brazil, at first symbolic of the commitment to eradicate polio and, later, linked to all vaccines that should be administered during the first year of a child's life. This use of communication tools represents an endeavor to lend unity to the process without overriding local characteristics. Even today, Zé Gotinha symbolizes vaccines in Brazil. Leaving aside the controversy over whether campaigns inform or disinform, the experience has left its positive mark, clearly showing us it is necessary to explore motivations, advance research, and identify methodologies and techniques that will reach the general public and help people perceive that health services and activities are a citizen's right.
Full Text Available The present research examined online communication behaviour in a sample of preadolescents (10-12 years, n= 812. In addition, we examined the effect of social anxiety, social skills and experiences of cyberbullying on online communication behaviour. Online communication measures included items related to time online, platforms used, relationships and motives to go online. Social anxiety was assessed using the Social Anxiety Scale of Children Revised, social skills were measured using the Matson Questionnaire subscale and cyberbullying using the Victimization Scale via Internet. The results show that the group with high social skills and low levels of anxiety spend more time communicating online and use instant messages to talk to friends. In contrast, the online behaviour of the group with high levels of anxiety and low social skills are more motivated to communicate online by their desire to make new friends. Cybervictims spend more time online, use chat rooms and communicate more with strangers than those who do not suffer cyberbullying. These findings suggest that the Internet offers opportunities to maintain and extend social networks but also exposes young people to online risks.
Gibbs, William J.; Bernas, Roman S.
This study used precepts of social network theory to examine the interactional and structural characteristics of communication in peer-mentoring conferences. Twelve discussion conferences were set up to support students during a teaching practicum experience. The conferences were governed by students with minimal instructor involvement. It was…
Werfel, Justin; Bar-Yam, Yaneer
The evolution of altruistic behavior through group selection is generally viewed as possible in theory but unlikely in reality, because individual selection favoring selfish strategies should act more rapidly than group selection favoring cooperation. Here we demonstrate the evolution of altruism, in the form of conditional reproductive restraint based on an explicitly social mechanism, modulated by intrapopulation communication comprising signal and evolved response, in a spatially distribut...
The study consisted of both primary and secondary research. Firstly, the secondary research findings introduce the reader into the topic by explaining the most relevant facts and linking the following three subject areas: Marketing Communications, Entrepreneurship and Social Media. To support the theoretical findings, the primary research achieved the exploratory purpose of the research. The key aim of the primary research was to gain a better understanding of how entrepreneurs use and manage...
Diana-Maria CISMARU; Cristina LEOVARIDIS
Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of...
Alisson DIAS GOMES
Full Text Available Nowadays, reference media faces the alternative media propagation, which uses different means and it is based on the work of independent producers who target the information democratization in every possible format at no cost and created by «common citizens». The Canal*Motoboy, a project by the Catalan Antoni Abad, is an example of this kind of communication. He aims to consolidate an open structure in order to give voice to motoboys from São Paulo (SP, Brazil. After being properly trained and by using their multimedia cell phones, they register their routine on Canal*Motoboy website. This article analyzes the progress of this project, based on the communication for social change, once the right to freedom of expression, historically, has been expropriated from citizens on account of the expansion of communication conglomerates. The methodological approach will consist of observation and deep interview technique, as well as literature review.
King, Amie M.; Fahsl, Allison J.
Children with complex and severe communication impairments often cannot meet their communication needs with their natural voice and may require the use of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). There are many communication and learning challenges facing children who use AAC; however, using AAC for social communication is especially…
Miritello, Giovanna; Moro, Esteban
Recent research has shown the deep impact of the dynamics of human interactions (or temporal social networks) on the spreading of information, opinion formation, etc. In general, the bursty nature of human interactions lowers the interaction between people to the extent that both the speed and reach of information diffusion are diminished. Using a large database of 20 million users of mobile phone calls we show evidence this effect is not homogeneous in the social network but in fact, there is a large correlation between this effect and the social topological structure around a given individual. In particular, we show that social relations of hubs in a network are relatively weaker from the dynamical point than those that are poorer connected in the information diffusion process. Our results show the importance of the temporal patterns of communication when analyzing and modeling dynamical process on social networks.
Miritello, Giovanna; Lara, Rubén; Moro, Esteban
Recent research has shown the deep impact of the dynamics of human interactions (or temporal social networks) on the spreading of information, opinion formation, etc. In general, the bursty nature of human interactions lowers the interaction between people to the extent that both the speed and reach of information diffusion are diminished. Using a large database of 20 million users of mobile phone calls we show evidence this effect is not homogeneous in the social network but in fact, there is a large correlation between this effect and the social topological structure around a given individual. In particular, we show that social relations of hubs in a network are relatively weaker from the dynamical point than those that are poorer connected in the information diffusion process. Our results show the importance of the temporal patterns of communication when analyzing and modeling dynamical process on social networks.
Antonio Pantoja Chaves
Full Text Available Resumen: En el intercambio de testigo que están realizando los medios de comunicación tradicionales y las redes sociales no sólo se está produciendo una simple sustitución, ni tan siquiera una transmutuación como comúnmente se está queriendo entender. Como en todo proceso, están surgiendo nuevas propiedades que en el ámbito de la comunicación se relacionan con principios como la deslocalización, la imprevisión, la inmediatez o la interacción. Unas cualidades sobre las que reflexionaremos en el siguiente artículo, con la intención de adecuar su definición en el entorno de los nuevos medios de comunicación social.Abstract: In the exchange of witness being done by traditional media and social networking is not only producing a simple substitution, not even one as commonly transmutuación is trying to understand. As in any process, properties that are emerging in the field of communication principles as they relate to relocation, unpredictability, immediacy or interaction. Qualities on which we reflect in the following article, with the intention to adapt its definition in the setting of new media.
Full Text Available In our days, the electronic communication media is important because the communication forms based on interactivity lead the participants in the act of sending and receiving information to become more than simply issuers, listeners or viewers, integrating them into a dynamic system. In this approach, the study paper aims to prove the relationship between personal development and that of society determined by the new interactive communication instruments. At the individual level, training, education, health, interpersonal relationships are easier to be acquired and amplified Also, the local communities, companies, educational institutions or non-profit organizations increasingly approach themselves to the citizens, receive their problems and try to solve them efficiently. On the other hand, the expansion of the modern means of communication became possible by the steadily decreasing costs of information and of the appropriate management technologies. Virtual communities may, however, only partially replace the traditional communities and the direct physical interaction between people, because online connections are made between people, not between places. Moreover, a high degree of interconnection involves the spreading of ideas, links and various discoveries or improvements of some already existing equipment and processes. The content of this study paper is created using secondary sources of information â€“ with limited and also limiting feature â€“ in an office research, the areas of analysis being studied separately. The result of the study paper is to evidence the fact that the interest for the interactive electronic communication is increasing. We support the idea that such communication contributes to business development in a particular field, in the social sector, but it is better to be aware of its less desirable effects from which we can notice the loss of privacy, the identity theft, the aggressive promotion etc. In our opinion, in this study paper we only partially achieved to highlight the increasingly strong relationship between communication, interactivity and electronic media and, therefore, we hope that this demarche will be continued in other research.
Hester, Eva Jackson
The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication" subtest of the…
Kossinets, Gueorgi; Watts, Duncan
Social networks are of interest to researchers in part because they are thought to mediate the flow of information in communities and organizations. Here we study the temporal dynamics of communication using on-line data, including e-mail communication among the faculty and staff of a large university over a two-year period. We formulate a temporal notion of "distance" in the underlying social network by measuring the minimum time required for information to spread from one node to another -- a concept that draws on the notion of vector-clocks from the study of distributed computing systems. We find that such temporal measures provide structural insights that are not apparent from analyses of the pure social network topology. In particular, we define the network backbone to be the subgraph consisting of edges on which information has the potential to flow the quickest. We find that the backbone is a sparse graph with a concentration of both highly embedded edges and long-range bridges -- a finding that sheds ...
Horn, Christian; Brem, Alexander
Considering growing public awareness of social, ethical and ecological responsibility, companies have constantly been increasing their efforts in CSR communications. Social Media as tools of brand communication receive increasing attention and it is expected that the marketing sector will experience changes through this phenomenon in the future. This empirical study investigates the types of content that is communicated for different brands and industries in leading Social Media portals on the German market in 2011. It turns out that this kind of CSR communication differs in terms of portals used, as well as in contents. Also, remarkable differences between industries can be observed.
Aleman, Melissa Wood; Aleman, Carlos Galvan
A basic premise of social approaches to studying communication is that theories of interpersonal communication and personal relationships are reflexively defined, socially constructed, and historically situated. In contrast to the tradition of psychological models of relational processes and message transmission, social approaches encourage…
Timler, Geralyn R.; Vogler-Elias, Dawn; McGill, K. Fay
Effective social communication interventions achieve 2 outcomes: enhancement of language and social skills and generalization of these skills during authentic interactions with peers. This article describes intervention contexts and strategies for promoting generalization of social communication skills in children with language impairments.…
Zheng, Robert Z.; Cheok, Angeline; Khoo, Eng
The current study investigated adolescents' perceptions in online social communication. Three factors were perceived by adolescents as critical to online social communication. These included self-identity, self-confidence, and self-social factors. Results showed significant differences between the factors derived from the current study and those…
Raúl, Navarro; Santiago, Yubero.
Full Text Available El presente estudio fue diseñado para conocer las conductas de comunicación online en una muestra de preadolescentes (10-12 años, n=812). Se analizó el efecto de la ansiedad social, las habilidades sociales y las experiencias de cibervictimización sobre la comunicación online. La comunicación online [...] comprendía ítems relacionados con el tiempo empleado, las plataformas utilizadas, las personas con las que interactúan y los motivos para conectarse a la red. La ansiedad social fue evaluada mediante la Escala de ansiedad social para niños revisada, las habilidades sociales a través de la subescala del Cuestionario Matson y la cibervictimización mediante la Escala de Victimización a través de Internet. Los resultados mostraron que el grupo con altas habilidades sociales y baja ansiedad emplean más tiempo comunicándose en Internet y utilizan más los mensajes instantáneos para hablar con los amigos. Por el contrario, la conducta online del grupo con alta ansiedad social y bajas habilidades está más motivada por el deseo de hacer amigos. Las víctimas de ciberbullying emplean más tiempo online, utilizan más las salas de chat y se comunican más con desconocidos. Estos hallazgos sugieren que, a pesar de los riesgos, Internet también permite mantener y ampliar la red social existente. Abstract in english The present research examined online communication behaviour in a sample of preadolescents (10-12 years, n= 812). In addition, we examined the effect of social anxiety, social skills and experiences of cyberbullying on online communication behaviour. Online communication measures included items rela [...] ted to time online, platforms used, relationships and motives to go online. Social anxiety was assessed using the Social Anxiety Scale of Children Revised, social skills were measured using the Matson Questionnaire subscale and cyberbullying using the Victimization Scale via Internet. The results show that the group with high social skills and low levels of anxiety spend more time communicating online and use instant messages to talk to friends. In contrast, the online behaviour of the group with high levels of anxiety and low social skills are more motivated to communicate online by their desire to make new friends. Cybervictims spend more time online, use chat rooms and communicate more with strangers than those who do not suffer cyberbullying. These findings suggest that the Internet offers opportunities to maintain and extend social networks but also exposes young people to online risks.
Full Text Available Knowledge-based organizations are constructed on intangible assets, such as the expertise and the values of the employees. As a consequence, motivation and professional excellence of employees are the main objectives of management teams. For this type of organizations, considered as true “knowledge systems”, the employees represent the most valuable resource that is not motivated only through financial means, but also through internal communication, autonomy or social rewards. The research of Eurofound shows that knowledge-based organizations have a low number of trade unions, while professional associations are more relevant for them. There is no tradition to defend through negotiation the working conditions of employees, thus it is important for managers to use the best practices, in order to increase the employees’ loyalty. We conducted a qualitative research concerning the quality of professional life of employees in five sectors of knowledge-based services: advertising-marketing, IT, banking and finance, research and development, and higher education; 15-20 employees from each sector were interviewed. Some of the questions referred directly to trade unions and affiliation, and also to internal communication. Although the results showed a different situation in each of the five sectors, there are few common characteristics: descendant communication is more frequent than ascendant communication, trade unions were reported as missing, unrepresentative or not very active, and the greatest part of employees in this sector are not affiliated, facts that limits the possibility of maintaining employees’ motivation on long term.
Full Text Available A survey in 2013 of Division Market Research Group Rentrop Straton Romanian-German - "state services and private clinics. Comparative Analysis ", highlights the fact that into urban population in Romania, the internet is the most popular source of information on health services. According to the survey, 81.9% of respondents use the Internet to find out about the best doctors available to them. Preferences of respondents to the online environment as the main source of information translates into ease of access and the possibility of interaction, but also trust recommendations based on personal experiences, recommendations can be found through discussion forums, mostly or comments left on pages on social networking sites. In the present study we try to emphasize the specificity of communication physician - patient online through social networks.
Full Text Available Social Networking is a very wide concept, which means connecting of one being to another, either one or many. In this research paper, the author focusses on Social Networking and Communication, its importance in day to day life of professional, and its place in their busy schedule. This paper is mainly for the professionals who are newly entered in their professional field. To accomplish this research, the author conducted a survey of 50-60 sample size, which included Doctors, Professors, Advocates, Chartered Accountants and some new professionals also. Author took opinions from them through a small questionnaire. All the professionals were selected from Sangli, Koplhapur, JaysingpuansSatara in Western Maharashtra region.
The aim of this study is to examine the impact of social trust in public risk communication in St Elizabeth, Jamaica. From a cultural rationality approach is social trust assumed to affect the public’s risk perceptions and consequently their risk behavior when it comes to natural disasters. Hence, social trust is assumed to have an effect of how the citizenry of Jamaica perceives public risk communication. The risk communication carried out by the local authorities (St Elizabeth Parish Counci...
Timler, Geralyn R; Olswang, Lesley B; Coggins, Truman E
Some preschoolers with language impairment approach and manage peer interactions less effectively than typically developing peers. This article discusses assessment and intervention strategies for targeting preschoolers' social communication skills during peer entry and cooperative play situations. Essential features of effective interventions include identification of appropriate social communication targets, addressing and facilitating children's use of these targets during small group sessions with peers, and supporting generalization of newly acquired social communication behaviors to children's peer interactions within the classroom setting. PMID:16155855
Pedersen, Signe Tegtmeier; Razmerita, Liana
The rapid adoption of social media, along with the easy access to peer information and interactions, has resulted in massive online word-of-mouth communication. These interactions among consumers have an increasing power over the success or failure of companies and brands. Drawing upon word-of-mouth communication and consumer behaviour theories, this paper investigates the use of word-of-mouth communication through social media among a group of Danish consumers. The findings suggest that electronic word-of-mouth communication among friends and peers affect consumer behaviour. Additionally, peer communication is perceived as more objective and therefore found more reliable than companies’ brand communication. Furthermore, negative word-of-mouth is perceived as more trustworthy compared to positive messages, which are often believed to be too subjective. The research findings emphasise the importance one has to assign to social media as a source of reputation for companies and brands, which eventually impact consumers’ choices.
For the construction of effective knowledge base on safety and non-anxiety for nuclear power, a study on new communication system about social risk information has been initiated by noticing the rapid expansion of Internet in the society. By constructing Internet Website communication system on the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, we conducted the experiment of communication for verifying the principles such as that the basic technical knowledge and trust, and social ethics are indispensable in this process to close the perception gap between nuclear specialists and the general public. The cognition structural equation model by means of the variables reduction method of multiple regression analysis and by compiling the significant paths by covariance structure analysis was built based on this experimental data. Moreover, by investigating more detailed public subconscious on the high-level radioactive wastes by 'text mining method' with the special reference to the Public Comment in July 2000 and the literature survey, it was found that the freely discussing ideas based on the environmental ethics such as 'fairness in results' and 'fairness in opportunity' from scratch would gain a potential of enhancing the social receptivity. (author)
Swain, Daniel T.; Couzin, Iain D.; Leonard, Naomi Ehrich
We examine the spatial dynamics of individuals in small schools of banded killifish ( Fundulus diaphanus) that exhibit rhythmic, oscillating speed, typically with sustained, coordinated, out-of-phase speed oscillations as they move around a shallow water tank. We show that the relative motion among the fish yields a periodically time-varying network of social interactions that enriches visually driven social communication. The oscillations lead to the regular making and breaking of occlusions, which we term "switching." We show that the rate of convergence to consensus (biologically, the capacity for individuals in groups to achieve effective coordinated motion) governed by the switching outperforms static alternatives, and performs as well as the less practical case of every fish sensing every other fish. We show further that the oscillations in speed yield oscillations in relative bearing between fish over a range that includes the angles previously predicted to be optimal for a fish to detect changes in heading and speed of its neighbors. To investigate systematically, we derive and analyze a dynamic model of interacting agents that move with oscillatory speed. We show that coordinated circular motion of the school leads to systematic cycling of spatial ordering of agents and possibilities for enriched spatial density of measurements of the external environment. Our results highlight the potential benefits of dynamic communication topologies in collective animal behavior, and suggest new, useful control laws for the distributed coordination of mobile robotic networks.
Swain, Daniel T.; Couzin, Iain D.; Leonard, Naomi Ehrich
We examine the spatial dynamics of individuals in small schools of banded killifish (Fundulus diaphanus) that exhibit rhythmic, oscillating speed, typically with sustained, coordinated, out-of-phase speed oscillations as they move around a shallow water tank. We show that the relative motion among the fish yields a periodically time-varying network of social interactions that enriches visually driven social communication. The oscillations lead to the regular making and breaking of occlusions, which we term "switching." We show that the rate of convergence to consensus (biologically, the capacity for individuals in groups to achieve effective coordinated motion) governed by the switching outperforms static alternatives, and performs as well as the less practical case of every fish sensing every other fish. We show further that the oscillations in speed yield oscillations in relative bearing between fish over a range that includes the angles previously predicted to be optimal for a fish to detect changes in heading and speed of its neighbors. To investigate systematically, we derive and analyze a dynamic model of interacting agents that move with oscillatory speed. We show that coordinated circular motion of the school leads to systematic cycling of spatial ordering of agents and possibilities for enriched spatial density of measurements of the external environment. Our results highlight the potential benefits of dynamic communication topologies in collective animal behavior, and suggest new, useful control laws for the distributed coordination of mobile robotic networks.
... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ... shoulders, knees, and heels. Continue What Causes Repetitive Stress Injuries? Most RSI conditions found in teens are ...
Puumala, Tero; Heliste, Paavo
The commissioner of this thesis, ebrand Suomi Oy, is a digital media agency possessing significant ability and knowledge of social media but they have trouble communicating this value for the customers even though they have a good presence in social media. The objective of this thesis is to develop a proper social media marketing communications plan for ebrand Suomi Oy, which could eventually be turned into a product package that the commissioner could offer to customers. Even though social m...
Dong, Yuxiao; Tang, Jie; Chawla, Nitesh V; Lou, Tiancheng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Bai
Social status, defined as the relative rank or position that an individual holds in a social hierarchy, is known to be among the most important motivating forces in social behaviors. In this paper, we consider the notion of status from the perspective of a position or title held by a person in an enterprise. We study the intersection of social status and social networks in an enterprise. We study whether enterprise communication logs can help reveal how social interactions a...
Ord, Terry J.; Garcia-Porta, Joan
Complex social communication is expected to evolve whenever animals engage in many and varied social interactions; that is, sociality should promote communicative complexity. Yet, informal comparisons among phylogenetically independent taxonomic groups seem to cast doubt on the putative role of social factors in the evolution of complex communication. Here, we provide a formal test of the sociality hypothesis alongside alternative explanations for the evolution of communicative complexity. We...
Harrop, Clare; McConachie, Helen; Emsley, Richard; Leadbitter, Kathy; Green, Jonathan
Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are characteristic of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, compared to social and communicative impairments, less is known about their development, trajectory and etiology. This study explored RRBs in young children with ASD matched to typically developing (TD) children on non-verbal development.…
Rosvall, M; Sneppen, K
This paper introduces a model of self-organization between communication and topology in social networks, with a feedback between different communication habits and the topology. To study this feedback, we let agents communicate to build a perception of a network and use this information to create strategic links. We observe a narrow distribution of links when the communication is low and a system with a broad distribution of links when the communication is high. We also ana...
Paul, Rhea; And Others
Twenty-one apparently normal children (ages 18 to 34 months) with slow expressive language acquisition were evaluated initially and again at age 3. The late talkers also scored significantly lower in receptive communication and socialization. Followup showed nearly half the group remained delayed in expressive communication and socialization,…
Raisanen, Anu; Rakkolainen, Mari
This article presents the methodology used by the Finnish Education Evaluation Council in the national evaluation of social and communication skills in vocational education and training. The evaluation concentrates on key competences such as learning-to-learn skills, communication skills, social skills and entrepreneurship (Implementation of…
Strid, Karin; Heimann, Mikael; Gillberg, Christopher; Smith, Lars; Tjus, Tomas
Deferred imitation and early social communication skills were compared among speaking and nonspeaking children with autism and children developing typically. Overall, the children with autism showed a lower frequency on measures of deferred imitation and social communication compared with typically developing children. Deferred imitation was…
The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…
Suhonen, Eira; Nislin, Mari A.; Alijoki, Alisa; Sajaniemi, Nina K.
The aim of this study was to investigate children's social communication abilities and play to reveal possible changes during a one year period in the context of Finnish early childhood special education. The data we collected during 2012-2013 consisted of assessments of play behaviour (Preschool Play Behavior Scale) and social communication…
Jones, Joanna; Gaffney-Rhys, Ruth; Jones, Edward
This article presents a synthesis of existing ideas relating to the use of social network sites by faculty within higher education institutions (HEIs) to communicate with the student body. As previous research has been from a student-centric perspective, importantly this study explores the use of social networks for student-faculty communication…
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Full Text Available This article deals with the studying of the peculiarities of social and communicative competence in teenage years. The paper provides the results of the comparative analysis of the peculiarities of social and communicative competence of teenagers with different thinking styles.
Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Harich, Katrin R.
This research is based on two studies that focus on teaching students how to integrate and assess social networking tools in marketing communications. Study 1 examines how students in marketing classes utilize social networking tools and explores their attitudes regarding the use of such tools for marketing communications. Study 2 focuses on an…
Ilia E., López Jiménez.
Full Text Available En esta publicación se propone el análisis de las redes sociales desde una perspectiva comunicacional: por su contenido o temática; por su composición (cerrada o abierta), por la interacción (interna o externa) existente; por su difusión y alcance (local o internacional). Se han seleccionado tres si [...] tios de la web que presentan características diversas: una red de autogestión comunitaria, una red académica y una red socio-política. Abstract in english This article is intended to make an analysis of social networks from a communicational point of view: based on their contents and topics; based on their components (closed or open); based on their existing interaction (internal or external); based on their kind of release and scope (local or interna [...] tional). Three websites showing several characteristics have been selected: a community self-management network, an academic network, and a sociopolitical network.
Tadi?, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi
Background:? Development of children with congenital visual impairment (VI) has been associated with vulnerable socio-communicative outcomes often bearing striking similarities to those of sighted children with autism.1 To date, very little is known about language and social communication in children with VI of normal intelligence. Methods:? We examined the presentation of language and social communication of 15 children with VI and normal-range verbal intelligence, age 6–12 years, using ...
Stanciugelu, I.; Frunzaru, V.; Armas, I.; Duntzer, A.; Stan, S.
Risk management has become a dominant concern of public policy and the ability of government to anticipate the strength and focus of public concerns remains weak. The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) was designed to assist in this endeavor. It aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the social processes that can mediate between a hazard event and its consequences. SARF identifies categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between risk event and its consequences and suggests a causal and temporal sequence in which they act. Information flows first through various sources and then channels, triggering social stations of amplification, initiating individual station of amplification and precipitating behavioral reactions. The International Risk Governance Council Framework is an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach, linking risk management and risk assessment sphere through communication. This study aims to identify categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between the risk event and its consequences, using a survey on earthquake risk perception addressing population of Bucharest city. Romania has a unique seismic profile in Europe, being the country with the biggest surface affected in case of a serious earthquake. Considering the development of the urban area that took place in the last two decades and the growing number of inhabitants, Bucharest is the largest city in Romania and is exposed to extensive damages in case of an earthquake. The sociological survey has been conducted in December 2009 on a representative sample of the Bucharest population aged 18 and over (N=1376) using one stage sampling design. We used a stratified sample method shearing the investigated populations in six layers according to the six sectors of Bucharest. The respondents were selected using random digit dialling method (RDD) and the questionnaires were administered by research staff with computer assisted telephone interviewing method (CATI). The results of the field inquiries are used in developing risk/crisis communication plans. The survey has been made during the project Multihazard and vulnerability in the seismic context of the Bucharest Municipality. The research project has been financed by Romania National Authority of Scientific Research.
Full Text Available Desde su irrupción en el panorama económico, la responsabilidad social se ha conceptualizado de muy distintas formas. Algunas relacionadas con la filantropía, el mecenazgo, la estrategia o el marketing empresarial. Este estudio pretende mostrar que la empresa necesita gestionar debidamente aquellos [...] bienes comunicativos que, como la confianza, la reputación o la reciprocidad, están implicados en el correcto desarrollo de su actividad y, por consiguiente, en la maximización del beneficio económico. Pero para ello, es preciso implementar una responsabilidad social a la altura de las expectativas en juego; es decir, que tenga en cuenta la dimensión ética que le subyace. Abstract in english Since its beginnings, the conceptualisation of social responsibility has taken many forms, some of them related to philanthropy, patronage, strategy or business marketing among others. This paper defends the thesis that economic organization needs to manage those communicative goods, such as trust, [...] reputation or reciprocity, evolved in the right development of their business activity and, therefore, on economic profit maximization. But for this, economic organization should implement a social responsibility to live up to expectations at stake; that is, to take into account the ethical dimension that underlies it.
Mandeville, Kate L.; Harris, Matthew; Thomas, H Lucy; Chow, Yimmy; Seng, Claude
Social media applications such as Twitter, YouTube and Facebook have attained huge popularity, with more than three billion people and organizations predicted to have a social networking account by 2015. Social media offers a rapid avenue of communication with the public and has potential benefits for communicable disease control and surveillance. However, its application in everyday public health practice raises a number of important issues around confidentiality and autonomy. We report here...
Social media is accepted as an effective communications and promotion tool. Social media tools such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, blogging and podcasting are leveraged by different organizations for creating profiles, establishing communication, interaction and launching promotional activities. However, promoters might encounter certain challenges in targeting potential audiences and maintaining interest and the interaction of the audience in their social media profiles. The Quicker St...
Amerian, Irsa; Pisareva, Natallia
Problem: Integration of social media tools in marketing practice of B2B companies is not a widespread phenomenon yet. However, particular patterns of involvement already exist. Companies get connected through social media and they use Web 2.0 tools to engage the customers in communication and to interact and build relationships with them. Purpose: The overall purpose of this thesis is to deepen and broaden the knowledge of the application of social media into the communication strategy of ...
Ingersoll, Brooke R.
There are a variety of effective treatments designed for increasing social communication in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Two such treatments, naturalistic behavioral and developmental, social-pragmatic/relationship-based interventions, differ in their underlying philosophy yet share many similarities in their…
Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.
This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship…
Social and interpersonal support has mostly been carried out face-to-face. However, the internet was able, in the last couple of decades, to facilitate social interactions through a range of computer-mediated communication (CMC) interfaces--from email applications, chat-rooms, forums, instant messages (IM), short text messages (SMS), social…
Green-Hamann, Sara; Sherblom, John C
The optimal matching and social capital perspectives frame present research expectations and interpretations of the network, esteem, informational, and emotional support communication of 3 computer-mediated communication social support groups, each having a different health-promoting purpose. Past research has shown differences in the support communication provided by different groups but has offered little explanation for these differences. The present study uses a comparative analysis of optimal matching and social capital influences to compare and analyze differences in the support communication provided by Alcoholics Anonymous, cancer caregivers, and transgender identity support groups. Results show different patterns of support communication enacted in each. These results provide support for optimal matching and social capital predictions, indicating that the life stressor and group structure affect the social support provided. However, results also demonstrate a need for greater refinement in interpreting the effects of these influences. Each group communicates network, esteem, informational, and emotional support somewhat differently in response to the life stressor and in enacting bridging and bonding social capital. The present comparisons provide a fuller analysis of the optimal matching and social capital influences upon the support communicated in groups than afforded by past research studies and suggests research opportunities for future research. PMID:24580637
Surveying the issues associated with the adoption and use of mobile communication, this book explores developing areas of inquiry. It provides an analysis of specific areas, including: the psychological dimensions of mobile communication; the linguistics of mobile communication; and the understanding of mobile communication's commercialisation.
The Role of Communication in Enhancing Employees’ Organizational Commitment : Exploring the Relationship between Social-emotional-oriented Communication, Work-oriented Communication and Organizational Commitment in China
The purpose of this study is to explore the roles of social-emotional-oriented communication and work-oriented communication in enhancing organizational commitment in the context of the People’s Republic of China. Literature regarding the functions of different types of communication was reviewed and the human relations theory was applied as the main guidance of the current research. The study utilized the statistical method to analyze the data collected from questionnaires. A total of 69 emp...
Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh; Lou, Tiancheng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Bai
Social status, referred to as the relative rank or position that an individual holds in a social hierarchy, is known to be one of the most important motivating forces in social behaviors. However, we have limited knowledge of how social status drives human behaviors in society, which have dynamic effects on promotion or demotion of individual status. The communication logs in enterprises provide us a great potential to reveal how social interactions and individual status manifest themselves in social networks. Herein, we use two enterprise datasets with three communication channels - voice call, short message, and email - to demonstrate the social behavioral differences between individuals with different status. On the individual level high-status users are more likely to be spanned as structural holes by linking to people in parts of the enterprise networks that are otherwise not well connected to one another. On the community level the principle of homophily, social balance and clique theory generally indic...
Nivía Nineth, Villazón Solis.
Full Text Available Cet article développe une approche sur la complexité de la production des connaissances scientifiques sur les phénoménes sociaux. Pour ce faire, on a repris les différents points de vue épistémologiques autour des sciences sociales et la communication. Les positions des auteurs représentatifs du cha [...] mp foumissent un apergu et permettent de décortiquer le sujet. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo desarrolla un acercamiento a la complejidad que implica la producción de conocimiento científico sobre los fenómenos sociales y para ello se consideran las diversas posiciones epistemológicas en tomo a las ciencias sociales y la comunicación. Las posturas de autores representati [...] vos permiten comprender y desglosar el tema. Abstract in english This paper introduces an approach to the complexity that the production of scientific knowledge about social phenomena involves. For this purpose, the author embraces severa) epistemological understandings around the social and communication sciences. The discemments of representative authors allow [...] us to understand this subject.
Full Text Available Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of parti-cipatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schramm, 1964; Servaes, 1995. What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communication approaching the Habermasian “ideal speech situation” in which people, as communicators, are seen as having a value in their own right and not simply regarded as a means to an end (cf. Habermas, 1984; 1987; 1989. Consistent with the Freirean “liberal pedagogy”, the praxis of dialogical communication or intersubjective communication is seen as putting right the “participative” quality of participatory com-munication (cf. Freire, 1970. For both theorists, transformative action can only occur if reflective and collective learning occurs in linguistically constructed settings where the normative dimensions of truth (logos, rightfulness (ethos and truthfulness (pathos are raised and met in the developmental conversation. This is especially significant in a globalised world and fragmented, post-bourgeois public sphere where debate among developmental stakeholders is becoming more marginal, in-strumentalist, and less public. Based on available analyses of development communication literature, this article proposes that the chosen dialogical approaches share a type of communi-cative behaviour (i.e. action theoretic, rather than representing a particular paradigm or school of thought. This could offer further definitional clarification of proper participatory communi-cation for social change in a post-1994 South Africa.
Flyura Al’tafovna Mustaeva
Full Text Available The professional communication of a social pedagogue with a family is an actual problem of modern science. The object of the research is a Russian family, the subject – the communication of a social pedagogue with a family. The purpose of the research is the revealing of peculiarities of professional communication of a social pedagogue with a family, the account of which in practical professional work of an expert will promote the perfection of his work and the improvement of the quality of social-pedagogical services to a family.During the research the following methods were used: analysis of references, questioning methods, analysis of documents, pedagogical supervision. On the basis of the sociological researches: social problems of a Russian family were revealed, subjects of social-pedagogical work with a family were named, the necessity of the introduction of an institute of social pedagogues helping families was proved. The concept of self-determination of a family was introduced, the necessity of the transition of a family to self-determination while deciding its problems and realizing its educational function was proved. The peculiarities of professional communication of a social pedagogue with different types of families were revealed. The professional communication of a social pedagogue with a family is a complex process demanding the competent organization of interpersonal interaction, the usage of personal potential to create favorable psychological background and an atmosphere of trust, the knowledge of social problems and social-psychological peculiarities of a family, the differentiated approach in social-pedagogical work with a family.The results of the research can be used in practical activities of social pedagogues, in vocational training of experts.
This paper reviews the value of social networking and the impact it can have on small and large businesses. The paper also reviews the Social Networking Business Plan and the power of recommender networks. Examples are given of inbound and outbound marketing techniques. Social Networking is an integral part of inbound marketing. A synopsis of the evolving demographic of social networkers is presented to add clarity and show potential for social networking websites and tools.
Zhao, Dongjie; Jiang, Jian; Li, Deyi; Zhang, Haisu; Chen, Guisheng
Aiming at the problem of social communication network evolution, first, topology potential is introduced to measure the local influence among nodes in networks. Second, from the perspective of topology potential distribution the method of network evolution description based on topology potential distribution is presented, which takes the artificial intelligence with uncertainty as basic theory and local influence among nodes as essentiality. Then, a social communication network is constructed by enron email dataset, the method presented is used to analyze the characteristic of the social communication network evolution and some useful conclusions are got, implying that the method is effective, which shows that topology potential distribution can effectively describe the characteristic of sociology and detect the local changes in social communication network.
