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1

Social Interaction and Repetitive Motor Behaviors  

Science.gov (United States)

Students with autism have difficulty initiating social interactions and may exhibit repetitive motor behavior (e.g., body rocking, hand flapping). Increasing social interaction by teaching new skills may lead to reductions in problem behavior, such as motor stereotypies. Additionally, self-monitoring strategies can increase the maintenance of…

Loftin, Rachel L.; Odom, Samuel L.; Lantz, Johanna F.

2008-01-01

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Technology and social communication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For centuries advances in what we now term media have generated concerns about the effect these advances have on values and morality-books, stage drama, movies, TV, and now computer-based fantasy and Internet-based distribution. These media comprise some of the most powerful agents for developing our fundamental strategies for living. Computer-based fantasy can provide waves of sensations that everyday life does not prepare us for; they create a wow effect. The implications are especially, strong for adolescents. Wow effects come to seem ordinary. We can easily overdose on them with a subsequent dulling of sensibility that motivates one to seek the next level. As the wow effect is numbed, socializing restrictions break down. A psychological strategy of distancing is one defense against enhanced imagery - a strategy of cool as antidote. The wow-cool dipole can foster a role as spectator that inhibits empathy and a fundamental distancing from the self. Technology - the source of our concerns-can also help to counteract them. The most powerful drive in children is to learn mastery of the world. New input and output devices and especially properly designed software can enhance the capacity to learn and to be creative, i.e. to gain mastery over the world. These powerful new modes of communication not only give us great access to the world, they give the world great access to us. We must supplant what is now mostly a passive broadcast system with interactive exploration and two-way communication.

Moore, G.A.

1996-12-31

3

Communicating science in social settings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists-driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication-to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.

Scheufele DA

2013-08-01

4

Communicating science in social settings  

Science.gov (United States)

This essay examines the societal dynamics surrounding modern science. It first discusses a number of challenges facing any effort to communicate science in social environments: lay publics with varying levels of preparedness for fully understanding new scientific breakthroughs; the deterioration of traditional media infrastructures; and an increasingly complex set of emerging technologies that are surrounded by a host of ethical, legal, and social considerations. Based on this overview, I discuss four areas in which empirical social science helps clarify intuitive but sometimes faulty assumptions about the social-level mechanisms of science communication and outline an agenda for bench and social scientists—driven by current social-scientific research in the field of science communication—to guide more effective communication efforts at the societal level in the future.

Scheufele, Dietram A.

2013-01-01

5

Social media as communicative genres  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As a focus of study, ‘social media’ tend to lack definitional clarity and grounding in theories of media and text. This paper establishes and discusses a conceptual framework for defining social media as communicative genres, constituted by the interplay between interactive functionalities ...

Stine Lomborg

6

Social media as communicative genres  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As a focus of study, ‘social media’ tend to lack definitional clarity and grounding in theories of media and text. This paper establishes and discusses a conceptual framework for defining social media as communicative genres, constituted by the interplay between interactive functionalities configured at the software level and the invocation and appropriation of various software functionalities to achieve specific purposes in and through users’ actual communicative practices. I suggest that social media might be seen as particularly dynamic genres, subject to continuous disruption and uncertainty,owing to their deinstitutionalised and participatory character, and the shifting roles of producers and recipients in the networks and conversations that make up social media content.

Stine Lomborg

2011-01-01

7

Regional gray matter volumetric changes in autism associated with social and repetitive behavior symptoms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Although differences in brain anatomy in autism have been difficult to replicate using manual tracing methods, automated whole brain analyses have begun to find consistent differences in regions of the brain associated with the social cognitive processes that are often impaired in autism. We attempted to replicate these whole brain studies and to correlate regional volume changes with several autism symptom measures. Methods We performed MRI scans on 24 individuals diagnosed with DSM-IV autistic disorder and compared those to scans from 23 healthy comparison subjects matched on age. All participants were male. Whole brain, voxel-wise analyses of regional gray matter volume were conducted using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Results Controlling for age and total gray matter volume, the volumes of the medial frontal gyri, left pre-central gyrus, right post-central gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, caudate nuclei and the left hippocampus were larger in the autism group relative to controls. Regions exhibiting smaller volumes in the autism group were observed exclusively in the cerebellum. Significant partial correlations were found between the volumes of the caudate nuclei, multiple frontal and temporal regions, the cerebellum and a measure of repetitive behaviors, controlling for total gray matter volume. Social and communication deficits in autism were also associated with caudate, cerebellar, and precuneus volumes, as well as with frontal and temporal lobe regional volumes. Conclusion Gray matter enlargement was observed in areas that have been functionally identified as important in social-cognitive processes, such as the medial frontal gyri, sensorimotor cortex and middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, we have shown that VBM is sensitive to associations between social and repetitive behaviors and regional brain volumes in autism.

Rojas Donald C; Peterson Eric; Winterrowd Erin; Reite Martin L; Rogers Sally J; Tregellas Jason R

2006-01-01

8

Assessment of Social Communication Skills in Preschoolers  

Science.gov (United States)

|This paper orients the reader to social communication assessment and reviews methods for assessing social communication behavior in children from toddlerhood through the preschool years. Most standardized, normed tests of language in this age range focus on morpho-syntactic and semantic comprehension and production abilities. While social

Landa, Rebecca J.

2005-01-01

9

An Examination of the Relationship between Communication and Socialization Deficits in Children with Autism and PDD-NOS  

Science.gov (United States)

|Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are characterized by pervasive impairments in repetitive behaviors or interests, communication, and socialization. As the onset of these features occurs at a very young age, early detection is of the utmost importance. In an attempt to better clarify the behavioral presentation of communication and socialization

Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.

2012-01-01

10

Social Communication Impairs Working-Memory Performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Performance on working-memory tests is frequently used in experimental psychology and neuroscience, as well as in neuropsychological testing and clinical screening. It can be strongly affected by the social context and the communication style of the experimenter. We tested this hypothesis in two experiments, examining standardized neuropsychological working-memory tests in different social communication contexts. Our results show that the more ostensive communication context (eye contact, exaggerated intonation contours) impairs working-memory performance. These results draw attention to the fact that the communication style of the examiner could have a robust effect on working-memory performance and could even modify clinical diagnosis.

Nemeth D; Turcsik AB; Farkas G; Janacsek K

2013-02-01

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Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal.

Knörnschild M; Jung K; Nagy M; Metz M; Kalko E

2012-12-01

12

Risk communication in social context: Improving effective communication  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the realm of complex and controversial technologies, professional risk communicators typically attempt to educate the affected public about the safety of technologies, emphasizing very low probabilities of events that may harm human health and safety. When the often one-way transmission of such information fails to lead to public acceptance of the technology in question, there may be much frustration and heightened tensions on all sides. This article argues that the process of communication may be more effective when (1) topics of communication are expanded to include many socially relevant aspects of a technology and its effects, not just probabilities of morbidity and mortality; (2) communication truly is interactive, not unidirectional; and (3) there is recognition that information about a technology (its safety and social impacts, as examples) is communicated nearly continually through both formal and informal channels. To illustrate these points, an example of technology communication involving military low-altitude training flights is presented. The article concludes by discussing why the linkage between risk communication and technology acceptance should promote an interactive, socially relevant communication process.

Wolfe, A.K. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Division)

1993-01-01

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Professionally Social Using social media for professional research communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this short article, I will discuss what I consider the important characteristics, opportunities and challenges offered by social media when used for professional communication purposes. The insights – or perhaps rather points of discussion - put forth here are based on my own experiences as practicing social media communicator and Danish research blogger, as well as on my general research into the use of social media for professional communication purposes, by for instance Danish politicians (see Klastrup and Svejgaard Pedersen 2005, Klastrup 2007).

Lisbeth Klarstrup

2012-01-01

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Psycho-social impacts of virtual communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The emergence and spread of Internet communication has led to changes in social relationships, abuse of the Internet and maladaptive behavior. Among the authors who have studied the impact of these changes there is no consensus, and the results of their research are often contradictory. Some authors conclude that Internet communication strengthens networks of its users, while others believe that such communication leads to reduced participation in real social life. In a number of people, excessive use of the Internet adversely affects the mental health and social life and can lead to obsession at the expense of other aspects of life and creating addiction. The greatest risk of negative impacts of online communication is among children and young people. This paper is meant to indicate, the good sides as well as the negative consequences of excessive and non-functional Internet use

Macura Rajko; Vujovi? Slavoljub; Miki? ?uro

2011-01-01

15

Social network analysis and dual rover communications  

Science.gov (United States)

Social network analysis (SNA) refers to the collection of techniques, tools, and methods used in sociometry aiming at the analysis of social networks to investigate decision making, group communication, and the distribution of information. Human factors engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a social network analysis on communication data collected during a 14-day field study operating a dual rover exploration mission to better understand the relationships between certain network groups such as ground control, flight teams, and planetary science. The analysis identified two communication network structures for the continuous communication and Twice-a-Day Communication scenarios as a split network and negotiated network respectfully. The major nodes or groups for the networks' architecture, transmittal status, and information were identified using graphical network mapping, quantitative analysis of subjective impressions, and quantified statistical analysis using Sociometric Statue and Centrality. Post-questionnaire analysis along with interviews revealed advantages and disadvantages of each network structure with team members identifying the need for a more stable continuous communication network, improved robustness of voice loops, and better systems training/capabilities for scientific imagery data and operational data during Twice-a-Day Communications.

Litaker, Harry L.; Howard, Robert L.

2013-10-01

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The Communications of Corporate Social Responsability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper present the role and interaction between communication and Corporate Social Responsibility, strengtheningin the same time that communication it is a key factor to begin and keep a proper Sustainable Development strategy. The importance of communication is essential, taking in consideration the awareness in the interior and in the exterior of organization strategy, ethical, ecological and socio-economical objectives, since information regarding the impact of the company’s activities, products and services as well as regarding the impacts of changes that can supervene in time, can only be provided in this way. Since there are many ways to communicate regarding the actions of CSR, it is important to know what kind of messages and ideas can resonate with a certain audience, considering the stage in which the ISO 26000 standard’s development stands.

Mihaela Bucur; Sorina Moica; Raluca F?rca?

2011-01-01

17

Social identity framing: Leader communication for social change  

Science.gov (United States)

Social identity framing (SIF) delineates a process of intergroup communication that leaders may engage in to promote a vision of social change. As a step towards social change, social identity may need to be altered to accommodate a new view of the group, its collective goals, and its place alongside other groups. Thus, social identity content may be deconstructed and reconstructed by the leader en route to change. SIF suggests that this may be achieved through a series of 16 communication tactics, which are largely derived from previous research (Seyranian & Bligh, 2008). This research used an experimental design to test the effectiveness of three SIF communication tactics - inclusion, similarity to followers, and positive social identity - on a number of follower outcomes. Students ( N=246) were randomly assigned to read one of eight possible speeches promoting renewable energy on campus that was ostensibly from a student leader. The speeches were varied to include or exclude the three communication tactics. Following the speech, participants completed a dependent measures questionnaire. Results indicated that similarity to followers and positive social identity did not affect follower outcomes. However, students exposed to inclusion were more likely to indicate that renewable energy was ingroup normative; intend to engage in collective action to bring renewable energy to campus; experience positive emotional reactions towards change; feel more confident about the possibility of change; and to view the leader more positively. The combination of inclusion and positive social identity increased perceptions of charismatic leadership. Perceived leader prototypicality and cognitive elaboration of the leader's message resulted in more favorable attitudes towards renewable energy. Perceived leader prototypicality was also directly related to social identification, environmental values, ingroup injunctive norms, and self-stereotypes. Overall, these results support SIF theory by providing evidence that communication that implicates social identity (i.e., inclusion) is an important aspect of the leader-follower influence process and that it can be used to bring about changes such as promoting environmental conservation policies. Avenues of future research on SIF are discussed.

Seyranian, Viviane

18

Creativity, social networking and changing business communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews literature on creativity, innovations, and creative organizations. An analytical approach has been undertaken using various articles to identify the need of innovation and creativity in today's world and how the innovation of social networking is changing business activities. Creativity and innovation are crucial factors for the endurance and progression of organizations in today's world. From the macroeconomic perspective, innovation is also related with economic growth, development of living standards and a country's international competiveness. The need for innovation is assisted by Information technology in a range of ways and in this contemporary era it is hard to separate innovation and technology due to its incredible offerings in all kinds of industries and sectors. One such innovation was 'social networking and social media.' In this epoch of social media, businesses are obliged to be extra transparent and more personal. This does not eradicate the need of customary advertising, but social networks allow an innovative form of communication which altered the approach of doing businesses. Businesses must concentrate on developing real and direct connections with customers. Companies which lag behind to change to this new trend and culture will be in damaging situation, as competitors will progressively try to reap the benefits out of it. All in all businesses need to adapt with the growing importance and impact of social networking as a means of communication.

Saif Hossain

2013-01-01

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Social Constructivism, Positivism, and Facilitated Communication  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facilitated communication, a technique that is said to enhance the communicative abilities ofindividuals with severe language impairments, has engendered much controversy. Biklen andDuchan (1994) and Green and Shane (1994) present two sides of this controversy. Biklen andDuchan argue that from a constructivist's perspective, the primary issue is the underlying culturalpresuppositions regarding mental retardation and science rather than the efficacy of facilitatedcommunication. Green and Shane present research evidence challenging the efficacy of facilitatedcommunication within a positivist's framework. We present a brief review of science as viewedthrough positivists' and constructivists' lenses. Using the framework of social constructivismadopted by Biklen and Duchan, we disagree with them on three points: 1) even though the process ofconstructing scientific knowledge is strongly affected by human social, emotional, and cognitiveprocesses, it also involves matters of fact th...

Grover J. Whitehurst; Deanne A. Crone

20

Socially guided attention influences infants' communicative behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For effective prelinguistic communication, infants must be able to direct their attention, vocalizations, and nonverbal gestures in social interactions. The purpose of our study was to examine how different styles of caregiver responses influenced infant attentional and communicative behavior in social interactions, based on prior studies that have shown influences of responsiveness on attention, language and cognitive outcomes. Infants were exposed to redirective and sensitive behavior systematically using an ABA design to examine real-time changes in infants' behavior as a function of caregiver responses. During the two baseline "A" periods, caregivers were instructed to play as they would at home. During the social response "B" period, caregivers were instructed to respond sensitively to infants' behavior on one visit and redirectively on the other visit. Results demonstrated that when caregivers behaved redirectively, infants shifted their attention more frequently and decreased the duration of their visual attention. Caregiver responses also resulted in changes in vocal and gesture production. Infants decreased their production of caregiver-directed vocalizations, gestures, and gesture-vocal combinations during in the redirective condition. Results suggest that caregiver sensitive responding to infants' attentional focus may be one influence on infants' attentional and prelinguistic communicative behavior.

Miller JL; Gros-Louis J

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Interpersonal Communication Relevance to Professional Development, in Social Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Professional development is a desideratum both the organization and for each employee, in part, and interpersonal communication is the means of safe fulfillment, especially in social systems. No matter what ways of professional development are chosen, organizations (considered as major social systems) works on communication processes. Moreover, social systems are at the same time, communication systems. As so, the importance of interpersonal communication in providing professional development is major, proven fact, at least in one sense, by the rich offer of training courses focusing on communication. Moreover, analysis of case studies of interpersonal communication conducted in organizational context indicates that the communication is purpose, means and professional development tool.

Manoela Popescu

2013-01-01

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Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on clinical, social, and cognitive performance in postpartum depression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Martin Luiz Myczkowski,1 Álvaro Machado Dias,1,2 Tatiana Luvisotto,1 Debora Arnaut,1 Bianca Boura Bellini,1 Carlos Gustavo Mansur,1 Joel Rennó,1 Gabriel Tortella,1 Philip Leite Ribeiro,1 Marco Antônio Marcolin11Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, Medical School São Paulo, 2Clinical Neuroscience Laboratory of the Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study evaluated the impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on clinical, cognitive, and social performance in women suffering with postpartum depression.Methods: Fourteen patients were randomized to receive 20 sessions of sham rTMS or active 5 Hz rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Psychiatric clinical scales and a neuropsychological battery were applied at baseline (pretreatment), week 4 (end of treatment), and week 6 (follow-up, posttreatment week 2).Results: The active rTMS group showed significant improvement 2 weeks after the end of rTMS treatment (week 6) in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (P = 0.020), Global Assessment Scale (P = 0.037), Clinical Global Impression (P = 0.047), and Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report-Work at Home (P = 0.020).Conclusion: This study suggests that rTMS has the potential to improve the clinical condition in postpartum depression, while producing marginal gains in social and cognitive function.Keywords: transcranial magnetic stimulation, postpartum depression, clinical performance, cognitive performance, social performance

Myczkowski ML; Dias AM; Luvisotto T; Arnaut D; Bellini BB; Mansur CG; Rennó J; Tortella G; Ribeiro PL; Marcolin MA

2012-01-01

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The Role of Social Media in the Communication of Leaders  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis explores the impact of social media on leadership. For this purpose, it presents a new model for the communication of leaders. This builds on the empirical finding; that leaders must optimize two elements in order to communicate effectively; communication channel and communication style....

Viktil, Joachim

24

Social Media Feedback to Improve FDA Risk Communication  

Science.gov (United States)

Text VersionPage 1. 1 Using Social Media Feedback to Improve FDA Risk Communication Nancy Ostrove, Ph.D. ... Risk Communication Strengthen Science ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

25

The social network and communicative complexity: preface to theme issue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The complex social worlds of many animal species may be linked to complex communicative systems in those species. We now have evidence in diverse taxa and in different communicative modalities suggesting that complexity in social groups can drive complexity in signalling systems. The aim of this theme issue is to develop the theory behind this link between social complexity and communicative complexity, and to provide an overview of the lines of research testing this link.

Freeberg TM; Ord TJ; Dunbar RI

2012-07-01

26

Corporate social responsibility as communicational strategy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on a concrete case, the negotiation of compensation and reparation for environmental damage in the state of Rio de Janeiro, this paper deals with the role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as main strategic instrument to set up a relationship among state, businesses and the civil society in the process of licensing and deploying gas pipelines. In this kind of process, a few cultural aspects, such as a social pattern based in philanthropy and paternalism, make difficult for any agreement to be reached among the stake holders. As a result, the process of licensing becomes slow and fragile. In some cases, negotiation ends up unsuccessful. This mental model coexists with an imperious need for investments in energy, leading to a hard contradiction between a traditional behavior and the surge of modern consumerism habits. Besides, local legislation and bureaucracy allow for few or no options to solve the conflict. In this context, as will be seen, CSR is a preferential way to establish fruitful dialog. By means of Corporate Social Investments (CSI), it is possible to create a common experience of local development among entrepreneurs, the state and the community, by this breaking communication barriers and providing alternatives to solve the original contradiction. (author)

Moraes, Jorge C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

27

High-repetition-rate pulsed-pump fiber OPA for amplification of communication signals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The use of a high-repetition-rate pulsed-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier (OPA), followed by a narrow optical filter for transparent signal amplification, was proposed. Theory and simulations predict larger gain and gain bandwidth compared to a continuous-wave pump with the same average pow...

Kalogerakis, G; Shimizu, K; Marhic, ME; Wong, KKY; Uesaka, K; Kazovsky, LG

28

Leaders and Social Media : Improving HRM through better internal communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to create understanding for how social media affects the relationship between employees and leaders in organizations, and how social media could be used to improve internal communication. We also want to explore how this type of internal communication could be implemente...

Westman, Daniel; Lindfors, Peter

29

Communication Strategies via Social Media : The case study of Tomorrowland  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In the past decade, Social Media has been an interesting Internet phenomenon. Social Media has increased the ability for Internet users to communicate and interact with one another, allowing them to overcome boundaries that once made communication difficult and slow. It has become a big ...

Kazakulova, Yulia; Kuhn, Erik

30

Communication for Social Change Anthology : Historical and Contemporary Readings  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This anthology, the result of 3 years of review of 1000+ articles, now assembles 150 authors with 200 contributions - full articles, excerpts and quotes - ranging from 1927 to 2005. The articles all have been selected upon the criteria of contributing conceptually to the field of communication for social change. The book is organised in two parts: the first part being cronological, from 1927-1995, and the second part containing 'the contemporary debate' in communication for social change, organised in 5 sub-themes: 1) Popular Culture, Narrative and Identity, 2) Social Movements & Community Participation, 3) Power, Media and the Public Sphere, 4) Paradigms in Communication for Development, 5) Information Society & Communication Rights.

2006-01-01

31

How scientists use social media to communicate their research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Millions of people all over the world are constantly sharing an extremely wide range of fascinating, quirky, funny, irrelevant and important content all at once. Even scientists are no strangers to this trend. Social media has enabled them to communicate their research quickly and efficiently throughout each corner of the world. But which social media platforms are they using to communicate this research and how are they using them? One thing is clear: the range of social media platforms that scientists are using is relatively vast and dependent on discipline and sentiment. While the future of social media is unknown, a combination of educated speculation and persuasive fact points to the industry's continual growth and influence. Thus, is that not only are scientists utilizing social media to communicate their research, they must. The ability to communicate to the masses via social media is critical to the distribution of scientific information amongst professionals in the field and to the general population.

Van Eperen L; Marincola FM

2011-01-01

32

The application of "integrated marketing communications" to social marketing and health communication: organizational challenges and implications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Influencing consumer behavior is a difficult and often resource-intensive undertaking, with success usually requiring identifying, describing, and understanding target audiences; solid product and/or service positioning relative to competitors; and significant media and communication resources. Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is a new way of organizing and managing persuasive communication tools and functions which involves realigning communications to consider the flow of information from an organization from the viewpoint of end consumers. Although the application of IMC to social marketing remains relatively unexplored, the IMC literature and recent efforts by the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control suggest that integrated communication approaches have much to offer social marketing and health communication efforts. IMC, IMC and social marketing, and implications of IMC for public and private sector social marketing programs are discussed. PMID:12348831

Nowak, G; Cole, G; Kirby, S; Freimuth, V; Caywood, C

1998-01-01

33

The social gradient in doctor-patient communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Objective In recent years, the importance of social differences in the physician-patient relationship has frequently been the subject of research. A 2002 review synthesised the evidence on this topic. Considering the increasing importance of social inequalities in health care, an actualization of this review seemed appropriate. Methods A systematic search of literature published between 1965 and 2011 on the social gradient in doctor-patient communication. In this review social class was determined by patient's income, education or occupation. Results Twenty original research papers and meta-analyses were included. Social differences in doctor-patient communication were described according to the following classification: verbal behaviour including instrumental and affective behaviour, non-verbal behaviour and patient-centred behaviour. Conclusion This review indicates that the literature on the social gradient in doctor-patient communication that was published in the last decade, addresses new issues and themes. Firstly, most of the found studies emphasize the importance of the reciprocity of communication. Secondly, there seems to be a growing interest in patient's perception of doctor-patient communication. Practice implications By increasing the doctors' awareness of the communicative differences and by empowering patients to express concerns and preferences, a more effective communication could be established.

Verlinde Evelyn; De Laender Nele; De Maesschalck Stéphanie; Deveugele Myriam; Willems Sara

2012-01-01

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Early predictors of language and social communication impairments at 9-11 years: A follow-up study of early-referred children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate hypotheses that early sociocognition will predict later social communication and early phonology will predict later morphosyntax in clinically referred preschoolers. METHOD: Participants were 108 children aged 9-11 years who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language at 2½-3½. years. Predictors at Time 1 (T1) were measures of sociocognition, word/nonword repetition, and receptive language. Outcome measures at Time 3 (T3) included a social communication questionnaire completed by parents, and tests of nonword repetition, morphosyntax, and receptive language. RESULTS: Group- and case-level analyses revealed early sociocognition to be the strongest predictor of social communication problems, which by T3 affected almost a third of the sample. At group level, early phonology, which was a significant problem for the majority of children at T1, was a weak predictor of morphosyntax at T3. However, at case level, the majority of children with poor morphosyntax and nonword repetition at outcome had had very low repetition scores at T1. CONCLUSIONS: In early language referrals, it is important to identify and address sociocognitive problems, a considerable risk for later social communication and ASD. The majority of early referred children had phonological problems, often severe, but these require further investigation to determine their longer-term significance for language.

Chiat S; Roy P

2013-08-01

35

Social Communication Difficulties and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Young Children with Optic Nerve Hypoplasia and/or Septo-Optic Dysplasia  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim: The aim of this study was to study systematically social, communication, and repetitive/restrictive (SCRR) behavioural difficulties and clinical autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) and/or septo-optic dysplasia (SOD), and to investigate the relationship between visual impairment, SCRR difficulties, ASD,…

Parr, Jeremy R.; Dale, Naomi J.; Shaffer, Lara M.; Salt, Alison T.

2010-01-01

36

Challenges in the communication between 'communication vulnerable' people and their social environment: an exploratory qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Communication vulnerable people are often unable to communicate effectively within their social environment, hindering client-centered care and participation in daily life. This study aims to explore the experiences of communication and the factors that influence this in long term care settings. METHODS: A qualitative study using the critical incident method. Communication vulnerable clients and people within their immediate environment were interviewed about their communication experiences. RESULTS: Thirty-nine individuals in three settings participated in the interviews, of which 14 were clients. Specific challenges in communication were presented in different relationships. The main influencing factors in the communication between clients and professionals were: effort put into improving the communication, knowledge of the professional, augmentative and alternative communication, time for communication and the influence and power of the client. CONCLUSION: Communication vulnerable people and people within their immediate environment face daily challenges in communicating with each other. In particular, communication among clients, can be very difficult. Augmentative and alternative communication tools are only rarely used. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Professionals need to develop adequate knowledge and skills to improve their communication. Also, more attention should be focussed on use of AAC, communication between professionals and family members, and support in the communication among clients.

Stans SE; Dalemans R; de Witte L; Beurskens A

2013-09-01

37

The communications model of using social network by sports clubs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents a model of marketing communications using social network by sports clubs. It presents the links between the sports club and its environment and uses of the Internet to promote it. The model of communication is composed of the elements responsible for the success of marketing in the web. Article also includes recommendations for using the model in practice.

S. Kowalski

2012-01-01

38

Family Communication Patterns and Consumer Socialization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Questionnaires completed by 301 junior and senior high school students provided data for a study of family influences on the development of various consumer competencies, materialistic values, communication behaviors, and attitudes toward marketing stimuli. Family influences were studied in the context of two dimensions of communication

Moore, Roy L.; Moschis, George P.

39

[Communicative and social behavior of speech disordered children  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The spheres covering behaviour disorders, social behaviour and communicative behaviour of speech impaired pupils which until now have been analyzed on a more theoretical level, ought to be studied using psychometric testing procedures and an esperimental observational situation in order to gain base data with which to set up a concrete catalogue of aims (learning program) based on the deficits thereby obtained. The study took place at the special school in Esslinger-Berkheim (Baden-Wurttemberg). By taking into account relevant specialized literature and the results of other studies, the following general hypotheses were advanced, namely, that the communication of speech handicapped children is troubled in respect of its content and relation, and that their social behaviour shows more egoistic than cooperative features. In order to determine social motivations and attitudes, we used Muller's "Social Motivation Test" (SMT) and Jorger's "Group test for the social attitude" (S-E-T). Due to the inconsistency between the attitudes measured by means of psychometric methods and the sbusequent free and genuine behaviour, an observational situation was developed during which the pupils, either in pairs or in groups of four and using puppets, took turns in thinking up a story, discussing the plot, roles, etc. and finally putting on the play. The whole was then analyzed by means of tape recordings and film shots, the interaction of the communicating partners being analyzed and categorized in two separate assessment stages: communicative behaviour and social behaviour. The pragmatic axioms of P. Watzlawick, the communication researcher, functioned as theoretical background. Flanders's linear time diagram was used as assessment system. Communicative and social learning aims were prepared in accordance with confirming hypotheses to enable a "preliminary area" for the practical work in (special) education to be defined. In addition, a rough outline was made of the conditional areas pertaining to social and communicative education of the speech impaired for the purpose of carrying out a systematic change.

Eiberger W; Hügel H

1978-07-01

40

Social media in an integrated marketing communication strategy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this research work is to find out how to integrate social media in Off-Road’s Finnmark marketing communications. One of the aims of this research is to help the case company to increase the usage of social media in their marketing strategy. The next objective is to develop a marketi...

Lopez Y Gonzalez, Manuel

 
 
 
 
41

ON-LINE COMMUNICATION BY SOCIALIZATION SITES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Socialization online sites have become important landmarks for people all around the world and of all ages, especially for youth. Users of such services can socialize with people they know or with unknown, people located in the vicinity or at different distances, even on different continents. In other words, social online sites help people to interact with others of their kind, to know people who have the same passions as they have. The access to such sites is free and the members can build profiles (which include data on name, age, hobbies or favorite books and movies) and can share photos, music or videos with the others. A friend is, in the language of the socialization sites, any user who has a link to his/her profile page. Users can send messages or can leave comments on other profiles. In some cases, people who meet on such sites decide to meet also in the real life.

Morozan Gigi-Cristian; Enache Elena; Vechiu Camelia; Marin Carmen

2010-01-01

42

How scientists use social media to communicate their research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Millions of people all over the world are constantly sharing an extremely wide range of fascinating, quirky, funny, irrelevant and important content all at once. Even scientists are no strangers to this trend. Social media has enabled them to communicate their research quickly and efficiently throughout each corner of the world. But which social media platforms are they using to communicate this research and how are they using them? One thing is clear: the range of social media platforms that scientists are using is relatively vast and dependent on discipline and sentiment. While the future of social media is unknown, a combination of educated speculation and persuasive fact points to the industry's continual growth and influence. Thus, is that not only are scientists utilizing social media to communicate their research, they must. The ability to communicate to the masses via social media is critical to the distribution of scientific information amongst professionals in the field and to the general population.

Van Eperen Laura; Marincola Francesco M

2011-01-01

43

CSR Communication Strategies for Organizational Legitimacy in Social Media  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose – Organization legitimacy is a general reflection of the relationship between an organization and its environment. By adopting an institutional approach and defining moral legitimacy as “a positive normative evaluation of the organization and its activities”, the goal of this paper is to investigate which corporate communication strategy adopted in online social media is more effective to create convergence between corporations' corporate social responsibility (CSR) agenda and stakeholders' social expectations, and thereby, to increase corporate legitimacy. Design/methodology/approach – Using the entire Twitter social graph, a network analysis was carried out to study the structural properties of the CSR community, such as the level of reciprocity, and advanced data mining techniques, i.e. topic and sentiment analysis, were carried out to investigate the communication dynamics. Findings – Evidence was found that neither the engaging nor the information strategies lead to alignment. The assumption of the more the dialog, the more the communality seems to fail to portray the complexity of the communicational dynamics, such as the persistence of different, or simply a dialog without alignment. Empirical findings show that, even when engaging in a dialogue, communication in social media is still conceived as a marketing practice to convey messages about companies. Originality/value – This paper originally investigates organizational legitimacy in the context of social media by applying advanced data-mining techniques that allow the analysis of large amounts of information available online.

Colleoni, Elanor

2013-01-01

44

Future cooperative communication systems driven by social mobile networks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this work we are underlining the importance of social mobile networks for upcoming cooperative communication systems. The assumption of this work is that future mobile communication systems will incorporate user cooperation, i.e. a combination of cellular access in parallel with ongoing short range links to the neighboring devices. It has been shown that user cooperation enables higher data rates, better spectral efficiencies, and reduces the energy consumption of the mobile unit. In this work the social mobile networks are identified to be a fertile ground to facilitate the cooperative use cases. By the example of the Gedda-Headz gaming community, possible links between cooperative mobile communication and social mobile networks are shown.

Blázovics, L.; Varga, C.

2011-01-01

45

La Communication pour le Changement et le Développement Social  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents the manner of communication for social changes which allow a better understanding of the strategies of communication. Also it points out the actions and the processes of transforming politics for the development of the community. The purpose of the work is to define and describe the principles of this approach, its aims, reasons and also of its concerns, and to clear out itsambiguities. The Communication for the Social Change is based on a process, or a public or private debate. The people involved in this process define their being, their positions towards life, their wishes and what they need or do not need in their purpose to get involved in the community in orderto achieve social and lifestyle improvement.

Luminita Miron

2010-01-01

46

Corporate Social Responsibility Communication and Perception: Media and Risks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study aims to examine how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) projects are perceived from both an individual and organizational perspective. Using the framework used in studies on diffusion of innovations, the spread of CSR projects are examined. An online survey to identify individuals’ CSR and communication channel perception as well as interviews with CSR practitioners to have an organizational perspective is realized. Companies are using CSR as a tool to meet various objectives such as crisis management and recruiting talent. The CSR perception among individuals is shaped by interpersonal and mass media communication; companies are perceived as responsible if their communication is rich in information. The information sources are mostly television and radio but there is a growing part of online channels as well. The study also suggests several possibilities for future research including the role of social networks and social media platforms in the diffusion of CSR.

Banu Dincer; Caner Dincer

2013-01-01

47

Comunicación social en salud Social communication in health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available De un profesional de la salud se espera que sea un buen comunicador como parte de su diaria labor. Se realiza por ello una reflexión sobre el tema Comunicación en salud, en la que se tratan los principios de la comunicación, como el respeto al criterio ajeno, la comprensión como fin, la visión competitiva de la comunicación, así como la valoración de la cooperación comunicativa y la calidad del punto de vista personal e interactivo. Se realizan también un grupo de recomendaciones para una buena escucha y una buena emisión, y se explican cómo crear climas defensivos y de apoyo, así como la manera de dialogar en forma constructiva.A health professional is expected to be a good communicator as part of his daily activity. That's why, it is reflected on the topic Communication in health, where the principles of communication, such as the respect of another's criterion, the understanding as an end, the competitive vision of communication, as well as the assessment of communicative cooperation and of the quality from the personal and interactive point of view, are dealt with. A group of recommendations are given to attain a good listening and emission, and it is explained how to create defensive and support climates and the way to have a constructive dialogue.

Ana margarita Toledo Fernández; Elsa María Torres Pérez

2005-01-01

48

Analyzing the Dynamics of Communication in Online Social Networks  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter deals with the analysis of interpersonal communication dynamics in online social networks and social media. Communication is central to the evolution of social systems. Today, the different online social sites feature variegated interactional affordances, ranging from blogging, micro-blogging, sharing media elements (i.e., image, video) as well as a rich set of social actions such as tagging, voting, commenting and so on. Consequently, these communication tools have begun to redefine the ways in which we exchange information or concepts, and how the media channels impact our online interactional behavior. Our central hypothesis is that such communication dynamics between individuals manifest themselves via two key aspects: the information or concept that is the content of communication, and the channel i.e., the media via which communication takes place. We present computational models and discuss large-scale quantitative observational studies for both these organizing ideas. First, we develop a computational framework to determine the "interestingness" property of conversations cented around rich media. Second, we present user models of diffusion of social actions and study the impact of homophily on the diffusion process. The outcome of this research is twofold. First, extensive empirical studies on datasets from YouTube have indicated that on rich media sites, the conversations that are deemed "interesting" appear to have consequential impact on the properties of the social network they are associated with: in terms of degree of participation of the individuals in future conversations, thematic diffusion as well as emergent cohesiveness in activity among the concerned participants in the network. Second, observational and computational studies on large social media datasets such as Twitter have indicated that diffusion of social actions in a network can be indicative of future information cascades. Besides, given a topic, these cascades are often a function of attribute homophily existent among the participants. We believe that this chapter can make significant contribution into a better understanding of how we communicate online and how it is redefining our collective sociological behavior.

de Choudhury, Munmun; Sundaram, Hari; John, Ajita; Seligmann, Doree Duncan

49

The political communication of social movements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social movements increasingly mobilize contestation either against the institutionalization of the EU system of governance or against the penetration of European norms at the domestic level. As a French association created in 1998 to promote the Tobin tax and to regulate the globalization of financi...

Petithomme, Mathieu

50

Perspectivas y proyección profesional de la comunicación social/ Perspectives and Professional Projection of Social Communication Studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo pretende conocer y hacer un análisis de las diferentes perspectivas que tienen estudiantes, académicos, empresarios y autoridades educativas acerca del devenir de la carrera de comunicación social. Nos interesa contrastar las diferentes miradas sobre la proyección de la comunicación social, las diversas posturas sobre el deber ser de la carrera, las expectativas frente a lo que debe saber hacer un comunicador social y el devenir de la profesión en rel (more) ación con las necesidades del país y del mercado laboral. La tesis central es contrastar las diferentes comprensiones que tienen algunos actores frente a la proyección de la carrera. Creemos que a pesar de la mirada mediática que generalmente se tiene, la comunicación social debe ser entendida más como constructora de sentidos, articuladora de procesos sociales y generadora de puentes entre diversos actores, para asumir un rol de transformación social. Abstract in english This article exposes and analyses the different perspectives of students, academics, entrepreneurs and educational authorities about the future of the social communication studies career. Our interest is to contrast the different views on the social communication studies projection; the many positions about how the professional career should be; the expectative regarding what a social communicator should be able to know how to do; and the future of the profession in relat (more) ion to the country needs and the labor market. The main thesis is to contrast some different ways of understanding the career projection. We believe that despite the generalized mediatic view of the social communication studies, they must be understood as sense-constructors, as articulators of social processes, and as generators of bridges among social actors in order to assume the role of social transformers.

SALAZAR GÓMEZ, MÓNICA; SEPÚLVEDA, ROBERTO

2011-12-01

51

The geospatial characteristics of a social movement communication network.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Social movements rely in large measure on networked communication technologies to organize and disseminate information relating to the movements' objectives. In this work we seek to understand how the goals and needs of a protest movement are reflected in the geographic patterns of its communication network, and how these patterns differ from those of stable political communication. To this end, we examine an online communication network reconstructed from over 600,000 tweets from a thirty-six week period covering the birth and maturation of the American anticapitalist movement, Occupy Wall Street. We find that, compared to a network of stable domestic political communication, the Occupy Wall Street network exhibits higher levels of locality and a hub and spoke structure, in which the majority of non-local attention is allocated to high-profile locations such as New York, California, and Washington D.C. Moreover, we observe that information flows across state boundaries are more likely to contain framing language and references to the media, while communication among individuals in the same state is more likely to reference protest action and specific places and times. Tying these results to social movement theory, we propose that these features reflect the movement's efforts to mobilize resources at the local level and to develop narrative frames that reinforce collective purpose at the national level.

Conover MD; Davis C; Ferrara E; McKelvey K; Menczer F; Flammini A

2013-01-01

52

Corporate Social Responsibility, Reputation, and Moral Communication : A Constructivist View  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Conditions and notions of corporate reputation underwent in the last years a fundamental change. Economic and technological processes of globalization, modernization, and rationalization enforced the institutionalization of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the corporate world. It is often assumed, that CSR positively affects corporate reputation and leads to financial benefits, although empirical evidence and an appropriate conceptualization of reputation are often missing. This chapter discusses the relation between CSR and reputation by taking a meta-perspective: it presents and critically discusses insights from instrumental perspectives and from political-normative perspectives (legitimacy, business ethics). It alternatively develops a constructivist communication view on CSR, building on the “communication constitutes organizations” perspective and a non-dualist turn. It argues that CSR is a symbolically mediated, communicative event, which, based on the underlying dynamics of moral communication, does not simply produce reputation, but also result in dysfunctional effects.

Schultz, Friederike

2013-01-01

53

Developing a social media communication plan: case: the Quicker Steps project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social media is accepted as an effective communications and promotion tool. Social media tools such as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, blogging and podcasting are leveraged by different organizations for creating profiles, establishing communication, interaction and launching promotional activities. Ho...

Nazari, Ahdia

54

The evolution of reproductive restraint through social communication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The evolution of altruistic behavior through group selection is generally viewed as possible in theory but unlikely in reality, because individual selection favoring selfish strategies should act more rapidly than group selection favoring cooperation. Here we demonstrate the evolution of altruism, in the form of conditional reproductive restraint based on an explicitly social mechanism, modulated by intrapopulation communication comprising signal and evolved response, in a spatially distributed predatory/parasitic/pathogenic model system. The predatory species consistently comes to exploit a signal implying overcrowding, individuals constraining their reproduction in response, with a corresponding increase in equilibrium reproduction rate in the absence of signal. This signaled restraint arises in a robust way for a range of model spatial systems; it outcompetes non-signal-based restraint and is not vulnerable to subversion by noncooperating variants. In these systems, communication is used to evaluate population density and regulate reproduction accordingly, consistent with central ideas of Wynne-Edwards [Wynne-Edwards, V. C. (1962) Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behavior (Hafner, New York)], whose claims about the evolutionary importance of group selection helped ignite decades of controversy. This quantitative simulation model shows how the key evolutionary transition from solitary living to sociality can occur. The process described here of cooperation evolving through communication may also help to explain other major evolutionary transitions such as intercellular communication leading to multicellular organisms.

Werfel J; Bar-Yam Y

2004-07-01

55

Social Media and Strategic Market Communications of Festivals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Since the emerging omnipresence of social media usage in Western societies, marketers have been eager to harness the strategic communication potential of new media (e.g. blogs, wikis, visual content sharing sites and online communities. This is also apparent in event tourism; for instance music festivals have proved to be early adopters of Facebook fan sites and Twitter in order to distribute information, campaigns and celebrity rumors to their potential visitors in an inexpensive way. On the other hand, the strategic use of social media has also been hypothesized to be paved with a number of challenges. In order to fill a void of empirical studies of managing festival communications, this paper explores how social media is used as a tool for marketing and service innovation. By conducting focus groups and personal interviews with larger music events (Storsjöyran, Way Out West and Roskilde festival), we investigate current practices, perceived risks and opportunities for revitalizingevent communications in general. During the inventory phase of the research project, two distinctive fields of knowledge gaps have been identified, namely (1) the effect and efficiency measurement methods in a social medial mix and (2) dilemmas of crowdsourcing as an institutionalized practice.

Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Larson, Mia

2010-01-01

56

Social modulation of associative fear learning by pheromone communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mice communicate through visual, vocal, and olfactory cues that influence innate, nonassociative behavior. We here report that exposure to a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse impairs acquisition of conditioned fear and facilitates fear extinction, effects mimicked by both an olfactory chemosignal emitted by a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse and by the putative stress-related anxiogenic pheromone beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA). Together, these findings suggest social modulation of higher-order cognitive processing through pheromone communication and support the concurrent excitor hypothesis of extinction learning. PMID:19117912

Bredy, Timothy W; Barad, Mark

2008-12-30

57

Social modulation of associative fear learning by pheromone communication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mice communicate through visual, vocal, and olfactory cues that influence innate, nonassociative behavior. We here report that exposure to a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse impairs acquisition of conditioned fear and facilitates fear extinction, effects mimicked by both an olfactory chemosignal emitted by a recently fear-conditioned familiar mouse and by the putative stress-related anxiogenic pheromone beta-phenylethylamine (beta-PEA). Together, these findings suggest social modulation of higher-order cognitive processing through pheromone communication and support the concurrent excitor hypothesis of extinction learning.

Bredy TW; Barad M

2009-01-01

58

Comunicação social e vacinação/ Social communication and vaccination  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As campanhas de imunização vêm passando, ao longo dos anos, por um processo de aperfeiçoamento, especialmente com o advento dos dias nacionais de vacinação contra a poliomielite, realizados a partir de 1980. Há uma preocupação com o resultado do esforço em convocar pais e responsáveis por crianças menores de cinco anos. Várias estratégias são utilizadas. Foi criada uma marca que simbolizava, inicialmente, o compromisso com a erradicação da poliomielite e, (more) posteriormente, com todas as vacinas previstas para o primeiro ano de vida. Foi o marco da comunicação que buscava dar unidade a esse processo sem perder as características mais localizadas. O Zé Gotinha é, até hoje, símbolo de vacina. Para além da polêmica sobre se campanha educa ou deseduca, fica o saldo positivo de uma experiência e a certeza de que é preciso buscar os motivos, continuar pesquisando, identificando metodologias e técnicas de maior aproximação com a população para que ela perceba a oferta de serviços e ações de saúde como direito de cidadania. Abstract in english Over the years, various efforts have been made to improve immunization campaigns, especially through the 1980 introduction of National Vaccination Days against polio. Concern has been shown over the results of attempts to reach parents and others responsible for children under the age of five, and a variety of strategies have been tried. A trademark was created in Brazil, at first symbolic of the commitment to eradicate polio and, later, linked to all vaccines that should (more) be administered during the first year of a child's life. This use of communication tools represents an endeavor to lend unity to the process without overriding local characteristics. Even today, Zé Gotinha symbolizes vaccines in Brazil. Leaving aside the controversy over whether campaigns inform or disinform, the experience has left its positive mark, clearly showing us it is necessary to explore motivations, advance research, and identify methodologies and techniques that will reach the general public and help people perceive that health services and activities are a citizen's right.

