WorldWideScience

Sample records for small-signal 3db bandwidth

  1. Analysis of small-signal intensity modulation of semiconductor lasers taking account of gain suppression

    Moustafa Ahmed; Ali El-Lafi

    2008-07-01

    This paper demonstrates theoretical characterization of intensity modulation of semiconductor lasers (SL’s). The study is based on a small-signal model to solve the laser rate equations taking into account suppression of optical gain. Analytical forms of the small-signal modulation response and modulation bandwidth are derived. Influences of the bias current, modulation index and modulation frequency as well as gain suppression on modulation characteristics are examined. Computer simulation of the model is applied to 1.55-m InGaAsP lasers. The results show that when the SL is biased far-above threshold, the increase of gain suppression increases both the modulation response and its peak frequency. The modulation bandwidth also increases but the laser damping rate decreases. Quantitative description of the relationships of both modulation bandwidth vs. relaxation frequency and maximum modulation bandwidth vs. nonlinear gain coefficient are presented.

  2. Small-signal modulation characteristics of a polariton laser

    Zunaid Baten, Md; Frost, Thomas; Iorsh, Ivan; Deshpande, Saniya; Kavokin, Alexey; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2015-07-01

    Use of large bandgap materials together with electrical injection makes the polariton laser an attractive low-power coherent light source for medical and biomedical applications or short distance plastic fiber communication at short wavelengths (violet and ultra-violet), where a conventional laser is difficult to realize. The dynamic properties of a polariton laser have not been investigated experimentally. We have measured, for the first time, the small signal modulation characteristics of a GaN-based electrically pumped polariton laser operating at room temperature. A maximum -3 dB modulation bandwidth of 1.18 GHz is measured. The experimental results have been analyzed with a theoretical model based on the Boltzmann kinetic equations and the agreement is very good. We have also investigated frequency chirping during such modulation. Gain compression phenomenon in a polariton laser is interpreted and a value is obtained for the gain compression factor.

  3. Small-signal modulation characteristics of a polariton laser.

    Baten, Md Zunaid; Frost, Thomas; Iorsh, Ivan; Deshpande, Saniya; Kavokin, Alexey; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2015-01-01

    Use of large bandgap materials together with electrical injection makes the polariton laser an attractive low-power coherent light source for medical and biomedical applications or short distance plastic fiber communication at short wavelengths (violet and ultra-violet), where a conventional laser is difficult to realize. The dynamic properties of a polariton laser have not been investigated experimentally. We have measured, for the first time, the small signal modulation characteristics of a GaN-based electrically pumped polariton laser operating at room temperature. A maximum -3?dB modulation bandwidth of 1.18?GHz is measured. The experimental results have been analyzed with a theoretical model based on the Boltzmann kinetic equations and the agreement is very good. We have also investigated frequency chirping during such modulation. Gain compression phenomenon in a polariton laser is interpreted and a value is obtained for the gain compression factor. PMID:26154681

  4. Small-signal analysis of a rectangular helix structure traveling-wave-tube

    This paper investigates the properties of traveling wave-beam interaction in a rectangular helix traveling-wave-tube (TWT) for a solid sheet electron beam. The 'hot' dispersion equation is obtained by means of the self-consistent field theory. The small signal analysis, which includes the effects of the beam parameters and slow-wave structure (SWS) parameters, is carried out by theoretical computation. The numerical results show that the bandwidth and the small-signal gain of the rectangular helix TWT increase as the beam current increases; and the beam voltage not obviously influences the small signal gain. Among different rectangular helix structures, the small-signal gain increases as the width of the rectangular helix SWS increases, however, the bandwidth decreases whether structure parameters a and L or Ψ and L are fixed or not. In addition, a comparison of the small-signal gain of this structure with a conventional round helix is made. The presented analysis will be useful for the design of the TWT with a rectangular helix circuit. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  5. A New Circuit Model of Small-Signal Sziklai Pair Amplifier

    SachchidaNand Shukla and Susmrita Srivastava

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new circuit model of RC coupled small-signal Sziklai pair amplifier is proposed and qualitatively analyzed for the first time. The circuit of proposed amplifier uses a Sziklai pair with NPN driver and crops high voltage gain (237.916, moderate bandwidth (15.10KHz, fairly high current gain (712.075 and considerably low THD (0.73% at 1mV, 1KHz input AC signal. This circuit can be tuned in specific audible frequency range, extending approximately from 1Hz to 20KHz. Tuning performance makes this amplifier circuit suitable to use in Radio and TV receiver stages. The qualitative and tuning performance of the proposed amplifier offers it a flexible application range as high voltage gain, high power gain and tuned amplifier. Tuning performance, variation of voltage gain with frequency and different biasing resistances, input and output noises at operating frequency, temperature dependency of performance parameters and total harmonic distortion of the amplifier are perused for providing wide spectrum to the qualitative studies. The proposed Sziklai pair configuration with NPN driver transistor can be attempted to fabricate a single pack transistor IC version of Sziklai pair. Proposed circuit is also free from poor response problem of small-signal Darlington pair amplifiers at higher frequencies and narrow-band response region for PNP driven small-signal Sziklai pair amplifier.

  6. Small-signal Amplifier with Three Dissimilar Active Devices in Triple Darlington Topology

    DR.SACHCHIDANAND SHUKLA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new circuit model of a small-signal amplifier is proposed and analyzed on the qualitative scale. Apart from routine biasing components, the proposed amplifier circuit uses two additional biasing resistances and three dissimilar active devices namely MOSFET, JFET and BJT in Triple Darlington configuration. Having a considerably low amount of distortion (0.71%, the proposed circuit successfully amplifies small-signals of 1-5mV range (at 1 KHz frequency and simultaneously provides high voltage gain (189.846 and high current gain (16.542K with moderate range bandwidth (369.529KHz. These properties offer a flexible application range to the proposed circuit as high voltage gain or high current gain or high power gain amplifier in permissible audio-frequency range. Variations in voltage gain as a function of frequency and different biasing resistances, temperature dependency of performance parameters, bandwidth and total harmonic distortion of the amplifier are perused to provide a wide spectrum to the qualitative studies. Qualitative performance of the proposed amplifier is also compared with two different circuits which are respectively having BJT-JFET and BJT-MOSFET in Darlington pair configuration. The proposed amplifier may be useful for those applications where high voltage and current gain would be the prime requirement of amplification in audio frequency region.

  7. A small - signal stability analysis of DFIG wind generation

    Vittal, Eknath; O'MALLEY, MARK; Keane, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the small-signal stability impacts of high penetrations of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbines on power systems. It provides a basic overview of small-signal stability concepts and then examines the response of DFIG generation to two local contingency event. Using the New England 39 bus test system, this paper will demonstrate the stability implications of DFIG turbines utilizing terminal voltage control and fixed power factor control in response...

  8. Small-signal analysis of a saturated induction motor

    Ranta, M.; Hinkkanen, M.; Repo, A.-K.; Luomi, J. (Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Espoo (Finland))

    2008-07-01

    Due to magnetic saturation, the small-signal admittance of an induction motor is dependent on the direction of the excitation signal. The angle-dependence of the admittance can be used in the estimation of the flux angle, and it should be taken into account when identifying motor parameters. In this paper, the small-signal admittance of a 2.2-kW induction motor is measured at different excitation frequencies and operating points. The measured admittances are compared to data obtained by means of finite element analysis (FEA). A small-signal model of the induction motor is fitted to the admittances to analyze the results. The admittances obtained from FEA and laboratory experiments correspond well to each other, particularly at low excitation frequencies. (orig.)