This study examines how mass-communicated messages from two pro-environmental public information communication campaigns, the Big Clean Up and Clean Up New Zealand, affect interpersonal communication in families. It also considers how interpersonal communication flows on to affect family behaviour. The findings from these two campaigns indicate that while parents tended not to pass on information they obtained from campaign messages, children were more enthusiastic about sharing messages with...
Nair, T R Gopalakrishnan
Effective Communication for marketing is a vital field in business organizations, which is used to convey the details about their products and services to the market segments and subsequently to build long lasting customer relationships. This paper focuses on an emerging component of the integrated marketing communication, ie. social media networking, as it is increasingly becoming the trend. In 21st century, the marketing communication platforms show a tendency to shift towards innovative technology bound people networking which is becoming an acceptable domain of interaction. Though the traditional channels like TV, print media etc. are still active and prominent in marketing communication, the presences of the Internet and more specifically the Social Media Networking, has started influencing the way individuals and business enterprises communicate. It has become evident that more individuals and business enterprises are engaging the social media networking sites either to accelerate the sales of their pro...
New Media Consortium, 2007
The purpose of this white paper is to put forth a proposition that technology has not only mediated communication in numerous ways, but that the ways we communicate, including the ways we talk and think about communication, are changing as a result. Mediated by new tools and new technologies that have made the marginal cost of long distance…
Castello, Itziar; Morsing, Mette
This paper develops a media theoretical extension of the communicative view on corporate social responsibility by elaborating on the characteristics of network societies, arguing that new media increase the speed and connectivity, and lead to higher plurality and the potential polarization of reality constructions. We discuss the implications for corporate social responsibility of becoming more polyphonic and sketch the contours of “communicative legitimacy.” Finally, we present this special issue and develop some questions for future research.
Swineford, Lauren B; Thurm, Audrey; Baird, Gillian; Wetherby, Amy M.; Swedo, Susan
Social (pragmatic) communication disorder (SCD) is a new diagnostic category in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). The purpose of this review is to describe and synthesize the relevant literature from language and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research relating to pragmatic language impairment and other previously used terms that relate to SCD. The long-standing debate regarding how social communication/pragmatic impairments overlap and/or diffe...
The paper analyzes the archival documents of the Central State Historical Archives in Lviv as a channel of social communication. What is important for the analysis and study of military affairs, the medieval city of Lviv in the second half of the XIV-XVIII centuries. The paper presents a computerization of archives, which plays an important role in the archive as a structure of social communication, which will establish new facts in the history of the city.
Sharma Gajendra; Wenjun Sun; Qiang Ye
The objective of this study is to present different communication methods in Second Life virtual world, its implication on social networking, business and future scope. The current study is a review of various literatures relating to social networking, virtual community, virtual reality and online business in Second Life. The study has shown the strong and competitive advantages of Second Life among other virtual worlds and the contributions it has made on real life through communication and ...
Restricted and repetitive behaviors represent a core symptom of autism spectrum disorders. While there has been an increase in research into this domain in recent years, compared to social-communication impairments experienced by children with autism spectrum disorders, much less is known about their development, etiology, and management.…
Wi?ckowska, Natalia Joanna; Danila, Roxana Stefania
Over the past years communication patterns have been changing continuously due toincreased public demand for information and knowledge. Numerous social networks andwebsites have escalated and gained the attention of the academics and practitioners, as wellas the business society. Previously scholars researched this field of interest from differentperspectives. Thus it could be stated that the emphasis was put on the impact of the certainsocial media networks in terms of communication strategy...
In an interview, Michel Foucault (1983: 336) said that the target today perhaps “is not to discover what we are but to refuse what we are… to promote new forms of subjectivity”. Protest actions by a range of new social movements have been studied extensively, but few studies have focused on the communicative practices and mediated actions in which new identities and forms of subjectivity are discursively produced, contingently achieved and made visible in situ. This paper investigates what Foucault called ‘counter-conducts’, practices in which alternative modes of subjectivation and of being governed are performed. Counter-conducts are intriguing to study because by questioning the conduct of their conduct, participants simultaneously question the relationship of the self to itself, playing with and risking identity in the process. The analysis of the United Nathans Weapons Inspections protest event draws upon Foucault’s later work, Mitchell Dean’s (2010) analytics of government and Nikolas Rose’s (1999) proposal for a genealogy of social movements in terms of the ethos of their alternative political imaginations. A first step in an analytics of protest is to uncover how fields of visibility, forms of knowledge, and subjectivities and identities are negotiated and collaboratively accomplished by the protestors and the people they encounter. Using ethnomethodological conversation analysis and membership categorisation analysis (EMCA), I examine how ‘counter-identities’ are achieved and made accountable in the interactional practices of prefigurative demonstrations and protest events. CA helps us document the ways in which fields of visibility and modes of rationality are sequentially organised, while MCA provides analytical tools to uncover the categorial work by which subjectivities and identities are morally accomplished in social interaction.
We introduce a model of self-organization of communication and topology in social networks with a feedback between different communication habits and the topology. To study this feedback, we let agents communicate to build a perception of a network and use this information to create strategic links. We observe a narrow distribution of links when the communication is low and a system with a broad distribution of links when the communication is high. We also analyze the outcome of chatting, cheating, and lying, as strategies to get better access to information in the network. Chatting, although only adopted by a few agents, gives a global gain in the system. Contrary, in a system with too many liars a global loss is inevitable. References: M. Rosvall and K. Sneppen. ``Modeling self-organization of communication and topology in social networks.'' Phys. Rev. E 74:16108 (2006)
Cabaroglu, Nese; Basaran, Suleyman; Roberts, Jon
This study compares pauses, repetitions and recasts in matched task interactions under face-to-face and computer-mediated conditions. Six first-year English undergraduates at a Turkish University took part in Skype-based voice chat with a native speaker and face-to-face with their instructor. Preliminary quantitative analysis of transcripts showed…
Thatcher, Karen L.; Fletcher, Kathryn; Decker, Blair
The critical role of communication in schools cannot be understated. Communication skills are a necessity both in the academic and social atmosphere of the school environment. Unfortunately, there are a large number of children in the schools today identified with speech and language disorders. This special edition of "Psychology in the Schools"…
Bowie, Christopher R; Harvey, Philip D.
Communication abnormalities are hallmark features of schizophrenia. Despite the prevalence and persistence of these symptoms, little is known about their functional implications. In this study, we examined, in a sample of chronically institutionalized schizophrenia patients (N=317), whether two types of communication abnormalities (i.e., verbal underproductivity and disconnected speech) had differential relationships with social and adaptive outcomes. Baseline ratings of verbal underproductiv...
Doerfel, Marya L.; Lai, Chih-Hui; Chewning, Lisa V.
Employing a community ecology perspective, this study examines how interorganizational (IO) communication and social capital (SC) facilitated organizational recovery after Hurricane Katrina. In-depth interviews with 56 New Orleans organizations enabled longitudinal analysis and a grounded theory model that illustrates how communication…
The importance of communication during a school crisis has not changed in the 21st century. What has changed--and quite dramatically since 1999--is the way people communicate. Social media tools are now used in some form by 100 percent of all four-year universities in the United States as a way to reach students, according to a 2011 University of…
VanDoorn, George; Eklund, Antoinette A.
Social networking offers teachers and learners exciting opportunities to communicate. Web 2.0 and its synchronous communications platforms provide new avenues for teachers to deliver curriculum and facilitate learning. Further, they provide new avenues for students to engage and intensify their own learning. Being able to chat in real-time with a…
Full Text Available In the context of the Rio Earth Summit numerous international regimes, national policies and organizational guidelines have appeared that help translate the normative demands of sustainable development into political reality. The implementation of these instruments, however, often runs into difficulties or fails entirely. An example is the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD, a progressive approach for the conservation of freshwater that is very unlikely to be implemented by 2015, the target year. We examine in this paper how a recent variation of Gandhian non-violent communication within social entrepreneurship suggests one way to deal with this challenge. Non-violent communication, rooted in Gandhian social action, has long been part of environmental politics. It has undergone a new variation as a mode of communication in the hands of social entrepreneurship initiatives that address urgent social and environmental issues with new, practical ideas. In the conceptual part of this paper, we outline our approach to sustainability, non-violent communication and social entrepreneurship. In a further part, we present data from a trans-disciplinary experiment to illustrate and critically discuss social entrepreneurship as a mode of sustainability communication. The experiment looked at, which is based on French social entrepreneur Roberto Epple’s idea of a Big Jump, is a collaborative campaign that invites young people to take action for water conservation in the context of the WFD.
Eriksen, Rikke Augustinus; Morsing, Mette
Based on a systematic data collection we study one of the first pioneering company-stakeholder communication campaigns in social media: the case of energy company Vattenfall A/S’s pan-European campaign ‘The Climate Manifesto’. Our findings challenge the general assumption, that stakeholder interaction and dialogue on CSR issues is advanced in social media. Rather, our data shows how representatives from the corporate sector and civil society organizations repeat and reinforce their arguments with no amendments during the campaign. The analysis shows that constructive dialogue and interaction lacked between the company and stakeholders. Vattenfall was accused of green-washing, resulting in a communications crisis. Negative stakeholder reactions consisted of prejudiced and non-negotiable argumentation indicating that social media imposes new managerial challenges since communication processes are scaled up and bring on autonomous and legitimate sources of information, providing stakeholders with more power in terms of co-production of ‘the truth’, and more complex routes to corporate legitimacy compared to offline communication. We discuss assumptions about improved dialogue via social technologies and we question to what extent social media serve the enhancement of improved understandings across corporate and civil society on CSR issues. This paper suggests that managers face a risk of the “double-edge of stakeholder communication” when incorporating social media into their CSR strategies: companies need to expose themselves and engage in social media to improve stakeholder engagement, while they by this action also attract higher level of criticism.
This thesis provides an in-depth empirical analysis of the character and significance of media and communication in the World Social Forum (WSF), focusing on their relationship to processes of knowledge production. Using the concept of publics as a theoretical tool, it explores how, through mediated communication, forum organisers and communication activists seek to extend the WSF in time and space and thereby make it public. Engaging critically with the idea of the WSF as a global process, t...
Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Mohammadi, Gelareh
Nonverbal communication is the main channel through which we experience inner life of others, including their emotions, feelings, moods, social attitudes, etc. This attracts the interest of the computing community because nonverbal communication is based on cues like facial expressions, vocalizations, gestures, postures, etc. that we can perceive with our senses and can be (and often are) detected, analyzed and synthesized with automatic approaches. In other words, nonverbal communication can...
Nair, T R GopalaKrishnan; Subramaniam, Kumarashvari
Effective Communication for marketing is a vital field in business organizations, which is used to convey the details about their products and services to the market segments and subsequently to build long lasting customer relationships. This paper focuses on an emerging component of the integrated marketing communication, ie. social media networking, as it is increasingly becoming the trend. In 21st century, the marketing communication platforms show a tendency to shift tow...
This paper describes the development and testing of an experimental teaching module on product communication strategy. The study aims to answer the question of how new social platforms such as Facebook can help in developing new strategies for product communication. Developing links between a product and consumer preferences. In this experimental learning module, students of the New Media Production course developed new strategies for product communication, identifying possible active archety...
Ilan Talmud; Gustavo S. Mesch
Studies of the quality of online social relationships are divided in their conclusions regarding the strength of social ties. Early conceptualizations described the weakness of electronic media in supporting social ties. By contrast, others have emphasized the compensating character of the Internet for specific social groups. This study investigated differences between adolescents who created online friendships and those who did not, and how far the place where a friend was met (online or ...
Typhina, Eli; Bardon, Robert E.; Gharis, Laurie W.
Many Extension educators are still learning how to effectively integrate social media into their programs. By using the right social media platforms and mobile applications to create engaged, online communities, Extension educators can collaborate with clients to produce and to share information expanding and enhancing their social media and…
Koo, Charles M.
Noting that China has undergone tremendous social change in its three decades under the Marxist-Leninist-Maoist ideology, this paper contends that such change has triggered tension that upsets the equilibrium of the entire social system. The paper uses Talcott Parson's cybernetic communication model to explain the societal level changes that have…
Casenhiser, Devin M.; Shanker, Stuart G.; Stieben, Jim
The study evaluates a social-communication-based approach to autism intervention aimed at improving the social interaction skills of children with autism spectrum disorder. We report preliminary results from an ongoing randomized controlled trial of 51 children aged 2 years 0 months to 4 years 11 months. Participants were assigned to either a…
Cho, Hichang; Gay, Geri; Davidson, Barry; Ingraffea, Anthony
The aim of this study is to empirically investigate the relationships between communication styles, social networks, and learning performance in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) community. Using social network analysis (SNA) and longitudinal survey data, we analyzed how 31 distributed learners developed collaborative learning…
Doucerain, Marina M.; Varnaamkhaasti, Raheleh S.; Segalowitz, Norman; Ryder, Andrew G.
Although a substantial amount of cross-cultural psychology research has investigated acculturative stress in general, little attention has been devoted specifically to communication-related acculturative stress (CRAS). In line with the view that cross-cultural adaptation and second language (L2) learning are social and interpersonal phenomena, the present study examines the hypothesis that migrants’ L2 social network size and interconnectedness predict CRAS. The main idea underlying this hypothesis is that L2 social networks play an important role in fostering social and cultural aspects of communicative competence. Specifically, higher interconnectedness may reflect greater access to unmodified natural cultural representations and L2 communication practices, thus fostering communicative competence through observational learning. As such, structural aspects of migrants’ L2 social networks may be protective against acculturative stress arising from chronic communication difficulties. Results from a study of first generation migrant students (N = 100) support this idea by showing that both inclusiveness and density of the participants’ L2 network account for unique variance in CRAS but not in general acculturative stress. These results support the idea that research on cross-cultural adaptation would benefit from disentangling the various facets of acculturative stress and that the structure of migrants’ L2 network matters for language related outcomes. Finally, this study contributes to an emerging body of work that attempts to integrate cultural/cross-cultural research on acculturation and research on intercultural communication and second language learning. PMID:26300809
This study explores whether companies embracing a corporate social responsibility agenda have a strategic focus on adapting and aligning their value systems to reflect such commitment. The analysis is based on empirical data and a conceptual model juxtaposing corporate values, corporate social responsibility values, and implementation to capture how the different configurations of these aspects may impact the communication carried out by corporations. The findings indicate that the companies in the data sample operate with two markedly different value systems. The coexistence of two value systems is discussed in relation to the reported difficulties that companies experience when facing the new and complex challenge of communicating corporate social responsibility.
Dong, Yuxiao; Tang, Jie; Chawla, Nitesh V; Lou, Tiancheng; Yang, Yang; Wang, Bai
Social status, defined as the relative rank or position that an individual holds in a social hierarchy, is known to be among the most important motivating forces in social behaviors. In this paper, we consider the notion of status from the perspective of a position or title held by a person in an enterprise. We study the intersection of social status and social networks in an enterprise. We study whether enterprise communication logs can help reveal how social interactions and individual status manifest themselves in social networks. To that end, we use two enterprise datasets with three communication channels--voice call, short message, and email--to demonstrate the social-behavioral differences among individuals with different status. We have several interesting findings and based on these findings we also develop a model to predict social status. On the individual level, high-status individuals are more likely to be spanned as structural holes by linking to people in parts of the enterprise networks that are otherwise not well connected to one another. On the community level, the principle of homophily, social balance and clique theory generally indicate a "rich club" maintained by high-status individuals, in the sense that this community is much more connected, balanced and dense. Our model can predict social status of individuals with 93% accuracy. PMID:25822343
Ivette Soto Velez
Full Text Available Companies around the globe are embracing and adapting social media for many differentintentions: customer service, marketing, internal communications, public relations orcorporate social responsibility, etc. It is now a reality that social media is channging the waystakeholders and companies communicate daily, providing opportunities for collaboration,participation, interactivity, and engagement. Therefore, social media is conceived today inthe corporate world as a strategic communication partner, driving new and uniquepossibilities for organizations to engage stakeholders in conversations. We are witnesses of anew digital era where consumers are becoming active users rather than passive individuals,changing dramatically how society operates. But these useful technological tools areemployed widely and precisely by corporations in order to facilitate and improvecommunications? This research aims to discover the usage of different social mediaplatforms by Puerto Rican companies. A content analysis was performed to the Facebookand Twitter official profiles of the top 400 locally owned Puerto Rican companies of 2009.The principal objective was to find if social media sites were mainly used as a strategic toolfor corporate communication that can enhance stakeholder participation and engagement.Results showed that Puerto Rican companies are not employing social media platforms forimproving communications with different stakeholders, failing to take advantage of theenormous possibilities that social media has for communication./Compañías alrededor del mundo están utilizando los medios sociales para diferentespropósitos: servicio al cliente, mercadeo, comunicaciones internas, relaciones públicas oresponsabilidad social corporativa, etc. Hoy en día es una realidad que los medios socialesestán cambiando la manera en que se comunican las compañías con los distintos públicos deinterés, trayendo consigo oportunidades para la colaboración, el intercambio de ideas, laparticipación y el compromiso. En la actualidad los medios sociales son concebidos en elmundo corporativo como un socio estratégico comunicativo, brindando oportunidadesnuevas y únicas para el fomento de un diálogo efectivo con diferentes públicos. Somostestigos de una nueva era digital donde los consumidores se están convirtiendo en usuariosactivos en vez de permanecer como individuos pasivos, cambiando así dramáticamentecómo la sociedad opera. Pero, ¿son los medios sociales utilizados ampliamente por lasempresas con el fin de facilitar y mejorar las comunicaciones? Esta investigación pretendedescubrir el uso que las empresas puertorriqueñas le dan a las distintas plataformas demedios sociales. Un análisis de contenido fue realizado a las páginas oficiales de Facebook yTwitter de las 400 mejores empresas locales de Puerto Rico del año 2009. El objetivoprincipal fue descubrir si los medios sociales son utilizados principalmente como unaherramienta estratégica para la comunicación corporativa, fomentando así la participaciónde distintos públicos en conversaciones. Los resultados encontrados indican que lascompañías puertorriqueñas no utilizan los medios sociales para el fomento de lacomunicación con sus distintos públicos de interés, fallando en tomar ventaja de losenormes beneficios que los medios sociales ofrecen para la comunicación.
Saramaki, J; Lopez, E; Roberts, S G B; Reed-Tsochas, F; Dunbar, R I M
The social brain hypothesis has suggested that social network size (and structure) is constrained by a combination of cognitive processes and the time required to service social relationships. We test this hypothesis in humans using a unique 18-month mobile phone dataset by examining changes in the structure of social networks across a major change in subjects' social and geographical circumstances. Our analysis reveals that the time allocation patterns of call frequency by participants to network members have a distinctive overall shape, where a small number of top-ranked network members received a disproportionately large fraction of calls, with some individual variation. However, importantly, whilst there was a large turnover of individual network members, these changes have little effect on the time allocation patterns of each individual: individuals thus displayed a distinctive "social signature" that was both persistent over time and independent of the identities of the network members. This provides th...
Full Text Available The development of the Internet as a medium for interaction with customers has resulted in many changes regarding the promotion of organizations. Online marketing is nowadays used not only to sell a product on the market, but also requires ideas and behavioral change. Non-profit organizations active in online communication are based on the quality of their provided information. Crediblity, attractiveness and usefullness are the key elements that provide effective online social programs. This paper aims to extend the scope of research in the field of social marketing by studying the Ohanian model in the online environment. The goal is to highlight the important theories and social models intrinsic to the online non-profit organizations’ communication. The results show that the efficiency of social programs depends on the level of incorporated elements of social theories in the design, content and structure of the website.
Drew P. Cingel; Alexis R. Lauricella; Ellen Wartella; Annie Conway
Given adolescents' heavy social media use, this study examined a number of predictors of adolescent social media use, as well as predictors of online communication practices. Using data collected from a national sample of 467 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17, results indicate that demographics, technology access, and technology ownership are related to social media use and communication practices. Specifically, females log onto and use more constructive com-munication practices on Fa...
Anagnostou, Evdokia; Jones, Nancy; Huerta, Marisela; Halladay, Alycia K; Wang, Paul; Scahill, Lawrence; Horrigan, Joseph P; Kasari, Connie; Lord, Cathy; Choi, Dennis; Sullivan, Katherine; Dawson, Geraldine
Social communication impairments are a core deficit in autism spectrum disorder. Social communication deficit is also an early indicator of autism spectrum disorder and a factor in long-term outcomes. Thus, this symptom domain represents a critical treatment target. Identifying reliable and valid outcome measures for social communication across a range of treatment approaches is essential. Autism Speaks engaged a panel of experts to evaluate the readiness of available measures of social communication for use as outcome measures in clinical trials. The panel held monthly conference calls and two face-to-face meetings over 14?months. Key criteria used to evaluate measures included the relevance to the clinical target, coverage of the symptom domain, and psychometric properties (validity and reliability, as well as evidence of sensitivity to change). In all, 38 measures were evaluated and 6 measures were considered appropriate for use, with some limitations. This report discusses the relative strengths and weaknesses of existing social communication measures for use in clinical trials and identifies specific areas in need of further development. PMID:25096930
Le Baron-Earle, Florence
Researchers have established that cultural openness is essential in language teaching. Indeed, it is believed that languages cannot be appropriately understood without appreciating the culture in which they are developed, and empathising with the people who communicate through them. However questions have been raised as to how to enhance awareness of intercultural communicative competence (ICC) most effectively. Teachers have implemented a number of educational methods with the aim to promote...
In this era of computers and communication technology where computers and internet have made their ways to every sphere of life from offices to residences, reservation counters to banks to post offices, small retail shops to big organizations, health care units to entertainment industries etc., there emerged numerous questions regarding the ethical and legal uses of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Like any other technological inventions ICT too has created bo...
This paper presents an experimental study that compares the ability of human groups to escape the tragedy of the commons through institutional change or communication. Teams of five players are placed in a dynamic CPR environment with inefficient institutional settings. The results clearly show the vital importance of communication. At the same time, the groups who were allowed to replace the inefficient institutional settings by other more appropriate rules performed worse than those groups ...
Cavalli-Sforza, L.L.; Feldman, M. W.
Communication between individuals of a species is likely to increase the capacity to acquire skills useful for survival and propagation and thus may confer important selective advantages. Since interaction occurs between two or more individuals, the selective process is frequency dependent, and the analysis shows that communication cannot initially increase at a reasonable rate when it is limited to random unrelated individuals, so that it is likely to abort for stochastic reasons. However, t...
Elena Nicolaevna Klemenova
Full Text Available The article describes the experience in teaching the course “Social and Speech Communication”. As the result of training the students are to master the arsenal of means for effective communication, the base of which turns out to be linguistic communication and its bearer that is the language personality, get knowledge about complex processes of information exchange, discover the psychological peculiarities of verbal and non-verbal communication, learn how to communicate for solving professional and personal problems.The skill of fluent mastering all kinds of speech activity, the skill of correct and intellectual communication in various spheres and structures, the skill of speech event linguistic analysis including from the point of view of their esthetical value represent the unity of systemic and individual approach in the sphere of humanitarian training for future architects, designers and managers.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-43
The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.
The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.
Full Text Available El artículo revisa los conceptos clave de la comunicación para el desarrollo y el cambio social desde sus orígenes, en los años posteriores a la Segunda Guerra Mundial, hasta nuestros días. Dos corrientes principales se distinguen durante las cinco d´cadas pasadas: por una parte, una comunicación in [...] spirada en las teorías de la modernización y en t´cnicas derivadas de las estrategias de información utilizadas por el gobierno de Estados Unidos durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial y por la industria norteamericana para publicitar sus productos comerciales; y por otra, una comunicación nacida de las luchas sociales anticoloniales y antidictatoriales del Tercer Mundo, que tienen su referente acad´mico en las teorías de la dependencia. Abstract in english This paper is a review of key concepts on communication for development and social change form its origins after World War ii, until today. Two main trends have dominated over the five last decades: on the one hand, communication models inspired by modernization theories and techniques derived from [...] the information strategies used by the us Government during World War ii and by the industrial sector struggling to position its post-war products; on the other, communication approaches that emerged in the heat of the social and political struggles against colonial and dictatorial powers imposed on Third World countries, which find their academic and conceptual reference points in the dependency theories.
Weng, Lilian; Perra, Nicola; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro
Granovetter's weak tie theory of social networks is built around two central hypotheses. The first states that strong social ties carry the large majority of interaction events; the second maintains that weak social ties, although less active, are often relevant for the exchange of especially important information (e.g., about potential new jobs in Granovetter's work). While several empirical studies have provided support for the first hypothesis, the second has been the object of far less scrutiny. A possible reason is that it involves notions relative to the nature and importance of the information that are hard to quantify and measure, especially in large scale studies. Here, we search for empirical validation of both Granovetter's hypotheses. We find clear empirical support for the first. We also provide empirical evidence and a quantitative interpretation for the second. We show that attention, measured as the fraction of interactions devoted to a particular social connection, is high on weak ties --- po...
Zhou, Peng; Chen, Ang; Chang, Rocky K C
Anonymity networks hide user identities with the help of relayed anonymity routers. However, the state-of-the-art anonymity networks do not provide an effective trust model. As a result, users cannot circumvent malicious or vulnerable routers, thus making them susceptible to malicious router based attacks (e.g., correlation attacks). In this paper, we propose a novel social network based trust model to help anonymity networks circumvent malicious routers and obtain secure anonymity. In particular, we design an input independent fuzzy model to determine trust relationships between friends based on qualitative and quantitative social attributes, both of which can be readily obtained from existing social networks. Moreover, we design an algorithm for propagating trust over an anonymity network. We integrate these two components in STor, a novel social network based Tor. We have implemented STor by modifying the Tor's source code and conducted experiments on PlanetLab to evaluate the effectiveness of STor. Both s...
Blood is the most available and admissible of substitutive human products. However, neither an attitude favourable to its therapeutic transfusion nor a positive representation of blood is sufficient to predict an effective gift or an absence of fear to its reception. In this article, we synthesize various research of social psychology aiming at understanding what are these different bloods that the subjects accept or refuse to communicate. In order to give a new interpretation of the problems of the social communication of substitutive human product, we will evoke practice, attitudes and representations of blood starting from a model including seven factors of representation of biological materials - this model reflecting dimensions on which is based the intersubjective social network in which is carried out the therapeutic communication of blood. PMID:16996767
McGuire, Mark; Kampf, Constance Elizabeth
Social media communication is changing the opportunities for technical communicators to really understand audiences when these audiences are active about issues on social media platforms. Through applying ad-hoc corpus building processes to create word lists relevant to specific organizational projects, technical communicators can listen to their external users and identify areas of importance with greater accuracy. While other methods of sentiment analysis look for a solution that leads to artificial intelligence in the program, this paper identifies the present needs of a human interaction approach for contextually understanding social media posts. The human interaction step in ad-hoc corpus analysis is central to this methodology as it provides a means to ask critical questions of the content curated through the ad-hoc corpus directly. Results of ad-hoc corpus analysis from this critical lens can build upon organizational knowledge about ways in which their technologies are received and users perceive theorganization.
Vaagan, Robert Wallace
Un modèle révisé de l’éthique en matière d’information est présenté. Il peut s’avérer utile dans l’analyse des défis éthiques, dans ce que Manuel Castells décrit comme un système émergent d’"auto-communication de masse" dans lequel les media sociaux jouent un rôle-clé. Le modèle identifie trois sources ou spécificités de notre ère de l’information qui débouchent sur cinq problèmes éthiques liés à cinq droits individuels. Alors que le système d’auto-communication de masse est envisag...
Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Kuipers, A (André); Meulenberg, M.T.G.
Abstract This article provides a method to assess the marketing potential of communicating corporate social responsibility of (agricultural) supply chains. The willingness of small firms in agricultural supply chains to make available information about certain dimensions of CSR is measured and combined with the dimensions of CSR that are important for consumers. This will identify the CSR dimensions that are easiest to communicate and which are most needed by consumers. Moreover, small firms...
Johansen, Kai Vegard; Hovland, Filip Lundberg
Consumer-generated product reviews have proliferated online. Driven by the notion that customers’ decision to purchase a product is influenced by the information they obtain from online customer reviews, this thesis examines the impact of online customer reviews on purchase intention. To do so, the research integrates traditional communication theories, in particular social communication by Hovland (1948), with the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to build a theoretical model. Importantly, ...
Kathuria, Vaishali Lara
The research question of this master thesis is how luxury brands can communicate their corporate social responsibility. The assumption that this thesis relies upon is that communication of CSR in the luxury industry is more challenging compared to other industries, because of the conflicting core values of the two. To situate this current study in a context, the literature review includes a chapter on CSR and on luxury respectively. In order to answer the research question at hand, I identify...
Chung, Eric; Joy, Joshua; Gerla, Mario
This paper presents a secure communication application called DiscoverFriends. Its purpose is to communicate to a group of online friends while bypassing their respective social networking servers under a mobile ad hoc network environment. DiscoverFriends leverages Bloom filters and a hybrid encryption technique with a self-organized public-key management scheme to securely identify friends and provide authentication. Firstly, Bloom filters provide a space-efficient means of...
Pickles, Andrew; St Clair, Michelle C.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
We investigate two aspects of the autism triad, communication and social difficulties, in relatives of specific language impairment (SLI) probands (with and without additional autistic symptomatology) as compared to relatives of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Down’s syndrome (DS) probands. Findings involving 726 first degree relatives of 85 SLI, 99 ASD and 36 DS probands revealed a higher rate of communication difficulties in relatives of both subgroups of SLI probands compared to ASD and...
Josep-Lluís del OLMO-ARRIAGA; Joan-Francesc FONDEVILA-GASCÓN; Marta CARRERAS-ALCALDE
The study of social action through educational strategies inspires the weight of ethic factors to choose Communication studies. It allows aprioristic data about the ethics in the future journalists and mass media professionals. It also collaborates in the marketing strategies. In our study we analyze the impact of ethics and values in the students’ choice of Communication studies in the Spanish University. We analyze the impact degree of ethics and Christian values in the selection process. W...
The message of this book is simple: the mobile phone strengthens social bonds among family and friends. With a traditional land-line telephone, we place calls to a location and ask hopefully if someone is "there"; with a mobile phone, we have instant and perpetual access to friends and family regardless of where they are. But when we are engaged in these intimate conversations with absent friends, what happens to our relationship with the people who are actually in the same room with us? In New Tech, New Ties, Rich Ling examines how the mobile telephone affects both kinds of interactions—those mediated by mobile communication and those that are face to face. Ling finds that through the use of various social rituals the mobile telephone strengthens social ties within the circle of friends and family—sometimes at the expense of interaction with those who are physically present—and creates what he calls "bounded solidarity." Ling argues that mobile communication helps to engender and develop social cohesion within the family and the peer group. Drawing on the work of Emile Durkheim, Erving Goffman, and Randall Collins, Ling shows that ritual interaction is a catalyst for the development of social bonding. From this perspective, he examines how mobile communication affects face-to-face ritual situations and how ritual is used in interaction mediated by mobile communication. He looks at the evidence, including interviews and observations from around the world, that documents the effect of mobile communication on social bonding and also examines some of the other possibly problematic issues raised by tighter social cohesion in small groups.
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to present different communication methods in Second Life virtual world, its implication on social networking, business and future scope. The current study is a review of various literatures relating to social networking, virtual community, virtual reality and online business in Second Life. The study has shown the strong and competitive advantages of Second Life among other virtual worlds and the contributions it has made on real life through communication and its impact on social networking and online business opportunities in virtual environment. The outcome of the findings have real world implication and useful to policy makers, managers and leaders for sharing information and decision making. The Second Life virtual environment based on web 2.0 technology has opened a wide platform on social, behavioral and information system research.
McFadden, Brandon; Kamps, Debra; Heitzman-Powell, Linda
Children with ASD face enormous challenges in the area of social functioning. Research has shown that impairments in social functioning distinguish this population from both typically developing children and children with disabilities. This study incorporated several evidence-based social skills-teaching procedures (i.e., direct instruction, priming, prompting, peer-mediation, contingent reinforcement, and token economies) directly in the recess setting to increase appropriate social behaviors for four children with ASD (ages 6–8). Elements of Peer Networks and Pivotal Response Training (two types of social skills intervention packages in the literature) were included. Results showed significant increases in social communication between focus children and their peers, as well as generalization of skills to non-intervention recesses.
Seoul : The Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry, 2012, s. 84-86. [2012 International Symposium and Annual Meeting of the KSABC. Gwangju (KR), 08.11.2012-10.11.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : insect communication * insect defence * pheromones Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry
Bredy, Timothy W.; Barad, Mark
Mice communicate through visual, vocal, and olfactory cues that influence innate, nonassociative behavior. We here report that exposure to a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse impairs acquisition of conditioned fear and facilitates fear extinction, effects mimicked by both an olfactory chemosignal emitted by a recently fear-conditioned…
Kayode, Bakare Kazeem; Zamzami, Ikhlas F.; Olowolayemo, Akeem
Purpose: As computer-mediated communication has diffused, successive technological variations raise new questions about interpersonal impressions and several standardized instruments have been advanced in literature to asses various aspect of interpersonal attraction phenomena. The purpose of this paper is to examine the claims for reliability and…
Stribling, Penny; Rae, John; Dickerson, Paul
Background: The talk of persons with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) often features distinctive forms of repetition (echophenomena). Although often characterized as meaningless or inappropriate, there is evidence that such practices can sometimes have communicative functions. Aims: To investigate the interactional organization of repetition…
Katz, James E.
Communication perspectives are presented on the challenges posed to traditional newspapers by social media and citizen journalism, with special reference to the United States. This is an important topic given the critical role investigative reporting, long the domain of newspapers, plays in fostering democratic practices. New Media and social networking technology are evaluated in terms of their impact on the newspaper enterprise. Alternative scenarios for future developments are examined as ...