Rocha, Cristina Maria Vieira da

2003-01-01

59

COMMUNICATION BY MEANS OF THE NEW SOCIAL NETWORKS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In our days, the electronic communication media is important because the communication forms based on interactivity lead the participants in the act of sending and receiving information to become more than simply issuers, listeners or viewers, integrating them into a dynamic system. In this approach, the study paper aims to prove the relationship between personal development and that of society determined by the new interactive communication instruments. At the individual level, training, education, health, interpersonal relationships are easier to be acquired and amplified Also, the local communities, companies, educational institutions or non-profit organizations increasingly approach themselves to the citizens, receive their problems and try to solve them efficiently. On the other hand, the expansion of the modern means of communication became possible by the steadily decreasing costs of information and of the appropriate management technologies. Virtual communities may, however, only partially replace the traditional communities and the direct physical interaction between people, because online connections are made between people, not between places. Moreover, a high degree of interconnection involves the spreading of ideas, links and various discoveries or improvements of some already existing equipment and processes. The content of this study paper is created using secondary sources of information – with limited and also limiting feature – in an office research, the areas of analysis being studied separately. The result of the study paper is to evidence the fact that the interest for the interactive electronic communication is increasing. We support the idea that such communication contributes to business development in a particular field, in the social sector, but it is better to be aware of its less desirable effects from which we can notice the loss of privacy, the identity theft, the aggressive promotion etc. In our opinion, in this study paper we only partially achieved to highlight the increasingly strong relationship between communication, interactivity and electronic media and, therefore, we hope that this demarche will be continued in other research.

Morozan Cristian; Enache Elena; Purice Suzana

2012-01-01

60

Impacto de la ansiedad social, las habilidades sociales y la cibervictimización en la comunicación online (Impact of Social Anxiety, Social Skills and Cyberbullying on Online Communication)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present research examined online communication behaviour in a sample of preadolescents (10-12 years, n= 812). In addition, we examined the effect of social anxiety, social skills and experiences of cyberbullying on online communication behaviour. Online communication measures included items related to time online, platforms used, relationships and motives to go online. Social anxiety was assessed using the Social Anxiety Scale of Children Revised, social skills were measured using the Matson Questionnaire subscale and cyberbullying using the Victimization Scale via Internet. The results show that the group with high social skills and low levels of anxiety spend more time communicating online and use instant messages to talk to friends. In contrast, the online behaviour of the group with high levels of anxiety and low social skills are more motivated to communicate online by their desire to make new friends. Cybervictims spend more time online, use chat rooms and communicate more with strangers than those who do not suffer cyberbullying. These findings suggest that the Internet offers opportunities to maintain and extend social networks but also exposes young people to online risks.

Raúl Navarro; Santiago Yubero

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

An Investigation of the Relationship between Health Literacy and Social Communication Skills in Older Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

|The purpose of this study was to examine connections between health literacy and social communication skills in older adults, a population that experiences chronic health conditions but is reported to have low health literacy and declines in communication skills. Sixty-three older adults were administered the "Social Communication" subtest of the…

Hester, Eva Jackson

2009-01-01

62

Los nuevos medios de comunicación social: las redes sociales / The new media for Social Communication: the social networking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resumen: En el intercambio de testigo que están realizando los medios de comunicación tradicionales y las redes sociales no sólo se está produciendo una simple sustitución, ni tan siquiera una transmutuación como comúnmente se está queriendo entender. Como en todo proceso, están surgiendo nuevas propiedades que en el ámbito de la comunicación se relacionan con principios como la deslocalización, la imprevisión, la inmediatez o la interacción. Unas cualidades sobre las que reflexionaremos en el siguiente artículo, con la intención de adecuar su definición en el entorno de los nuevos medios de comunicación social.Abstract: In the exchange of witness being done by traditional media and social networking is not only producing a simple substitution, not even one as commonly transmutuación is trying to understand. As in any process, properties that are emerging in the field of communication principles as they relate to relocation, unpredictability, immediacy or interaction. Qualities on which we reflect in the following article, with the intention to adapt its definition in the setting of new media.

Antonio Pantoja Chaves

2011-01-01

63

IMPORTANCE OF SOCIAL NETWORKING AND COMMUNICATION FOR NEW PROFESSIONALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social Networking is a very wide concept, which means connecting of one being to another, either one or many. In this research paper, the author focusses on Social Networking and Communication, its importance in day to day life of professional, and its place in their busy schedule. This paper is mainly for the professionals who are newly entered in their professional field. To accomplish this research, the author conducted a survey of 50-60 sample size, which included Doctors, Professors, Advocates, Chartered Accountants and some new professionals also. Author took opinions from them through a small questionnaire. All the professionals were selected from Sangli, Koplhapur, JaysingpuansSatara in Western Maharashtra region.

SHILPA SHAH

2013-01-01

64

Elaboration of communicativeness of future social workers through the participation in institute’s volunteerism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is dedicated to definition of communicativeness structure of future social workers and highlighting its main components. Significant part of the article is played by the definition of the volunteerism role in elaborating communicativeness of students.

Uliya Galyshinskaya

2013-01-01

65

The clinical utility of the Social Responsiveness Scale and Social Communication Questionnaire in tuberous sclerosis complex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is often associated with epilepsy, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thus, screening for ASDs is important when evaluating these individuals. We examined the utility of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), two measures for screening for ASDs, in a TSC population. Twenty-one children were evaluated, with 52.4% classified as having ASDs on the SRS and 42.9% classified as such on the SCQ. Number of antiepileptic drugs significantly correlated with SRS Total score, as did level of intellectual functioning. Evidence for convergent validity was obtained between the SRS and SCQ Total scores (r=0.605). Moreover, all SRS subscales correlated with SCQ Total score (r>0.400). All SCQ subscales except for Communication correlated with SRS total. Overall, the results demonstrate that these questionnaires appear to be effective screens for ASDs in a TSC population and are measuring similar constructs.

Granader YE; Bender HA; Zemon V; Rathi S; Nass R; Macallister WS

2010-07-01

66

The clinical utility of the Social Responsiveness Scale and Social Communication Questionnaire in tuberous sclerosis complex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is often associated with epilepsy, mental retardation, and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Thus, screening for ASDs is important when evaluating these individuals. We examined the utility of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ), two measures for screening for ASDs, in a TSC population. Twenty-one children were evaluated, with 52.4% classified as having ASDs on the SRS and 42.9% classified as such on the SCQ. Number of antiepileptic drugs significantly correlated with SRS Total score, as did level of intellectual functioning. Evidence for convergent validity was obtained between the SRS and SCQ Total scores (r=0.605). Moreover, all SRS subscales correlated with SCQ Total score (r>0.400). All SCQ subscales except for Communication correlated with SRS total. Overall, the results demonstrate that these questionnaires appear to be effective screens for ASDs in a TSC population and are measuring similar constructs. PMID:20554253

Granader, Yael E; Bender, Heidi A; Zemon, Vance; Rathi, Sipra; Nass, Ruth; Macallister, William S

2010-07-01

67

Impacto de la ansiedad social, las habilidades sociales y la cibervictimización en la comunicación online/ Impact of Social Anxiety, Social Skills and Cyberbullying on online Communication  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El presente estudio fue diseñado para conocer las conductas de comunicación online en una muestra de preadolescentes (10-12 años, n=812). Se analizó el efecto de la ansiedad social, las habilidades sociales y las experiencias de cibervictimización sobre la comunicación online. La comunicación online comprendía ítems relacionados con el tiempo empleado, las plataformas utilizadas, las personas con las que interactúan y los motivos para conectarse a la red. La ans (more) iedad social fue evaluada mediante la Escala de ansiedad social para niños revisada, las habilidades sociales a través de la subescala del Cuestionario Matson y la cibervictimización mediante la Escala de Victimización a través de Internet. Los resultados mostraron que el grupo con altas habilidades sociales y baja ansiedad emplean más tiempo comunicándose en Internet y utilizan más los mensajes instantáneos para hablar con los amigos. Por el contrario, la conducta online del grupo con alta ansiedad social y bajas habilidades está más motivada por el deseo de hacer amigos. Las víctimas de ciberbullying emplean más tiempo online, utilizan más las salas de chat y se comunican más con desconocidos. Estos hallazgos sugieren que, a pesar de los riesgos, Internet también permite mantener y ampliar la red social existente. Abstract in english The present research examined online communication behaviour in a sample of preadolescents (10-12 years, n= 812). In addition, we examined the effect of social anxiety, social skills and experiences of cyberbullying on online communication behaviour. Online communication measures included items related to time online, platforms used, relationships and motives to go online. Social anxiety was assessed using the Social Anxiety Scale of Children Revised, social skills were m (more) easured using the Matson Questionnaire subscale and cyberbullying using the Victimization Scale via Internet. The results show that the group with high social skills and low levels of anxiety spend more time communicating online and use instant messages to talk to friends. In contrast, the online behaviour of the group with high levels of anxiety and low social skills are more motivated to communicate online by their desire to make new friends. Cybervictims spend more time online, use chat rooms and communicate more with strangers than those who do not suffer cyberbullying. These findings suggest that the Internet offers opportunities to maintain and extend social networks but also exposes young people to online risks.

Navarro, Raúl; Yubero, Santiago

2012-12-01

68

New insight for social risk communication of nuclear power towards social consensus for HLW disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

For the construction of effective knowledge base on safety and non-anxiety for nuclear power, a study on new communication system about social risk information has been initiated by noticing the rapid expansion of Internet in the society. By constructing Internet Website communication system on the geological disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, we conducted the experiment of communication for verifying the principles such as that the basic technical knowledge and trust, and social ethics are indispensable in this process to close the perception gap between nuclear specialists and the general public. The cognition structural equation model by means of the variables reduction method of multiple regression analysis and by compiling the significant paths by covariance structure analysis was built based on this experimental data. Moreover, by investigating more detailed public subconscious on the high-level radioactive wastes by 'text mining method' with the special reference to the Public Comment in July 2000 and the literature survey, it was found that the freely discussing ideas based on the environmental ethics such as 'fairness in results' and 'fairness in opportunity' from scratch would gain a potential of enhancing the social receptivity. (author)

2004-01-01

69

New Media and Social Media in the Political Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents the 2009 Romanian presidential elections and the way in which thecandidates interacted with the new communication technologies. After the first research conducted on the2004 online electoral campaigns, we noticed that, in Romania, the degree of alphabetization and politicalparticipation (the number of people knowing how to read and write, or the number of those effectivelyparticipating at the poll) is just as small as it was after the mass internet was introduced and after thenumber of internet subscribers increased. We observed that the websites and blogs with the highest trafficare the entertainment dedicated ones, the tabloids, and not the cultural ones, not the quality online press.This research intends to clear up whether in Romania social media are rather helping the moderatecandidates or the extremist candidates – from an electoral point of view. This article will be incorporated inthe research called Electoral Communication in Romania after 1989. Old and New Technologies inPresidential Campaigns which is part of the post-doctoral program POSDRU/89/1.5/S/62259, Sociohumanand political applied sciences. Post-doctoral training program and post-doctoral researchscholarships in the field of the socio-human and political sciences.

Antonio Momoc

2011-01-01

70

Gender and Communication in Social Work Education: A Cross-Cultural Perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article suggests that gender differences in communication affect three areas in social work education (training students, faculty interactions, faculty-student interaction) and that it is helpful to view these communication differences as cross-cultural in nature. Suggestions for change in social work education are offered. (Author/MSE)

De Lange, Janice

1995-01-01

71

PECULIARITIES OF SOCIAL AND COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE OF TEENAGERS WITH DIFFERENT THINKING STYLES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article deals with the studying of the peculiarities of social and communicative competence in teenage years. The paper provides the results of the comparative analysis of the peculiarities of social and communicative competence of teenagers with different thinking styles.

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2013-01-01

72

Social and Communicational Skills in Upper Secondary Vocational Education and Training  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the methodology used by the Finnish Education Evaluation Council in the national evaluation of social and communication skills in vocational education and training. The evaluation concentrates on key competences such as learning-to-learn skills, communication skills, social skills and entrepreneurship (Implementation of…

Raisanen, Anu; Rakkolainen, Mari

2009-01-01

73

A Communicational Approach to Content Management Concepts as a Differentiating Factor in Social Media Marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social media has made it possible for one person to communicate with hundreds or even thousands of other people about products and the companies that provide them. Social media applications can directly engage consumers in the creative process by both producing and distributing information through collaborative writing, content sharing, social networking, social bookmarking, The purpose of this article is emphasize the importance of content management in social media marketing.

Ebru ÖZGEN; Hüsnur DOYMU?

2013-01-01

74

enREDando y conectando: Comunicacion y redes sociales/ Tangling and Connecting: Communication and Social Networks  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En esta publicación se propone el análisis de las redes sociales desde una perspectiva comunicacional: por su contenido o temática; por su composición (cerrada o abierta), por la interacción (interna o externa) existente; por su difusión y alcance (local o internacional). Se han seleccionado tres sitios de la web que presentan características diversas: una red de autogestión comunitaria, una red académica y una red socio-política. Abstract in english This article is intended to make an analysis of social networks from a communicational point of view: based on their contents and topics; based on their components (closed or open); based on their existing interaction (internal or external); based on their kind of release and scope (local or international). Three websites showing several characteristics have been selected: a community self-management network, an academic network, and a sociopolitical network.

López Jiménez, Ilia E.

2009-12-01

75

Adolescent Peer Relationships and Behavior Problems Predict Young Adults' Communication on Social Networking Websites  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship…

Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Allen, Joseph P.; Evans, Meredyth A.; Hare, Amanda L.

2010-01-01

76

Social marketing and communication: changing health behavior in the third world.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Development communication, particularly within the health sector, is relatively new and still shrouded in mystique. Many health planners and policy-makers in developing countries and elsewhere do not yet fully appreciate the role communication plays in primary health care interventions. Nevertheless, communication theory, embracing diffusion of innovations and social marketing, can make a significant contribution in improving health status. This paper explores, through an examination of the literature and the experience of a worldwide research and development project, the synthesis of development communication, diffusion, social marketing, and primary health care. It attempts to demonstrate the value of integrating these paradigms within the context of a public health communication model. Focusing on the use of radio and interpersonal communication, the paper describes model projects in India and Honduras and reveals through their example the role of communication in changing health behavior in Third World settings.

Clift E

1989-01-01

77

Implications of Technology for Social and Emotional Communication  

Science.gov (United States)

Communication technologies are transforming school psychology training and professional practices. To determine the effect of various communication technologies, this exploratory study contrasted three different communication modalities, including the receipt of messages via video, audio, and text. School psychology students were randomly assigned…

Coomey, Susan; Wilczenski, Felicia L.

2005-01-01

78

Experience of use of the socially oriented marketing communications complex in Ukraine and world  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is dedicated to research of the socially oriented marketing communications complex, determination of reasons of subzero efficiency of such actions in Ukraine and study of foreign experience that can be used in home practice.

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2011-01-01

79

Research on social communication network evolution based on topology potential distribution  

Science.gov (United States)

Aiming at the problem of social communication network evolution, first, topology potential is introduced to measure the local influence among nodes in networks. Second, from the perspective of topology potential distribution the method of network evolution description based on topology potential distribution is presented, which takes the artificial intelligence with uncertainty as basic theory and local influence among nodes as essentiality. Then, a social communication network is constructed by enron email dataset, the method presented is used to analyze the characteristic of the social communication network evolution and some useful conclusions are got, implying that the method is effective, which shows that topology potential distribution can effectively describe the characteristic of sociology and detect the local changes in social communication network.

Zhao, Dongjie; Jiang, Jian; Li, Deyi; Zhang, Haisu; Chen, Guisheng

2011-12-01

80

Risk communication. Risk studies in social science; Risk communication. Risk kenkyu eno shakai kagakuteki approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is recently, that is, in and after the 1980s that socio-scientific approaches began to be made to studies on `risk`. It started to be made clear that the progress of the scientific technology does not necessarily bring about good news to man, and obvious estrangement has begun to appear between scientific evaluation and social evaluation of risk. The subject of risk communication (RC) study is to tackle a proposition whether the estrangement will continue to exist as estrangement or the estrangement can be made smaller by any means. This paper explains the recent trend of the study. For example, as for how each individual thinks about risk, that is, the risk perception, a new framework is trially being constructed by introduction of the quantitative method using psychometrics. A duty of RC is to serve to bridge the gap between scientific technology and society which are controlled by values which are incompatible with each other. Therefore, RC will be more and more important. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Asami, M. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

1995-11-05

 
 
 
 
81

Communication strategies for corporate social responsibility of luxury brands :how to create harmony in a paradox  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The research question of this master thesis is how luxury brands can communicate their corporate social responsibility. The assumption that this thesis relies upon is that communication of CSR in the luxury industry is more challenging compared to other industries, because of the conflicting core va...

Kathuria, Vaishali Lara

82

Communication Disorders in the School: Perspectives on Academic and Social Success an Introduction  

Science.gov (United States)

The critical role of communication in schools cannot be understated. Communication skills are a necessity both in the academic and social atmosphere of the school environment. Unfortunately, there are a large number of children in the schools today identified with speech and language disorders. This special edition of "Psychology in the Schools"…

Thatcher, Karen L.; Fletcher, Kathryn; Decker, Blair

2008-01-01

83

The Greens of Finland in social media: Facebook as a communication forum  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Greens of Finland is a Finnish political party which is actively involved in social media in general, and on Facebook in particular. The objectives of this thesis were to assess Facebook as a communication tool for the Greens and to improve the party’s social media strategy. The research was mad...

Leskinen, Hanna

84

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES USE IN THE PROCESS OF SOCIAL SCIENCES TEACHING IN FOREIGN SCHOOL ???????????? ??? ? ?????????? ?????????????????? ????????? ? ?????????? ?????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the article the problem of information and communication technologies (ICT) introduction into the social science branch is considered, the analysis of experience of the European countries is submitted; examples of ICT application in the subjects of social science cycle of general school are given.? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ???????????? ????????????? ? ?????????????? ?????????? (???) ? ????????????????? ?????? ??????, ?????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?????, ?????? ???????? ???????????? ??? ? ????????? ??????????????????? ????? ????????????????? ?????.

O.?. ?????????

2010-01-01

85

Second Life: A Strong Communication Tool in Social Networking and Business  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study is to present different communication methods in Second Life virtual world, its implication on social networking, business and future scope. The current study is a review of various literatures relating to social networking, virtual community, virtual reality and online b...

Sharma Gajendra; Wenjun Sun; Qiang Ye

86

Integrating Social Media into the Marketing Communication Strategy : The Case of ID24  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem:  Integration of social media tools in marketing practice of B2B companies is not a widespread phenomenon yet. However, particular patterns of involvement already exist. Companies get connected through social media and they use Web 2.0 tools to engage the customers in communication and to in...

Amerian, Irsa; Pisareva, Natallia

87

Utilizing Social Network Services for Enhanced Communication with Elderly Living at Home  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses whether social network services, like Facebook and Twitter, may be used by elderly living in their own homes to enhance communication with their relatives and friends. It introduces a prototype solution based on the iRobot Roomba 560, iRobot, USA, robot vacuum cleaner, which has been enhanced with Facebook and Twitter communication capabilities. The paper points out a number of other relevant applications where the use of social network services may provide better communication for ambient assisted living solutions and intelligent environments.

Wagner, Stefan

2009-01-01

88

On the relationship among social anxiety, intimacy, sexual communication, and sexual satisfaction in young couples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was conducted to better understand why socially anxious individuals experience less sexual satisfaction in their intimate partnerships than nonanxious individuals, a relationship that has been well documented in previous research. Effective communication between partners is an important predictor of relationship satisfaction. Sexual communication, an important aspect of communication between romantic partners, is especially sensitive for couples given the vulnerability inherent in being open about sexual issues. Because socially anxious individuals characteristically report fear of evaluation or scrutiny by others, we hypothesized that the process of building intimacy by sharing personal information about oneself with one's partner, including when this information relates to one's sexuality and/or the sexual domain of the relationship, would be particularly difficult for socially anxious individuals. The present study examined fear of intimacy and sexual communication as potential mediators of the relationship between higher social anxiety and lower sexual satisfaction. Self-report data were collected from 115 undergraduate students and their partners in monogamous, heterosexual, committed relationships of at least 3 months duration. Multilevel path modeling revealed that higher social anxiety predicted higher fear of intimacy, which predicted lower satisfaction with open sexual communication, which, in turn, predicted lower sexual satisfaction. Additionally, there was evidence of mediation as there were significant indirect effects of the antecedent variables on sexual satisfaction. The path model had excellent fit. Implications for social anxiety, intimate relationships, and couples therapy are discussed.

Montesi JL; Conner BT; Gordon EA; Fauber RL; Kim KH; Heimberg RG

2013-01-01

89

Motion-guided attention promotes adaptive communications during social navigation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Animals are capable of enhanced decision making through cooperation, whereby accurate decisions can occur quickly through decentralized consensus. These interactions often depend upon reliable social cues, which can result in highly coordinated activities in uncertain environments. Yet information within a crowd may be lost in translation, generating confusion and enhancing individual risk. As quantitative data detailing animal social interactions accumulate, the mechanisms enabling individuals to rapidly and accurately process competing social cues remain unresolved. Here, we model how motion-guided attention influences the exchange of visual information during social navigation. We also compare the performance of this mechanism to the hypothesis that robust social coordination requires individuals to numerically limit their attention to a set of n-nearest neighbours. While we find that such numerically limited attention does not generate robust social navigation across ecological contexts, several notable qualities arise from selective attention to motion cues. First, individuals can instantly become a local information hub when startled into action, without requiring changes in neighbour attention level. Second, individuals can circumvent speed-accuracy trade-offs by tuning their motion thresholds. In turn, these properties enable groups to collectively dampen or amplify social information. Lastly, the minority required to sway a group's short-term directional decisions can change substantially with social context. Our findings suggest that motion-guided attention is a fundamental and efficient mechanism underlying collaborative decision making during social navigation.

Lemasson BH; Anderson JJ; Goodwin RA

2013-03-01

90

Family communication: A catalyst for socially desired behaviours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines how mass-communicated messages from two pro-environmental public information communication campaigns, the Big Clean Up and Clean Up New Zealand, affect interpersonal communication in families. It also considers how interpersonal communication flows on to affect family behaviour. The findings from these two campaigns indicate that while parents tended not to pass on information they obtained from campaign messages, children were more enthusiastic about sharing messages with other family members. Parents, it was found, had their current beliefs and behaviour patterns endorsed as a result of the messages. There were no notable behaviour changes in families where the parent was the initial message receiver. However, where children provided initial intervention behaviour, changes ranged from minor to remarkable. These findings have implications for public information campaign designers, where behaviour change is a campaign objective, and indicate an area where further research is required.

Kane Hopkins

2005-01-01

91

Repetitive Concussive Traumatic Brain Injury Interacts with Post-Injury Foot Shock Stress to Worsen Social and Depression-Like Behavior in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

The debilitating effects of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury (rcTBI) have been increasingly recognized in both military and civilian populations. rcTBI may result in significant neurological, cognitive, and affective sequelae, and is often followed by physical and/or psychological post-injury stressors that may exacerbate the effects of the injury and prolong the recovery period for injured patients. However, the consequences of post-injury stressors and their subsequent effects on social and emotional behavior in the context of rcTBI have been relatively little studied in animal models. Here, we use a mouse model of rcTBI with two closed-skull blunt impacts 24 hours apart and social and emotional behavior testing to examine the consequences of a stressor (foot shock fear conditioning) following brain injury (rcTBI). rcTBI alone did not affect cued or contextual fear conditioning or extinction compared to uninjured sham animals. In the sucrose preference test, rcTBI animals had decreased preference for sucrose, an anhedonia-like behavior, regardless of whether they experienced foot shock stress or were non-shocked controls. However, rcTBI and post-injury foot shock stress had synergistic effects in tests of social recognition and depression-like behavior. In the social recognition test, animals with both injury and shock were more impaired than either non-shocked injured mice or shocked but uninjured mice. In the tail suspension test, injured mice had increased depression-like behavior compared with uninjured mice, and shock stress worsened the depression-like behavior only in the injured mice with no effect in the uninjured mice. These results provide a model of subtle emotional behavioral deficits after combined concussive brain injury and stress, and may provide a platform for testing treatment and prevention strategies for social behavior deficits and mood disorders that are tailored to patients with traumatic brain injury.

Klemenhagen, Kristen C.; O'Brien, Scott P.; Brody, David L.

2013-01-01

92

Communication on Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainable Development in France  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available France is located at the crossroads of major European cultural currents, between Northern Europe and the Mediterranean, his attention to the preservation of corporate social responsibility and sustainable development has evolved in recent years by taking several attempts and measures. Many studies were interested to evaluate the scope of social and environmental disclosure by using different measures; these criteria do not cover all features which can reflect all social and environmental concerns.We attempt to determine the level of corporate social responsibility disclosure in France by a new measure; it takes the form of an index; for this, we use a content analysis of annual reports in order to evaluate the items which describe the impact of firm activity on environment and community.Our findings show an acceptable level of social and environmental disclosure, in French companies, compared to others studies.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.61.3.1393

Lassaad Ben Mahjoub; Khmaoussi Halioui

2012-01-01

93

Social Media as a strategic tool for Corporate Communication/ Los Medios Sociales como una herramienta estratégica para la Comunicación Corporativa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Companies around the globe are embracing and adapting social media for many differentintentions: customer service, marketing, internal communications, public relations orcorporate social responsibility, etc. It is now a reality that social media is channging the waystakeholders and companies communicate daily, providing opportunities for collaboration,participation, interactivity, and engagement. Therefore, social media is conceived today inthe corporate world as a strategic communication partner, driving new and uniquepossibilities for organizations to engage stakeholders in conversations. We are witnesses of anew digital era where consumers are becoming active users rather than passive individuals,changing dramatically how society operates. But these useful technological tools areemployed widely and precisely by corporations in order to facilitate and improvecommunications? This research aims to discover the usage of different social mediaplatforms by Puerto Rican companies. A content analysis was performed to the Facebookand Twitter official profiles of the top 400 locally owned Puerto Rican companies of 2009.The principal objective was to find if social media sites were mainly used as a strategic toolfor corporate communication that can enhance stakeholder participation and engagement.Results showed that Puerto Rican companies are not employing social media platforms forimproving communications with different stakeholders, failing to take advantage of theenormous possibilities that social media has for communication./Compañías alrededor del mundo están utilizando los medios sociales para diferentespropósitos: servicio al cliente, mercadeo, comunicaciones internas, relaciones públicas oresponsabilidad social corporativa, etc. Hoy en día es una realidad que los medios socialesestán cambiando la manera en que se comunican las compañías con los distintos públicos deinterés, trayendo consigo oportunidades para la colaboración, el intercambio de ideas, laparticipación y el compromiso. En la actualidad los medios sociales son concebidos en elmundo corporativo como un socio estratégico comunicativo, brindando oportunidadesnuevas y únicas para el fomento de un diálogo efectivo con diferentes públicos. Somostestigos de una nueva era digital donde los consumidores se están convirtiendo en usuariosactivos en vez de permanecer como individuos pasivos, cambiando así dramáticamentecómo la sociedad opera. Pero, ¿son los medios sociales utilizados ampliamente por lasempresas con el fin de facilitar y mejorar las comunicaciones? Esta investigación pretendedescubrir el uso que las empresas puertorriqueñas le dan a las distintas plataformas demedios sociales. Un análisis de contenido fue realizado a las páginas oficiales de Facebook yTwitter de las 400 mejores empresas locales de Puerto Rico del año 2009. El objetivoprincipal fue descubrir si los medios sociales son utilizados principalmente como unaherramienta estratégica para la comunicación corporativa, fomentando así la participaciónde distintos públicos en conversaciones. Los resultados encontrados indican que lascompañías puertorriqueñas no utilizan los medios sociales para el fomento de lacomunicación con sus distintos públicos de interés, fallando en tomar ventaja de losenormes beneficios que los medios sociales ofrecen para la comunicación.

Lina Margarita Gomez Vasquez; Ivette Soto Velez

2011-01-01

94

MARKETING COMMUNICATION IN ONLINE SOCIAL PROGRAMS: OHANIAN MODEL OF SOURCE CREDIBILITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of the Internet as a medium for interaction with customers has resulted in many changes regarding the promotion of organizations. Online marketing is nowadays used not only to sell a product on the market, but also requires ideas and behavioral change. Non-profit organizations active in online communication are based on the quality of their provided information. Crediblity, attractiveness and usefullness are the key elements that provide effective online social programs. This paper aims to extend the scope of research in the field of social marketing by studying the Ohanian model in the online environment. The goal is to highlight the important theories and social models intrinsic to the online non-profit organizations’ communication. The results show that the efficiency of social programs depends on the level of incorporated elements of social theories in the design, content and structure of the website.

Serban Corina

2010-01-01

95

Emotional expression and socially modulated emotive communication in children with traumatic brain injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Facial emotion expresses feelings, but is also a vehicle for social communication. Using five basic emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, and anger) in a comprehension paradigm, we studied how facial expression reflects inner feelings (emotional expression) but may be socially modulated to communicate a different emotion from the inner feeling (emotive communication, a form of affective theory of mind). Participants were 8- to 12-year-old children with TBI (n = 78) and peers with orthopedic injuries (n = 56). Children with mild-moderate or severe TBI performed more poorly than the OI group, and chose less cognitively sophisticated strategies for emotive communication. Compared to the OI and mild-moderate TBI groups, children with severe TBI had more deficits in anger, fear, and sadness; neutralized emotions less often; produced socially inappropriate responses; and failed to differentiate the core emotional dimension of arousal. Children with TBI have difficulty understanding the dual role of facial emotions in expressing feelings and communicating socially relevant but deceptive emotions, and these difficulties likely contribute to their social problems.

Dennis M; Agostino A; Taylor HG; Bigler ED; Rubin K; Vannatta K; Gerhardt CA; Stancin T; Yeates KO

2013-01-01

96

STor: Social Network based Anonymous Communication in Tor  

CERN Multimedia

Anonymity networks hide user identities with the help of relayed anonymity routers. However, the state-of-the-art anonymity networks do not provide an effective trust model. As a result, users cannot circumvent malicious or vulnerable routers, thus making them susceptible to malicious router based attacks (e.g., correlation attacks). In this paper, we propose a novel social network based trust model to help anonymity networks circumvent malicious routers and obtain secure anonymity. In particular, we design an input independent fuzzy model to determine trust relationships between friends based on qualitative and quantitative social attributes, both of which can be readily obtained from existing social networks. Moreover, we design an algorithm for propagating trust over an anonymity network. We integrate these two components in STor, a novel social network based Tor. We have implemented STor by modifying the Tor's source code and conducted experiments on PlanetLab to evaluate the effectiveness of STor. Both s...

Zhou, Peng; Chen, Ang; Chang, Rocky K C

2011-01-01

97

Genome-wide linkage using the Social Responsiveness Scale in Utah autism pedigrees  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are phenotypically heterogeneous, characterized by impairments in the development of communication and social behaviour and the presence of repetitive behaviour and restricted interests. Dissecting the genetic complexity of ...

Coon Hilary; Villalobos Michele E; Robison Reid J; Camp Nicola J; Cannon Dale S; Allen-Brady Kristina; Miller Judith S

98

Social System Homophily as a Function of Communication.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes that a study be done in the area of diffusion of innovations using a recently developed communication methodological tool, metric multidimensional scaling (MDS). An argument is made for using MDS to measure cultural concepts which are shared by members of a society. A definition of homophily-heterophily is presented as the…

Barnett, George A.

99

Gestures and social-emotional communicative development in chimpanzee infants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Communicative skills of chimpanzees are of significant interest across many domains, such as developmental psychology (how does communication emerge in prelinguistic beings?), evolution (e.g., did human language evolve from primate gestures?), and in comparative psychology (how does the nonverbal communication of chimpanzees and humans compare?). Here we ask about how gestures develop in chimpanzee infants (n?=?16) that were raised in an interactive program designed to study skill development. Data on socio-communicative development were collected following 4?hr of daily interaction with each infant, longitudinally from birth through the first year of life. A consistent and significant developmental pattern was found across the contexts of tickle play, grooming, and chase play: Infant chimpanzees first engaged in interactions initiated by others, then they initiated interactions, and finally, they requested others to join them in the interaction. Gestures were documented for initiating and requesting tickle play, for initiating and requesting grooming, and for initiating and requesting chase play. Gestural requests emerged significantly later than gestural initiations, but the age at which gestures emerged was significantly different across contexts. Those gestures related to hierarchical rank relations, that is, gestures used by subordinates in interaction with more dominant individuals, such as wrist presenting and rump presenting, did not emerge in the same manner as the other gestures. This study offers a new view on the development of gestures, specifically that many develop through interaction and communicate socio-emotional desires, but that not all gestures emerge in the same manner. Am. J. Primatol. 9999:1-16, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Bard KA; Dunbar S; Maguire-Herring V; Veira Y; Hayes KG; McDonald K

2013-09-01

100

Communication and social deficits in relatives of individuals with SLI and relatives of individuals with ASD.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigate two aspects of the autism triad, communication and social difficulties, in relatives of specific language impairment (SLI) probands (with and without additional autistic symptomatology) as compared to relatives of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Down's syndrome (DS) probands. Findings involving 726 first degree relatives of 85 SLI, 99 ASD and 36 DS probands revealed a higher rate of communication difficulties in relatives of both subgroups of SLI probands compared to ASD and DS relatives. Similar levels of social deficits were found in relatives of SLI + ASD and ASD probands. There was a higher than would be expected rate (4.3 %) of ASD, particularly in siblings of SLI + ASD probands. Communication and social deficits appear to breed true in SLI and ASD.

Pickles A; St Clair MC; Conti-Ramsden G

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Participation and social networks of school-age children with complex communication needs: a descriptive study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Social participation becomes particularly important in middle childhood, as it contributes towards the acquisition and development of critical life skills such as developing friendships and a sense of belonging. However, only limited literature is available on the impact of communication difficulties on social participation in middle childhood. This study compared the participation patterns of school-age children with and without physical disabilities and complex communication needs in extracurricular activities. Participants included five children between 6-9 years of age with moderate-severe physical disability and complex communication needs, and five matched peers. Findings showed that children with physical disability and complex communication needs engaged in activities with reduced variety, lower frequency, fewer partners and in limited venues, but reported higher levels of enjoyment and preference for activity participation, than their matched peers. These children also had fewer same-aged friends, but more paid workers in their social circle. This small-scale descriptive study provides some preliminary evidence about the impact of severe communication difficulties on participation and socialization.

Thirumanickam A; Raghavendra P; Olsson C

2011-09-01

102

A comparison of selected communication, social, situational, and individual factors associated with alcohol and other drugs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined selected communication, social, situational, and individual factors associated with alcohol and other drugs. High school students' perceptions of these substances were analyzed to compare alcohol and other drugs. The largest effects involved communication processes. For alcohol, students knew more strategies for resisting offers, had more ability to take the perspective of alcohol offerers, were more likely to receive simple offers, and were more likely to be able to resist them. Social, situational, and individual factor effects were more moderate, showing less perception of risk for alcohol, more pressure to use, more difficulty refusing, and greater, and more frequent consumption.

Hecht ML; Driscoll G

1994-08-01

103

New Tech, New Ties: : How mobile communication is reshaping social cohesion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The message of this book is simple: the mobile phone strengthens social bonds among family and friends. With a traditional land-line telephone, we place calls to a location and ask hopefully if someone is "there"; with a mobile phone, we have instant and perpetual access to friends and family regardless of where they are. But when we are engaged in these intimate conversations with absent friends, what happens to our relationship with the people who are actually in the same room with us? In New Tech, New Ties, Rich Ling examines how the mobile telephone affects both kinds of interactions—those mediated by mobile communication and those that are face to face. Ling finds that through the use of various social rituals the mobile telephone strengthens social ties within the circle of friends and family—sometimes at the expense of interaction with those who are physically present—and creates what he calls "bounded solidarity." Ling argues that mobile communication helps to engender and develop social cohesion within the family and the peer group. Drawing on the work of Emile Durkheim, Erving Goffman, and Randall Collins, Ling shows that ritual interaction is a catalyst for the development of social bonding. From this perspective, he examines how mobile communication affects face-to-face ritual situations and how ritual is used in interaction mediated by mobile communication. He looks at the evidence, including interviews and observations from around the world, that documents the effect of mobile communication on social bonding and also examines some of the other possibly problematic issues raised by tighter social cohesion in small groups.

Ling, Richard

2008-01-01

104

Supervisory communication, burnout, and turnover intention among social workers in health care settings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current study tests the effects of different types of supervisory communication on burnout and turnover intention among health social workers. The study proposed a conceptual model of supervisory communication and tested it empirically using structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques with a random sample of 211 California state-registered social workers working in health or mental health care settings. The results of the present study provide empirical evidence of the unique roles that different types of supervisory communication play as antecedents of burnout and turnover intention. Specifically, supportive relationship communication had an indirect effect on burnout and turnover intention through its effect on perceived stress, whereas job-relevant communication had not only an indirect effect on burnout and turnover intention through its effect on stress, but also a direct effect on turnover intention. In addition, the results showed that upward communication moderated the relationship between stress and burnout. Implications for social work administration and possible elaboration of the theoretical framework are discussed.

Kim H; Lee SY

2009-05-01

105

Supervisory communication, burnout, and turnover intention among social workers in health care settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study tests the effects of different types of supervisory communication on burnout and turnover intention among health social workers. The study proposed a conceptual model of supervisory communication and tested it empirically using structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques with a random sample of 211 California state-registered social workers working in health or mental health care settings. The results of the present study provide empirical evidence of the unique roles that different types of supervisory communication play as antecedents of burnout and turnover intention. Specifically, supportive relationship communication had an indirect effect on burnout and turnover intention through its effect on perceived stress, whereas job-relevant communication had not only an indirect effect on burnout and turnover intention through its effect on stress, but also a direct effect on turnover intention. In addition, the results showed that upward communication moderated the relationship between stress and burnout. Implications for social work administration and possible elaboration of the theoretical framework are discussed. PMID:19396707

Kim, Hansung; Lee, Sun Young

2009-01-01

106

Comunicación para el cambio social: clave del desarrollo participativo/ Communication For Social Change: A Key For Participatory Development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El artículo revisa los conceptos clave de la comunicación para el desarrollo y el cambio social desde sus orígenes, en los años posteriores a la Segunda Guerra Mundial, hasta nuestros días. Dos corrientes principales se distinguen durante las cinco d´cadas pasadas: por una parte, una comunicación inspirada en las teorías de la modernización y en t´cnicas derivadas de las estrategias de información utilizadas por el gobierno de Estados Unidos durante la Segunda (more) Guerra Mundial y por la industria norteamericana para publicitar sus productos comerciales; y por otra, una comunicación nacida de las luchas sociales anticoloniales y antidictatoriales del Tercer Mundo, que tienen su referente acad´mico en las teorías de la dependencia. Abstract in english This paper is a review of key concepts on communication for development and social change form its origins after World War ii, until today. Two main trends have dominated over the five last decades: on the one hand, communication models inspired by modernization theories and techniques derived from the information strategies used by the us Government during World War ii and by the industrial sector struggling to position its post-war products; on the other, communication (more) approaches that emerged in the heat of the social and political struggles against colonial and dictatorial powers imposed on Third World countries, which find their academic and conceptual reference points in the dependency theories.

GUMUCIO-DRAGON, ALFONSO

2011-06-01

107

The Importance of Packaging and Graphic Design to Communicate Corporate Social Responsibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Graphic design’s function develops through time. It does not only function to inform a product but also elements to communicate Corporate Social Responsibility. As happened in catastrophic areas in Indonesia like Aceh in 2004, Nias in 2005, Jogjakarta in 2007, Bekasi District in 2009, etc. many donated products had their contributor’s information, especially the ones from corporations. There are many ways a company could implement their social responsibility. Graphic design cannot stand alone, it needs an effective media for its placement, one of them is packaging design. By using a Biskiz Susu packaging design as a case study, I try to analyze the design elements, like color, shape, brand, illustration/character, typography, and layout and then connect them with aspects like: the visual perception impact of packaging design and the importance in communicating Corporate Social Responsibility. For input information, I also discuss some consideration aspects of placing the contributor’s identity on the packaging. Based on this study, the contributor’s information in the products gives many advantages. The result shows that graphic design could be the effective element for communicating Corporate Social Responsibility and packaging design can be one of the recommended media for graphic design placement. Hopefully, this analysis could help a corporation, organization or the government in organizing the graphic design elements and considering a packaging as a medium to communicate Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

Listia Natadjaja

2011-01-01

108

Building social capital among rural, older Australians through information and communication technologies: a review article.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper undertakes a comprehensive review of the growing international literature on the adoption and use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) among older people. Issues associated with access and adoption of ICTs among older people living in rural communities will be explored, drawing on social capital as a theoretical lens through which to identify how these new technologies can build healthy ageing. ICTs as bridging social capital can address some of the challenges of service provision in rural Australia and provide access to more extensive information and resources. ICTs can also contribute to bonding social capital through access to other forms of communication to build on local connectedness. However, rural, older people face particular challenges of access, which may exacerbate the cycle of rural social exclusion. In the context of the Australian National Broadband rollout, it is timely to consider how some of these disparities can be addressed.

Warburton J; Cowan S; Bathgate T

2013-03-01

109

Second Life: A Strong Communication Tool in Social Networking and Business  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to present different communication methods in Second Life virtual world, its implication on social networking, business and future scope. The current study is a review of various literatures relating to social networking, virtual community, virtual reality and online business in Second Life. The study has shown the strong and competitive advantages of Second Life among other virtual worlds and the contributions it has made on real life through communication and its impact on social networking and online business opportunities in virtual environment. The outcome of the findings have real world implication and useful to policy makers, managers and leaders for sharing information and decision making. The Second Life virtual environment based on web 2.0 technology has opened a wide platform on social, behavioral and information system research.

Sharma Gajendra; Wenjun Sun; Qiang Ye

2010-01-01

110

Beyond Traditional DTN Routing: Social Networks for Opportunistic Communication  

CERN Multimedia

This article examines the evolution of routing protocols for intermittently connected ad hoc networks and discusses the trend toward social-based routing protocols. A survey of current routing solutions is presented, where routing protocols for opportunistic networks are classified based on the network graph employed. The need to capture performance tradeoffs from a multi-objective perspective is highlighted.

Schurgot, Mary R; Jaffrès-Runser, Katia

2011-01-01

111

Social Action through Educational Strategies: Ethics and the Election of Communication Etudies in Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study of social action through educational strategies inspires the weight of ethic factors to choose Communication studies. It allows aprioristic data about the ethics in the future journalists and mass media professionals. It also collaborates in the marketing strategies. In our study we analyze the impact of ethics and values in the students’ choice of Communication studies in the Spanish University. We analyze the impact degree of ethics and Christian values in the selection process. We observe a high influence of ethics (humanistic and holistic ethics in the training, religious orientation) as a factor considered to select the Communication studies.

Joan-Francesc FONDEVILA-GASCÓN; Josep-Lluís del OLMO-ARRIAGA; Marta CARRERAS-ALCALDE

2012-01-01

112

The Construction of Corporate Social Responsibility in Network Societies : A Communication View  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The paper introduces the communication view on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), which regards CSR as communicatively constructed in dynamic interaction processes in today's networked societies. Building on the idea that communication constitutes organizations we discuss the potentially indeterminate, disintegrative, and conflictual character of CSR. We hereby challenge established mainstream views on CSR such as the instrumental view, which regards CSR as an organizational instrument to reach organizational aims such as improved reputation and financial performance, and the political-normative view on CSR, which highlights the societal conditions and role of corporations in creating norms. We argue that both the established views, by not sufficiently acknowledging communication dynamics in networked societies, remain biased in three ways: control-biased, consistency-biased, and consensus-biased. We discuss implications of these biases and propose a future research agenda for the communication view on CSR.

Schultz, Friederike; Castello, Itziar

2013-01-01

113

The effect of social marketing communication on safe driving.  

Science.gov (United States)

Processing of cognition, affect, and intention was investigated in viewers of advertisements to prevent speeding while driving. Results indicated that anchoring-point messages had greater effects on viewers' cognition, attitude, and behavioral intention than did messages without anchoring points. Further, the changes in message anchoring points altered participants' perceptions of acceptable and unacceptable judgments: a higher anchoring point in the form of speeding mortality was more persuasive in promoting the idea of reducing driving speed. Implications for creation of effective safe driving communications are discussed. PMID:22420109

Yang, Dong-Jenn; Lin, Wan-Chen; Lo, Jyue-Yu

2011-12-01

114

The effect of social marketing communication on safe driving.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Processing of cognition, affect, and intention was investigated in viewers of advertisements to prevent speeding while driving. Results indicated that anchoring-point messages had greater effects on viewers' cognition, attitude, and behavioral intention than did messages without anchoring points. Further, the changes in message anchoring points altered participants' perceptions of acceptable and unacceptable judgments: a higher anchoring point in the form of speeding mortality was more persuasive in promoting the idea of reducing driving speed. Implications for creation of effective safe driving communications are discussed.

Yang DJ; Lin WC; Lo JY

2011-12-01

115

Repetitive Stress Injuries  

Science.gov (United States)

... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ... shoulders, knees, and heels. Continue What Causes Repetitive Stress Injuries? Most RSI conditions found in teens are ...

116

Analysis of Retailers’Communication Approaches in Sustainability and Social Responsibility Reports  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following the emergence of stakeholders’ societal awareness, retailers adopted different types of social actions and have recently begun to publish social reports to demonstrate their commitment to sustainability and social responsibility in order to be perceived as good corporate citizens.The purpose of this paper is to analyze and to discuss approaches adopted by retailers in communicating about their societal commitment through their non-financial reports.Using a qualitative methodology, we found that these reports are purely informative for some retailers, whereas for others, they are a societal positioning tool allowing retailers to differentiate themselves from competitors.

MEJRI Mohamed; DE WOLF Daniel

2012-01-01

117

An Emerging Role of Social Research in the Communication Policy Making Process.  

Science.gov (United States)

Communication policy research has been defined as a response to the policy maker's increasing need for factual information in an environment of accelerating technological change. This definition presumed that the social researcher provided the policy maker with such information. Enough examples of contradition between research findings and policy…

Block, Martin P.