  9. Power system small signal stability analysis and control

    Mondal, Debasish; Sengupta, Aparajita

    2014-01-01

    Power System Small Signal Stability Analysis and Control presents a detailed analysis of the problem of severe outages due to the sustained growth of small signal oscillations in modern interconnected power systems. The ever-expanding nature of power systems and the rapid upgrade to smart grid technologies call for the implementation of robust and optimal controls. Power systems that are forced to operate close to their stability limit have resulted in the use of control devices by utility companies to improve the performance of the transmission system against commonly occurring power system

  10. Small-Signal Amplifier with MOSFET and BJT in Triple Darlington Configuration

    SUSMRITA SRIVASTAVA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A new circuit model of a small-signal narrow-band amplifier is proposed and analyzed on the qualitative scale. Proposed amplifier uses two MOSFETs and a BJT in Triple Darlington configuration with two additional biasing resistances in the circuit. With low distortion percentage (1.28%, the proposed circuit successfully amplifies small-signals of 1-10mV range and simultaneously provides high voltage gain (311.593 and current gain (13.971K with narrow bandwidth (9.665KHz. Variations of maximum voltage gain with different biasing resistances and DC supply voltage and the temperature sensitivity of various performance parameters are elaborately studied and discussed in length. Qualitative performance of the proposed amplifier is also compared with the circuit which is having BJT-MOSFET in Darlington pair configuration. The proposed amplifier can be used to process audio range signal excursions and may be useful for those applications where high voltage and current gain would be the prime requirement of amplification in narrow-band low frequency region.

  11. A Novel Circuit Model of Small-Signal Amplifier Developed by Using BJT-JFET-BJT in Triple Darlington Configuration

    SACHCHIDANAND SHUKLA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Two distinct configurations of small-signal amplifiers, consisting hybrid combination of BJT-FET-BJT in Triple Darlington topology, are proposed and qualitatively analyzed perhaps for the first time. The first proposed amplifier crops high voltage with moderate current gain and bandwidth in 1-15mV input signal range at 1 KHz frequency. However, the second amplifier is configured by creating certain modifications in the first circuit. This amplifier produces about double voltage and current gain than the first amplifier circuit with almost half bandwidth in 1-4mV input-signal-range at 1 KHz frequency. Both the amplifier circuits include two additional biasing resistances. Variations in voltage gain as a function of frequency and different biasing resistances, temperature dependency of performance parameters, bandwidth and total harmonic distortion of the amplifiers are also perused. The proposed amplifiers can be successfully implemented as high power gain small-signal amplifiers in audio-frequency-range because of the obtained values of the current and voltage gains which are higher than unity.

  12. Comparative study of probabilistic methodologies for small signal stability assessment

    Rueda, J.L.; Colome, D.G. [Universidad Nacional de San Juan (IEE-UNSJ), San Juan (Argentina). Inst. de Energia Electrica], Emails: joseluisrt@iee.unsj.edu.ar, colome@iee.unsj.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    Traditional deterministic approaches for small signal stability assessment (SSSA) are unable to properly reflect the existing uncertainties in real power systems. Hence, the probabilistic analysis of small signal stability (SSS) is attracting more attention by power system engineers. This paper discusses and compares two probabilistic methodologies for SSSA, which are based on the two point estimation method and the so-called Monte Carlo method, respectively. The comparisons are based on the results obtained for several power systems of different sizes and with different SSS performance. It is demonstrated that although with an analytical approach the amount of computation of probabilistic SSSA can be reduced, the different degrees of approximations that are adopted, lead to deceptive results. Conversely, Monte Carlo based probabilistic SSSA can be carried out with reasonable computational effort while holding satisfactory estimation precision. (author)

  13. Small-signal modulation characteristics of a polariton laser

    Md Zunaid Baten; Thomas Frost; Ivan Iorsh; Saniya Deshpande; Alexey Kavokin; Pallab Bhattacharya

    2015-01-01

    Use of large bandgap materials together with electrical injection makes the polariton laser an attractive low-power coherent light source for medical and biomedical applications or short distance plastic fiber communication at short wavelengths (violet and ultra-violet), where a conventional laser is difficult to realize. The dynamic properties of a polariton laser have not been investigated experimentally. We have measured, for the first time, the small signal modulation characteristics of a...

  14. A New Circuit Model of Small-Signal Amplifier using JFETs in Darlington pair Configuration

    DR. SACHCHIDANAND SHUKLA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A small-signal amplifier with two identical JFETs in Darlington pair is proposed and qualitatively analyzed perhaps for the first time. Unlike CS-JFET amplifiers, the voltage gain of this amplifier is significantly higher than unity. In addition, this amplifier can also be tuned in the specific range of audible frequency extended from 90Hz to 19KHz. Tuning performance makes this amplifier suitable to use in Radio and TV receivers. An additional biasing resistance RA, ranging in 3K? to 1M?, is to be essentially used in the proposed circuit to maintain its voltage/current amplification property. With this additional biasing resistance, the proposed amplifier crops considerably wide bandwidth (12.365MHz, significantly high current gain (530.909 and fairly high voltage gain (9.108 in 1-80mV input signal range at 1 KHz frequency. These properties offer a flexible application range to the proposed amplifier as high power gain, wide band, or tuned amplifier in permissible audio-frequency range. Variations in voltage gain as a function of frequency and different biasing resistances, temperature dependency of performance parameters, bandwidth and total harmonic distortion of the amplifier are also perused to provide a wide spectrum to the qualitative studies

  15. Inclusion of small signal stability assessment to electromagnetic transient programs

    Lucas, J.R. [Moratuwa Univ. (Sri Lanka); Annakkage, U.D.; Karawita, C. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Muthumuni, D.; Jayasinghe, R.P. [Manitoba HVDC Research Centre, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Power system stability refers to the ability of an electrical power system to regain a state of operating equilibrium after being subjected to a physical disturbance. In this study, a small-signal stability (SSS) module was formulated for use with the transient simulation tool called PSCAD. The package was developed in an effort to provide small-signal stability assessment of case studies on PSCAD, and an adaptable simulation background for users to carry out conventional controller design without the need for an outside package. Once fully developed, the SSS module will be capable of incorporating all the system models available on PSCAD. Simulation results for the benchmark 12 bus system showed that it is a powerful and promising tool for carrying out small-signal analysis together with transient analysis, particularly for power system controller design to prevent instabilities. Validation has been carried out by comparison of Eigenvalues with SSAT and time domain responses with PSCAD/EMTDC. It was concluded that SSS could be effectively used to study the stability of a proposed power system before detailed simulation on an EMT type simulation is carried out. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  16. Small-signal modulation and differential gain of red-emitting (λ = 630 nm) InGaN/GaN quantum dot lasers

    We report small-signal modulation bandwidth and differential gain measurements of a ridge waveguide In0.4Ga0.6N/GaN quantum dot laser grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The laser peak emission is at λ = 630 nm. The −3 dB bandwidth of an 800 μm long device was measured to be 2.4 GHz at 250 mA under pulsed biasing, demonstrating the possibility of high-speed operation of these devices. The differential gain was measured to be 5.3 × 10−17 cm2, and a gain compression factor of 2.87 × 10−17 cm3 is also derived from the small-signal modulation response

  17. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  18. Glass Industry Bandwidth Analysis

    Rue, David M. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This is a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, for several glassmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results.

  19. Industrial Glass Bandwidth Analysis

    Rue, David M. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Servaites, James [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Wolf, Warren [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2007-08-01

    This is a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, for several glassmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results.

  20. DFIG turbine representation for small signal voltage control studies

    Garcia, Jorge Martinez; Kjær, Philip Carne; Teodorescu, Remus

    This paper addresses the representation of a wind power plant, based on wound rotor asynchronous generators, with a centralized voltage controller, by an equivalent transfer function, valid for small signal voltage control studies. This representation allows to investigate the influence of the...... centralized plant control gain and short circuit ratio on the system stability, for instance, by analyzing the zero-pole placement. Larger percentages of wind power penetration translate to more demanding requirements coming from the grid codes, for example voltage support at the point of connection has been...... introduced recently by several grid codes from around the world, making important to analyze this control when applied to wind power plants. The performance of the equivalent transfer function has been evaluated and compared using an equivalent grid with different short circuit ratios and active power...