Hauffa, Jan; Lichtenberg, Tobias; Groh, Georg
The set of interpersonal relationships on a social network service or a similar online community is usually highly heterogenous. The concept of tie strength captures only one aspect of this heterogeneity. Since the unstructured text content of online communication artefacts is a salient source of information about a social relationship, we investigate the utility of keywords extracted from the message body as a representation of the relationship's characteristics as reflecte...
This paper presents a digital platform for marketing communications developed during the last years. Functionalities of the platform are described according to different categories and by means of case studies together with related results. Also further development strategies are discussed, e.g. the planned enlargement of the platform in the field of social media will include three new modules. A browsing module will enable multidimensional browsing in selected social media. The measurement m...
Zhou, Ping; Su, Xinning; Leydesdorff, Loet
We argue that the communication structures in the Chinese social sciences have not yet been sufficiently reformed. Citation patterns among Chinese domestic journals in three subject areas -- political science and marxism, library and information science, and economics -- are compared with their counterparts internationally. Like their colleagues in the natural and life sciences, Chinese scholars in the social sciences provide fewer references to journal publications than the...
The mobile phone has fundamentally changed our basic mechanics of social life. The research presented in this thesis will try to shed light on most important design trade-offs and strategies when negotiating between desirable communication and unwanted interruption, and has a significant contribution to make to the discussion of how technology can and should facilitate future mobile phone interactions: both by pushing the state of the art technologically and in socially intelligent design.
Graphic design’s function develops through time. It does not only function to inform a product but also elements to communicate Corporate Social Responsibility. As happened in catastrophic areas in Indonesia like Aceh in 2004, Nias in 2005, Jogjakarta in 2007, Bekasi District in 2009, etc. many donated products had their contributor’s information, especially the ones from corporations. There are many ways a company could implement their social responsibility. Graphic design cannot stand alone...
The Greens of Finland is a Finnish political party which is actively involved in social media in general, and on Facebook in particular. The objectives of this thesis were to assess Facebook as a communication tool for the Greens and to improve the party’s social media strategy. The research was made during the period from February 2011 till January 2012. The research methods used were mainly qualitative – content analysis was made on all data. Furthermore, typology and quantification were us...
This study explicitly links processes of anticipatory socialization to social mobility and reproduction. An examination of the socializing messages exchanged between blue-collar parents (n = 41) and their children (n = 25) demonstrate that family-based messages about work and career seldom occur in straightforward, unambiguous ways. Instead,…
Josep-Lluís del OLMO-ARRIAGA
Full Text Available The study of social action through educational strategies inspires the weight of ethic factors to choose Communication studies. It allows aprioristic data about the ethics in the future journalists and mass media professionals. It also collaborates in the marketing strategies. In our study we analyze the impact of ethics and values in the students’ choice of Communication studies in the Spanish University. We analyze the impact degree of ethics and Christian values in the selection process. We observe a high influence of ethics (humanistic and holistic ethics in the training, religious orientation as a factor considered to select the Communication studies.
Schultz, Friederike; Castello, Itziar
The paper introduces the communication view on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), which regards CSR as communicatively constructed in dynamic interaction processes in today's networked societies. Building on the idea that communication constitutes organizations we discuss the potentially indeterminate, disintegrative, and conflictual character of CSR. We hereby challenge established mainstream views on CSR such as the instrumental view, which regards CSR as an organizational instrument to reach organizational aims such as improved reputation and financial performance, and the political-normative view on CSR, which highlights the societal conditions and role of corporations in creating norms. We argue that both the established views, by not sufficiently acknowledging communication dynamics in networked societies, remain biased in three ways: control-biased, consistency-biased, and consensus-biased. We discuss implications of these biases and propose a future research agenda for the communication view on CSR.
Dykstra, Jessica R.; Boyd, Brian A.; Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.; Baranek, Grace T.
This study evaluates an intervention targeting social-communication and play skills (Advancing Social-communication and Play; ASAP) implemented by school staff in a public preschool setting. With increases in enrollment of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in school systems, establishing the effectiveness and feasibility of…
Absoud, Michael; Parr, Jeremy R.; Salt, Alison; Dale, Naomi
Available observational tools used in the identification of social communication difficulties and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rely partly on visual behaviours and therefore may not be valid in children with visual impairment. A pilot observational instrument, the Visual Impairment and Social Communication Schedule (VISS), was…
Watson, Linda R.; Patten, Elena; Baranek, Grace T.; Poe, Michele; Boyd, Brian A.; Freuler, Ashley; Lorenzi, Jill
Purpose: To examine patterns of sensory responsiveness (i.e., hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and sensory seeking) as factors that may account for variability in social-communicative symptoms of autism and variability in language, social, and communication skill development in children with autism or other developmental disabilities…
This study presents the 2009 Romanian presidential elections and the way in which thecandidates interacted with the new communication technologies. After the first research conducted on the2004 online electoral campaigns, we noticed that, in Romania, the degree of alphabetization and politicalparticipation (the number of people knowing how to read and write, or the number of those effectivelyparticipating at the poll) is just as small as it was after the mass internet was introduced and after...
Karanges, Emma Ruth; Beatson, Amanda; Johnston, Kim; Lings, Ian
Employee engagement is linked to higher productivity, lower attrition, and improved organizational reputations resulting in increased focus and resourcing by managers to foster an engaged workforce. While drivers of employee engagement have been identified as perceived support, job characteristics, and value congruence, internal communication is theoretically suggested to be a key influence in both the process and maintenance of employee engagement efforts. However, understanding the mechanis...
DeBar, L L; Schneider, M; Ford, E G; Hernandez, A E; Showell, B; Drews, K L; Moe, E L; Gillis, B; Jessup, A N; Stadler, D D; White, M
The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter, middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Participants were a racially, ethnically and geographically diverse cohort from across the United States. Here, we describe the conceptual underpinnings and design of the social marketing-based communications component of the HEALTHY study intervention that combined changes in the school nutrition and physical education (PE) environment with behavior change initiatives. The communications intervention component coordinated multiple elements to deliver campaigns that served to integrate and support all aspects of the HEALTHY intervention. The campaigns unfolded across five semesters of middle school, each targeting a specific theme related to the HEALTHY objectives. Communications campaigns comprised (1) core elements such as branding, posters, banners and visual and verbal messaging, (2) student events supporting the nutrition, PE and behavior intervention components through the application of social marketing and communications strategies, including the incorporation of student-generated media and (3) distribution of premiums and theme enhancers to extend the visibility of the study beyond the intervention environment. Formative research conducted with students, parents and school administrators was used to refine the communications strategy. Student peer communicators selected from the student body were involved to influence the normative student environment. Marketing and creative design experts developed a brand, logo, activities and materials. In the latter half of the study, student-generated messages and media were used to reflect local interests and culture and enhance peer influence. The HEALTHY intervention delivery and impact were strengthened by the communications strategies. The HEALTHY experience provides practical considerations for systematically incorporating a social marketing-based communications approach within future school-based health behavior interventions. PMID:19623190
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome sequences vary strongly in their repetitiveness and the causes for this are still debated. Here we propose a novel measure of genome repetitiveness, the index of repetitiveness, Ir, which can be computed in time proportional to the length of the sequences analyzed. We apply it to 336 genomes from all three domains of life. Results The expected value of Ir is zero for random sequences of any G/C content and greater than zero for sequences with excess repeats. We find that the Ir of archaea is significantly smaller than that of eubacteria, which in turn is smaller than that of eukaryotes. Mouse chromosomes have a significantly higher Ir than human chromosomes and within each genome the Y chromosome is most repetitive. A sliding window analysis reveals that the human HOXA cluster and two surrounding genes are characterized by local minima in Ir. A program for calculating the Ir is freely available at http://adenine.biz.fh-weihenstephan.de/ir/. Conclusion The general measure of DNA repetitiveness proposed in this paper can be efficiently computed on a genomic scale. This reveals a broad spectrum of repetitiveness among diverse genomes which agrees qualitatively with previous studies of repeat content. A sliding window analysis helps to analyze the intragenomic distribution of repeats.
Full Text Available Este ensaio revisa criticamente marcos referenciais e modelos teóricos de determinação social das chamadas Doenças Crônicas Não-Transmissíveis. A sociologia funcionalista gerou modelos socioculturais de saúde que influenciaram o campo de investigação epidemiológica da chamada "nova morbidade" (basicamente enfermidades crônicas e degenerativas, posteriormente agrupados sob o rótulo genérico de Teoria do Estresse. Analisam-se abordagens neodurkheimianas das desigualdades sociais, baseadas no conceito de capital social, criticando especialmente os usos quase-teóricos da noção de "estilo de vida" no campo da saúde. Discutem-se ainda alguns modelos derivados do materialismo dialético que se tornaram bastante influentes na epidemiologia social latino-americana, com base nos conceitos de trabalho e classe social. Finalmente, considerando lacunas teóricas e conceituais dessas teorias parciais no que diz respeito ao espaço simbólico da vida social, apresentam-se as bases conceituais de um enfoque teórico alternativo - a "teoria do modo de vida e saúde". Tomada como síntese possível dos modelos objeto desta revisão crítica, considera-se esta teoria como especialmente indicada para a elaboração de modelos epidemiológicos de determinação social de doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis.This essay critically revises theoretical frameworks and models of social determination of chronic non-communicable diseases. Functionalist sociology generated sociocultural models of health that influenced the field of epidemiologic investigation of so-called "new morbidity" (basically chronic and degenerative illnesses, later contained under the generic label of stress theory. Neo-durkheimian approaches of social inequalities, based on the social capital concept, are analyzed and theoretical uses of the lifestyle notion in the health field are criticized. Models derived from the dialectical materialism, grounded on the concepts of labor and social class, are also discussed as they have turned quite influential in Latin-American social epidemiology. Finally, considering theoretical and conceptual gaps of such partial theories in what concerns the symbolic space of the social life, the conceptual bases of an alternative theoretical focus: the theory of mode of life and health. As a possible synthesis of the models object of this critical review, it is considered as especially suitable for the elaboration of epidemiologic models of social determination of non-transmissible chronic diseases.
Herrera-Batista, Miguel A.; Gonzalez-Martinez, Maria Dolores
The growth of availability and access to Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in higher education in Mexico is a fact. Nevertheless, not much is known about how students use these resources in their school and social activities. A survey to obtain information about how undergraduates use web resources and cell phones was designed and…
Electronic communication and social networking are effective and useful tools in the process of teaching and learning and have increasingly improved the quality of students' learning outcomes in higher education in recent years. The system encourages and supports students' active engagement, collaboration, and participation in class activities and…
Mundy, Peter; Crowson, Mary
Reviews the research and theory supporting the potential utility of measures of nonverbal social communication skills (such as joint attention) for young children with autism. Examples relate these types of measures to current issues, including the "recovery hypothesis," the "pivotal skill hypothesis," and the relative effectiveness of discrete…
Chung, Yun-Ching; Carter, Erik W.; Sisco, Lynn G.
The purpose of this study was to explore the naturally occurring social interactions for students with disabilities who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in general education classrooms. We observed 16 students who used AAC and received services under the categories of autism or intellectual disability. Participants primarily…
San Martin Martinez, Conchi; Boada i Calbet, Humbert; Feigenbaum, Peter
To further investigate the possible regulatory role of private and inner speech in the context of referential social speech communications, a set of clear and systematically applied measures is needed. This study addresses this need by introducing a rigorous method for identifying private speech and certain sharply defined instances of inaudible…
Mazurek, Micah O.; Kanne, Stephen M.; Miles, Judith H.
Data from 1433 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) participating in the Simons Simplex Collection were examined to (1) investigate change in social-communication symptoms, and (2) examine predictors of improvement, particularly community-based treatments. Measures included the "Autism Diagnostic Interview--Revised"…
Wainer, Allison L.; Ingersoll, Brooke R.
For individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the use of technology to provide intervention, particularly targeting the core social-communication deficits of the disorder, is promising. This literature review will examine studies that have used innovative technology, such as interactive computer programs and virtual reality, to deliver…
St. Pourcain, Beate; Mandy, William P.; Heron, Jon; Golding, Jean; Smith, George Davey; Skuse, David H.
Objective: There is overlap between an autistic and hyperactive-inattentive symptomatology when studied cross-sectionally. This study is the first to examine the longitudinal pattern of association between social-communication deficits and hyperactive-inattentive symptoms in the general population, from childhood through adolescence. We explored…
Angelaki, Christina; Mavroidis, Ilias
The aim of this work is to examine the role of communication and social presence in distance learning environments and their impact on the emotions of adult learners. A study was conducted at the Hellenic Open University (HOU), using a questionnaire that was completed by 94 undergraduate and postgraduate students. More than 94% of the students…
Meadan, Hedda; Angell, Maureen E.; Stoner, Julia B.; Daczewitz, Marcus E.
This pilot study investigated the feasibility and effectiveness of a home-based parent training and coaching program on the use of naturalistic and visual teaching strategies by parents of children (aged 2-5 years) with Down syndrome to promote and enhance these children's social-pragmatic communication skills. Five parent…
Young, Amy M.; Hinesly, Mary D.
Organizations are increasingly using social media to improve their internal communication. When successfully implemented, such initiatives can have a dramatic impact on internal efficiency, team collaboration, innovation, organizational alignment, and cultural transformation. This article describes a course offered by the Ross School of Business,…
Pickles, Andrew; St Clair, Michelle C.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
We investigate two aspects of the autism triad, communication and social difficulties, in relatives of specific language impairment (SLI) probands (with and without additional autistic symptomatology) as compared to relatives of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Down's syndrome (DS) probands. Findings involving 726 first degree relatives of 85…
Carless, David; Douglas, Kitrina
In our research and educational practice we sometimes use songwriting as an alternative way to acquire and communicate insights about the social world. While this approach differs markedly from scientific ways of knowing, it offers valuable and perhaps unique opportunities, in keeping with turns towards narrative/performative methodologies in…
Full Text Available The evolution of marketing orientations, issues of company and market communication are submitted in the article. The role of social media and its using by companies and their customers are pointed. The author of this article has presented the results of the research conducted with young citizens of Silesia Voivodeship.
MacIntyre, Peter D.; Baker, Susan C.; Clement, Richard; Conrod, Sarah
Hypothesized that orientations toward language learning (L2) as well as social support would influence students willingness to communicate (WTC) in a second language. Grade 9 L2 students of French immersion participated in the study. Results showed endorsement of all five orientations (travel, job related, friendship with Francophones, personal…
Eriks-Brophy, Alice; Durieux-Smith, Andree; Olds, Janet; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M.; Duquette, Cheryll; Whittingham, JoAnne
This manuscript reports on data collected as part of a larger research study designed to investigate factors that facilitate the integration of children with hearing loss into mainstream environments. Aspects of communicative, academic, and social functioning for 43 adolescents and young adults were examined using questionnaires. In addition,…
Eurrutia Cavero Mercedes
Full Text Available Le champ d’investigation que nous nous proposons d’explorer lors de la présente étude porte sur les ressources linguistiques et sémiotiques de mise en relief ayant pour but la persuasion du public cible lors des campagnes publicitaires de communication sociale. Prenant appui sur les théories de Wolters (2001, de Stevenson (2002 et de Landragin (2010, parmi d’autres, nous nous proposons de dégager les instruments dont se sert la communication sociale pour marquer la saillance physique, cognitive et linguistique. On constatera par de nombreux exemples analysés, insérés dans notre corpus, qu’une entité de discours devient tout particulièrement saillante par la combinaison de critères divers tels que l’altération de l’ordre habituel de différentes catégories grammaticales dans la phrase, les fréquentes mises en apposition, les réduplications, les anaphores, les constructions syntaxiques qui marquent la rupture ou renforcent une certaine idée. Nous insisterons également sur la rigueur des principes techniques qui interviennent dans l'élaboration de la stratégie de communication sociale tels que l’unité du thème, la maîtrise du facteur temps, la considération de trois étapes bien délimitées : savoir – vouloir – agir. L’interprétation d’un message est basée sur la saillance préalable des entités discursives et des objets perceptibles dans une situation de communication mais la production du langage fait également intervenir la saillance, une saillance diverse selon la finalité de communication recherchée.
Zhou, Peng; Luo, Xiapu; Chen, Ang; Rocky K. C. Chang
Anonymity networks hide user identities with the help of relayed anonymity routers. However, the state-of-the-art anonymity networks do not provide an effective trust model. As a result, users cannot circumvent malicious or vulnerable routers, thus making them susceptible to malicious router based attacks (e.g., correlation attacks). In this paper, we propose a novel social network based trust model to help anonymity networks circumvent malicious routers and obtain secure an...
Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie
Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…
Rogers, Everett M.
Taboo communication is examined in relation to its distinctive characteristics and its significance in inhibiting social change involving birth control in Asian and other countries. Taboo communication tends to occur between very high homophilous individuals, which poses problems for communications research. Research is inhibited when researchers…
Worldwide, we have experienced a resurgence in practices of bottom-up communication for social change, a plethora of agency in which voice, citizenship and collective action have centre stage as core values, principles and practices. This resurgence sparks a series of questions; How are these new calls for social change and their principles and communicative practices influencing and informing the thinking and practice of institutionalized communication for development and social change? And what are the underlying conceptual differences in the notions of action, participation and social change which inform the new generation of social movements, on one side, and the established field of communication for social change, on the other? These are the questions that drive this chapter.
Khajeheian, Datis; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh
Public relations are undertaking more important role in the marketing communication and advertising. The present paper reports a survey conducted in three Iranian banks’ public relations departments to understand how they use different media in their marketing communications and other related functions. A classification of public relations functions including fourteen functions in three categories has taken as research framework and by using a questionnaire, eight media have been asked to rank for each function, includes Television, Radio, Newspaper, Magazine, Classified Ads, Internet Websites, Social media and finally Mobile and SMS ads. Findings show that traditional media still play a dominant role in media consumption of public relations, while new Web2.0 media consist of Mobile communications and Social networks, have never ranked better than fifth from eight. Some reasons have been argues in conclusion.
Oleg Vladimir Sineokij
Full Text Available The article analyzes the formation and development of a general model of rare sound records in the structure of institutions of a social communication. The author considers psychocomminicative features of the filophone communication as a special type of interaction in the field of entertainment. The author studied the causes and conditions of a tape subculture in the USSR. It is observed the dynamics of the disco-communication in limited information conditions from socialism till modern high-tech conditions.At the end of the article the author argues based achievements in the field of advanced technology systems, innovation revival in the industry of music-record. Hence, using innovative approaches in the study, the author sets out the basic concept of recording popular music as a special information and legal institution, in retrospect, the theory and practice of the future needs in the information society.
Nina Ivanovna Lygina
Full Text Available In this paper we will present the results of a pedagogical experiment aimed at studying the level of social skills in university professors. Planning cross subject communications in an academic subject with consideration of the previous and associated knowledge and skills of students in the educational programme formed the basis of the pedagogical experiment. Problems have occurred when university professors are faced with elaborating cross subject communications. It was discovered that the problems professors had were connected to their responsiveness and to the various strategies they applied while working within small groups. We will analyze the results, provide recommendations and show the change in the level of the professors’ social skills during elaboration of cross subject communications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-21
Khajeheian, Datis; Mirahmadi, Fereshteh
Public relations are undertaking more important role in the marketing communication and advertising. The present paper reports a survey conducted in three Iranian banks’ public relations departments to understand how they use different media in their marketing communications and other related functions. A classification of public relations functions including fourteen functions in three categories has taken as research framework and by using a questionnaire, eight media have been asked to rank for each function, includes Television, Radio, Newspaper, Magazine, Classified Ads, Internet Websites, Social media and finally Mobile and SMS ads. Findings show that traditional media still play a dominant role in media consumption of public relations, while new Web2.0 media consist of Mobile communications and Social networks, have never ranked better than fifth from eight. Some reasons have been argues in conclusion.
Yang, Dong-Jenn; Lin, Wan-Chen; Lo, Jyue-Yu
Processing of cognition, affect, and intention was investigated in viewers of advertisements to prevent speeding while driving. Results indicated that anchoring-point messages had greater effects on viewers' cognition, attitude, and behavioral intention than did messages without anchoring points. Further, the changes in message anchoring points altered participants' perceptions of acceptable and unacceptable judgments: a higher anchoring point in the form of speeding mortality was more persuasive in promoting the idea of reducing driving speed. Implications for creation of effective safe driving communications are discussed. PMID:22420109
Sarker, Saonee; Ahuja, Manju
The importance of communication and trust in the context of global virtual teams has been noted and reiterated in the information systems (IS) literature. Yet precisely how communication and trust influence certain outcomes within virtual teams remains unresolved. In this study, we seek to contribute some clarity to the understanding of the theoretical linkages among trust, communication, and member performance in virtual teams. To this end, we identify and test three proposed models (additive, interaction, and mediation) describing the role of trust in its relationship with communication to explain performance. In testing the relationships, we note that the concepts of communication and trust are inherently relational and not properties of individuals. Thus, we argue that a social network approach is potentially more appropriate than attribute-based approaches that have been utilized in prior research. Our results indicate that the "mediating" model best explains how communication and trust work together to influence performance. Overall, the study contributes to the existing body of knowledge on virtual teams by empirically reconciling conflicting views regarding the interrelationships between key constructs in the literature. Further, the study, through its adoption of the social network analysis approach, provides awareness within the IS research community of the strengths of applying network approaches in examining new organizational forms.
Silvio Luiz Paula
Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to analyze how organizational communication tools are used to manage printing, from both internal and external audiences, in what regards social responsibility in three Higher Education Institutions from Pernambuco (UFPE, FAFIRE, ASCES. In order to build our theoretical framework, we have used concepts from Printing Management, Corporate Social Responsibility, Stakeholder Theory, Organi-zational Communication, Organizational Culture and Organizational Structure. With respect to culture, a system of representations and shared values emerges, according to Fischer’s Model (1996. This system influences and is influenced by the organizational structure. We present an overview of Higher Education Institutions and their role on building society, according to the argument presented by Calderón (2010. In this work we discuss the creation of socially responsible printing, through communication with the interested audien-ces, as suggested by the model proposed by Mitchell, Agle and Wood (1997. The methodology chosen in this research work is a multiple case study. To this end, we have chosen three institutions, two located in Recife and one in Caruaru, cities in the state of Pernambuco. We have carried out a qualitative investigation. Thus, we have performed a field study with semi-structured interviews, document analysis, direct observations within the institutions in question, as well as indirect observation of photographs and videos. Amongst the results found, the actions performed were shown to be consistent with the management model and culture. The participants of the study have shown us that they are aware of the social role of Higher Education institutions, and have identified the students, professors, workers, students parents, associations, consumers and public service as the main stakeholders involved. Amongst the most commonly used strategies to build a socially responsible strategy, we can highlight exemplification and organizational pro-motion. Higher Education Institutions have shown consistency between Corporate Social Respon-sibility and their cultures and identities, insofar as they tend to communicate only what becomes practice. Our expectation is that this work can bring about knowledge that is relevant both to academia, in what regards the application and verification of theoretical models, as well as to communication and social responsibility managers, when they provide information about the social practices undertaken, as well as the printing management process that contributes to the image of a socially responsible Corporation.
As a new risk communication method for the construction of effective knowledge bases about 'safety and non-anxiety for nuclear energy', a study on new communication method of social risk information by means of electronic communication has been started, by noticing rapid expansion of internet usage in the society. The purpose of this research is to enhance the public acceptance to nuclear power in Japan by the following two aspects. The first is to develop the mutual communication system among the working persons involved in both the operation and maintenance activities for nuclear power plant, by which they will exchange their daily experiences to improve the safety conscious activities to foster 'safety culture' attitude. The other is the development of an effective risk communication system between nuclear society and the general publics about the hot issues of 'what are the concerned involved in the final disposal of high-level radioactive waste?' and 'what should we do to have social consensus to deal with this issue in future'. The authors' research plan for the above purpose is summarized as shown in Table 1. As the first step of the authors' three year research project which started from August 2003, social investigation by questionnaires by internet and postal mail, have been just recently conducted on their risk perception for the nuclear power for the people engaged in nuclear business and women in the metropolitan area, respectively, in order to obtain thearea, respectively, in order to obtain the relevant information on how and what should be considered for constructing effective risk communication methods of social risk information between the people within nuclear industries and the general public in society. Although there need to be discussed, the contrasting risk images as shown in Fig.1, can be depicted between the nuclear people and general public these days in Japan, from the results of the social investigation. As the conclusion of the authors' study thus far conducted, the contrasting risk perceptions by both the nuclear people and the general public which are shown in Fig. 1, will contribute to the authors' development of two risk communication systems as the next step of this research project, the one for 'Community network system to foster safety culture among nuclear workers', while the other for 'Affective risk communication network open to society'. (authors)
For science education, it is important to demonstrate to students the relevance of scientific concepts in every-day life experiences. Although there are methods available for achieving this goal, it is more effective if cultural flavor is also added to the teaching techniques and thereby the teacher and students can easily relate the subject matter to their surroundings. Furthermore, this would bridge the gap between science and day-to-day experiences in an effective manner. It could also help students to use science as a tool to solve problems faced by them and consequently they would feel science is a part of their lives. In this paper, it has been described how simple models and cultural communication techniques can be used effectively in demonstrating important scientific concepts to the students of secondary and higher secondary levels by using two consecutive activities carried out at the Institute of Fundamental Studies (IFS), Sri Lanka. (author)
Thompson, Sharon H.; Lougheed, Eric
Although a majority of young adults are members of at least one social networking site, peer reviewed research examining gender differences in social networking communication is sparse. This study examined gender differences in social networking, particularly for Facebook use, among undergraduates. A survey was distributed to 268 college students…
Gary Noble.; Michael Camit
Social marketing communication (social marcom) campaign production can be more challenging when the audience includes individuals from ‘culturally and linguistically diverse’ (CALD) communities. Additional issues such as culturally related values, practices, and attitudes need consideration. Normally, social marcoms campaigns for CALD audiences involve directly translating mainstream campaign material into various ethnic groups’ languages. However, little is understood about the issues beyond...
Nash, Robert J., Ed.; Johnson, Richard Greggory, III, Ed.; Murray, Michele C., Ed.
The book deals concretely with the most effective ways for educators to be social justice advocates, with questions about what it means to be a social justice advocate, and with the best communication strategies to advocate for a particular social justice view that might start and sustain an open dialogue. The book presents a number of practical…
OTTO, H.; Fourie, L M
Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of parti-cipatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schramm, 1964; Servaes, 1995). What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communicati...
Mann, M. E.
I will share insights that I have accumulated in my own communications and outreach efforts using different types of internet-based communication including blogs (i.e. the 'RealClimate' blog that I co-founded with other climate scientists), and social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter. I will discuss the complementary strengths and weaknesses of the different communication tools, and possible ways of exploiting them collectively as part of a more coordinated communication strategy.
Bedford, Rachael; Pickles, Andrew; Gliga, Teodora; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.
Emerging findings from studies with infants at familial high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), owing to an older sibling with a diagnosis, suggest that those who go on to develop ASD show early impairments in the processing of stimuli with both social and non-social content. Although ASD is defined by social-communication impairments and restricted and repetitive behaviours, the majority of cognitive theories of ASD posit a single underlying factor, which over development has secondary...
Full Text Available Design is a social phenomenon and researchers suggest that social interaction, negotiations and communication between designers are essential to initiate creativity. Within the design studio environment, a number of factors affect the healthy social interaction and design negotiations, such as the teaching style of tutors and the culture that governs a design studio’s environment. This may in turn affect the utilization of the outcome of negotiations in the design project. Design studio students from the third to fifth years at the College of Architecture, University of Dammam (UD, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, were surveyed to find out how far the design studio’s culture and communication would impact the production of innovative design projects. The results show that frequent communication and the establishment’s shared grounds are essential to develop knowledge and positively influence the design outcome. On the other hand, the research found that negative qualities on a personal level and on that of a design studio environment would hinder a student’s creativity. However, to develop students’ design/innovative abilities, the researcher recommends that certain measures should be considered. These would include transforming the design studio into an interactive and friendly learning environment, adjusting the teaching methodology, and developing interactive communication abilities of students and tutors.
Juhola, Sirkku; Driscoll, Patrick Arthur
Cities are becoming the locus of climate change policy and planning, both for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to the impacts of climate change. These actions involve a number of trade-offs, including densification of the urban structure, concerns over social equity and the proper use of green infrastructure for adaptation. Many of these impacts are difficult to quantify and their interdependencies are often challenging to comprehend and communicate. There are a number of outstanding gaps in knowledge both in research and in practice in relation to how decisions are made between adaptation and mitigation strategies and what kinds of negative and positive synergies can be identified between them. This paper explores how social games can help people to communicate the trade-offs between mitigation and adaptation measures in an urban environment and examines the possibilities of using social gaming as a research method. Data was collected from Denmark, Finland and the US through organized gaming sessions. The conclusion of the study is that social games, although methodologically challenging, are a promising method to communicate complex planning problems.
Paredes Sanz, Jesus
Today the use of the social networking technologies is becoming more common in users daily lives, both their professional and personal lives. Recently the application of social networking technologies’ communication power has begun to be leveraged by enterprises in order to gain competitive advantage in terms of productivity and employees’ efficiency & job performance. However, there exist some gaps in the communication and coordination processes within a company between the different emp...
Full Text Available On the Internet, a medium that has already proven its effectiveness in marketing activities, changes take place with astonishing speed. The recent explosion of social networking applications and their number of users has captured the marketers’ attention. Companies have started to rethink their relationships with consumers and adapt to the new online world. In this virtual world of social networks the public is the key element. Consumers perceive the social network as a personal space where they control the content. They decide on their own what they want to see and share with others. Thus, in order to manage marketing communications effectively, marketers must know the consumers’ opinions towards their presence in social networks.
Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko
The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's non-verbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.
Full Text Available On the Internet, a medium that has already proven its effectiveness in marketing activities, changes take place with astonishing speed. The recent explosion of social networking applications and their number of users has captured the marketers’ attention. Companies have started to rethink their relationships with consumers and adapt to the new online world. In this virtual world of social networks the public is the key element. Consumers perceive the social network as a personal space where they control the content. They decide on their own what they want to see and share with others. Thus, in order to manage marketing communications effectively, marketers must know the consumers’ opinions towards their presence in social networks.
Zhou, Ping; Leydesdorff, Loet
We argue that the communication structures in the Chinese social sciences have not yet been sufficiently reformed. Citation patterns among Chinese domestic journals in three subject areas -- political science and marxism, library and information science, and economics -- are compared with their counterparts internationally. Like their colleagues in the natural and life sciences, Chinese scholars in the social sciences provide fewer references to journal publications than their international counterparts; like their international colleagues, social scientists provide fewer references than natural sciences. The resulting citation networks, therefore, are sparse. Nevertheless, the citation structures clearly suggest that the Chinese social sciences are far less specialized in terms of disciplinary delineations than their international counterparts. Marxism studies are more established than political science in China. In terms of the impact of the Chinese political system on academic fields, disciplines closely r...
The effects of audiovisual communications on the emotional and psychological well-being of participants in the legal system have not been previously examined. Using as a framework for analysis what Slobogin (1996) calls internal balancing (of therapeutic versus antitherapeutic effects) and external balancing (of therapeutic jurisprudence [TJ] effects versus effects on other legal values), this brief paper discusses three examples that suggest the complexity of evaluating courtroom audiovisuals in TJ terms. In each instance, audiovisual displays that are admissible based on their arguable probative or explanatory value - day-in-the-life movies, victim impact videos, and computer simulations of litigated events - might well reduce stress and thus improve the psychological well-being of personal injury plaintiffs, survivors, and jurors, respectively. In each situation, however, other emotional and cognitive effects may prove antitherapeutic for the target or other participants, and/or may undermine other important values including outcome accuracy, fairness, and even the conception of the legal decision maker as a moral actor. PMID:20920823
Narrativas transmídia: diversidade social, discursiva e comunicacional / Transmedia narratives: Social Diversity, Discourse and Communication / Narrativas transmedia: diversidad social, discursiva y comunicacional
Denis, Porto-Renó; Andréa Cristina, Versuti; Elizabeth, Moraes-Gonçalves; Vicente, Gosciola.
Full Text Available Os processos comunicacionais vivenciam hoje uma revolução no campo estrutural e no campo das linguagens. Tais mudanças são resultantes de comportamentos e subsídios comunicacionais ofertados para a sociedade contemporânea, como as redes sociais e a mobilidade. Porém, a comunicação ainda não abarcou [...] tais mudanças por completo, apesar dos estudos que contemplam a narrativa transmídia. Este artigo oferece, a partir de um estudo de caráter reflexivo e investigativo, discussões sobre a narrativa transmídia como linguagem social na ficção e no jornalismo. Esperamos, a partir deste estudo, oferecer subsídios sobre novas pesquisas acerca do tema. Abstract in spanish En la actualidad, los procesos de comunicación experimentan una revolución en el campo estructural y en el de las lenguas. Estos cambios son el producto de comportamientos y contribuciones comunicacionales ofrecidos a la sociedad contemporánea; por ejemplo, redes sociales y movilidad. Sin embargo, l [...] a comunicación no asimiló tales cambios por completo, a pesar de los estudios que tienen en cuenta la narrativa transmedia. Basado en un estudio reflexivo e investigativo, este artículo ofrece análisis acerca de la narrativa transmedia como lenguaje social en la ficción y el periodismo. Esperamos contribuir con nuevas investigaciones sobre el tema. Abstract in english The current communicational process experiences a revolution in both the structural fields and those of the languages. Such changes are the result of communication behaviors and contributions offered to contemporary society, such as social networking and mobility. However, communication has not full [...] y embraced these changes, despite of studies related to the transmedia storytelling. This paper is a reflective and investigative discussion about transmedia strorytelling as social language either in fiction and journalism. Hopefully, this study may also provide insights to new researches regarding this subject.
Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia
Introduction Social scientists have long been inspired by chaos theory to describe the complexities of organisational change (Wheatley, 1993; Burnes, 2004), entrepreneurship (Steyaert, 2007) or urban development (Batty & Xie, 1999) arguing that firms or regions are dynamic and unpredictable systems analogous to ecological systems in nature. The notions of phase shifts, feedback loops, strange attractors and bifurcations were borrowed as exotic metaphors to describe contingencies in social and business contexts without further ontological reflection. A similar pattern is observable in tourism research, offering a few conceptual papers which adopt complexity theories to describe destination development patterns (Russel & Faulkner, 2000, 2004; Zahra & Ryan 2007). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the validity of chaos theory in the context of strategic communications, where new (social) media has changed the marketing landscape beyond recognition. The exponential growth of social media platforms hasled to weakened marketer control (and greater consumer sovereignty) over information about organisations and their products. In this new communications paradigm (Muniz & Schau 2007), information is neither stable, controllable commodity nor a content that can be streamlined and circulated in strategically selected promotional mix channels. Borrowing a latourian term, information is a dynamic actant, a key source of structuration of cultural images of organisations and destinations. Marketers are horrified by the prospect of rumours roaming about and running loose in cyberspace (Meredith 2010), creating chaos and noise around neatly streamlined campaigns and brand messages. However, only a handful of such rumours grow to be significant to influence a great number of customers or spill over into mass media channels. Social media users serve as gatekeepers, opting for which fluctuations to pay attention to, which to ignore. The challenge is then to establish a framework of unfolding communication patterns on social media which can eventually explain the collective behaviour of bloggers, twitters and tripadvisors. Method The paper will analyse seemingly random and chaotic communication practices on social media by viewing them as complex adaptive systems described by Stacey (2003). CASs consist of a large number of agents or nodes, each triggered by their own principles and motives. They are also self-organising, as the pattern of behaviour in the system evolves or emerges from the local interaction and adjustments between the agents. Instead of channelled flow of information, the nodes of this network transmit information in all directions simultaneously. Our goal is model the patterns of sense-making in the interactions among community members as well as marketers, by tracking how single postings are weaved and developed into complex, collective stories. The empirical data collection will restrict itself on social media of performative festivals in Scandinavia, including blogs, fansites and other interactive platforms related to Way Out West (Gothenburg) and Roskilde Festival. We will adopt a systematic logging technique following netnographic observation methods (Kozinets, 2010). Findings/Discussion The discussion will critically review the basic assumptions and conceptual justification of analogies derived from chaos theory and attempts to establish a more operational framework in the light of the empirical findings. A model of nonlinear sensemaking processes is offered, based on our analysis of social media communications as complex adaptive systems. This is followed by an examination of the implications of the model for strategic communication and marketers in general. Conclusion The paper concludes that, the adoption of chaos theory approach may have significant benefits for the social sciences of tourism, however, we need to move forward from metaphorical illustrations to more rigorous empirical investigations to understand the complexity of new media communications. Key References Burnes. B. (2005). Complexity theory a
Kontos, Emily Z; Emmons, Karen M; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K
Social media, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs), are emerging as an important platform for communication and health information exchange. Yet, despite the increase in popularity and use, only a limited number of empirical studies document which segments of the adult population are and are not using social networking sites and with what, if any, affect on health. The purpose of this study is to identify potential communication inequalities in social networking site use among a representative sample of U.S. adults and to examine the association between SNS use and psychological well-being. We analyzed data from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Thirty-five percent of online adults reported SNS use within the past 12 months, and there were no significant differences in SNS use by race/ethnicity or socioeconomic position. Younger age (p = .00) was the most significant predictor of SNS use, while being married (p = .02) and having a history of cancer (p = .02) were associated with a decreased odds of SNS use. SNS use was significantly associated with a 0.80 (p = .00) increment in psychological distress score after controlling for other factors. The absence of inequalities in adult SNS use across race/ethnicity and class offers some support for the continued use of social media to promote public health efforts; however, issues such as the persisting digital divide and potential deleterious effects of SNS use on psychological well-being need to be addressed. PMID:21154095
Bilal GENÇ; Mustafa MAVA?O?LU; Erdo?an BADA
Research in discourse analysis has revealed that there are various types and functions of repetitions. This study adds to this discussion by examining the repetitions in the discourse of 83 learners of French. Repetition helps the speakers of a language to develop and maintain a conversation or speech; and is one of the mostly employed communication strategies by both native and non-native speakers. The data discussed in this study reveal that Turkish speakers of French employ repetitions bot...
Matthews, Luke J; DeWan, Peter; Rula, Elizabeth Y
Studies of social networks, mapped using self-reported contacts, have demonstrated the strong influence of social connections on the propensity for individuals to adopt or maintain healthy behaviors and on their likelihood to adopt health risks such as obesity. Social network analysis may prove useful for businesses and organizations that wish to improve the health of their populations by identifying key network positions. Health traits have been shown to correlate across friendship ties, but evaluating network effects in large coworker populations presents the challenge of obtaining sufficiently comprehensive network data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for using online communication data to generate comprehensive network maps that reproduce the health-associated properties of an offline social network. In this study, we examined three techniques for inferring social relationships from email traffic data in an employee population using thresholds based on: (1) the absolute number of emails exchanged, (2) logistic regression probability of an offline relationship, and (3) the highest ranked email exchange partners. As a model of the offline social network in the same population, a network map was created using social ties reported in a survey instrument. The email networks were evaluated based on the proportion of survey ties captured, comparisons of common network metrics, and autocorrelation of body mass index (BMI) across social ties. Results demonstrated that logistic regression predicted the greatest proportion of offline social ties, thresholding on number of emails exchanged produced the best match to offline network metrics, and ranked email partners demonstrated the strongest autocorrelation of BMI. Since each method had unique strengths, researchers should choose a method based on the aspects of offline behavior of interest. Ranked email partners may be particularly useful for purposes related to health traits in a social network. PMID:23418436
Krüger, Simone; Berberian, Ana Paula
Inclusion of people with special needs in the labor market has been increasing in some regions of Brazil as a result of the Articles 6 and 7 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil and the Quota Law (No. 8.213/91, Art. 93) which entitle people with disabilities to work in order to improve their social condition. To support persons with complex communication needs in the workplace, 40 graphic symbols termed "symbols of industrial expressions" were developed within the framework of the COMMUNIS package. The symbols were developed for a company of the food sector in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil. Individual interviews were held with the human resources professionals, as well as with employees with complex communication needs in order to identify problems, assess requirements, and generate a list of specific symbols to develop. The symbols were then validated with regard to their ease of recognition. Only five symbols needed revision. The results suggest that it is possible to develop a set of symbols for the workplace that are judged to be iconic by human resources professionals and employees with complex communication needs. PMID:26132354
Schanding, G. Thomas, Jr.; Nowell, Kerri P.; Goin-Kochel, Robin P.
Limited research exists regarding the role of teachers in screening for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The current study examined the use of the "Social Communication Questionnaire" (SCQ) and "Social Responsiveness Scale" (SRS) as completed by parents and teachers about school-age children from the Simons Simplex Collection. Using the…
Schijvenaars, R J; Kors, J A; van Bemmel, J H
A technique is presented for the reconstruction of signals that suffered sampling-frequency decimation. Two assumptions are made: the original signal has to be repetitive, and no anti-aliasing filter has been used before frequency decimation. The performance of the technique is assessed by using test signals of which the original signal is known. PMID:8177077
Full Text Available The quality and the efficiency of all the activities developed in the field of the social dialog management are dependent, in great measure by the quality of the communications relations between the involved actors. The increase of the importance of the social dialog is reflected at the level of hundreds of multicultural companies that try to develop a new type of management - the one that has the capacity and the ability of orqestrating the productive combination of individuals and of the efficient functioning within these new cultures. In planning a communications process which is destined to a international auditorium we must analyze every component of this with the purpose of pushing away every barrier of background noise that would alter the desired results.
Denna uppsats har som syfte att undersöka om kulturstudier kan öka den kommunikativa förmågan, sett ur ett social konstruktivistiskt perspektiv. Frågeställningarna är som följer: Är kulturstudier integrerat i engelska 5 kursen? Finns det en relation mellan kunskap om kultur i engelsktalande områden och länder och kommunikativ kompetens? Anser eleverna själva att kunskap om kultur ökar deras kommunikativa kompetens? Vald metod är kvalitativ intervju samt innehållsanalys av ämnesplanen för enge...
Full Text Available National and international studies demonstrate that the number of teenagers using the inter-net increases. But even though they actually do have access from different places to the in-formation and communication pool of the internet, there is evidence that the ways in which teenagers use the net - regarding the scope and frequency in which services are used as well as the preferences for different contents of these services - differ significantly in relation to socio-economic status, education, and gender. The results of the regarding empirical studies may be summarised as such: teenager with low (formal education especially use internet services embracing 'entertainment, play and fun' while higher educated teenagers (also prefer intellectually more demanding and particularly services supplying a greater variety of communicative and informative activities. More generally, pedagogical and sociological studies investigating "digital divide" in a dif-ferentiated and sophisticated way - i.e. not only in terms of differences between those who do have access to the Internet and those who do not - suggest that the internet is no space beyond 'social reality' (e.g. DiMaggio & Hargittai 2001, 2003; Vogelgesang, 2002; Welling, 2003. Different modes of utilisation, that structure the internet as a social space are primarily a specific contextualisation of the latter - and thus, the opportunities and constraints in virtual world of the internet are not less than those in the 'real world' related to unequal distribu-tions of material, social and cultural resources as well as social embeddings of the actors involved. This fact of inequality is also true regarding the outcomes of using the internet. Empirical and theoretical results concerning forms and processes of networking and commu-nity building - i.e. sociability in the internet, as well as the social embeddings of the users which are mediated through the internet - suggest that net based communication and infor-mation processes may entail the resource 'social support'. Thus, with reference to social work and the task of compensating the reproduction of social disadvantages - whether they are medial or not - the ways in which teenagers get access to and utilize net based social sup-port are to be analysed.
Teodoro Rafael Wendlandt Amezaga; Hai Yan He; Angel Alberto Valdés Cuervo
The aim of this study is to know the general condition of business communications regarding Corporate SocialResponsibility (CSR) in large Mexican companies, and identify the significant differences in terms of a set ofindicators and in comparison with three different operational levels. Specifically, based in a relevant previousresearch work by Maignan and Ralston (2002) and analyzing the content of 150 Mexican business websites as asample frame, the study evaluates the differences in a set o...
Poulsen, Kelly; Pattiiha, Sippora Louise Angela; Tobiasz, Klaudia; Stensborg, Antonia
In this project we have tried to see how Carlsberg - as our case company - addresses the challenges that contribute to scepticism in communicating Corporate Social Responsibility activities to consumers and the general public. In order to do it, we have identified the tools that cope with minimising sceptical reception. Hereafter, have we used these tools to look at our data - the company’s 2013 CSR Report. The purpose of this process was to investigate whether these tools could be identified...
Ackerson, Leland K.; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula
Introduction: Intermittent smokers account for a large proportion of all smokers, and this trend is increasing. Social and communication inequalities may account for disparities in intermittent smoking status. Methods: Data for this study came from 2,641 ever-smokers from a 2003 nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Independent variables of interest included race/ethnicity, sex, household income, education, health media attention, and cancer-related beliefs. The outcome of interes...
Meekers Dominique; Van Rossem Ronan
Abstract Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper asse...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper assesses the reach of selected radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS and of communications about the socially marketed Maximum condoms in Zambia, as well as their impact on condom use, using data from the 2001–2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. To control for self-selection and endogeneity, we use a two-stage regression model to estimate the effect of program exposure on the behavioural outcomes. Results Those who were exposed to radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS were more likely to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.16 for men and 1.06 for women. Men highly exposed to Maximum condoms social marketing communication were more likely than those with low exposure to the program to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.48, and to have used a condom at their last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.23. Conclusion Findings suggest that the reproductive health and social marketing campaigns in Zambia reached a large portion of the population and had a significant impact on condom use. The results suggest that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming, and that future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women, perhaps by focusing on the specific constrains that prevent females from using condoms.
Pereira, Clara Gil Leite
The aim of this research is to analyze and compare the efficiency of two digital media – a social network and an advergame – and gather which is the most efficient regarding communication with children. The efficiency of both media was measured by comparing the impact on brand awareness, purchase intention and brand preference. We also analyzed the mediating role of gender on the engagement the two media. Our sample comprised of 220 children. Our results suggest both media are ...
The aim of this thesis is to investigate how new knowledge can be developed in computer-supported social practice. Participants were selected from newly qualified secondary school teachers and student teachers at a higher education institution in Rwanda. The thesis consists of four empirical case studies, the findings of which were analysed from a sociocultural perspective. In the first study, it has been shown that novice teachers are motivated to acquire information and communication techno...
Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Rim, Sun Hee; Hawkins, Nikki A.; Juan L. Rodriguez; Polonec, Lindsey
The demographic and practice-related characteristics of physicians who use social networking websites, portable devices to access the internet, email to communicate with patients, podcasts, widgets, RSS feeds, and blogging were investigated. Logistic regression was used to analyze a survey of US primary care physicians, pediatricians, obstetrician/gynecologists, and dermatologists (N=1750). Reported technology use during the last 6?months ranged from 80.6% using a portable device to access th...
Gotts, Stephen J.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Milbury, Lydia A.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex
Autism spectrum disorders are developmental disorders characterized by impairments in social and communication abilities and repetitive behaviours. Converging neuroscientific evidence has suggested that the neuropathology of autism spectrum disorders is widely distributed, involving impaired connectivity throughout the brain. Here, we evaluate the…
Nonneman Dan J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.
Bohon, W.; Frus, R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Semken, S. C.; Taylor, W. L.
Social media has emerged as a popular and effective form of communication among all age groups, with nearly half of Internet users belonging to a social network or using another form of social media on a regular basis. This phenomenon creates an excellent opportunity for earth science organizations to use the wide reach, functionality and informal environment of social media platforms to disseminate important scientific information, create brand recognition, and establish trust with users. Further, social media systems can be utilized for missions of education, outreach, and communicating important timely information (e.g., news agencies are common users). They are eminently scaleable (thus serving from a few to millions of users with no cost and no performance problem), searchable (people are turning to them more frequently as conduits for information), and user friendly (thanks to the massive resources poured into the underlying technology and design, these systems are easy to use and have been widely adopted). They can be used, therefore, to engage the public interactively with the EarthScope facilities, experiments, and discoveries, and continue the cycle of discussions, experiments, analysis and conclusions that typify scientific advancement. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) is launching an effort to utilize social media to broaden its impact as a conduit between scientists, facilities, educators, and the public. The ESNO will use the opportunities that social media affords to offer high quality science content in a variety of formats that appeal to social media users of various age groups, including blogs (popular with users 18-29), Facebook and Twitter updates (popular with users ages 18-50), email updates (popular with older adults), and video clips (popular with all age groups). We will monitor the number of "fans" and "friends" on social media and networking pages in order to gauge the increase in the percentage of the user population visiting the site. We will also use existing tools available on social media sites to track the relationships between users who visit or "friend" the site to determine how knowledge of the site is transferred amongst various social, educational or geographic groups. Finally, we will use this information to iteratively improve the variety of content and media on the site to increase our user pool, improve EarthScope recognition, and provide appropriate and user-specific Earth science information, especially for time sensitive events of wide interest such as natural disasters.
Francisco Ignacio Revuelta Domínguez
Full Text Available Resumen: Los videojuegos en las redes sociales son la combinación de una evolución paralela, por un lado el desarrollo del entretenimiento y las interfaces interactivas y, por otro, la evolución de los nuevos medios de comunicación, con Internet a la cabeza. Pasando por el correo electrónico y desarrollándose en múltiples direcciones, parece que las redes sociales se han convertido en el actual estándar de comunicación social, no solo en entornos grupales, sino de transmisión de información masiva de un modo viral. Una estructura no jerarquizada que ha conseguido atraer a más de 600 millones de usuarios y, con ellos, un enorme negocio. Como otros tantos, el videojuego se adentra en estos sites, un entorno que le es natural en un principio, recogiendo los frutos de los juegos multijugador masivos, pero pronto se enriquece adaptándose al medio y creando nuestras estructuras comunicacionales adecuadas a una nueva y desconocida situación. Como en otras aplicaciones de las TIC en ámbitos educativos, el videojuego puede ser utilizado con estos fines; no sólo con proyectos infantiles ni programas interactivos dedicados a la enseñanza, sino como videojuegos intrínsecamente. Casos como los serious games nos muestran las enormes posibilidades que tienen a distintos niveles. Para el caso de los videojuegos sociales, las opciones pedagógicas multiplican sus posibilidades al acceder a un público masivo con estructuras que, si bien pueden alejarse de los clásicos procedimientos educativos, sí que se fundamentan sobre estas bases ya que permiten una distribución rápida, barata y de acceso sencillo, sin que representen para el usuario una carga, sino un aprendizaje pasivo. Por ello, es importante preguntarse cómo se desarrolla un videojuego social, cuál es su narrativa, cómo se comportan los individuos ante él y, sobre todo, cómo podemos orientarlo hacia nuestros objetivos.Abstract: Videogames in social networks are a combination of a parallel evolution on the one hand the development of entertainment and interactive interfaces, and the evolution of new media, Internet to the head. Via email and develop in many directions, it seems that social networks have become the current standard of social communication, not only in group settings, but mass transmission of a viral way. Anon-hierarchical structure that has attracted more than 600 million users and with them, a huge business. As many others, the game goes into these sites, an environment that is natural at first, reaping the benefits of massively multiplayer games, but quickly adapting to the environment enriches our structures and creating appropriate communication to a new and unfamiliar situation .As in other applications of ICT in educational settings, the game can be used for this purpose, not only interactive children's projects and programs dedicated to teaching, but as games intrinsically. Cases such as serious games show the enormous possibilities that are at different levels. In the case of social gaming, educational options multiply their possibilities to access a massive public structure, although they may move away from traditional educational procedures, it is indeed based on these bases because they allow rapid deployment, cheap and easy access, without posing a burden to the user, but a passive learning. It is therefore important to ask how to develop a social game, what his narrative is, how individuals behave before it and, how we can guide you toward our goals.
Full Text Available A Comunicação é o campo mais importante para o estudo de muitas dimensões-chave de mudanças sociais. Esta é a premissa básica deste texto apresentado na conferência de abertura do congresso anual da International Communication Association, em 2011. Ele traz reflexões sobre uma série de questões de i [...] dentidade, metodologias, fronteiras e caminhos para os estudos e práticas no campo. Fazendo um paralelo com outras disciplinas que passaram pelo mesmo processo, a conclusão é que o campo da Comunicação precisa mais preservar a riqueza de sua interdisciplinaridade do que buscar respostas em uma aparente e, às vezes, falsa autonomia científica. Abstract in spanish La Comunicación es el campo más importante para el estudio de muchos aspectos fundamentales del cambio social. Esta es la premisa básica de este trabajo presentado en la apertura del congreso anual de la International Communication Association, en 2011. Él trae una serie de reflexiones sobre las cue [...] stiones de identidad, las metodologías, las fronteras y caminos para el estudio y la práctica en el campo. Haciendo un paralelismo con otras disciplinas que han pasado por el mismo proceso, la conclusión es que el campo de la comunicación ya la necesidad de preservar la riqueza de su interdisciplinario de buscar respuestas en una autonomía científica aparente y falsa a veces. Abstract in english Communication is the most important field for the study of many key dimensions of social change. This is the basic premise of this text presented at the opening of the annual conference of International Communication Association in 2011. The subject brings a lot of reflections about a series of issu [...] es on identity, methodologies, borders and paths for studies and practices in the field. Making a parallel with other disciplines that have gone through the same process, the conclusion is that the field of Communication longer needs to preserve the richness of its interdisciplinary than to search for answers in an apparent, and sometimes false, scientific autonomy.
Saxton, Gregory D; Chiu, I-Hsuan; Feng, Bo
In this study, we examine the social networking practices of the 100 largest nonprofit organizations in the United States. More specifically, we develop a comprehensive classification scheme to delineate these organizations' use of Facebook as a stakeholder engagement tool. We find that there are 5 primary categories of Facebook "statuses", which can be aggregated into three key dimensions - "information", "community", and "action". Our analysis reveals that, though the "informational" use of Facebook is still significant, nonprofit organizations are better at using Facebook to strategically engage their stakeholders via "dialogic" and "community-building" practices than they have been with traditional websites. The adoption of social media seems to have engendered new paradigms of public engagement.
Social media now complements many parts of our lives. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many other social networking sites allow users to share and interact with online content and to connect with like-minded people. Its strengths - rapid dissemination and amplification of content and the ability to lead informal conversations - make it a powerful tool to use in a professional context. This commentary explains the overall concept of social media and offers suggestions on usage and possible types of scientific content. It advises researchers on the potential benefits and how to take a strategic approach towards building a social media presence. It also presents examples of effective social media use within the plant science community. Common reasons for scientists to not engage with social media include the fear of appearing unprofessional, posting something wrong or being misunderstood, or a lack of confidence in their computer skills. With the rapid changes in academic publishing, dissemination and science communication, as well as the rise of 'altmetrics' to track online engagement with scientific content, digital literacy will become an essential skill in a scientist's tool kit. PMID:23845168
Evans, W Douglas; McCormack, Lauren
Social marketing uses commercial marketing strategies to change individual and organizational behavior and policies. It has been effective on a population level across a wide range of public health and health care domains. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of social marketing in changing health care consumer behavior through its impact on patient-provider interaction or provider behavior. Social marketers need to identify translatable strategies (e.g., competition analysis, branding, and tailored messages) that can be applied to health care provider and consumer behavior. Three case studies from social marketing illustrate potential strategies to change provider and consumer behavior. Countermarketing is a rapidly growing social marketing strategy that has been effective in tobacco control and may be effective in countering pharmaceutical marketing using specific message strategies. Informed decision making is a useful strategy when there is medical uncertainty, such as in prostate cancer screening and treatment. Pharmaceutical industry marketing practices offer valuable lessons for developing competing messages to reach providers and consumers. Social marketing is an effective population-based behavior change strategy that can be applied in individual clinical settings and as a complement to reinforce messages communicated on a population level. There is a need for more research on message strategies that work in health care and population-level effectiveness studies. PMID:18556638
Roy, P; Chiat, S
This paper addressed relations between language, social communication and behaviour, and their trajectories, in a sample of 9-11-year-olds (n=91) who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language as pre-schoolers. Children were first assessed at 2½-4 years, and again 18 months later. Results revealed increasing differentiation of profiles across time. By 9-11 years, 11% of the sample had social communication deficits, 27% language impairment, 20% both, and 42% neither. The size of group differences on key language and social communication measures was striking (2-3 standard deviations). Social communication deficits included autistic mannerisms and were associated with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBDs); in contrast, language impairment was associated with hyperactivity only. Children with both language and social communication problems had the most severe difficulties on all measures. These distinct school-age profiles emerged gradually. Investigation of developmental trajectories revealed that the three impaired groups did not differ significantly on language or SEBD measures when the children were first seen. Only low performance on the Early Sociocognitive Battery, a new measure of social responsiveness, joint attention and symbolic understanding, differentiated the children with and without social communication problems at 9-11 years. These findings suggest that some children who first present with language delay or difficulties have undetected Autism Spectrum Disorders which may or may not be accompanied by language impairment in the longer term. This new evidence of developmental trajectories starting in the preschool years throws further light on the nature of social communication and language problems in school-age children, relations between language impairment and SEBDs, and on the nature of early language development. PMID:25005063
The Social Communication Intervention Project: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effectiveness of Speech and Language Therapy for School-Age Children Who Have Pragmatic and Social Communication Problems with or without Autism Spectrum Disorder
Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Freed, Jenny; Gaile, Jacqueline; Earl, Gillian; McBean, Kirsty; Nash, Marysia; Green, Jonathan; Vail, Andy; Law, James
Background: Children who show disproportionate difficulty with the pragmatic as compared with the structural aspects of language are described as having pragmatic language impairment (PLI) or social communication disorder (SCD). Some children who have PLI also show mild social impairments associated with high-functioning autism or autism spectrum…
Fisher, Kimberly Wolowiec; Shogren, Karrie A.
The purpose of this review was to examine the degree to which augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention research included students with disabilities and their peers as part of the intervention. Given the shift in the field toward a social-ecological framework of disability, incorporating natural communication partners into…
Helliwell, P.; Taylor, W
Pain in the forearm is relatively common in the community. In the workplace forearm pain is associated with work involving frequent repetition, high forces, and prolonged abnormal postures. Nevertheless, other factors are involved in the presentation and the continuation of the pain. Notable among these factors are psychosocial issues and the workplace environment—the attitude to workers and their welfare, the physical conditions, and design of the job. Primary prevention may be effective but...
Morales Camarena, Francisco [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)
The actions for the energy efficiency and the utilization of renewable energies are multiple and dispersed, in each one of the energy consumption points of the country. For this reason, two important factors to foment these actions are to promote the social participation and the effective government communication towards the society: energy saving and social participation. One of the main faculties of the National Commission of Energy Saving (CONAE) is to foment the efficiency in the energy use, through actions coordinated with the different agencies and organizations of the Federal Public Administration, with the governments of the federal entities and the municipalities and, through coordinated operations, with the private and social sectors. The CONAE has established mechanisms of coordination and cooperation with the private and social sectors, having fomented programs, projects and actions whose purpose is the energy efficiency, outstanding: 1) Committees and work groups; 2) Cooperation Agreements; 3) the Advisory Council for the Foment of Renewable Energy. [Spanish] Las acciones para la eficiencia energetica y el aprovechamiento de las energias renovables son multiples y dispersas, en cada uno de los puntos de consumo de energia del pais. Por ello, dos factores importantes para fomentar estas acciones son promover la participacion social y la comunicacion gubernamental eficaz hacia la sociedad: Ahorro de energia y participacion social. Una de las principales facultades de la Comision Nacional de Ahorro de Energia es fomentar la eficiencia en el uso de energia, a traves de acciones coordinadas con las diversas dependencias y entidades de la Administracion Publica Federal, con los gobiernos de las entidades federativas y de los municipios y, a traves de acciones concertadas, con los sectores social y privado. La CONAE ha establecido mecanismos de coordinacion y de cooperacion con los sectores privado y social, fomentando programas, proyectos y acciones cuyo proposito es la eficiencia energetica, destacado: 1) Comites y grupos de trabajo; 2) Convenios de Cooperacion; 3) el Consejo Consultivo de Fomento de la Energia Renovables.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low and middle income countries are ageing at a much faster rate than richer countries, especially in Asia. This is happening at a time of globalisation, migration, urbanisation, and smaller families. Older people make significant contributions to their families and communities, but this is often undermined by chronic disease and preventable disability. Social participation can help to protect against morbidity and mortality. We argue that social participation deserves much greater attention as a protective factor, and that older people can play a useful role in the prevention and management of chronic conditions. We present, as an example, a low-cost, sustainable strategy that has increased social participation among elders in Sri Lanka. Discussion Current international policy initiatives to address the increasing prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases are focused on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and cancers, responsible for much premature mortality. Interventions to modify their shared risk factors of high salt and fat diets, inactivity, smoking and alcohol use are advocated. But older people also suffer chronic conditions that primarily affect quality of life, and have a wider range of risk factors. There is strong epidemiological and physiological evidence that social isolation, in particular, is as important a risk factor for chronic diseases as the 'lifestyle' risk factors, yet it is currently neglected. There are useful experiences of inexpensive and sustainable strategies to improve social participation among older people in low and lower middle income countries. Our experience with forming Elders' Clubs with retired tea estate workers in Sri Lanka suggests many benefits, including social support and participation, inter-generational contact, a collective voice, and facilitated access to health promotion activities, and to health care and social welfare services. Summary Policies to address the increase in chronic non-communicable diseases should include consideration of healthy ageing, conditions that affect quality of life, and strategies to increase social participation. There are useful examples showing that it is feasible to catalyse the formation of Elders' Clubs or older people's associations which become self-sustaining, promote social participation, and improve health and well-being of elders and their families.
Radiation protection has never been confined just to its scientific and quantitative aspects as it also incorporates a real and proper social factor. In most developed countries, considerations on the social and ethical issues of radiation protection and discussions on the approaches to stakeholder involvement are in a state of positive turmoil. Scientific and practical experts are identifying and promoting dialogue procedures, embracing ethical and social aspects, and are moving together to add to their experience in new and improved practices for the decision-making process. In early 2006, the Italian Radiation Protection Association (AIRP) set up a workgroup for the purpose of: 1-) Promoting dialogue among RP experts, experts in other disciplines, national and local authorities and the public, in relation to social awareness issues in the fields of ionising and non-ionising radiation protection; 2-) Promoting reflection on the mutual interactions between radiation protection and society; 3-) Contributing to the development and diffusion in the RP community of the culture of stakeholder engagement in the decision-making process. Aiming at promoting continual dialogue between the radiation protection community and society, an initial meeting was held in June 2006 on the fundamentals and objectives of RP communication, by focusing on issues such as: the credibility of information sources, the role of the mass media and institutions in risk communication. A workshop was held in November 2006 on the social aspects of radiation protection: experts in scientific journalism, sociology and medical physics, representatives of consumer associations, participants in a Government task commission, local authorities and representatives of the leading local and national institutions involved in RP, were given the opportunity of communicating and discussing the main socially-sensitive aspects of RP. The work of the AIRP group continued in 2007 with two events related on the ethical, social and legal aspects of radioactive waste management. In 2008, we intend to support the growth of RP culture in society by organizing an event concerning the various aspects of radiation protection education and information for non professionals. To invite suggestions and obtain new points of view, the group has opened a website and prepared a basic questionnaire. The AIRP workgroup is constantly creating the conditions and opportunities for extending knowledge about radiation protection and involving society as a whole in extensive debate concerning risk management. (author)
Elisa, Zwick; Isabel Cristina da, Silva; Mozar José de, Brito.
Full Text Available Este artigo visa a discutir as possíveis aproximações teóricas entre a estratégia como prática social (EPS) e a teoria da ação comunicativa (TAC), instituída por Jürgen Habermas. Almejou-se construir um diálogo analítico, destacando as interfaces que podem ser estabelecidas entre esses construtos. E [...] specificamente, buscou-se: (i) descrever o arcabouço teórico da estratégia como prática social; (ii) discutir os aspectos conceituais da teoria da ação comunicativa; e (iii) apresentar as possíveis aproximações teóricas entre a estratégia como prática social e a teoria da ação comunicativa. Argumenta-se que a TAC tem elementos interessantes a contribuir com a estratégia como prática e que, por esse motivo, é necessário explorar as aproximações teóricas. Desse modo, este artigo contribui singularmente para associar o pensamento habermasiano às perspectivas teóricas da estratégia como prática social, especialmente em seus elementos razão e verdade, entendimento e consenso, que ensejam contribuições substanciais da racionalidade comunicativa para a estratégia como prática social. Abstract in english This article aims to discuss the possible theoretical approaches between strategy as social practice (SSP) and the theory of communicative action (TCA), established by Jürgen Habermas. We intended to construct an analytical dialogue, highlighting the interfaces that may be established between these [...] constructs. Specifically, we sought to: (i) describe the theoretical framework of strategy as social practice; (ii) discuss the conceptual aspects of the theory of communicative action; and (iii) introduce the possible theoretical approaches between strategy as social practice and the theory of communicative action. It is argued that TCA has interesting elements contributing to strategy as a practice and that, for this reason, there is a need to explore the theoretical approaches. So, this article contributes in a unique way to associate Habermas' thought with the theoretical perspectives of strategy as social practice, especially concerning their elements reason and truth, understanding and consensus, which give rise to significant contributions of communicative rationality to strategy as social practice.
Llaneza, Danielle C.; DeLuke, Susan V.; Batista, Myra; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Christodulu, Kristin V.; Frye, Cheryl A
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) affect approximately 1 in 150 children across the U.S., and are characterized by abnormal social actions, language difficulties, repetitive or restrictive behaviors, and special interests. ASD include autism (autistic disorder), Asperger syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS or atypical autism). High-functioning individuals may communicate with moderate-to-high language skills, although difficulties in social skills may...
Lowry, Anita, Comp.; Stuveras, Junko, Comp.