118

Development Discourse on Gender and Communication in Strategies for Social Change.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the role of gender and the nature of instructional discourse on beneficiaries and social change in development communication projects addressing health, nutrition, and population problems. Finds a shift from focusing on women and other marginal groups since the Decade for Women, toward emphasizing consumption and privatization. (CR)

Wilkins, Karin Gwinn

1999-01-01

119

Early Social Experience Predicts Referential Communicative Adjustments in Five-Year-Old Children  

Science.gov (United States)

A large body of work has focused on children’s ability to attribute mental states to other people, and whether these abilities are influenced by the extent and nature of children’s social interactions. However, it remains largely unknown which developmental factors shape children’s ability to influence the mental states of others. Building on the suggestion that collaborative experiences early in life might be crucial for the emergence of mental coordination abilities, here we assess the relative contribution of social exposure to familial and non-familial agents on children’s communicative adjustments to their mental model of an addressee (‘audience design’). During an online interactive game, five-year-olds spontaneously organized their non-verbal communicative behaviors according to their beliefs about an interlocutor. The magnitude of these communicative adjustments was predicted by the time spent at daycare, from birth until four years of age, over and above effects of familial social environment. These results suggest that the degree of non-familial social interaction early in life modulates the influence that children’s beliefs have on their referential communicative behavior.

Stolk, Arjen; Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold; Toni, Ivan

2013-01-01

120

Communication and Social Deficits in Relatives of Individuals with SLI and Relatives of Individuals with ASD  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate two aspects of the autism triad, communication and social difficulties, in relatives of specific language impairment (SLI) probands (with and without additional autistic symptomatology) as compared to relatives of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Down's syndrome (DS) probands. Findings involving 726 first degree relatives of 85…

Pickles, Andrew; St Clair, Michelle C.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

The Swedish Version of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-10). Psychometric Properties  

Science.gov (United States)

|Psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders schedule (DISCO) have only been studied in the UK. The authorised Swedish translation of the tenth version of the DISCO (DISCO-10) was used in interviews with close relatives of 91 Swedish patients referred for neuropsychiatrical assessment. Validity…

Nygren, Gudrun; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Skoglund, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Johansson, Maria

2009-01-01

122

Using Social Media to Communicate Child Health Information to Low-Income Parents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to determine the value of using social media to communicate child health information to low-income parents. We evaluated qualitative data obtained through focus groups with low-income, predominantly Hispanic parents. Results were mixed; lack of time and credibility we...

Stroever, Stephanie J.; Mackert, Michael S.; McAlister, Alfred L.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

123

The Importance of Packaging and Graphic Design to Communicate Corporate Social Responsibility  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Graphic design’s function develops through time. It does not only function to inform a product but also elements to communicate Corporate Social Responsibility. As happened in catastrophic areas in Indonesia like Aceh in 2004, Nias in 2005, Jogjakarta in 2007, Bekasi District in 2009, etc. many don...

Listia Natadjaja

124

The Swedish Version of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-10). Psychometric Properties  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders schedule (DISCO) have only been studied in the UK. The authorised Swedish translation of the tenth version of the DISCO (DISCO-10) was used in interviews with close relatives of 91 Swedish patients referred for neuropsychiatrical assessment. Validity…

Nygren, Gudrun; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Skoglund, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Johansson, Maria

2009-01-01

125

Exploring the Potential of Social Network Sites in Relation to Intercultural Communication  

Science.gov (United States)

|This article reports on the results of a project which used a social network site to support students on a year abroad and foster informal learning, particularly in the area of intercultural communication. The project employed a peer-mentoring structure to solve the problem of role conflict, in which users of these sites may feel some tension as…

Lang, Anouk

2012-01-01

126

Comparative Efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) versus a Speech-Generating Device: Effects on Social-communicative Skills and Speech Development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a speech-generating device (SGD) were compared in a study with a multiple baseline, alternating treatment design. The effectiveness of these methods in increasing social-communicative behavior and natural speech production were assessed with three elementary school-aged children with severe autism who demonstrated extremely limited functional communication skills. Results for social-communicative behavior were mixed for all participants in both treatment conditions. Relatively little difference was observed between PECS and SGD conditions. Although findings were inconclusive, data patterns suggest that Phase II of the PECS training protocol is conducive to encouraging social-communicative behavior. Data for speech outcomes did not reveal any increases across participants, and no differences between treatment conditions were observed.

Boesch MC; Wendt O; Subramanian A; Hsu N

2013-09-01

127

LA REPITENCIA ESCOLAR EN ESCUELAS PRIMARIAS DE SAN MIGUEL DE TUCUMÁN. UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDE LAS REPRESENTACIONES SOCIALES Y LAS RELACIONES ENTRE DOCENTES Y ESTUDIANTES REPITENTES (GRADE REPETITION IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS OF SAN MIGUEL DE TUCUMÁN. AN APPROACH FROM TEACHER´S AND GRADE REPEATING PUPIL´S SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo presenta resultados de investigación sobre las representaciones sociales de docentes y estudiantes repitentes acerca de la repitencia, y sus implicaciones en las relaciones entre estos actores educativos. La metodología utilizada fue de tipo cualitativo. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad a docentes y a estudiantes repitentes de primer grado, y observaciones participantes en escuelas de San Miguel de Tucumán. El análisis de los datos se efectuó acorde a la teoría fundamentada. Se identificaron categorías y temas en las entrevistas y observaciones participantes, y se triangularon los datos para elaborar una teoría explicativa del fenómeno. Los resultados mostraron que las representaciones docentes inciden en la conformación de las representaciones de los niños repitentes y en las relaciones áulicas. Las docentes, que definieron a la educación de manera unicausal, se manifestaron favorables a la repitencia. Los estudiantes repitentes se representaron negativamente a la repitencia y a los vínculos con docentes y pares. Las interacciones áulicas evidenciaron comunicaciones unidireccionales y una aplicación desigual de normas. Esto permitía a las docentes mantener una autoimagen satisfactoria, pero influía negativamente en la de los niños repitentes. Las docentes que consideraron a la educación como un proceso complejo, definieron a la repitencia como una situación desfavorable. Las representaciones de los alumnos repitentes sobre la repitencia y las relaciones con docentes y pares aunaron aspectos negativos y positivos. Las relaciones áulicas evidenciaron comunicaciones uni y multi-direccionales y una aplicación de normas más equitativa. La autoimagen de las docentes y de los niños repitentes contenía aspectos positivos y negativos.Abstract: This paper presents research results on teacher´s and grade repeating children’s representations of grade repetition, and its implications for the relationships between them. The applied methodology was of qualitative type. Interviews in depth were held with first grade teachers and grade repeating pupils, as well as participant observations. Both of them took place in San Miguel de Tucuman´s schools. The analysis of the information was carried according to the based emergent theory. Categories and themes were identified, triangulated in order to build a theory about the phenomenon. The results showed that teachers´ representations affect the construction of grade repeating children’s own representations and classroom relationships. Teachers who defined education in a unicausal way, evinced a favorable attitude towards grade repetition. Grade repeating pupils had negative representations about grade repetition and relationships with teachers and peers. Classroom interactions showed unidirectional communications and slightly unequal application of the rules. This allowed teachers to hold a satisfactory self-image, but it had a negative influence on the grade repeating children. Teachers that considered education a complex process defined grade repetition as an unfavorable situation. Grade repeating pupils´ representations of grade repetition and relationships with teachers and classmates, included both negative and positive aspects. Classroom interactions showed uni and multi - directional communications and a more equitable application of rules. Teachers´ and grade repeating children self- images included positive and negative aspects.

Villalonga Penna María Micaela

2011-01-01

128

Towards a Renaissance in Communication for Social Change Redefining the discipline and practice in the post ‘Arab Spring’ era  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Worldwide, we have experienced a resurgence in practices of bottom-up communication for social change, a plethora of agency in which voice, citizenship and collective action have centre stage as core values, principles and practices. This resurgence sparks a series of questions; How are these new calls for social change and their principles and communicative practices influencing and informing the thinking and practice of institutionalized communication for development and social change? And what are the underlying conceptual differences in the notions of action, participation and social change which inform the new generation of social movements, on one side, and the established field of communication for social change, on the other? These are the questions that drive this chapter.

Tufte, Thomas

2013-01-01

129

A perceptual-motor deficit predicts social and communicative impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have known impairments in social and motor skills. Identifying putative underlying mechanisms of these impairments could lead to improved understanding of the etiology of core social/communicative deficits in ASDs, and identification of novel intervention targets. The ability to perceptually integrate one's physical capacities with one's environment (affordance perception) may be such a mechanism. This ability has been theorized to be impaired in ASDs, but this question has never been directly tested. Crucially, affordance perception has shown to be amenable to learning; thus, if it is implicated in deficits in ASDs, it may be a valuable unexplored intervention target. The present study compared affordance perception in adolescents and adults with ASDs to typically developing (TD) controls. Two groups of individuals (adolescents and adults) with ASDs and age-matched TD controls completed well-established action capability estimation tasks (reachability, graspability, and aperture passability). Their caregivers completed a measure of their lifetime social/communicative deficits. Compared with controls, individuals with ASDs showed unprecedented gross impairments in relating information about their bodies' action capabilities to visual information specifying the environment. The magnitude of these deficits strongly predicted the magnitude of social/communicative impairments in individuals with ASDs. Thus, social/communicative impairments in ASDs may derive, at least in part, from deficits in basic perceptual-motor processes (e.g. action capability estimation). Such deficits may impair the ability to maintain and calibrate the relationship between oneself and one's social and physical environments, and present fruitful, novel, and unexplored target for intervention.

Linkenauger SA; Lerner MD; Ramenzoni VC; Proffitt DR

2012-10-01

130

A perceptual-motor deficit predicts social and communicative impairments in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have known impairments in social and motor skills. Identifying putative underlying mechanisms of these impairments could lead to improved understanding of the etiology of core social/communicative deficits in ASDs, and identification of novel intervention targets. The ability to perceptually integrate one's physical capacities with one's environment (affordance perception) may be such a mechanism. This ability has been theorized to be impaired in ASDs, but this question has never been directly tested. Crucially, affordance perception has shown to be amenable to learning; thus, if it is implicated in deficits in ASDs, it may be a valuable unexplored intervention target. The present study compared affordance perception in adolescents and adults with ASDs to typically developing (TD) controls. Two groups of individuals (adolescents and adults) with ASDs and age-matched TD controls completed well-established action capability estimation tasks (reachability, graspability, and aperture passability). Their caregivers completed a measure of their lifetime social/communicative deficits. Compared with controls, individuals with ASDs showed unprecedented gross impairments in relating information about their bodies' action capabilities to visual information specifying the environment. The magnitude of these deficits strongly predicted the magnitude of social/communicative impairments in individuals with ASDs. Thus, social/communicative impairments in ASDs may derive, at least in part, from deficits in basic perceptual-motor processes (e.g. action capability estimation). Such deficits may impair the ability to maintain and calibrate the relationship between oneself and one's social and physical environments, and present fruitful, novel, and unexplored target for intervention. PMID:22961977

Linkenauger, Sally A; Lerner, Matthew D; Ramenzoni, Verónica C; Proffitt, Dennis R

2012-09-07

131

Communication, Opponents, and Clan Performance in Online Games: A Social Network Approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Online gamers form clans voluntarily to play together and to discuss their real and virtual lives. Although these clans have diverse goals, they seek to increase their rank in the game community by winning more battles. Communications among clan members and battles with other clans may influence the performance of a clan. In this study, we compared the effects of communication structure inside a clan, and battle networks among clans, with the performance of the clans. We collected battle histories, posts, and comments on clan pages from a Korean online game, and measured social network indices for communication and battle networks. Communication structures in terms of density and group degree centralization index had no significant association with clan performance. However, the centrality of clans in the battle network was positively related to the performance of the clan. If a clan had many battle opponents, the performance of the clan improved.

Lee HJ; Choi J; Kim JW; Park SJ; Gloor P

2013-06-01

132

Audiovisual communication and therapeutic jurisprudence: Cognitive and social psychological dimensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of audiovisual communications on the emotional and psychological well-being of participants in the legal system have not been previously examined. Using as a framework for analysis what Slobogin (1996) calls internal balancing (of therapeutic versus antitherapeutic effects) and external balancing (of therapeutic jurisprudence [TJ] effects versus effects on other legal values), this brief paper discusses three examples that suggest the complexity of evaluating courtroom audiovisuals in TJ terms. In each instance, audiovisual displays that are admissible based on their arguable probative or explanatory value - day-in-the-life movies, victim impact videos, and computer simulations of litigated events - might well reduce stress and thus improve the psychological well-being of personal injury plaintiffs, survivors, and jurors, respectively. In each situation, however, other emotional and cognitive effects may prove antitherapeutic for the target or other participants, and/or may undermine other important values including outcome accuracy, fairness, and even the conception of the legal decision maker as a moral actor. PMID:20920823

Feigenson, Neal

133

Audiovisual communication and therapeutic jurisprudence: Cognitive and social psychological dimensions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of audiovisual communications on the emotional and psychological well-being of participants in the legal system have not been previously examined. Using as a framework for analysis what Slobogin (1996) calls internal balancing (of therapeutic versus antitherapeutic effects) and external balancing (of therapeutic jurisprudence [TJ] effects versus effects on other legal values), this brief paper discusses three examples that suggest the complexity of evaluating courtroom audiovisuals in TJ terms. In each instance, audiovisual displays that are admissible based on their arguable probative or explanatory value - day-in-the-life movies, victim impact videos, and computer simulations of litigated events - might well reduce stress and thus improve the psychological well-being of personal injury plaintiffs, survivors, and jurors, respectively. In each situation, however, other emotional and cognitive effects may prove antitherapeutic for the target or other participants, and/or may undermine other important values including outcome accuracy, fairness, and even the conception of the legal decision maker as a moral actor.

Feigenson N

2010-11-01

134

Modelos de determinação social das doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis Models of social determination of chronic non-communicable diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este ensaio revisa criticamente marcos referenciais e modelos teóricos de determinação social das chamadas Doenças Crônicas Não-Transmissíveis. A sociologia funcionalista gerou modelos socioculturais de saúde que influenciaram o campo de investigação epidemiológica da chamada "nova morbidade" (basicamente enfermidades crônicas e degenerativas), posteriormente agrupados sob o rótulo genérico de Teoria do Estresse. Analisam-se abordagens neodurkheimianas das desigualdades sociais, baseadas no conceito de capital social, criticando especialmente os usos quase-teóricos da noção de "estilo de vida" no campo da saúde. Discutem-se ainda alguns modelos derivados do materialismo dialético que se tornaram bastante influentes na epidemiologia social latino-americana, com base nos conceitos de trabalho e classe social. Finalmente, considerando lacunas teóricas e conceituais dessas teorias parciais no que diz respeito ao espaço simbólico da vida social, apresentam-se as bases conceituais de um enfoque teórico alternativo - a "teoria do modo de vida e saúde". Tomada como síntese possível dos modelos objeto desta revisão crítica, considera-se esta teoria como especialmente indicada para a elaboração de modelos epidemiológicos de determinação social de doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis.This essay critically revises theoretical frameworks and models of social determination of chronic non-communicable diseases. Functionalist sociology generated sociocultural models of health that influenced the field of epidemiologic investigation of so-called "new morbidity" (basically chronic and degenerative illnesses), later contained under the generic label of stress theory. Neo-durkheimian approaches of social inequalities, based on the social capital concept, are analyzed and theoretical uses of the lifestyle notion in the health field are criticized. Models derived from the dialectical materialism, grounded on the concepts of labor and social class, are also discussed as they have turned quite influential in Latin-American social epidemiology. Finally, considering theoretical and conceptual gaps of such partial theories in what concerns the symbolic space of the social life, the conceptual bases of an alternative theoretical focus: the theory of mode of life and health. As a possible synthesis of the models object of this critical review, it is considered as especially suitable for the elaboration of epidemiologic models of social determination of non-transmissible chronic diseases.

Naomar Almeida-Filho

2004-01-01

135

The Impact of Social Interaction and Communications on Innovation in the Architectural Design Studio  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Design is a social phenomenon and researchers suggest that social interaction, negotiations and communication between designers are essential to initiate creativity. Within the design studio environment, a number of factors affect the healthy social interaction and design negotiations, such as the teaching style of tutors and the culture that governs a design studio’s environment. This may in turn affect the utilization of the outcome of negotiations in the design project. Design studio students from the third to fifth years at the College of Architecture, University of Dammam (UD), the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), were surveyed to find out how far the design studio’s culture and communication would impact the production of innovative design projects. The results show that frequent communication and the establishment’s shared grounds are essential to develop knowledge and positively influence the design outcome. On the other hand, the research found that negative qualities on a personal level and on that of a design studio environment would hinder a student’s creativity. However, to develop students’ design/innovative abilities, the researcher recommends that certain measures should be considered. These would include transforming the design studio into an interactive and friendly learning environment, adjusting the teaching methodology, and developing interactive communication abilities of students and tutors.

Bhzad Sidawi

2012-01-01

136

Apocalypse... Now? Molecular epidemiology, predictive genetic tests, and social communication of genetic contents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author analyzes the underlying theoretical aspects in the construction of the molecular watershed of epidemiology and the concept of genetic risk, focusing on issues raised by contemporary reality: new technologies, globalization, proliferation of communications strategies, and the dilution of identity matrices. He discusses problems pertaining to the establishment of such new interdisciplinary fields as molecular epidemiology and molecular genetics. Finally, he analyzes the repercussions of the social communication of genetic content, especially as related to predictive genetic tests and cloning of animals, based on triumphal, deterministic metaphors sustaining beliefs relating to the existence and supremacy of concepts such as 'purity', 'essence', and 'unification' of rational, integrated 'I's/egos'.

Castiel Luis David

1999-01-01

137

Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-Verbal Behaviors  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of agent's non-verbal behaviors in HAI. As the first step, a comparative corpus analysis is done for two cultures in two specific social relationships. Next, by integrating the cultural and social parameters factors with the empirical data from corpus analysis, we establish a model that predicts posture. The predictions from our model successfully demonstrate that both cultural background and social relationship moderate communicative non-verbal behaviors.

Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko

2010-01-01

138

CONSUMER OPINIONS TOWARDS ONLINE MARKETING COMMUNICATION AND ADVERTISING ON SOCIAL NETWORKS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available On the Internet, a medium that has already proven its effectiveness in marketing activities, changes take place with astonishing speed. The recent explosion of social networking applications and their number of users has captured the marketers’ attention. Companies have started to rethink their relationships with consumers and adapt to the new online world. In this virtual world of social networks the public is the key element. Consumers perceive the social network as a personal space where they control the content. They decide on their own what they want to see and share with others. Thus, in order to manage marketing communications effectively, marketers must know the consumers’ opinions towards their presence in social networks.

GHEORGHE ORZAN; OTILIA-ELENA PLATON

2012-01-01

139

A comparative study on communication structures of Chinese journals in the social sciences  

CERN Document Server

We argue that the communication structures in the Chinese social sciences have not yet been sufficiently reformed. Citation patterns among Chinese domestic journals in three subject areas -- political science and marxism, library and information science, and economics -- are compared with their counterparts internationally. Like their colleagues in the natural and life sciences, Chinese scholars in the social sciences provide fewer references to journal publications than their international counterparts; like their international colleagues, social scientists provide fewer references than natural sciences. The resulting citation networks, therefore, are sparse. Nevertheless, the citation structures clearly suggest that the Chinese social sciences are far less specialized in terms of disciplinary delineations than their international counterparts. Marxism studies are more established than political science in China. In terms of the impact of the Chinese political system on academic fields, disciplines closely r...

Zhou, Ping; Leydesdorff, Loet

2010-01-01

140

Communication Patterns Within Social Networks: A Case Study of Australian Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the perception that “individual bonds to one another is the essence of society” (Fischer, 1982a, p. 2), this paper examines contemporary networks of friends: friendworks, of adult women in an Australian sea change community. Communication patterns are examined drawing on findings from a case study of 26 women aged 35-76 years. Among the case study participants, many have undertaken a ‘sea change’ as adults, which in most cases has led to a significant reconstruction of their friendworks. Location and lifestyle are identified as impacting factors on communication patterns with friends; face-to-face interactions are by far the most frequent and preferred method of communication among the participants. The landline telephone and internet are the main communication methods used to maintain friendships with distant loved ones, while the mobile phone is reported as the communication method employed the least. The infrequency of mobile phone use can be attributed to cost issues, highlighting a discrepancy between these women’s social and communication needs and the current Australian mobile phone policy

Orit Ben-Harush

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. Methods This paper assesses the reach of selected radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS and of communications about the socially marketed Maximum condoms in Zambia, as well as their impact on condom use, using data from the 2001–2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. To control for self-selection and endogeneity, we use a two-stage regression model to estimate the effect of program exposure on the behavioural outcomes. Results Those who were exposed to radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS were more likely to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.16 for men and 1.06 for women). Men highly exposed to Maximum condoms social marketing communication were more likely than those with low exposure to the program to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.48), and to have used a condom at their last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.23). Conclusion Findings suggest that the reproductive health and social marketing campaigns in Zambia reached a large portion of the population and had a significant impact on condom use. The results suggest that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming, and that future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women, perhaps by focusing on the specific constrains that prevent females from using condoms.

Van Rossem Ronan; Meekers Dominique

2007-01-01

142

The reach and impact of social marketing and reproductive health communication campaigns in Zambia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Like many sub-Saharan African countries, Zambia is dealing with major health issues, including HIV/AIDS, family planning, and reproductive health. To address reproductive health problems and the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Zambia, several social marketing and health communication programs focusing on reproductive and HIV/AIDS prevention programs are being implemented. This paper describes the reach of these programs and assesses their impact on condom use. METHODS: This paper assesses the reach of selected radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS and of communications about the socially marketed Maximum condoms in Zambia, as well as their impact on condom use, using data from the 2001-2002 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey. To control for self-selection and endogeneity, we use a two-stage regression model to estimate the effect of program exposure on the behavioural outcomes. RESULTS: Those who were exposed to radio and television programs about family planning and HIV/AIDS were more likely to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.16 for men and 1.06 for women). Men highly exposed to Maximum condoms social marketing communication were more likely than those with low exposure to the program to have ever used a condom (OR = 1.48), and to have used a condom at their last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.23). CONCLUSION: Findings suggest that the reproductive health and social marketing campaigns in Zambia reached a large portion of the population and had a significant impact on condom use. The results suggest that future reproductive health communication campaigns that invest in radio programming may be more effective than those investing in television programming, and that future campaigns should seek to increase their impact among women, perhaps by focusing on the specific constrains that prevent females from using condoms.

Van Rossem R; Meekers D

2007-01-01

143

THE SOCIALLY-TYPICAL PROFILE OF FUTURE POLICE OFFICERS AS SUBJECT OF PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently we can say that in the subject field of general and legal psychology virtually no studies of complex and integrative, where the object is a police officer as a subject of professional communication. In article contains the characteristic psychological features of future police officers as subjects of professional communications, depending on the specifics of their future law enforcement functions. Results of the experimental research allow to allocate a socially-typical profile of the future employees of criminal police and investigators is realized in the course of professional communication. It contains a typological (characterological), motivational and instrumental (operational) components. Socio-typical profile includes quantitative and qualitative differences depending on the type of law enforcement activity. Peculiarities of socio-typical profiles are allocated at the initial stage of professional development - in the beginning of the entry into professional space.

Kudermina Elena Ivanovna

2012-01-01

144

Methods for inferring health-related social networks among coworkers from online communication patterns.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of social networks, mapped using self-reported contacts, have demonstrated the strong influence of social connections on the propensity for individuals to adopt or maintain healthy behaviors and on their likelihood to adopt health risks such as obesity. Social network analysis may prove useful for businesses and organizations that wish to improve the health of their populations by identifying key network positions. Health traits have been shown to correlate across friendship ties, but evaluating network effects in large coworker populations presents the challenge of obtaining sufficiently comprehensive network data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate methods for using online communication data to generate comprehensive network maps that reproduce the health-associated properties of an offline social network. In this study, we examined three techniques for inferring social relationships from email traffic data in an employee population using thresholds based on: (1) the absolute number of emails exchanged, (2) logistic regression probability of an offline relationship, and (3) the highest ranked email exchange partners. As a model of the offline social network in the same population, a network map was created using social ties reported in a survey instrument. The email networks were evaluated based on the proportion of survey ties captured, comparisons of common network metrics, and autocorrelation of body mass index (BMI) across social ties. Results demonstrated that logistic regression predicted the greatest proportion of offline social ties, thresholding on number of emails exchanged produced the best match to offline network metrics, and ranked email partners demonstrated the strongest autocorrelation of BMI. Since each method had unique strengths, researchers should choose a method based on the aspects of offline behavior of interest. Ranked email partners may be particularly useful for purposes related to health traits in a social network. PMID:23418436

Matthews, Luke J; DeWan, Peter; Rula, Elizabeth Y

2013-02-13

145

Communication for HIV/AIDS prevention in Kenya: social-cultural considerations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is spreading fast in Africa in spite of the various efforts and resources put in place to prevent it. In Kenya, reproductive health programs have used the mass media and other communication interventions to inform and educate the public about the disease and to promote behavior change and healthy sexual practices. This effort has led to a discrepancy between awareness and behavioral change among people of reproductive age. In this article I examine the discrepancy in Kenya from a communications perspective addressing social cultural and related factors contributing to the lack of change in behavior and sexual practices. I draw on the theoretical framework of Grunig's model of excellence in communication, the importance of understanding and relationship building between programs and their stakeholders. Data were gathered qualitatively using focus groups and in-depth interviews among men and women in rural Kenya. Key findings indicate that although awareness of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS is high in Kenya, a majority of the population, particularly those in the rural communities, lack understanding of the communicated messages. They also lack the knowledge of other ways of transmitting HIV particularly among those not sexually involved. Cultural beliefs, values, norms, and myths have played a role in the rapidly increasing epidemic in the rural communities and yet HIV/AIDS communication programs have not addressed these factors adequately. I conclude that successful behavior change communication must include strategies that focus on increasing understanding of the communicated messages and understanding of the audience through application of appropriate methodologies. Building a relationship with the audience or stakeholders through dialogues and two-way symmetrical communication contributes toward this understanding and the maintenance of the newly adopted behaviors and practices.

Muturi N

2005-01-01

146

Social Support Quality in Internet Based Information and Communication: From "Digital Divide" to "Voice Divide"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available National and international studies demonstrate that the number of teenagers using the inter-net increases. But even though they actually do have access from different places to the in-formation and communication pool of the internet, there is evidence that the ways in which teenagers use the net - regarding the scope and frequency in which services are used as well as the preferences for different contents of these services - differ significantly in relation to socio-economic status, education, and gender. The results of the regarding empirical studies may be summarised as such: teenager with low (formal ) education especially use internet services embracing 'entertainment, play and fun' while higher educated teenagers (also) prefer intellectually more demanding and particularly services supplying a greater variety of communicative and informative activities. More generally, pedagogical and sociological studies investigating "digital divide" in a dif-ferentiated and sophisticated way - i.e. not only in terms of differences between those who do have access to the Internet and those who do not - suggest that the internet is no space beyond 'social reality' (e.g. DiMaggio & Hargittai 2001, 2003; Vogelgesang, 2002; Welling, 2003). Different modes of utilisation, that structure the internet as a social space are primarily a specific contextualisation of the latter - and thus, the opportunities and constraints in virtual world of the internet are not less than those in the 'real world' related to unequal distribu-tions of material, social and cultural resources as well as social embeddings of the actors involved. This fact of inequality is also true regarding the outcomes of using the internet. Empirical and theoretical results concerning forms and processes of networking and commu-nity building - i.e. sociability in the internet, as well as the social embeddings of the users which are mediated through the internet - suggest that net based communication and infor-mation processes may entail the resource 'social support'. Thus, with reference to social work and the task of compensating the reproduction of social disadvantages - whether they are medial or not - the ways in which teenagers get access to and utilize net based social sup-port are to be analysed.

Klein, Alexandra

2004-01-01

147

Considering the role of social dynamics and positional behavior in gestural communication research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While the hominin fossil record cannot inform us on either the presence or extent of social and cognitive abilities that may have paved the way for the emergence of language, studying non-vocal communication among our closest living relatives, the African apes, may provide valuable information about how language originated. Although much has been learned from gestural signaling in non-human primates, we have not yet established how and why gestural repertoires vary across species, what factors influence this variation, and how knowledge of these differences can contribute to an understanding of gestural signaling's contribution to language evolution. In this paper, we review arguments surrounding the theory that language evolved from gestural signaling and suggest some important factors to consider when conducting comparative studies of gestural communication among African apes. Specifically, we propose that social dynamics and positional behavior are critical components that shape the frequency and nature of gestural signaling across species and we argue that an understanding of these factors could shed light on how gestural communication may have been the basis of human language. We outline predictions for the influence of these factors on the frequencies and types of gestures used across the African apes and highlight the importance of including these factors in future gestural communication research with primates.

Smith LW; Delgado RA

2013-09-01

148

EarthScope's Education, Outreach, and Communications: Using Social Media from Continental to Global Scales  

Science.gov (United States)

Social media has emerged as a popular and effective form of communication among all age groups, with nearly half of Internet users belonging to a social network or using another form of social media on a regular basis. This phenomenon creates an excellent opportunity for earth science organizations to use the wide reach, functionality and informal environment of social media platforms to disseminate important scientific information, create brand recognition, and establish trust with users. Further, social media systems can be utilized for missions of education, outreach, and communicating important timely information (e.g., news agencies are common users). They are eminently scaleable (thus serving from a few to millions of users with no cost and no performance problem), searchable (people are turning to them more frequently as conduits for information), and user friendly (thanks to the massive resources poured into the underlying technology and design, these systems are easy to use and have been widely adopted). They can be used, therefore, to engage the public interactively with the EarthScope facilities, experiments, and discoveries, and continue the cycle of discussions, experiments, analysis and conclusions that typify scientific advancement. The EarthScope National Office (ESNO) is launching an effort to utilize social media to broaden its impact as a conduit between scientists, facilities, educators, and the public. The ESNO will use the opportunities that social media affords to offer high quality science content in a variety of formats that appeal to social media users of various age groups, including blogs (popular with users 18-29), Facebook and Twitter updates (popular with users ages 18-50), email updates (popular with older adults), and video clips (popular with all age groups). We will monitor the number of "fans" and "friends" on social media and networking pages in order to gauge the increase in the percentage of the user population visiting the site. We will also use existing tools available on social media sites to track the relationships between users who visit or "friend" the site to determine how knowledge of the site is transferred amongst various social, educational or geographic groups. Finally, we will use this information to iteratively improve the variety of content and media on the site to increase our user pool, improve EarthScope recognition, and provide appropriate and user-specific Earth science information, especially for time sensitive events of wide interest such as natural disasters.

Bohon, W.; Frus, R.; Arrowsmith, R.; Fouch, M. J.; Garnero, E. J.; Semken, S. C.; Taylor, W. L.

2011-12-01

149

Actualidad y desafíos de la comunicación para el cambio social Formación y requerimientos de los profesionales de la comunicación/ Current challenges in Communication for Social Change Educational requirements for professionals in Communication  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El propósito fundamental de este trabajo es tomar como referencia los postulados de la comunicación para el cambio social y reflexionar críticamente respecto a la formación de comunicadores sociales en Chile, y cómo asumir, desde esa crítica, una nueva propuesta teórico-metodológica que permita entregar herramientas en los diseños curriculares, para proporcionar a quienes se están formando, un adecuado contexto sociocultural en comunicación. En el ámbito praxe (more) ológico, la comunicación para el cambio social, la comunicación para el desarrollo o la comunicación participativa y la comunicación alternativa, aun cuando Chile cuenta con importantes referentes históricos, están ausentes de los espacios formativos y reflexivos. Abstract in english The main purpose of this paper is to take the postulates of Communication for Social Change as a reference and, within this framework, proceed with a critical reflection on the education received by social communicators in Chile; from here, we venture a new theoretical and methodological proposal whereby tools for curricular design are presented in order to offer students an adequate socio-cultural context vis-à-vis communication. In praxeological terms, in Chile, and in (more) spite of the fact that the country has important historical references, Communication for Social Change, Communication for Development, and/or Participative and Alternative Communication are still in want in most educational spaces.

MUÑOZ-NAVARRO, ANTONIETA; DEL VALLE ROJAS, CARLOS

2011-06-01

150

Por uma nova abordagem de mudança social: a comunicação do compromisso/ For a new approach of social change: committing communication  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os limites das ações de comunicação que repousam sobre a informação e a persuasão são conhecidos. Se elas permitem modificar as atitudes e os saberes, elas não permitem, entretanto, modificar os comportamentos efetivos, porque boas atitudes não são suficientes para ter bons comportamentos. O objetivo deste artigo é propor uma nova abordagem de mudança social à luz da teoria do compromisso. Três estudos são relatados, mostrando sua eficácia para promover o (more) s comportamentos de cidadania desejados (participação eleitoral, proteção do meio-ambiente e economia de energia). Esta abordagem, chamada "comunicação do compromisso", apóia-se sobre os atos preparatórios e os atos de comprometimento que convém obter das pessoas enfocadas. Abstract in english We already know the limits of communication actions based on information and persuasion. If that type of actions can lead to changing attitudes and knowledge, they hardly allow modifying the effective behaviours, simply because having the right attitudes is usually not enough to have the right behaviour. The goal of this article is to propose a new approach of social change in the light of the commitment theory. Three studies are reported, which show this theory efficienc (more) y to promote required citizenship behaviours: electoral participation, environmental protection and saving energy. This approach, called "committing communication", is based on preparatory acts and acts of commitment which are necessary to obtain from target subjects.

Joule, Robert Vincent; Bernard, Françoise

2005-04-01

151

Applying social marketing in health care: communicating evidence to change consumer behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social marketing uses commercial marketing strategies to change individual and organizational behavior and policies. It has been effective on a population level across a wide range of public health and health care domains. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of social marketing in changing health care consumer behavior through its impact on patient-provider interaction or provider behavior. Social marketers need to identify translatable strategies (e.g., competition analysis, branding, and tailored messages) that can be applied to health care provider and consumer behavior. Three case studies from social marketing illustrate potential strategies to change provider and consumer behavior. Countermarketing is a rapidly growing social marketing strategy that has been effective in tobacco control and may be effective in countering pharmaceutical marketing using specific message strategies. Informed decision making is a useful strategy when there is medical uncertainty, such as in prostate cancer screening and treatment. Pharmaceutical industry marketing practices offer valuable lessons for developing competing messages to reach providers and consumers. Social marketing is an effective population-based behavior change strategy that can be applied in individual clinical settings and as a complement to reinforce messages communicated on a population level. There is a need for more research on message strategies that work in health care and population-level effectiveness studies. PMID:18556638

Evans, W Douglas; McCormack, Lauren

2008-06-12

152

The value and use of social media as communication tool in the plant sciences  

Science.gov (United States)

Social media now complements many parts of our lives. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many other social networking sites allow users to share and interact with online content and to connect with like-minded people. Its strengths – rapid dissemination and amplification of content and the ability to lead informal conversations – make it a powerful tool to use in a professional context. This commentary explains the overall concept of social media and offers suggestions on usage and possible types of scientific content. It advises researchers on the potential benefits and how to take a strategic approach towards building a social media presence. It also presents examples of effective social media use within the plant science community. Common reasons for scientists to not engage with social media include the fear of appearing unprofessional, posting something wrong or being misunderstood, or a lack of confidence in their computer skills. With the rapid changes in academic publishing, dissemination and science communication, as well as the rise of ‘altmetrics’ to track online engagement with scientific content, digital literacy will become an essential skill in a scientist’s tool kit.

2013-01-01

153

Applying social marketing in health care: communicating evidence to change consumer behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Social marketing uses commercial marketing strategies to change individual and organizational behavior and policies. It has been effective on a population level across a wide range of public health and health care domains. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of social marketing in changing health care consumer behavior through its impact on patient-provider interaction or provider behavior. Social marketers need to identify translatable strategies (e.g., competition analysis, branding, and tailored messages) that can be applied to health care provider and consumer behavior. Three case studies from social marketing illustrate potential strategies to change provider and consumer behavior. Countermarketing is a rapidly growing social marketing strategy that has been effective in tobacco control and may be effective in countering pharmaceutical marketing using specific message strategies. Informed decision making is a useful strategy when there is medical uncertainty, such as in prostate cancer screening and treatment. Pharmaceutical industry marketing practices offer valuable lessons for developing competing messages to reach providers and consumers. Social marketing is an effective population-based behavior change strategy that can be applied in individual clinical settings and as a complement to reinforce messages communicated on a population level. There is a need for more research on message strategies that work in health care and population-level effectiveness studies.

Evans WD; McCormack L

2008-09-01

154

The value and use of social media as communication tool in the plant sciences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Social media now complements many parts of our lives. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many other social networking sites allow users to share and interact with online content and to connect with like-minded people. Its strengths - rapid dissemination and amplification of content and the ability to lead informal conversations - make it a powerful tool to use in a professional context. This commentary explains the overall concept of social media and offers suggestions on usage and possible types of scientific content. It advises researchers on the potential benefits and how to take a strategic approach towards building a social media presence. It also presents examples of effective social media use within the plant science community. Common reasons for scientists to not engage with social media include the fear of appearing unprofessional, posting something wrong or being misunderstood, or a lack of confidence in their computer skills. With the rapid changes in academic publishing, dissemination and science communication, as well as the rise of 'altmetrics' to track online engagement with scientific content, digital literacy will become an essential skill in a scientist's tool kit.

Osterrieder A

2013-01-01

155

The value and use of social media as communication tool in the plant sciences.  

Science.gov (United States)

Social media now complements many parts of our lives. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and many other social networking sites allow users to share and interact with online content and to connect with like-minded people. Its strengths - rapid dissemination and amplification of content and the ability to lead informal conversations - make it a powerful tool to use in a professional context. This commentary explains the overall concept of social media and offers suggestions on usage and possible types of scientific content. It advises researchers on the potential benefits and how to take a strategic approach towards building a social media presence. It also presents examples of effective social media use within the plant science community. Common reasons for scientists to not engage with social media include the fear of appearing unprofessional, posting something wrong or being misunderstood, or a lack of confidence in their computer skills. With the rapid changes in academic publishing, dissemination and science communication, as well as the rise of 'altmetrics' to track online engagement with scientific content, digital literacy will become an essential skill in a scientist's tool kit. PMID:23845168

Osterrieder, Anne

2013-07-11

156

Social Media and the Social Good: How Nonprofits Use Facebook to Communicate with the Public  

CERN Multimedia

In this study, we examine the social networking practices of the 100 largest nonprofit organizations in the United States. More specifically, we develop a comprehensive classification scheme to delineate these organizations' use of Facebook as a stakeholder engagement tool. We find that there are 5 primary categories of Facebook "statuses", which can be aggregated into three key dimensions - "information", "community", and "action". Our analysis reveals that, though the "informational" use of Facebook is still significant, nonprofit organizations are better at using Facebook to strategically engage their stakeholders via "dialogic" and "community-building" practices than they have been with traditional websites. The adoption of social media seems to have engendered new paradigms of public engagement.

Saxton, Gregory D; Chiu, I-Hsuan; Feng, Bo

2012-01-01

157

Using the picture exchange communication system (PECS) with children with autism: assessment of PECS acquisition, speech, social-communicative behavior, and problem behavior.  

Science.gov (United States)

The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is an augmentative communication system frequently used with children with autism (Bondy & Frost, 1994; Siegel, 2000; Yamall, 2000). Despite its common clinical use, no well-controlled empirical investigations have been conducted to test the effectiveness of PECS. Using a multiple baseline design, the present study examined the acquisition of PECS with 3 children with autism. In addition, the study examined the effects of PECS training on the emergence of speech in play and academic settings. Ancillary measures of social-communicative behaviors and problem behaviors were recorded. Results indicated that all 3 children met the learning criterion for PECS and showed concomitant increases in verbal speech. Ancillary gains were associated with increases in social-communicative behaviors and decreases in problem behaviors. The results are discussed in terms of the provision of empirical support for PECS as well as the concomitant positive side effects of its use. PMID:12365736

Charlop-Christy, Marjorie H; Carpenter, Michael; Le, Loc; LeBlanc, Linda A; Kellet, Kristen

2002-01-01

158

Using the picture exchange communication system (PECS) with children with autism: assessment of PECS acquisition, speech, social-communicative behavior, and problem behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is an augmentative communication system frequently used with children with autism (Bondy & Frost, 1994; Siegel, 2000; Yamall, 2000). Despite its common clinical use, no well-controlled empirical investigations have been conducted to test the effectiveness of PECS. Using a multiple baseline design, the present study examined the acquisition of PECS with 3 children with autism. In addition, the study examined the effects of PECS training on the emergence of speech in play and academic settings. Ancillary measures of social-communicative behaviors and problem behaviors were recorded. Results indicated that all 3 children met the learning criterion for PECS and showed concomitant increases in verbal speech. Ancillary gains were associated with increases in social-communicative behaviors and decreases in problem behaviors. The results are discussed in terms of the provision of empirical support for PECS as well as the concomitant positive side effects of its use.

Charlop-Christy MH; Carpenter M; Le L; LeBlanc LA; Kellet K

2002-01-01

159

Narrativas transmídia: diversidade social, discursiva e comunicacional/ Transmedia narratives: Social Diversity, Discourse and Communication/ Narrativas transmedia: diversidad social, discursiva y comunicacional  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os processos comunicacionais vivenciam hoje uma revolução no campo estrutural e no campo das linguagens. Tais mudanças são resultantes de comportamentos e subsídios comunicacionais ofertados para a sociedade contemporânea, como as redes sociais e a mobilidade. Porém, a comunicação ainda não abarcou tais mudanças por completo, apesar dos estudos que contemplam a narrativa transmídia. Este artigo oferece, a partir de um estudo de caráter reflexivo e investigati (more) vo, discussões sobre a narrativa transmídia como linguagem social na ficção e no jornalismo. Esperamos, a partir deste estudo, oferecer subsídios sobre novas pesquisas acerca do tema. Abstract in spanish En la actualidad, los procesos de comunicación experimentan una revolución en el campo estructural y en el de las lenguas. Estos cambios son el producto de comportamientos y contribuciones comunicacionales ofrecidos a la sociedad contemporánea; por ejemplo, redes sociales y movilidad. Sin embargo, la comunicación no asimiló tales cambios por completo, a pesar de los estudios que tienen en cuenta la narrativa transmedia. Basado en un estudio reflexivo e investigativo, (more) este artículo ofrece análisis acerca de la narrativa transmedia como lenguaje social en la ficción y el periodismo. Esperamos contribuir con nuevas investigaciones sobre el tema. Abstract in english The current communicational process experiences a revolution in both the structural fields and those of the languages. Such changes are the result of communication behaviors and contributions offered to contemporary society, such as social networking and mobility. However, communication has not fully embraced these changes, despite of studies related to the transmedia storytelling. This paper is a reflective and investigative discussion about transmedia strorytelling as s (more) ocial language either in fiction and journalism. Hopefully, this study may also provide insights to new researches regarding this subject.

Porto-Renó, Denis; Versuti, Andréa Cristina; Moraes-Gonçalves, Elizabeth; Gosciola, Vicente

2011-12-01

160

Association of MET with social and communication phenotypes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by impairments in social interaction, communication, and behavioral flexibility. Autism is highly heritable, but it is not known whether a genetic risk factor contributes to all three core domains of the disorder or autism results from the confluence of multiple genetic risk factors for each domain. We and others reported previously association of variants in the gene encoding the MET receptor tyrosine kinase in five independent samples. We further described enriched association of the MET promoter variant rs1858830 C allele in families with co-occurring autism and gastrointestinal conditions. To test the contribution of this functional MET promoter variant to the domains of autism, we analyzed its association with quantitative scores derived from three instruments used to diagnose and describe autism phenotypes: the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and both the parent and the teacher report forms of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). In 748 individuals from 367 families, the transmission of the MET C allele from parent to child was consistently associated with both social and communication phenotypes of autism. Stratification by gastrointestinal conditions revealed a similar pattern of association with both social and communication phenotypes in 242 individuals with autism from 118 families with co-occurring gastrointestinal conditions, but a lack of association with any domain in 181 individuals from 96 families with ASD and no co-occurring gastrointestinal condition. These data indicate that the MET C allele influences at least two of the three domains of the autism triad. PMID:19548256

Campbell, Daniel B; Warren, Dana; Sutcliffe, James S; Lee, Evon Batey; Levitt, Pat

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
161

Association of MET with social and communication phenotypes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by impairments in social interaction, communication, and behavioral flexibility. Autism is highly heritable, but it is not known whether a genetic risk factor contributes to all three core domains of the disorder or autism results from the confluence of multiple genetic risk factors for each domain. We and others reported previously association of variants in the gene encoding the MET receptor tyrosine kinase in five independent samples. We further described enriched association of the MET promoter variant rs1858830 C allele in families with co-occurring autism and gastrointestinal conditions. To test the contribution of this functional MET promoter variant to the domains of autism, we analyzed its association with quantitative scores derived from three instruments used to diagnose and describe autism phenotypes: the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and both the parent and the teacher report forms of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). In 748 individuals from 367 families, the transmission of the MET C allele from parent to child was consistently associated with both social and communication phenotypes of autism. Stratification by gastrointestinal conditions revealed a similar pattern of association with both social and communication phenotypes in 242 individuals with autism from 118 families with co-occurring gastrointestinal conditions, but a lack of association with any domain in 181 individuals from 96 families with ASD and no co-occurring gastrointestinal condition. These data indicate that the MET C allele influences at least two of the three domains of the autism triad.