  1. Thermal Effects and Small Signal Modulation of 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs Self-Assembled Quantum-Dot Lasers

    Tong CZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the influence of thermal effects on the high-speed performance of 1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers in a wide temperature range (5–50°C. Ridge waveguide devices with 1.1 mm cavity length exhibit small signal modulation bandwidths of 7.51 GHz at 5°C and 3.98 GHz at 50°C. Temperature-dependent K-factor, differential gain, and gain compression factor are studied. While the intrinsic damping-limited modulation bandwidth is as high as 23 GHz, the actual modulation bandwidth is limited by carrier thermalization under continuous wave operation. Saturation of the resonance frequency was found to be the result of thermal reduction in the differential gain, which may originate from carrier thermalization.

  2. Low-bandwidth authentication.

    Donnelly, Patrick Joseph; McIver, Lauren; Gaines, Brian R.; Anderson, Erik; Collins, Michael Joseph; Thomas,Kurt Adam; McDaniel, Austin

    2007-09-01

    Remotely-fielded unattended sensor networks generally must operate at very low power--in the milliwatt or microwatt range--and thus have extremely limited communications bandwidth. Such sensors might be asleep most of the time to conserve power, waking only occasionally to transmit a few bits. RFID tags for tracking or material control have similarly tight bandwidth constraints, and emerging nanotechnology devices will be even more limited. Since transmitted data is subject to spoofing, and since sensors might be located in uncontrolled environments vulnerable to physical tampering, the high-consequence data generated by such systems must be protected by cryptographically sound authentication mechanisms; but such mechanisms are often lacking in current sensor networks. One reason for this undesirable situation is that standard authentication methods become impractical or impossible when bandwidth is severely constrained; if messages are small, a standard digital signature or HMAC will be many times larger than the message itself, yet it might be possible to spare only a few extra bits per message for security. Furthermore, the authentication tags themselves are only one part of cryptographic overhead, as key management functions (distributing, changing, and revoking keys) consume still more bandwidth. To address this problem, we have developed algorithms that provide secure authentication while adding very little communication overhead. Such techniques will make it possible to add strong cryptographic guarantees of data integrity to a much wider range of systems.

  3. Bandwidth in bolometric interferometry

    Charlassier, R; Hamilton, J -Ch; Kaplan, J; Malu, S

    2009-01-01

    Bolometric Interferometry is a technology currently under development that will be first dedicated to the detection of B-mode polarization fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background. A bolometric interferometer will have to take advantage of the wide spectral detection band of its bolometers in order to be competitive with imaging experiments. A crucial concern is that interferometers are presumed to be importantly affected by a spoiling effect known as bandwidth smearing. In this paper, we investigate how the bandwidth modifies the work principle of a bolometric interferometer and how it affects its sensitivity to the CMB angular power spectra. We obtain analytical expressions for the broadband visibilities measured by broadband heterodyne and bolometric interferometers. We investigate how the visibilities must be reconstructed in a broadband bolometric interferometer and show that this critically depends on hardware properties of the modulation phase shifters. Using an angular power spectrum estimator ...

  4. Small signal modulation characteristics of red-emitting (λ = 610 nm) III-nitride nanowire array lasers on (001) silicon

    Jahangir, Shafat

    2015-02-16

    The small signal modulation characteristics of an InGaN/GaN nanowire array edge- emitting laser on (001) silicon are reported. The emission wavelength is 610 nm. Lattice matched InAlN cladding layers were incorporated in the laser heterostructure for better mode confinement. The suitability of the nanowire lasers for use in plastic fiber communication systems with direct modulation is demonstrated through their modulation bandwidth of f-3dB,max = 3.1 GHz, very low values of chirp (0.8 Å) and α-parameter, and large differential gain (3.1 × 10-17 cm2).

  5. Small-signal theory of subterahertz overmoded surface wave oscillator with distributed wall loss

    Wang, Guangqiang; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Shuang; Wang, Xuefeng

    2015-09-01

    A small-signal theory of the overmoded surface wave oscillator (SWO) with distributed wall loss is presented in this letter. The wall loss considered here includes the surface resistance and surface roughness. The cold and hot characteristics of 0.14 THz SWO are studied by the small-signal theory. Numerical results show that as the increase of wall loss, the working frequency decreases slightly, the rise time and startup time of oscillation increase significantly, and the output power decreases dramatically. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation confirms the prediction by the small-signal theory.

  6. Cutter Connectivity Bandwidth Study

    2002-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how much bandwidth is required for cutters to meet emerging data transfer requirements. The Cutter Connectivity Business Solutions Team with guidance front the Commandant's 5 Innovation Council sponsored this study. Today, many Coast Guard administrative and business functions are being conducted via electronic means. Although our larger cutters can establish part-time connectivity using commercial satellite communications (SATCOM) while underway, there are numerous complaints regarding poor application performance. Additionally, smaller cutters do not have any standard means of underway connectivity. The R&D study shows the most important factor affecting web performance and enterprise applications onboard cutters was latency. Latency describes the time it takes the signal to reach the satellite and come back down through space. The latency due to use of higher orbit satellites is causing poor application performance and inefficient use of expensive SATCOM links. To improve performance, the CC must, (1) reduce latency by using alternate communications links such as low-earth orbit satellites, (2) tailor applications to the SATCOM link and/or (3) optimize protocols used for data communication to minimize time required by present applications to establish communications between the user and the host systems.

  7. Validation of Nonlinear Bipolar Transistor Model by Small-Signal Measurements

    Vidkjær, Jens; Porra, V.; Zhu, J.; Huttunen, T

    A new method for the validity analysis of nonlinear transistor models is presented based on DC-and small-signal S-parameter measurements and realistic consideration of the measurement and de-embedding errors and singularities of the small-signal equivalent circuit. As an example, some analysis...... results for an extended Gummel Poon model are presented in the case of a UHF bipolar power transistor....

  8. Small Signal Model for VSC-HVDC Connected DFIG-Based Offshore Wind Farms

    Kai Liao; Zheng-you He; Bin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale offshore wind farms are integrated with onshore ac grids through the voltage source converter based high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC) transmission system. The impact on the stability of the ac grids will be significant. The small signal model of a wind farm connected with voltage source converter based dc transmission system is studied in this paper. A suitable model for small signal stability analysis is presented. The control system of wind generator and the HVDC system has...

  9. Estimating Bottleneck Bandwidth using TCP

    Allman, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with estimating bottleneck bandwidth using TCP are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Why TCP is wanted to estimate the bottleneck bandwidth; 2) Setting ssthresh to an appropriate value to reduce loss; 3) Possible packet-pair solutions; and 4) Preliminary results: ACTS and the Internet.

  10. Small Signal Stability Improvement of Power Systems Using Optimal Load Responses in Competitive Electricity Markets

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift some of their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. The optimal load response to an electricity price...... for demand side management generates different load profiles and may provide an opportunity to improve the small signal stability of power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the idea of power system small signal stability improvement by using optimal load response to the...... electricity price is proposed. A 17-bus power system with high wind power penetrations, which resembles the Eastern Danish power system, is chosen as the study case. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to electricity prices is an effective measure to improve the small signal stability of...

  11. Study on Small Signal Stability Improvement by PSS of the Large-Scale Wind Power Integration

    Zi Lan Zhao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing penetration of wind energy generation into power system, the impact of wind farms on power grids performance and stability control is of growing concern. Firstly there is a introduction of basic principles related to small signal stability analysis. Then a new method of improving small signal stability is proposed in this paper. The method, based on optimization adjustment of time constant of the phase shift link of PSS, is verified to be effective by an instance analysis of simulation in DIgSILENT/Power Factory. Three-machine Nine Nodes Model is used in this simulation.