Designed to facilitate the understanding of the way scholars work in the context of new organizational and technical capabilities, this annotated bibliography includes 167 sources related to topics such as research methods and communication practices in the disciplines of the humanities and social sciences; computer applications in social sciences…
Lee, Ki Jung
Online social networks (OSNs), while serving as an emerging means of communication, promote various issues of privacy. Users of OSNs encounter diverse occasions that lead to invasion of their privacy, e.g., published conversation, public revelation of their personally identifiable information, and open boundary of distinct social groups within…
Lemke, Ulrike; Scherpiet, Sigrid
Traditionally, audiology research has focused primarily on hearing and related disorders. In recent years, however, growing interest and insight has developed into the interaction of hearing and cognition. This applies to a person's listening and speech comprehension ability and the neural realization thereof. The present perspective extends this view to oral communication, when two or more people interact in social context. Specifically, the impact of hearing impairment and cognitive changes with age is discussed. In focus are executive functions, a group of top-down processes that guide attention, thought and action according to goals and intentions. The strategic allocation of the limited cognitive processing capacity among concurrent tasks is often effortful, especially under adverse communication conditions and in old age. Working memory, a sub-function extensively discussed in cognitive hearing science, is here put into the context of other executive and cognitive functions required for oral communication and speech comprehension. Finally, taking an ecological view on hearing impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions are discussed regarding their psycho-social impact and third-party disability. PMID:26236268
Lemke, Ulrike; Scherpiet, Sigrid
Traditionally, audiology research has focused primarily on hearing and related disorders. In recent years, however, growing interest and insight has developed into the interaction of hearing and cognition. This applies to a person’s listening and speech comprehension ability and the neural realization thereof. The present perspective extends this view to oral communication, when two or more people interact in social context. Specifically, the impact of hearing impairment and cognitive changes with age is discussed. In focus are executive functions, a group of top-down processes that guide attention, thought and action according to goals and intentions. The strategic allocation of the limited cognitive processing capacity among concurrent tasks is often effortful, especially under adverse communication conditions and in old age. Working memory, a sub-function extensively discussed in cognitive hearing science, is here put into the context of other executive and cognitive functions required for oral communication and speech comprehension. Finally, taking an ecological view on hearing impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions are discussed regarding their psycho-social impact and third-party disability. PMID:26236268
Woods, P; Reed, V; Collins, M
Assessing patient functioning in the areas of communication and social skills is a core area of practice within psychiatric nursing. Difficulties within these areas can often represent the root of a number of presenting problems. Objective assessment can be difficult without a validated assessment schema. The Behavioural Status Index (BSI) offers such a system of baseline assessment and longitudinal monitoring as a basis for treatment, further specialised assessment, or measurement of outcome during and after interventions. This paper introduces some basic theory and describes the function and purpose of the BSI. This is followed by data analysis for the BSI communications and social skills sub-scale. Data were collected, using a repeated measures method by primary nurses, from a sample of 503 individual patients in two high security mental health hospitals. Results are reported for descriptive statistics, and factor analysis; and differences between the independent groups of Mental Health Act 1983 classification, ward dependency and gender. Data trends are indicative of clinically interesting relationships. A distinct factorial structure emerged suggesting groupings of assertive-interpersonal, non-verbal, social-perceptive and para-linguistic behaviours. Results are reported to be underpinning current European studies. PMID:11866029
Grace, Emma; Raghavendra, Parimala; Newman, Lareen; Wood, Denise; Connell, Tim
Youth with complex communication needs (CCN) face increased barriers to their social participation due to limited communication abilities and opportunities. Youth today use the internet as a social tool and youth with CCN may also benefit from internet use to increase their social participation. Five youth between the ages of 10-18 with CCN who…
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of social media-focused information & communicationtechnologies on business performance via some mediating variables. These mediating variables aremarketing-based outputs and costs. In this context, a survey was conducted on 152 communication &advertising agencies operating in Turkey that were selected through convenience sampling method. A researchmodel was developed and the proposed relationships were tested using structural equation modeling via AMOS.The empirical findings indicate that social media-focused information & communication technologies positivelyaffect the business performance via the mediation of marketing-based outputs and costs.
Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C.
This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus of operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism.
Rendall, Christopher Andrew
Kinship and individual identity are key determinants of primate sociality, and the capacity for vocal recognition of individuals and kin is hypothesized to be an important adaptation facilitating intra-group social communication. Research was conducted on adult female rhesus monkeys on Cayo Santiago, Puerto Rico to test this hypothesis for three acoustically distinct calls characterized by varying selective pressures on communicating identity: coos (contact calls), grunts (close range social calls), and noisy screams (agonistic recruitment calls). Vocalization playback experiments confirmed a capacity for both individual and kin recognition of coos, but not screams (grunts were not tested). Acoustic analyses, using traditional spectrographic methods as well as linear predictive coding techniques, indicated that coos (but not grunts or screams) were highly distinctive, and that the effects of vocal tract filtering--formants --contributed more to statistical discriminations of both individuals and kin groups than did temporal or laryngeal source features. Formants were identified from very short (23 ms.) segments of coos and were stable within calls, indicating that formant cues to individual and kin identity were available throughout a call. This aspect of formant cues is predicted to be an especially important design feature for signaling identity efficiently in complex acoustic environments. Results of playback experiments involving manipulated coo stimuli provided preliminary perceptual support for the statistical inference that formant cues take precedence in facilitating vocal recognition. The similarity of formants among female kin suggested a mechanism for the development of matrilineal vocal signatures from the genetic and environmental determinants of vocal tract morphology shared among relatives. The fact that screams --calls strongly expected to communicate identity--were not individually distinctive nor recognized suggested the possibility that their acoustic structure and role in signaling identity might be constrained by functional or morphological design requirements associated with their role in signaling submission.
Mosha, Idda H; Ruben, Ruerd
Family planning utilization in Tanzania is low. This study was cross sectional. It examined family planning use and socio demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the couples, whereby a stratified sample of 440 women of reproductive age (18-49), married or cohabiting was studied in Mwanza, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire with questions on knowledge, communication among the couples and practice of family planning was used. Descriptive statistics and Logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with family planning (FP) use at four levels. The findings showed that majority (73.2%) of respondents have not used family planning. Wealth was positive related to FP use (p=.000, OR = 3.696, and 95% C.I = 1.936 lower and upper 7.055). Religion was associated with FP use (p=.002, OR =2.802, 95% C.I = 1.476 lower and 5.321 upper), communication and FP use were significantly associated, (p=.000, OR = 0.323 and 95% C.I = 0.215) lower and upper = 0.483), social network and FP use (p=.000, OR = 2.162 and 95% C.I = 1.495 lower and upper =3.125) and knowledge and FP use(p=.000, OR = 2.224 and 95% C.I = 1.509 lower and upper =3.278). Wealth showed a significant association with FP use (p=.001, OR = 1.897, 95% C.I = 0.817 lower and 4.404).Urban area was positively associated with FP use (p= .000, OR = 0.008 and 95% C.I = 0.001 lower and upper =0.09), semi urban was significant at (p= .004, OR = 3.733 and C.I = 1.513 lower and upper =9.211). Information, education and communication materials and to promote family planning in Tanzania should designed and promoted. PMID:24069768
Joost M. Vervoort
Full Text Available To take on the current and future challenges of global environmental change, fostering a widespread societal understanding of and engagement with the complex dynamics that characterize interacting human and natural systems is essential. Current science communication methods struggle with a number of specific challenges associated with communicating about complex systems. In this study we report on two collaborative processes, a short workshop and longer course, that aimed to harness the insights of interactive media designers and artists to overcome these challenges. The two processes resulted in 86 new interactive media concepts which were selected by the participants and organizers using set criteria and then evaluated using the same criteria by a panel of communication and media design experts and a panel of complex systems scientists using the same criteria. The top eight concepts are discussed in this paper. These concepts fell into the categories of serious games, group interaction concepts, and social media storytelling. The serious games focused directly on complex systems characteristics and were evaluated to be intuitive and engaging designs that combined transparency and complexity well. The group interaction concepts focused mostly on feedbacks and nonlinearity but were fully developed and tested in the workshops, and evaluated as engaging, accessible, and easy to implement in workshops and educational settings. The social media storytelling concepts involved less direct interactions with system dynamics but were seen as highly accessible to large scale audiences. The results of this study show the potential of interdisciplinary collaboration between complex systems scientists, designers, and artists. The results and process discussed in this paper show the value of more structural engagement of interactive media designers and artist communities in the development of communication tools about human and natural systems change.
As health marketers seek new models to design campaigns, the advertising discipline of account planning offers an approach that can improve campaign development. The underlying principle of account planning is to bring the consumer perspective to all phases of campaign development, primarily through qualitative formative research. Account planners design the overall communication strategy and contribute to creative development of individual executions. The creative brief, a primary tool of account planning, is especially useful in conceptualizing campaigns. This report discusses the history and approach of account planning, followed by an example of account planning in the design of a social marketing campaign. PMID:22905947
Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard
A survey was conducted of 386 Danish and Hong Kong adolescents aged 11 to 16. Looking at socializing agents, respondents claimed that parents asked them to eat healthy food more often than the government publicity, teachers or friends. Parents were also perceived as being the most effective source in encouraging them to eat healthy food. Respondents considered news and fear appeals for communicating healthy eating the most effective, while popularity and achievement appeals were considered less effective. Respondents with higher collectivism scores showed a higher liking and perceived effectiveness of all five advertising appeals.
Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))
More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.
Full Text Available Impairments in the social use of language, or pragmatics, constitute a core characteristic of autism. Problems with pragmatic language have also been documented in fragile X syndrome, a monogenic condition that is the most common known genetic cause of autism. Evidence suggests that social cognitive ability, or theory of mind, may also be impaired in both conditions, and in autism, may importantly relate to pragmatic language ability. Given the substantial overlap observed in autism and FXS, this study aimed to better define those social-communicative phenotypes that overlap in these two conditions by comparing pragmatic language ability and theory of mind in children with idiopathic autism and children with FXS, with and without autism, as well as children with Down syndrome and typically developing controls. We further examined correlations between these cognitive-behavioral phenotypes and molecular genetic variation related to FMR1 in the FXS group. Results indicated that children with idiopathic autism and those with FXS and autism performed comparably on direct-assessment measures of pragmatic language and theory of mind, whereas those with FXS only did not differ from controls. Theory of mind was related to pragmatic language ability in all groups. Pragmatic language and theory of mind also correlated with genetic variation at the FMR1 locus (CGG repeats and percent methylation. These results point towards substantial overlap in the social and language phenotypes in autism and FXS and suggest a molecular genetic basis to these phenotypic profiles.
Full Text Available Of the many opportunities and affordances that mobile technologies bring to our day-to-day lives, the ability to cheat physical separation and remain accessible to each other—in an instant—also brings pressure to bear on well-established social conventions as to how we should act when we are engaged with others in shared spaces. In this paper we explore some ethical dimensions of mobile communication by considering the manner in which individuals in everyday contexts balance interpretations of emergent social conventions with personal desires to connect in the moment. As we later discuss, the decisions made in response to a ringing mobile phone or flashing text message emerge from consequential versus deontological ethical frames used to determine what to do versus what we ought to do. This is particularly true in western and North American cultural contexts from which our data are collected. Using Goffman's dramaturgy, we suggest that these conflicts occurring on an individual level provide evidence of social structure, and are simultaneously entwined with our less obvious ruminations on the maintenance of social order.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v4i2.1760
af Ekenstam, Anna
The cereal couture company, [me] & goji, is the dream of three young entrepreneurs. They were the first online company ever to provide the U.S market with customized cereal mix. This case study finds that online companies with an innovative product such as [me] & goji may benefit from using Social Networks as a marketing channel to communicate their Value Proposition. Supported by Roger's Adoption theory, selected theories on, Value Proposition, Social Networks, and qualitative data g...
Carers recognize that the linguistic problems associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be detrimental to effective communication, but they are often not sure what they can do to help. This article examines the use of formulaic language in AD, including routines, repetitions, and fillers, through the lens of a model of how cognitive and social…
Kolowitz, Brian J; Lauro, Gonzalo Romero; Venturella, James; Georgiev, Veliyan; Barone, Michael; Deible, Christopher; Shrestha, Rasu
The adoption of social media technologies appears to enhance clinical outcomes through improved communications as reported by Bacigalupe (Fam Syst Heal 29(1):1-14, 2011). The ability of providers to more effectively, directly, and rapidly communicate among themselves as well as with patients should strengthen collaboration and treatment as reported by Bacigalupe (Fam Syst Heal 29(1):1-14, 2011). This paper is a case study in one organization's development of an internally designed and developed social technology solution termed "Unite." The Unite system combines social technologies' features including push notifications, messaging, community groups, and user lists with clinical workflow and applications to construct dynamic provider networks, simplify communications, and facilitate clinical workflow optimization. Modeling Unite as a social technology may ease adoption barriers. Developing a social network that is integrated with healthcare information systems in the clinical space opens the doors to capturing and studying the way in which providers communicate. The Unite system appears to have the potential to breaking down existing communication paradigms. With Unite, a rich set of usage data tied to clinical events may unravel alternative networks that can be leveraged to advance patient care. PMID:24149968
Teodoro Rafael Wendlandt Amezaga
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to know the general condition of business communications regarding Corporate SocialResponsibility (CSR in large Mexican companies, and identify the significant differences in terms of a set ofindicators and in comparison with three different operational levels. Specifically, based in a relevant previousresearch work by Maignan and Ralston (2002 and analyzing the content of 150 Mexican business websites as asample frame, the study evaluates the differences in a set of CSR indicators divided in principles, processes andstakeholder issues. And then, compare these indicators among the national, international and multinational levelby utilizing the statistical Chi-square test. The main findings suggest a high prevalence of corporatecommunications regarding social responsibilities in large Mexican companies, especially from those that operateon a multinational level and coming from abroad. The performance-driven principle was found to be the mainmotivation behind CSR communications for all levels; quality programs were the most employed CSR process inorder to build a good citizenship image; and the stakeholder issues related to shareholders and the indicator ofservice/product quality from the customers group, were those found more significantly similar among thegroups.
Maria das Graças, Targino; Alisson Dias, Gomes.
Full Text Available Na atualidade, a mídia de referência enfrenta a propagação dos meios alternativos dirigidos à democratização das informações geradas por cidadãos comuns. O Canal*Motoboy constitui exemplo desta modalidade de comunicação. Sua proposta é consolidar uma estrutura aberta para dar voz ao coletivo de moto [...] boys de São Paulo (SP), Brasil. Devidamente treinados e recorrendo ao celular multimídia, registram seu dia a dia no website Canal*Motoboy. Este artigo analisa o projeto, a partir da concepção da comunicação para mudança social, uma vez que o direito à liberdade de expressão, historicamente, tem sido expropriado dos cidadãos por conta da expansão vertiginosa dos conglomerados comunicacionais. Além da revisão de literatura, o objeto de estudo segue perspectiva qualitativa mediante uso das técnicas de observação e de entrevista em profundidade para obtenção de informações complementares junto aos atores do coletivo. Abstract in spanish En la actualidad, los medios de comunicación de referencia se contraponen a la propagación de los medios alternativos dirigidos a la democratización de informaciones, generadas por ciudadanos comunes. El Canal*Motoboy constituye un ejemplo de esa modalidad de comunicación. Su propuesta es consolidar [...] una estructura abierta para dar voz al colectivo de motoboys de São Paulo (SP), Brasil. Debidamente entrenados y recurriendo al teléfono móvil multimedia, registran su día-a-día en el website Canal*Motoboy. Este artículo analiza este proyecto, a partir de la concepción de la comunicación para el cambio social, una vez que el derecho a la libertad de expresión, históricamente, ha sido expropiado de los ciudadanos por cuenta de la expansión de los conglomerados comunicacionales. Además de la revisión de literatura, el objeto de estudio se ha abordado desde una perspectiva cualitativa a través de la técnica de observación y de entrevista en profundidad para las informaciones de actores del colectivo. Abstract in english Nowadays, reference media faces the alternative media propagation, which uses different means and it is based on the work of independent producers who target the information democratization in every possible format at no cost and created by "common citizens". The Canal*Motoboy, a project by the Cata [...] lan Antoni Abad, is an example of this kind of communication. He aims to consolidate an open structure in order to give voice to motoboys¹ from São Paulo (SP), Brazil. After being properly trained and by using their multimedia cell phones, they register their routine on Canal*Motoboy website. This article analyzes the progress of this project, based on the communication for social change, once the right to freedom of expression, historically, has been expropriated from citizens on account of the expansion of communication conglomerates. The methodological approach will consist of observation and deep interview technique, as well as literature review.
Full Text Available Background: The resurgence of civil society has largely been attributed to the sector’s ability to exploit new interactive technologies and its ability to adapt its communication and mobilisation strategies.Objectives: This study focuses on how South African civil society organisations (CSOs deploy Web 2.0 services and technologies for social advocacy and the context of this technology use.Whilst the literature points to many studies relating to the use of the Internet for advocacy, it also suggests that the role and impact of emerging technologies have not been studied in any detail in CSOs. Such studies have the potential to provide new perspectives to current theoretical frameworks and also to add to the discourse around the use of emerging technologies for advocacy.Method: A survey of South African CSOs explored the level of knowledge of social media services and revealed which services in particular were being adopted.Results: The key findings that emerged were that the sector has a low level of knowledge of social media services and an accompanying low level of adoption. These are partly explained by factors such as macro-economic policies and low levels of Internet penetration and ICT readiness.Conclusion: Further research to determine why certain social media services have been embraced more willingly than others and an analysis of the patterns of adoption to determine any underlying significance or relationships is necessary. An analysis of how CSOs build their advocacy capabilities by appropriating social media and how they thus provide alternate discourses and agendas would be instructive.
Fagan, Mary K
This study investigated the reduplicated, or repetitive vocalizations of hearing infants and infants with profound hearing loss with and without cochlear implants using a new measure of repetition in order to address questions not only about the effects of cochlear implantation on repetitive babbling, but also about the reason repetitive vocalizations occur at all and why they emerge around 7 or 8months of age in hearing infants. Participants were 16 infants with profound hearing loss and 27 hearing infants who participated at a mean age of 9.9months and/or a mean age of 17.7months. Mean age at cochlear implantation for infants with profound hearing loss was 12.9months, and mean duration of implant use was 4.2months. The data show that before cochlear implantation, repetitive vocalizations were rare. However, 4months after cochlear implant activation, infants with hearing loss produced both repetitive vocalizations and repetitions per vocalization at levels commensurate with their hearing peers. The results support the hypothesis that repetition emerges as a means of vocal exploration during the time when hearing infants (and infants with cochlear implants) form auditory-motor representations and neural connections between cortical areas active in syllable production and syllable perception, during the transition from nonlinguistic to linguistic vocalization. PMID:25974171
Nicola J. Christofides
Full Text Available Globally, communication plays an integral role in public health strategies, from infectious diseases to diseases related to lifestyles. The evolution of the field of social and behaviour change communication (SBCC, combined with the need for evidence based practice and multi-level interventions to promote health, and human resource gaps in sub-Saharan Africa have led to the imperative to standardise and formalise the field. Moreover, current practitioners come from different disciplinary backgrounds underlining the need to define common core skills and competencies. This paper describes the partnership between the Wits School of Public Health and the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication and how the partners responded to this need. It highlights the factors influencing sustainable institutional capacity to provide quality assured, accredited training. We describe an unexpected positive response from a number of practitioner organisations that have chosen to send multiple staff members for training, specifically to build a critical mass within their organisations. Finally, we note the interest from (mostly southern-based academic institutions in setting up similar programmes and postulate that south–south collaborations can contribute to building sustainable context specific and evidence-informed SBCC programmes in the global south.
Social media and medical apps for smartphones and tablets are changing health communication, education and care. This change involves physicians and other health care professionals which for their education, training and updating have started to follow public pages and profiles opened by medical journals and professional societies on the online social networking sites (such as Facebook, Twitter and Google+), to access scientific content (videos, images, slides) available on user-generated contents sites (such as SlideShare, Pinterest and YouTube) or on health professional online communities such as Sermo, and to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets. As shown by a number of experiences conducted in US by health institutions such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Atlanta and hospitals such a the Mayo Clinic, these tools are also transforming the way to make health promotion activities and communication, promote healthy habits and lifestyles, and prevent chronic diseases. Finally this change involves patients which are starting to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets to monitor their diseases, and tools such as Patients Like Me (an online patients' community), Facebook and Twitter to share with others the same disease experience, to learn about the disease and treatments, and to find opinions on physicians, hospitals and medical centers. These new communication tools allow users to move to a kind of collaborative education and updating where news and contents (such as public health recommendations, results of the most recent clinical researches or medical guidelines) may be shared and discussed. PMID:23748682
Vela, Lori E.
Humor is an important aspect of interpersonal interactions as it is linked to the development and maintenance of relationships (Merolla, 2006). The purpose of this dissertation was to test the effect of a humor communication skills training program on the ability to minimize anti-social humor (i.e., aggressive, self-defeating) and enhance…
Priscilla Faria, Sousa-Morato; Fernanda Dreux Miranda, Fernandes.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar se há correlações significativas entre os dados referentes ao perfil funcional da comunicação e os dados da adaptação sócio-comunicativa obtidos por meio de entrevistas individuais com os pais e as terapeutas de crianças com Distúrbios do Espectro Autístico. MÉTODOS: foram sujeit [...] os deste estudo 48 crianças, com diagnóstico clínico incluído no espectro autístico com os quais foram coletados os dados para a determinação do perfil funcional da comunicação por meio de situação lúdica, buscando a espontaneidade comunicativa. Participaram ainda, os responsáveis, legais e pelo atendimento fonoaudiológico especializado, das 48 crianças, ou seja, 46 mães e dois pais e 15 terapeutas, respondendo individualmente a um questionário sobre o relacionamento social das crianças citadas. RESULTADOS: pode-se observar que os resultados referentes à adaptação sócio-comunicativa obtida a partir de entrevistas com terapeutas e pais apresentaram correlações significativas com o perfil funcional da comunicação. De forma geral, o estudo das correlações entre os aspectos do perfil comunicativo e da adaptação sócio-comunicativa não apresentou um grande número de correlações, sendo este número ainda menor quando os pais foram os informantes, demonstrando a interdependência das áreas estudas. CONCLUSÃO: uma das maiores evidências deste trabalho é que mesmo que as crianças do espectro autístico apresentem um desenvolvimento deficitário das habilidades de linguagem, cognição e socialização, ainda assim elas são capazes de extrair pistas lingüísticas e não-lingüísticas do meio comunicativo, e utilizá-las de forma contextual em sua vida social, associando-as com os ganhos na linguagem e no desempenho sócio-cognitivo. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to check if there are any significant correlations among the data on the functional communicative profile and social-communicative adaptation obtained in individual interviews with parents and therapists of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). METHODS: subjects were: 48 children [...] with psychiatric diagnosis within the autistic spectrum whose functional communicative profile was obtained in play sessions with a language therapist; 48 parents (46 mothers and 2 fathers) and 15 language therapists that answered individually to questionnaires about the children's social performance. RESULTS: it could be observed that the results referring to the social communicative adaptation obtained with the therapists and parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders showed significant correlations with the functional communicative profile. Data on social communicative performance provided by the therapists showed more significant correlations with the functional communicative profile than those obtained with the parents. The number of correlations was generically smaller when the parents provided data on social communicative performance. CONCLUSION: one of the most important results of this study is the evidence that even though ASD children present important deficits in language development, cognition and social abilities, they can be able to extract linguistic and non-linguistic clues from the communicative environment and use them in their social live along with linguistic and social-cognitive improvements.
30 working-class and 33 upper-middle-class mothers were videotaped in dyadic interaction with their 18-29-month-old children in 4 settings--mealtime, dressing, book reading, and toy play. Samples of the mothers' adult-directed speech also were collected. There were significant social class differences in the mothers' child-directed speech and some parallel social class differences in the mothers' adult-directed speech. These findings suggested that some social class differences in child-directed speech may be instances of more general class differences in language use. There also were main effects of communicative setting on mothers' child-directed speech and interaction effects in which setting moderated the size of the class differences in maternal speech. These findings suggested that the amount of time mothers spend interacting with their children in different contexts may be at least as important an influence on children's linguistic experience as are average characteristics of their mothers' speech. PMID:1935343
Beyer, Heiko; Liebe, Ulf
Empirical research on discrimination is faced with crucial problems stemming from the specific character of its object of study. In democratic societies the communication of prejudices and other forms of discriminatory behavior is considered socially undesirable and depends on situational factors such as whether a situation is considered private or whether a discriminatory consensus can be assumed. Regular surveys thus can only offer a blurred picture of the phenomenon. But also survey experiments intended to decrease the social desirability bias (SDB) so far failed in systematically implementing situational variables. This paper introduces three experimental approaches to improve the study of discrimination and other topics of social (un-)desirability. First, we argue in favor of cognitive context framing in surveys in order to operationalize the salience of situational norms. Second, factorial surveys offer a way to take situational contexts and substitute behavior into account. And third, choice experiments - a rather new method in sociology - offer a more valid method of measuring behavioral characteristics compared to simple items in surveys. All three approaches - which may be combined - are easy to implement in large-scale surveys. Results of empirical studies demonstrate the fruitfulness of each of these approaches. PMID:25432623
Kolowitz, Brian J.; Lauro, Gonzalo Romero; Venturella, James; Georgiev, Veliyan; Barone, Michael; Deible, Christopher; Shrestha, Rasu
The adoption of social media technologies appears to enhance clinical outcomes through improved communications as reported by Bacigalupe (Fam Syst Heal 29(1):1-14, 2011). The ability of providers to more effectively, directly, and rapidly communicate among themselves as well as with patients should strengthen collaboration and treatment as reported by Bacigalupe (Fam Syst Heal 29(1):1-14, 2011). This paper is a case study in one organization's development of an internally designed and develop...
Knox, Justin; Reddy, Vasu; Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Nel, Dawie; Sandfort, Theo
This study assessed whether social cognitive constructs, situational factors, and individual characteristics were associated with communicating HIV status and whether communication was related to sexual risk behavior. A quota-sampling method stratified by age, race, and township was used to recruit 300 men who have sex with men to participate in a community-based survey in Pretoria in 2008. Participants reported characteristics of their last sexual encounter involving anal sex, including whet...
Fung, Suk Chun
Context • Although research has shown that animal-assisted play therapy (AAPT) is associated with increased positive social behaviors in children with autism, the related literature on AAPT and autism is very limited. Objectives • The study tested the effectiveness of AAPT in increasing the social communication of a boy with autism. The treatment's effects on specific types of social communication were also investigated. Design • An A-B-A single-subject design was adopted to examine treatment effectiveness. Follow-up assessments were made at 1 mo posttreatment. Setting • The videotaped treatment sessions were held in the multipurpose room of the participant's school. Participant • A 7-y-old boy who had a diagnosis of autism and mild-grade intellectual disability participated in the study. Intervention • AAPT was implemented in 20-min sessions held 3 ×/wk. The 14 AAPT sessions occurred in 4 phases, covering child-dog relationship building and interaction in the presence of the therapist, with the diminishing presence of the dog occurring in phase 4.Outcome Measures • Naturally occurring social behaviors were measured in 3 baseline sessions, during the 14 AAPT sessions, during 3 posttreatment sessions, and again during 3 follow-up sessions. Momentary time sampling was used to estimate the frequency of target behaviors, using a 15-s interval. Behavioral categories were checked at every interval during each 20-min session in all 23 sessions. Results • The study showed that the boy's social communication increased during treatment and remained higher than baseline at follow-up. An analysis of specific types of social communication showed that the benefits of AAPT were most apparent in the joint-attention and waiting behaviors. Conclusions • The findings provide support for using AAPT as an intervention to facilitate the social communication of children with autism. PMID:26026154
This paper connects the effects of social media on terror/anti-terror communication with dynamics and consequences of surveillance. Citizens become via social media more independent from mass media and more interconnected. This is also valid when citizens engage in terror/anti-terror communication. However, via social media citizens also become targets of the ‘collect-it-all’ surveillance, which was revealed to the global public in 2013. I argue that due to such surveillance some citizens might start to censor themselves and that surveillance inflicts with a number of human rights. I further argue that social media contribute to extending surveillance: by being a temptation for intelligence services, by not resisting state authorities and via constructing threat perceptions among populations which in effect deliver security politicians ‘windows of opportunity’ in order to implement ever more surveillance.
Kampf, Constance Elizabeth
How do web 2.0 and mobile technologies affect the available means for interaction between consumers and corporations? What are the implications for communicating corporate social responsibility? Gee (1996:6) states that “When we write or read, speak or listen, we coordinate and are coordinated by specific identities, specific ways of using language, various objects, tools, technologies, sites and institutions, as well as other people’s minds and bodies.” Using Gee’s focus on the connection between language use, technology and context as part of identities in interaction, this paper explores the potential and implications of mobile technologies for the communication of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The Good Guide iPod application is a mini third party database of product rankings in terms of social responsibility towards consumer health, environmental impact and social effects of production. It offers a space for examining the potential impacts of a technology mediated interaction between consumers and corporations.
The SRP held a very interesting meeting in June at the Daresbury Laboratory in Warrington on the social and political implications of communicating radiation risk. In today's risk-aware society, effective communication is just as important as the control measures introduced to prevent or restrict exposure. In relation to radiation protection, risk communicators had a hard job because of: Public dread Likelihood of risk intensification Perceived inequitable distribution of risks. The higher the uncertainty, the more wary people were likely to be. Julie cited the International Nuclear Events Scale (INES) as a possible tool for promoting a consistent message across all publics. This was because it aimed to put events into proper perspective and provide a common understanding amongst the nuclear community, the media and the public. Julie summed up by saying that the risk communication was not just any form of communication and the issue of communicating radiation risks involved special consideration. Further research established that the more information given to the local population, the more likely that they would deny that there was a problem. Denial could moderate beliefs or emotional reactions to a situation. This then affected their dose as they were more likely to adopt risky behaviour by eating contaminated food and entering contaminated areas. Avoiding the need to undertake safe behaviour reduced stress levels. Furthermore, people adopted beliefs to suit their situation. For example, some inhabitants of the affected areas became adapted to the radiation and actually felt worse outside the contaminated area. There was strong pressure for the maintenance of a situation which actually prevented appropriate precautions being taken. Peter concluded that there was often confusion over the details of technical information that sometimes might not help to prevent a course of action being taken. However on a positive note the research did find credence and positive regard given to peer-provided information. In addition, the information on good practice developed by local focus groups in the area was actually used to limit personal dose. The conclusion was that key information should concentrate on what people needed to know in order to deal with everyday life. My personal conclusion for the day was that it could take time to set in motion partnerships for the future, but that should not stop us from laying down foundations on which to develop stakeholder dialogue for radiation protection. The future of radiation protection is likely to continue to evolve and we need to engage in active debate to help to secure a sustainable decision-making process
Imaizumi, Kazuo; Priebe, Nicholas J.; Cheung, Steven W.; Schreiner, Christoph E.
Auditory cortex updates incoming information on a segment by segment basis for human speech and animal communication. Measuring repetition rate transfer functions (RRTFs) captures temporal responses to repetitive sounds. In this study, we used repetitive click trains to describe the spatial distribution of RRTF responses in cat anterior auditory field (AAF) and to discern potential variations in local temporal processing capacity. A majority of RRTF filters are band pass. Temporal parameters ...
Hoff, Jens Villiam; Hansen, Kasper MØller
This article presents a study of nine leading candidates’ communication on Facebook during the parliament election campaign in Denmark in fall 2011. It relates their communication to the historical use of social media in Denmark by politicians, to Danish candidate campaign communication in general and to survey data about media use during the election campaign. Analysis of the content of 612 status updates and their likes and comments reveal that the most popular content are content which center on politics, not election campaign activities or private life. Media references are used extensively. We conclude that certain types of content may win Facebook, but the election itself is still largely won through TV.
Roberto López Dosagües
Full Text Available Resumen El presente artículo es parte de una investigación doctoral, que analiza un aspecto del uso de las tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones en la primera década del siglo XXI, en un objeto específico del conocimiento: el sociohumanístico. El objetivo propuesto es demostrar desde esta área del saber, que lejos de eliminar el trabajo repetitivo, aburrido y tedioso, además de mejorar el acceso a la información, el entrenamiento y la calidad de la justicia social y la democracia, la realidad en el uso de estas tecnologías ha estado casi siempre del lado opuesto, dando lugar a nuevas divisiones o profundizando las ya existentes. Los métodos de Observación, Análisis y Síntesis, así como el Análisis Documental, especialmente durante la aplicación de la técnica del análisis de contenidos de bibliografía y datos estadísticos, fue la metodología empleada en la obtención de los resultados. Se develan maneras disímiles de usos del conocimiento sociohumanístico en su digitalización, desde las redes informáticas a nivel internacional. Propone a su vez, modos de usarlos para construir un futuro mejor y permita desarrollar lo que es vital para la vida humana, a partir de la formulación de objetivos e instrumentos que favorezcan su difusión y empleo. ¿Tecnologías para qué y para quién? Ni los objetivos ni los instrumentos pueden ser neutrales respecto a estas preguntas. Abstract This article is part of a doctoral research, which examines one aspect of the use of information technology and communications in the first decade of the 21st century, in a given area of knowledge: humanities and social sciences. The objective of the investigations is to demonstrate from this area of knowledge that the reality on the use of these technologies has almost always been on the opposite side, creating new divisions or deepening existing ones. Far from eliminating repetitive, boring, tedious work, this area of knowledge improves access to information, training and quality of social justice and democracy. The methods used were Observations, Analysis an Synthesis, and Documentary Analysis, especially when applying the technique of content analysis of literature and statistical data. In this work are revealed different uses of the social-humanistic knowledge in digitizing this information using informatics. In the investigation are proposed the methods to employ this knowledge to build a better future from the use of instruments that favor their application. Technology: for whom and for what? Neither the objectives nor the instruments can be neutral with respect to these questions.
Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard
A survey was conducted of 386 Danish and Hong Kong adolescents aged 11 to 16. Results showed that the consumption of relatively unhealthy food was common among respondents. Looking at socializing agents, respondents claimed that parents asked them to eat healthy food more often than the government publicity, teachers or friends. Parents were also perceived as being the most effective source in encouraging them to eat healthy food. Respondents considered news and fear appeals for communicating healthy eating the most effective, while popularity and achievement appeals were considered less effective. There were some gender and age differences in the liking and perceived effectiveness of five advertising appeals. Respondents with higher collectivism scores showed a higher liking and perceived effectiveness of advertising appeals.
Lewis, Mark A; Dicker, Adam P
The relationship between patient and physician is in flux with the advent of electronic media that are advancing and enhancing communication. We perform a retrospective, current, and forward-looking examination of the technologies by which information is exchanged within the healthcare community. The evolution from e-mail and listservs to blogs and the modern social networks is described, with emphasis on the advantages and pitfalls of each medium, especially in regard to maintaining the standards of privacy and professionalism to which doctors are held accountable. We support the use of contemporary platforms like Twitter and Facebook for physicians to establish themselves as trustworthy online sources of medical knowledge, and anticipate ongoing collaboration between researchers, patients, and their advocates in trial design and accrual. PMID:26433557
Full Text Available The community of Las Calles, located in Traslasierra Valley, in the westof CórdobaProvince, Argentina, is characterised by a unique combination of rural and touristiclife anda largeurban to rural migration movement. In this sense, a diversity of cultural groups and identities coexist in thiscommunity. These cultural groups are part of “culture” as a strategic arena for the understanding of the tensions that tear apart and reconcile the “being together”continuum.This paper analyses social representations and interactions among actors from emergingand existing cultures (hippies and paisas, respectively in this rural community, as well as the emergence of newcodesand citizenshippractices. Citizenship interactions and practices demand the review and redesign of the “current” sociocultural integration and management policies. Here is where strategic communication can and must contribute to the promotion of this community’s territorial and local development.