Campbell DB; Warren D; Sutcliffe JS; Lee EB; Levitt P

2010-03-01

162

Integration of social aspects in radiation protection. The AIRP Work group on communication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation protection has never been confined just to its scientific and quantitative aspects as it also incorporates a real and proper social factor. In most developed countries, considerations on the social and ethical issues of radiation protection and discussions on the approaches to stakeholder involvement are in a state of positive turmoil. Scientific and practical experts are identifying and promoting dialogue procedures, embracing ethical and social aspects, and are moving together to add to their experience in new and improved practices for the decision-making process. In early 2006, the Italian Radiation Protection Association (AIRP) set up a workgroup for the purpose of: 1-) Promoting dialogue among RP experts, experts in other disciplines, national and local authorities and the public, in relation to social awareness issues in the fields of ionising and non-ionising radiation protection; 2-) Promoting reflection on the mutual interactions between radiation protection and society; 3-) Contributing to the development and diffusion in the RP community of the culture of stakeholder engagement in the decision-making process. Aiming at promoting continual dialogue between the radiation protection community and society, an initial meeting was held in June 2006 on the fundamentals and objectives of RP communication, by focusing on issues such as: the credibility of information sources, the role of the mass media and institutions in risk communication. A workshop was held in November 2006 on the social aspects of radiation protection: experts in scientific journalism, sociology and medical physics, representatives of consumer associations, participants in a Government task commission, local authorities and representatives of the leading local and national institutions involved in RP, were given the opportunity of communicating and discussing the main socially-sensitive aspects of RP. The work of the AIRP group continued in 2007 with two events related on the ethical, social and legal aspects of radioactive waste management. In 2008, we intend to support the growth of RP culture in society by organizing an event concerning the various aspects of radiation protection education and information for non professionals. To invite suggestions and obtain new points of view, the group has opened a website and prepared a basic questionnaire. The AIRP workgroup is constantly creating the conditions and opportunities for extending knowledge about radiation protection and involving society as a whole in extensive debate concerning risk management. (author)

2008-01-01

163

Energy saving, social and government communication; Ahorrro de energia, sociedad y comunicacion gubernamental  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The actions for the energy efficiency and the utilization of renewable energies are multiple and dispersed, in each one of the energy consumption points of the country. For this reason, two important factors to foment these actions are to promote the social participation and the effective government communication towards the society: energy saving and social participation. One of the main faculties of the National Commission of Energy Saving (CONAE) is to foment the efficiency in the energy use, through actions coordinated with the different agencies and organizations of the Federal Public Administration, with the governments of the federal entities and the municipalities and, through coordinated operations, with the private and social sectors. The CONAE has established mechanisms of coordination and cooperation with the private and social sectors, having fomented programs, projects and actions whose purpose is the energy efficiency, outstanding: 1) Committees and work groups; 2) Cooperation Agreements; 3) the Advisory Council for the Foment of Renewable Energy. [Spanish] Las acciones para la eficiencia energetica y el aprovechamiento de las energias renovables son multiples y dispersas, en cada uno de los puntos de consumo de energia del pais. Por ello, dos factores importantes para fomentar estas acciones son promover la participacion social y la comunicacion gubernamental eficaz hacia la sociedad: Ahorro de energia y participacion social. Una de las principales facultades de la Comision Nacional de Ahorro de Energia es fomentar la eficiencia en el uso de energia, a traves de acciones coordinadas con las diversas dependencias y entidades de la Administracion Publica Federal, con los gobiernos de las entidades federativas y de los municipios y, a traves de acciones concertadas, con los sectores social y privado. La CONAE ha establecido mecanismos de coordinacion y de cooperacion con los sectores privado y social, fomentando programas, proyectos y acciones cuyo proposito es la eficiencia energetica, destacado: 1) Comites y grupos de trabajo; 2) Convenios de Cooperacion; 3) el Consejo Consultivo de Fomento de la Energia Renovables.

Morales Camarena, Francisco [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

2001-07-01

164

Social participation and healthy ageing: a neglected, significant protective factor for chronic non communicable conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Low and middle income countries are ageing at a much faster rate than richer countries, especially in Asia. This is happening at a time of globalisation, migration, urbanisation, and smaller families. Older people make significant contributions to their families and communities, but this is often undermined by chronic disease and preventable disability. Social participation can help to protect against morbidity and mortality. We argue that social participation deserves much greater attention as a protective factor, and that older people can play a useful role in the prevention and management of chronic conditions. We present, as an example, a low-cost, sustainable strategy that has increased social participation among elders in Sri Lanka. Discussion Current international policy initiatives to address the increasing prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases are focused on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and cancers, responsible for much premature mortality. Interventions to modify their shared risk factors of high salt and fat diets, inactivity, smoking and alcohol use are advocated. But older people also suffer chronic conditions that primarily affect quality of life, and have a wider range of risk factors. There is strong epidemiological and physiological evidence that social isolation, in particular, is as important a risk factor for chronic diseases as the 'lifestyle' risk factors, yet it is currently neglected. There are useful experiences of inexpensive and sustainable strategies to improve social participation among older people in low and lower middle income countries. Our experience with forming Elders' Clubs with retired tea estate workers in Sri Lanka suggests many benefits, including social support and participation, inter-generational contact, a collective voice, and facilitated access to health promotion activities, and to health care and social welfare services. Summary Policies to address the increase in chronic non-communicable diseases should include consideration of healthy ageing, conditions that affect quality of life, and strategies to increase social participation. There are useful examples showing that it is feasible to catalyse the formation of Elders' Clubs or older people's associations which become self-sustaining, promote social participation, and improve health and well-being of elders and their families.

Holmes Wendy R; Joseph Jennifer

2011-01-01

165

Social participation and healthy ageing: a neglected, significant protective factor for chronic non communicable conditions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Low and middle income countries are ageing at a much faster rate than richer countries, especially in Asia. This is happening at a time of globalisation, migration, urbanisation, and smaller families. Older people make significant contributions to their families and communities, but this is often undermined by chronic disease and preventable disability. Social participation can help to protect against morbidity and mortality. We argue that social participation deserves much greater attention as a protective factor, and that older people can play a useful role in the prevention and management of chronic conditions. We present, as an example, a low-cost, sustainable strategy that has increased social participation among elders in Sri Lanka. DISCUSSION: Current international policy initiatives to address the increasing prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases are focused on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and cancers, responsible for much premature mortality. Interventions to modify their shared risk factors of high salt and fat diets, inactivity, smoking and alcohol use are advocated. But older people also suffer chronic conditions that primarily affect quality of life, and have a wider range of risk factors. There is strong epidemiological and physiological evidence that social isolation, in particular, is as important a risk factor for chronic diseases as the 'lifestyle' risk factors, yet it is currently neglected. There are useful experiences of inexpensive and sustainable strategies to improve social participation among older people in low and lower middle income countries. Our experience with forming Elders' Clubs with retired tea estate workers in Sri Lanka suggests many benefits, including social support and participation, inter-generational contact, a collective voice, and facilitated access to health promotion activities, and to health care and social welfare services. SUMMARY: Policies to address the increase in chronic non-communicable diseases should include consideration of healthy ageing, conditions that affect quality of life, and strategies to increase social participation. There are useful examples showing that it is feasible to catalyse the formation of Elders' Clubs or older people's associations which become self-sustaining, promote social participation, and improve health and well-being of elders and their families.

Holmes WR; Joseph J

2011-01-01

166

The Impact of Social Media-Focused Information & Communication Technologies on Business Performance via Mediating Mechanisms: An Exploratory Study on Communication and Advertising Agencies in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of social media-focused information & communicationtechnologies on business performance via some mediating variables. These mediating variables aremarketing-based outputs and costs. In this context, a survey was conducted on 152 communication &advertising agencies operating in Turkey that were selected through convenience sampling method. A researchmodel was developed and the proposed relationships were tested using structural equation modeling via AMOS.The empirical findings indicate that social media-focused information & communication technologies positivelyaffect the business performance via the mediation of marketing-based outputs and costs.

Fatih Gecti; Ikram Dastan

2013-01-01

167

Autistic Traits and Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Clinical Validity of Two Measures Presuming a Continuum of Social Communication Skills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research indicates that autism is the extreme end of a continuously distributed trait. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) aim to assess autistic traits. The objective of this study was to compare their clinical validity. The SRS showed s...

Bölte, Sven; Westerwald, Eva; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine; Poustka, Fritz

168

Cacophony or Empowerment? Analysing the Impact of New Information Communication Technologies and New Social Media in Southeast Asia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The capabilities, tools and websites we associate with new information communication technologies and social media are now ubiquitous. Moreover tools that were designed to facilitate innocuous conversation and social interaction have had unforeseen political impacts. Nowhere was this more visible th...

Jason P. Abbott

169

Communication, knowledge, social network and family planning utilization among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Family planning utilization in Tanzania is low. This study was cross sectional. It examined family planning use and socio demographic variables, social networks, knowledge and communication among the couples, whereby a stratified sample of 440 women of reproductive age (18-49), married or cohabiting was studied in Mwanza, Tanzania. A structured questionnaire with questions on knowledge, communication among the couples and practice of family planning was used. Descriptive statistics and Logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with family planning (FP) use at four levels. The findings showed that majority (73.2%) of respondents have not used family planning. Wealth was positive related to FP use (p=.000, OR = 3.696, and 95% C.I = 1.936 lower and upper 7.055). Religion was associated with FP use (p=.002, OR =2.802, 95% C.I = 1.476 lower and 5.321 upper), communication and FP use were significantly associated, (p=.000, OR = 0.323 and 95% C.I = 0.215) lower and upper = 0.483), social network and FP use (p=.000, OR = 2.162 and 95% C.I = 1.495 lower and upper =3.125) and knowledge and FP use(p=.000, OR = 2.224 and 95% C.I = 1.509 lower and upper =3.278). Wealth showed a significant association with FP use (p=.001, OR = 1.897, 95% C.I = 0.817 lower and 4.404).Urban area was positively associated with FP use (p= .000, OR = 0.008 and 95% C.I = 0.001 lower and upper =0.09), semi urban was significant at (p= .004, OR = 3.733 and C.I = 1.513 lower and upper =9.211). Information, education and communication materials and to promote family planning in Tanzania should designed and promoted. PMID:24069768

Mosha, Idda H; Ruben, Ruerd

2013-09-01

170

Social Media and Its Dual Use in Biopreparedness: Communication and Visualization Tools in an Animal Bioterrorism Incident  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article focuses on social media and interactive challenges for emergency organizations during a bioterrorism or agroterrorism incident, and it outlines the dual-use dilemma of social media. Attackers or terrorists can use social media as their modus of operandi, and defenders, including emergency organizations in law enforcement and public and animal health, can use it for peaceful purposes. To get a better understanding of the uses of social media in these situations, a workshop was arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, to raise awareness about social media and animal bioterrorism threats. Fifty-six experts and crisis communicators from international and national organizations participated. As a result of the workshop, it was concluded that emergency organizations can collect valuable information and monitor social media before, during, and after an outbreak. In order to make use of interactive communication to obtain collective intelligence from the public, emergency organizations must adapt to social networking technologies, requiring multidisciplinary knowledge in the fields of information, communication, IT, and biopreparedness. Social network messaging during a disease outbreak can be visualized in stream graphs and networks showing clusters of Twitter and Facebook users. The visualization of social media can be an important preparedness tool in the response to bioterrorism and agroterrorism.

Sjöberg, Elisabeth; Barker, Gary C.

2013-01-01

171

Putting the "we" into teamwork: effects of priming personal or social identity on flight attendants' perceptions of teamwork and communication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of a manipulation derived from social categorization and social identity theory to promote greater cabin crew willingness to engage in intergroup communication and teamwork in airline operations. BACKGROUND: Failures of communication and teamwork between airline crew have been implicated in a number of airline crashes. METHOD: Flight attendants based domestically (n = 254) or overseas (n = 230) received a manipulation designed to prime either their social identity or personal identity and then read a brief outline of an in-flight event before completing a teamwork questionnaire. RESULTS: Flight attendants who received a social identity prime indicated increased willingness to engage in coordinated team action compared with those who received a personal identity prime. CONCLUSION: Priming social identity can enhance attitudes toward teamwork and communication, potentially leading to increased willingness to engage in intergroup cooperation. APPLICATION: Social categorization and social identity theories can be used to inform joint training program development for flight attendants and pilots to create increased willingness for group members to participate in effective communication and teamwork behaviors.

Ford J; O'Hare D; Henderson R

2013-06-01

172

Psychiatrists' use of electronic communication and social media and a proposed framework for future guidelines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Recent and ongoing advances in information technology present opportunities and challenges in the practice of medicine. Among all medical subspecialties, psychiatry is uniquely suited to help guide the medical profession's response to the ethical, legal, and therapeutic challenges--especially with respect to boundaries--posed by the rapid proliferation of social media in medicine. Ironically, while limited guidelines exist for other branches of medicine, guidelines for the responsible use of social media and information technology in psychiatry are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To collect data about patterns of use of electronic communications and social media among practicing psychiatrists and to establish a conceptual framework for developing professional guidelines. METHODS: A structured survey was developed to assess the use of email, texting, and social media among the active membership of the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry (GAP) to gain insight into current practices across a spectrum of the field and to identify areas of concern not addressed in existing guidelines. This survey was distributed by mail and at an annual meeting of the GAP and a descriptive statistical analysis was conducted with SPSS. RESULTS: Of the 212 members, 178 responded (84% response rate). The majority of respondents (58%) reported that they rarely or never evaluated their online presence, while 35% reported that they had at some time searched for information online about patients. Only 20% posted content about themselves online and few of these restricted that information. Approximately 25% used email to communicate with patients, and very few obtained written consent to do so. CONCLUSION: Discipline-specific guidelines for psychiatrists' interactions with social media and electronic communications are needed. Informed by the survey described here, a review of the literature, and consensus opinion, a framework for developing such a set of guidelines is proposed. The model integrates four key areas: treatment frame, patient privacy, medico-legal concerns, and professionalism. This conceptual model, applicable to many psychiatric settings, including clinical practice, residency training, and continuing medical education, will be helpful in developing discipline-wide guidelines for psychiatry and can be applied to a decision-making process by individual psychiatrists in day-to-day practice.

Koh S; Cattell GM; Cochran DM; Krasner A; Langheim FJ; Sasso DA

2013-05-01

173

Communication of emergency public warnings: A social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

More than 200 studies of warning systems and warning response were reviewed for this social science perspective and state-of-the-art assessment of communication of emergency public warnings. The major findings are as follows. First, variations in the nature and content of warnings have a large impact on whether or not the public heeds the warning. Relevant factors include the warning source; warning channel; the consistency, credibility, accuracy, and understandability of the message; and the warning frequency. Second, characteristics of the population receiving the warning affect warning response. These include social characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age, social setting characteristics such as stage of life or family context, psychological characteristics such as fatalism or risk perception, and knowledge characteristics such as experience or training. Third, many current myths about public response to emergency warning are at odds with knowledge derived from field investigations. Some of these myths include the keep it simple'' notion, the cry wolf'' syndrome, public panic and hysteria, and those concerning public willingness to respond to warnings. Finally, different methods of warning the public are not equally effective at providing an alert and notification in different physical and social settings. Most systems can provide a warning given three or more hours of available warning time. Special systems such as tone-alert radios are needed to provide rapid warning. 235 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Mileti, D.S. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (USA)); Sorensen, J.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

1990-08-01

174

Social communication and theory of mind in boys with autism and fragile x syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Impairments in the social use of language, or pragmatics, constitute a core characteristic of autism. Problems with pragmatic language have also been documented in fragile X syndrome (FXS), a monogenic condition that is the most common known genetic cause of autism. Evidence suggests that social cognitive ability, or theory of mind, may also be impaired in both conditions, and in autism, may importantly relate to pragmatic language ability. Given the substantial overlap observed in autism and FXS, this study aimed to better define those social-communicative phenotypes that overlap in these two conditions by comparing pragmatic language ability and theory of mind in children with idiopathic autism and children with FXS, with and without autism, as well as children with Down syndrome and typically developing controls. We further examined correlations between these cognitive-behavioral phenotypes and molecular genetic variation related to the Fragile X Mental Retardation-1 gene (FMR1) in the FXS group. Results indicated that children with idiopathic autism and those with FXS and autism performed comparably on direct-assessment measures of pragmatic language and theory of mind, whereas those with FXS only did not differ from controls. Theory of mind was related to pragmatic language ability in all groups. Pragmatic language and theory of mind also correlated with genetic variation at the FMR1 locus (Cytosine-Guanine-Guanine repeats and percent methylation). These results point toward substantial overlap in the social and language phenotypes in autism and FXS and suggest a molecular genetic basis to these phenotypic profiles.

Losh M; Martin GE; Klusek J; Hogan-Brown AL; Sideris J

2012-01-01

175

Evaluación de la competencia comunicativa y social en foros virtuales. [Evaluation of communicative and social competence in virtual forums].  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to carry out an approach to the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the content in the virtual forums used as a complement to the university lessons. After defining the base criteria of the assessment process, the forums developed in three subjects (215 students) are analyzed. The results show the need to distinguish between quantitative and qualitative results in relation to their impact on assessing the level of competence; they also suggest the importance of the didactic design of the subject in the evolution of the communicative and social competences of the students’ participations. El objeto de esta investigación es realizar una aproximación al análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo del contenido de los foros virtuales de debate utilizados como complemento de la docencia universitaria presencial. Tras definir los criterios-base del proceso de evaluación, se analizan los foros desarrollados en tres asignaturas (215 estudiantes). Los resultados muestran la necesidad de distinguir entre los resultados cuantitativos y los cualitativos en relación a su impacto en la evaluación del nivel de competencia; también sugieren la importancia del diseño didáctico de la asignatura en la evolución de la competencia comunicativa y social de las intervenciones de los estudiantes.

Ezeiza, Ainhoa; Palacios, Santiago

2009-01-01

176

The relationship of motor skills and social communicative skills in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Motor skill deficits are present and persist in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; Staples & Reid, 2010). Yet the focus of intervention is on core impairments, which are part of the diagnostic criteria for ASD, deficits in social communication skills. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the functional motor skills, of 6- to 15-year-old children with high-functioning ASD, predict success in standardized social communicative skills. It is hypothesized that children with better motor skills will have better social communicative skills. A total of 35 children with ASD between the ages of 6-15 years participated in this study. The univariate GLM (general linear model) tested the relationship of motor skills on social communicative skills holding constant age, IQ, ethnicity, gender, and clinical ASD diagnosis. Object-control motor skills significantly predicted calibrated ASD severity (p < .05). Children with weaker motor skills have greater social communicative skill deficits. How this relationship exists behaviorally, needs to be explored further. PMID:23860508

MacDonald, Megan; Lord, Catherine; Ulrich, Dale A

2013-07-01

177

A South African university-practitioner partnership to strengthen capacity in social and behaviour change communication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Globally, communication plays an integral role in public health strategies, from infectious diseases to diseases related to lifestyles. The evolution of the field of social and behaviour change communication (SBCC), combined with the need for evidence based practice and multi-level interventions to promote health, and human resource gaps in sub-Saharan Africa have led to the imperative to standardise and formalise the field. Moreover, current practitioners come from different disciplinary backgrounds underlining the need to define common core skills and competencies. This paper describes the partnership between the Wits School of Public Health and the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication and how the partners responded to this need. It highlights the factors influencing sustainable institutional capacity to provide quality assured, accredited training. We describe an unexpected positive response from a number of practitioner organisations that have chosen to send multiple staff members for training, specifically to build a critical mass within their organisations. Finally, we note the interest from (mostly) southern-based academic institutions in setting up similar programmes and postulate that south-south collaborations can contribute to building sustainable context specific and evidence-informed SBCC programmes in the global south.

Christofides NJ; Nieuwoudt S; Usdin S; Goldstein S; Fonn S

2013-01-01

178

Correlatos entre o perfil comunicativo e adaptação sócio-comunicativa no espectro autístico/ Correlates between communicative profile and social communicative adaptation in the autistic spectrum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: verificar se há correlações significativas entre os dados referentes ao perfil funcional da comunicação e os dados da adaptação sócio-comunicativa obtidos por meio de entrevistas individuais com os pais e as terapeutas de crianças com Distúrbios do Espectro Autístico. MÉTODOS: foram sujeitos deste estudo 48 crianças, com diagnóstico clínico incluído no espectro autístico com os quais foram coletados os dados para a determinação do perfil funci (more) onal da comunicação por meio de situação lúdica, buscando a espontaneidade comunicativa. Participaram ainda, os responsáveis, legais e pelo atendimento fonoaudiológico especializado, das 48 crianças, ou seja, 46 mães e dois pais e 15 terapeutas, respondendo individualmente a um questionário sobre o relacionamento social das crianças citadas. RESULTADOS: pode-se observar que os resultados referentes à adaptação sócio-comunicativa obtida a partir de entrevistas com terapeutas e pais apresentaram correlações significativas com o perfil funcional da comunicação. De forma geral, o estudo das correlações entre os aspectos do perfil comunicativo e da adaptação sócio-comunicativa não apresentou um grande número de correlações, sendo este número ainda menor quando os pais foram os informantes, demonstrando a interdependência das áreas estudas. CONCLUSÃO: uma das maiores evidências deste trabalho é que mesmo que as crianças do espectro autístico apresentem um desenvolvimento deficitário das habilidades de linguagem, cognição e socialização, ainda assim elas são capazes de extrair pistas lingüísticas e não-lingüísticas do meio comunicativo, e utilizá-las de forma contextual em sua vida social, associando-as com os ganhos na linguagem e no desempenho sócio-cognitivo. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to check if there are any significant correlations among the data on the functional communicative profile and social-communicative adaptation obtained in individual interviews with parents and therapists of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). METHODS: subjects were: 48 children with psychiatric diagnosis within the autistic spectrum whose functional communicative profile was obtained in play sessions with a language therapist; 48 parents (46 mothers (more) and 2 fathers) and 15 language therapists that answered individually to questionnaires about the children's social performance. RESULTS: it could be observed that the results referring to the social communicative adaptation obtained with the therapists and parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders showed significant correlations with the functional communicative profile. Data on social communicative performance provided by the therapists showed more significant correlations with the functional communicative profile than those obtained with the parents. The number of correlations was generically smaller when the parents provided data on social communicative performance. CONCLUSION: one of the most important results of this study is the evidence that even though ASD children present important deficits in language development, cognition and social abilities, they can be able to extract linguistic and non-linguistic clues from the communicative environment and use them in their social live along with linguistic and social-cognitive improvements.

Sousa-Morato, Priscilla Faria; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

2009-01-01

179

Correlatos entre o perfil comunicativo e adaptação sócio-comunicativa no espectro autístico Correlates between communicative profile and social communicative adaptation in the autistic spectrum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar se há correlações significativas entre os dados referentes ao perfil funcional da comunicação e os dados da adaptação sócio-comunicativa obtidos por meio de entrevistas individuais com os pais e as terapeutas de crianças com Distúrbios do Espectro Autístico. MÉTODOS: foram sujeitos deste estudo 48 crianças, com diagnóstico clínico incluído no espectro autístico com os quais foram coletados os dados para a determinação do perfil funcional da comunicação por meio de situação lúdica, buscando a espontaneidade comunicativa. Participaram ainda, os responsáveis, legais e pelo atendimento fonoaudiológico especializado, das 48 crianças, ou seja, 46 mães e dois pais e 15 terapeutas, respondendo individualmente a um questionário sobre o relacionamento social das crianças citadas. RESULTADOS: pode-se observar que os resultados referentes à adaptação sócio-comunicativa obtida a partir de entrevistas com terapeutas e pais apresentaram correlações significativas com o perfil funcional da comunicação. De forma geral, o estudo das correlações entre os aspectos do perfil comunicativo e da adaptação sócio-comunicativa não apresentou um grande número de correlações, sendo este número ainda menor quando os pais foram os informantes, demonstrando a interdependência das áreas estudas. CONCLUSÃO: uma das maiores evidências deste trabalho é que mesmo que as crianças do espectro autístico apresentem um desenvolvimento deficitário das habilidades de linguagem, cognição e socialização, ainda assim elas são capazes de extrair pistas lingüísticas e não-lingüísticas do meio comunicativo, e utilizá-las de forma contextual em sua vida social, associando-as com os ganhos na linguagem e no desempenho sócio-cognitivo.PURPOSE: to check if there are any significant correlations among the data on the functional communicative profile and social-communicative adaptation obtained in individual interviews with parents and therapists of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). METHODS: subjects were: 48 children with psychiatric diagnosis within the autistic spectrum whose functional communicative profile was obtained in play sessions with a language therapist; 48 parents (46 mothers and 2 fathers) and 15 language therapists that answered individually to questionnaires about the children's social performance. RESULTS: it could be observed that the results referring to the social communicative adaptation obtained with the therapists and parents of children with autistic spectrum disorders showed significant correlations with the functional communicative profile. Data on social communicative performance provided by the therapists showed more significant correlations with the functional communicative profile than those obtained with the parents. The number of correlations was generically smaller when the parents provided data on social communicative performance. CONCLUSION: one of the most important results of this study is the evidence that even though ASD children present important deficits in language development, cognition and social abilities, they can be able to extract linguistic and non-linguistic clues from the communicative environment and use them in their social live along with linguistic and social-cognitive improvements.

Priscilla Faria Sousa-Morato; Fernanda Dreux Miranda Fernandes

2009-01-01

180

[Social media and medical apps: how they can change health communication, education and care].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Social media and medical apps for smartphones and tablets are changing health communication, education and care. This change involves physicians and other health care professionals which for their education, training and updating have started to follow public pages and profiles opened by medical journals and professional societies on the online social networking sites (such as Facebook, Twitter and Google+), to access scientific content (videos, images, slides) available on user-generated contents sites (such as SlideShare, Pinterest and YouTube) or on health professional online communities such as Sermo, and to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets. As shown by a number of experiences conducted in US by health institutions such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Atlanta and hospitals such a the Mayo Clinic, these tools are also transforming the way to make health promotion activities and communication, promote healthy habits and lifestyles, and prevent chronic diseases. Finally this change involves patients which are starting to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets to monitor their diseases, and tools such as PatientsLikeMe (an online patients' community), Facebook and Twitter to share with others the same disease experience, to learn about the disease and treatments, and to find opinions on physicians, hospitals and medical centers. These new communication tools allow users to move to a kind of collaborative education and updating where news and contents (such as public health recommendations, results of the most recent clinical researches or medical guidelines) may be shared and discussed.

Santoro E

2013-05-01

 
 
 
 
181

[Social media and medical apps: how they can change health communication, education and care].  

Science.gov (United States)

Social media and medical apps for smartphones and tablets are changing health communication, education and care. This change involves physicians and other health care professionals which for their education, training and updating have started to follow public pages and profiles opened by medical journals and professional societies on the online social networking sites (such as Facebook, Twitter and Google+), to access scientific content (videos, images, slides) available on user-generated contents sites (such as SlideShare, Pinterest and YouTube) or on health professional online communities such as Sermo, and to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets. As shown by a number of experiences conducted in US by health institutions such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Atlanta and hospitals such a the Mayo Clinic, these tools are also transforming the way to make health promotion activities and communication, promote healthy habits and lifestyles, and prevent chronic diseases. Finally this change involves patients which are starting to use medical and health apps on their smartphones and tablets to monitor their diseases, and tools such as PatientsLikeMe (an online patients' community), Facebook and Twitter to share with others the same disease experience, to learn about the disease and treatments, and to find opinions on physicians, hospitals and medical centers. These new communication tools allow users to move to a kind of collaborative education and updating where news and contents (such as public health recommendations, results of the most recent clinical researches or medical guidelines) may be shared and discussed. PMID:23748682

Santoro, Eugenio

2013-05-01

182

Communicating HIV status in sexual interactions: assessing social cognitive constructs, situational factors, and individual characteristics among South African MSM.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study assessed whether social cognitive constructs, situational factors, and individual characteristics were associated with communicating HIV status and whether communication was related to sexual risk behavior. A quota-sampling method stratified by age, race, and township was used to recruit 300 men who have sex with men to participate in a community-based survey in Pretoria in 2008. Participants reported characteristics of their last sexual encounter involving anal sex, including whether they or their partner had communicated their HIV status. Fifty-nine percent of participants reported that they or their partner had communicated their HIV status. HIV communication self-efficacy (aOR = 1.2, 95 % CI: 1.04-1.68), being with a steady partner (aOR = 0.36, 95 % CI: 0.19-0.67), and being Black (versus White; aOR = 0.08, 95 % CI: 0.03-0.27) were independently associated with communicating HIV status. Communicating HIV status was not associated with unprotected anal intercourse. HIV communication self-efficacy increases men's likelihood of communicating HIV status. Being with a steady partner and being Black reduces that likelihood. Communication about HIV status did not lead to safer sex.

Knox J; Reddy V; Kaighobadi F; Nel D; Sandfort T

2013-01-01

183

Communicating HIV status in sexual interactions: assessing social cognitive constructs, situational factors, and individual characteristics among South African MSM.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed whether social cognitive constructs, situational factors, and individual characteristics were associated with communicating HIV status and whether communication was related to sexual risk behavior. A quota-sampling method stratified by age, race, and township was used to recruit 300 men who have sex with men to participate in a community-based survey in Pretoria in 2008. Participants reported characteristics of their last sexual encounter involving anal sex, including whether they or their partner had communicated their HIV status. Fifty-nine percent of participants reported that they or their partner had communicated their HIV status. HIV communication self-efficacy (aOR = 1.2, 95 % CI: 1.04-1.68), being with a steady partner (aOR = 0.36, 95 % CI: 0.19-0.67), and being Black (versus White; aOR = 0.08, 95 % CI: 0.03-0.27) were independently associated with communicating HIV status. Communicating HIV status was not associated with unprotected anal intercourse. HIV communication self-efficacy increases men's likelihood of communicating HIV status. Being with a steady partner and being Black reduces that likelihood. Communication about HIV status did not lead to safer sex. PMID:23065127

Knox, Justin; Reddy, Vasu; Kaighobadi, Farnaz; Nel, Dawie; Sandfort, Theo

2013-01-01

184

Advocacy, communication and social mobilisation for tuberculosis control in Pakistan: a qualitative case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SETTING: A national-level study in four districts, one each in all four provinces of Pakistan, a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country. OBJECTIVES: To examine how advocacy, communication and social mobilisation (ACSM) campaigns by the National Tuberculosis Programme (NTP) in Pakistan engaged the populations of interest, to what extent they were successful in promoting services and desired behaviours, and how these campaigns could be improved. DESIGN: This was a qualitative case study comprising 13 focus groups and 36 individual interviews in four districts. All three levels of the ACSM programme, i.e., planners, implementers and beneficiaries, were included among the respondents. RESULTS: Improved political commitment, availability of funds, partnership with the private sector, visibility of the NTP and access to directly observed treatment (DOT) were achieved. Individual and social environmental issues of poor patients and marginalised communities were addressed to some extent, and could be improved in the future. Empathy and respect from physicians, and better service delivery of the DOTS-based programme were desired by the patients. CONCLUSIONS: The strategic advocacy ensured political and financial commitment; however, identification and targeting of vulnerable populations, and carrying out context-based social mobilisation and effective counselling are crucial to increase the use of DOT. Evaluations should be built-in from the beginning to increase the evidence on effectiveness of ACSM campaigns.

Haq Z; Khan W; Rizwan S

2013-03-01

185

A new dimension of health care: systematic review of the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is currently a lack of information about the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals from primary research. OBJECTIVE: To review the current published literature to identify the uses, benefits, and limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals, and identify current gaps in the literature to provide recommendations for future health communication research. METHODS: This paper is a review using a systematic approach. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using nine electronic databases and manual searches to locate peer-reviewed studies published between January 2002 and February 2012. RESULTS: The search identified 98 original research studies that included the uses, benefits, and/or limitations of social media for health communication among the general public, patients, and health professionals. The methodological quality of the studies assessed using the Downs and Black instrument was low; this was mainly due to the fact that the vast majority of the studies in this review included limited methodologies and was mainly exploratory and descriptive in nature. Seven main uses of social media for health communication were identified, including focusing on increasing interactions with others, and facilitating, sharing, and obtaining health messages. The six key overarching benefits were identified as (1) increased interactions with others, (2) more available, shared, and tailored information, (3) increased accessibility and widening access to health information, (4) peer/social/emotional support, (5) public health surveillance, and (6) potential to influence health policy. Twelve limitations were identified, primarily consisting of quality concerns and lack of reliability, confidentiality, and privacy. CONCLUSIONS: Social media brings a new dimension to health care as it offers a medium to be used by the public, patients, and health professionals to communicate about health issues with the possibility of potentially improving health outcomes. Social media is a powerful tool, which offers collaboration between users and is a social interaction mechanism for a range of individuals. Although there are several benefits to the use of social media for health communication, the information exchanged needs to be monitored for quality and reliability, and the users' confidentiality and privacy need to be maintained. Eight gaps in the literature and key recommendations for future health communication research were provided. Examples of these recommendations include the need to determine the relative effectiveness of different types of social media for health communication using randomized control trials and to explore potential mechanisms for monitoring and enhancing the quality and reliability of health communication using social media. Further robust and comprehensive evaluation and review, using a range of methodologies, are required to establish whether social media improves health communication practice both in the short and long terms.

Moorhead SA; Hazlett DE; Harrison L; Carroll JK; Irwin A; Hoving C

2013-01-01

186

Roles of repetitive sequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

Bell, G.I.

1991-01-01

187

Roles of repetitive sequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

Bell, G.I.

1991-12-31

188

Writing consumer identities through the iPod : The Good Guide application's role in communicating knowledge about Corporate Social Responsibility  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

How do web 2.0 and mobile technologies affect the available means for interaction between consumers and corporations? What are the implications for communicating corporate social responsibility? Gee (1996:6) states that “When we write or read, speak or listen, we coordinate and are coordinated by specific identities, specific ways of using language, various objects, tools, technologies, sites and institutions, as well as other people’s minds and bodies.” Using Gee’s focus on the connection between language use, technology and context as part of identities in interaction, this paper explores the potential and implications of mobile technologies for the communication of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). The Good Guide iPod application is a mini third party database of product rankings in terms of social responsibility towards consumer health, environmental impact and social effects of production. It offers a space for examining the potential impacts of a technology mediated interaction between consumers and corporations.

Kampf, Constance Elizabeth

189

Social communication and theory of mind in boys with autism and fragile x syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impairments in the social use of language, or pragmatics, constitute a core characteristic of autism. Problems with pragmatic language have also been documented in fragile X syndrome (FXS), a monogenic condition that is the most common known genetic cause of autism. Evidence suggests that social cognitive ability, or theory of mind, may also be impaired in both conditions, and in autism, may importantly relate to pragmatic language ability. Given the substantial overlap observed in autism and FXS, this study aimed to better define those social-communicative phenotypes that overlap in these two conditions by comparing pragmatic language ability and theory of mind in children with idiopathic autism and children with FXS, with and without autism, as well as children with Down syndrome and typically developing controls. We further examined correlations between these cognitive-behavioral phenotypes and molecular genetic variation related to the Fragile X Mental Retardation-1 gene (FMR1) in the FXS group. Results indicated that children with idiopathic autism and those with FXS and autism performed comparably on direct-assessment measures of pragmatic language and theory of mind, whereas those with FXS only did not differ from controls. Theory of mind was related to pragmatic language ability in all groups. Pragmatic language and theory of mind also correlated with genetic variation at the FMR1 locus (Cytosine-Guanine-Guanine repeats and percent methylation). These results point toward substantial overlap in the social and language phenotypes in autism and FXS and suggest a molecular genetic basis to these phenotypic profiles. PMID:22934085

Losh, Molly; Martin, Gary E; Klusek, Jessica; Hogan-Brown, Abigail L; Sideris, John

2012-08-20

190

The Swedish version of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-10). Psychometric properties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders schedule (DISCO) have only been studied in the UK. The authorised Swedish translation of the tenth version of the DISCO (DISCO-10) was used in interviews with close relatives of 91 Swedish patients referred for neuropsychiatrical assessment. Validity analysis compared DISCO-10-algorithm diagnoses with clinical diagnoses and with Autism Diagnostic Interview Revised (ADI-R) algorithm diagnoses in 57 cases. Good-excellent inter-rater reliability was demonstrated in 40 cases of children and adults. The criterion validity was excellent when compared with clinical diagnoses and an investigator-based diagnostic interview. The DISCO-10 has good psychometric properties. Advantages over the ADI-R include valuable information of the broader autism phenotype and co-existing problems for clinical practice and research.

Nygren G; Hagberg B; Billstedt E; Skoglund A; Gillberg C; Johansson M

2009-05-01

191

The role of socializing agents in communicating healthy eating to adolescents :  A cross cultural study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A survey was conducted of 386 Danish and Hong Kong adolescents aged 11 to 16. Results showed that the consumption of relatively unhealthy food was common among respondents. Looking at socializing agents, respondents claimed that parents asked them to eat healthy food more often than the government publicity, teachers or friends. Parents were also perceived as being the most effective source in encouraging them to eat healthy food. Respondents considered news and fear appeals for communicating healthy eating the most effective, while popularity and achievement appeals were considered less effective. There were some gender and age differences in the liking and perceived effectiveness of five advertising appeals. Respondents with higher collectivism scores showed a higher liking and perceived effectiveness of advertising appeals.

Chan, Kara; Prendergast, Gerard

2011-01-01

192

Selective and efficient neural coding of communication signals depends on early acoustic and social environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous research has shown that postnatal exposure to simple, synthetic sounds can affect the sound representation in the auditory cortex as reflected by changes in the tonotopic map or other relatively simple tuning properties, such as AM tuning. However, their functional implications for neural processing in the generation of ethologically-based perception remain unexplored. Here we examined the effects of noise-rearing and social isolation on the neural processing of communication sounds such as species-specific song, in the primary auditory cortex analog of adult zebra finches. Our electrophysiological recordings reveal that neural tuning to simple frequency-based synthetic sounds is initially established in all the laminae independent of patterned acoustic experience; however, we provide the first evidence that early exposure to patterned sound statistics, such as those found in native sounds, is required for the subsequent emergence of neural selectivity for complex vocalizations and for shaping neural spiking precision in superficial and deep cortical laminae, and for creating efficient neural representations of song and a less redundant ensemble code in all the laminae. Our study also provides the first causal evidence for 'sparse coding', such that when the statistics of the stimuli were changed during rearing, as in noise-rearing, that the sparse or optimal representation for species-specific vocalizations disappeared. Taken together, these results imply that a layer-specific differential development of the auditory cortex requires patterned acoustic input, and a specialized and robust sensory representation of complex communication sounds in the auditory cortex requires a rich acoustic and social environment.

Amin N; Gastpar M; Theunissen FE

2013-01-01

193

Family Health History Communication Networks of Older Adults: Importance of Social Relationships and Disease Perceptions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships.

Ashida S; Kaphingst KA; Goodman M; Schafer EJ

2013-01-01

194

Study on risk communication by using web system for the social consensus toward HLW final disposal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The web site that has illustrated characters to navigate information pertaining to unfamiliar issue such as high-level radioactive waste geological disposal is an effective method. However, since the information was provided mainly from a pro-nuclear power generation group, it resulted in frustration for the web site user because viewpoints outside the group were not considered nor the explanations were based on only rational aspects, the persuasive explanation based on technical viewpoints in other words. To close this communication gap, this research aims to enhance a better sense of involvement and social collaboration by creating an interactive communication model promoting emotional acceptance and independent thinking with Web system. This purpose was accomplished by the dialog-mode explanation and the scenarios with norm activation theory supported by facial expressions of the illustrated navigators to stimulate the emotional involvement of viewers and the specialists' reliable response on the electrical bulletin board system, then we conducted preparatory experiments concerning its effects and assessed its affectiveness by making this model available over the Internet. (author)

2008-01-01

195

The longitudinal curriculum "social and communicative competencies" within Bologna-reformed undergraduate medical education in Basel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Within the Bologna reform, a longitudinal curriculum of "social and communicative competencies" (SOKO) was implemented into the new Bachelor-Master structure of undergraduate medical education in Basel (Switzerland). Project description: The aim of the SOKO curriculum is to enable students to use techniques of patient-centred communication to elicit and provide information to patients in order to involve them as informed partners in decision making processes. The SOKO curriculum consists of 57 lessons for the individual student from the first bachelor year to the first master year. Teaching encompasses lectures and small group learning. Didactic methods include role play, video feedback, and consultations with simulated and real patients. Summative assessment takes place in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Conclusion: In Basel, a longitudinal SOKO curriculum based on students' cumulative learning was successfully implemented. Goals and contents were coordinated with the remaining curriculum and are regularly assessed in OSCEs. At present, most of the workload rests on the shoulders of the department of psychosomatic medicine at the university hospital. For the curriculum to be successful in the long-term, sustainable structures need to be instituted at the medical faculty and the university hospital to guarantee high quality teaching and assessment.

Kiessling C; Langewitz W

2013-01-01

196

The longitudinal curriculum "social and communicative competencies" within Bologna-reformed undergraduate medical education in Basel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Within the Bologna reform, a longitudinal curriculum of "social and communicative competencies" (SOKO) was implemented into the new Bachelor-Master structure of undergraduate medical education in Basel (Switzerland). Project description: The aim of the SOKO curriculum is to enable students to use techniques of patient-centred communication to elicit and provide information to patients in order to involve them as informed partners in decision making processes. The SOKO curriculum consists of 57 lessons for the individual student from the first bachelor year to the first master year. Teaching encompasses lectures and small group learning. Didactic methods include role play, video feedback, and consultations with simulated and real patients. Summative assessment takes place in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Conclusion: In Basel, a longitudinal SOKO curriculum based on students' cumulative learning was successfully implemented. Goals and contents were coordinated with the remaining curriculum and are regularly assessed in OSCEs. At present, most of the workload rests on the shoulders of the department of psychosomatic medicine at the university hospital. For the curriculum to be successful in the long-term, sustainable structures need to be instituted at the medical faculty and the university hospital to guarantee high quality teaching and assessment. PMID:24062811

Kiessling, Claudia; Langewitz, Wolf

2013-08-15

197

The Behaviour of Young Children with Social Communication Disorders During Dyadic Interaction with Peers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Children with social communication disorders are known to experience more problematic peer relations than typically-developing children. However, detailed observation of their behaviour and communication during interaction with peers has not previously been undertaken. Micro-analytic observational methods were used to analyse the audio-taped interaction of children (N?=?112) selected from mainstream schools (ages 5-6 years-old) on a computerised dyadic collaborative task. Comparisons were made between children with average-to-high- and low-pragmatic language skill as measured by the Test of Pragmatic Skills. Dyads were composed of an average-to-high-skilled child plus a low-skilled child (32 dyads), or of two average-to-high-skilled children (24 dyads). Consistently with their pragmatic language scores, low-skilled children were more likely to ignore other children's questions and requests than were average-to-high-skilled children. When average-to-high-skilled children worked with low-skilled children, as opposed to with other average-to-high-skilled children, they showed some sensitivity and adaptation to these children's difficulties; they used significantly more directives, clarification and provided more information. However, there was a cost in terms of the emotional tone of these interactions; when working with low-skilled children, the average-to-high-skilled children expressed considerably more negative feelings towards their partners than with another average-to-high-skilled child. In conclusion, observation of the interaction of average-to-high- and low-skilled children suggests promise for peer-assisted interventions and specifies which communicative behaviours could be targeted. However, care should be taken to manage the affective climate of these interactions for the benefit of all children involved.

Murphy SM; Faulkner DM; Farley LR

2013-06-01

198

Autism spectrum disorder in children with and without epilepsy: impact on social functioning and communication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To compare developmental and psychological functioning in two groups of children with autism spectrum disorder (asd), one with epilepsy and one without. METHODS: Sixty 7-17-year-old children in each group were recruited through a range of services in order to screen as representative a sample as possible. Parents were interviewed using the diagnostic interview for social and communication disorders (DISCO-11), and children were clinically examined and their medical histories assessed. RESULTS: The asd and epilepsy (asd+e) group demonstrated a substantially more even gender ratio, with a greater proportion of girls. They were more likely to have received later asd diagnoses and additional medical diagnoses. They also showed more motor difficulties, developmental delays and challenging behaviours, but were no more likely to be aloof and passive. The asd-only group experienced more abnormal fascinations with objects and used brief glances as a means of eye contact more than the asd+e group. CONCLUSION: Results support important between-group differences with diagnostic and therapeutic implications. asds often present atypically in children with seizures. However, both groups showed widely varying social and linguistic presentations.

Turk J; Bax M; Williams C; Amin P; Eriksson M; Gillberg C

2009-04-01

199

Conversation and compliance: role of interpersonal discussion and social norms in public communication campaigns.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study explores the role of interpersonal discussion and social norms in a public health campaign, the BBC Condom Normalization Campaign, designed to promote conversation and change the public perception of condom use in India. Drawing upon the integrative model of behavioral prediction, attitudes, self-efficacy, subjective norms, and descriptive norms were predicted to relate to behavioral intentions to use condoms. It is important to note that the valence of discussion was hypothesized to relate to each of these more proximal predictors. The authors used structural equation modeling to test the model on 3 separate samples of Indian men between the ages of 15 and 49 years: (a) high-risk men who had sex with nonspouses; (b) low-risk, sexually inactive, unmarried men; and (c) low-risk, monogamous, married men. Results were similar for low- and high-risk audiences, with valence of discussion about condoms predicting condom-related attitudes, self-efficacy, and subjective and descriptive social norms with respect to condom use, which, in turn, predicted behavioral intent to use condoms. These findings underscore the need to take not only the frequency but also the valence of interpersonal discussion into account when assessing the effect of health campaigns. Implications for theory and design of future public communication campaigns are explored.