  12. Small-signal modelling and control of photovoltaic based water pumping system.

    Ghosh, Arun; Ganesh Malla, Siva; Narayan Bhende, Chandrasekhar

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies small-signal modelling and control design for a photovoltaic (PV) based water pumping system without energy storage. First, the small-signal model is obtained and then, using this model, two proportional-integral (PI) controllers, where one controller is used to control the dc-link voltage and the other one to control the speed of induction motor, are designed to meet control goals such as settling time and peak overshoot of the closed loop responses. The loop robustness of the design is also studied. For a given set of system parameters, simulations are carried out to validate the modelling and the control design. PMID:25707717

  13. SMALL-SIGNAL GAIN MEASUREMENTS AT THE CENTER LINE IN A C.W. DF LASER

    Gastaud, M.; Voignier, F.; Bousselet, P.; Regnier, P.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of the small-signal gain of the laser medium produced by a DF combustion-driven continuous wave chemical laser are presented. A low power hydrogen (deuterium) fluoride mixing laser has been developed as probe laser which produces cw radiation on a single line and single TEMooq mode. By applying a saw-tooth voltage to the P.Z.T. crystal modulating the laser cavity length we measured the gain at the center line. The small-signal gain profile along the gas flow direction was observe...

  14. Network Bandwidth Utilization Forecast Model on High Bandwidth Network

    Yoo, Wucherl; Sim, Alex

    2014-07-07

    With the increasing number of geographically distributed scientific collaborations and the scale of the data size growth, it has become more challenging for users to achieve the best possible network performance on a shared network. We have developed a forecast model to predict expected bandwidth utilization for high-bandwidth wide area network. The forecast model can improve the efficiency of resource utilization and scheduling data movements on high-bandwidth network to accommodate ever increasing data volume for large-scale scientific data applications. Univariate model is developed with STL and ARIMA on SNMP path utilization data. Compared with traditional approach such as Box-Jenkins methodology, our forecast model reduces computation time by 83.2percent. It also shows resilience against abrupt network usage change. The accuracy of the forecast model is within the standard deviation of the monitored measurements.

  15. A transfer function approach to the small-signal response of saturated semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Blumenthal, D. J.; Mørk, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the small-signal frequency response (SSFR) of a wavelength converter based on cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier with a finite waveguide loss is presented. We use a transfer function formalism to explain the resonant behavior of the frequency...

  16. Benchmarking of small-signal dynamics of single-phase PLLs

    Zhang, Chong; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Weisheng

    Phase-looked Loop (PLL) is a critical component for the control and grid synchronization of grid-connected power converters. This paper presents a benchmarking study on the small-signal dynamics of three commonly used PLLs for single-phase converters, including enhanced PLL, second...

  17. Uncertainty Estimation in SiGe HBT Small-Signal Modeling

    Masood, Syed M.; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Vidkjær, Jens; Krozer, Viktor

    2005-01-01

    An uncertainty estimation and sensitivity analysis is performed on multi-step de-embedding for SiGe HBT small-signal modeling. The uncertainty estimation in combination with uncertainty model for deviation in measured S-parameters, quantifies the possible error value in de-embedded two-port param...

  18. Black Holes, Bandwidths and Beethoven

    Kempf, A

    2000-01-01

    It is usually believed that a function whose Fourier spectrum is bounded can vary at most as fast as its highest frequency component. This is in fact not the case, as Aharonov, Berry and others drastically demonstrated with explicit counter examples, so-called superoscillations. The claim is that even the recording of an entire Beethoven symphony can occur as part of a signal with 1Hz bandwidth. Superoscillations have been suggested to account e.g. for transplanckian frequencies of black hole radiation. Here, we give an exact proof for generic superoscillations. Namely, we show that for every fixed bandwidth there exist functions which pass through any finite number of arbitrarily prespecified points. Further, we show that the behavior of bandlimited functions can be reliably characterized through an uncertainty relation for the standard deviation of the signals' samples taken at the Nyquist rate. This uncertainty relation generalizes to time-varying bandwidths.

  19. High-bandwidth memory interface

    Kim, Chulwoo; Song, Junyoung

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overview of recent advances in memory interface design at both the architecture and circuit levels. Coverage includes signal integrity and testing, TSV interface, high-speed serial interface including equalization, ODT, pre-emphasis, wide I/O interface including crosstalk, skew cancellation, and clock generation and distribution. Trends for further bandwidth enhancement are also covered.   • Enables readers with minimal background in memory design to understand the basics of high-bandwidth memory interface design; • Presents state-of-the-art techniques for memory interface design; • Covers memory interface design at both the circuit level and system architecture level.

  20. Mining Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    none,

    2007-07-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) relies on analytical studies to identify large energy reduction opportunities in energy-intensive industries and uses these results to guide its R&D portfolio. The energy bandwidth illustrates the total energy-saving opportunity that exists in the industry if the current processes are improved by implementing more energy-efficient practices and by using advanced technologies. This bandwidth analysis report was conducted to assist the ITP Mining R&D program in identifying energy-saving opportunities in coal, metals, and mineral mining. These opportunities were analyzed in key mining processes of blasting, dewatering, drilling, digging, ventilation, materials handling, crushing, grinding, and separations.

  1. PLL with MAF-Based Prefiltering Stage: Small-Signal Modeling and Performance Enhancement

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.; Doval-Gandoy, Jesus

    2016-01-01

    . This model enables the designer to simply analyze the stability condition and dynamic behavior of the PMAF-PLL. After developing the model, a simple modification to enhance the PMAF-PLL performance under frequency varying environments is presented. Finally, the equivalence of PMAFPLL and the space-vector...... in several works. The MAF is a linear-phase filter that can behave like an ideal lowpass filter under certain conditions. The main aim of this letter is to derive the small-signal model of the SRF-PLL with MAF-based prefiltering stage (briefly called the PMAF-PLL), which has not been presented before...... Fourier Transform based PLL (SVFTPLL), which is a well-known PLL in three-phase applications, is proved. This equivalence implies that the small-signal model of the PMAF-PLL and the method presented to enhance its performance are valid for the SVFT-PLL....

  2. Improvement of Small Signal Stability of SMIB System Using PSO and CSO based Power System Stabilizer

    Y. Raghuvamsi; Raghavendra Rao, M.

    2015-01-01

    In a power system, Low Frequency Oscillations (LFOs) are dangerous and make system unstable. These oscillations are referred to small signal stability and they are mainly due to lack of damping torque. This insufficient damping torque is because of high gain and low time constant of Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR). AVR is useful for maintaining the terminal voltage of synchronous machine as constant. While doing so, it will make the system damping torque as negative. For providi...

  3. Small signal gain analysis for a wiggler with noncollinear laser wave and electron beam

    Artemiev, A. I.; Klochkov, D. N.; Kurizki, G.; Poluektov, N. P.; Shubin, N. Yu.

    2004-01-01

    The collective and single-electron amplification regimes of a non-collinear free electron laser are analyzed within the framework of dispersion equations. The small-signal gain and the conditions for self-amplified excitations are found. The collective excitations in a free electron laser are shown to be favored by the non-collinear arrangement of the relativistic electrons and the laser wave. Implications for free-electron lasing without inversion are discussed.

  4. Black Holes, Bandwidths and Beethoven

    Kempf, A.

    1999-01-01

    It is usually believed that a function whose Fourier spectrum is bounded can vary at most as fast as its highest frequency component. This is in fact not the case, as Aharonov, Berry and others drastically demonstrated with explicit counter examples, so-called superoscillations. It has been claimed that even the recording of an entire Beethoven symphony can occur as part of a signal with 1Hz bandwidth. Bandlimited functions also occur as ultraviolet regularized fields. Their superoscillations...

  5. OPTIMAL BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION WITH BANDWIDTH RESERVATION AND ADAPTATION IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    Ali Amiri

    2016-01-01

    Efficient management of bandwidth in wireless networks is a critical factor for a successful communication system. Special features of wireless networks such user mobility and growth of wireless applications and their high bandwidth intensity create a major challenge to utilize bandwidth resources optimally. In this research, we propose a model for an adaptable network bandwidth management method that combines bandwidth reservation and bandwidth adaptation to reduce call blocking ...