Harrop, Clare; Shire, Stephanie; Gulsrud, Amanda; Chang, Ya-Chih; Ishijima, Eric; Lawton, Kathy; Kasari, Connie
Due to the predominance of boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently. Research specifically focusing on play and social-communication in girls with ASD is extremely varied. We were interested in whether girls with ASD demonstrated equivalent social-communication and play skills in early childhood…
Skuse, David H.; Mandy, William D.; Steer, Colin; Miller, Laura L.; Lawrence, Kate; Amond, Alan; Golding, Jean
Results from a Social and Communication Disorders Checklist finds that the scores were continuously distributed in the general population and that boys had mean scores 30 percent higher than girls. Above-average verbal IQ appears to protect female subjects from social communication impairments but not in male subjects. Participants to the study…
MIGUEL ÁNGEL, IBARRA LÓPEZ.
Full Text Available La comunicación estratégica como soporte para la gestión del riesgo evidencia su efectividad en los procesos que generan impacto en la sociedad, como los desastres naturales. Solo ahí se mide la eficacia de las acciones propuestas en los planes estratégicos para la gestión del riesgo y socializadas [...] gracias a la comunicación social. La apuesta sobre la comunicación se convierte en un elemento fundamental, en la medida en que logra facilitar el diálogo de todos los actores sociales, el manejo de conceptos técnicos y la apropiación del tema por medio de estrategias comunicativas que generan conciencia en la población más vulnerable. La comunicación estratégica soportada desde otros conceptos del campo comunicacional trasciende sobre la simple herramienta, para convertirse en un proceso base, consciente, proyectivo, direccionado, metodológico e innovador. Abstract in english As a support for risk management, strategic communication makes evident its effectiveness on the processes that have great impact on societies, such as natural disasters. Unfortunately, only in those moments the real scope of effectiveness of the actions proposed in the strategic plans for Risk Mana [...] gement, and socialized via social communication, is truly measured. The commitment to communication becomes an essential element as it promotes the dialogue between all the social actors. It also promotes the command of technical concepts and the apprehension of topics related to the issue, through communicative strategies that generate consciousness on vulnerable population. In addition, it helps to the implementation of the real concept of sustained local development, as an unavoidable factor to think about disaster risk prevention.
The web site that has illustrated characters to navigate information pertaining to unfamiliar issue such as high-level radioactive waste geological disposal is an effective method. However, since the information was provided mainly from a pro-nuclear power generation group, it resulted in frustration for the web site user because viewpoints outside the group were not considered nor the explanations were based on only rational aspects, the persuasive explanation based on technical viewpoints in other words. To close this communication gap, this research aims to enhance a better sense of involvement and social collaboration by creating an interactive communication model promoting emotional acceptance and independent thinking with Web system. This purpose was accomplished by the dialog-mode explanation and the scenarios with norm activation theory supported by facial expressions of the illustrated navigators to stimulate the emotional involvement of viewers and the specialists' reliable response on the electrical bulletin board system, then we conducted preparatory experiments concerning its effects and assessed its affectiveness by making this model available over the Internet. (author)
Adilen Carpio Camacho
Full Text Available The present investigation describes the intervention made in an organization in S.Spiritus territory by means of taking into account the identification and priority of the main problems that affected the development of managers. The incidence on communicative competences as the main difficulty to be solved is based on the development of a Psycho- social training, where it is combined the use of diagnostic and formative methods, as well as techniques that lead to the acquisition of abilities and the behavior modification, all of them supported by the different working session recordings and helped by the assessment of the participants to show and make conscious the behaviors tendencies. The main results, showed modification in the manager communicative competences before and after the training was applied, so it contributed to a better management of the contradiction among the orientation in itself, on the other person and in the problem as such, which made possible a correct guidance of the conflict situations.
Boyd, Brian A.; McDonough, Stephen G.; Rupp, Betty; Khan, Faraaz; James W. Bodfish
The restricted and repetitive behaviors of children with autism can interfere with family functioning as well as learning and socialization opportunities for the child. To date, neither pharmacological nor comprehensive behavioral treatments have been found to be consistently effective at significantly reducing children’s engagement in repetitive behaviors. We developed Family-Implemented Treatment for Behavioral Inflexibility (FITBI) to target the full variety of repetitive behaviors found i...
This paper examines the different social categories that are made relevant when geographically dispersed speakers of English as an additional language communicate in chat rooms. Although the literature characterizes these interactions as English as a lingua franca, this paper explores to what extent interactants see themselves as lingua franca…
Ward, Sandra C.; Whalon, Kelly; Rusnak, Katrina; Wendell, Kimberly; Paschall, Nancy
This study investigated the association between therapeutic riding (TR) and the social communication and sensory processing skills of 21 elementary students with autism attending TR as part of a school group. An interrupted treatment design was employed to determine whether children were able to maintain treatment effects following the removal of…
Vaiouli, Potheini; Grimmet, Kharon; Ruich, Lawrence J.
Young children with autism spectrum disorder meet significant challenges in joint attention skills and in social communication. A child-centered, improvisational, music therapy intervention model was implemented to promote engagement in three young children with autism in a kindergarten classroom. A multiple baseline design compared the…
Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.; Snell, Martha E.
The current study evaluated the turn-taking skills of preschoolers with disabilities who participated in a social communication intervention that targeted initiations, responses, and turn-taking skills, and taught children to repair and revise and to avoid interruptions and overlaps. Ten children who enrolled in an inclusive at-risk classroom met…
Kjellmer, Liselotte; Olswang, Lesley B.
Purpose: In this study, the authors examined how variability in classroom social communication performance differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and pair-matched, typically developing peers. Method: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms, 40 min per day (20 min per child) for 4 days over a…
Summerfield, Christopher; Monti, Jim M.P.; Trittschuh, Emily H.; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; Egner, Tobias
Stimulus-evoked neural activity is attenuated upon stimulus repetition (‘repetition suppression’), a phenomenon attributed to largely automatic processes in sensory neurons. By manipulating the likelihood of stimulus repetition, we show that repetition suppression in the human brain is reduced when stimulus repetitions are improbable (and thus, unexpected). These data suggest that repetition suppression reflects a relative reduction in top-down perceptual ‘prediction error’ when processing an...
Landry, Susan H; Smith, Karen E; Swank, Paul R
Mothers whose infants varied in early biological characteristics (born at term, n = 120; born at very low birth weight [VLBW], n = 144) were randomized to a target group (n = 133) or developmental feedback comparison group (n = 131) to determine whether learning responsive behaviors would facilitate infant development. The target condition included videotaped examples, problem-solving activities, and mothers' critique of their own behaviors through video procedures across 10 home visits. All target versus comparison mothers showed greater increases across multiple responsiveness behaviors observed in 4 assessments conducted across 6-13 months of age; changes in emotionally supportive behaviors were strongest for target mothers of infants born at VLBW. Increased maternal responsiveness facilitated greater growth in target infants' social, emotional, communication, and cognitive competence, supporting a causal role for responsiveness on infant development. Although benefits were generally comparable across risk groups, aspects of social and emotional skills showed greater change for those born at VLBW. Evidence for responsiveness as a multidimensional construct was provided as well as the importance of different aspects of responsiveness mediating the effect of the intervention on different infant skill domains. PMID:16802896
Kuenssberg, Renate; McKenzie, Karen; Jones, Jill
Research continues to try and pinpoint the etiological role of particular genes and brain structure in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), but despite a host of biological, genetic and neuropsychological research, the symptom profile of pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) are not yet linked to etiological theory. Debate continues around whether…
Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Massagli, Angelo
Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a popular augmentative communication system frequently used with "nonverbal" children with autism. Several studies suggested that PECS could represent an effective tool for promoting improvement of several social-communicative skills. Only sparse evidence is instead…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recurrent pain is a common complaint among adolescents. Children learn to resolve or cope with pain largely through family dynamics, particularly maternal influences. By adolescence, young people possess an array of pain behaviors, the culmination of multiple opportunities for modeling and reinforcement of attitudes and beliefs about pain. Adolescence is a time of increased autonomy characterized by, among other complex factors, significant increases in peer influence. Although peers are influential in health-risk behavior, little is known how peers impact adolescents' pain experience. The present study explored the role of peers in adolescents' attitudes toward pain, pain behaviors and over-the-counter analgesics. Methods Sixty-minute focus groups were conducted with a sample 24 junior high school students from Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada (11 male: mean age = 13.45 years, range = 12–15 years; 13 female: mean age = 13.31 years, range = 12–15 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of five same-gender focus groups designed to explore a wide breadth and depth of information. Sessions were run until theoretical data saturation. Textual data, from transcribed audiotapes, were analyzed with the constant comparative method. Results Peer influences were apparent in how adolescents communicate about pain and how those communications effect pain expression. Overt pain responses to injury were primarily contextual and depended on perceived threats to peer-time and pain severity. Adolescents were intolerant of peers' pain behaviors when the cause was perceived as not severe. These attitudes impacted how adolescents responded to their own pain; males were careful not to express embarrassing pain in front of peers, females felt no restrictions on pain talk or pain expression. Evidence for peer influence on attitudes toward OTC analgesics was apparent in perceptions of over-use and ease of access. Findings are discussed within the context of social information-processing and gender role expectations. Conclusion Little research has addressed how young people experience pain within the context of the psychosocial influences that dominate during adolescence. The findings provide some insight into the role of peer influences via verbal and non-verbal communication, in adolescents' pain experience. This exploratory study is a necessary first step in understanding the socialization of adolescents' pain experiences.
Research Summary The main focus of this research is on the study of stakeholders' naturally occurring reactions to corporate crisis and crisis communication. The literature review aimed to combine situational crisis communication framework (SCCT) with the strategic public relations management theory to establish an idea of strategic two-way crisis communication. The case study evidence is drawn from the Toyota USA Facebook site in relation to the Toyota recall crisis in 2009-2011 and studi...
Full Text Available This article approaches the subject of social robots by focusing on the emotional relations people establish with media and information and communication technology (ICTs in their everyday life. It examines human-technology-relation from a social studies point of view, seeking to raise questions that enable us to make a connection between the research on human relationships and the topic of human-technology relation, especially human-humanoid-relation. In order to explore the human-technology-relations, theoretical ideas of a mediatization of communication and of a ritual interaction order are applied. Ritual theory is particularly used to enable a focus on emotion as a significant dimension in analyzing social technologies. This explorative article refers to empirical findings regarding media communication practices in close relationships. It argues that following the developed approach regarding mediatized and ritualized relational practices, useful insights for a conceptualization of the human-social robot relation can be achieved. The article concludes with remarks regarding the challenge of an empirical approach to human-social robot-relations.
O’Nions, Elizabeth; Tick, Beata; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Happé, Francesca; Plomin, Robert; Ronald, Angelica; Viding, Essi
Background Difficulties in appropriate social interaction are characteristic of both children with autism spectrum disorders and children with callous-unemotional traits (who are at risk of developing psychopathy). Extant experimental studies suggest that the nature of atypical social cognition that characterises these two profiles is not identical. However, ‘empathizing’ difficulties have been hypothesised for both groups, raising questions about the degree of aetiological separation between social impairments that characterize each disorder. This study explored the relative contribution of independent vs. shared aetiological influences to social and communication impairments associated with autistic traits and callous-unemotional traits, indexed by parent-report in a population-based cohort of twins. Methods Participants were over 5,000 twin pairs from a UK cohort (the Twins Early Development Study; TEDS), assessed for callous-unemotional traits at 7 years and autistic social and communication impairments at 8 years. Multivariate model-fitting was used to explore the relative contribution of independent vs. overlapping genetic/environmental influences on these traits. Results Both social and communication impairments and callous-unemotional traits were highly heritable, although the genetic and environmental influences accounting for individual differences on each domain were predominantly independent. Conclusions Extant evidence from experimental and neuro-imaging studies has suggested that, despite some superficially overlapping behaviours, the social difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and callous-unemotional traits are largely distinct. The current study is the first to demonstrate considerable aetiological independence of the social interaction difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and those with callous-unemotional traits. PMID:26325039
Fatih Gecti; Ikram Dastan
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of social media-focused information & communicationtechnologies on business performance via some mediating variables. These mediating variables aremarketing-based outputs and costs. In this context, a survey was conducted on 152 communication &advertising agencies operating in Turkey that were selected through convenience sampling method. A researchmodel was developed and the proposed relationships were tested using structural eq...
Cho, Jaehee; Park, Dong Jin; Ordonez, Zoa
The main goal of this study was to assess how the millennial generation perceives companies that have different social media policies and how such perception influences key variables for job-seeking behaviors, including perceived person-organization fit (POF), organizational attraction, and job pursuit intention. Results from a univariate general linear model and path analysis supported all of the established hypotheses. In particular, the results revealed that millennials perceived higher POF for a company with organizational policies supporting employees' social media use. Further, organizational attractiveness significantly mediated the relationship between communication-oriented POF and job pursuit intention. PMID:23848961
Cowart, Hugh S.; Scott, David W.
A paper written for the SpaceOps 2012 Conference (Simplify ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping via Social Tools and Techniques) identified three innovative concepts for real time flight control communications tools based on social mechanisms: a) Console Log Tool (CoLT) - A log keeping application at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) that provides "anywhere" access, comment and notifications features similar to those found in Social Networking Systems (SNS), b) Cross-Log Communication via Social Techniques - A concept from Johnsson Space Center's (JSC) Mission Control Center Houston (MCC-H) that would use microblogging's @tag and #tag protocols to make information/requests visible and/or discoverable in logs owned by @Destination addressees, and c) Communications Dashboard (CommDash) - A MSFC concept for a Facebook-like interface to visually integrate and manage basic console log content, text chat streams analogous to voice loops, text chat streams dedicated to particular conversations, generic and position-specific status displays/streams, and a graphically based hailing display. CoLT was deployed operationally at nearly the same time as SpaceOps 2012, the Cross- Log Communications idea is currently waiting for a champion to carry it forward, and CommDash was approved as a NASA Iinformation Technoloby (IT) Labs project. This paper discusses lessons learned from two years of actual CoLT operations, updates CommDash prototype development status, and discusses potential for using Cross-Log Communications in both MCC-H and/or POIC environments, and considers other ways for synergizing console applcations.
Berg, Daniel; Källstedt, Ylva
In the society of today social media occupies an ever increasingly part in the life of the modern man. Social media has become a common tool in communicating thoughts, ideas and information for companies, authorities and private individu--? als alike. This papers purpose was that through a case study examine what form an authority’s textual communication through social media (in the form of Facebook and Twitter), web page and traditional ads takes and a...
Stanish WD; Forsythe ME; O'Neil BA
OBJECTIVE: To review common repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) that occur in the workplace, emphasizing diagnosis, treatment, and etiology of these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from January 1966 to June 1999 focused on articles published since 1990 because RSIs are relatively new diagnoses. MeSH headings that were explored using the thesaurus included "cumulative trauma disorder," "overuse injury," and "repetitive strain injury." The search was limited to English articles ...
Non-verbal children with autism are candidates for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). One type of AAC device is a voice output communication aid (VOCA). The primary drawbacks of past VOCAs were their expense and portability. Newer iPod-based VOCAs alleviate these concerns. This dissertation sought to extend the iPod-based VOCA…
Recent times have seen an increasing prevalence and incidence of children with ASD in school settings. Social, cognitive, and language process deficits directly impact the ability of children with ASD to effectively functioning within the complex social setting of schools. In particular, deficits are noted in the areas of social communication and…
Coon Hilary; Villalobos Michele E; Robison Reid J; Camp Nicola J; Cannon Dale S; Allen-Brady Kristina; Miller Judith S; McMahon William M
Abstract Background Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are phenotypically heterogeneous, characterized by impairments in the development of communication and social behaviour and the presence of repetitive behaviour and restricted interests. Dissecting the genetic complexity of ASD may require phenotypic data reflecting more detail than is offered by a categorical clinical diagnosis. Such data are available from the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) which is a continuous, quantitative measure of...
María Dolores Meneses Fernández
Full Text Available Los títulos de Comunicación Social despejan una nueva consideración universitaria de un sector pujante que aúna las facetas económica y cultural: las industrias audiovisual, periodística y publicitaria. Este artículo revisa cómo la sociedad de la información, la comunicación y el conocimiento y el mercado laboral obligan a potenciar la formación universitaria en competencias demandadas por las industrias creativo-culturales. Estamos ante un nuevo encaje de la universidad con el mundo profesional y la sociedad. Un mundo global abierto por las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación reaviva la competitividad basada en la formación altamente cualificada, apelando a la conciliación entre universidad y empresa que afrontan la readecuación de unas interrelaciones no siempre bien entendidas.The beginning of spanish degrees in Social Communication clears renewed consideration by university in a sector that combines economic and cultural facets: multimedia industries. This paper reviews how the information society and professional market requires renew elements for graduates in creative and cultural industries. The reasons to modernizing higher education are new professions at a Knowledge Society. University administrator and business world are facing an adaptation of relationship not always well understood. Social Communication is inserted in a global world opened by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. This situation revives the competitiveness based on qualified professionals, and conciliation between companies and universities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians who hold medical disability assessment interviews (social insurance physicians are probably influenced by stereotypes of claimants, especially because they have limited time available and they have to make complicated decisions. Because little is known about the influences of stereotyping on assessment interviews, the objectives of this paper were to qualitatively investigate: (1 the content of stereotypes used to classify claimants with regard to the way in which they communicate; (2 the origins of such stereotypes; (3 the advantages and disadvantages of stereotyping in assessment interviews; and (4 how social insurance physicians minimise the undesirable influences of negative stereotyping. Methods Data were collected during three focus group meetings with social insurance physicians who hold medical disability assessment interviews with sick-listed employees (i.e. claimants. The participants also completed a questionnaire about demographic characteristics. The data were qualitatively analysed in Atlas.ti in four steps, according to the grounded theory and the principle of constant comparison. Results A total of 22 social insurance physicians participated. Based on their responses, a claimant's communication was classified with regard to the degree of respect and acceptance in the physician-claimant relationship, and the degree of dominance. Most of the social insurance physicians reported that they classify claimants in general groups, and use these classifications to adapt their own communication behaviour. Moreover, the social insurance physicians revealed that their stereotypes originate from information in the claimants' files and first impressions. The main advantages of stereotyping were that this provides a framework for the assessment interview, it can save time, and it is interesting to check whether the stereotype is correct. Disadvantages of stereotyping were that the stereotypes often prove incorrect, they do not give the complete picture, and the claimant's behaviour changes constantly. Social insurance physicians try to minimise the undesirable influences of stereotypes by being aware of counter transference, making formal assessments, staying neutral to the best of their ability, and being compassionate. Conclusions We concluded that social insurance physicians adapt their communication style to the degree of respect and dominance of claimants in the physician-claimant relationship, but they try to minimise the undesirable influences of stereotypes in assessment interviews. It is recommended that this issue should be addressed in communication skills training.
Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR; in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function
'Social media' is a term referring to various activities that integrate technology, social interaction and content creation. Social media can also be thought of as a way of using technology to 'enable conversations' that take place outside of the constraints of time and location - people can access the information any time of the day or night, from anywhere. Social media builds on the communication advances - and advantages of the Internet - but has increasingly become a communication vehicle far surpassing its predecessor. It is fast, cheap to the consumer, easily available and part of the fabric of people's lives. Social media also magnifies information as it enables conversation that everyone can participate in. Videos 'go viral' and are seen by millions of people, tweets are re-tweeted again and again, and information is 'shared' to multiplicities of friends on Facebook. Public relations practitioners around the world have been paying attention to social media as an important communication tool. Research done in 2010 by the public relations firm Burston-Marsteller found that eight of 10 Fortune Global 100 companies used at least one of the most popular social media platforms i.e. Twitter, Facebook, YouTube or corporate blogging. In the United States, virtually all of the major federal agencies use at least some of the 'big four' platforms. Many, if not all, of the nuclear regulatory organisations (NROs) represented in the Working Group on Public Communication use at least some social media. At a minimum, they are monitoring social media as they are also monitoring traditional media. However, a post-Fukushima informal poll indicated many nations' nuclear regulators are looking at broadening their social media use, although some may not know how to proceed, and everyone can benefit from the 'lessons learned' by others. This report outlines the most popular social media tools available today, provides tips and techniques that have worked for nuclear regulators around the world, and when appropriate, provides case studies and links to help regulators create, maintain or improve their social media usage. It is important to note that social media moves very quickly, and many of the statistics provided by the NROs for initial versions of this report are now outdated. In addition, in some instances, NROs not cited in this report are now using social media platforms as new additions to their communication and outreach programs. It is also expected that new social media platforms will be presenting themselves as future options, and some platforms may fall out of favour over time. With that in mind, this report will be fully updated with new information, statistics and case studies in a few years. To make it easy to access online, and to enhance readability, the web sites cited throughout this report are embedded in the text rather than written out in their entirety. (authors)
If you work in front of a computer a lot, you are probably a candidate for Repetitive-Stress Injuries (RSI). This article from TECHWR-L entitled, Avoiding Repetitive-Stress Injuries: A Guide for the Technical Communicator gives some helpful tips for preventing the aches, pains, hand problems and eye strain associated with repeated computer usage. The article discusses different mouse options, keyboard options, and other adjustments you can make to lessen your risk of RSI and make typing at the computer a little more pleasant. Additional links at the bottom provide further information on healthy computing.
Veuillotte, Isabelle; Morel, Gilles; Pitois, Stephane; Haler, Renaud; Mercier, Patricia; Aubry, Catherine; Cannet, Didier
The popularity of social networks and the huge number of exchanges have made them immensely important for the communication of information. This French study explored prevention in hereditary breast cancer using a social Internet network to communicate information. The principal objective was to inform French women aged from 20 to 50 years, using the social network Facebook, about the warning signs of breast cancer in cases of a predisposition to the disease due to a genetic mutation. The secondary objectives were to inform people about screening. An information page entitled "hereditary breast cancer: and if I was concerned?" was distributed in 3 different ways: from friend to friend, via groups of persons, and by targeted advertising. Four articles and 11 messages were distributed over 27 days. The total number of visits for this period amounted to 1019. A total of 81 percent of the Internauts were women and 55 percent of the visitors were aged between 25 and 44 years. Other information campaigns concerning public health issues could be conducted using this tool. A legal framework is necessary to preserve the quality of the medical information provided. This new means of communication, used for prevention purposes, will add to other frequently used methods of communication. PMID:25784641
Tomei, G; Cinti, M E; Cerratti, D; Fioravanti, M
Repetitive work in occupational settings often requires a combination of mental and physical demands, but few studies were conducted concerning the relationship between attention and repetitive work. In attentive and cognitive tasks, it is common to observe effort and fatigue without the presence of those neuromuscular modifications that would justify the use of these terms. Therefore, we can talk about mental fatigue in those cases in which it is observed the exhaustion of the necessary resources for the execution of a job that doesn't demand the employment of neuromuscular apparatus. Scientific literature about this argument consists of experimental studies which aim to estimate at what extent attentive demands exspecially cognitive demands can interact with physical ones which are peculiarities of repetitive tasks. Work characterized by the maintenance of high levels of performance for a long time, produce cognitive effort with high level of vigilance, selective attention, decisional ability, automated control mechanisms, such as "eye-hand", and may contribute to the fatigue. Indeed, fatigue plays a important role in a working context since, it may interfere with the work itself by reducing the worker's efficiency and performance and if excessive and extended, it may alter the subject's psycho-physical condition and induce different pathologies. Repetitive work can contribute to the increasing of muscular fatigue by inducing mental fatigue: for example tasks which require high vigilance but low neuromuscular work, may induce a sense of effort and fatigue and cognitive factors and mental stress may cause muscular fatigue. Several intrinsic job factors, including repetitive works, may act as stressors and they can cause mental and physical symptoms such as anxiety, depression and somatic diseases. The European Community has often emphasized the pathogenic value of stress and fatigue with their high social and individual costs. For this purpose, it is opportune to consider the norm UNI EN ISO 10075, which points out the necessity to consider the human component, in term of mental load which implies not only the cognitive component but also the whole psychical sphere of the subject. Training intended like a sort of learning of specific modalities, supplies workers with the necessary instruments for a correct and more aware management of the peculiarities of working activity, contributing to the reduction of fatigue and stress deriving from the job. PMID:17089957
Isidoro, Arroyo Almaraz; Antonio J, Baladrón Pazos; Rebeca, Martín Nieto.
Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación es conocer cuáles son las percepciones y usos que las ONG españolas analizadas hacen de las redes sociales. Se realiza una investigación cuantitativa con cuestionarios y otra cualitativa con dos grupos focales para valorar los aspectos positivos y negativos que afec [...] tan al uso de las redes sociales. Se analiza el papel de estas en la planificación de la comunicación y se adelantan expectativas de futuro de mejora de la creatividad e innovación de los mensajes y de perfeccionamiento en la medición de eficacia de la comunicación en las redes sociales. Abstract in english The aim of the current investigation is to discover the perceptions and uses of Social Networks for Spanish NGOs. Two research lines have been stated, a quantitative one based on a poll, and another one qualitative and based on the pro/con valuation of two designed groups. The role of Social Network [...] s in the communication plan of the NGOs has been analyzed, foreseeing the possible upcoming needs. The scope of the reference analysis includes aspects of creativity and innovation in the message release, as well as the measure methodologies optimization within the Social Networking.
In keeping with the cutting-edge nature of the James Webb Space Telescope, NASA is using a variety of social and interactive media to engage the public. While we do have a regularly updated static website, we are now also using various interactives (like Flash games and a 3D Tour of the spacecraft) to better explain what the Webb telescope is and how it works. To encourage future generations, we are a partner in an educational engineering design challenge which makes use of a virtual Second Life-like world. Additionally, the public can now watch Webb come together before their eyes by accessing our live webcam, which shows telescope hardware being built in our cleanroom. We are working to make Webb as much of a part of pop culture as the Hubble Space Telescope is. We facilitated the filming of a "Late Night with Jimmy Fallon” segment (called "Hubble Gotchu") featuring Webb and Webb scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A visit to the highly rated sitcom "The Big Bang Theory” resulted in Webb lithos, magnets, posters, a scale model, and more being regularly featured on the set of the show. The most important aspect to creating interesting ways to engage the public is having the ability to communicate and form relationships with as many people as possible. To that end, we are using tools like blogs (e.g., NASA Blueshift) and popular social media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr) to reach out to as many people as we can and to enable them to share and spread the content we provide.
This study examined social marketing and related dimensions by looking at case campaigns of three Finnish organizations of the public, business and civic sector. Marketing on these sectors is about behavioral influence, but has diverse characteristics. The aims of the research were to clarify the multidimensional field of marketing applied to social issues, to find out the different dimensions, and to examine in which dimensions the case campaigns fit. Social marketing and rela...
Full Text Available El objeto de este artículo es doble. En primer lugar, se exponen las oportunidades que el nuevo paradigma comunicativo, generado por la irrupción de la web social, ofrece a las Organizaciones no Gubernamentales de Desarrollo para gestionar la relación que mantienen con sus grupos de interés cuando p [...] retenden informar, sensibilizar, educar para el desarrollo, captar recursos o presionar. Tras ello, se describe, analizando diversas variables, cuál es el estado actual de implantación de las herramientas de la web social en este sector en España. Las conclusiones obtenidas en esta investigación provienen de un análisis de contenido cuantitativo de las web y de las herramientas de la web social de las 95 ONGD que componen la Coordinadora de ONGD de España. Los datos obtenidos muestran que se ha producido un aumento en la activación de estas herramientas por parte de las ONGD, cuantifican la posibilidad de interactuar que les ofrecen con sus grupos de interés y apunta futuras líneas de investigación en este campo. Abstract in english The aim of this article is twofold. First, to highlight the new communication paradigm and opportunities generated for NGDOs by the emergence of social Web. Secondly, the paper will offer a description of the current status of the implementation of the social web tools in this field in Spain. The co [...] nclusions come from a quantitative content analysis of webs and social Web tools of the 95 NGDOs that make up the NGD Coordinator in Spain. These results are an open opportunity for a future research in the field of development communication.
Johnson Thornton, Rachel L.; Powe, Neil R; Roter, Debra; COOPER, LISA A
Social characteristics (e.g. race, gender, age, education) are associated with health care disparities. We introduce social concordance, a composite measure of shared social characteristics between patients and physicians.
Full Text Available Social marketing communication (social marcom campaign production can be more challenging when the audience includes individuals from ‘culturally and linguistically diverse’ (CALD communities. Additional issues such as culturally related values, practices, and attitudes need consideration. Normally, social marcoms campaigns for CALD audiences involve directly translating mainstream campaign material into various ethnic groups’ languages. However, little is understood about the issues beyond translation that confront practitioners adapting mainstream campaigns.This article presents a case study analysis of work undertaken by the New South Wales Multicultural Health Communication Service (MHCS. The Service’s core activity is adaptation of social marcoms campaigns for use with CALD audiences. Data for the case was collected from staff, MHCS clients, and members of target audiences. Four key issues emerge as significant in the process of adapting social marcoms campaigns at MHCS. These are: segmenting and identifying the target audience; adapting message content; source credibility; and integrating the adapted campaign with its mainstream counterpart.To provide theoretical insights and strategies to address these issues this article draws on cross-cultural marketing theory. For example, the theory of acculturation is used to provide an alternative to current segmentation practices. In the same vein, theories associated with the application of cultural typologies are used to explain why the practice of adaptation is not always successful. The article concludes by considering the implications of this study for further research.
Carton, Cérès; Gros, Patrick
This paper presents a new method to detect video repetitions in a TV stream. This method aims at reducing the number of image descriptors that have to be computed. First, shot durations are used as hash keys to propose a first set of potential repetitions. Second, a statistical test and visual descriptors are used to verify and complete these first guesses in order to improve the results by reducing the number of false detections and by retrieving the maximal length of the repeated segments. ...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review common repetitive strain injuries (RSIs that occur in the workplace, emphasizing diagnosis, treatment, and etiology of these conditions. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from January 1966 to June 1999 focused on articles published since 1990 because RSIs are relatively new diagnoses. MeSH headings that were explored using the thesaurus included "cumulative trauma disorder," "overuse injury," and "repetitive strain injury." The search was limited to English articles only, and preference was given to randomized controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Repetitive strain injuries result from repeated stress to the body's soft tissue structures including muscles, tendons, and nerves. They often occur in patients who perform repetitive movements either in their jobs or in extracurricular activities. Common RSIs include tendon-related disorders, such as rotator cuff tendonitis, and peripheral nerve entrapment disorders, such as carpal tunnel syndrome. A careful history and physical examination often lead to the diagnosis, but newer imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound, can help in refractory cases. Conservative management with medication, physiotherapy, or bracing is the mainstay of treatment. Surgery is reserved for cases that do not respond to treatment. CONCLUSION: Repetitive strain injury is common; primary care physicians must establish a diagnosis and, more importantly, its relationship to occupation. Treatment can be offered by family physicians who refer to specialists for cases refractory to conservative management.
Cheng, Qijin; Kwok, Chi Leung; Zhu, Tingshao; Guan, Li; Yip, Paul S. F.
Background: This study aims to examine the characteristics of people who talk about suicide on Chinese microblogs (referred to as Weibo suicide communication (WSC)), and the psychological antecedents of such behaviors. Methods: An online survey was conducted on Weibo users. Differences in psychological and social demographic characteristics between those who exhibited WSC and those who did not were examined. Three theoretical models were proposed to explain the psychological mechanisms of WSC and their fitness was examined by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results: 12.03% of our respondents exhibited WSC in the past 12 months. The WSC group was significantly younger and less educated, preferred using blogs and online forums for expressing themselves, and reported significantly greater suicide ideation, negative affectivity, and vulnerable personality compared to non-WSC users. SEM examinations found that Weibo users with higher negative affectivity or/and suicidal ideation, who were also using blogs and forums more, exhibited a significantly higher possibility of WSC. Conclusion: Weibo users who are at greater suicide risk are more likely to talk about suicide on Weibo. WSC is a sign of negative affectivity or suicide ideation, and should be responded to with emotional support and suicide prevention services. PMID:26378566
Since the discovery of early infantile autism (1943), the etiology of the disease has for long been a matter of dispute-from a form of innate schizophrenia, maltreatment by 'refrigerator mother', to dysfunction of speech development. After the re-discovery of Asperger syndrome by Wing (1981), the concept of this diverse syndrome complex has merged to pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). People suffering from Asperger syndrome do not show impairments in speech development, in fact, they have good linguistic abilities. They can explain their own psychopathology, which helps in the understanding of classical autism with profound mental retardation. Currently, ASD is prevalent in 1 of 150 births with strong genetic inheritance. ASD is therefore thought a psychiatric common disease. Asperger syndrome has frequently been the subject of neuroimaging studies, since social communication is an important characteristic of human behavior. This review encompasses a historical and clinical overview of ASD and puts force the current perspectives on the researches in animal models, genetic studies of animal and human samples, and neuroimaging studies. Our current focus is the possible role of oxytocin, which was recently found to have an effect on empathy, in the etiology of ASD. (author)
Effective and reliable communications are very important in securing the safety of human-involved large process control systems because human operators have to accomplish their tasks in cooperative ways. This means that it is very important to understand the characteristics of crew communications, which can provide useful insights for preventing inappropriate communications. Unfortunately, in the nuclear industry, a systematic framework that can be used to identify the characteristics of crew communications seems to be rare. For this reason, the applicability of the social network analysis (SNA) technique to identifying the characteristics of crew communications was investigated in this study. To this end, the communication data of operating crews working in the main control room (MCR) of nuclear power plants (NPPs) were collected under two kinds of simulated off-normal conditions. Then the communication characteristics of MCR operating crews, which can be represented by the associated SNA metrics, were compared with communication characteristics that are already known from existing studies. As a result, it was found that SNA metrics could be meaningful for explaining the communication characteristics of MCR operating crews. Accordingly, it is expected that the SNA technique can be used as one of the serviceable tools to investigate the characteristics of crew communications in NPPs. - Highlights: ? Communications are very important for the safety of complicated socio-technical systems. ? A systematic framework to identify communication characteristics seems to be rare. ? The feasibility of the social network analysis (SNA) technique was investigated. ? It is expected that SNA metrics is meaningful for explaining communication characteristics.
Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Berben, Sivera AA; Teerenstra, Steven; Samsom, Melvin; Schoonhoven, Lisette
Background Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Objective To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. Methods A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. Results The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. Conclusions The Internet is the main source of health-related information for the Dutch population. One in 4 persons wants to communicate with their physician via social media channels and it is expected that this number will further increase. Health care providers should explore new ways of communicating online and should facilitate ways for patients to connect with them. Future research should aim at comparing different patient groups and diseases, describing best practices, and determining cost-effectiveness. PMID:24088272
Communicative action: The Habermasian and Freirean dialogical approach to participatory communication for social change in a post-1994 South Africa / Kommunikatiewe aksie: Die dialogiese benadering tot deelnemende kommunikasie vir sosiale verandering volgens Habermas en Freire
H., Otto; L.M., Fourie.
Full Text Available Despite its almost four decade mainstay, the field of participatory communication for social change still experiences a definitional and pragmatic problem regarding what exactly participation is (cf. Jacobson & Storey, 2004; Chambers, 1994; Melkote & Steeves, 2001; Rogers, 1976; Lerner, 1964; Schram [...] m, 1964; Servaes, 1995). What remains is a vastly under-theorised field of participatory communication for social change. This article examines the possibility of participatory communication approaching the Habermasian "ideal speech situation" in which people, as communicators, are seen as having a value in their own right and not simply regarded as a means to an end (cf. Habermas, 1984; 1987; 1989). Consistent with the Freirean "liberal pedagogy", the praxis of dialogical communication or intersubjective communication is seen as putting right the "participative" quality of participatory communication (cf. Freire, 1970). For both theorists, transformative action can only occur if reflective and collective learning occurs in linguistically constructed settings where the normative dimensions of truth (logos), rightfulness (ethos) and truthfulness (pathos) are raised and met in the developmental conversation. This is especially significant in a globalised world and fragmented, post-bourgeois public sphere where debate among developmental stakeholders is becoming more marginal, instrumentalist, and less public. Based on available analyses of development communication literature, this article proposes that the chosen dialogical approaches share a type of communicative behaviour (i.e. action theoretic), rather than representing a particular paradigm or school of thought. This could offer further definitional clarification of proper participatory communication for social change in a post-1994 South Africa.
Social Media is the use of social networking sites, messaging sites, texting, and other web-based or mobile technologies to support social interaction. Facebook is by far the most widely used social networking site. Twitter is by far the most widely used messaging site. The goals of this presentation are: (1) To provide an understanding of the…
Wang, Junhua; Wang, Hua
Recent scholarship on global online courses points to the need to examine the issue of social context in an online global learning environment. To explore global learners' cultural perspectives on the social climate of an online class, we first review the social presence theory--which can be used to examine the social climate in an online…
Mao, Dong; Liu, Xueming; Sun, Zhipei; Lu, Hua; Han, Dongdong; Wang, Guoxi; Wang, Fengqiu
High-repetition-rate pulses have widespread applications in the fields of fiber communications, frequency comb, and optical sensing. Here, we have demonstrated high-repetition-rate ultrashort pulses in an all-fiber laser by exploiting an intracavity Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) as a comb filter. The repetition rate of the laser can be tuned flexibly from about 7 to 1100?GHz by controlling the optical path difference between the two arms of the MZI. The pulse duration can be reduced continuously from about 10.1 to 0.55?ps with the spectral width tunable from about 0.35 to 5.7?nm by manipulating the intracavity polarization controller. Numerical simulations well confirm the experimental observations and show that filter-driven four-wave mixing effect, induced by the MZI, is the main mechanism that governs the formation of the high-repetition-rate pulses. This all-fiber-based laser is a simple and low-cost source for various applications where high-repetition-rate pulses are necessary. PMID:24226153
Salimpoor, Valorie N; Chang, Catie; Menon, Vinod
We investigated the neural basis of repetition priming (RP) during mathematical cognition. Previous studies of RP have focused on repetition suppression as the basis of behavioral facilitation, primarily using word and object identification and classification tasks. More recently, researchers have suggested associative stimulus-response learning as an alternate model for behavioral facilitation. We examined the neural basis of RP during mathematical problem solving in the context of these two models of learning. Brain imaging and behavioral data were acquired from 39 adults during novel and repeated presentation of three-operand mathematical equations. Despite wide-spread decreases in activation during repeat, compared with novel trials, there was no direct relation between behavioral facilitation and the degree of repetition suppression in any brain region. Rather, RT improvements were directly correlated with repetition enhancement in the hippocampus and the posteromedial cortex [posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and retrosplenial cortex; Brodmann's areas (BAs) 23, 7, and 30, respectively], regions known to support memory formation and retrieval, and in the SMA (BA 6) and the dorsal midcingulate ("motor cingulate") cortex (BA 24d), regions known to be important for motor learning. Furthermore, improvements in RT were also correlated with increased functional connectivity of the hippocampus with both the SMA and the dorsal midcingulate cortex. Our findings provide novel support for the hypothesis that repetition enhancement and associated stimulus-response learning may facilitate behavioral performance during problem solving. PMID:19366289
Kotcher, J.; Vraga, E.; Myers, T.; Stenhouse, N.; Roser-Renouf, C.; Maibach, E.
The question of what type of role scientists, or experts more generally, should play in policy debates is a perennial point of discussion within the scientific community. It is often thought that communication containing some form of policy advocacy is likely to compromise the perceived credibility of the individual scientist engaged in such behavior, with the possibility that it may also harm the credibility of the scientific community more broadly. Rather than evaluating statements in a binary fashion as representing either pure objectivity or pure advocacy, one recent model proposes that public communication by scientists should instead be thought of as falling along a continuum based upon the extent of normative judgment implicit in a statement. This approach predicts that as the extent of normative judgment increases, it poses a relatively greater risk to a scientist's perceived credibility. Though such a model is conceptually useful, little empirical social science research has systematically explored how individuals form judgments about different types of advocacy to examine common assumptions about the relative risks associated with such behaviors. In this presentation, we will report results from a national online experiment (N=1200) that examines audience responses to fictional social media posts written by either a climate scientist or a television weathercaster. Following the above model, the posts represent differing degrees of advocacy defined by the extent of normative judgment implicit in each statement. In instances where a specific policy is advocated, we examine whether participants' reactions are shaped by the extent to which the policy mentioned is congruent with one's political ideology. We hope this study will serve as an exemplar of applied science communication research that can begin to help inform scientists and other experts about the potential implications of different communication options they may choose from in deciding how to engage with policy.
Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Ahmad, Shaikh I; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P
Little is known about adult women with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at 3 time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidities, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other 2 groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25894439
Jes?s Miguel Flores Vivar
Full Text Available Las redes sociales en línea se han convertido en el estandarte de la Web 2.0, entorno que también aglutina a los blogs, wikis y chats. Existe una fina divisi?n entre una red social, un blog y un wiki. Hablar de redes sociales es referirnos al siguiente estadio de Internet, como en su momento fueron los blogs. Se han constituido en un fenómeno de masas cada vez más importante tanto así que ya algunas están integrando plataformas de blogs y wikis en una sola interfaz. Pero, ¿qué nuevas formas de comunicación y de negocio subyacen en las redes?, ¿qu? perfiles profesionales se necesitan para esta nueva audiencia?, ¿deben los medios crear redes o adaptarse a los nuevos entornos de donde emerge un nuevo periodismo basado en la participaci?n? El presente artículo intenta responder a estas y otras variables. Social networks have become the banner of Web 2.0, which also hosts blogs, wikis and chats. There is a slight dividing line between a social network, a blog and a wiki. Talking about social networks means referring to the next stage of the Internet, as talking about blogs once did. Internet social networks have become an increasingly important phenomenon because some platforms are integrating blogs and wikis on a single interface. But we could ask what new types of communication and business lie beneath these networks; what professional profiles are needed for this new audience. Should media create the networks, or just adapt to the new environments, whence a new journalism based on participation emerges? This paper tries to answer these and other questions.
Análisis de la planeación estratégica de la comunicación en cuatro proyectos de intervención social en Montería / Analysis of Communication Strategic Planning in four Social Intervention Projects in Montería
Ana Lorena, Malluk Marenco.
Full Text Available El artículo plantea los desafíos que enfrentan los profesionales, las organizaciones gestoras de iniciativas sociales y los beneficiarios, en torno al proceso de planeación de la comunicación de los proyectos de intervención social llevados a cabo en la ciudad de Montería. Se analizaron cuatro progr [...] amas de comunicación estratégica de los proyectos Reciclando Ando, Plan Departamental de Aguas, Implementación de Parcelas Productivas y Desarrollo Sostenible de las Artesanías de Córdoba, desarrollados por las organizaciones Servigenerales/UPB, Gobernación Córdoba, Fundación Santa Isabel y la Corporación de los Valles del Sinú y San Jorge, respectivamente. Se realizó un análisis individual de cada caso, que incluyó diferentes estrategias de contacto con la realidad objeto de estudio, como el análisis documental, la entrevista, el grupo focal y la observación participante, lo que permitió metodológicamente alimentar la documentación teórica, la interpretación de evidencias y la interacción del investigador con los actores y sus realidades. Los resultados evidenciaron que estas instituciones relegan la comunicación a un uso instrumental; no la emplean de forma estratégica (sistemática, organizada, probada, integradora y articulada al proceso de planeación de los proyectos de intervención social) y no incluyen mecanismos de integración y participación activa de los grupos de interés involucrados con estas iniciativas. Abstract in english This article refers to the challenge faced by professionals, organizations interested in social initiatives and beneficiaries around social intervention projects communication planning process carried out in Monteria city. Four programs of project strategic communication were analyzed: ''We are Recy [...] cling, State Water Plans, Implementation of Productive Areas, and sustainable Development of Cordoba handcrafts, developed by the following organizations: Servigenerales/UPB, Gobernación Córdoba, Fundación Santa Isabel, and Corporación de los Valles del Sinú and San Jorge, respectively. An individual analysis of each case was carried out. It included different contact strategies with the study object such as documental analysis, the interview, focal group, and participant observation which allowed feeding -methodologically- theoretical documentation, interpretation of evidences, and the interaction of the researcher with agents and their realities. Results showed that these institutions give communication am instrumental use, they do not use it in a strategic way (systematic, organized, proved, integrating, and articulated to the planning process of social intervention projects) and doe not include integration and active participation mechanisms of interest groups involved in these initiatives.
This theme issue on communication includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROM and computer software, videos, books, and professional resources that deal with various methods of communication. Sidebars discuss mythology, photojournalism, sharing ideas on the Web, and songs of protest. Suggestions for class activities are also included. (LRW)
Wang, Zuoming; Walther, Joseph B.; Hancock, Jeffrey T.
This study investigates the influence of interpersonal communication and intergroup identification on members' evaluations of computer-mediated groups. Participants (N= 256) in 64 four-person groups interacted through synchronous computer chat. Subgroup assignments to minimal groups instilled significantly greater in-group versus out-group…
Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321
Watkins, Edward R.
The author reviews research showing that repetitive thought (RT) can have constructive or unconstructive consequences. The main unconstructive consequences of RT are (a) depression, (b) anxiety, and (c) difficulties in physical health. The main constructive consequences of RT are (a) recovery from upsetting and traumatic events, (b) adaptive preparation and anticipatory planning,...
MARIELA, PÉREZ CHAVARRÍA.
Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación pionera en México acerca de cómo es la comunicación de la responsabilidad social corporativa(RSC) en el país y cómo es esa responsabilidad (prácticas más comunes, áreas más atendidas, programas, stakeholders, etc.), a partir de lo que dicen [...] al respecto (por internet) las 25 empresas más importantes de México, según la revista mexicana Expansión Abstract in english This article presents the results obtained from a pioneering research in Mexico. Such research describes communication initiatives concerning Corporate Social Responsibility in the country, as well as CSR practices (most common practices, areas mostly dealt with, programs, stakeholders, etc.). It is [...] based on online statements by the 25 top companies in Mexico, according to the Mexican magazine Expansion
Noland, Carey M; Carmack, Heather J
As nurses' communication is essential to prevent, intercept, and resolve medical mistakes, it is important to understand how they learn to communicate about medical errors. In this study, we identify memorable messages about communicating about mistakes that nursing students receive during their training and how they make sense of these messages. Data were acquired through individual interviews with 68 nursing students. The data were analyzed using a thematic constant comparative method. While open and honest communication about medical errors was the overarching message participants formally and informally learned, for nursing students, communicating about medical errors is a much more complex process than using open and honest communication. When dealing with medical errors, nursing students relied on three major memorable messages to guide their communication: (a) Not everyone hears about errors, (b) hierarchy matters, and PMID:25412245
Gibson, Jenny; Adams, Catherine; Lockton, Elaine; Green, Jonathan
Background: Developmental disorders of language and communication present considerable diagnostic challenges due to overlapping of symptomatology and uncertain aetiology. We aimed to further elucidate the behavioural and linguistic profile associated with impairments of social communication occurring outside of an autism diagnosis. Methods: Six to…
Propuestas para la investigavción en comunicación audiovisual: publicidad social y creación colectiva en Internet / Research proposals for audiovisual communication: social advertising and collective creation on the internet
Teresa Fraile Prieto
Full Text Available Resumen: La sociedad de la información digital plantea nuevos retos a los investigadores. A mediada que la comunicación audiovisual se ha consolidado como disciplina, los estudios culturales se muestran como una perspectiva de análisis ventajosa para acercarse a las nuevas prácticas creativas y de consumo del medio audiovisual. Este artículo defiende el estudio de los productos culturales audiovisuales que esta sociedad digital produce por cuanto son un testimonio de los cambios sociales que se operan en ella. En concreto se propone el acercamiento a la publicidad social y a los objetos de creación colectiva en Internet como medio para conocer las circunstancias de nuestra sociedad. Abstract: The information society poses new challenges to researchers. While audiovisual communication has been consolidated as a discipline, cultural studies is an advantageous analytical perspective to approach the new creative practices and consumption of audiovisual media. This article defends the study of audiovisual cultural products produced by the digital society because they are a testimony of the social changes taking place in it. Specifically, it proposes an approach to social advertising and objects of collective creation on the Internet as a means to know the circumstances of our society.
Jason P. Abbott
Full Text Available The capabilities, tools and websites we associate with new information communication technologies and social media are now ubiquitous. Moreover tools that were designed to facilitate innocuous conversation and social interaction have had unforeseen political impacts. Nowhere was this more visible than during the 2011 uprisings across the Arab World. From Tunis to Cairo, and Tripoli to Damascus protest movements against authoritarian rule openly utilized social networking and file sharing tools to publicize and organize demonstrations and to catalogue human rights abuses. The Arab Spring, or Jasmine Revolution, was an event that was both witnessed and played out in real time online. This article explores the impacts and effects of these technologies on regimes in East Asia, in particular exploring the extent to which they proffer new capabilities upon activists and reformers in the region’s semi-democratic and authoritarian regimes. Drawing on data on Internet and smartphone use, as well as case studies that explore the role of these technologies on the 2008 and 2011 general elections in Malaysia and Singapore respectively, this article suggests that the Internet and social networking platforms do present unique opportunities for activists, citizens and social movements.
Maddox, Laura L.
A systematic social skills training intervention to teach reciprocal sharing was designed and implemented with triads of preschool-age children, including one child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and two untrained classroom peers who had no delays or disabilities. A multiple-baseline research design was used to evaluate effects of the…
Papa, Michael J.; Singhal, Arvind; Law, Sweety; Pant, Saumya; Sood, Suruchi; Rogers, Everett M.; Shefner-Rogers, Corinne L.
Explores processes of social change initiated by an entertainment-education radio soap opera by studying its effects in an observational case study in one rural village in India. Investigates the paradoxes, contradictions, and audience members' struggles in the process of media-stimulated change, a process involving parasocial interaction, peer…
Félix Moral Toranzo
Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudian las interacciones sociales en Internet, a partir de las respuestas de un cuestionario on-line. Se analizan las características sociodemográficas, los hábitos y las relaciones de estos usuarios en la Red. Internet se manifiesta como un espacio de interacción social, en el que las relaciones personales han tenido lugar en una gran mayoría de usuarios. Estas relaciones se muestran, en algunos aspectos, de forma diferente a las que tienen lugar cara a cara. Asimismo, las motivaciones y las consecuencias de mantener relaciones personales reflejan resultados diferentes con relación al sexo y al estado civil de los internautas. This article addresses social interaction on the Internet using an online questionnaire. The sociodemographic characteristics are analysed as well as the web users habits and relationships. The Internet is a social interactive place where personal relationships among users develop into important aspects of their lives. These relationships develop in different ways to relationships where people meet face to face. Also, motivation and the consequences of maintaining a personal relationships reflect, different results when comparing the web users gender and marital status.
Matessi, Giuliano; Matos, Ricardo Jorge Santa Clara
Individuals of the same species, sex, age and size may differ in suites of behaviour traits in a consistent manner across time and may thus represent different personalities. In a communication context, the personality of an individual may both affect and be affected by the behaviour of the individuals surrounding it within a network. We investigated the effects of a change of local social environment on two behavioural types, ‘persistent' versus ‘sporadic' signaller, in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Males visually interacted for 1 day in a communication network of seven fish in tanks arranged in a hexagonal grid, while we recorded space use and signalling data. We then exchanged the positions of two males with different behavioural types and observed them interacting the following day. ‘Persistent' signallers were unaffected by the treatment, while ‘sporadic' signallers increased the time spent in the inner front part of their tank, from which they could observe but not interact with the neighbours. Social instability (i.e. number of changed neighbours) raised the signalling levels of individuals independently of their behavioural types. We discuss the relationship between information gathering in a communication network and network composition in terms of behavioural types of its members.
Full Text Available Neste artigo, empreendemos uma revisão da Teoria da Ação Comunicativa e propomos uma agenda de pesquisa sobre a adoção de fóruns de debate de inspiração habermasiana nas organizações, visando à fixação de agendas de desenvolvimento sustentável para diversos setores da economia. Como a responsabilidade social da empresa diz respeito à implementação, por parte dela, de ações de desenvolvimento sustentável, considera-se que deva estabelecer uma agenda de desenvolvimento sustentável tendo em vista sua atuação em setores específicos da economia. Assim, a pauta de desenvolvimento de produtos, serviços e tecnologias que obedeçam às diretrizes de desenvolvimento sustentável deve ser fixada de acordo com critérios substantivos a ser debatidos em fóruns de comunicação de inspiração habermasiana.In this paper, we undertook a review of the Communicative Action Theory and propose a research agenda on the adoption of Habermasian-inspired debate forums at organizations, aimed at setting sustainable development agendas for various sectors of the economy. As the company's social responsibility concerns the implementation, on its part, of sustainable development actions, one thinks there's a need for establishing a sustainable development agenda taking into account its operation in specific sectors of the economy. Thus, an agenda for developing products, services, and technologies which complies with the sustainable development guidelines should be set in accordance with the substantive criteria which are going to be debated on Habermasian inspired communication forums.
Apocalypse... Now? Molecular epidemiology, predictive genetic tests, and social communication of genetic contents / Apocalipse... Agora? Epidemiologia molecular, testagens gênicas preditivas, comunicação social de conteúdos genéticos
Luis David, Castiel.
Full Text Available Abordam-se aspectos teóricos subjacentes à construção da vertente molecular da epidemiologia e do conceito de risco genético, tendo como referência as questões postas pela atualidade: novas tecnologias, globalização, proliferação de estratégias comunicacionais, diluição de matrizes identitárias. São [...] discutidos problemas relacionados à constituição de novos campos interdisciplinares, tais como os da epidemiologia e da genética moleculares. Ao final, desenvolve-se uma análise das repercussões na comunicação social de conteúdos genéticos, especialmente referidos a testagens genéticas preditivas e à clonagem de animais, a partir de metáforas triunfalistas, deterministas e sustentadoras de crenças relativas à existência e supremacia de conceitos como pureza, essência e unificação de eus/egos racionais e integrados. Abstract in english The author analyzes the underlying theoretical aspects in the construction of the molecular watershed of epidemiology and the concept of genetic risk, focusing on issues raised by contemporary reality: new technologies, globalization, proliferation of communications strategies, and the dilution of i [...] dentity matrices. He discusses problems pertaining to the establishment of such new interdisciplinary fields as molecular epidemiology and molecular genetics. Finally, he analyzes the repercussions of the social communication of genetic content, especially as related to predictive genetic tests and cloning of animals, based on triumphal, deterministic metaphors sustaining beliefs relating to the existence and supremacy of concepts such as 'purity', 'essence', and 'unification' of rational, integrated 'I's/egos'.
Yelina, Piedra Salomón; Laura, Benítez Arenas; Hilda, Saladrigas Medina; Ailín, Martínez Rodríguez.
Full Text Available Se analiza métricamente la producción científica sobre comunicación social generada en Cuba entre los años 1994 y 2004, a partir de las tesis de diploma y de grado, así como de los informes de investigación realizados y atesorados en las instituciones de la educación superior cubanas relacionadas co [...] n este campo. Se estudia el comportamiento temático, la fecha de producción de los documentos, el lugar de realización, los enfoques con los que se realizaron y los ámbitos de la comunicación estudiados, entre otros aspectos de interés, que posibilitan un acercamiento más riguroso a esta área del conocimiento en el país, así como sus tendencias principales Abstract in english The scientific production in social communication generated in Cuba between 1994 and 2004 is metrically analyzed, based on diploma and degree research papers, as well as on the investigation reports carried out and accumulated in the institutions of the Cuban Superior Education System related to thi [...] s field. The thematic behavior, the date of production of the documents, the place of execution, the foci with which they were carried out and the environments of the communication studied are analyzed among others aspects of interest, that enable a more rigorous approach to this area of knowledge in the country, as well as its main tendencies
This paper updates and presents the conceptual bases of socio-environmental communication and some theoretical aspects relating with political feasibility of enterprises of electric sector, using itself of knowledge produced about the theme and the present experiences of the some sector companies. The following aspects are also included: historical of works about the subject; the present position of electric sector; detailed conceptual bases of political feasibility and socio-environmental communication; existing generation and that one planned in decennial plan of expansion 1993/2002 demonstrating the necessity of socio-environmental communication; conditions and challenges to the use of socio-environmental communications. (C.M.)
Adi, Ana; Moloney, Kevin
This paper explores the persuasive communications (public relations and branding through social media) of a micro Occupy event, namely a nine-day appearance of the global protest movement at Bournemouth University (BU), on the south coast of the UK. It reflects on how student and town protesters used digital and social media in comparison to the wider and more successful UK movement. It interviews the student leader, and asks questions about the role social networks like Occupi...
Ângela Correia, Dias.
Full Text Available A difusão das novas tecnologias na educação, sobretudo a Internet, vem nos forçando a revisar categorias e conceitos monolíticos e reducionistas da educação tradicional, apontando para a construção de um novo modelo que nos remeta a uma visão bem mais complexa e dinâmica dos processos comunicacionai [...] s, representada, principalmente, pela lógica hipertextual. O site Bocada Forte, nosso objeto de estudo, aponta para uma re-configuração da comunicação humana, baseada no diálogo e na pluralidade, em oposição à comunicação unívoca e monológica da educação tradicional - marcada pela falta de autonomia e criação. Abstract in english The diffusion of new technologies in education, mainly, the Internet, has been drawing educators towards a review on categories and concepts, monolitic and redutionist, given by traditional education. The new approach leads to the construction of a new model in which educators reflect critically upo [...] n complex and dynamic communication processes represented, mainly, by the hypertextual logic. The site Bocada Forte, our object of study, points to a re-arrangement of human communication based on dialogue and plurality, as opposed to the univocal and monological communication of tradicional education, characterized by the lack of autonomy and creativity.
Combining a shift method and the repetitive learning strategy, a repetitive learning controller is proposed to stabilize unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) within chaotic attractors in the sense of least mean square. If nonlinear parts in chaotic systems satisfy Lipschitz condition, the proposed controller can be simplified into a simple proportional repetitive learning controller
Maricela López-Ornelas, M.A.
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a metrics study performed the Revista Latina de Comunicación Social (Latina Journal of Social Communication from January 1998 to December 2009. The quantitative analysis explores the communication processes registered in 878 articles, through five bibliometric indicators: gender, academic degree, country of origin, co-authorship and institutional affiliation. This last criterion was applied only to Spanish authors as they account for 55% of the scientific production in the Revista Latina de Comunicación Social (hence RLCS. The results indicate that there are 1,047 authors, of which 44% are women and 56% are men. This study addresses the position of RLCS in Latin America and highlights the academic contribution of countries such as Argentina, Mexico, Costa Rica, Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Cuba, and Chile. Moreover, the study addresses the participation of 42 Spanish universities in RLCS, which is also Spanish. So of these universities stand out because they have registered more than 20 authors each (e.g. the University of Seville, the Autonomous University of Barcelona, the Complutense University of Madrid, the University of the Basque Country, the University of Santiago de Compostela, the University of Malaga, and the Rey Juan Carlos University. Finally, the article identifies the institutional affiliation of 285 (27% authors who published in co-authorship, and classifies the types of collaboration of the Spanish authors in three categories: intra-institutional, inter-institutional and international.
Campos, Elisangela Assis de; Farias, Aline Marianne Magalhaes [LP Empreendimentos, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marques, Yanna Oliveira [Cia. Nacional de Dutos (Conduto S/A), Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Penido, Rita de Cassia [Sinopec Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
Construction and assembly in a gas pipeline project is a constant study of realities and in some cases situations which involve interferences in communities, the company's interests must be wholly integrated with the primary need of the project which is to construct with Social-Environmental Responsibility, establish a good relationship, respect the communities values in which the project passes through and around and surround itself with measures guaranteeing safety, information about the activities and cause minimal impact in the day to day lives of the residents. At Spread 2A of the Pipeline project Cacimbas-Catu, the necessity to develop a specific project for the communities surrounding the access areas was elaborated principally because the topography only permitted the transportation of pipes, equipment and personnel to pass through these areas. This unique situation was drafted based on the transit of vehicles and heavy machinery, through communities with a low IDH (Human Development Index), dangerous living conditions and a high demographic density. Preventive and pacifying actions for Communities and Social responsibility were drafted and developed, involving a multidisciplinary collective effort with other sectors of the project, applying a global theme to ensure safety for the residents around the access areas, also to divulge information in regards to project activities, establish ethical and transparent communication and implement measures that assist in building a solid relationship between the enterprise and community, anticipating risky situations and possible conflicts. This Case Study has as an objective to present projects that were developed in the area of Communication and Social Responsibility in the Access Communities and that, proved effective, became standard within the entire work force's Trainings and Daily Safety, Environmental, and Occupational Health Dialoguing. During the development of the Project 'Street of Leisure', the Social Communication team involved construction and assembly, safety, environmental and health sectors. It was an event that focused on art education, entertainment, information and services. The project involved a puppet theater, film sessions 'Cine Pipeline', and passed on safety measures and project information, demonstration of PPE's and equipment, participation and orientation for adults in the area of health and nutrition, and children's activities demonstrating oral and body hygiene among others. The proposal is to work together with Social Responsibility and Environmental sectors in the communities, involve social actors, induce positive results in the image of the interested parties and leave a responsible and positive perception of the Gasoduto Cacimbas-Catu Enterprise. (author)
Manuel Ángel, Calvo Calvo.
Full Text Available La identidad o esencia de las enfermeras no coincide con su imagen social pues continua plagada de estereotipos, y el público sigue percibiendo una imagen dependiente y poco profesional de las enfermeras. Esa discordancia entre identidad e imagen, en parte se debe a que las propias enfermeras no se [...] han preocupado suficientemente, de modo individual y colectivo, por comunicar eficazmente su verdadera identidad a la sociedad. Y para transmitir la identidad de las enfermeras estas deben comunicar a la sociedad su función y quehacer, para lo cual conviene que las instituciones enfermeras cuenten con gabinetes de comunicación eficientes y bien estructurados, y que las enfermeras integren en su práctica profesional el uso de recursos de la comunicación pública, tales como aplicar las nuevas tecnologías en su práctica diaria, difundir científica y masivamente su producción intelectual, divulgarla e informar a los medios de actividades enfermeras susceptibles de convertirse en producto informativo. Abstract in english The identity or essence of nursing does not match their social image as this profession continues to be full of stereotypes and the general public still retains the idea of dependence and lack of professionalism of nurses. This lack of concordance between image and identity is partly due to the fact [...] that nurses themselves have not cared enough, both individually and as a group, to communicate effectively their true identity to society. In order to transmit the identity of nursing, these professionals must explain their tasks and functions to society. In this sense, nursing institutions should have at their disposal efficient and well organized communication departments. Also, nurses should include in their daily practice the use of public communication resources such as the application of ITCs to their tasks, the mass divulgation of their intellectual production in scientific publications, the broadcasting of nursing activities which could become informative products.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maps can portray trends, patterns, and spatial differences that might be overlooked in tabular data and are now widely used in health research. Little has been reported about the process of using maps to communicate epidemiological findings. Method Population weighted raster maps show colour changes over the study area. Similar to the rasters of barometric pressure in a weather map, data are the health occurrence – a peak on the map represents a higher value of the indicator in question. The population relevance of each sentinel site, as determined in the stratified last stage random sample, combines with geography (inverse-distance weighting to provide a population-weighted extension of each colour. This transforms the map to show population space rather than simply geographic space. Results Maps allowed discussion of strategies to reduce violence against women in a context of political sensitivity about quoting summary indicator figures. Time-series maps showed planners how experiences of health services had deteriorated despite a reform programme; where in a country HIV risk behaviours were improving; and how knowledge of an economic development programme quickly fell off across a region. Change maps highlighted where indicators were improving and where they were deteriorating. Maps of potential impact of interventions, based on multivariate modelling, displayed how partial and full implementation of programmes could improve outcomes across a country. Scale depends on context. To support local planning, district maps or local government authority maps of health indicators were more useful than national maps; but multinational maps of outcomes were more useful for regional institutions. Mapping was useful to illustrate in which districts enrolment in religious schools – a rare occurrence - was more prevalent. Conclusions Population weighted raster maps can present social audit findings in an accessible and compelling way, increasing the use of evidence by planners with limited numeracy skills or little time to look at evidence. Maps complement epidemiological analysis, but they are not a substitute. Much less do they substitute for rigorous epidemiological designs, like randomised controlled trials.
Joint attention enables infants to communicate with adults as well as with each other, sharing what is in their minds. Yet, communicative competence and joint attention between infant peers have received little attention in the literature. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how infants under the age of two within a childcare…
This paper questions and discusses whether the currently recommended way of communicating CSR to the increasingly important stakeholder group consisting of consumers will also be the optimum way to represent corporate values and behaviour in the future? Maybe it is time to challenge current thinking within the field of CSR communication suggesting that companies should apply a very subtle, implicit and sometimes even endorsed way of communicating CSR in order to inhibit scepticism and enhance persuasion. Perhaps the young consumers- the consumers of the future - are ready for another approach because they have a different understanding and awareness of CSR than we have seen so far? The question is, then, how companies can accommodate this understanding and awareness rhetorically in their communication of CSR. In this paper, a new conceptual model for communicating CSR to consumers is presented along with the theoretical background for a consumer survey aiming to test and develop the model further.
Pea, Roy; Nass, Clifford; Meheula, Lyn; Rance, Marcus; Kumar, Aman; Bamford, Holden; Nass, Matthew; Simha, Aneesh; Stillerman, Benjamin; Yang, Steven; Zhou, Michael
An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8-12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls' media use--including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting--and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one's room had little direct association with children's socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents. PMID:22268607
Gheorghe ORZAN; Otilia-Elena PLATON
On the Internet, a medium that has already proven its effectiveness in marketing activities, changes take place with astonishing speed. The recent explosion of social networking applications and their number of users has captured the marketers’ attention. Companies have started to rethink their relationships with consumers and adapt to the new online world. In this virtual world of social networks the public is the key element. Consumers perceive the social network as a personal space where t...
MATTHEWS, LUKE J; DeWan, Peter; Rula, Elizabeth Y
Studies of social networks, mapped using self-reported contacts, have demonstrated the strong influence of social connections on the propensity for individuals to adopt or maintain healthy behaviors and on their likelihood to adopt health risks such as obesity. Social network analysis may prove useful for businesses and organizations that wish to improve the health of their populations by identifying key network positions. Health traits have been shown to correlate across friendship ties, but...
Social media now complements many parts of our lives. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many other social networking sites allow users to share and interact with online content and to connect with like-minded people. Its strengths – rapid dissemination and amplification of content and the ability to lead informal conversations – make it a powerful tool to use in a professional context. This commentary explains the overall concept of social media and offers suggestions on usage and possible types...
Full Text Available Social advertising, which is growing fast nowadays, gives rise to a number of issues relating to its efficiency and impact on the audience. The author focuses on the current problems faced by social advertising in the Kaliningrad region and demonstrates a lack of variety in topics, as well as a limited range of the techniques applied. The paper tackles the problem of identifying the quality level of advertisements addressing various social needs.