Frank LB; Chatterjee JS; Chaudhuri ST; Lapsansky C; Bhanot A; Murphy ST

2012-01-01

200

A typology of sick-listed claimants to improve communication skills for social insurance physicians during medical disability assessment interviews.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Role play with standardised simulated patients is often included in communication training. However, regarding physician-patient encounters in medical disability assessment interviews it is unclear what should be included in the scenarios for actors. The first objective of this study was to determine which types of medical disability claimants can be distinguished based on behavioural determinants. The second objective was to determine if these types of claimants differed in their perception of communication behaviour and their satisfaction with the communication with physicians. METHODS: Questionnaire data were collected from 56 Dutch claimants for 13 behavioural determinants before their assessment interview, and for 12 behavioural and satisfaction variables afterwards. For the first objective cluster analyses were performed and for the second objective linear regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: The results showed that three types of claimants could be distinguished: insecure support-seeking claimants, confident claimants, and socially isolated claimants. Overall, claimants were positive about the communication with the physician: insecure support-seeking claimants were satisfied and confident claimants were highly satisfied, but socially isolated claimants were unsatisfied. CONCLUSION: Scenarios for standardised simulated patients should include different types of claimants. In training, special attention should be given to communication with socially isolated claimants.

van Rijssen HJ; Schellart AJ; Anema JR; van der Beek AJ

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

External communication of corporate social responsibility initiatives in the case of the Deloitte Finland CoRe Champion Peru project  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this thesis project was to examine the external communication of an international professional services firm, Deloitte, with regard to their on-going corporate social responsibility (CSR) project. A secondary objective of the study was to identify areas in need of improvement and to...

Lamberg, Noora

202

An exploratory study of communication, gender-role conflict, and social support of parents of children treated at children's hospital.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article explores the relationships between communication and social support of parents of children with cancer (N = 44), and the importance of gender-role conflict in fathers. Structural equation modeling and the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model were used to test the expected relationships between communication, social support, gender-role conflict, and anxiety, and to control for sample nonindependence. Results suggest communication increases perceived emotional and instrumental social support between parents, and instrumental support from fathers results in less anxiety for mothers. When fathers experienced more conflict about their role as financial supporter for the family (i.e., career achievement gender-role conflict), fathers perceived less instrumental and emotional support from their wives. However, fathers who experienced more conflict about career achievement were also less anxious. A second measure of fathers' gender-role conflict (i.e., emotional expression) was unrelated to either mothers' or fathers' outcomes. The role of gender, communication, and social support in the context of pediatric oncology is discussed.

Hall JA

2010-09-01

203

Positive Effects of Methylphenidate on Social Communication and Self-Regulation in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders and Hyperactivity  

Science.gov (United States)

This report examined the effect of methylphenidate on social communication and self-regulation in children with pervasive developmental disorders and hyperactivity in a secondary analysis of RUPP Autism Network data. Participants were 33 children (29 boys) between the ages of 5 and 13 years who participated in a four-week crossover trial of…

Jahromi, Laudan B.; Kasari, Connie L.; McCracken, James T.; Lee, Lisa S-Y.; Aman, Michael G.; McDougle, Christopher J.; Scahill, Lawrence; Tierney, Elaine; Arnold, L. Eugene; Vitiello, Benedetto; Ritz, Louise; Witwer, Andrea; Kustan, Erin; Ghuman, Jaswinder; Posey, David J.

2009-01-01

204

The Social Context of Reference Work: Assessing the Effects of Gender and Communication Skill on Observers' Judgments of Competence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public library users made judgments about the competence of reference librarians whom they observed in videotaped interviews. Two social factors were varied in the interviews: the gender of the librarian, patron, and observers; and the communication behavior exhibited by the reference librarian toward the patron. Nineteen references are cited.…

Harris, Roma M.; Michell, B. Gillian

1986-01-01

205

A Study on Communication Media Selection: Comparing the Effectiveness of the Media Richness, Social Influence, and Media Fitness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Media selection has become a more complex problem because of the fast development of Information and Communication Technology. However, there is little quantified work on the tools for media selection decisions. The three main tools available are Media Richness Theory (MRT) [1], Social Influence Per...

Rui Gu; Kunihiko Higa; Douglas R. Moodie

206

Variability in classroom social communication: performance of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and typically developing peers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: In this study, the authors examined how variability in classroom social communication performance differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and pair-matched, typically developing peers. METHOD: Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms, 40 min per day (20 min per child) for 4 days over a 2-week period. Coders documented classroom social communication during situations of Cooperation and following School Rules by recording performance on handheld computers using the Social Communication Coding System (SCCS). The SCCS consists of 6 behavioral dimensions (prosocial/engaged, passive/disengaged, irrelevant, hostile/coercive, assertive, and adult seeking). The frequency of occurrence and duration of each dimension were recorded. These measures were then used to examine variability in performance within and across days (changeability and stability, respectively). RESULTS: Independent of classroom situation, children with FASD were more variable than their typically developing peers in terms of changing behavioral dimensions more often (changeability) and varying their behavior more from day to day (stability). CONCLUSIONS: Documenting performance variability may provide a clearer understanding of the classroom social communication difficulties of the child with mild FASD.

Kjellmer L; Olswang LB

2013-06-01

207

Communication, advice exchange and job satisfaction of nursing staff: a social network analyses of 35 long-term care units.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The behaviour of individuals is affected by the social networks in which they are embedded. Networks are also important for the diffusion of information and the influence of employees in organisations. Yet, at the moment little is known about the social networks of nursing staff in healthcare settings. This is the first study that investigates informal communication and advice networks of nursing staff in long-term care. We examine the structure of the networks, how they are related to the size of units and characteristics of nursing staff, and their relationship with job satisfaction. METHODS: We collected social network data of 380 nursing staff of 35 units in group projects and psychogeriatric units in nursing homes and residential homes in the Netherlands. Communication and advice networks were analyzed in a social network application (UCINET), focusing on the number of contacts (density) between nursing staff on the units. We then studied the correlation between the density of networks, size of the units and characteristics of nursing staff. We used multilevel analyses to investigate the relationship between social networks and job satisfaction of nursing staff, taking characteristics of units and nursing staff into account. RESULTS: Both communication and advice networks were negatively related to the number of residents and the number of nursing staff of the units. Communication and advice networks were more dense when more staff worked part-time. Furthermore, density of communication networks was positively related to the age of nursing staff of the units. Multilevel analyses showed that job satisfaction differed significantly between individual staff members and units and was influenced by the number of nursing staff of the units. However, this relationship disappeared when density of communication networks was added to the model. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, communication and advice networks of nursing staff in long-term care are relatively dense. This fits with the high level of cooperation that is needed to provide good care to residents. Social networks are more dense in small units and are also shaped by characteristics of staff members. The results furthermore show that communication networks are important for staff's job satisfaction.

van Beek AP; Wagner C; Spreeuwenberg PP; Frijters DH; Ribbe MW; Groenewegen PP

2011-01-01

208

Teaching multi-step requesting and social communication to two children with autism spectrum disorders with three AAC options.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study involved comparing the acquisition of multi-step requesting and social communication across three AAC options: manual signing (MS), picture exchange (PE), and speech-generating devices (SGDs). Preference for each option was also assessed. The participants were two children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who had previously been taught to use each option to request preferred items. Intervention was implemented in an alternating-treatments design. During baseline, participants demonstrated low levels of correct communicative responding. With intervention, both participants learned the target responses (two- and three-step requesting responses, greetings, answering questions, and social etiquette responses) to varying levels of proficiency with each communication option. One participant demonstrated a preference for using the SGD and the other preferred PE. The importance of examining preferences for using one AAC option over others is discussed.

van der Meer L; Kagohara D; Roche L; Sutherland D; Balandin S; Green VA; O'Reilly MF; Lancioni GE; Marschik PB; Sigafoos J

2013-09-01

209

Teaching Multi-Step Requesting and Social Communication to Two Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders with Three AAC Options.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The present study involved comparing the acquisition of multi-step requesting and social communication across three AAC options: manual signing (MS), picture exchange (PE), and speech-generating devices (SGDs). Preference for each option was also assessed. The participants were two children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who had previously been taught to use each option to request preferred items. Intervention was implemented in an alternating-treatments design. During baseline, participants demonstrated low levels of correct communicative responding. With intervention, both participants learned the target responses (two- and three-step requesting responses, greetings, answering questions, and social etiquette responses) to varying levels of proficiency with each communication option. One participant demonstrated a preference for using the SGD and the other preferred PE. The importance of examining preferences for using one AAC option over others is discussed. PMID:23879660

van der Meer, Larah; Kagohara, Debora; Roche, Laura; Sutherland, Dean; Balandin, Susan; Green, Vanessa A; O'Reilly, Mark F; Lancioni, Giulio E; Marschik, Peter B; Sigafoos, Jeff

2013-07-24

210

Associations between health communication behaviors, neighborhood social capital, vaccine knowledge, and parents' H1N1 vaccination of their children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During the H1N1 pandemic in 2009-10, the vaccination behavior of parents played a critical role in preventing and containing the spread of the disease and the subsequent health outcomes among children. Several studies have examined the relationship between parents' health communication behaviors and vaccinations for children in general. Little is known, however, about the link between parents' health communication behaviors and the vaccination of their children against the H1N1 virus, and their level of vaccine-related knowledge. We drew on a national survey among parents with at least one child less than 18 years of age (n=639) to investigate Parents' H1N1-related health communication behaviors including sources of information, media exposure, information-seeking behaviors, H1N1-related knowledge, and neighborhood social capital, as well as the H1N1 vaccination rates of their children. Findings showed that there is a significant association between the degree at which parents obtained H1N1 vaccination for their children and health communication variables: watching the national television news and actively seeking H1N1 information. And this association was moderated by the extent of the parents' H1N1-related knowledge. In addition, the parents' degree of neighborhood social capital mediated the association between H1N1 knowledge of the parents and H1N1 vaccination acceptance for their children. We found, compared to those with a low-level of neighborhood social capital, parents who have a high-level of neighborhood social capital are more likely to vaccinate their children. These findings suggest that it is necessary to design a strategic health communication campaign segmented by parent health communication behaviors.

Jung M; Lin L; Viswanath K

2013-08-01

211

Associations between health communication behaviors, neighborhood social capital, vaccine knowledge, and parents' H1N1 vaccination of their children.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the H1N1 pandemic in 2009-10, the vaccination behavior of parents played a critical role in preventing and containing the spread of the disease and the subsequent health outcomes among children. Several studies have examined the relationship between parents' health communication behaviors and vaccinations for children in general. Little is known, however, about the link between parents' health communication behaviors and the vaccination of their children against the H1N1 virus, and their level of vaccine-related knowledge. We drew on a national survey among parents with at least one child less than 18 years of age (n=639) to investigate Parents' H1N1-related health communication behaviors including sources of information, media exposure, information-seeking behaviors, H1N1-related knowledge, and neighborhood social capital, as well as the H1N1 vaccination rates of their children. Findings showed that there is a significant association between the degree at which parents obtained H1N1 vaccination for their children and health communication variables: watching the national television news and actively seeking H1N1 information. And this association was moderated by the extent of the parents' H1N1-related knowledge. In addition, the parents' degree of neighborhood social capital mediated the association between H1N1 knowledge of the parents and H1N1 vaccination acceptance for their children. We found, compared to those with a low-level of neighborhood social capital, parents who have a high-level of neighborhood social capital are more likely to vaccinate their children. These findings suggest that it is necessary to design a strategic health communication campaign segmented by parent health communication behaviors. PMID:23954379

Jung, Minsoo; Lin, Leesa; Viswanath, K

2013-08-14

212

School participation and social networks of children with complex communication needs, physical disabilities, and typically developing peers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the study was to describe and compare the school participation and social networks of children with physical disabilities and complex communication needs (Group CCN), children with physical disabilities only (Group PD), and children with typical development (Group TD). The 39 participants, 10-15 years of age, were observed for 4 hours at school. School staff and the parent and/or child provided information on children's social networks. A striking observation was that, while participants in Group TD continuously conversed and socialized with peers inside and outside classrooms; those in Group CCN rarely used aided AAC, were provided with limited communication opportunities at school, and had fewer acquaintances and friends. Findings warrant intervention at the participation level at school and in the community.

Raghavendra P; Olsson C; Sampson J; McInerney R; Connell T

2012-03-01

213

School participation and social networks of children with complex communication needs, physical disabilities, and typically developing peers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the study was to describe and compare the school participation and social networks of children with physical disabilities and complex communication needs (Group CCN), children with physical disabilities only (Group PD), and children with typical development (Group TD). The 39 participants, 10-15 years of age, were observed for 4 hours at school. School staff and the parent and/or child provided information on children's social networks. A striking observation was that, while participants in Group TD continuously conversed and socialized with peers inside and outside classrooms; those in Group CCN rarely used aided AAC, were provided with limited communication opportunities at school, and had fewer acquaintances and friends. Findings warrant intervention at the participation level at school and in the community. PMID:22364536

Raghavendra, Parimala; Olsson, Catherine; Sampson, Janelle; McInerney, Rachael; Connell, Timothy

2012-03-01

214

Autistic traits and autism spectrum disorders: the clinical validity of two measures presuming a continuum of social communication skills.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research indicates that autism is the extreme end of a continuously distributed trait. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) aim to assess autistic traits. The objective of this study was to compare their clinical validity. The SRS showed sensitivities of .74 to .80 and specificities of .69 to 1.00 for autism. Sensitivities were .85 to .90 and specificities .28 to.82 for the SCDC. Correlations with the ADI-R, ADOS and SCQ were higher for the SRS than for the SCDC. The SCDC seems superior to the SRS to screen for unspecific social and communicative deficits including autism. The SRS appears more suitable than the SCDC in clinical settings and for specific autism screening. PMID:20422277

Bölte, Sven; Westerwald, Eva; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine; Poustka, Fritz

2011-01-01

215

Autistic traits and autism spectrum disorders: the clinical validity of two measures presuming a continuum of social communication skills.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research indicates that autism is the extreme end of a continuously distributed trait. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) aim to assess autistic traits. The objective of this study was to compare their clinical validity. The SRS showed sensitivities of .74 to .80 and specificities of .69 to 1.00 for autism. Sensitivities were .85 to .90 and specificities .28 to.82 for the SCDC. Correlations with the ADI-R, ADOS and SCQ were higher for the SRS than for the SCDC. The SCDC seems superior to the SRS to screen for unspecific social and communicative deficits including autism. The SRS appears more suitable than the SCDC in clinical settings and for specific autism screening.

Bölte S; Westerwald E; Holtmann M; Freitag C; Poustka F

2011-01-01

216

Comunicação para mudança social: projeto Canal*Motoboy/ Communications for social change: project Canal*Motoboy/ Comunicación para el cambio social: proyecto Canal*Motoboy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Na atualidade, a mídia de referência enfrenta a propagação dos meios alternativos dirigidos à democratização das informações geradas por cidadãos comuns. O Canal*Motoboy constitui exemplo desta modalidade de comunicação. Sua proposta é consolidar uma estrutura aberta para dar voz ao coletivo de motoboys de São Paulo (SP), Brasil. Devidamente treinados e recorrendo ao celular multimídia, registram seu dia a dia no website Canal*Motoboy. Este artigo analisa o (more) projeto, a partir da concepção da comunicação para mudança social, uma vez que o direito à liberdade de expressão, historicamente, tem sido expropriado dos cidadãos por conta da expansão vertiginosa dos conglomerados comunicacionais. Além da revisão de literatura, o objeto de estudo segue perspectiva qualitativa mediante uso das técnicas de observação e de entrevista em profundidade para obtenção de informações complementares junto aos atores do coletivo. Abstract in spanish En la actualidad, los medios de comunicación de referencia se contraponen a la propagación de los medios alternativos dirigidos a la democratización de informaciones, generadas por ciudadanos comunes. El Canal*Motoboy constituye un ejemplo de esa modalidad de comunicación. Su propuesta es consolidar una estructura abierta para dar voz al colectivo de motoboys de São Paulo (SP), Brasil. Debidamente entrenados y recurriendo al teléfono móvil multimedia, registran su (more) día-a-día en el website Canal*Motoboy. Este artículo analiza este proyecto, a partir de la concepción de la comunicación para el cambio social, una vez que el derecho a la libertad de expresión, históricamente, ha sido expropiado de los ciudadanos por cuenta de la expansión de los conglomerados comunicacionales. Además de la revisión de literatura, el objeto de estudio se ha abordado desde una perspectiva cualitativa a través de la técnica de observación y de entrevista en profundidad para las informaciones de actores del colectivo. Abstract in english Nowadays, reference media faces the alternative media propagation, which uses different means and it is based on the work of independent producers who target the information democratization in every possible format at no cost and created by "common citizens". The Canal*Motoboy, a project by the Catalan Antoni Abad, is an example of this kind of communication. He aims to consolidate an open structure in order to give voice to motoboys¹ from São Paulo (SP), Brazil. After (more) being properly trained and by using their multimedia cell phones, they register their routine on Canal*Motoboy website. This article analyzes the progress of this project, based on the communication for social change, once the right to freedom of expression, historically, has been expropriated from citizens on account of the expansion of communication conglomerates. The methodological approach will consist of observation and deep interview technique, as well as literature review.

Targino, Maria das Graças; Gomes, Alisson Dias

2011-12-01

217

The Influence of Asynchronous Video Communication on Learner Social Presence: A Narrative Analysis of Four Cases  

Science.gov (United States)

Online courses are increasingly using asynchronous video communication. However, little is known about how asynchronous video communication influences students' communication patterns. This study presents four narratives of students with varying characteristics who engaged in asynchronous video communication. The extrovert valued the efficiency of…

Borup, Jered; West, Richard E.; Graham, Charles R.

2013-01-01

218

Communication-Oriented Person-Organization Fit as a Key Factor of Job-Seeking Behaviors: Millennials' Social Media Use and Attitudes Toward Organizational Social Media Policies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract The main goal of this study was to assess how the millennial generation perceives companies that have different social media policies and how such perception influences key variables for job-seeking behaviors, including perceived person-organization fit (POF), organizational attraction, and job pursuit intention. Results from a univariate general linear model and path analysis supported all of the established hypotheses. In particular, the results revealed that millennials perceived higher POF for a company with organizational policies supporting employees' social media use. Further, organizational attractiveness significantly mediated the relationship between communication-oriented POF and job pursuit intention.

Cho J; Park DJ; Ordonez Z

2013-07-01

219

Stereotyping of medical disability claimants' communication behaviour by physicians: towards more focused education for social insurance physicians  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians who hold medical disability assessment interviews (social insurance physicians) are probably influenced by stereotypes of claimants, especially because they have limited time available and they have to make complicated decisions. Because little is known about the influences of stereotyping on assessment interviews, the objectives of this paper were to qualitatively investigate: (1) the content of stereotypes used to classify claimants with regard to the way in which they communicate; (2) the origins of such stereotypes; (3) the advantages and disadvantages of stereotyping in assessment interviews; and (4) how social insurance physicians minimise the undesirable influences of negative stereotyping. Methods Data were collected during three focus group meetings with social insurance physicians who hold medical disability assessment interviews with sick-listed employees (i.e. claimants). The participants also completed a questionnaire about demographic characteristics. The data were qualitatively analysed in Atlas.ti in four steps, according to the grounded theory and the principle of constant comparison. Results A total of 22 social insurance physicians participated. Based on their responses, a claimant's communication was classified with regard to the degree of respect and acceptance in the physician-claimant relationship, and the degree of dominance. Most of the social insurance physicians reported that they classify claimants in general groups, and use these classifications to adapt their own communication behaviour. Moreover, the social insurance physicians revealed that their stereotypes originate from information in the claimants' files and first impressions. The main advantages of stereotyping were that this provides a framework for the assessment interview, it can save time, and it is interesting to check whether the stereotype is correct. Disadvantages of stereotyping were that the stereotypes often prove incorrect, they do not give the complete picture, and the claimant's behaviour changes constantly. Social insurance physicians try to minimise the undesirable influences of stereotypes by being aware of counter transference, making formal assessments, staying neutral to the best of their ability, and being compassionate. Conclusions We concluded that social insurance physicians adapt their communication style to the degree of respect and dominance of claimants in the physician-claimant relationship, but they try to minimise the undesirable influences of stereotypes in assessment interviews. It is recommended that this issue should be addressed in communication skills training.

van Rijssen HJ; Schellart AJM; Berkhof M; Anema JR; van der Beek AJ

2010-01-01

220

Combining Social Media with Innovative Ways of Communicating about the James Webb Space Telescope  

Science.gov (United States)

In keeping with the cutting-edge nature of the James Webb Space Telescope, NASA is using a variety of social and interactive media to engage the public. While we do have a regularly updated static website, we are now also using various interactives (like Flash games and a 3D Tour of the spacecraft) to better explain what the Webb telescope is and how it works. To encourage future generations, we are a partner in an educational engineering design challenge which makes use of a virtual Second Life-like world. Additionally, the public can now watch Webb come together before their eyes by accessing our live webcam, which shows telescope hardware being built in our cleanroom. We are working to make Webb as much of a part of pop culture as the Hubble Space Telescope is. We facilitated the filming of a "Late Night with Jimmy Fallon” segment (called "Hubble Gotchu") featuring Webb and Webb scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. A visit to the highly rated sitcom "The Big Bang Theory” resulted in Webb lithos, magnets, posters, a scale model, and more being regularly featured on the set of the show. The most important aspect to creating interesting ways to engage the public is having the ability to communicate and form relationships with as many people as possible. To that end, we are using tools like blogs (e.g., NASA Blueshift) and popular social media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Flickr) to reach out to as many people as we can and to enable them to share and spread the content we provide.

Masetti, Margaret

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

El riesgo: desafortunadamente un nuevo campo de desempeño profesional para la comunicación social/ The Risk: Unfortunately a New Professional Performance Field for the Social Communication Studies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La comunicación estratégica como soporte para la gestión del riesgo evidencia su efectividad en los procesos que generan impacto en la sociedad, como los desastres naturales. Solo ahí se mide la eficacia de las acciones propuestas en los planes estratégicos para la gestión del riesgo y socializadas gracias a la comunicación social. La apuesta sobre la comunicación se convierte en un elemento fundamental, en la medida en que logra facilitar el diálogo de todos los (more) actores sociales, el manejo de conceptos técnicos y la apropiación del tema por medio de estrategias comunicativas que generan conciencia en la población más vulnerable. La comunicación estratégica soportada desde otros conceptos del campo comunicacional trasciende sobre la simple herramienta, para convertirse en un proceso base, consciente, proyectivo, direccionado, metodológico e innovador. Abstract in english As a support for risk management, strategic communication makes evident its effectiveness on the processes that have great impact on societies, such as natural disasters. Unfortunately, only in those moments the real scope of effectiveness of the actions proposed in the strategic plans for Risk Management, and socialized via social communication, is truly measured. The commitment to communication becomes an essential element as it promotes the dialogue between all the soc (more) ial actors. It also promotes the command of technical concepts and the apprehension of topics related to the issue, through communicative strategies that generate consciousness on vulnerable population. In addition, it helps to the implementation of the real concept of sustained local development, as an unavoidable factor to think about disaster risk prevention.

IBARRA LÓPEZ, MIGUEL ÁNGEL

2011-12-01

222

Does communicating disappointment in negotiations help or hurt? Solving an apparent inconsistency in the social-functional approach to emotions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On the basis of a social-functional approach to emotion, scholars have argued that expressing disappointment in negotiations communicates weakness, which may evoke exploitation. Yet, it is also argued that communicating disappointment serves as a call for help, which may elicit generous offers. Our goal was to resolve this apparent inconsistency. We develop the argument that communicating disappointment elicits generous offers when it evokes guilt in the target, but elicits low offers when it does not. In 4 experiments using both verbal (Experiments 1-3) and nonverbal (Experiment 4) emotion manipulations, we demonstrate that the interpersonal effects of disappointment depend on (a) the opponent's group membership and (b) the type of negotiation. When the expresser was an outgroup member and in representative negotiations (i.e., when disappointment did not evoke guilt), the weakness that disappointment communicated elicited lower offers. When the expresser was an ingroup member and in individual negotiations (i.e., when disappointment did evoke guilt), the weakness that disappointment communicated elicited generous offers from participants. Thus, in contrast to the common belief that weakness is a liability in negotiations, expressing disappointment can be effective under particular circumstances. We discuss implications for theorizing about the social functions of emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Lelieveld GJ; Van Dijk E; Van Beest I; Van Kleef GA

2013-10-01

223

Does communicating disappointment in negotiations help or hurt? Solving an apparent inconsistency in the social-functional approach to emotions.  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of a social-functional approach to emotion, scholars have argued that expressing disappointment in negotiations communicates weakness, which may evoke exploitation. Yet, it is also argued that communicating disappointment serves as a call for help, which may elicit generous offers. Our goal was to resolve this apparent inconsistency. We develop the argument that communicating disappointment elicits generous offers when it evokes guilt in the target, but elicits low offers when it does not. In 4 experiments using both verbal (Experiments 1-3) and nonverbal (Experiment 4) emotion manipulations, we demonstrate that the interpersonal effects of disappointment depend on (a) the opponent's group membership and (b) the type of negotiation. When the expresser was an outgroup member and in representative negotiations (i.e., when disappointment did not evoke guilt), the weakness that disappointment communicated elicited lower offers. When the expresser was an ingroup member and in individual negotiations (i.e., when disappointment did evoke guilt), the weakness that disappointment communicated elicited generous offers from participants. Thus, in contrast to the common belief that weakness is a liability in negotiations, expressing disappointment can be effective under particular circumstances. We discuss implications for theorizing about the social functions of emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23773043

Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Van Dijk, Eric; Van Beest, Ilja; Van Kleef, Gerben A

2013-06-17

224

The negative repetition effect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising negative repetition effect, in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and across pairs, the target words were drawn from a small set of categories. In the repetition condition, the pairs were initially presented in a random order and then presented a 2nd time blocked by the category of the target words. In the single presentation condition, the pairs were presented only in the blocked order. Participants in the former condition recalled fewer target words on a free recall test despite having seen the word pairs twice (the negative repetition effect). This phenomenon is explored in a series of 5 experiments assessing 3 theoretical accounts of the effect. The experiments demonstrate that the negative repetition effect generalizes over multiple encoding conditions (reading and generative encoding), over different memory tests (free and cued recall), and over delay (5 min and 2 days). The results argue against a retrieval account and a levels-of-processing account but are consistent with the item-specific-relational account, the account upon which the effect was initially predicated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

Mulligan NW; Peterson DJ

2013-09-01

225

The negative repetition effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising negative repetition effect, in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and across pairs, the target words were drawn from a small set of categories. In the repetition condition, the pairs were initially presented in a random order and then presented a 2nd time blocked by the category of the target words. In the single presentation condition, the pairs were presented only in the blocked order. Participants in the former condition recalled fewer target words on a free recall test despite having seen the word pairs twice (the negative repetition effect). This phenomenon is explored in a series of 5 experiments assessing 3 theoretical accounts of the effect. The experiments demonstrate that the negative repetition effect generalizes over multiple encoding conditions (reading and generative encoding), over different memory tests (free and cued recall), and over delay (5 min and 2 days). The results argue against a retrieval account and a levels-of-processing account but are consistent with the item-specific-relational account, the account upon which the effect was initially predicated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23421508

Mulligan, Neil W; Peterson, Daniel J

2013-02-18

226

Los estudios de Comunicación Social en el EEES y los desafíos profesionales emergentes / Social Communication in the EAHE and emerging professional challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los títulos de Comunicación Social despejan una nueva consideración universitaria de un sector pujante que aúna las facetas económica y cultural: las industrias audiovisual, periodística y publicitaria. Este artículo revisa cómo la sociedad de la información, la comunicación y el conocimiento y el mercado laboral obligan a potenciar la formación universitaria en competencias demandadas por las industrias creativo-culturales. Estamos ante un nuevo encaje de la universidad con el mundo profesional y la sociedad. Un mundo global abierto por las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación reaviva la competitividad basada en la formación altamente cualificada, apelando a la conciliación entre universidad y empresa que afrontan la readecuación de unas interrelaciones no siempre bien entendidas.The beginning of spanish degrees in Social Communication clears renewed consideration by university in a sector that combines economic and cultural facets: multimedia industries. This paper reviews how the information society and professional market requires renew elements for graduates in creative and cultural industries. The reasons to modernizing higher education are new professions at a Knowledge Society. University administrator and business world are facing an adaptation of relationship not always well understood. Social Communication is inserted in a global world opened by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). This situation revives the competitiveness based on qualified professionals, and conciliation between companies and universities.

María Dolores Meneses Fernández; Carina Soledad González González

2010-01-01

227

[Cyberspace and the negotiation of meaning: the social aspects of implementing digital communications networks in public health academic institutions].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article analyzes social aspects in the incorporation of new information and communications technologies in public health academic institutions. To demarcate the study of these processes and demonstrate the close relationship between their social and technical aspects, the study employs concepts pertaining to "intellectual technologies" and a "critical theory of technology". Theoretical and methodological elements are identified to approach the implementation dynamics of electronic networks in public health institutions, through a discourse analysis of their social actors and the various meanings they attribute to such dynamics Considering discourse as an expression of the relations created during these implementation dynamics, the study seeks a proposal for the ways by which these relations might influence the social and technical dimensions of digital networks.

Iturri J

1998-10-01

228

Autism spectrum disorders. Recent advances in the research on the impairment in social communication  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Since the discovery of early infantile autism (1943), the etiology of the disease has for long been a matter of dispute-from a form of innate schizophrenia, maltreatment by 'refrigerator mother', to dysfunction of speech development. After the re-discovery of Asperger syndrome by Wing (1981), the concept of this diverse syndrome complex has merged to pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). People suffering from Asperger syndrome do not show impairments in speech development, in fact, they have good linguistic abilities. They can explain their own psychopathology, which helps in the understanding of classical autism with profound mental retardation. Currently, ASD is prevalent in 1 of 150 births with strong genetic inheritance. ASD is therefore thought a psychiatric common disease. Asperger syndrome has frequently been the subject of neuroimaging studies, since social communication is an important characteristic of human behavior. This review encompasses a historical and clinical overview of ASD and puts force the current perspectives on the researches in animal models, genetic studies of animal and human samples, and neuroimaging studies. Our current focus is the possible role of oxytocin, which was recently found to have an effect on empathy, in the etiology of ASD. (author)

2010-01-01

229

[Autism spectrum disorders--recent advances in the research on the impairment in social communication].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Since the discovery of early infantile autism (1943), the etiology of the disease has for long been a matter of dispute-from a form of innate schizophrenia, maltreatment by 'refrigerator mother', to dysfunction of speech development. After the re-discovery of Asperger syndrome by Wing (1981), the concept of this diverse syndrome complex has merged to pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). People suffering from Asperger syndrome do not show impairments in speech development, in fact, they have good linguistic abilities. They can explain their own psychopathology, which helps in the understanding of classical autism with profound mental retardation. Currently, ASD is prevalent in 1 of 150 births with strong genetic inheritance. ASD is therefore thought a psychiatric common disease. Asperger syndrome has frequently been the subject of neuroimaging studies,since social communication is an important characteristic of human behavior. This review encompasses a historical and clinical overview of ASD and puts force the current perspectives on the researches in animal models,genetic studies of animal and human samples,and neuroimaging studies. Our current focus is the possible role of oxytocin,which was recently found to have an effect on empathy,in the etiology of ASD.

Kato N; Yamasue H; Watanabe K; Jinde S; Sadamatsu M

2010-09-01

230

Repetitions In Sturmian Strings  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper we apply a simple representation of Sturmian strings, which we call aeduction sequence", to three algorithms. The rst algorithm accepts as input agiven nite string x and determines in time O jxjwhether or not x is Sturmian.The second algorithm is a modication of the rst that, in the case that x isSturmian, outputs a reduction sequence for a superstring u of x that is a prex ofan innite Sturmian string. The third algorithm uses the reduction sequence of uto compute all the repetitions in u in time juj, thus extending a recent resultfor Fibonacci strings. The third algorithm is also based on a characterization of therepetitions in a Sturmian string that describes them compactly in terms of uns".Finally, for every integer r 4, we show how to construct an innite Sturmianstring that contains maximal repetitions of exponents 2; 3; : : : ; r 1, but none ofexponent r.KEYWORDS: string, word, Sturmian, repetition, algorithm1 INTRODUCTIONAn ...

W. F. Smyth

231

Social marketing communication in a multicultural environment: Practical issues and theoretical contributions from cross-cultural marketing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social marketing communication (social marcom) campaign production can be more challenging when the audience includes individuals from ‘culturally and linguistically diverse’ (CALD) communities. Additional issues such as culturally related values, practices, and attitudes need consideration. Normally, social marcoms campaigns for CALD audiences involve directly translating mainstream campaign material into various ethnic groups’ languages. However, little is understood about the issues beyond translation that confront practitioners adapting mainstream campaigns.This article presents a case study analysis of work undertaken by the New South Wales Multicultural Health Communication Service (MHCS). The Service’s core activity is adaptation of social marcoms campaigns for use with CALD audiences. Data for the case was collected from staff, MHCS clients, and members of target audiences. Four key issues emerge as significant in the process of adapting social marcoms campaigns at MHCS. These are: segmenting and identifying the target audience; adapting message content; source credibility; and integrating the adapted campaign with its mainstream counterpart.To provide theoretical insights and strategies to address these issues this article draws on cross-cultural marketing theory. For example, the theory of acculturation is used to provide an alternative to current segmentation practices. In the same vein, theories associated with the application of cultural typologies are used to explain why the practice of adaptation is not always successful. The article concludes by considering the implications of this study for further research.

Gary Noble.; Michael Camit

2005-01-01

232

COMMUNICATIONS  

CERN Multimedia

CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

L. Taylor and D. Barney

2010-01-01

233

Internet and Social Media For Health-Related Information and Communication in Health Care: Preferences of the Dutch General Population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. CONCLUSIONS: The Internet is the main source of health-related information for the Dutch population. One in 4 persons wants to communicate with their physician via social media channels and it is expected that this number will further increase. Health care providers should explore new ways of communicating online and should facilitate ways for patients to connect with them. Future research should aim at comparing different patient groups and diseases, describing best practices, and determining cost-effectiveness.

Van de Belt TH; Engelen LJ; Berben SA; Teerenstra S; Samsom M; Schoonhoven L

2013-01-01

234

Internet and social media for health-related information and communication in health care: preferences of the dutch general population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Health care is increasingly featured by the use of Web 2.0 communication and collaborative technologies that are reshaping the way patients and professionals interact. These technologies or tools can be used for a variety of purposes: to instantly debate issues, discover news, analyze research, network with peers, crowd-source information, seek support, and provide advice. Not all tools are implemented successfully; in many cases, the nonusage attrition rates are high. Little is known about the preferences of the Dutch general population regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the preferences of the general population in the Netherlands regarding the use of the Internet and social media in health care. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was disseminated via a popular Dutch online social network. Respondents were asked where they searched for health-related information, how they qualified the value of different sources, and their preferences regarding online communication with health care providers. Results were weighed for the Dutch population based on gender, age, and level of education using official statistics. Numbers and percentages or means and standard deviations were presented for different subgroups. One-way ANOVA was used to test for statistical differences. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 635 respondents. The Internet was found to be the number one source for health-related information (82.7%), closely followed by information provided by health care professionals (71.1%). Approximately one-third (32.3%) of the Dutch population search for ratings of health care providers. The most popular information topics were side effects of medication (62.5%) and symptoms (59.7%). Approximately one-quarter of the Dutch population prefer to communicate with a health care provider via social media (25.4%), and 21.2% would like to communicate via a webcam. CONCLUSIONS: The Internet is the main source of health-related information for the Dutch population. One in 4 persons wants to communicate with their physician via social media channels and it is expected that this number will further increase. Health care providers should explore new ways of communicating online and should facilitate ways for patients to connect with them. Future research should aim at comparing different patient groups and diseases, describing best practices, and determining cost-effectiveness.

Van de Belt TH; Engelen LJ; Berben SA; Teerenstra S; Samsom M; Schoonhoven L

2013-01-01

235

Research on online video games: an analysis of communication processes from the perspective of social and technological innovation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our study relates specifically massively multiplayer online games (known by the acronym MMOG). Our hypothesis is that this type of game is a medium of socialization, a mediation mechanism for sharing information on a large scale, because its universe of encounters and its network of exchange. More specifically, the present article raises a particular aspect of MMOGs, the appropriation by the players of the communication media and the development of addons.

Magda FUSARO; Maude BONENFANT

2010-01-01

236

SOCIAL ADVERTISING AS A FORM OF COMMUNICATION ACTIVITY IN MODERN SOCIETY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In article the concept of social advertizing is analyzed, definition of mission of social advertizing is proposed, the basic directions of development of the market of social advertizing are described,. The reasons on which socially-responsible business are specified doesn't accept active participation in development of the noncommercial organizations, conclusions are drawn.

Derevjanko A.R; Zybin Oleg Sergeevich

2012-01-01

237

Novel porcine repetitive elements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI). These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute), covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

Wiedmann Ralph T; Nonneman Dan J; Keele John W

2006-01-01

238

How useful is the Social Communication Questionnaire in toddlers at risk of autism spectrum disorder?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a screening instrument with established validity against the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in children aged 4 years and older. Indices of diagnostic accuracy have been shown to be strong in school-aged samples; however, relatively little is known about the performance of the SCQ in toddlers at risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: This study replicates and extends previous research by Corsello et al. (2007) in a comparatively large (N = 208), substantially younger (20-40 months) sample of children at high risk of ASD. The usefulness of the SCQ as a second-level screening instrument with different cut-off scores was evaluated in relation to IQ, age, and type of ASD diagnosis. The use of the SCQ as compared to the ADI-R was evaluated against clinical diagnosis, both alone and in combination with the ADOS. RESULTS: The SCQ with different cut-offs consistently showed an unsatisfactory balance between sensitivity and specificity in screening for ASD in high-risk toddlers, with only a few exceptions for specific age, IQ, or diagnostic groups. Even though the SCQ and ADI-R were highly correlated, diagnostic agreement with the best evidence clinical diagnosis was poor for both measures. The ADOS used alone consistently had the highest predictive value. For autism versus not-autism, the combined SCQ and ADOS performed as well as the ADOS alone and notably better than the combination ADI-R and ADOS. CONCLUSIONS: The SCQ is likely to result in a number of false-positive findings, particularly in children with autism symptomatology, and the balance between sensitivity and specificity is poor. The ADOS should be considered the most valid and reliable diagnostic instrument in these very young at-risk children.

Oosterling I; Rommelse N; de Jonge M; van der Gaag RJ; Swinkels S; Roos S; Visser J; Buitelaar J

2010-11-01

239

Understanding the neurophysiological basis of auditory abilities for social communication: A perspective on the value of ethological paradigms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acoustic communication between animals requires them to detect, discriminate, and categorize conspecific or heterospecific vocalizations in their natural environment. Laboratory studies of the auditory-processing abilities that facilitate these tasks have typically employed a broad range of acoustic stimuli, ranging from natural sounds like vocalizations to "artificial" sounds like pure tones and noise bursts. However, even when using vocalizations, laboratory studies often test abilities like categorization in relatively artificial contexts. Consequently, it is not clear whether neural and behavioral correlates of these tasks (1) reflect extensive operant training, which drives plastic changes in auditory pathways, or (2) the innate capacity of the animal and its auditory system. Here, we review a number of recent studies, which suggest that adopting more ethological paradigms utilizing natural communication contexts are scientifically important for elucidating how the auditory system normally processes and learns communication sounds. Additionally, since learning the meaning of communication sounds generally involves social interactions that engage neuromodulatory systems differently than laboratory-based conditioning paradigms, we argue that scientists need to pursue more ethological approaches to more fully inform our understanding of how the auditory system is engaged during acoustic communication.

Bennur S; Tsunada J; Cohen YE; Liu RC

2013-08-01

240

Nuevos modelos de comunicación, perfiles y tendencias en las redes sociales New Models of Communication, Profiles and Trends in Social Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las redes sociales en línea se han convertido en el estandarte de la Web 2.0, entorno que también aglutina a los blogs, wikis y chats. Existe una fina división entre una red social, un blog y un wiki. Hablar de redes sociales es referirnos al siguiente estadio de Internet, como en su momento fueron los blogs. Se han constituido en un fenómeno de masas cada vez más importante tanto así que ya algunas están integrando plataformas de blogs y wikis en una sola interfaz. Pero, ¿qué nuevas formas de comunicación y de negocio subyacen en las redes?, ¿qué perfiles profesionales se necesitan para esta nueva audiencia?, ¿deben los medios crear redes o adaptarse a los nuevos entornos de donde emerge un nuevo periodismo basado en la participación? El presente artículo intenta responder a estas y otras variables. Social networks have become the banner of Web 2.0, which also hosts blogs, wikis and chats. There is a slight dividing line between a social network, a blog and a wiki. Talking about social networks means referring to the next stage of the Internet, as talking about blogs once did. Internet social networks have become an increasingly important phenomenon because some platforms are integrating blogs and wikis on a single interface. But we could ask what new types of communication and business lie beneath these networks; what professional profiles are needed for this new audience. Should media create the networks, or just adapt to the new environments, whence a new journalism based on participation emerges? This paper tries to answer these and other questions.

Jesús Miguel Flores Vivar

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

"I'll See You on IM, Text, or Call You": A Social Network Approach of Adolescents' Use of Communication Media  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study explores some possibilities of social network analysis for studying adolescents' communication patterns. A full network analysis was conducted on third-grade high school students (15 year olds, 137 students) in Belgium. The results pointed out that face-to-face communication was still the most prominent way for information to flow…

Van Cleemput, Katrien

2010-01-01

242

Associations Between Temperament and Social Responsiveness in Young Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent research has demonstrated that social responsiveness (comprised of social awareness, social information processing, reciprocal social communication, social motivation, and repetitive/restricted interests) is continuously distributed within the general population. In the present study, we consider temperament as a co-occurring source of individual differences in social responsiveness in young children. The sample consisted of 62 infants assessed at 2-, 3-, and 4-years-old. Measures of temperament were obtained at each age (Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, Children's Behavior Questionnaire) and social responsiveness was measured at 4-years-old (Social Responsiveness Scale; SRS). Multivariate patterns of association between components of temperament and social responsiveness were observed at each age, with overall findings in line with the broader literature examining temperament and socio-development associations. Importantly, these results provide support for the usefulness of temperament as a relevant source of variability in social responsiveness, as measured by the SRS, in typically developing young children.

Salley B; Miller A; Bell MA

2013-05-01

243

Utility of the social communication questionnaire-current and social responsiveness scale as teacher-report screening tools for autism spectrum disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited research exists regarding the role of teachers in screening for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The current study examined the use of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) as completed by parents and teachers about school-age children from the Simons Simplex Collection. Using the recommended cutoff scores in the manuals and extant literature, the teacher-completed SCQ and SRS yielded lower sensitivity and specificity values than would be desirable; however, lowering the cutoff scores on both instruments improved sensitivity and specificity to more adequate levels for screening purposes. Using the adjusted cutoff scores, the SRS teacher form appears to be a slightly better screener than the SCQ. Implications and limitations are discussed, as well as areas for future research. PMID:22143742

Schanding, G Thomas; Nowell, Kerri P; Goin-Kochel, Robin P

2012-08-01

244

Utility of the social communication questionnaire-current and social responsiveness scale as teacher-report screening tools for autism spectrum disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Limited research exists regarding the role of teachers in screening for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The current study examined the use of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) as completed by parents and teachers about school-age children from the Simons Simplex Collection. Using the recommended cutoff scores in the manuals and extant literature, the teacher-completed SCQ and SRS yielded lower sensitivity and specificity values than would be desirable; however, lowering the cutoff scores on both instruments improved sensitivity and specificity to more adequate levels for screening purposes. Using the adjusted cutoff scores, the SRS teacher form appears to be a slightly better screener than the SCQ. Implications and limitations are discussed, as well as areas for future research.

Schanding GT Jr; Nowell KP; Goin-Kochel RP

2012-08-01

245

Responsabilidad social corporativa (RSC) y comunicación: la agenda de las grandes empresas mexicanas/ Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Communication: The Agenda of Mexico's Large Companies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación pionera en México acerca de cómo es la comunicación de la responsabilidad social corporativa(RSC) en el país y cómo es esa responsabilidad (prácticas más comunes, áreas más atendidas, programas, stakeholders, etc.), a partir de lo que dicen al respecto (por internet) las 25 empresas más importantes de México, según la revista mexicana Expansión Abstract in english This article presents the results obtained from a pioneering research in Mexico. Such research describes communication initiatives concerning Corporate Social Responsibility in the country, as well as CSR practices (most common practices, areas mostly dealt with, programs, stakeholders, etc.). It is based on online statements by the 25 top companies in Mexico, according to the Mexican magazine Expansion

PÉREZ CHAVARRÍA, MARIELA

2009-12-01

246

Effects of social environment and personality on communication in male Siamese fighting fish in an artificial network  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Individuals of the same species, sex, age and size may differ in suites of behaviour traits in a consistent manner across time and may thus represent different personalities. In a communication context, the personality of an individual may both affect and be affected by the behaviour of the individuals surrounding it within a network. We investigated the effects of a change of local social environment on two behavioural types, ‘persistent' versus ‘sporadic' signaller, in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Males visually interacted for 1 day in a communication network of seven fish in tanks arranged in a hexagonal grid, while we recorded space use and signalling data. We then exchanged the positions of two males with different behavioural types and observed them interacting the following day. ‘Persistent' signallers were unaffected by the treatment, while ‘sporadic' signallers increased the time spent in the inner front part of their tank, from which they could observe but not interact with the neighbours. Social instability (i.e. number of changed neighbours) raised the signalling levels of individuals independently of their behavioural types. We discuss the relationship between information gathering in a communication network and network composition in terms of behavioural types of its members.