  6. Small-signal transient response and turn-on delay of polariton laser diodes

    Butté, Raphaël

    2016-03-01

    We present a theoretical description of the small-signal transient response of polariton laser diodes (pol-LDs) based on simplified coupled rate equations describing the exciton reservoir and the ground-state polariton populations. The analytic expressions derived for two pumping geometries, which are valid for all inorganic semiconductors suitable for the realization of pol-LDs, are compared to exact numerical calculations performed for the specific case of GaN-based devices. The two approaches show excellent agreement provided the current step transient remains within the small-signal limit. We report that the temporal attenuation of the envelopes of the oscillations matches half the value of the damping factor ({γ }{{d}}) of the pol-LDs, which is proportional to the square of the oscillation relaxation resonance frequency. An explicit expression for the dependence of {γ }{{d}} on both the exciton-photon detuning and the driving current (equivalently the optical pump power) is also obtained. In a further step, we derive the expression for the turn-on delay (t d) associated with the build-up of the exciton reservoir population up to its threshold value before coherent light emission occurs. We show that t d has the same functional form for the two pumping geometries. It is equal to the effective exciton lifetime ({τ }{x{eff}}) weighted by a logarithmic dependence on the initial and final driving currents. In addition, {τ }{x{eff}} is shown to be approximately equal to the exciton lifetime, which proves to be the main parameter governing the build-up of polariton lasing/condensation. Beyond electrically driven polariton lasers, we highlight that the temporal shape of the transients could also be easily tested by monitoring the time dependence of the output power of optically pumped polariton lasers subjected to a sudden increase in the continuous wave pump power within the small-signal limit.

  7. A small signal theory of gyro-devices using the concept of space-charge waves

    Oleinik, M.V.; Trubetskov, D.I. [Saratov State Univ. (Russian Federation). Coll. of Applied Science

    1996-06-01

    The linear theory of the interaction between a thin annular beam of gyrating electrons and a traveling electromagnetic wave is developed. This theory is very close in its methodology to the classical small signal theory of O- and M-type devices. Just this fact makes it possible to consider a number of issues in the theory of gyro-devices, namely, space-charge wave propagation in drifting electron beams, noise and parametric phenomena, effects of input signal suppression (Kompfner dip) in gyro-traveling-wave-tubes, and gyro-backward-wave-amplifiers.

  8. Rapid Small-Signal Stability Assessment and Enhancement Following Changes in Topology

    Saric, AT; Stankovic, AM

    2015-05-01

    The paper proposes a scalable and tractable algorithm for dynamic topology optimization of power systems involving changes in branch on/off status, while respecting small-signal stability (SSS) constraints. A procedure for fast updates of the system matrices (in descriptor form) and without additional full matrix inversions is proposed. To additionally reduce the computation time, only critical eigenvalues (right-most or those in a specified damping ratio and frequency range) are calculated. A quadratic optimization approach is proposed for optimized generation re-dispatch to satisfy SSS constraints. The approach is applied to two (medium- and large-scale) real-world test power systems.

  9. Small-signal amplifier based on single-layer MoS2

    Radisavljevic, Branimir; Whitwick, Michael B.; Kis, Andras

    2012-01-01

    In this letter we demonstrate the operation of an analog small-signal amplifier based on single-layer MoS2, a semiconducting analogue of graphene. Our device consists of two transistors integrated on the same piece of single-layer MoS2. The high intrinsic band gap of 1.8 eV allows MoS2-based amplifiers to operate with a room temperature gain of 4. The amplifier operation is demonstrated for the frequencies of input signal up to 2 kHz preserving the gain higher than 1. Our work shows that MoS2...

  10. Comparison Study of Power System Small Signal Stability Improvement Using SSSC and STATCOM

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Fang, Jiakun; Chen, Zhe

    A static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) has the ability to emulate a reactance in series with the connected transmission line. A static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is able to provide the reactive power to an electricity network. When fed with some supplementary signals from the...... connected power system, both SSSC and STATCOM are able to participate in the power system inter-area oscillation damping by changing the compensated reactance or the provided reactive power. This paper analyses the influence of SSSC and STATCOM on power system small signal stability. The damping controller...

  11. LMI Based Wide Area TCSC Controller in Mitigating Small Signal Oscillations

    D. Mondal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a Linear Matrix Inequality(LMI based ?? robust controller design employing WideArea Measurement (WAM based stabilizing signals asgenerator speed. A Three-input, Single-output (TISOcontroller is designed for a Thyristor Controlled Seriescompensator (TCSC in order to mitigate small signaloscillations in a multimachine power system. The controllerdesign has been carried out based on the ?? mixed-sensitivityformulation in a LMI framework with pole-placementconstraint. The small signal performance of the test system hasbeen examined employing eigenvalue analysis as well as timedomain response. The designed controller is found to be robustagainst disturbances like varying generations as well as loadpower demand.

  12. S3DB core: a framework for RDF generation and management in bioinformatics infrastructures

    Deus Helena F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biomedical research is set to greatly benefit from the use of semantic web technologies in the design of computational infrastructure. However, beyond well defined research initiatives, substantial issues of data heterogeneity, source distribution, and privacy currently stand in the way towards the personalization of Medicine. Results A computational framework for bioinformatic infrastructure was designed to deal with the heterogeneous data sources and the sensitive mixture of public and private data that characterizes the biomedical domain. This framework consists of a logical model build with semantic web tools, coupled with a Markov process that propagates user operator states. An accompanying open source prototype was developed to meet a series of applications that range from collaborative multi-institution data acquisition efforts to data analysis applications that need to quickly traverse complex data structures. This report describes the two abstractions underlying the S3DB-based infrastructure, logical and numerical, and discusses its generality beyond the immediate confines of existing implementations. Conclusions The emergence of the "web as a computer" requires a formal model for the different functionalities involved in reading and writing to it. The S3DB core model proposed was found to address the design criteria of biomedical computational infrastructure, such as those supporting large scale multi-investigator research, clinical trials, and molecular epidemiology.

  13. ANNs in Bias Dependant Small-Signal and Noise Modeling of Microwave FETs

    V. Marković

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an efficient procedure for determination of small-signal and noise behavior of microwave transistors for various bias conditions is proposed. An empirical transistor noise model based on an equivalent circuit (improvement of Pospieszalski’s noise model is considered. Since it is necessary to extract values of the model equivalent circuit for each bias point (which requires the measured data acquiring and repeated time consuming extraction procedures, it is proposed to use an artificial neural network to model the bias dependence of the equivalent circuit parameters. In that way, it is necessary to acquire the measured data and extract the equivalent circuit parameters only for several operating biases used for the network training. Once the neural network is trained, the device small-signal scattering and noise parameters are easily obtained for an arbitrary bias point from the device operating range without changes in the model. The proposed modeling approach is exemplified by modeling of a specific MESFET device in a packaged form.

  14. Linearized Modeling of Single Machine Infinite Bus Power System and Controllers for Small Signal Stability Investigation and Enhancement

    Balwinder Singh Surjan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Small signal stability investigation is vital as thesystem outage due small signal perturbation being unknown tothe system operators. The small signal disturbance may beinitiating event for large system outage. The Single MachineInfinite Bus (SMIB power system helps in tuning thecontrollers at one machine without considering the effect ofother machines in the power system. The effect of disturbanceseen by the machine being 100%, whereas in interconnectedpower system the effect gets distributed among differentmachines. Therefore, the controller tuning with SMIB remainsvalid for miltimachine power system as well. In this paper acomparison of PID, PSS, TCDB controllers is presentedthrough small signal stability of power system comprising ofone machine connected to infinite bus and modeled through sixK-constants. The power system components such assynchronous machine, exciter, power system stabilizer, PID,TCDB are also modeled after linearization of governingequations.