Kaland, Nils; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
In the present study children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome (N = 13) and a matched control group of typically developing children and adolescents were presented with 26 vignettes of daily life situations, including irony, metaphors, contrary emotions, jealousy, social blunders, and understanding intentions. The participants in the AS group showed significant impairments in social communication. They needed significantly longer response times to solve the tasks and required significantly more prompt questions than the control persons. When analyzing the AS participants' performances before any prompt questions had been given, their task performances were significantly poorer than after the prompts had been given indicating that without any prompt questions their task performance would have fallen markedly. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Apfel, Franklin; Sanchez, Jose Luis Alfonso; Galea, Gauden; Jakab, Zsuzsanna
As world leaders prepare for the United Nations High Level Meeting on Noncommunicable Diseases, to take place in September 2011, international organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and economic and business fora have created new alliances and initiatives to accelerate research, advocacy, and political commitment. This article argues that the time is propitious to reflect on the social nature of the most common behavioral noncommunicable disease determinants, including tobacco and alcohol use, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet. Evidence is presented related to the fact that these diseases are profoundly rooted in social and community ties and points to the need for a modern communication strategy to serve as a linchpin of any successful action to address these public health threats. Several proposals, aimed at promoting health literacy, strengthening health workforce skills, capturing the power of new media and technologies, and targeting vulnerable groups, are discussed. PMID:21916717
Ryuji, Yamazaki; Nishio, Shuichi
We explored the potential of teleoperated android robots, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances, and how they affect people in the real world when they are employed to express a telepresence and a sense of ‘being there’. In Denmark, our exploratory study focused on the social aspects of Telenoid, a teleoperated android, which might facilitate communication between senior citizens and Telenoid’s operator. After applying it to the elderly in their homes, we found that the elderly assumed positive attitudes toward Telenoid, and their positivity and strong attachment to its huggable minimalistic human design were cross-culturally shared in Denmark and Japan. Contrary to the negative reactions by non-users in media reports, our result suggests that teleoperated androids can be accepted by the elderly as a kind of universal design medium for social inclusion.
John, Maliyakal E.; Knöchel, Walter
By DNA reassociation kinetics it is known that the eucaryotic genome consists of non-repetitive DNA, middle-repetitive DNA and highly repetitive DNA. Whereas the majority of protein-coding genes is located on non-repetitive DNA, repetitive DNA forms a constitutive part of eucaryotic DNA and its amount in most cases equals or even substantially exceeds that of non-repetitive DNA. During the past years a large body of data on repetitive DNA has accumulated and these have prompted speculations ranging from specific roles in the regulation of gene expression to that of a selfish entity with inconsequential functions. The following article summarizes recent findings on structural, transcriptional and evolutionary aspects and, although by no means being proven, some possible biological functions are discussed.
Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las funciones que los medios de comunicación social deberían cumplir en una sociedad socialista. Se señala el abandono de los principios editoriales de los medios privados y la desinformación que ese cambio ocasiona. Se sostiene que en un sistema socialista democrático de [...] be existir pluralidad de medios. Así mismo se señala la necesidad de democratizar el poder mediático, mediante su vinculación orgánica con distintos sectores sociales. Los medios deben proporcionar conocimientos sobre la realidad social y política que los ciudadanos requieren para su inserción, activa y consciente, en las estructuras de participación y de la contraloría social. Se propone la conformación de instancias de control social de los medios, en el marco de la absoluta vigencia de la libertad de expresión y del derecho la información Abstract in english Abstract This article discusses the role the media should fulfill in a socialist society. A first requirement is obviously a radical break with the editorial policies that characterize the private media and the disinformation that goes with it. It is argued that in a democratic socialist system ther [...] e should be a plurality of media. There is also a need to democratize the media, promoting organic links with different social sectors. The media should provide the knowledge of the political and social reality that the citizen needs in order to play a conscious and active role in political life. At the same time, there should be social control of the media within the context of an absolute respect for the liberty of opinion and the right to be informed
Maritza de la Rosa, Legón; Nelia, Vega González; Lourdes, Brito Gómez.
Full Text Available En el nuevo paradigma sociomédico la efectividad de la comunicación constituye la piedra angular ante el reto de promover cambios en los estilos de vida y ofreciendo a la población instrumentos para pensar, analizar y reflexionar sobre su salud. La relación médico-paciente como modelo de comunicació [...] n fundamenta el comportamiento del profesional de las Ciencias Médicas y las relaciones que contraerán entre sí los médicos y el equipo de salud de donde depende la conducta moral o ética que orientará y caracterizará su trato. El objetivo de este trabajo es reflexionar acerca de los aspectos esenciales que deben caracterizar la competencia comunicativa del profesional y las habilidades para conformar una cultura de la comunicación que sirvan de base a la gestión de salud en la Atención Primaria de Salud. Se analiza el manejo de la comunicación para el logro de la empatía con el paciente, la liquidación de barreras comunicativas que permitan el acercamiento y la interacción reflexiva con el hombre sano o enfermo, la familia, las agrupaciones comunitarias y la coordinación con las instituciones sociales de la comunidad que permitan los cambios necesarios para alcanzar un modo de vida más sano y el desarrollo creciente de la cultura de la salud en la población, vinculando las herramientas cognoscitivas para educar a los miembros de la sociedad en el cuidado de su salud con las habilidades comunicativas que le permitan ser comprendido eficazmente basado en la amistad, confianza y respeto entre él y la población por cuya salud debe velar. Abstract in english In de new social and medical paradigm the effectiveness of communication constitutes a cornerstone to face the challenge for promoting changes in the lifestyle and offering people ways to think, analyze and to reflex about their health. The doctor patient relationship as a model of communication sub [...] stantiate the behavior of the medical science professional and the relation that doctors will have among them and the health team from which it will depend the moral or ethical attitude to be oriented and will also characterize the attention. The objective of this paper is to reflex about the essential aspects that should characterize the skills to form a culture of communication aim to obtain a health work in the primary health care. The management of communication is analyzed to achieve and empathy with the patient, the elimination of communicative barriers that allow the approaching and reflexive interaction with the healthy or the sick person, the family, communitarian groups and the coordination with the communitarian social institutions, which permit the necessary changes to reach a healthier lifestyle and an ascending development of the health culture into the population, relating knowledge tools in order to educate members of the society in their health care wilt the communicative skills that allow them being will understood based on friendship, confidence, and respect between the health professional and the population whose health be should take care of.
Maritza de la Rosa Legón
Full Text Available En el nuevo paradigma sociomédico la efectividad de la comunicación constituye la piedra angular ante el reto de promover cambios en los estilos de vida y ofreciendo a la población instrumentos para pensar, analizar y reflexionar sobre su salud. La relación médico-paciente como modelo de comunicación fundamenta el comportamiento del profesional de las Ciencias Médicas y las relaciones que contraerán entre sí los médicos y el equipo de salud de donde depende la conducta moral o ética que orientará y caracterizará su trato. El objetivo de este trabajo es reflexionar acerca de los aspectos esenciales que deben caracterizar la competencia comunicativa del profesional y las habilidades para conformar una cultura de la comunicación que sirvan de base a la gestión de salud en la Atención Primaria de Salud. Se analiza el manejo de la comunicación para el logro de la empatía con el paciente, la liquidación de barreras comunicativas que permitan el acercamiento y la interacción reflexiva con el hombre sano o enfermo, la familia, las agrupaciones comunitarias y la coordinación con las instituciones sociales de la comunidad que permitan los cambios necesarios para alcanzar un modo de vida más sano y el desarrollo creciente de la cultura de la salud en la población, vinculando las herramientas cognoscitivas para educar a los miembros de la sociedad en el cuidado de su salud con las habilidades comunicativas que le permitan ser comprendido eficazmente basado en la amistad, confianza y respeto entre él y la población por cuya salud debe velar.In de new social and medical paradigm the effectiveness of communication constitutes a cornerstone to face the challenge for promoting changes in the lifestyle and offering people ways to think, analyze and to reflex about their health. The doctor patient relationship as a model of communication substantiate the behavior of the medical science professional and the relation that doctors will have among them and the health team from which it will depend the moral or ethical attitude to be oriented and will also characterize the attention. The objective of this paper is to reflex about the essential aspects that should characterize the skills to form a culture of communication aim to obtain a health work in the primary health care. The management of communication is analyzed to achieve and empathy with the patient, the elimination of communicative barriers that allow the approaching and reflexive interaction with the healthy or the sick person, the family, communitarian groups and the coordination with the communitarian social institutions, which permit the necessary changes to reach a healthier lifestyle and an ascending development of the health culture into the population, relating knowledge tools in order to educate members of the society in their health care wilt the communicative skills that allow them being will understood based on friendship, confidence, and respect between the health professional and the population whose health be should take care of.
Globally, hearing loss is the second most frequent disability. About 80% of the persons affected by hearing loss do not use hearing aids. The goal of this edited volume is to present a theoretically founded, interdisciplinary approach geared at understanding and improving social interaction impacted by hearing loss and (non-) use of hearing technologies. The researchers report on pilot studies from Australia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Switzerland and the USA. Using Conversation Analysis, the studies identify problems and serve as points of departure for possible solutions. Researchers and practitioners from the different disciplines (medicine, audiology, hearing rehabilitation, User Centered Design, Conversation Analysis, change business) as well as users of hearing technologies comment on this approach.
Full Text Available The study aims to examine the extent to which parliamentary parties from Romania are using Social Media to promote their image and political messages, but also the level of participation of supporters in social networks. More than that, another objective of this paper aims to identify similarities between the hypothetical percentages of supporters of political parties in Social Media, electoral percentages of accessing the Romanian Parliament and the current political configuration of the Romanian Parliament. The research focused on comparative analysis of the ?de facto? representation of the parliamentary parties in the romanian community and the degree of representation in social networks. The Research method used is quantitative analysis of the online documents and working tool used is the traffic analysis and the degree of the participation in social networks.
This book offers an alternative view to current postmodern approaches to composition. It takes a critical realist stance to arrive at the essence of written communication with the aim to inform a practical application: a computerized writing tutor.
ELECTRONIC BOOK FOR THE DIRECTION AND INSTITUTIONAL COMMUNICATION ADMINISTRATION SUBJECT OF THE FIFTH YEAR OF THE SOCIAL COMMUNICATION STUDIES/ LIBRO ELECTRÓNICO PARA LA ASIGNATURA DIRECCIÓN Y GESTIÓN DE COMUNICACIÓN INSTITUCIONAL DEL V AÑO DE LA CARRERA DE COMUNICACIÓN SOCIAL
Alejandro del Cristo Rodríguez Morell
Full Text Available In the article the developed work is detailed to the elaboration of the electronic book to the Direction and Institutional Communication Administration subject for the fifth year of the studies of Social Communication. The use of the new technologies of the information and communications applied to the teaching, by means of the application of a tool to the creation of interactive products that propitiate a more active learning and at the same time interesting and pleasant, it´s the essence of the conception of the book that is presented. Simultaneously it contributes to the solution of the bibliography´ situation of this subject that doesn't have a basic text. The design of the book allows to unify in a didactic body the dispersed contents in several consultation bibliographies and to include other types of materials, as videos, images and materials of the media. RESUMEN En el artículo se detalla el trabajo desarrollado para la elaboración del libro electrónico para la asignatura Dirección y Gestión de Comunicación Institucional para el 5to año de la carrera de Comunicación Social. La utilización de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones aplicadas a la enseñanza, mediante la aplicación de una herramienta para la creación de productos interactivos que propicien un aprendizaje más activo y a la vez interesante y ameno, es la esencia de la concepción del libro que se presenta. Simultáneamente contribuye a la solución de la situación de la bibliografía de dicha asignatura, que no cuenta con un texto básico. El diseño del libro permite unificar en un cuerpo didáctico los contenidos dispersos en varias bibliografías de consulta e incluir otros tipos de materiales, como videos, imágenes y materiales de la prensa.
Fiorucci, Federica; Bianchi, Cinzia; Marchesini, Ivan; Salvati, Paola; Fugnoli, Federico; Guzzetti, Fausto
Good communication is a fundamental step for the spread of news and knowledge. The effectiveness and persuasiveness of a message is a function of the interaction of characteristics of the audience, the source of the message, and content of the message. Italian Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI) has been publishing information on geo-hydrological events using the Internet (http://sici.irpi.cnr.it/, http://webmap.irpi.cnr.it/, http://geomorphology.irpi.cnr.it/, http://polaris.irpi.cnr.it/, http://giida.irpi.cnr.it/, http://events.irpi.cnr.it/ ). Our websites are mainly visited by experts and the information are used for technical purposes. The contents and the interface of the websites are designed for this type of users. Our intention is to increase the type of users, and we are testing the use of social network to catch the wide public's attention. Social networks have emerged as critical factor in information dissemination, search, marketing expertise and influence discovery, and are an important channel for people to share information. Social scientist have long recognized the importance of social networks in the spread of information. Facebook and Twitter are the most widely used social networking services. They make it simpler to communicate with multiple people at one time. Social media may also make it easier for users to monitor activities of people (friends or followers). An official Facebook page of the Italian Research Institute for the Hydrogeological Protection (CNR-IRPI, https://www.facebook.com/CNR.IRPI ), was created and linked to a Twitter account. The purpose of this page is to disseminate information on flood and landslide events and on our research activities, in order to raise awareness of geo-hydrological matters among users. This page publishes news on current or historical landslide and flood events involving the Italian territory, or news from around the world collected on the network. The news are published as text or links to videos or photos collected from the network. Facebook provides statistics regarding access the page and the interactions that users have with the news published. These statistics make it possible to quantify the interest of the users to the content of the news (post events, new publication institute, etc.). The way the news are published (only in text mode, with photographic or video images), the novelty (current event or historical) and the location (events in Italy or abroad) are all messages characteristic's that increase the audience attention. This work has highlighted the significance of the characteristics that can draw the attention of the public regarding landslide and flood information.
¿Para qué sirve la semiótica?: una propuesta de resignificación de la mujer a través de la comunicación para el cambio social / What is semiotics for?: A proposal for the resignification of women through communication for social change
Luis Ricardo, Navarro Díaz.
Full Text Available Este documento propone establecer puntos de encuentro entre las categorías mujer, semiótica y comunicación para el cambio social. El texto plantea como su eje central la idea de que una comunicación para la transformación social exige resignificar a la mujer en las distintas instancias del proceso c [...] omunicativo. El artículo explora, en primera instancia, contenidos teóricos sobre la semiótica, con el fin de ubicar su relación con un discurso crítico sobre el universo sígnico que los medios masivos proponen para la mujer. Una vez establecida esta mirada, se pretende estudiar la semiótica como componente fundamental de la comunicación para el cambio social en la medida en que posibilita generar actos narrativos de permanente re-significación humana Abstract in english This document proposes to establish points of contact between female categories, semiotics and communication for social change. The text asserts as its central theme the idea that communication for social transformation requires new meaning to women in different instances of the communication proces [...] s. The article explores in the first instance, contained theoretical semiotics, in order to locate her relationship with a critical discourse about the universe significant that the media offer for women. Hence, the purpose is to study semiotics as a fundamental component of communication for social change in the sense that facilitates the generation of narrative acts of permanent human re-signification
Repetitive tests represent an essential contribution to increasing the safety of nuclear power stations. The preconditions for these, however, are as follows: - a high level of specialist knowledge on the part of the responsible quality group at the nuclear power station, - the independence of the quality group in the decision making process, - selection of the test methods and test location without fixing a certain type of damage, - the correct use and correct combination of test methods, - extension of the minimum random sampling programme in the event of faults, - continuity in test technology, -careful preparation, - observation of the test instructions and perfect documentation, - acceptance even of undesirable results. 2 figs
Amae is defined as "wishing to be loved (Scheidlinger (1999). The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 27(1), p. 91)". Amae crying is known as crying of infants when seeking intimate emotional communication with caregivers. The objective of this study was to delineate when and how amae crying emerges in early infancy. Crying episodes of four infants were observed bimonthly, in the natural context of their homes, from birth to 6 months of age, for approximately 60min per session. Crying episodes (total=275) as determined by two coders were analyzed with respect to several behavioral measures. Results indicated that amae crying emerged at the age of 2 months, and consistently accounted for 30-40% of the total crying episodes after the ages of 3 months. Amae crying could be accurately identified when infants were not in acute discomfort and had already got the attention of their mothers. At such times, infants did not shed tears, cried with a fussy voice, and frequently looked at their mothers. Mothers responded to amae crying more promptly than they did to other types of crying behaviors. It is concluded that 3 months of age, when infants probably begin to use crying as a social communication tool is a major turning point for crying behavior from the perspective of its biological and social roles. It is suggested that amae crying might play an important role in strengthening and encouraging mother-infant interactions. PMID:26134240
Full Text Available El hallazgo de la imagen masacrada de un Cristo en su santuario ubicado en las alturas de la Quebrada de Humahuaca, conmociona a la feligresía de la localidad ubicada en las cercanías. Pasado el primer momento de estupor, se suceden las suposiciones en torno a los autores del hecho; así como las dis [...] cusiones posteriores en pro de su restauración o reemplazo. Se hacen manifiestos diversos relatos que giran en torno a la confección de la figura original del Cristo, a la de la Virgen que se encontraba en un camarín cercano. Se alude también a la actuación de un sacerdote, representante de la Teología de la Liberación; el que fue cuestionado ya hace algunos años y aún hasta hoy, por un sector de la sociedad local y provincial. El discurso de la narrativa oral, acerca de esta temática, puede mostrarnos la conceptualización de parte de la "realidad social". Interesa ver cómo los relatos orales están mostrando, en su contenido semántico, una manera de ver el mundo. Al mismo tiempo, mediante su organización formal están estructurando, también, una forma de categorizar al mundo social. Categorías, esquemas, modelos son los conceptos eje que guían nuestra búsqueda; y que permiten hacer inferencias acerca de las relaciones del poder local. También las menciones que aparecieron en conversaciones informales permiten explicar la postura discursiva de los emisores. El analisis de estas menciones nos ofrece datos que se pueden relacionar con el accionar directo o simbólico de diversas instituciones disciplinarias actuantes en nuestra sociedad. Abstract in english The discovery of a destroyed Christ graven image in his sanctuary situated in the heights of the Quebrada de Humahuaca, shocks the local parishioners in the outskirts of the sanctuary. After the first moment of stupor, suppositions about the perpetrators of the incident are made; the same as the lat [...] er discussions in favour of its restoration or replacement. Several tales that evolve around the making of the original Christ's figure and the virgin, who was in a nearby small chapel are manifested. It is also alluded to the intervention of a priest, representative of the Theology of the Liberation, who was questioned, a few years ago and even until today, by a sector of the local and provincial society. The discourse of oral narrative, about this theme, can show us the conceptualization, from the "social reality". It is interesting to see how oral tales show, in their semantic contents, a way to see the world. At the same time, by means of its formal organization, they are structuring, too, a way to categorize the social world. Categories, outlines, models are the central concepts that guide our search; and the ones that allow to make inferences about the local power relations. Also the mentions that appeared in informal conversations allow explaining the addresser´s discursive positioning.The analysis of what we have mentioned offers us pieces of information that are related to each other.
Full Text Available Abstract Background SHANK3 is a protein in the core of the postsynaptic density (PSD and has a critical role in recruiting many key functional elements to the PSD and to the synapse, including components of ?-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA, metabotropic glutamate (mGlu and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA glutamate receptors, as well as cytoskeletal elements. Loss of a functional copy of the SHANK3 gene leads to the neurobehavioral manifestations of 22q13 deletion syndrome and/or to autism spectrum disorders. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of haploinsufficiency of full-length Shank3 in mice, focusing on synaptic development, transmission and plasticity, as well as on social behaviors, as a model for understanding SHANK3 haploinsufficiency in humans. Methods We used mice with a targeted disruption of Shank3 in which exons coding for the ankyrin repeat domain were deleted and expression of full-length Shank3 was disrupted. We studied synaptic transmission and plasticity by multiple methods, including patch-clamp whole cell recording, two-photon time-lapse imaging and extracellular recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials. We also studied the density of GluR1-immunoreactive puncta in the CA1 stratum radiatum and carried out assessments of social behaviors. Results In Shank3 heterozygous mice, there was reduced amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and the input-output (I/O relationship at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in acute hippocampal slices was significantly depressed; both of these findings indicate a reduction in basal neurotransmission. Studies with specific inhibitors demonstrated that the decrease in basal transmission reflected reduced AMPA receptor-mediated transmission. This was further supported by the observation of reduced numbers of GluR1-immunoreactive puncta in the stratum radiatum. Long-term potentiation (LTP, induced either with ?-burst pairing (TBP or high-frequency stimulation, was impaired in Shank3 heterozygous mice, with no significant change in long-term depression (LTD. In concordance with the LTP results, persistent expansion of spines was observed in control mice after TBP-induced LTP; however, only transient spine expansion was observed in Shank3 heterozygous mice. Male Shank3 heterozygotes displayed less social sniffing and emitted fewer ultrasonic vocalizations during interactions with estrus female mice, as compared to wild-type littermate controls. Conclusions We documented specific deficits in synaptic function and plasticity, along with reduced reciprocal social interactions in Shank3 heterozygous mice. Our results are consistent with altered synaptic development and function in Shank3 haploinsufficiency, highlighting the importance of Shank3 in synaptic function and supporting a link between deficits in synapse function and neurodevelopmental disorders. The reduced glutamatergic transmission that we observed in the Shank3 heterozygous mice represents an interesting therapeutic target in Shank3-haploinsufficiency syndromes.
Bolivar, Valerie J; Walters, Samantha R.; Phoenix, Jennifer L.
Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder, with characteristics including impairments in reciprocal social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive/stereotyped behaviors. Despite decades of research, the etiology of autism remains elusive. Thus, it is important that we pursue all avenues, in attempting to understand this complicated disorder. One such avenue is the development of animal models. While autism may be uniquely human, there are behavioral characteristics of the disor...
Pobbe, Roger L. H.; Defensor, Erwin B.; Pearson, Brandon L.; Bolivar, Valerie J; Blanchard, D Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.
BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that shows behavioral traits with analogies to the three diagnostic symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD); deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Previous findings reveal that when compared to C57BL/6J (B6) and other inbred strains, BTBR exhibit normal to low anxiety-like traits in paradigms designed to assess anxiety-related behaviors. The current study assessed the general...
The general issue of relations between sociality and spatiality, until recently profoundly ignored outside spatial studies, has become a focus of great theoretical attention in a number of disciplines – what has been called, remarkably, the “spatial turn” in social and cultural theory. The thesis wishes to address a central problem in that debate: the connection of practice and space. It does so emphasising a dimension that has not been previously explored to a significant degree:...
Impairments in the social use of language, or pragmatics, constitute a core characteristic of autism. Problems with pragmatic language have also been documented in fragile X syndrome, a monogenic condition that is the most common known genetic cause of autism. Evidence suggests that social cognitive ability, or theory of mind, may also be impaired in both conditions, and in autism, may importantly relate to pragmatic language ability. Given the substantial overlap observed in autism and FXS, ...
Losh, Molly; Martin, Gary E; Klusek, Jessica; Hogan-Brown, Abigail L.; Sideris, John
Impairments in the social use of language, or pragmatics, constitute a core characteristic of autism. Problems with pragmatic language have also been documented in fragile X syndrome (FXS), a monogenic condition that is the most common known genetic cause of autism. Evidence suggests that social cognitive ability, or theory of mind, may also be impaired in both conditions, and in autism, may importantly relate to pragmatic language ability. Given the substantial overlap observed in autism and...
Johannessen, Marius Rohde
This thesis presents an exploratory study of the use of social media in the Norwegian public sector, and contributes to the understanding of how social media can be applied to improve deliberation. The study is situated within the eParticipation research field. The motivation for the study is the reported challenges facing democracy, in the form of lower voter turnout, decline in political party membership, and a general lessening of interest for public issues and deliberation. Deliberation i...
Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Sussman, Steve
Social identity is a construct that has been linked to health behavior. Yet, limited research has attempted to translate this relationship into health communication strategies. The current study addresses this gap by examining the efficacy of social identity targeting (constructing ads so that they target a specific group with which an individual identifies) to increase anti-cigarette smoking beliefs among adolescents. Two hundred and fifty one adolescents aged 12-15, randomly selected from a nationally representative sample, completed an online survey. Participants indicated which of 11 peer groups (determined in pre-testing) they most identified with. Each participant was then randomly assigned to view an ad that either did or did not target that group. One week later participants reported level of agreement with two key antismoking beliefs presented in the ad. Multiple regression analyses indicated that if an individual identified with the group targeted by the ad, antismoking beliefs were more strongly endorsed. Based on these findings, we conclude that social identity targeting has the potential to increase the effectiveness of antismoking messages and should be considered when designing antismoking campaigns. PMID:24447056
The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...
L. Taylor and D. Barney
CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...
Use of social communication as a tool for environmental licensing of small-scale hydroelectric power plants; Uso da comunicacao social como instrumento para o licenciamento ambiental de PCH - pequenas centrais hidreletricas
Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais], e-mail: email@example.com; Galhardo, Camila Rocha [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Pequenas Centrais Hidreletricas (CERPCH), MG (Brazil)], e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The present work intends to study the process of environmental licensing of the Small ones Central Hydroelectric (PCHs) through the rising of the legal framework of the referred process and to analyze the application of tools of social communication in the mitigation of the social impacts in the zone of influence of the enterprise. Through the analysis of the critical points in the environmental licensing of small hydroelectric uses and evaluation of communication actions taking in consideration the environmental costs for the enterprise. (author)
Wright, Kevin B; Rosenberg, Jenny; Egbert, Nicole; Ploeger, Nicole A; Bernard, Daniel R; King, Shawn
This study examined the influence of the social networking site Facebook and face-to-face support networks on depression among (N = 361) college students. The authors used the Relational Health Communication Competence Model as a framework for examining the influence of communication competence on social support network satisfaction and depression. Moreover, they examined the influence of interpersonal and social integrative motives as exogenous variables. On the basis of previous work, the authors propose and test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling. The results indicated empirical support for the model, with interpersonal motives predicting increased face-to-face and computer-mediated competence, increased social support satisfaction with face-to-face and Facebook support, and lower depression scores. The implications of the findings for theory, key limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23030518
Gage, Anastasia J
Despite increasing international attention to child marriage and its negative health and social consequences, little is known about the knowledge and beliefs of individuals who are in control of negotiating children's marriages and of the social context in which these individuals function. Using data from a 2007 cross-sectional household survey and multilevel logistic regression models, this paper examined the associations of communication exposure and measures of social influence with knowledge of marriage legislation, perceptions that marriage before age 18 was "too early", and beliefs in daughters' rights to individual marriage choice among parents/guardians in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The study found that mass media and interpersonal communication exposure were positively associated with all outcomes. The influence of communication exposure on knowledge of the legal minimum age at marriage and the perception that marriage before 18 was "too early" varied significantly across communities. Community pressure to stop child marriages and awareness of marriage law enforcement were positively associated with endorsing daughters' rights to choose their marriage age and partner. Perceived social norms regarding early marriage, normative beliefs and perceived benefits of delayed marriage were at least as important as communication exposure for endorsing daughters' rights to marriage choice. Gender and education differences were detected. The findings imply that child marriage-prevention programs should diversify information channels, reinforce perceived advantages of delayed marriage, and adopt a social influence perspective. PMID:24161097
Comunicação Comunitária: uma disciplina de formação sociopolítica e de intervenção social / Community Communication: discipline training sociopolitical and social intervention / Comunicación Comunitaria: una disciplina de formación sociopolítica y intervención social
Rozinaldo Antonio, Miani.
Full Text Available A disciplina Comunicação Comunitária ofertada para as habilitações de Jornalismo e de Relações Públicas do curso de Comunicação Social da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL/PR) tem representado para os estudantes de graduação na área um dos mais importantes espaços de formação sociopolítica, bem [...] como a possibilidade de produção de uma experiência de intervenção social. Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a experiência de oferta da referida disciplina, considerando a necessidade da ampliação de espaços de reflexão e de discussão política a respeito do papel da Universidade e sobre o compromisso do profissional com a sociedade, a partir de algumas reflexões baseadas em Paulo Freire e Antonio Gramsci. Por meio de uma breve análise do conteúdo programático da disciplina e do relato de algumas experiências, com a realização de projetos de intervenção social desenvolvidos no contexto da disciplina, observa-se uma qualificação política no processo de formação acadêmica, na perspectiva de constituição de um sujeito social crítico e emancipado. Abstract in spanish La disciplina Comunicación Comunitaria que se ofrece a las calificaciones de Periodismo y Relaciones Públicas del curso de Comunicación Social de la Universidad Estatal de Londrina (UEL/PR) ha representado a los estudiantes graduados en el área una de las zonas más importantes de la formación sociop [...] olítica, así como la posibilidad de producir una experiencia de intervención social. Este artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la experiencia de suministro de tal disciplina, teniendo en cuenta la necesidad de aumentar los espacios para la reflexión y el debate político sobre el papel de la universidad y en el compromiso del profesional con la sociedad, a partir de algunas reflexiones basadas en Paulo Freire y Antonio Gramsci. A través de un breve análisis del programa de la materia y el relato de algunas experiências, con la realización de proyectos de intervención social desarrollados en el contexto de la disciplina, observamos una calificación política del proceso de aprendizaje académico, en la perspectiva de constitución de un sujeto social crítico y emancipado. Abstract in english The discipline Community Communication offered to the qualifications of Journalism and Public Relations course in Social Communication from the State University of Londrina (UEL/PR) has represented to graduate students in the area one of the most important areas of sociopolitical formation, as well [...] the possibility of producing a social experience intervention. This article aims to analyze the experience of supply of such discipline, considering the need of increasing spaces for reflection and political discussion about the role of the university and on the professional's commitment to society, from some reflections based on Paulo Freire and Antonio Gramsci. Through a brief analysis of the syllabus of the subject and the reporting of some experiences, with the realization of social intervention projects developed in the context of the discipline, there is a political qualification of the academic learning process, in view of the constitution of a subject social critic and emancipated.
Damen, Saskia; Janssen, Marleen J.; Ruijssenaars, Wied A. J. J. M.; Schuengel, Carlo
Trevarthen's theory of innate intersubjectivity is relevant to understanding communication problems in children with sensory disabilities. Trevarthen and Aitken used the term "intersubjectivity" to describe "the ability of humans to detect and change each other's minds and behavior". When children lack auditory and/or visual…
Graffy, E.A.; Booth, N.L.
Dissemination of information to decision-makers and enhanced methods of public participation are often put forward as antidotes to a perceived disconnect between risk assessment and risk communication in the public domain. However, mechanisms that support both the provision of routine, timely and relevant technical knowledge to the public and meaningful opportunities for public participation in the evaluation and management of risk are few. We argue for the need to re-conceptualise the institutional context in which risk research and communication occur as one in which scientific knowledge and public understanding are co-evolutionary instead of independent or sequential. Here, we report on an experiment to promote coevolution of environmental risk assessment and risk communication through the instrumental use of a web-based platform that dynamically links expert and public discourses through common information sources, linked scenario evaluations, and opportunities for iterative dialogue. On the basis of technical feasibility, research value and public communication capacity, we conclude that there is potential for further refinement of the methodologies presented here. Copyright ?? 2008 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Abstract The aim of this study was to follow 8 to 36- month old children's communicative development and its' associations with social-emotional skills (the Brief Infant Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment, BITSEA) and behavioural problems. This study is the first study using the Finnish version of the BITSEA. A total of 50 children participated in the Oulu region (first phases at year 2006 and 2007). At the age of 8 months (at year 2006, n = 31), child participants were grouped ...
Rodríguez Victoriano, José Manuel; Wulff Barreiro, Enrique
In the semantic architecture of the society of the knowledge the innovation concept is the fundamental brick. It is an adobe that allows to construct very different discourses frequently opposed between them, in what the purpose of its social use concerns. In the present communication we introduce the motivations for the access and use of the information and the knowledge on the part of the different social sectors in the Andalusian society. The analysis of the efforts of the Andalusian admin...
Self, Charles C.
Focusing on the seminal work "Being and Nothingness," this paper explores the implications of the ideas of Jean-Paul Sartre for the study of communication in society. The paper redefines communication from an existential point of view, explores some implications of this redefinition for the study of communication within the social setting, and…
Bohn, Angela; Feinerer, Ingo; Hornik, Kurt; Mair, Patrick
Social network analysis (SNA) provides tools to examine relationships between people. Text mining (TM) allows capturing the text they produce in Web 2.0 applications, for example, however it neglects their social structure. This paper applies an approach to combine the two methods named "content-based SNA" (CB-SNA). Using the R mailing lists, R-help and R-devel, we show how this combination can be used to describe people's interests and to find out if authors who have similar interests actual...
Verfaellie, Mieke; Rajaram, Suparna; Fossum, Karen; Williams, Lisa
While it is well known that repetition can enhance memory in amnesia, little is known about which forms of repetition are most beneficial. This study compared the effect on recognition memory of repetition of words in the same semantic context and in varied semantic contexts. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which these forms of repetition affect performance, participants were asked to make Remember/Know judgments during recognition. These judgments were used to make inferences about th...
Bullinger, Anke F.; Zimmermann, Felizitas; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael
Both chimpanzees and human infants use the pointing gesture with human adults, but it is not clear if they are doing so for the same social motives. In two studies, we presented chimpanzees and human 25-month-olds with the opportunity to point for a hidden tool (in the presence of a non-functional distractor). In one condition it was clear that…
Introduction: The paper presents findings from a study investigating the health and lifestyle information behaviour of different groups of Icelanders. The paper focuses on the use of social media and its role in current information behaviour. Method: Quantitative methods were used. Two random samples were used in the study and the data were…
This paper describes a study of a speech community, a group of approximately 10 women, aged 25 to 65, who met at least 3 times a month to knit, drink coffee, and chat. The paper notes that knitting circles have survived through history because they serve a social function that surpasses historical events--they are communities that co-construct the…
Stefanone, M. A.; Gay, G.
This study explores the relationship between the structure of an existing social network and the structure of an emergent discussion-board network in an undergraduate university class. Thirty-one students were issued with laptop computers that remained in their possession for the duration of the semester. While using these machines, participants'…
Speck, Bruce W.
Describes a method for helping students evaluate ethical issues in a systematic way, based on Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development. Recommends the case-study approach for creating social constructs in which students face ethical dilemmas, and outlines a case-study ethics unit using Kohlberg's model. (MM)