Matessi, Giuliano; Matos, Ricardo Jorge Santa Clara

2010-01-01

247

Consumers and Corporate Social Responsibility Communication: What Do They Really Want?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper questions and discusses whether the currently recommended way of communicating CSR to the increasingly important stakeholder group consisting of consumers will also be the optimum way to represent corporate values and behaviour in the future? Maybe it is time to challenge current thinking within the field of CSR communication suggesting that companies should apply a very subtle, implicit and sometimes even endorsed way of communicating CSR in order to inhibit scepticism and enhance persuasion. Perhaps the young consumers- the consumers of the future - are ready for another approach because they have a different understanding and awareness of CSR than we have seen so far? The question is, then, how companies can accommodate this understanding and awareness rhetorically in their communication of CSR. In this paper, a new conceptual model for communicating CSR to consumers is presented along with the theoretical background for a consumer survey aiming to test and develop the model further.

Schmeltz, Line

248

Population weighted raster maps can communicate findings of social audits: examples from three continents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Maps can portray trends, patterns, and spatial differences that might be overlooked in tabular data and are now widely used in health research. Little has been reported about the process of using maps to communicate epidemiological findings. METHOD: Population weighted raster maps show colour changes over the study area. Similar to the rasters of barometric pressure in a weather map, data are the health occurrence--a peak on the map represents a higher value of the indicator in question. The population relevance of each sentinel site, as determined in the stratified last stage random sample, combines with geography (inverse-distance weighting) to provide a population-weighted extension of each colour. This transforms the map to show population space rather than simply geographic space. RESULTS: Maps allowed discussion of strategies to reduce violence against women in a context of political sensitivity about quoting summary indicator figures. Time-series maps showed planners how experiences of health services had deteriorated despite a reform programme; where in a country HIV risk behaviours were improving; and how knowledge of an economic development programme quickly fell off across a region. Change maps highlighted where indicators were improving and where they were deteriorating. Maps of potential impact of interventions, based on multivariate modelling, displayed how partial and full implementation of programmes could improve outcomes across a country. Scale depends on context. To support local planning, district maps or local government authority maps of health indicators were more useful than national maps; but multinational maps of outcomes were more useful for regional institutions. Mapping was useful to illustrate in which districts enrolment in religious schools--a rare occurrence--was more prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Population weighted raster maps can present social audit findings in an accessible and compelling way, increasing the use of evidence by planners with limited numeracy skills or little time to look at evidence. Maps complement epidemiological analysis, but they are not a substitute. Much less do they substitute for rigorous epidemiological designs, like randomised controlled trials.

Mitchell S; Cockcroft A; Andersson N

2011-01-01

249

Population weighted raster maps can communicate findings of social audits: examples from three continents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Maps can portray trends, patterns, and spatial differences that might be overlooked in tabular data and are now widely used in health research. Little has been reported about the process of using maps to communicate epidemiological findings. Method Population weighted raster maps show colour changes over the study area. Similar to the rasters of barometric pressure in a weather map, data are the health occurrence – a peak on the map represents a higher value of the indicator in question. The population relevance of each sentinel site, as determined in the stratified last stage random sample, combines with geography (inverse-distance weighting) to provide a population-weighted extension of each colour. This transforms the map to show population space rather than simply geographic space. Results Maps allowed discussion of strategies to reduce violence against women in a context of political sensitivity about quoting summary indicator figures. Time-series maps showed planners how experiences of health services had deteriorated despite a reform programme; where in a country HIV risk behaviours were improving; and how knowledge of an economic development programme quickly fell off across a region. Change maps highlighted where indicators were improving and where they were deteriorating. Maps of potential impact of interventions, based on multivariate modelling, displayed how partial and full implementation of programmes could improve outcomes across a country. Scale depends on context. To support local planning, district maps or local government authority maps of health indicators were more useful than national maps; but multinational maps of outcomes were more useful for regional institutions. Mapping was useful to illustrate in which districts enrolment in religious schools – a rare occurrence - was more prevalent. Conclusions Population weighted raster maps can present social audit findings in an accessible and compelling way, increasing the use of evidence by planners with limited numeracy skills or little time to look at evidence. Maps complement epidemiological analysis, but they are not a substitute. Much less do they substitute for rigorous epidemiological designs, like randomised controlled trials.

Mitchell Steven; Cockcroft Anne; Andersson Neil

2011-01-01

250

Propuestas para la investigavción en comunicación audiovisual: publicidad social y creación colectiva en Internet / Research proposals for audiovisual communication: social advertising and collective creation on the internet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resumen: La sociedad de la información digital plantea nuevos retos a los investigadores. A mediada que la comunicación audiovisual se ha consolidado como disciplina, los estudios culturales se muestran como una perspectiva de análisis ventajosa para acercarse a las nuevas prácticas creativas y de consumo del medio audiovisual. Este artículo defiende el estudio de los productos culturales audiovisuales que esta sociedad digital produce por cuanto son un testimonio de los cambios sociales que se operan en ella. En concreto se propone el acercamiento a la publicidad social y a los objetos de creación colectiva en Internet como medio para conocer las circunstancias de nuestra sociedad. Abstract: The information society poses new challenges to researchers. While audiovisual communication has been consolidated as a discipline, cultural studies is an advantageous analytical perspective to approach the new creative practices and consumption of audiovisual media. This article defends the study of audiovisual cultural products produced by the digital society because they are a testimony of the social changes taking place in it. Specifically, it proposes an approach to social advertising and objects of collective creation on the Internet as a means to know the circumstances of our society.

Teresa Fraile Prieto

2011-01-01

251

Inexpensive video cameras used by parents to record social communication in epidemiological investigations in early childhood-A feasibility study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We tested the feasibility of parents recording social interactions with their infants using inexpensive camcorders, as a potential method of effective, convenient, and economical large scale data gathering on social communication. Participants were asked to record two short video clips during either play or a mealtime, and return the data. Sixty-five video clips (32 pairs) were returned by 33 families, comprising 8.5% of families contacted, 44.6% of respondents and 51.6% of those sent a camcorder, and the general visual and sound quality of the data was assessed. Audio and video quality were adequate for analysis in 85% of clips and several social behaviours, including social engagement and contingent responsiveness, could be assessed in 97% of clips. We examined two quantifiable social behaviours quantitatively in both adults and infants: gaze direction and duration, and vocalization occurrence and duration. It proved difficult for most observers to obtain a simultaneous clear view of the parents and infant's face. Video clips obtained by parents are informative and usable for analysis. Further work is required to establish the acceptability of this technique in longitudinal studies of child development and to maximize the return of usable data.

Wilson P; Puckering C; McConnachie A; Marwick H; Reissland N; Gillberg C

2011-02-01

252

Cacophony or Empowerment? Analysing the Impact of New Information Communication Technologies and New Social Media in Southeast Asia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The capabilities, tools and websites we associate with new information communication technologies and social media are now ubiquitous. Moreover tools that were designed to facilitate innocuous conversation and social interaction have had unforeseen political impacts. Nowhere was this more visible than during the 2011 uprisings across the Arab World. From Tunis to Cairo, and Tripoli to Damascus protest movements against authoritarian rule openly utilized social networking and file sharing tools to publicize and organize demonstrations and to catalogue human rights abuses. The Arab Spring, or Jasmine Revolution, was an event that was both witnessed and played out in real time online. This article explores the impacts and effects of these technologies on regimes in East Asia, in particular exploring the extent to which they proffer new capabilities upon activists and reformers in the region’s semi-democratic and authoritarian regimes. Drawing on data on Internet and smartphone use, as well as case studies that explore the role of these technologies on the 2008 and 2011 general elections in Malaysia and Singapore respectively, this article suggests that the Internet and social networking platforms do present unique opportunities for activists, citizens and social movements.

Jason P. Abbott

2011-01-01

253

Leveraging Computer Mediated Communication for Social Support in Immigrants’ Intercultural Adaptation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between online social support and intercultural adaptation of immigrants. Data was collected from a telephone survey conducted among Chinese immigrants in Singapore. The results of the data analysis reveal that online support has positive effect on both socio-cultural and psychological adaptation of the immigrants. Among the individual types of support, informational support demonstrates a prominent effect on the immigrants. This study suggests that online support is an efficient and valuable supplement to traditional social support for immigrants, especially when they are in the transition period and lack real life social network. Key words: Social support; Online social support; Intercultural adaptation Résumé Cette étude examine la relation entre le soutien social en ligne et l'adaptation interculturelle des immigrants. Les données ont été recueillies à partir d'un sondage téléphonique mené auprès des immigrants chinois à Singapour. Les résultats de l'analyse des données révèle que le soutien en ligne a un effet positif tant sur l'adaptation socio-culturelle et psychologique des immigrants. Parmi les différents types de soutien, un soutien informationnel démontre un effet important sur les immigrants. Cette étude suggère que le soutien en ligne est un complément efficace et précieux à l'appui social traditionnel pour les immigrants, surtout quand ils sont dans la période de transition et le manque de réseau de la vie sociale réelle. Mots-clés: Soutien social; Le soutien social en ligne; L'adaptation interculturelle

Wenli CHEN; Alfred CHOI Siu Kay

2011-01-01

254

Communication tools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes Web-based communication tools and techniques to increase their effectiveness.

Wink D

2009-09-01

255

Internet como marco de comunicación e interacción social The Internet as a framework for communication and social interaction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudian las interacciones sociales en Internet, a partir de las respuestas de un cuestionario on-line. Se analizan las características sociodemográficas, los hábitos y las relaciones de estos usuarios en la Red. Internet se manifiesta como un espacio de interacción social, en el que las relaciones personales han tenido lugar en una gran mayoría de usuarios. Estas relaciones se muestran, en algunos aspectos, de forma diferente a las que tienen lugar cara a cara. Asimismo, las motivaciones y las consecuencias de mantener relaciones personales reflejan resultados diferentes con relación al sexo y al estado civil de los internautas. This article addresses social interaction on the Internet using an online questionnaire. The sociodemographic characteristics are analysed as well as the web users habits and relationships. The Internet is a social interactive place where personal relationships among users develop into important aspects of their lives. These relationships develop in different ways to relationships where people meet face to face. Also, motivation and the consequences of maintaining a personal relationships reflect, different results when comparing the web users gender and marital status.

Félix Moral Toranzo

2009-01-01

256

Corporate Social Responsibility Perspectives and Practices in Chinese Companies: A Brief Overview on Environment, Consumers and External Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Economic globalization has brought the field of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) to the forefront of today's business community in China and around the world. The business community finds it necessary and in their benefit to implement practices learned from CSR studies for socio-economic growth and long-term sustainability. Based on successful studies created in Latin America, this paper proposes an empirical study that will address how CSR is perceived in Chinese companies and will briefly evaluate some practices about environment, consumers, and external communication. Our results are found to have significant association of CSR concept with legal implication. Providing safe and reliable products with services were found to have most relevant attribute towards CSR. Environmental and consumer practices have shown more implemented and useful than those related to communication.

Hai-yan HE; Teodoro Rafael Wendlandt Amezaga; Beatriz Ochoa Silva

2012-01-01

257

Modelo de Comunicación desde una Perspectiva Social, orientado a la Actividad Física Design of a communicative model from a social perspective oriented to the physical activity case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo Se diseñó y aplicó un modelo de comunicación, en el contexto de una Red aplicada a tres regiones de Colombia, Bogotá, Antioquia y Quindío, basado en el enfoque macrointencional, dirigido a afianzar la comprensión del tema de actividad física en los actores relacionados con el tema desde una interpretación multidimensional. Métodos Se definieron poblaciones objetivo y se conformaron equipos de trabajo durante un proceso de tres meses, basados en tres estrategias: producción social, transmisión y democratización. Resultados Se desarrollaron mensajes basados en la construcción de los productores sociales; se ampliaron los conceptos iniciales relacionados con cuerpo, autocuidado, actividad física y salud. Conclusiones Los modelos de comunicación en salud, que se orientan al desarrollo de habilidades personales en relación con la capacidad de comunicar y construir sentidos compartidos, permiten apropiación y recordación de mensajes en salud. El modelo es una estrategia de comunicación que afianza la construcción compartida de mensajes en salud. Este enfoque exige el desarrollo de acciones locales y el fomento de la capacidad organizacional comunitaria.Objective A communication model was designed and put into practice, in the form of a Network throughout three regions in Colombia; Bogotá, Antioquia and Quindío. Based on a macro-intentional model, this network was aimed at strengthening understanding around the subject of physical activity among those people affected by the issue, from a multidimensional perspective. Methods The test population was defined and working groups were formed around three strategies: social production, transmission and democratization, during a three-month period. Results Messages were developed based around the ideas of the community producers themselves; the initial concepts were widened to include the body, self care, physical activity and health. Conclusions Communication models related to health, aimed at developing personal skills including the ability to communicate and build shared experience, can be assimilated and incorporated into broadcasts on health issues. This model serves as a communication strategy which strengthens the building of shared broadcasts on health issues. This kind of focus requires the development of local activity and capacity-building within the community.

Adriana Prieto-Rodríguez; Marisol Moreno- Angarita; Yency S Cardozo-Vásquez

2006-01-01

258

Social advertising in the modern communicative space: the experience of the Kaliningrad region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social advertising, which is growing fast nowadays, gives rise to a number of issues relating to its efficiency and impact on the audience. The author focuses on the current problems faced by social advertising in the Kaliningrad region and demonstrates a lack of variety in topics, as well as a limited range of the techniques applied. The paper tackles the problem of identifying the quality level of advertisements addressing various social needs.

Druker M.

2013-01-01

259

Imagen social de las enfermeras y estrategias de comunicación pública para conseguir una imagen positiva/ Social image of nursing and public communication satrategies to obtain a positive image  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La identidad o esencia de las enfermeras no coincide con su imagen social pues continua plagada de estereotipos, y el público sigue percibiendo una imagen dependiente y poco profesional de las enfermeras. Esa discordancia entre identidad e imagen, en parte se debe a que las propias enfermeras no se han preocupado suficientemente, de modo individual y colectivo, por comunicar eficazmente su verdadera identidad a la sociedad. Y para transmitir la identidad de las enfermera (more) s estas deben comunicar a la sociedad su función y quehacer, para lo cual conviene que las instituciones enfermeras cuenten con gabinetes de comunicación eficientes y bien estructurados, y que las enfermeras integren en su práctica profesional el uso de recursos de la comunicación pública, tales como aplicar las nuevas tecnologías en su práctica diaria, difundir científica y masivamente su producción intelectual, divulgarla e informar a los medios de actividades enfermeras susceptibles de convertirse en producto informativo. Abstract in english The identity or essence of nursing does not match their social image as this profession continues to be full of stereotypes and the general public still retains the idea of dependence and lack of professionalism of nurses. This lack of concordance between image and identity is partly due to the fact that nurses themselves have not cared enough, both individually and as a group, to communicate effectively their true identity to society. In order to transmit the identity of (more) nursing, these professionals must explain their tasks and functions to society. In this sense, nursing institutions should have at their disposal efficient and well organized communication departments. Also, nurses should include in their daily practice the use of public communication resources such as the application of ITCs to their tasks, the mass divulgation of their intellectual production in scientific publications, the broadcasting of nursing activities which could become informative products.

Calvo Calvo, Manuel Ángel

2011-09-01

260

Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brazil): communication for social change Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brasil): Comunicación para el cambio social  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays, reference media faces the alternative media propagation, which uses different means and it is based on the work of independent producers who target the information democratization in every possible format at no cost and created by «common citizens». The Canal*Motoboy, a project by the Catalan Antoni Abad, is an example of this kind of communication. He aims to consolidate an open structure in order to give voice to motoboys from São Paulo (SP), Brazil. After being properly trained and by using their multimedia cell phones, they register their routine on Canal*Motoboy website. This article analyzes the progress of this project, based on the communication for social change, once the right to freedom of expression, historically, has been expropriated from citizens on account of the expansion of communication conglomerates. The methodological approach will consist of observation and deep interview technique, as well as literature review.En la actualidad, los medios de comunicación se contraponen a la propagación de los medios alternativos dirigidos a la democratización de informaciones generadas por ciudadanos comunes. El Canal*Motoboy constituye un ejemplo de esa modalidad de comunicación. Su propuesta es consolidar una estructura abierta para dar voz al colectivo de motoboys de São Paulo (SP) en Brasil. Debidamente entrenados y recurriendo al teléfono móvil multimedia, registran su día-a-día en el website Canal*Motoboy. Este artículo analiza este proyecto, a partir de la concepción de la comunicación para el cambio social, una vez que el derecho a la libertad de expresión, históricamente, ha sido expropiado a los ciudadanos por cuenta de la expansión de los conglomerados comunicacionales. Además de la revisión de literatura, el objeto de estudio se ha abordado desde una perspectiva cualitativa a través de la técnica de observación y de entrevista en profundidad para las informaciones de actores del colectivo.

Alisson DIAS GOMES; Maria das Graças TARGINO

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brasil): Comunicación para el cambio social Canal*Motoboy, São Paulo (Brazil): communication for social change  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En la actualidad, los medios de comunicación se contraponen a la propagación de los medios alternativos dirigidos a la democratización de informaciones generadas por ciudadanos comunes. El Canal*Motoboy constituye un ejemplo de esa modalidad de comunicación. Su propuesta es consolidar una estructura abierta para dar voz al colectivo de motoboys de São Paulo (SP) en Brasil. Debidamente entrenados y recurriendo al teléfono móvil multimedia, registran su día-a-día en el website Canal*Motoboy. Este artículo analiza este proyecto, a partir de la concepción de la comunicación para el cambio social, una vez que el derecho a la libertad de expresión, históricamente, ha sido expropiado a los ciudadanos por cuenta de la expansión de los conglomerados comunicacionales. Además de la revisión de literatura, el objeto de estudio se ha abordado desde una perspectiva cualitativa a través de la técnica de observación y de entrevista en profundidad para las informaciones de actores del colectivo.Nowadays, reference media faces the alternative media propagation, which uses different means and it is based on the work of independent producers who target the information democratization in every possible format at no cost and created by «common citizens». The Canal*Motoboy, a project by the Catalan Antoni Abad, is an example of this kind of communication. He aims to consolidate an open structure in order to give voice to motoboys from São Paulo (SP), Brazil. After being properly trained and by using their multimedia cell phones, they register their routine on Canal*Motoboy website. This article analyzes the progress of this project, based on the communication for social change, once the right to freedom of expression, historically, has been expropriated from citizens on account of the expansion of communication conglomerates. The methodological approach will consist of observation and deep interview technique, as well as literature review.

Alisson DIAS GOMES; Maria das Graças TARGINO

2012-01-01

262

Imagen social de las enfermeras y estrategias de comunicación pública para conseguir una imagen positiva Social image of nursing and public communication satrategies to obtain a positive image  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La identidad o esencia de las enfermeras no coincide con su imagen social pues continua plagada de estereotipos, y el público sigue percibiendo una imagen dependiente y poco profesional de las enfermeras. Esa discordancia entre identidad e imagen, en parte se debe a que las propias enfermeras no se han preocupado suficientemente, de modo individual y colectivo, por comunicar eficazmente su verdadera identidad a la sociedad. Y para transmitir la identidad de las enfermeras estas deben comunicar a la sociedad su función y quehacer, para lo cual conviene que las instituciones enfermeras cuenten con gabinetes de comunicación eficientes y bien estructurados, y que las enfermeras integren en su práctica profesional el uso de recursos de la comunicación pública, tales como aplicar las nuevas tecnologías en su práctica diaria, difundir científica y masivamente su producción intelectual, divulgarla e informar a los medios de actividades enfermeras susceptibles de convertirse en producto informativo.The identity or essence of nursing does not match their social image as this profession continues to be full of stereotypes and the general public still retains the idea of dependence and lack of professionalism of nurses. This lack of concordance between image and identity is partly due to the fact that nurses themselves have not cared enough, both individually and as a group, to communicate effectively their true identity to society. In order to transmit the identity of nursing, these professionals must explain their tasks and functions to society. In this sense, nursing institutions should have at their disposal efficient and well organized communication departments. Also, nurses should include in their daily practice the use of public communication resources such as the application of ITCs to their tasks, the mass divulgation of their intellectual production in scientific publications, the broadcasting of nursing activities which could become informative products.

Manuel Ángel Calvo Calvo

2011-01-01

263

Social marketing and diffusion-based strategies for communicating with unique populations: HIV prevention in San Francisco.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We conducted a 2-year investigation of the extent to which strategies based on social marketing and diffusion of innovations concepts are used in preventive health communication with unique (highly ostracized) populations. Of the 49 organizations in San Francisco that operate HIV prevention programs (N = 100), programs that most highly targeted unique populations were surveyed. Personal interviews were then conducted with 38 staff leaders who operated the most and least effective programs. Audiotapes and transcripts were content analyzed to identify the strategies used by program staff. Strategies based on social marketing concepts were more prevalent than strategies based on the diffusion of innovations: More effective programs were characterized by emphasis on homophily, audience segmentation, compatibility-based strategies, and interorganizational collaboration.

Dearing JW; Rogers EM; Meyer G; Casey MK; Rao N; Campo S; Henderson GM

1996-10-01

264

Use of computer-assisted technologies (CAT) to enhance social, communicative, and language development in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Major advances in multimedia computer technology over the past decades have made sophisticated computer games readily available to the public. This, combined with the observation that most children, including those with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), show an affinity to computers, has led researchers to recognize the potential of computer technology as an effective and efficient tool in research and treatment. This paper reviews the use of computer-assisted technology (CAT), excluding strictly internet-based approaches, to enhance social, communicative, and language development in individuals with ASD by dividing the vast literature into four main areas: language, emotion recognition, theory of mind, and social skills. Although many studies illustrate the tremendous promise of CAT to enhance skills of individuals with ASD, most lack rigorous, scientific assessment of efficacy relative to non-CAT approaches.

Ploog BO; Scharf A; Nelson D; Brooks PJ

2013-02-01

265

The association between therapeutic horseback riding and the social communication and sensory reactions of children with autism.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study investigated the association between therapeutic riding (TR) and the social communication and sensory processing skills of 21 elementary students with autism attending TR as part of a school group. An interrupted treatment design was employed to determine whether children were able to maintain treatment effects following the removal of TR. Teacher ratings indicated that participating children with autism significantly increased their social interaction, improved their sensory processing, and decreased the severity of symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorders following TR. Gains were not maintained consistently after two 6-week breaks from TR, but were recovered once TR was reinstated. Potential explanations regarding the benefits of TR are discussed, and suggestions for future research provided.

Ward SC; Whalon K; Rusnak K; Wendell K; Paschall N

2013-09-01

266

Social communication impairments in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome: Slow response time and the impact of prompting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the present study children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome (N = 13) and a matched control group of typically developing children and adolescents were presented with 26 vignettes of daily life situations, including irony, metaphors, contrary emotions, jealousy, social blunders, and understanding intentions. The participants in the AS group showed significant impairments in social communication. They needed significantly longer response times to solve the tasks and required significantly more prompt questions than the control persons. When analyzing the AS participants' performances before any prompt questions had been given, their task performances were significantly poorer than after the prompts had been given indicating that without any prompt questions their task performance would have fallen markedly. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kaland, Nils; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

2011-01-01

267

Social Acceptance of a Teleoperated Android : Field Study on Elderly’s Engagement with an Embodied Communication Medium in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We explored the potential of teleoperated android robots, which are embodied telecommunication media with humanlike appearances, and how they affect people in the real world when they are employed to express a telepresence and a sense of ‘being there’. In Denmark, our exploratory study focused on the social aspects of Telenoid, a teleoperated android, which might facilitate communication between senior citizens and Telenoid’s operator. After applying it to the elderly in their homes, we found that the elderly assumed positive attitudes toward Telenoid, and their positivity and strong attachment to its huggable minimalistic human design were cross-culturally shared in Denmark and Japan. Contrary to the negative reactions by non-users in media reports, our result suggests that teleoperated androids can be accepted by the elderly as a kind of universal design medium for social inclusion.

Ryuji, Yamazaki; Nishio, Shuichi

2012-01-01

268

Media use, face-to-face communication, media multitasking, and social well-being among 8- to 12-year-old girls.  

Science.gov (United States)

An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8-12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls' media use--including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting--and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one's room had little direct association with children's socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents. PMID:22268607

Pea, Roy; Nass, Clifford; Meheula, Lyn; Rance, Marcus; Kumar, Aman; Bamford, Holden; Nass, Matthew; Simha, Aneesh; Stillerman, Benjamin; Yang, Steven; Zhou, Michael

2012-01-23

269

Media use, face-to-face communication, media multitasking, and social well-being among 8- to 12-year-old girls.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An online survey of 3,461 North American girls ages 8-12 conducted in the summer of 2010 through Discovery Girls magazine examined the relationships between social well-being and young girls' media use--including video, video games, music listening, reading/homework, e-mailing/posting on social media sites, texting/instant messaging, and talking on phones/video chatting--and face-to-face communication. This study introduced both a more granular measure of media multitasking and a new comparative measure of media use versus time spent in face-to-face communication. Regression analyses indicated that negative social well-being was positively associated with levels of uses of media that are centrally about interpersonal interaction (e.g., phone, online communication) as well as uses of media that are not (e.g., video, music, and reading). Video use was particularly strongly associated with negative social well-being indicators. Media multitasking was also associated with negative social indicators. Conversely, face-to-face communication was strongly associated with positive social well-being. Cell phone ownership and having a television or computer in one's room had little direct association with children's socioemotional well-being. We hypothesize possible causes for these relationships, call for research designs to address causality, and outline possible implications of such findings for the social well-being of younger adolescents.

Pea R; Nass C; Meheula L; Rance M; Kumar A; Bamford H; Nass M; Simha A; Stillerman B; Yang S; Zhou M

2012-03-01

270

El paradigma médico social y la competencia comunicativa del profesional de ciencias medicas/ The social and medical paradigm and communicative competence of health sciences professional  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En el nuevo paradigma sociomédico la efectividad de la comunicación constituye la piedra angular ante el reto de promover cambios en los estilos de vida y ofreciendo a la población instrumentos para pensar, analizar y reflexionar sobre su salud. La relación médico-paciente como modelo de comunicación fundamenta el comportamiento del profesional de las Ciencias Médicas y las relaciones que contraerán entre sí los médicos y el equipo de salud de donde depende la c (more) onducta moral o ética que orientará y caracterizará su trato. El objetivo de este trabajo es reflexionar acerca de los aspectos esenciales que deben caracterizar la competencia comunicativa del profesional y las habilidades para conformar una cultura de la comunicación que sirvan de base a la gestión de salud en la Atención Primaria de Salud. Se analiza el manejo de la comunicación para el logro de la empatía con el paciente, la liquidación de barreras comunicativas que permitan el acercamiento y la interacción reflexiva con el hombre sano o enfermo, la familia, las agrupaciones comunitarias y la coordinación con las instituciones sociales de la comunidad que permitan los cambios necesarios para alcanzar un modo de vida más sano y el desarrollo creciente de la cultura de la salud en la población, vinculando las herramientas cognoscitivas para educar a los miembros de la sociedad en el cuidado de su salud con las habilidades comunicativas que le permitan ser comprendido eficazmente basado en la amistad, confianza y respeto entre él y la población por cuya salud debe velar. Abstract in english In de new social and medical paradigm the effectiveness of communication constitutes a cornerstone to face the challenge for promoting changes in the lifestyle and offering people ways to think, analyze and to reflex about their health. The doctor patient relationship as a model of communication substantiate the behavior of the medical science professional and the relation that doctors will have among them and the health team from which it will depend the moral or ethical (more) attitude to be oriented and will also characterize the attention. The objective of this paper is to reflex about the essential aspects that should characterize the skills to form a culture of communication aim to obtain a health work in the primary health care. The management of communication is analyzed to achieve and empathy with the patient, the elimination of communicative barriers that allow the approaching and reflexive interaction with the healthy or the sick person, the family, communitarian groups and the coordination with the communitarian social institutions, which permit the necessary changes to reach a healthier lifestyle and an ascending development of the health culture into the population, relating knowledge tools in order to educate members of the society in their health care wilt the communicative skills that allow them being will understood based on friendship, confidence, and respect between the health professional and the population whose health be should take care of.

Legón, Maritza de la Rosa; Vega González, Nelia; Brito Gómez, Lourdes

2010-09-01

271

El paradigma médico social y la competencia comunicativa del profesional de ciencias medicas The social and medical paradigm and communicative competence of health sciences professional  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el nuevo paradigma sociomédico la efectividad de la comunicación constituye la piedra angular ante el reto de promover cambios en los estilos de vida y ofreciendo a la población instrumentos para pensar, analizar y reflexionar sobre su salud. La relación médico-paciente como modelo de comunicación fundamenta el comportamiento del profesional de las Ciencias Médicas y las relaciones que contraerán entre sí los médicos y el equipo de salud de donde depende la conducta moral o ética que orientará y caracterizará su trato. El objetivo de este trabajo es reflexionar acerca de los aspectos esenciales que deben caracterizar la competencia comunicativa del profesional y las habilidades para conformar una cultura de la comunicación que sirvan de base a la gestión de salud en la Atención Primaria de Salud. Se analiza el manejo de la comunicación para el logro de la empatía con el paciente, la liquidación de barreras comunicativas que permitan el acercamiento y la interacción reflexiva con el hombre sano o enfermo, la familia, las agrupaciones comunitarias y la coordinación con las instituciones sociales de la comunidad que permitan los cambios necesarios para alcanzar un modo de vida más sano y el desarrollo creciente de la cultura de la salud en la población, vinculando las herramientas cognoscitivas para educar a los miembros de la sociedad en el cuidado de su salud con las habilidades comunicativas que le permitan ser comprendido eficazmente basado en la amistad, confianza y respeto entre él y la población por cuya salud debe velar.In de new social and medical paradigm the effectiveness of communication constitutes a cornerstone to face the challenge for promoting changes in the lifestyle and offering people ways to think, analyze and to reflex about their health. The doctor patient relationship as a model of communication substantiate the behavior of the medical science professional and the relation that doctors will have among them and the health team from which it will depend the moral or ethical attitude to be oriented and will also characterize the attention. The objective of this paper is to reflex about the essential aspects that should characterize the skills to form a culture of communication aim to obtain a health work in the primary health care. The management of communication is analyzed to achieve and empathy with the patient, the elimination of communicative barriers that allow the approaching and reflexive interaction with the healthy or the sick person, the family, communitarian groups and the coordination with the communitarian social institutions, which permit the necessary changes to reach a healthier lifestyle and an ascending development of the health culture into the population, relating knowledge tools in order to educate members of the society in their health care wilt the communicative skills that allow them being will understood based on friendship, confidence, and respect between the health professional and the population whose health be should take care of.

Maritza de la Rosa Legón; Nelia Vega González; Lourdes Brito Gómez

2010-01-01

272

Early markers of autism spectrum disorders in infants and toddlers prospectively identified in the Social Attention and Communication Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Social Attention and Communication Study involved the successful implementation of developmental surveillance of the early markers of autism spectrum disorders in a community-based setting. The objective in the current study was to determine the most discriminating and predictive markers of autism spectrum disorders used in the Social Attention and Communication Study at 12, 18 and 24 months of age, so that these could be used to identify children with autism spectrum disorders with greater accuracy. The percentage of 'yes/no' responses for each behavioural marker was compared between children with autistic disorder (n = 39), autism spectrum disorder (n = 50) and developmental and/or language delay (n = 20) from 12 to 24 months, with a logistic regression also conducted at 24 months. Across all ages, the recurring key markers of both autistic disorder and autism spectrum disorder were deficits in eye contact and pointing, and from 18 months, deficits in showing became an important marker. In combination, these behaviours, along with pretend play, were found to be the best group of predictors for a best estimate diagnostic classification of autistic disorder/autism spectrum disorder at 24 months. It is argued that the identified markers should be monitored repeatedly during the second year of life by community health-care professionals.

Barbaro J; Dissanayake C

2013-01-01

273

An initial evaluation of the Social Communication Questionnaire for the assessment of autism spectrum disorders in children with Down syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) in a sample of children with Down syndrome (DS), many of whom had a co-occurring autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The SCQ is a widely used ASD screening measure; however, its measurement properties have not been comprehensively evaluated specifically in children with DS, a group that seems to be at higher risk for an ASD. METHODS: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, scale reliability, convergent and discriminant correlations, significance tests between groups of children with DS and DS + ASD, and diagnostic accuracy analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Factor analyses identified 2 reliable factors that we labeled Social-Communication and Stereotyped Behavior and Unusual Interests. Pearson correlations with Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised subscales indicated support for the SCQ's convergent validity and some support for the discriminant validity of the factor-based scales. Significance tests and receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that children with DS + ASD obtained significantly higher SCQ factor-based and total scores than children with DS alone, and that the SCQ Total Score evidenced good sensitivity and adequate specificity. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated initial psychometric support for the SCQ as an ASD screening measure in children with DS. The SCQ should be considered as part of a multimethod evaluation when screening children with DS.

Magyar CI; Pandolfi V; Dill CA

2012-02-01

274

The complexity of social mobilization in health communication: top-down and bottom-up experiences in polio eradication.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) has been one of the most ambitious global health efforts in recent times. Social mobilization (SM) has been a strategic component of the PEI. Yet, a close-up analysis of SM dynamics seems to be lacking in the health communication literature. We examine critical aspects of the PEI experience in an attempt to move from dominant informational perspectives to a focus on emerging challenges in polio eradication efforts and new levels of complexity to SM. We examine available literature on communication and public health, available data on SM experiences that support polio eradication in Africa and Asia, and field work conducted by the authors where polio eradication efforts are ongoing. Our analysis suggests that (1) SM should not be casually approached as a top-down informational strategy to advance pre-established health goals; (2) centralized strategies hardly amount to SM; and (3) hybrid options that combine both activist and pragmatic SM are concrete possibilities for global health initiatives. In the context of renewed global democratization and persistent conflicts rooted in ethnicity, religion, and economics, it cannot be assumed that communities will either diligently espouse global goals or necessarily oppose them. Communication and SM strategies should rely on a clear understanding of the motives and agendas of involved actors. Resistance or opposition are important analytical dimensions as they may uncover new opportunities for effective health interventions. Further studies using these perspectives should be a priority for global health programs, including studies of the trust level, or lack thereof, among social actors. PMID:20455165

Obregón, Rafael; Waisbord, Silvio

2010-01-01

275

The complexity of social mobilization in health communication: top-down and bottom-up experiences in polio eradication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI) has been one of the most ambitious global health efforts in recent times. Social mobilization (SM) has been a strategic component of the PEI. Yet, a close-up analysis of SM dynamics seems to be lacking in the health communication literature. We examine critical aspects of the PEI experience in an attempt to move from dominant informational perspectives to a focus on emerging challenges in polio eradication efforts and new levels of complexity to SM. We examine available literature on communication and public health, available data on SM experiences that support polio eradication in Africa and Asia, and field work conducted by the authors where polio eradication efforts are ongoing. Our analysis suggests that (1) SM should not be casually approached as a top-down informational strategy to advance pre-established health goals; (2) centralized strategies hardly amount to SM; and (3) hybrid options that combine both activist and pragmatic SM are concrete possibilities for global health initiatives. In the context of renewed global democratization and persistent conflicts rooted in ethnicity, religion, and economics, it cannot be assumed that communities will either diligently espouse global goals or necessarily oppose them. Communication and SM strategies should rely on a clear understanding of the motives and agendas of involved actors. Resistance or opposition are important analytical dimensions as they may uncover new opportunities for effective health interventions. Further studies using these perspectives should be a priority for global health programs, including studies of the trust level, or lack thereof, among social actors.

Obregón R; Waisbord S

2010-01-01

276

Discurso, Comunicación y poder: máscaras, distinción y exclusiones sociales/ Discourse, communication and power: masks, distinction and social exclusions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El hallazgo de la imagen masacrada de un Cristo en su santuario ubicado en las alturas de la Quebrada de Humahuaca, conmociona a la feligresía de la localidad ubicada en las cercanías. Pasado el primer momento de estupor, se suceden las suposiciones en torno a los autores del hecho; así como las discusiones posteriores en pro de su restauración o reemplazo. Se hacen manifiestos diversos relatos que giran en torno a la confección de la figura original del Cristo, a la (more) de la Virgen que se encontraba en un camarín cercano. Se alude también a la actuación de un sacerdote, representante de la Teología de la Liberación; el que fue cuestionado ya hace algunos años y aún hasta hoy, por un sector de la sociedad local y provincial. El discurso de la narrativa oral, acerca de esta temática, puede mostrarnos la conceptualización de parte de la "realidad social". Interesa ver cómo los relatos orales están mostrando, en su contenido semántico, una manera de ver el mundo. Al mismo tiempo, mediante su organización formal están estructurando, también, una forma de categorizar al mundo social. Categorías, esquemas, modelos son los conceptos eje que guían nuestra búsqueda; y que permiten hacer inferencias acerca de las relaciones del poder local. También las menciones que aparecieron en conversaciones informales permiten explicar la postura discursiva de los emisores. El analisis de estas menciones nos ofrece datos que se pueden relacionar con el accionar directo o simbólico de diversas instituciones disciplinarias actuantes en nuestra sociedad. Abstract in english The discovery of a destroyed Christ graven image in his sanctuary situated in the heights of the Quebrada de Humahuaca, shocks the local parishioners in the outskirts of the sanctuary. After the first moment of stupor, suppositions about the perpetrators of the incident are made; the same as the later discussions in favour of its restoration or replacement. Several tales that evolve around the making of the original Christ's figure and the virgin, who was in a nearby smal (more) l chapel are manifested. It is also alluded to the intervention of a priest, representative of the Theology of the Liberation, who was questioned, a few years ago and even until today, by a sector of the local and provincial society. The discourse of oral narrative, about this theme, can show us the conceptualization, from the "social reality". It is interesting to see how oral tales show, in their semantic contents, a way to see the world. At the same time, by means of its formal organization, they are structuring, too, a way to categorize the social world. Categories, outlines, models are the central concepts that guide our search; and the ones that allow to make inferences about the local power relations. Also the mentions that appeared in informal conversations allow explaining the addresser´s discursive positioning.The analysis of what we have mentioned offers us pieces of information that are related to each other.

Losada, Flora

2005-05-01

277

Haploinsufficiency of the autism-associated Shank3 gene leads to deficits in synaptic function, social interaction, and social communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background SHANK3 is a protein in the core of the postsynaptic density (PSD) and has a critical role in recruiting many key functional elements to the PSD and to the synapse, including components of ?-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA), metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamate receptors, as well as cytoskeletal elements. Loss of a functional copy of the SHANK3 gene leads to the neurobehavioral manifestations of 22q13 deletion syndrome and/or to autism spectrum disorders. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of haploinsufficiency of full-length Shank3 in mice, focusing on synaptic development, transmission and plasticity, as well as on social behaviors, as a model for understanding SHANK3 haploinsufficiency in humans. Methods We used mice with a targeted disruption of Shank3 in which exons coding for the ankyrin repeat domain were deleted and expression of full-length Shank3 was disrupted. We studied synaptic transmission and plasticity by multiple methods, including patch-clamp whole cell recording, two-photon time-lapse imaging and extracellular recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials. We also studied the density of GluR1-immunoreactive puncta in the CA1 stratum radiatum and carried out assessments of social behaviors. Results In Shank3 heterozygous mice, there was reduced amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and the input-output (I/O) relationship at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in acute hippocampal slices was significantly depressed; both of these findings indicate a reduction in basal neurotransmission. Studies with specific inhibitors demonstrated that the decrease in basal transmission reflected reduced AMPA receptor-mediated transmission. This was further supported by the observation of reduced numbers of GluR1-immunoreactive puncta in the stratum radiatum. Long-term potentiation (LTP), induced either with ?-burst pairing (TBP) or high-frequency stimulation, was impaired in Shank3 heterozygous mice, with no significant change in long-term depression (LTD). In concordance with the LTP results, persistent expansion of spines was observed in control mice after TBP-induced LTP; however, only transient spine expansion was observed in Shank3 heterozygous mice. Male Shank3 heterozygotes displayed less social sniffing and emitted fewer ultrasonic vocalizations during interactions with estrus female mice, as compared to wild-type littermate controls. Conclusions We documented specific deficits in synaptic function and plasticity, along with reduced reciprocal social interactions in Shank3 heterozygous mice. Our results are consistent with altered synaptic development and function in Shank3 haploinsufficiency, highlighting the importance of Shank3 in synaptic function and supporting a link between deficits in synapse function and neurodevelopmental disorders. The reduced glutamatergic transmission that we observed in the Shank3 heterozygous mice represents an interesting therapeutic target in Shank3-haploinsufficiency syndromes.

Bozdagi Ozlem; Sakurai Takeshi; Papapetrou Danae; Wang Xiaobin; Dickstein Dara L; Takahashi Nagahide; Kajiwara Yuji; Yang Mu; Katz Adam M; Scattoni Maria; Harris Mark J; Saxena Roheeni; Silverman Jill L; Crawley Jacqueline N; Zhou Qiang; Hof Patrick R; Buxbaum Joseph D

2010-01-01

278

Haploinsufficiency of the autism-associated Shank3 gene leads to deficits in synaptic function, social interaction, and social communication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: SHANK3 is a protein in the core of the postsynaptic density (PSD) and has a critical role in recruiting many key functional elements to the PSD and to the synapse, including components of ?-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA), metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamate receptors, as well as cytoskeletal elements. Loss of a functional copy of the SHANK3 gene leads to the neurobehavioral manifestations of 22q13 deletion syndrome and/or to autism spectrum disorders. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of haploinsufficiency of full-length Shank3 in mice, focusing on synaptic development, transmission and plasticity, as well as on social behaviors, as a model for understanding SHANK3 haploinsufficiency in humans. METHODS: We used mice with a targeted disruption of Shank3 in which exons coding for the ankyrin repeat domain were deleted and expression of full-length Shank3 was disrupted. We studied synaptic transmission and plasticity by multiple methods, including patch-clamp whole cell recording, two-photon time-lapse imaging and extracellular recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials. We also studied the density of GluR1-immunoreactive puncta in the CA1 stratum radiatum and carried out assessments of social behaviors. RESULTS: In Shank3 heterozygous mice, there was reduced amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and the input-output (I/O) relationship at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in acute hippocampal slices was significantly depressed; both of these findings indicate a reduction in basal neurotransmission. Studies with specific inhibitors demonstrated that the decrease in basal transmission reflected reduced AMPA receptor-mediated transmission. This was further supported by the observation of reduced numbers of GluR1-immunoreactive puncta in the stratum radiatum. Long-term potentiation (LTP), induced either with ?-burst pairing (TBP) or high-frequency stimulation, was impaired in Shank3 heterozygous mice, with no significant change in long-term depression (LTD). In concordance with the LTP results, persistent expansion of spines was observed in control mice after TBP-induced LTP; however, only transient spine expansion was observed in Shank3 heterozygous mice. Male Shank3 heterozygotes displayed less social sniffing and emitted fewer ultrasonic vocalizations during interactions with estrus female mice, as compared to wild-type littermate controls. CONCLUSIONS: We documented specific deficits in synaptic function and plasticity, along with reduced reciprocal social interactions in Shank3 heterozygous mice. Our results are consistent with altered synaptic development and function in Shank3 haploinsufficiency, highlighting the importance of Shank3 in synaptic function and supporting a link between deficits in synapse function and neurodevelopmental disorders. The reduced glutamatergic transmission that we observed in the Shank3 heterozygous mice represents an interesting therapeutic target in Shank3-haploinsufficiency syndromes.

Bozdagi O; Sakurai T; Papapetrou D; Wang X; Dickstein DL; Takahashi N; Kajiwara Y; Yang M; Katz AM; Scattoni ML; Harris MJ; Saxena R; Silverman JL; Crawley JN; Zhou Q; Hof PR; Buxbaum JD

2010-01-01

279

Linking environmental risk assessment and communication: An experiment in co-evolving scientific and social knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

Dissemination of information to decision-makers and enhanced methods of public participation are often put forward as antidotes to a perceived disconnect between risk assessment and risk communication in the public domain. However, mechanisms that support both the provision of routine, timely and relevant technical knowledge to the public and meaningful opportunities for public participation in the evaluation and management of risk are few. We argue for the need to re-conceptualise the institutional context in which risk research and communication occur as one in which scientific knowledge and public understanding are co-evolutionary instead of independent or sequential. Here, we report on an experiment to promote coevolution of environmental risk assessment and risk communication through the instrumental use of a web-based platform that dynamically links expert and public discourses through common information sources, linked scenario evaluations, and opportunities for iterative dialogue. On the basis of technical feasibility, research value and public communication capacity, we conclude that there is potential for further refinement of the methodologies presented here. Copyright ?? 2008 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Graffy, E. A.; Booth, N. L.