  15. Research on a Small Signal Stability Region Boundary Model of the Interconnected Power System with Large-Scale Wind Power

    Wenying Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For the interconnected power system with large-scale wind power, the problem of the small signal stability has become the bottleneck of restricting the sending-out of wind power as well as the security and stability of the whole power system. Around this issue, this paper establishes a small signal stability region boundary model of the interconnected power system with large-scale wind power based on catastrophe theory, providing a new method for analyzing the small signal stability. Firstly, we analyzed the typical characteristics and the mathematic model of the interconnected power system with wind power and pointed out that conventional methods cant directly identify the topological properties of small signal stability region boundaries. For this problem, adopting catastrophe theory, we established a small signal stability region boundary model of the interconnected power system with large-scale wind power in two-dimensional power injection space and extended it to multiple dimensions to obtain the boundary model in multidimensional power injection space. Thirdly, we analyzed qualitatively the topological propertys changes of the small signal stability region boundary caused by large-scale wind power integration. Finally, we built simulation models by DIgSILENT/PowerFactory software and the final simulation results verified the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed model.

  16. Two neural approaches for small-signal modelling of GaAs HEMTs

    Marinković Zlatica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Focus of this paper is on the neural approach in small-signal modelling of GaAs HEMTs. Two modelling approaches based on artificial neural networks are discussed and compared. The first approach is completely based on artificial neural networks, while the second is a hybrid approach putting together artificial neural networks and an equivalent circuit representation of a microwave transistor. Both models consider the device gate width and therefore both are scalable. Results of modelling of three different AlGaAs/GaAs HEMTs in a wide range of operating bias conditions using the considered approaches are given. Different modelling aspects are discussed. A special attention is paid to the model development procedure and accuracy of the models.

  17. Improvement of Small Signal Stability of SMIB System Using PSO and CSO based Power System Stabilizer

    Y. Raghuvamsi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a power system, Low Frequency Oscillations (LFOs are dangerous and make system unstable. These oscillations are referred to small signal stability and they are mainly due to lack of damping torque. This insufficient damping torque is because of high gain and low time constant of Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR. AVR is useful for maintaining the terminal voltage of synchronous machine as constant. While doing so, it will make the system damping torque as negative. For providing required damping torque thereby minimizing the LFOs, Power System Stabilizer is used in conjunction with AVR. In this paper for SMIB system, the stability is studied with the help of eigen values before and after placement of PSS with optimized PSS parameters using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO. The simulation work is performed in the MATLAB/SIMULINK and corresponding results are presented and analyzed.

  18. Influence of Wind Plant Ancillary Frequency Control on System Small Signal Stability

    Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Since large-scale wind farms are increasingly connected to modern power grids, the transmission system operators put more requirements as part of the grid codes on the integration of wind farms. System frequency control which is normally provided by conventional synchronous generators becomes a...... common requirement to wind farms. This ancillary frequency control provided by wind farms could have some influence on the system small signal stability. This paper implements an ancillary frequency control strategy on a directdrive- full-convertor-based wind farm and studies its influence on the damping...... ratio values of the dominant oscillation modes within the connected power system. All the calculations and simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT PowerFactory 14.0....

  19. Influence of Wind Plant Ancillary Voltage Control on System Small Signal Stability

    Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    As a common tendency, large-scale wind farms are increasingly connected to the transmission system of modern power grids. This introduces some new challenges to the connected power systems, and the transmission system operators (TSOs) have to put some new requirements as part of the grid codes on...... the integration of wind farms. One common requirement to wind farms is the function of system voltage control which can be implemented in the grid-side convertor controller of a variable speed wind turbine. This ancillary voltage control provided by wind farms could have some influence on the system...... small signal stability. This paper implements an ancillary voltage control strategy on a direct-drive-full-convertor-based wind farm and studies its influence on the damping ratio values of the dominant oscillation mode within the connected power system. All the calculations and simulations are...

  20. A small-signal generator based on a multi-layer graphene/molybdenum disulfide heterojunction

    Tan, Zhen; Tian, He; Feng, Tingting; Zhao, Lianfeng; Xie, Dan; Yang, Yi; Xiao, Lei; Wang, Jing; Ren, Tian-Ling, E-mail: RenTL@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: JunXu@tsinghua.edu.cn; Xu, Jun, E-mail: RenTL@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: JunXu@tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China and Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology (TNList), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-23

    In this work, we fabricate a heterojunction small-signal generator (HSSG) based on a graphene-molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) heterojunction. The HSSG is fundamentally different from any analog device developed previously. The HSSG is composed of two quasi-2D heterojunctions and has three terminals named injector (I), recombinator (R), and generator (G). MoS{sub 2} serves as I and G, and graphene works as R in the HSSG. The scale coefficient (??=?I{sub G}/I{sub R}) of the HSSG is 1.14??10{sup ?4} (V{sub IG,?IR}?=?0.2?V) to 1.95??10{sup ?4} (V{sub IG,?IR}?=?1?V). The current generated from G could be as low as pA scale, which reveals the good performance of the HSSG.

  1. A small-signal generator based on a multi-layer graphene/molybdenum disulfide heterojunction

    In this work, we fabricate a heterojunction small-signal generator (HSSG) based on a graphene-molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) heterojunction. The HSSG is fundamentally different from any analog device developed previously. The HSSG is composed of two quasi-2D heterojunctions and has three terminals named injector (I), recombinator (R), and generator (G). MoS2 serves as I and G, and graphene works as R in the HSSG. The scale coefficient (??=?IG/IR) of the HSSG is 1.14??10?4 (VIG,?IR?=?0.2?V) to 1.95??10?4 (VIG,?IR?=?1?V). The current generated from G could be as low as pA scale, which reveals the good performance of the HSSG

  2. Wide-Area Assessment of Aperiodic Small Signal Rotor Angle Stability in Real-Time

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    multiple operating points is derived in the paper. Finally, results from time-domain simulation of instability scenarios in the Nordic32 test system are presented and results used for testing the assessment method. The results illustrate the method’s capability to efficiently identify the location of the......This paper presents the details of a new real-time stability assessment method. The method assesses a particular mechanism of stability: each generator’s capability to generate sufficient steady state electromechanical torque. The lack of sufficient steady state torque causes aperiodic increase in...... rotor angle and a loss of synchronism, referred to as aperiodic small signal instability. The paper provides the theoretical background of the method and an analytical assessment criterion. Furthermore, a mathematical mapping of the generators’ operating points that enables informative visualization of...

  3. Wide-Area Assessment of Aperiodic Small Signal Rotor Angle Stability in Real-Time

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the details of a new real-time stability assessment method. The method assesses a particular mechanism of stability: each generator's capability to generate sufficient steady state electromechanical torque. The lack of sufficient steady state torque causes aperiodic increase in...... multiple operating points is derived in the paper. Finally, results from timedomain simulation of instability scenarios in the Nordic32 test system are presented and results used for testing the assessment method. The results illustrate the method's capability to efficiently identify the location of the...... rotor angle and a loss of synchronism, referred to as aperiodic small signal instability. The paper provides the theoretical background of the method and an analytical assessment criterion. Furthermore, a mathematical mapping of the generators' operating points that enables informative visualization of...

  4. Real-time remedial action against aperiodic small signal rotor angle instability

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method that in real-time determines remedial actions, which restore stable operation with respect to aperiodic small signal rotor angle stability (ASSRAS) when insecure or unstable operation has been detected. An ASSRAS assessment method is used to monitor the stability...... impedance plane to determine an active power redispatch among selected generators to restore stable and secure operation. Since the method is purely based on analytically derived expression, the computation of the remedial actions is fast and well suited for real-time operation. The method was tested on the...... boundary for each generator in real-time. The ASSRAS boundary represents the condition when a generator reaches the maximum steady state active power injection. The proposed control method exploits analytically derived expressions for the ASSRAS boundary and other characteristic curves in the injection...

  5. Electrostatic and Small-Signal Analysis of CMUTs With Circular and Square Anisotropic Plates.

    Funding la Cour, Mette; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jrgen Arendt; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2015-08-01

    Traditionally, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are modeled using the isotropic plate equation, and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and finite element modeling (FEM). In this paper, the deflection is calculated for both circular and square plates using the full anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic calculations match excellently with FEM, whereas an isotropic approach causes up to 10% deviations in deflection. For circular plates, an exact solution can be found. For square plates using the Galerkin method, and utilizing the symmetry of the silicon crystal, a compact and accurate expression for the deflection can be obtained. The deviation from FEM in center deflection is element small-signal model for both circular and square anisotropic plates is derived to describe the dynamics of the CMUT. PMID:26492637

  6. Improving the Bandwidth Utilization by Recycling the Unused Bandwidth in IEEE 802.16 Networks

    Gowri T; Raja K; G.Tholkappia Arasu

    2012-01-01

    The Physical and MAC layers have been specified in IEEE 802.16 networks. The quality of service is ensured by the bandwidth reservation. The subscriber station should reserve the bandwidth more than its demand. But the bandwidth is fully utilized by SS but not all the time. So the bandwidth has recycled by the process of recycling the unused bandwidth. The main objective of the proposed scheme is to utilize the unused bandwidth by recycling and maintain the QOS service. By recycling the throu...

  7. Improving the Bandwidth Utilization by Recycling the Unused Bandwidth in IEEE 802.16 Networks

    Gowri T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Physical and MAC layers have been specified in IEEE 802.16 networks. The quality of service is ensured by the bandwidth reservation. The subscriber station should reserve the bandwidth more than its demand. But the bandwidth is fully utilized by SS but not all the time. So the bandwidth has recycled by the process of recycling the unused bandwidth. The main objective of the proposed scheme is to utilize the unused bandwidth by recycling and maintain the QOS service. By recycling the throughput can be improved which maintains the QOS in the proposed scheme. During this recycling process to maintain the QOS services, the amount of reserved bandwidth is not changed. The proposed scheme can utilize the unused bandwidth up to 70% on average. Protocols and the scheduling algorithms are used to improve the utilization and throughput.

  8. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  9. Bandwidth engineering of photonic crystal waveguide bends

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders; Leon, Juan Burgos; Liu, H.; Kristensen, Martin; Bogaerts, Wim; Dumon, P.; Baets, Roel; Wiaux, V.; Wouters, J.; Beckx, S.

    2004-01-01

    An effective design principle has been applied to photonic crystal waveguide bends fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material using deep UV lithography resulting in a large increase in the low-loss bandwidth of the bends. Furthermore, it is experimentally demonstrated that the absolute bandwidth...

  10. Small signal modeling of high electron mobility transistors on silicon and silicon carbide substrate with consideration of substrate loss mechanism

    Sahoo, A. K.; Subramani, N. K.; Nallatamby, J. C.; Sylvain, L.; Loyez, C.; Quere, R.; Medjdoub, F.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a comparative study on small-signal modeling of AlN/GaN/AlGaN double hetero-structure high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) grown on silicon (Si) and silicon carbide (SiC) substrate. The traditional small signal equivalent circuit model is modified to take into account the transmission loss mechanism of coplanar waveguide (CPW) line which cannot be neglected at high frequencies. CPWs and HEMTs-on-AlN/GaN/AlGaN epitaxial layers are fabricated on both the Si and SiC substrates. S-parameter measurements at room temperature are performed over the frequency range from 0.5 GHz to 40 GHz. Transmission loss of CPW lines are modeled with a distributed transmission line (TL) network and an equivalent circuit model is included in the small-signal transistor model topology. Measurements and simulations are compared and found to be in good agreement.

  11. Study of Small Signal of 4H-SiC Static Induction Transistor

    Gang Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC SITs were fabricated using home-grown epi structures. The gate is a recessed gate - bottom contact (RG - B. We designed that the mesa space 2.5 ?m and the gate channel is 1.5 ?m. One cell has 400 source fingers and each source finger width is 50 ?m. 0.5 mm gate periphery SiC SIT yielded a maximum drain current density of 160 mA/mm at a drain voltage of 80 V and a gate voltage of 2.5 V. The device blocking voltage with a gate bias of -16 V was 400 V. Packaged 0.5-mm devices were evaluated using amplifier circuits designed for class AB operations. Small signal of SIT was studied. the maximum stable gain (MSG were 11.2 dB at 500MHz and 7.85 dB at L band 1 GHz with Vds = 80V and Vg = 2V.

  12. Small signal gain investigations for a continuous-wave diode-pumped Q:switch Cr:LiSAF laser

    Falcoz, Franck; Kerboull, F.; Druon, Frédéric; Balembois, François; Patrick GEORGES; Brun, Alain

    1996-01-01

    We measured small-signal gain in a cw diode-pumped Cr:LiSAF and showed that upconversion and thermal quenching of f luorescence strongly limit small-signal gain. Then we optimized the gain in a Cr:LiSAF laser pumped by two 400-mW red diodes. In Q-switched operation, this laser produced tunable nanosecond pulses between 800 and 900 nm. At 850 nm, we obtained 230-ns pulses with an energy of 6.5 mJ at a repetition rate of 10 kHz

  13. Tunable-Bandwidth Filter System

    Aye, Tin; Yu, Kevin; Dimov, Fedor; Savant, Gajendra

    2006-01-01

    A tunable-bandwidth filter system (TBFS), now undergoing development, is intended to be part of a remote-sensing multispectral imaging system that will operate in the visible and near infrared spectral region (wavelengths from 400 to 900 nm). Attributes of the TBFS include rapid tunability of the pass band over a wide wavelength range and high transmission efficiency. The TBFS is based on a unique integration of two pairs of broadband Raman reflection holographic filters with two rotating spherical lenses. In experiments, a prototype of the TBFS was shown to be capable of spectral sampling of images in the visible range over a 200-nm spectral range with a spectral resolution of .30 nm. The figure depicts the optical layout of a prototype of the TBFS as part of a laboratory multispectral imaging system for the spectral sampling of color test images in two orthogonal polarizations. Each pair of broadband Raman reflection holographic filters is mounted at an equatorial plane between two halves of a spherical lens. The two filters in each pair are characterized by steep spectral slopes (equivalently, narrow spectral edges), no ripple or side lobes in their pass bands, and a few nanometers of non-overlapping wavelength range between their pass bands. Each spherical lens and thus the filter pair within it is rotated in order to rapidly tune its pass band. The rotations of the lenses are effected by electronically controlled, programmable, high-precision rotation stages. The rotations are coordinated by electronic circuits operating under overall supervision of a personal computer in order to obtain the desired variation of the overall pass bands with time. Embedding the filters inside the spherical lenses increases the range of the hologram incidence angles, making it possible to continuously tune the pass and stop bands of the filters over a wider wavelength range. In addition, each spherical lens also serves as part of the imaging optics: The telephoto lens focuses incoming light to a field stop that is also a focal point of each spherical lens. A correcting lens in front of the field stop compensates for the spherical aberration of the spherical lenses. The front surface of each spherical lens collimates the light coming from the field stop. After the collimated light passes through the filter in the spherical lens, the rear surface of the lens focuses the light onto a charge-coupled-device image detector.

  14. Controlling the bandwidth of metamaterial properties

    Karami, M.; Fiddy, M. A.

    2015-09-01

    Designing metamaterials to possess extreme index values requires near resonant properties which, in turn, leads to these properties over diminishing bandwidths. Recent studies have shown that some bandwidth control might be possible by exploiting metamaterial substrates. We have demonstrated the concept in our design, and investigated the trade-offs between substrate structure, bandwidth extension and increase in losses. Loss management can be controlled by choice of metamaterial elements and replacement of metal by semiconductors. This also has the added advantage of some degree of tunability.