2008-01-01

280

Communicating genetics and smoking through social media: are we there yet?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Social media is a recent source of health information that could disseminate new scientific research, such as the genetics of smoking. OBJECTIVE: The objectives were (1) to evaluate the availability of genetic information about smoking on different social media platforms (ie, YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter) and (2) to assess the type and the content of the information displayed on the social media as well as the profile of people publishing this information. METHODS: We screened posts on YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter with the terms "smoking" and "genetic" at two time points (September 18, 2012, and May 7, 2013). The first 100 posts were reviewed for each media for the time points. Google was searched during Time 2 as an indicator of available information on the Web and the other social media that discussed genetics and smoking. The source of information, the country of the publisher, characteristics of the posts, and content of the posts were extracted. RESULTS: On YouTube, Facebook, and Twitter, 31, 0, and 84 posts, respectively, were included. Posts were mostly based on smoking-related diseases, referred to scientific publications, and were largely from the United States. From the Google search, most results were scientific databases. Six scientific publications referred to within the Google search were also retrieved on either YouTube or Twitter. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the importance of public understanding of smoking and genetics, and the high use of social media, little information on this topic is actually present on social media. Therefore, there is a need to monitor the information that is there and to evaluate the population's understanding of the information related to genetics and smoking that is displayed on social media.

de Viron S; Suggs LS; Brand A; Van Oyen H

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

¿Para qué sirve la semiótica?: una propuesta de resignificación de la mujer a través de la comunicación para el cambio social/ What is semiotics for?: A proposal for the resignification of women through communication for social change  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este documento propone establecer puntos de encuentro entre las categorías mujer, semiótica y comunicación para el cambio social. El texto plantea como su eje central la idea de que una comunicación para la transformación social exige resignificar a la mujer en las distintas instancias del proceso comunicativo. El artículo explora, en primera instancia, contenidos teóricos sobre la semiótica, con el fin de ubicar su relación con un discurso crítico sobre el univ (more) erso sígnico que los medios masivos proponen para la mujer. Una vez establecida esta mirada, se pretende estudiar la semiótica como componente fundamental de la comunicación para el cambio social en la medida en que posibilita generar actos narrativos de permanente re-significación humana Abstract in english This document proposes to establish points of contact between female categories, semiotics and communication for social change. The text asserts as its central theme the idea that communication for social transformation requires new meaning to women in different instances of the communication process. The article explores in the first instance, contained theoretical semiotics, in order to locate her relationship with a critical discourse about the universe significant tha (more) t the media offer for women. Hence, the purpose is to study semiotics as a fundamental component of communication for social change in the sense that facilitates the generation of narrative acts of permanent human re-signification

Navarro Díaz, Luis Ricardo

2011-01-01

282

Health literacy: communication for the public good.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article builds upon a presentation at the Fifth Global Health Conference on Health Promotion (Mexico City, 9 June 2000), seeking to advance the development of health literacy through effective communication. First, it offers a timely reflection for health promotion epistemology in particular, and the potential approach to framing health promotion activities in general, with health literacy as a bridging concept. The concept of health literacy is briefly explained and defined, followed by identification of some promising communication interventions to diffuse health literacy. Four predominant areas within the communication field are described that shed light on approaches for developing health literacy: integrated marketing communication, education, negotiation and social capital. Each component can contribute to strategic science-based communication. Finally, the article elucidates that communication and developing health literacy are not simple solutions. Communication is not simply message repetition, but includes the development of an environment for community involvement to espouse common values of humankind. With effective communication, worldwide health literacy can become a reality in the 21st century, embodying health as a central tenet of human life. PMID:11356759

Ratzan, S C

2001-06-01

283

Health literacy: communication for the public good.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article builds upon a presentation at the Fifth Global Health Conference on Health Promotion (Mexico City, 9 June 2000), seeking to advance the development of health literacy through effective communication. First, it offers a timely reflection for health promotion epistemology in particular, and the potential approach to framing health promotion activities in general, with health literacy as a bridging concept. The concept of health literacy is briefly explained and defined, followed by identification of some promising communication interventions to diffuse health literacy. Four predominant areas within the communication field are described that shed light on approaches for developing health literacy: integrated marketing communication, education, negotiation and social capital. Each component can contribute to strategic science-based communication. Finally, the article elucidates that communication and developing health literacy are not simple solutions. Communication is not simply message repetition, but includes the development of an environment for community involvement to espouse common values of humankind. With effective communication, worldwide health literacy can become a reality in the 21st century, embodying health as a central tenet of human life.

Ratzan SC

2001-06-01

284

Repetitive resonant railgun power supply  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. The supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles.

Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Nunnally, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

285

Comunicación social, preparativos y mitigación de desastres: visión de futuro Social communication, preparedness and mitigation of disasters: A vision for the future  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La comunicación para la prevención es un proceso complejo que requiere la acción de profesionales y población en general, donde el profesional en comunicación es un eje en su conjunto. La educación se centra no solo en el desarrollo de medidas inmediatas posteriores a los eventos, sino desde mucho antes, para consolidar los sitios inestables y persuadir a la población de reducir los niveles de riesgo que están dispuestos a aceptar. Las observaciones de los efectos en salud de un desastre en poblaciones permiten establecer áreas de intervención y definir acciones inmediatas. El empleo de encuestas y la evaluación inicial resultan prácticos para identificar las necesidades de las poblaciones afectadas; sin embargo, el establecimiento de sistemas de vigilancia en salud y la comunicación social constituyen la principal aplicación del método epidemiológico en la práctica actual. El carácter interdisciplinario de la epidemiología permite trascender la simple agregación de conceptos y prácticas sobre vigilancia epidemiológica para contribuir a una síntesis integral del conocimiento sobre temas específicos, como salud ambiental, servicios médicos y control de vectores antes, durante y con posterioridad a los desastres. El presente documento ofrece una herramienta para que los profesionales cooperantes mejoren la eficacia y la calidad de su asistencia y, de ese modo, aporten un cambio significativo a la vida de las personas afectadas por un desastre.Communication for prevention is a complex process requiring actions by professionals and general population as well, where the communication expert is the key. Education is focused not only on the development of immediate measures to be taken after the event but on the work carried out before that time, to consolidate unstable sites and to persuade the population to lower the risk levels that they are willing to accept. Observation of the health effects of a disaster on the populations allows setting intervention areas and defining immediate actions. The use of surveys and the initial evaluation served to identify in a practical way the needs of affected communities; however, the setting up of health surveillance systems and the social communication are the main applications of the epidemiological method in practice. The inter-disciplinary nature of epidemiology makes it possible to go beyond the simple addition of concepts and practices in epidemiological surveillance to provide a comprehensive summary of practices in specific topics such as environmental health, medical services and vector control before, during and after the disaster. The present paper offered a tool for professionals working in cooperation missions so that they can improve the efficiency and quality of their assistance, and thus make a significant change in the life of those persons affected by disasters.

Armando Rodríguez Salvá1; ;

2006-01-01

286

Communication competence, social support, and depression among college students: a model of facebook and face-to-face support network influence.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the influence of the social networking site Facebook and face-to-face support networks on depression among (N = 361) college students. The authors used the Relational Health Communication Competence Model as a framework for examining the influence of communication competence on social support network satisfaction and depression. Moreover, they examined the influence of interpersonal and social integrative motives as exogenous variables. On the basis of previous work, the authors propose and test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling. The results indicated empirical support for the model, with interpersonal motives predicting increased face-to-face and computer-mediated competence, increased social support satisfaction with face-to-face and Facebook support, and lower depression scores. The implications of the findings for theory, key limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23030518

Wright, Kevin B; Rosenberg, Jenny; Egbert, Nicole; Ploeger, Nicole A; Bernard, Daniel R; King, Shawn

2012-10-03

287

Communication competence, social support, and depression among college students: a model of facebook and face-to-face support network influence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the influence of the social networking site Facebook and face-to-face support networks on depression among (N = 361) college students. The authors used the Relational Health Communication Competence Model as a framework for examining the influence of communication competence on social support network satisfaction and depression. Moreover, they examined the influence of interpersonal and social integrative motives as exogenous variables. On the basis of previous work, the authors propose and test a theoretical model using structural equation modeling. The results indicated empirical support for the model, with interpersonal motives predicting increased face-to-face and computer-mediated competence, increased social support satisfaction with face-to-face and Facebook support, and lower depression scores. The implications of the findings for theory, key limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.

Wright KB; Rosenberg J; Egbert N; Ploeger NA; Bernard DR; King S

2013-01-01

288

Culture and Social Relationship as Factors of Affecting Communicative Non-Verbal Behaviors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this paper is to link a bridge between social relationship and cultural variation to predict conversants' non-verbal behaviors. This idea serves as a basis of establishing a parameter based socio-cultural model, which determines non-verbal expressive parameters that specify the shapes of...

Lipi, Afia Akhter; Nakano, Yukiko; Rehm, Matthias

289

The customer satisfaction in a nonprofit context: the role of social responsibility and its communication  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The academic debate concerning companies’ social responsibility, started to emerge no earlier than in the second half of the 20th century. From that time onwards the concept of CSR has gradually evolved extending its domain and giving rise to several theories, theoretical frameworks, approaches and ...

ANDREINI, DANIELA; PEDELIENTO, GIUSEPPE; SIGNORI, SILVANA

290

CONSUMER OPINIONS TOWARDS ONLINE MARKETING COMMUNICATION AND ADVERTISING ON SOCIAL NETWORKS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

On the Internet, a medium that has already proven its effectiveness in marketing activities, changes take place with astonishing speed. The recent explosion of social networking applications and their number of users has captured the marketers’ attention. Companies have started to rethink their rela...

Gheorghe ORZAN; Otilia-Elena PLATON

291

Social Interactions and Learning in an Informal Setting: An Ethnography of Communication in a Knitting Circle.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a study of a speech community, a group of approximately 10 women, aged 25 to 65, who met at least 3 times a month to knit, drink coffee, and chat. The paper notes that knitting circles have survived through history because they serve a social function that surpasses historical events--they are communities that co-construct the…

Jacobson, Anna

292

Occupational repetition strain injuries. Guidelines for diagnosis and management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Occupational repetition strain injuries (RSI) are a major, unchecked source of disability in industry and commerce, and have considerable social and economic consequences. The long-term morbidity associated with these injuries is preventable, but a coordinated approach to awareness, diagnosis, management, and prevention has been lacking. Confusing diagnostic terminology on medical certificates makes it difficult to obtain accurate data on the incidence and prevalence of different types of repetition injury. The terminology in use at present includes RSI, "tenosynovitis" and "overuse injury". Uniformity of diagnosis on an anatomical basis in relation to repetition or static load would greatly assist in epidemiological study, and improve notification and the impact of prevention programmes. Therefore, the Occupational Repetition Strain Injuries Advisory Committee, which was convened by the Division of Occupational Health, New South Wales Government Department of Industrial Relations, has prepared a set of guidelines for the diagnosis and management of these injuries.

Browne CD; Nolan BM; Faithfull DK

1984-03-01

293

Use of social communication as a tool for environmental licensing of small-scale hydroelectric power plants; Uso da comunicacao social como instrumento para o licenciamento ambiental de PCH - pequenas centrais hidreletricas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present work intends to study the process of environmental licensing of the Small ones Central Hydroelectric (PCHs) through the rising of the legal framework of the referred process and to analyze the application of tools of social communication in the mitigation of the social impacts in the zone of influence of the enterprise. Through the analysis of the critical points in the environmental licensing of small hydroelectric uses and evaluation of communication actions taking in consideration the environmental costs for the enterprise. (author)

Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Recursos Naturais], e-mail: tiago@unifei.edu.br; Galhardo, Camila Rocha [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Pequenas Centrais Hidreletricas (CERPCH), MG (Brazil)], e-mail: pchnoticias@unifei.edu.br

2006-07-01

294

Cross-cultural communication and co-ethnic social networks: perspectives and practices of independent community pharmacists in urban Britain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the role of the pharmacist in the delivery of community health care, anthropological research placing them at the center of enquiry has been limited. In this article, I explore the experience of independent community pharmacists in hyperdiverse, urban communities. Research was conducted in East and South-East London, combining participant observation within pharmacies and active interviews with pharmacists. Pharmacists' narratives highlighted a sense of closeness to the lifeworld concerns of customers. They identified their ability to use cultural capital to build relationships through the delivery of successful cross-cultural care and by acting as brokers or patrons within co-ethnic social networks. Pharmacists position themselves as communication 'experts,' employ multilingual staff, and stock less commonly available products to provide a 'specialist' service for customers in hyperdiverse communities. I suggest that the pharmacy is a neglected space, and demonstrate how the autonomy afforded by independent practice provides a flexible and inclusive approach.

Duckett K

2013-01-01

295

Opening the CSR Discourse for Critical Stakeholders in Social Media : When Official CSR Communication and Stakeholder Critique Interfere  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study examines how a contested fast food chain in the middle of on-going image transformation efforts opens the distorted discourse about CSR with a social media campaign and enables the interference of official corporate communication and stakeholder critique. The study examines how the company closes the CSR discourse and re-establishes the distorted discourse through various closing moves. Furthermore the study shows how the corporation resolves substantial and unsubstantial accusations by turning them into discursive resources and publicly frames neutralisation and denial of critique as a transparency campaign. Therewith the company is able to co-opt its critical consumers, address long-lasting critique and at the same time emphasis the commitment to its new values.

Etter, Michael

296

Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Young Children with Autism: Comparisons with Controls and Stability Over 2 Years.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities [RRBs] are among the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies have indicated that RRBs differentiate ASD from other developmental disorders and from typical development. This study examined the presentation of RRBs as reported on the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, a caregiver report, in children with ASD [separated into autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified groups] compared with children with nonspectrum developmental delays or typical development. We examined the role of age, cognitive functioning, sex and social communication impairment as they relate to RRBs. The stability of RRBs in children with autism was also examined over the course of 2 years. Results of the study confirmed that the amount and type of RRBs differs by diagnosis. Age, cognitive functioning, sex and social-communication impairment were not significant correlates. Among children with autism, RRBs remained stable over time. Autism Res 2013, ??: ??-??. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Joseph L; Thurm A; Farmer C; Shumway S

2013-07-01

297

The Socio-Communicational Style and the Need for Supervision of Professionals from the Social Services  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper aims to make an analysis of the way supervision is perceived in the Romanian professional community working with people in difficulty. Defining supervision includes four dimensions: a professional view, in which supervision is seen as a part of the integration process and professional development; a social support dimension; a third emphasizes learning, supervision as education, teaching; and the last dimension is that of control. In this study we performed a research on professionals involved in supervision: psychologists and social workers. Our findings show that education is the best accepted way of seeing supervision, while that of control is the most rejected one. A huge majority 94.5% of the investigated professionals appreciate the role of supervision. Approximately 50% of the subjects see the supervisor as educator. Professional development and professional learning are seen as the advantages of supervision.

Patricia-Luciana RUNCAN; Cosmin GOIAN; Lauren?iu TIRU

2012-01-01

298

Social networks improve leaderless group navigation by facilitating long-distance communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Group navigation is of great importance for many animals, such as migrating flocks of birds or shoals of fish. One theory states that group membership can improve navigational accuracy compared to limited or less accurate individual navigational ability in groups without leaders (“Many-wrongs principle”). Here, we simulate leaderless group navigation that includes social connections as preferential interactions between individuals. Our results suggest that underlying social networks can reduce navigational errors of groups and increase group cohesion. We use network summary statistics, in particular network motifs, to study which characteristics of networks lead to these improvements. It is networks in which preferences between individuals are not clustered, but spread evenly across the group that are advantageous in group navigation by effectively enhancing long-distance information exchange within groups. We suggest that our work predicts a base-line for the type of social structure we might expect to find in group-living animals that navigate without leaders [Current Zoology 58 (2): 329-341, 2012].

Nikolai W. F. BODE, A. Jamie WOOD, Daniel W. FRANKS

2012-01-01

299

Consumers and Corporate Social Responsibility Communication: What do they really want?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper discusses whether corporations pursuing a CSR strategy are successfully addressing consumers’ needs and desires. As is often noted, CSR initiatives are not easily presented to consumers, but little research has, however, been conducted to explain the exact rhetorical nature of this challenge. In fact, it appears that large corporations are experiencing considerable difficulty in selecting efficient CSR strategies and also the subsequent rhetoric for addressing, in particular, the consumer segment (Sen & Bhattacharya, 2001), In other words, there could be a disparity in the relationship between production and reception of CSR communication aimed at consumers waiting to be explored. As a first step towards understanding this mismatch, this project conducts a consumer survey. The focus of the paper will thus be on the design and development of a survey intended to uncover consumers’ general attitudes to CSR, the categories of responsibilities they see as most important (following Carroll’s pyramid of responsibilities as illustrated in Ramasamy & Yeung, 2008), initiatives preferred (Kotler & Lee) and whether they pay any attention to CSR communication at all. The issue of sampling of informants will also be discussed in the paper

Schmeltz, Line

300

Coping, social relations, and communication: A qualitative exploratory study of children of parents with cancer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The purpose of this qualitative study of families where a parent has cancer was to explore ways of informing the child of the parent's illness, how the child perceives the parent's emotional state, how the child copes with the parent's illness, and how this coping relates to the parent's coping and concerns for the child. Twenty-one children from 15 families and their parents were interviewed. In 13 families the mother was ill, in two the father. Children were aware of the facts of the illness, but there was limited emotional communication between the generations. The children were very observant of both the ill and the healthy parent's emotional condition. The children's observations and expressions led us to identify five coping strategies the younger generation used: Helping others, parentification, distraction, keeping it in the head, and wishful thinking. Both adaptive and destructive examples of parentification were found. Communication patterns and parental coping seemed to be highly related to the child's coping repertoire. Even though most children seemed to manage rather well, all children were strongly affected by the illness. The 'healthiest' adaptation related to factors within the family system, which has implications for the provision of help.

Thastum, Mikael; Johansen, Mikael Birkelund

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Commentary: Glass Half Full or Half Empty? Testing Social Communication Interventions for Young Children with Autism--Reflections on Landa, Holman, O'Neill, and Stuart (2011)  

Science.gov (United States)

|Impairments in social communication are the core diagnostic features of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the past two decades findings from important clinical research studies have translated into improvements in understanding and practice, for example leading to a reduction in the age at which autism is commonly first recognised and diagnosed…

Charman, Tony

2011-01-01

302

Evaluation of the Criterion and Convergent Validity of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders in Young and Low-Functioning Children  

Science.gov (United States)

The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO; Wing, 2006) is a standardized, semi-structured and interviewer-based schedule for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the criterion and convergent validity of the DISCO-11 ICD-10 algorithm in young and low-functioning…

Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

2012-01-01

303

Usability, Communicability and Cultural Tourism in Interactive Systems: Trends, Economic Effects and Social Impact  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed a set of techniques and an analysis methodology aimed at boosting the quality of interactive tourism systems. The details of it will be presented in full and with real examples which have yielded interesting results in the last few years, both from the social and economical point of view, but with a huge wealth of cultural and natural heritage. We will also present a first guidelines to foster tourism in those villages that are willing to promote themselves in the national and international market at a low cost.

Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.; Nicol, Emma; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel

304

Communication of Social Agents and the Digital City - A Semiotic Perspective  

CERN Document Server

This paper investigates the concept of digital city. First, a functional analysis of a digital city is made in the light of the modern study of urbanism; similarities between the virtual and urban constructions are pointed out. Next, a semiotic perspective on the subject matter is elaborated, and a terminological basis is introduced to treat a digital city as a self-organizing meaning-producing system intended to support social or spatial navigation. An explicit definition of a digital city is formulated. Finally, the proposed approach is discussed, conclusions are given, and future work is outlined.

Kryssanov, V V; Kakusho, K; Minoh, M; Kryssanov, Victor V.; Okabe, Masayuki; Kakusho, Koh; Minoh, Michihiko

2006-01-01

305

Scientific Communication and Cognitive Codification: Social Systems Theory and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge  

CERN Document Server

The intellectual organization of the sciences cannot be appreciated sufficiently unless the cognitive dimension is considered as an independent source of variance. Cognitive structures interact and co-construct the organization of scholars and discourses into research programs, specialties, and disciplines. In the sociology of scientific knowledge and the sociology of translation, these heterogeneous sources of variance have been homogenized a priori in the concepts of practices and actor-networks. Practices and actor-networks, however, can be explained in terms of the self-organization of the cognitive code in scientific communication. The code selects knowledge claims by organizing them operationally in the various discourses; the claims can thus be stabilized and potentially globalized. Both the selecting codes and the variation in the knowledge claims remain constructed, but the different sub-dynamics can be expected to operate asymmetrically and to update with other frequencies.

Leydesdorff, Loet

2009-01-01

306

Does Facebook Promote Self-Interest? Enactment of Indiscriminate One-to-Many Communication on Online Social Networking Sites Decreases Prosocial Behavior.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Communication tools on social networking sites (SNSs) provide users with an efficient way to distribute information to the public and/or their friends simultaneously. In this article, we show that this kind of indiscriminate one-to-many (i.e., monologue) communication, in which the diverse interests of recipients are not considered, may induce a tendency toward egocentrism that interferes with other-oriented concerns, resulting in a reduced inclination to display prosocial behavior. In Experiment 1, participants induced to post a public communication subsequently allocated less money to anonymous strangers in the dictator game than did control participants. In Experiment 2, participants directing a post about participation in an experiment to their Facebook friends volunteered to help code fewer data sheets than did controls. Moreover, an egocentric state was shown to mediate the relationship between indiscriminate one-to-many communication and helping behavior. We provide the first demonstration that indiscriminate one-to-many communication on online social networks may be associated with a tendency toward self-interest. Our results suggest that the prevalence of monologue communication on SNSs may induce an egocentric tendency that undermines the likelihood of prosocial behavior.

Chiou WB; Chen SW; Liao DC

2013-10-01

307

Emotional response to musical repetition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure. PMID:21707165

Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery

2011-06-27

308

Paucity of moderately repetitive sequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We examined clones of renatured repetitive human DNA to find novel repetitive DNAs. After eliminating known repeats, the remaining clones were subjected to sequence analysis. These clones also corresponded to known repeats, but with greater sequence diversity. This indicates that either these libraries were depleted of short interspersed repeats in construction, or these repeats are much less prevalent in the human genome than is indicated by data from {und Xenopus} or sea urchin studies. We directly investigated the sequence composition of human DNA through traditional renaturation techniques with the goal of estimating the limits of abundance of repetitive sequence classes in human DNA. Our results sharply limit the maximum possible abundance to 1--2% of the human genome. Our estimate, minus the known repeats in this fraction, leaves about 1% (3 {times} 10{sup 7} nucleotides) of the human genome for novel repetitive elements. 2 refs. (MHB)

Schmid, C.W.

1991-01-01

309

Repetitive Breech Presentations at Term  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors present a case of 38-year-old laboring woman with four-time repetitive breech presentation of the fetus at term. This rare condition affects the mode of delivery and represents serious obstetrical problem as it is associated with increased perinatal morbidity or mortality. The authors give details on risk factors for breech presentation, its diagnosis, and the discussion points on possible causes leading to repetitive breeches in laboring women.

Zigo, Imrich; Sivakova, Jana; Moricova, Petra; Kapustova, Ivana; Krivus, Stefan; Danko, Jan

2013-01-01

310

Repetitive liquid fuse opening switch  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a physical consideration of a non-destructive, liquid fuse opening switch for repetitive operation. An analytical form of the opening time of the switch is given, which is checked by numerical computations. The condition for regular operation of an repetitive liquid-fuse opening switch is demonstrated for a case involving the use of a closed channel flow of liquid metal through a liquid dielectric.

Ikuta, Kazunari

1987-11-01

311

Repetitive liquid fuse opening switch  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This paper describes a physical consideration of a non-destructive, liquid fuse opening switch for repetitive operation. An analytical form of the opening time of the switch is given, which is checked by numerical computations. The condition for regular operation of an repetitive liquid-fuse opening switch is demonstrated for a case involving the use of a closed channel flow of liquid metal through a liquid dielectric. (author)

1987-01-01

312

Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted ...

Anderson-Hanley C; Tureck K; Schneiderman RL

313

Social dataset analysis and mapping tools for Risk Perception: resilience, people preparation and communication tools  

Science.gov (United States)

Perception has been identified as resource and part of the resilience of a community to disasters. Risk perception, if present, may determine the potential damage a household or community experience. Different levels of risk perception and preparedness can influence directly people's susceptibility and the way they might react in case of an emergency caused by natural hazards. In spite of the profuse literature about risk perception, works to spatially portray this feature are really scarce. The spatial relationship to danger or hazard is being recognised as an important factor of the risk equation; it can be used as a powerful tool either for better knowledge or for operational reasons (e.g. management of preventive information). Risk perception and people's awareness when displayed in a spatial format can be useful for several actors in the risk management arena. Local authorities and civil protection can better address educational activities to increase the preparation of particularly vulnerable groups of clusters of households within a community. It can also be useful for the emergency personal in order to optimally direct the actions in case of an emergency. In the framework of the Marie Curie Research Project, a Community Based Early Warning System (CBEWS) it's been developed in the Mountain Community Valtellina of Tirano, northern Italy. This community has been continuously exposed to different mass movements and floods, in particular, a large event in 1987 which affected a large portion of the valley and left 58 dead. The actual emergency plan for the study area is composed by a real time, highly detailed, decision support system. This emergency plan contains detailed instructions for the rapid deployment of civil protection and other emergency personal in case of emergency, for risk scenarios previously defined. Especially in case of a large event, where timely reaction is crucial for reducing casualties, it is important for those in charge of emergency management, to know in advance the different levels of risk perception and preparedness existing among several sectors of the population. Knowing where the most vulnerable population is located may optimize the use of resources, better direct the initial efforts and organize the evacuation and attention procedures. As part of the CBEWS, a comprehensive survey was applied in the study area to measure, among others features, the levels of risk perception, preparation and information received about natural hazards. After a statistical and direct analysis on a complete social dataset recorded, a spatial information distribution is actually in progress. Based on boundaries features (municipalities and sub-districts) of Italian Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), a local scale background has been granted (a private address level is not accessible for privacy rules so the local districts-ID inside municipality has been the detail level performed) and a spatial location of the surveyed population has been completed. The geometric component has been defined and actually it is possible to create a local distribution of social parameters derived from perception questionnaries results. A lot of raw information and social-statistical analysis offer different mirror and "visual concept" of risk perception. For this reason a concrete complete GeoDB is under working for the complete organization of the dataset. By a technical point of view the environment for data sharing is based on a complete open source web-service environment, to offer manually-made and user-friendly interface to this kind of information. Final aim is to offer different switches of dataset, using the same scale prototype and data hierarchical structure, to provide and compare social location of risk perception in the most detailed level.

Peters-Guarin, Graciela; Garcia, Carolina; Frigerio, Simone

2010-05-01

314

Topic Repetitiveness after Traumatic Brain Injury: An Emergent, Jointly Managed Behaviour  

Science.gov (United States)

Topic repetitiveness is a common component of pragmatic impairment and a powerful contributor to social exclusion. Despite this, description, characterization and intervention remain underdeveloped. This article explores the nature of repetitiveness in traumatic brain injury (TBI). A case study of one individual after TBI provides the basis for a…

Body, Richard; Parker, Mark

2005-01-01

315

Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cay Anderson-Hanley, Kimberly Tureck, Robyn L Schneiderman Department of Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY, USA Abstract: Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum. Keywords: autism, repetitive behaviors, exergaming, exercise, executive function

Anderson-Hanley C; Tureck K; Schneiderman RL

2011-01-01

316

Using the picture exchange communication system (PECS) with children with autism: assessment of PECS acquisition, speech, social-communicative behavior, and problem behavior.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is an augmentative communication system frequently used with children with autism (Bondy & Frost, 1994; Siegel, 2000; Yamall, 2000). Despite its common clinical use, no well-controlled empirical investigations have been conducted to test the effective...

Charlop-Christy, Marjorie H; Carpenter, Michael; Le, Loc; LeBlanc, Linda A; Kellet, Kristen

317

Comunicar la responsabilidad social, una opción de éxito empresarial poco explorada/ Communicating social responsibility, an option of corporative success to be explored in more detail/ Comunicar a responsabilidade social, uma opção de sucesso empresarial pouco explorada  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente escrito propõe um trabalho mancomunado entre a comunicação organizacional e a responsabilidade social empresarial não como panaceia ou resposta definitiva a todas as dificuldades, mas sim como uma opção de sucesso organizacional que se enfoca em primeira medida no reforço dos processos internos com o fim de que isto se projete para o exterior. Para contextualizar isto se faz um percurso pelas diferentes situações que deveram ultrapassar as organizaçõ (more) es já que a projeção para o exterior entendida como competitividade obrigou às empresas a realizar mudanças em sua produtividade e, portanto nos processos internos; implacáveis mudanças e exigências do mercado que se vêm dando desde faz já várias décadas mas que ainda referem esforços e geram dificuldades. A proposta sugere que não é suficiente fazer responsabilidade social empresarial, é necessário comunicá-la, mas não somente para o exterior como foi costume até hoje, é vital integrar ao público interno primeiro que tudo, contando com que isto atrai um inumerável de benefícios que vão além da produtividade, como o sentido de pertence, o compromisso, a motivação, a satisfação no cargo e o trabalho em equipe, entre outros. Abstract in spanish El presente escrito propone un trabajo mancomunado entre la comunicación organizacional y la responsabilidad social empresarial no como panacea o respuesta definitiva a todas las dificultades pero sí como una opción de éxito organizacional que se enfoca en primera medida en el refuerzo de los procesos internos con el fin de que esto se proyecte hacia el exterior. Para contextualizar esto se hace un recorrido por las diferentes situaciones que han debido sobrepasar las (more) organizaciones ya que la proyección hacia el exterior entendida como competitividad, ha obligado a las empresas a realizar cambios en su productividad y por ende en los procesos internos; implacables cambios y exigencias del mercado que se vienen dando desde hace ya varias décadas pero que aún refieren esfuerzos y generan dificultades. El planteamiento sugiere que no es suficiente hacer responsabilidad social empresarial, es necesario comunicarla, pero no solamente hacia el exterior como ha sido costumbre hasta hoy, es vital integrar al público interno primero que todo, contando con que esto atrae un sinnúmero de beneficios que van más allá de la productividad, como el sentido de pertenencia, el compromiso, la motivación, la satisfacción en el cargo y el trabajo en equipo, entre otros. Abstract in english This paper proposes a join work between organizational communication and social responsibility no as a panacea or a definite response to all the difficulties, but as an option of organizational success primarily focused on the reinforcement of internal processes and projecting that success externally. In order to give this idea an appropriate context, a journey going through the variety of situations that have had to be surpassed by organizations, given the fact that the (more) external projection understood as competitiveness has made companies make changes in their productivity and, therefore, in their internal processes. Those changes and demands of the market have been taking place during the last decades and still require efforts and bring difficulties. The proposal suggests that it is not enough to make social responsibility. It has to be communicated and that communication must not be only external, as it has been so far, but internal, involving those stakeholders who are inside the organization, as a priority. This brings a priceless number of benefits that go beyond productivity such as sense of belonging, commitment, motivation, satisfaction and teamwork, among others.

Castaño González, Esther Julia

2011-07-01

318

Diseño y Validación de una Escala de Competencia Comunicativa y Social para Niños/ Design and Validation of a Scale of Communicative and Social Skill for Children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se exponen los resultados del diseño y validación de la escala de competencia comunicativa y social (ECCSO) en 1673 niños chilenos entre 9 y 15 años de edad (669 de sexo masculino y 1004 de sexo femenino). El alfa de Cronbach del formato para niños, padres y profesores fue de 0.93,0.95 y 0.97 respectivamente. El análisis factorial exploratorio con el formato para niños arrojó 8 factores que explican el 30.16% de la varianza. La ECCSO logró predecir el 50% de la v (more) ariabilidad de los puntajes de la Escala de Autoestima de Rosenberg. La validez convergente fue calculada para aquellos niños (n=52) que fueron evaluados simultáneamente por sus padres y profesores; encontrándose moderada convergencia entre niños y padres; divergencia entre niños y profesores; y nula convergencia entre profesores y padres. Para el puntaje total en la ECCSO las niñas obtuvieron mejores puntajes que los niños y no se observaron diferencias por curso y el efecto de interacción entre el sexo y la edad no fue significativo. Abstract in english This arricie show results about design and validation of the communicative and social competence scale (ECCSO) in 1673 Chilean children, between 9 and 15 years oíd (669 male and 1004 female sex). Cronbach's alpha for children, parents and teachers formats were 0.93, 0.95 and 0.97 respectively. Exploratory Factor Analy sis (EFA) was made for children's format showing 8 factors to explain 30.16% of variance. The ECCSO could predict 50% of variability in the scores of Rosen (more) berg's Self-Esteem Scale. The convergent validity was calculated for those children (n=52) who were assessed by parents and teachers; finding a modérate convergence between children and parents scores; divergence between children and teachers; and nuil con-vergence between teachers and parents. Girls showed a total score in ECCSO higher than boys; differences between grade, and interaction effect between age and sex were not significant.

Castillo, Ramón D; Pérez-Salas, Claudia P; Bravo, Carolina; Cancino, Marcelo G; Catalán, Joselinne; Acosta, Hedy C

2008-12-01

319

Repetition blindness in schizophrenic patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Repetition blindness is the failure to report the detection of repeated items in rapid visually presented lists. It can be explained in terms of either a processing limitation or an active inhibitory process. In two studies conducted in either English or German language we set out to induce repetition blindness under various conditions in a total of 47 control subjects and 30 schizophrenic patients. The patients displayed the phenomenon to at least the same degree as normal control subjects. These results render unlikely accounts of repetition blindness which involve processes known to be dysfunctional in schizophrenic patients. Moreover, the study provides an example of how the performance of schizophrenic patients can constrain theories of normal cognition. PMID:9728732

Kammer, T; Saleh, F; Oepen, G; ManschreckT; Seyyedi, S; Kanwisher, N; Furmanski, C; Spitzer, M

1998-01-01

320

Repetitions in beta-integers  

CERN Document Server

Classical crystals are solid materials containing arbitrarily long periodic repetitions of a single motif. In this paper, we study the maximal possible repetition of the same motif occurring in beta-integers -- one dimensional models of quasicrystals. We are interested in beta-integers realizing only a finite number of distinct distances between neighboring elements. In such a case, the problem may be reformulated in terms of combinatorics on words as a study of the index of infinite words coding beta-integers. We will solve a particular case for beta being a quadratic non-simple Parry number.

Balková, L; Pelantová, E

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Stereotypes Communication  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We live in a world, which is becoming a Global Village in which information and communication attract people’s attention more than ever before. Our desire to communicate with strangers and our relationships with them depend on the degree to which we are effective in communicating with them. There are so many factors restricting or improving people’s communication. This essay gives an analysis based on one factor called stereotypes. In intercultural research, the influence of stereotypes on people’s behaviors in communication is a very important issue to take into account. This paper aims to illustrate stereotypes from the aspects of their social and psychological perspectives, great influence on people’s communication, the problems they may cause, and some solutions.

Shuli Zhang; Dongyuan Deng

2009-01-01

322

Basler Consensus Statement "Kommunikative und soziale Kompetenzen im Medizinstudium": Ein Positionspapier des GMA-Ausschusses Kommunikative und soziale Kompetenzen [Basel Consensus Statement "Communicative and Social Competencies in Medical Education": A Position Paper of the GMA Committee Communicative and Social Competencies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available [english] Purpose: The purpose of the position paper is to present a guideline about which communicative and social competencies medical students should have achieved at the end of their medical studies. This guideline is based on a consensus of experts from different disciplines and medical faculties. Referring to the English-speaking consensus statements developed in Toronto and Kalamazoo, the German speaking guideline has been called “Basel Consensus Statement”. Methods: The guideline was developed in three steps, an initial two-day workshop in Basel, followed by a two-step Delphi-survey. The aim of the Delphi-survey was to evaluate the competencies and educational objectives that were developed at the workshop in Basel according to their importance for medical education. 30 persons attended the workshop. They were also the target group for the first Delphi-round. Recipients of the second Delphi-round were the members of the Association for Medical Education in German-speaking countries. 77 persons participated in the survey. Altogether, over 100 persons from 30 different faculties could be involved into the development of the guideline. Results: Based on the survey results, five areas of competencies were defined divided in general and specific competencies. These areas were operationalised into topics and educational objectives. The areas of specific competencies are: doctor-patient-relationship, teamwork, personality and professionalism, reasoning and decision making. Altogether, 19 themes and 131 educational objectives were enclosed into the guideline. Conclusion: The position paper presents a first interdisciplinary German speaking guideline for communicative and social competencies in medical education that hopefully will strengthen the importance of these competencies in medicine. In addition, it will hopefully be a worthwhile theoretical foundation for improving teaching, learning, and assessment in this field. [german] Zielsetzung: Ziel des vorliegenden Positionspapiers ist es, abgestützt auf einen interdisziplinären und fakultätsübergreifenden Konsens, Empfehlungen darzustellen, welche kommunikativen und sozialen Kompetenzen Medizinstudierende am Ende ihres Studiums besitzen sollten. In Anlehnung an die bestehenden angloamerikanischen Consensus Statements, die in Toronto und Kalamazoo erarbeitet wurden, wird die vorliegende deutschsprachige Empfehlung „Basler Consensus Statement“ genannt. Methodik: Die Entwicklung erfolgte in drei Schritten, einem zweitätigen Workshop in Basel und einer zweistufigen Delphi-Befragung. Ziel der Delphi-Befragungen war es, die Kompetenzbereiche und Ausbildungsziele, die in Basel erarbeitet worden waren, nach ihrer Wichtigkeit für das Medizinstudium zu beurteilen. Am Workshop nahmen 30 Personen teil, die auch die Adressaten der ersten Delphi-Befragung waren. In die zweite Delphi-Befragung wurden die Mitglieder der Gesellschaft für Medizinische Ausbildung (GMA) einbezogen, von denen 77 Personen an der Befragung teilnahmen. Insgesamt konnten damit über 100 Personen aus 30 Fakultäten im deutschsprachigen Raum in den Entwicklungsprozess involviert werden. Ergebnisse: Auf der Basis der Ergebnisse der ersten und zweiten Delphi-Runde ergaben sich fünf Kompetenzbereiche, die in allgemeine und spezifische Kompetenzen unterteilt wurden. Für beide wurden Themengebiete und Ausbildungsziele festgelegt. Die spezifischen Kompetenzen umfassen die Bereiche: Ärztin-Patientin-Beziehung, Teamarbeit, Persönlichkeit und Professionalität, Urteilsbildung und Entscheidungsfindung. Insgesamt wurden 19 Themengebiete und 131 Ausbildungsziele in die Empfehlung aufgenommen. Fazit: Mit dem Basler Consensus Statement liegt nun ein diskussionswürdiges deutschsprachiges Positionspapier vor, das die Wertigkeit kommunikativer und sozialer Kompetenzen als einen wichtigen curricularen Bestandteil stärken wird und das als Basis für die curriculare Entwicklung in diesem Bereich fungieren kann.

Kiessling, Claudia; Dieterich, Anja; Fabry, Götz; Hölzer, Henrike; Langewitz, Wolf; Mühlinghaus, Isabel; Pruskil, Susanne; Scheffer, Simone; Schubert, Sebastian

2008-01-01

323

A Generalization of Repetition Threshold  

CERN Multimedia

Brandenburg and (implicitly) Dejean introduced the concept of repetition threshold: the smallest real number alpha such that there exists an infinite word over a k-letter alphabet that avoids beta-powers for all beta>alpha. We generalize this concept to include the lengths of the avoided words. We give some conjectures supported by numerical evidence and prove one of these conjectures.

Ilie, L; Ilie, Lucian; Shallit, Jeffrey

2003-01-01

324

A ciência nos meios de comunicação de massa: divulgação de conhecimento ou reforço do imaginário social? The Science in mass communication: popularization of knowledge or social reinforcement of the imaginary?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O texto descreve a crise teórico-metodológica da ciência moderna instaurada no século XX, contraposta ao imaginário social presente na recepção da ciência divulgada pelos meios de comunicação de massa. A descrição demonstra que há um paradoxo entre a produção do conhecimento científico, forjado nos centros e instituições científicas, e a visão geral daqueles que recebem as informações científicas via meios de comunicação de massa. Para tanto, o trabalho estrutura-se em quatro etapas: 1º) descreve o processo da crise teórico-metodológica da ciência no século XX, no âmbito acadêmico; 2º) analisa a formação dos elementos constitutivos do imaginário social, sob a perspectiva sociológica; 3º) analisa as condições da ciência como informação nos meios de comunicação de massa; 4º) demonstra a veiculação das informações científicas dos meios de comunicação de massa, exemplificada pela leitura da revista Superinteressante.The text describes the context of the theoretical-methodological crisis of modern science established in the XX century as opposed to the present social imaginary in the reception of science disclosed in mass communication. The analysis demonstrates that there is a paradox between the production of scientific knowledge forged in scientific institutions and the general vision of those that receive the scientific information through means of mass communication. The work has four consecutive themes: firstly, it describes the process of the theoretical-methodological crisis of science in the XX century in the academic realm; later on, it analyzes the formation of the constituent social elements of the imaginary, from a sociological perspective; in the third section , it analyzes the conditions of science as information within mass communication. And, lastly, it describes the means of mass communication with its scientific popularization, exemplified by the reading of the magazine Superinteressante.

Márcia Reami Pechula

2007-01-01

325

Autism and exergaming: effects on repetitive behaviors and cognition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that leads to impairment in social skills and delay in language development, and results in repetitive behaviors and restricted interests that impede academic and social involvement. Physical exercise has been shown to decrease repetitive behaviors in autistic children and improve cognitive function across the life-span. Exergaming combines physical and mental exercise simultaneously by linking physical activity movements to video game control and may yield better compliance with exercise. In this investigation, two pilot studies explored the potential behavioral and cognitive benefits of exergaming. In Pilot I, twelve children with autism spectrum disorders completed a control task and an acute bout of Dance Dance Revolution (DDR); in Pilot II, ten additional youths completed an acute bout of cyber cycling. Repetitive behaviors and executive function were measured before and after each activity. Repetitive behaviors significantly decreased, while performance on Digits Backwards improved following the exergaming conditions compared with the control condition. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings, and to explore the application of exergaming for the management of behavioral disturbance and to increase cognitive control in children on the autism spectrum.

Anderson-Hanley C; Tureck K; Schneiderman RL

2011-01-01

326

O objeto das ciências sociais e a virada comunicativa: Adorno após Habermas/ The object of social sciences and the communicative turn: Adorno after Habermas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O artigo procura reconsiderar as críticas de Jürgen Habermas à teoria social de Theodor Adorno. Inicialmente, analisamos as razões apresentadas por Habermas para abandonar a crítica dialética do processo de racionalização social. Em seguida, para expor nossas objeções a essa interpretação, reconstruímos duas teses que, embora essenciais à crítica de Adorno ao processo de modernização vigente, foram deslocadas pelo paradigma da ação comunicativa. Por fim (more) , através da relação entre linguagem e racionalidade que Adorno estabelece, sugerimos um tratamento diferente ao lugar da comunicação na constituição das sociedades contemporâneas. Abstract in english The article intends to reconsider the critique of Theodor Adorno's Social Theory formulated by Jürgen Habermas. In the first part of the text we analyze in detail the reasons Habermas enounces to leave behind the dialectical criticism of the process of social rationalization. In order to put forward our objections to Habermas' interpretation we reconstruct, in the second part, two essential thesis, which became displaced by the paradigm of communicative action, and which (more) had served Adorno to elaborate his criticism of the prevailing modernization process. As a conclusion, we propose a different understanding of the roll played by communication in the constitution of contemporary societies, through an analysis - based upon Adorno - of the relationship between language and rationality.

Catanzaro, Gisela; Ipar, Ezequiel

2012-01-01

327

O objeto das ciências sociais e a virada comunicativa: Adorno após Habermas The object of social sciences and the communicative turn: Adorno after Habermas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O artigo procura reconsiderar as críticas de Jürgen Habermas à teoria social de Theodor Adorno. Inicialmente, analisamos as razões apresentadas por Habermas para abandonar a crítica dialética do processo de racionalização social. Em seguida, para expor nossas objeções a essa interpretação, reconstruímos duas teses que, embora essenciais à crítica de Adorno ao processo de modernização vigente, foram deslocadas pelo paradigma da ação comunicativa. Por fim, através da relação entre linguagem e racionalidade que Adorno estabelece, sugerimos um tratamento diferente ao lugar da comunicação na constituição das sociedades contemporâneas.The article intends to reconsider the critique of Theodor Adorno's Social Theory formulated by Jürgen Habermas. In the first part of the text we analyze in detail the reasons Habermas enounces to leave behind the dialectical criticism of the process of social rationalization. In order to put forward our objections to Habermas' interpretation we reconstruct, in the second part, two essential thesis, which became displaced by the paradigm of communicative action, and which had served Adorno to elaborate his criticism of the prevailing modernization process. As a conclusion, we propose a different understanding of the roll played by communication in the constitution of contemporary societies, through an analysis - based upon Adorno - of the relationship between language and rationality.

Gisela Catanzaro; Ezequiel Ipar

2012-01-01

328

Perfil funcional de comunicação e desempenho sócio-cognitivo de adolescentes autistas institucionalizados Functional communicative profile and social-cognitive performance of institutionalized autistic adolescents  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi descrever as características funcionais da comunicação de adolescentes autistas institucionalizados, ao longo de um período de aproximadamente seis meses, nos aspectos de: número de atos comunicativos por minuto, proporção de interpessoalidade da comunicação e proporção de utilização dos meios comunicativos gestual, vocal e verbal assim como descrever as características do desempenho sócio-cognitivo dos sujeitos ao longo desse período. MÉTODOS: foram sujeitos dessa pesquisa oito adolescentes autistas institucionalizados que foram avaliados durante seis meses quanto ao perfil funcional de comunicação e ao desempenho sócio-cognitivo. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística não paramétrica. RESULTADOS: foi observada evolução quanto ao número de atos comunicativos por minuto e à proporção de funções comunicativas interpessoais, mas não foi observada evolução significativa quanto aos aspectos sócio-cognitivos. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível observar evolução na linguagem em adolescentes autistas institucionalizados num período de tempo de seis meses, mas não foi possível identificar correlações com o desempenho sócio-cognitivo.PURPOSE: this study aims at describing the functional communication characteristics of institutionalized autistic adolescents for a period of six months approximately as for: number of communicative acts per minute, interpersonal proportion and means of proportion communication use (gestural, vocal, verbal) as well as to describe the subjects' characteristics as for social cognitive performance in this period. METHODS: the subjects were eight institutionalized adolescents with autism. Their functional communicative profile and social-cognitive performance were assessed during a six-month period and resulting data were analyzed with non-parametric statistic methods. RESULTS: it was possible to observe that there was an improvement in the number of communicative acts per minute and in the proportion of interpersonal communicative functions. No significant change was observed as for the social-cognitive performance. CONCLUSION: it was possible to observe evolution in the language of institutionalized adolescents with autism during a six-month period, but it was not possible to identify its correlation with their social-cognitive performance.

Danielle Azarias Defense; Fernanda Dreux Miranda Fernandes

2011-01-01

329

Perfil funcional de comunicação e desempenho sócio-cognitivo de adolescentes autistas institucionalizados/ Functional communicative profile and social-cognitive performance of institutionalized autistic adolescents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: o objetivo dessa pesquisa foi descrever as características funcionais da comunicação de adolescentes autistas institucionalizados, ao longo de um período de aproximadamente seis meses, nos aspectos de: número de atos comunicativos por minuto, proporção de interpessoalidade da comunicação e proporção de utilização dos meios comunicativos gestual, vocal e verbal assim como descrever as características do desempenho sócio-cognitivo dos sujeitos ao lo (more) ngo desse período. MÉTODOS: foram sujeitos dessa pesquisa oito adolescentes autistas institucionalizados que foram avaliados durante seis meses quanto ao perfil funcional de comunicação e ao desempenho sócio-cognitivo. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística não paramétrica. RESULTADOS: foi observada evolução quanto ao número de atos comunicativos por minuto e à proporção de funções comunicativas interpessoais, mas não foi observada evolução significativa quanto aos aspectos sócio-cognitivos. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível observar evolução na linguagem em adolescentes autistas institucionalizados num período de tempo de seis meses, mas não foi possível identificar correlações com o desempenho sócio-cognitivo. Abstract in english PURPOSE: this study aims at describing the functional communication characteristics of institutionalized autistic adolescents for a period of six months approximately as for: number of communicative acts per minute, interpersonal proportion and means of proportion communication use (gestural, vocal, verbal) as well as to describe the subjects' characteristics as for social cognitive performance in this period. METHODS: the subjects were eight institutionalized adolescents (more) with autism. Their functional communicative profile and social-cognitive performance were assessed during a six-month period and resulting data were analyzed with non-parametric statistic methods. RESULTS: it was possible to observe that there was an improvement in the number of communicative acts per minute and in the proportion of interpersonal communicative functions. No significant change was observed as for the social-cognitive performance. CONCLUSION: it was possible to observe evolution in the language of institutionalized adolescents with autism during a six-month period, but it was not possible to identify its correlation with their social-cognitive performance.

Defense, Danielle Azarias; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

2011-12-01

330

Divulgação da responsabilidade social empresarial: como os websites empresariais vêm sendo utilizados por empresas de energia e varejo A comparison of corporate social responsibility communication on the web between the electricity and supermarket sectors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O fenômeno da Responsabilidade Social das Empresas (RSE) na gestão dos negócios vem sendo cada vez mais debatido, com isso, fazem-se necessários estudos mais diversificados relacionados a esta temática em ascensão. Este trabalho busca analisar em seis grandes empresas dos setores de distribuição de energia e varejo atuantes no Nordeste, como a RSE está sendo divulgada através dos seus websites institucionais, levando em consideração que a internet é uma poderosa ferramenta de comunicação. No referencial teórico são apresentados a evolução dos estudos da RSE e o conceito de marketing social. Os indicadores que auxiliaram na avaliação da divulgação das informações relacionadas à responsabilidade social pela Internet são apresentados na metodologia. O levantamento realizado e a análise de dados não identificaram diferenças muito significativas entre as empresas dos dois setores investigados.Interest on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Brazil has grown and a large number of academic papers and business discussions have followed, showing the need for more diversity of studies. The Internet has become an important tool for corporations publishing their reports and other types of CSR communication. This paper analyzes how the CSR communication through corporate websites has been published, particularly by comparing two industry sectors: electricity and supermarket. The results show that no major differences were found between these two in the way they publish CSR related information on the web.

José Milton de Sousa Filho; Lilian Soares Outttes Wanderley

2007-01-01

331

Divulgação da responsabilidade social empresarial: como os websites empresariais vêm sendo utilizados por empresas de energia e varejo/ A comparison of corporate social responsibility communication on the web between the electricity and supermarket sectors  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O fenômeno da Responsabilidade Social das Empresas (RSE) na gestão dos negócios vem sendo cada vez mais debatido, com isso, fazem-se necessários estudos mais diversificados relacionados a esta temática em ascensão. Este trabalho busca analisar em seis grandes empresas dos setores de distribuição de energia e varejo atuantes no Nordeste, como a RSE está sendo divulgada através dos seus websites institucionais, levando em consideração que a internet é uma poder (more) osa ferramenta de comunicação. No referencial teórico são apresentados a evolução dos estudos da RSE e o conceito de marketing social. Os indicadores que auxiliaram na avaliação da divulgação das informações relacionadas à responsabilidade social pela Internet são apresentados na metodologia. O levantamento realizado e a análise de dados não identificaram diferenças muito significativas entre as empresas dos dois setores investigados. Abstract in english Interest on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Brazil has grown and a large number of academic papers and business discussions have followed, showing the need for more diversity of studies. The Internet has become an important tool for corporations publishing their reports and other types of CSR communication. This paper analyzes how the CSR communication through corporate websites has been published, particularly by comparing two industry sectors: electricity and s (more) upermarket. The results show that no major differences were found between these two in the way they publish CSR related information on the web.

Sousa Filho, José Milton de; Wanderley, Lilian Soares Outttes

2007-06-01

332

Compact repetitively pulsed excimer laser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An excimer laser is described with a gain volume of 20 cm/sup 3/ and capable of repetition rates on the order of 10 Hz using a simple pulse-charge circuit and gas flow loop. With gas mixtures typical of the XeCl species, maximum single-pulse output energies of 15 mJ are obtained at charge voltages of 30 kV and run times are on the order of hours for a single gas fill.

Cohn, D.B.; Conley, E.E.

1983-02-01

333

Chromosome specific repetitive DNA sequences  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is provided for determining specific nucleotide sequences useful in forming a probe which can identify specific chromosomes, preferably through in situ hybridization within the cell itself. In one embodiment, chromosome preferential nucleotide sequences are first determined from a library of recombinant DNA clones having families of repetitive sequences. Library clones are identified with a low homology with a sequence of repetitive DNA families to which the first clones respectively belong and variant sequences are then identified by selecting clones having a pattern of hybridization with genomic DNA dissimilar to the hybridization pattern shown by the respective families. In another embodiment, variant sequences are selected from a sequence of a known repetitive DNA family. The selected variant sequence is classified as chromosome specific, chromosome preferential, or chromosome nonspecific. Sequences which are classified as chromosome preferential are further sequenced and regions are identified having a low homology with other regions of the chromosome preferential sequence or with known sequences of other family me This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

Moyzis, Robert K. (Los Alamos, NM); Meyne, Julianne (Los Alamos, NM)

1991-01-01

334

Autonomía, ética e intervención social. Una propuesta desde la ética del discurso y la acción comunicativa para el trabajo social contemporáneo Autonomy, Ethics and Social Intervention. A Proposal from the Ethics of the Discourse and the Communicative Action for the Contemporary Social Work  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uno de los desafíos permanente de la intervención del Trabajo Social es propiciar la solidaridad. Hoy, en medio de una modernidad en crisis, la autonomía de los sujetos se esgrime como punta de lanza para la intervención social. Para el Trabajo Social surgen dilemas éticos relacionados con la forma de potenciar en su accionar la autonomía individual articulada a la solidaridad. En este artículo se presenta una propuesta de intervención social relacionada con la ética discursiva y la teoría de la acción comunicativa de Jürgen HabermasOne of the challenges for the Social Work intervention is the promotion of solidarity. Nowadays, in the middle of a modernity in crisis, the autonomy of the individuals rises as the main argument for the social intervention. For the action of the Social Work there are ethical dilemmas related to the way to strengthen the individual autonomy linked to solidarity. This paper shows a proposal of intervention related to the ethics of the discourse and the communicative action theory by Jürgen Habermas

Pérez Mendoza Liliana

2008-01-01

335

Desempenho sócio-cognitivo e adaptação sócio-comunicativa em diferentes grupos incluídos no espectro autístico Social-cognitive performance and social-communicative adaptation in different groups of the autistic spectrum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available TEMA: as pesquisas quanto à inter-relação entre os aspectos de linguagem, cognição e socialização, vêm evoluindo desde a década de 70. Na perspectiva pragmática a linguagem é mediadora do desenvolvimento da socialização, permitindo ao indivíduo participar das relações sociais que expressam trocas comunicativas simétricas. OBJETIVO: verificar a efetividade da aplicação do protocolo de adaptação sócio-comunicativa em dois grupos de crianças e adolescentes com diagnósticos inseridos no espectro autístico, em atendimento fonoaudiológico especializado, em diferentes instituições, e verificar a relação entre os dados coletados no protocolo de adaptação sócio-comunicativa e o desempenho sócio-cognitivo. MÉTODO: participaram desta pesquisa 16 crianças e adolescentes na faixa etária de 8,0 a 16,0 anos, de ambos os gêneros, diagnosticados por médicos neurologistas e/ou psiquiatras como portadores de distúrbios incluídos no espectro autístico segundo os critérios específicos1-2. Todas as crianças estavam em atendimento fonoaudiológico semanal especializado por um período mínimo de seis meses. Foram aplicados os protocolos de analise dos Aspectos Sócio-Cognitivos³ e para a coleta de dados da Adaptação Sócio-comunicativa foram utilizados o protocolo e o questionário específico propostos por Sousa4. RESULTADOS: na análise dos resultados obtidos foi possível verificar que não houve diferenças estatisticamente significativas quanto ao desempenho sócio-cognitivo dos dois grupos, sendo a adaptação sócio-comunicativa dessas crianças extremamente variável. CONCLUSÃO: sendo assim, fica claro que, com o grupo de crianças do espectro autistico participantes deste estudo, é possível verificar que o desenvolvimento lingüístico, social e cognitivo não acontece de forma simétrica e linear.BACKGROUND: researches about the relationship between language, cognition and socialization have evolved since the 70s. Language mediates social development allowing the individual to participate in social situations that include balanced communicative exchanges. AIM: to assess the effectiveness of the Social-Communicative Adaptation Protocol in two groups of children and adolescents with autistic spectrum disorders and to verify the relationship between the referred protocol and the Social-Cognitive Profile. METHOD: participants were 16 children and adolescents with ages between 8.0 and 16.0 years, of both genders, who were diagnosed within the autistic spectrum by neurologists and/or psychiatrists. All participants were receiving, once a week, specialized language therapy by a speech-language pathologist for a period of at least six months. Participants were assessed using the Social-cognitive Profile and the Social-Communicative Adaptation questionnaire. RESULTS: the analysis of the results indicated absence of significant statistical differences in the Social-Cognitive Profile between the two groups. The Social-Communicative Adaptation demonstrated to be extremely variable among the participants. CONCLUSION: this research shows that autistic spectrum children do not have a symmetric and linear development of language, socialization and cognition.

Carla Cardoso; Priscilla Faria Sousa-Morato; Suraia Andrade; Fernanda Dreux Miranda Fernandes

2010-01-01

336

Adaptação sócio-comunicativa e Autism Behavior Checklist: correlações com a evolução de adolescentes autistas institucionalizados/ Social-communicative adaptation and Autism Behavior Checklist: associations in the evolution of institutionalized adolescents with autism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Verificar a existência de correlação entre os resultados encontrados no Perfil Funcional da Comunicação, o desempenho sócio-cognitivo, o Autistic Behavior Checklist e a adaptação sócio-comunicativa ao longo de seis meses. MÉTODOS: Foram sujeitos dessa pesquisa oito adolescentes autistas institucionalizados que foram avaliados quanto ao perfil funcional da comunicação e desempenho sócio-cognitivo. Os pais, terapeutas e cuidadores da instituição res (more) ponderam aos questionários de Adaptação Sócio-Comunicativa e da Autistic Behavior Checklist no início da pesquisa e seis meses depois. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística não paramétrica. RESULTADOS: A maior pontuação no Autistic Behavior Checklist está relacionada a menores escores no desempenho sócio-cognitivo e menor número de atos comunicativos. CONCLUSÃO: Houve correlações entre os resultados da Autistic Behavior Checklist e o perfil funcional da comunicação e o desempenho sócio-cognitivo, mas os resultados da adaptação sócio-comunicativa não se correlacionaram com nenhuma das variáveis. Abstract in english PURPOSE: To verify the existence of correlation between the results found in the Functional Communicative Profile, the social-cognitive performance, the Autism Behavior Checklist, and the social-communicative adaptation along a period of six months. METHODS: Participants were eight institutionalized adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders, assessed regarding their functional communicative profile and social-cognitive performance. Parents, caretakers and therapists answ (more) ered the Social-Communicative Adaptation and the Autistic Behavior Checklist questionnaires in the beginning of the study and six months later. Data were statistically analyzed using non-parametric techniques. RESULTS: Higher scores on the Autistic Behavior Checklist are associated to lower scores on social-cognitive performance and to lower number of communicative acts. CONCLUSION: There is association between the results in the Autistic Behavior Checklist and the functional communicative profile and the social-communicative performance, but the results in the social-communicative adaptation are not correlated with any of the other variables.

Defense, Danielle Azarias; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda

2011-09-01

337

Del Word-of-mouth al Marketing viral: aspectos claves de la comunicación a través de redes sociales / From Word-of-mouth to Viral marketing: key aspects of the communication across social networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene por objeto dejar constancia de la importancia que las redes sociales y el marketing viral han adquirido en los enfoques de la comunicación, quedando configurados comonuevos sistemas de entretenimiento y de información. Se abordan los aspectos esenciales a considerar en las campañas virales para lograr la deseada eficacia y el efecto multiplicador en la difusióndel mensaje. En el artículo se analiza con detenimiento cómo la convergencia entre medios requiere de nuevas técnicas de producción, siendo la realización y el diseño factores claves del éxito en estanueva forma de entender la comunicación.The present article introduces the relevance that the social networks and the viral communication have acquired in the approaches of the communication as new systems of entertainment and of information. The authors explain the essential aspects to achieve the wished efficiency and the multiplier effect in the diffusion of the message that must be considered in the viral campaigns. In the article is analyzed thoroughly how the convergence needs new skills of production and design, being both concepts the key factors of the success in this new way of understanding the communication.

Guadalupe Aguado Guadalupe; Alberto García García

2009-01-01

338

Repetition priming and experimental context effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The repetition priming effect has been taken as evidence that lexical entries are automatically activated in memory. However, contextual cues in an experiment may influence repetition priming, suggesting that this priming may not be the result of automatic processes. Five experiments used a primed shadowing task to explore the role of phonological context on repetition priming. In the first four experiments, high- and low-expectancy conditions were tested. Between experiments, the degree of phonological relatedness (high or low phonological similarity), percentage of related trials that were repetition trials (ID ratio), and modality of stimulus presentation (auditory or visual) were manipulated. Results indicate that repetition priming in auditory word recognition is eliminated by a low ID ratio. The fact that an external variable such as the ID ratio influences repetition priming suggests that repetition priming may be the product of processes extraneous to the automatic activation of lexical entries.

Hamburger M; Slowiaczek LM

1998-01-01

339

Repetition priming and experimental context effects.  

Science.gov (United States)

The repetition priming effect has been taken as evidence that lexical entries are automatically activated in memory. However, contextual cues in an experiment may influence repetition priming, suggesting that this priming may not be the result of automatic processes. Five experiments used a primed shadowing task to explore the role of phonological context on repetition priming. In the first four experiments, high- and low-expectancy conditions were tested. Between experiments, the degree of phonological relatedness (high or low phonological similarity), percentage of related trials that were repetition trials (ID ratio), and modality of stimulus presentation (auditory or visual) were manipulated. Results indicate that repetition priming in auditory word recognition is eliminated by a low ID ratio. The fact that an external variable such as the ID ratio influences repetition priming suggests that repetition priming may be the product of processes extraneous to the automatic activation of lexical entries. PMID:9624701

Hamburger, M; Slowiaczek, L M

1998-01-01

340

Canine communication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Communication occurs when one individual, the sender, produces a signal that alters the behavior of another individual, the receiver. The signal can provide broadcast information about species and individual identity or transmitted information, in which the sender effects a change in the receiver's behavior. To reduce ambiguity, signals have evolved to be conspicuous, redundant, and stereotypic. These features allow communication signals to be produced by senders and perceived and acted upon appropriately by receivers, both conspecific and heterospecific. The modality of the communication signal can be visual, olfactory, or acoustic. Visual signals can be adjusted rapidly for response during interactions between individuals at close or medium range. Examples include displays of relative dominance or submission. Olfactory signals can be used for individual, sex, or group identity at close range during greetings and assessments of individuals. Excretory products can be used for olfactory communication over long distances and for long periods of time. Acoustic signals can be adjusted rapidly for close- and far-range communication. They do not persist in the environment. For dogs, communication is fundamental to maintaining affiliations, reducing competition, and identifying individuals. These factors are critical to the highly developed social behavior of dogs. In an ultimate sense, dogs have been selectively bred for positive interactions with humans; in a proximate sense, many dogs spend their lives in close social association with humans. For these reasons, many of the signals used by dogs in dog-dog communication are also used in dog-human communication. Veterinarians act as receivers for communication signals when greeting dogs as patients. The information obtained is used to assess the state of arousal and probability of future behavior of the dog so that handling of the animal can be facilitated. The goals are to minimize stress and injury, to successfully complete the treatment program, and to promote the health of the animal.

Simpson BS

1997-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Confirmatory factor analytic structure and measurement invariance of quantitative autistic traits measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale-2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding the factor structure of autistic symptomatology is critical to the discovery and interpretation of causal mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder. We applied confirmatory factor analysis and assessment of measurement invariance to a large (N = 9635) accumulated collection of reports on quantitative autistic traits using the Social Responsiveness Scale, representing a broad diversity of age, severity, and reporter type. A two-factor structure (corresponding to social communication impairment and restricted, repetitive behavior) as elaborated in the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) criteria for autism spectrum disorder exhibited acceptable model fit in confirmatory factor analysis. Measurement invariance was appreciable across age, sex, and reporter (self vs other), but somewhat less apparent between clinical and nonclinical populations in this sample comprised of both familial and sporadic autism spectrum disorders. The statistical power afforded by this large sample allowed relative differentiation of three factors among items encompassing social communication impairment (emotion recognition, social avoidance, and interpersonal relatedness) and two factors among items encompassing restricted, repetitive behavior (insistence on sameness and repetitive mannerisms). Cross-trait correlations remained extremely high, that is, on the order of 0.66-0.92. These data clarify domains of statistically significant factoral separation that may relate to partially-but not completely-overlapping biological mechanisms, contributing to variation in human social competency. Given such robust intercorrelations among symptom domains, understanding their co-emergence remains a high priority in conceptualizing common neural mechanisms underlying autistic syndromes.

Frazier TW; Ratliff KR; Gruber C; Zhang Y; Law PA; Constantino JN

2013-09-01

342

Repetitive Motion Injuries and Days Away from Work in 2008  

Science.gov (United States)

... placing, grasping, or moving objects, except tools Repetitive motion Typing or keyentry Repetitive use of tools Table ... placing, grasping, or moving objects, except tools Repetitive motion Typing or keyentry Repetitive use of tools Industry ...

343

Repetitive tests on mechanical components  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Repetitive tests represent an essential contribution to increasing the safety of nuclear power stations. The preconditions for these, however, are as follows: - a high level of specialist knowledge on the part of the responsible quality group at the nuclear power station, - the independence of the quality group in the decision making process, - selection of the test methods and test location without fixing a certain type of damage, - the correct use and correct combination of test methods, - extension of the minimum random sampling programme in the event of faults, - continuity in test technology, -careful preparation, - observation of the test instructions and perfect documentation, - acceptance even of undesirable results. 2 figs

1992-01-01

344

Repetitively pulsed material testing facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A continuously operated, 1 pps, dense-plasma-focus device capable of delivering a minimum of 1015 neutrons per pulse for material testing purposes is described. Moderate scaling from existing results is sufficient to provide 2 x 1013 n/cm2.s to a suitable target. The average power consumption, which has become a major issue as a result of the energy crisis, is analyzed with respect to other plasma devices and is shown to be highly favorable. A novel approach to the capacitor bank and switch design allowing repetitive operation is discussed. (U.S.)

1975-05-13

345

The Virtual Environmental Microbiology Center - A Social Network for Enhanced Communication between Water Researchers and Policy Makers  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective communication within and between organizations involved in research and policy making activities is essential. Sharing information across organizational and geographic boundaries can also facilitate coordination and collaboration, promote a better understanding of tech...

346

The SHP's environmental licensing and the social communication: case study analysis of Funil and Carangola; O licenciamento ambiental de PCH e a comunicacao social: analise dos estudos de caso de Funil e Carangola  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lately, concepts and paradigms have gone through constant alterations, due to high-speed growth the globe faces the dilemma of how to keep this growing and guarantee the survival conditions for next generations. Consequently, it comes into view the requirement for the discussion towards environment preservation and sustainability. In addition to this, humanity has been seeking for solutions to this impasse and the Brazilian Electric Sector equally has looked for alternatives since the beginning of electrification in the country, in early 19{sup th} Century, when the first Small Hydropower Plants (SHPs) were installed to provide energy to the industrial development period. Moreover, at present, this same category of energy generation plant represents a good opportunity, for the reason that they are framed as one of the sources of energy that is considered renewable or less pollutant. In the past years, technological evolution has been accompanied by the national industry of equipment and also the environmental legislation has created tools to mitigate the impacts of a Small Hydroelectric Plants (SHPs). The present research has aimed not only to present in its bibliographical revision the evolution of SHPs concept associated with the environmental aspects but also the application of techniques of social communication in the environmental license process. Furthermore it has looked for new communicative applicable tools in search of a larger public participation among the involved players, which results in important premises for the sustainability course of action. In order to attend those goals, two processes of SHP licensing were analyzed in Minas Gerais State, with main focus in the included Social Communication Program in the Plan of Environmental Control foreseen by the resolution number 006/87 of CONAMA (National Environmental Council). Finally, this research intended to present communicative feasible tools in the dimensioning of the participating actions in the process of SHP environmental licensing. (author)

Galhardo, Camila Rocha

2007-07-01

347

[The diagnostic communication of keratoconus and its influence on the social representation that the patient has of his/her illness].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To analyze the influence of diagnostic and prognostic communication and the awareness and affectivity of the patient with keratoconus and to verify the possible modifications in the social representation that the individual has of the disease, of himself and of his life. METHODS: The sample was consisted of 44 subjects, both genders, aged 13 to 53 years, with diagnosis of keratoconus who agreed to participate in this study. The study was carried out at the "Hospital das Clínicas", University of São Paulo Medical School, and at the "Hospital de Olhos Sadalla Amin Ghanem" (Eye Hospital), in Joinville, state of Santa Catarina. A questionnaire used to assess the information received by patients with keratoconus was specially developed for this study. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the collected data was performed through descriptive and demonstrative analyses of speech, based mainly on Social-Historical Theory. RESULTS: In general, the patients did not consider the information provided by the doctors as being satisfactory. This fact may be related to how the information is transmitted and its contents. This is influenced by several variables, such as professional training, structural characteristics of the provided care, awareness by the doctor of the importance of language and social representation related to the condition of the patient, the socioeconomic and cultural level of the physician and the patient, etc. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the way the information is transmitted influences the social representation that the individual has of the illness and of himself.

Alves VL; Alves MR; Lane ST

2007-09-01

348

Fatores determinantes no disclosure em Responsabilidade Social Corporativa (RSC): um estudo qualitativo e quantitativo com empresas listadas na Bovespa Communication level and determinant factors of corporative social responsibility disclosure: a qualitative and quantitative study of companies listed in Bovespa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho constitui-se, enquanto uma pesquisa qualitativa e quantitativa, que a partir do levantamento de literatura acerca do processo de disclosure, em responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC) em companhias brasileiras. Realizou levantamento dos relatórios disponibilizados pelas companhias listadas na BOVESPA (Bolsa de Valores do Estado de São Paulo) para um conjunto de 123 empresas, fundamentado pelo referencial da Teoria da Divulgação Voluntária e da Teoria da Legitimidade, aliado à técnica estatística da análise fatorial, buscou identificar o nível de comunicação das informações relacionadas ao desempenho em RSC e prováveis fatores determinantes ao disclosure em responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC) a partir de variáveis independentes do desempenho econômico-financeiro e social (distribuição de riqueza) dessas companhias. Os resultados obtidos no estudo sugerem que a política de disclosure em RSC para as empresas que formaram a amostra demonstrou ser bastante incipiente e altamente vinculada a aspectos de externalidade positiva (marketing social), sendo possível estabelecer uma determinação significante entre o desempenho econômico-financeiro e social com o disclosure em RSC, para as empresas que atuam em atividade regulamentada.The current article is a qualitative and quantitative study based on the literature regarding the corporative social responsibility (CSR) disclosure in Brazilian companies. This research evaluated reports provided by companies listed in BOVESPA (Stock Exchange of the State of São Paulo, Brazil). Based on the Voluntary Disclosure Theory and Legitimacy Theory, 123 companies were evaluated in combination with factor analysis, a statistical technique, in order to identify the level of communication concerning sharing information related to CSR performance and the probable determinant factors to corporative social responsibility (CSR) disclosure using financial economical, and social performance (wealth distribution) as independent variables. The results obtained in the study suggest that the CSR disclosure policy of those companies proved very incipient and highly related to aspects of positive externality (social marketing), and therefore it is possible to establish a strong relationship between economical, financial, and social performance and CSR disclosure for the companies that carry out regulated activities.

Sérgio Henrique da Conceição; Gilson Barbosa Dourado; Ana Gabriela Baqueiro; Simone Freire; Pauline das Chagas Brito

2011-01-01

349

EL PAPEL DE LAS TECNOLOGÍAS DE LA INFORMACIÓN Y LA COMUNICACIÓN EN LAS EMPRESAS DE ECONOMÍA SOCIAL/THE ROLE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COMPANIES OF THE SOCIAL ECONOMY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudios recientes sugieren que las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TICs) y el comercio electrónico pueden ofrecer amplias oportunidades a las organizaciones, tales como facilitar la expansión del abanico de productos, la mejora del servicio al cliente, la mejor respuesta a la demanda, la mejora de las relaciones con proveedores y clientes, etc.. Las empresas que constituyen la economía social o tercer sector tampoco están exentas de estas posibilidades. Sin embargo, los trabajos existentes al respecto para las organizaciones de la economía social son escasos. El principal objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el estado de la cuestión para el caso español, presentando información sobre las características diferenciadoras de las empresas de economía social frente al resto, en cuanto a su eficiencia y al uso de este tipo de tecnologías. Los resultados ofrecen información sobre los aspectos a tener en cuenta para conseguir que las empresas de la economía social aprovechen también las oportunidades brindadas por las nuevas tecnologías. Las principales conclusiones del trabajo resultan útiles tanto para los gestores de estas organizaciones, como para los responsables de las políticas públicas relacionadas con la fomento y promoción de la economía social. /Recent studies suggest that information and communication technologies (ICT) and the electronic commerce can offer wide opportunities to organizations, such as facilitating the expansion of the range of products, the improvement of the service to the client, the best response to the demand, the improvement of the relations with suppliers and clients, etc. Firms of the social economy or the third sector are not exempt from these technologies. However, papers in the field of organizations of the social economy are scanty. The main aim of this article is to analyse the state of the art for the Spanish case, presenting information about the own characteristics of the firms of social economy, related to their efficiency and their use of these technologies. Results offer information about the aspects to be taken into account so that the companies of the social economy also take advantage of the opportunities offered by new technologies. The main conclusions of the article turn out to be useful both for the managers of these organizations and for the people in charge of public policies related to the promotion of the social economy.

Ana GARGALLO CASTEL; Francisco Javier PÉREZ SANZ

2009-01-01

350

Fatores determinantes no disclosure em Responsabilidade Social Corporativa (RSC): um estudo qualitativo e quantitativo com empresas listadas na Bovespa/ Communication level and determinant factors of corporative social responsibility disclosure: a qualitative and quantitative study of companies listed in Bovespa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho constitui-se, enquanto uma pesquisa qualitativa e quantitativa, que a partir do levantamento de literatura acerca do processo de disclosure, em responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC) em companhias brasileiras. Realizou levantamento dos relatórios disponibilizados pelas companhias listadas na BOVESPA (Bolsa de Valores do Estado de São Paulo) para um conjunto de 123 empresas, fundamentado pelo referencial da Teoria da Divulgação Voluntária e da T (more) eoria da Legitimidade, aliado à técnica estatística da análise fatorial, buscou identificar o nível de comunicação das informações relacionadas ao desempenho em RSC e prováveis fatores determinantes ao disclosure em responsabilidade social corporativa (RSC) a partir de variáveis independentes do desempenho econômico-financeiro e social (distribuição de riqueza) dessas companhias. Os resultados obtidos no estudo sugerem que a política de disclosure em RSC para as empresas que formaram a amostra demonstrou ser bastante incipiente e altamente vinculada a aspectos de externalidade positiva (marketing social), sendo possível estabelecer uma determinação significante entre o desempenho econômico-financeiro e social com o disclosure em RSC, para as empresas que atuam em atividade regulamentada. Abstract in english The current article is a qualitative and quantitative study based on the literature regarding the corporative social responsibility (CSR) disclosure in Brazilian companies. This research evaluated reports provided by companies listed in BOVESPA (Stock Exchange of the State of São Paulo, Brazil). Based on the Voluntary Disclosure Theory and Legitimacy Theory, 123 companies were evaluated in combination with factor analysis, a statistical technique, in order to identify th (more) e level of communication concerning sharing information related to CSR performance and the probable determinant factors to corporative social responsibility (CSR) disclosure using financial economical, and social performance (wealth distribution) as independent variables. The results obtained in the study suggest that the CSR disclosure policy of those companies proved very incipient and highly related to aspects of positive externality (social marketing), and therefore it is possible to establish a strong relationship between economical, financial, and social performance and CSR disclosure for the companies that carry out regulated activities.

Conceição, Sérgio Henrique da; Dourado, Gilson Barbosa; Baqueiro, Ana Gabriela; Freire, Simone; Brito, Pauline das Chagas

2011-01-01

351

Claves epistemológicas para abordar la investigación en el ámbito de la comunicación social/ Epistemological keys to approach the investigation in the realm of social communication/ Chaves epistemológicas para abordar a investigação no âmbito da comunicação social  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A nova filosofia das ciências e em particular o racionalismo crítico desenvolveram na segunda metade do século XX, um discurso epistemológico de grande relevancia com respeito aos programas e projectos específicos de investigação no âmbito amplo das ciências sociais. A partir deste contribução, propomos um conjunto de considerações de carácter teórico e metodológico para a análise formal da comunicação tomando em conta as variables fundamentais sobre as (more) que se articula este tipo de produção de conhecimento. A proposta epistemológica, teórica e metodológica implicada representa um deslocamento desde o canon positivista para uma teoria do conhecimento emergente cujo interesse se centra num saber integral e inclusivo no que se reconhecem a maior quantidade de factores que participam nos processos cognitivos. Abstract in spanish La nueva filosofía de las ciencias y en particular el racionalismo crítico han desarrollado en la segunda mitad del siglo XX, un discurso epistemológico de gran relevancia respecto a los programas y proyectos específicos de investigación en el ámbito amplio de las ciencias sociales. A partir de este aporte, proponemos un conjunto de consideraciones de carácter teórico y metodológico para el análisis formal de la comunicación tomando en cuenta las variables fund (more) amentales sobre las que se articula este tipo de producción de conocimiento. La propuesta epistemológica, teórica y metodológica implicada representa un desplazamiento desde el canon positivista hacia una teoría del conocimiento emergente cuyo interés se centra en un saber integral e inclusivo en el que se reconocen la mayor cantidad de factores que participan en los procesos cognitivos. Abstract in english The new philosophy of sciences and in individual the critical rationalism has developed in second half of century XX, an epistemologic speech of great relevance with respect to the programs and specific projects of investigation in the ample scope of social sciences. From this contribution, we propose a set of considerations of theoretical and methodologic character for the formal analysis of the communication taking into account the fundamental aspects on which east type (more) of knowledge production articulates. The epistemological, theoretical and methodologic proposal implied represents a displacement from the positivism canon towards a theory of the emergent knowledge whose interest is centered in an complete knowledge in which they are recognized the greater amount of factors than participates in the cognitive processes.

Brower Beltramin, Jorge

2009-01-01

352

Repetitive and stereotypic phenomena and dementia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Behavioral disturbances of dementia, such as repetitive and stereotypic phenomena, can be distressing to caregivers and may lead to early institutionalization of the patient. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to examine the phenomenon of repetitive phenomena in patients with dementia. METHODS: We searched the PubMed electronic databases for original research and review articles on repetitive phenomena in patients with dementia using the search terms "repetitive behavior, stereotypic behavior, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Frontotemporal dementia." RESULTS: Repetitive and stereotypic phenomena are common problems in dementia, which may reflect a disruption of coordinated function within the basal ganglia or corticostriatal structures. CONCLUSIONS: There are no systematic studies concerning repetitive phenomena in patients with dementia, and very little is known about the treatment. Further studies are needed to determine the specific phenomena.

Cipriani G; Vedovello M; Ulivi M; Nuti A; Lucetti C

2013-05-01

353

Effectiveness of a Workplace Training Programme in Improving Social, Communication and Emotional Skills for Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disability in Hong Kong - A Pilot Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This pilot study explored the effectiveness of workplace training programme that aimed to enhance the work-related behaviours in individuals with autism and intellectual disabilities. Fourteen participants with autism and mild to moderate intellectual disability (mean age?=?24.6?years) were recruited. The workplace training programme included practices in work context and group educational sessions. A pre-test-post-test design was used with the Work Personality Profile, the Scale of Independent Behaviour Revised and the Observational Emotional Inventory Revised to evaluate the targeted behaviours. Improvement in social and communication skills specific to the workplace was achieved. For emotional control, participants became less confused and had a better self-concept. However, improvement in other general emotional behaviours, such as impulse control, was limited. The results indicated that a structured workplace training programme aimed at improving social, communication and emotional behaviours can be helpful for people with autism and intellectual disability. Further study with a larger sample size and a control group is recommended. The development of specific programme to cater for the emotional control needs at workplace for people with autism is also suggested. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Liu KP; Wong D; Chung AC; Kwok N; Lam MK; Yuen CM; Arblaster K; Kwan AC

2013-07-01

354

Evaluation of the criterion and convergent validity of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders in young and low-functioning children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO; Wing, 2006) is a standardized, semi-structured and interviewer-based schedule for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the criterion and convergent validity of the DISCO-11 ICD-10 algorithm in young and low-functioning children. The DISCO-11, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), and Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) were administered to a Dutch sample of 115 children comprising 52 children with ASD (both with and without intellectual disability), 26 children with intellectual disability (non-ASD), and 37 typically developing children. Results indicated high sensitivity and specificity for DISCO-11 classifications in differentiating ASD from non-ASD according to the clinical classification in children with mild intellectual disability or average intelligence. Among children with a moderate or severe intellectual disability the sensitivity was equally high, but the specificity was significantly lower. The agreement between DISCO-11 and ADOS classifications was substantial, between DISCO-11 and SCQ moderate. The correlations between raw scores of the DISCO and ADOS algorithm or SCQ were both high. In conclusion, the DISCO-11 differentiates accurately between autistic disorder and non-ASD in young children with an average intelligence or mild intellectual disability, but is over inclusive in the lower levels of intellectual disability.

Maljaars J; Noens I; Scholte E; van Berckelaer-Onnes I

2012-09-01

355

Composición Factorial de una Escala de Autoeficacia en la Solución de Problemas y Comunicación en Universitarios de Ciencias Sociales/ Factor Structure of a Self-Efficacy Scale in Problem Solving and Communication on University Student?s of Social Sciences  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El presente estudio analiza las propiedades psicométricas de una escala de autoeficacia en la solución de problemas y comunicación en universitarios de ciencias sociales. La muestra total fue de 589 sujetos; 376 mujeres y 213 hombres estudiantes de Ciencias Sociales, con una edad media de 18.4 años. La estructura factorial del cuestionario se analizó a través de análisis factoriales exploratorio y confirmatorio. Los análisis, mostraron que una estructura bifactori (more) al es viable y adecuada; con indicadores de ajuste, de fiabilidad y de validez apropiados. Además, los resultados de los análisis factoriales llevados a cabo con las submuestras 1 y 2, indican la existencia de fuertes evidencias de estabilidad de la estructura factorial, hasta que no se demuestre lo contrario. Abstract in english The present study analyses the psychometric properties of the self-efficacy scale in problem solving and communication on university students of social sciences. The total sample comprised 589 participants; 376 women and 213 men students of social sciences, with a mean age of 18.4 years. The factor structure of the questionnaire was analyzed through two separate exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Psychometric analysis showed that a two-factorial structure was v (more) iable and adequate; with appropriate indicators of adjustment, reliability and validity. In addition, factor analysis conducted with subsamples 1 and 2 indicated the presence of strong evidence of factor structure stability, until proven otherwise.

Aguirre, Juan F; Muñoz, Francisco; de Rueda, Belén; Blanco, José R

2012-01-01

356

LA COMPETENCIA COMUNICATIVA COMO BASE DEL DESARROLLO DE LA COMPETENCIA SOCIAL Y CIUDADANA EN EL AULA (COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE AS A BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENTOF SOCIAL AND CIVIC COMPETENCE IN THE CLASSROOM)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resumen:Partiendo de la idea de que la educación ha de ser integral, es decir, que debe atender todos los ámbitos de la persona (en su doble faceta individual y social), este ensayo aborda un aspecto que consideramos clave para el desarrollo de la competencia social y ciudadana: la competencia comunicativa, entendida como promotora de la convivencia en las sociedades democráticas, plurales y multiculturales, como medio para resolver los conflictos interpersonales y de posibilidad de participación ciudadana. En este sentido, partiendo de los recursos de la argumentación, el diálogo y la discusión, se señalan las características metodológicas y las principales técnicas que pueden ser empleadas para su trabajo en el aula.Abstract:Based on the idea that education must be integral, that is, must address all areas of the person (in his dual role individual and social), this paper addresses a key aspect to consider in developing social and civic competence: communicative competence, understood as a promoter of coexistence in a democratic society, pluralism and multiculturalism, as a means of resolving interpersonal conflicts and the possibility of participation. In this sense, based on the resources of the argument, dialogue and discussion, addressing the methodological characteristics and the main techniques that can be used for classroom work.

Fernández Herrero Beatriz

2010-01-01

357

The repetition principle in scientific research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The repetition principle is important in scientific research, because the observational indexes are random variables, which require a certain amount of samples to reveal their changing regularity. The repetition principle stabilizes the mean and the standard variation, so that statistics of the sample can well represent the parameters of the population. Thus, the statistical inference will be reliable. This article discussed the repetition principle from the perspective of common sense and specialty with examples.

Liang-ping Hu

2011-01-01

358

Media communication strategies for climate-friendly lifestyles - Addressing middle and lower class consumers for social-cultural change via Entertainment-Education  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper argues that Entertainment-Education (E-E) is a striking communication strategy for reaching middle and lower socio-economic classes with climate-friendly lifestyle messages. On the international level (e.g. in the US and the Netherlands) E-E approaches are being theoretically grounded, whereas in Germany they are not yet. Therefore further theoretical discussion and mapping of E-E approaches is central for future research. As a first step towards providing further theoretical foundations for E-E in the field of sustainability, the authors suggest a threefold mapping of E-E approaches. The threefold mapping of E-E approaches for communicating climate-friendly lifestyles to middle and lower class consumers is based on recent results from academic research and practical developments on the media market. The commonalities among the three is that they all promote pro-sustainability messages in an affective-orientated rather than cognitive-orientated, factual manner. Differences can be found in: the sender of the sustainability message, the targeted consumer groups and the media approach in use. Based on this, the paper draws the conclusion that two new paths for further research activities in the field of Entertainment-Education can be proposed: (1) Improving the existing approaches in practice by using theoretical foundation from the E-E field. This comprises at its core (A) to do formative, process and summative effect research on the messages and (B) to use E-E theory from the field of social psychology, sociology and communication science for further improvement and (2) Generating new E-E theories by analyzing the existing practical approaches in the media to communicate climate change.

2009-11-01

359

Drama to promote social and personal well-being in six-and seven-year-olds with communication difficulties: the Speech Bubbles project.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aims:This paper focuses on an innovative intersection between education, health and arts. Taking a broad definition of health it examines some social and psychological well-being impacts of extended collaborations between a theatre company and children with communication difficulties. It seeks to test aspects of Fredrickson's(1) broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions in a primary school curriculum context.Methods:The researcher participated in a project called Speech Bubbles. The programme was devised by theatre practitioners and aimed at six- and seven-year-olds with difficulties in speech, language and communication. Sessions were observed, videoed and analysed for levels of child well-being using an established scale. In addition, responses regarding perceived improvements in speech, language and communication were gathered from school records and teachers, teaching assistants, practitioners and parents. Data were captured using still images and videos, children's recorded commentaries, conversations, written feedback and observation. Using grounded research methods, themes and categories arose directly from the collected data.Results:Fluency, vocabulary, inventiveness and concentration were enhanced in the large majority of referred children. The research also found significant positive developments in motivation and confidence. Teachers and their assistants credited the drama intervention with notable improvements in attitude, behaviour and relationships over the year. Aspects of many children's psychological well-being also showed marked signs of progress when measured against original reasons for referral and normal expectations over a year. An unexpected outcome was evidence of heightened well-being of the teaching assistants involved.Conclusions:Findings compared well with expectations based upon Fredrickson's theory and also the theatre company's view that theatre-making promotes emotional awareness and empathy. Improvements in both children's well-being and communication were at least in part related to the sustained and playful emphases on the processes and practice of drama, clear values and an inclusive environment.

Barnes J

2013-01-01

360

Las fuerzas sociales y el escenario comunicativo en la educación para la salud: el caso del programa de crecimiento y desarrollo/ Social forces and the communicative scenario in health education: the case of the growth and development program  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Objetivos: comprender la construcción de los significados sobre crianza en el Programa de Monitoreo del Crecimiento y Desarrollo como medio para investigar la educación para la salud y avanzar en su fundamentación teórica y pedagógica. Método: etnografía en cuatro instituciones de salud de la ciudad de Medellín basada en observación de las sesiones y entrevistas con los actores: adultos significativos y miembros de los equipos de salud. Resultados: se instaura un (more) proceso comunicativo basado en un modelo educativo transmisionista y conductista dirigido a inculcar el cambio en los comportamientos. Discusión: el escenario pedagógico o microcontexto se encuentra influenciado por fuerzas del macrocontexto que ejercen poder sobre este, las cuales se configuran como producto de la desigual distribución de los capitales sociales, culturales y económicos. Como consecuencia, el adulto significativo y el miembro del equipo de salud se sitúan en dos planos diferentes para la construcción de significados, lo que afecta seriamente la comunicación entre ellos. La comprensión de dicho proceso social desde una perspectiva teórica más amplia permite el fortalecimiento de una posición crítica, fundamental para lograr una educación para la salud más pertinente desde su dimensión sociocultural. Abstract in english Objectives: to understand how the significance of child rearing is construed in the Growth and Development Monitoring Program as a way of studying health education and enhancing its theoretical and pedagogical framework. Method: an ethnographic study in four health institutions in Medellín, Colombia, developed through observation of sessions and interviews with actors, namely significant adults and health team members. Results: a communicative process based on a behavior (more) al education model is established to modify behavior and to impose cultural values. Conclusions: the pedagogical setting or micro-context is influenced by powerful macro-contextual forces, which are a product of uneven distribution of social, cultural and economic capital. Consequently, significant adults and health team members are situated at two different communicative levels for the construction of significance, which affects communication between them. Understanding this social process from a wider theoretical perspective strengthens critical positions, which is required for achieving more pertinent health education from a socio-cultural dimension.

Peñaranda-Correa, Fernando

2011-10-01