  15. Electron mobility characterization in OLEDs from ac small signal optical modulation

    Mu, Haichuan; Reddy, Indrani; Hunt, John; Severs, Phillip; Patil, Shirish

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the field dependence of electron mobility in tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium (Alq3) and bathocuproine (BCP) through ac small signal optical modulation on green light (ITO/PEDOT/NPD/Alq3/Ba/Ag) and blue light (ITO/PEDOT/NPD/BCP/Alq3/Ba/Ag) OLED. The electroluminescence (EL) transient time delay for the blue light OLED is much longer than for the green one. The electron mobility in BCP was extracted based on a Poole-Frenkel-like equation and EL transient time delay measurement, which is in the range (7-9) × 10-8 cm2 V-1 s-1 at an external electric field of 1530-1830 (V cm-1)1/2, comparable to the results from other published reports (Muckl et al 2000 Synth. Met. 111-112 91; Barth et al 2001 J. Appl. Phys. 89 3711; Nakamura H et al 1996 Int. Symp. on Inorganic and Organic Electroluminescence ed R H Mauch and H-E Gumlich (Berlin: Wissenschaft und Technik) p 95; Xie et al 2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 1477). The difference in EL transient time delay and electron mobility for green and blue light OLEDs was demonstrated by the results of direct modulation. The electron transit time shows similar field dependence in both Alq3 layers in green and blue OLEDs. Unlike Alq3, the field dependence of electron mobility in BCP did not fit the conventional organic semiconductor characteristics μ∞exp(βE1/2), and the excitons formation at the NPD/BCP interface for the blue OLEDs was demonstrated through the EL spectrum.

  16. Research on small signal detection of optical voltage/current transformer

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Guoqing; Cai, Xingguo; Guo, Zhizhong; Yu, Wenbin; Huo, Guangyu

    2013-08-01

    This paper researches the signal conditioning program of optical voltage/current transformer and the imbalance during the transmission of dual optical path, gives a brief introduction to the basic principle of optical voltage transformer based on electro-optic Pockels effect and optical current transformer based on Faraday Magnetic-optical Effect, and induces a general expression form of output light intensities This paper research on the signal modulation methods for the system: AC and DC modulations. What is more, the advantages and disadvantages of both modulations in the system will be analyzed. Considering the characteristics that the systematic noise and signal have the spectrum overlapping and that when there is any fault, the fact that in the small signal detection system the output SNR of AC modulation is better than that of DC modulation will be proved. For the parameter changes caused by the environment factors, the feedback control linked by the DSP is imported, it automatically adjusts the balance of the two branch parameters, acquires the measured component in the condition of the two branch unbalance parameters. Furthermore, this paper researches on the influence of imbalance of the dual optical path on the signal detection system. It analyzes the error characteristics due to different kinds of losses and to component matching disorders and other intrinsic factors and then put forward the method to calculate balancing factors by means of the RMS of 50Hz signal. The result proves that using this method can improve the output SNR of optical voltage/current transformer to some extent.

  17. High-Bandwidth Hybrid Sensor (HYSENS) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA has demonstrated the primary innovation of combining a precision MEMS gyro (BAE SiRRS01) with a high bandwidth angular rate sensor, ATA's ARS-14 resulting in a...

  18. Polybinary modulation for bandwidth limited optical links

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Jurado-Navas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Optical links using traditional modulation formats are reaching a plateau in terms of capacity, mainly due to bandwidth limitations in the devices employed at the transmitter and receivers. Advanced modulation formats, which boost the spectral efficiency, provide a smooth migration path towards...... recent results on poly binary modulation, comprising both binary and multilevel signals as seed signals. The results will show how poly binary modulation effectively reduces the bandwidth requirements on optical links while providing high spectral efficiency....

  19. Large scale probabilistic available bandwidth estimation

    Thouin, Frederic; Rabbat, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The common utilization-based definition of available bandwidth and many of the existing tools to estimate it suffer from several important weaknesses: i) most tools report a point estimate of average available bandwidth over a measurement interval and do not provide a confidence interval; ii) the commonly adopted models used to relate the available bandwidth metric to the measured data are invalid in almost all practical scenarios; iii) existing tools do not scale well and are not suited to the task of multi-path estimation in large-scale networks; iv) almost all tools use ad-hoc techniques to address measurement noise; and v) tools do not provide enough flexibility in terms of accuracy, overhead, latency and reliability to adapt to the requirements of various applications. In this paper we propose a new definition for available bandwidth and a novel framework that addresses these issues. We define probabilistic available bandwidth (PAB) as the largest input rate at which we can send a traffic flow along a pa...

  20. Extraction of temperature dependences of small-signal model parameters in SiGe HBT HICUM model

    Ya-Bin, Sun; Jun, Fu; Yu-Dong, Wang; Wei, Zhou; Wei, Zhang; Zhi-Hong, Liu

    2016-04-01

    In this work, temperature dependences of small-signal model parameters in the SiGe HBT HICUM model are presented. Electrical elements in the small-signal equivalent circuit are first extracted at each temperature, then the temperature dependences are determined by the series of extracted temperature coefficients, based on the established temperature formulas for corresponding model parameters. The proposed method is validated by a 1 × 0.2 × 16 μm2 SiGe HBT over a wide temperature range (from 218 K to 473 K), and good matching is obtained between the extracted and modeled results. Therefore, we believe that the proposed extraction flow of model parameter temperature dependence is reliable for characterizing the transistor performance and guiding the circuit design over a wide temperature range. Project supported partially by the Important National Science & Technology Specific Projects, China (Grant No. 2013ZX02503003).

  1. Broadband Frequency Dispersion Small Signal Modeling of the Output Conductance and Transconductance in AlInN/GaN HEMTs

    Nsele, Séraphin Dieudonné; Escotte, Laurent; Tartarin, Jean-Guy; Piotrowicz, Stéphane; Delage, Sylvain L.

    2013-01-01

    Frequency dispersion of transconductance and output conductance in AlInN/GaN high electron mobility transistors is investigated in this paper. Broadband dispersion effects in the microwave frequency range are reported for the first time. A small-signal model is developed. Trapping effects are taken into account with parasitic electrical networks including distributed time constants. The model is compared to experimental data for several bias conditions and different types of dispersion.

  2. Improved space bandwidth product in image upconversion

    Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Pedersen, Christian; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present a technique increasing the space bandwidth product of a nonlinear image upconversion process used for spectral imaging. The technique exploits the strong dependency of the phase-matching condition in sum frequency generation (SFG) on the angle of propagation of the interacting fields...... with respect to the optical axis. Appropriate scanning of the phase-match condition (Δk=0) while acquiring images, allow us to perform monochromatic image reconstruction with a significantly increased space bandwidth product. We derive the theory for the image reconstruction process and demonstrate...... acquisition of images with >10 fold increase in space bandwidth product, i.e. the number of pixel elements, when compared to upconversion of images using fixed phase-match conditions....

  3. 1 MHz bandwidth true NMR SQUID amplifier

    Thomasson, S. L.; Gould, C. M.

    1995-10-01

    We have developed an integrated dc SQUID magnetometer with additional positive feedback (APF) for low frequency true NMR applications. The APF scheme allows direct coupled read out from the SQUID to room temperature electronics and eliminates the need for the conventional modulation scheme, thereby greatly simplifying the flux-locked loop electronics. We have configured our SQUID system for the specific needs of sensitive NMR measurements which include large bandwidth and high slew rate. We have achieved a bandwidth of 1.2 MHz and a slew rate greater than 105?0/s for frequencies above 10 kHz.

  4. 1 MHz bandwidth true NMR SQUID amplifier

    We have developed an integrated dc SQUID magnetometer with additional positive feedback (APF) for low frequency true NMR applications. The APF scheme allows direct coupled read out from the SQUID to room temperature electronics and eliminates the need for the conventional modulation scheme, thereby greatly simplifying the flux-locked loop electronics. We have configured our SQUID system for the specific needs of sensitive NMR measurements which include large bandwidth and high slew rate. We have achieved a bandwidth of 1.2 MHz and a slew rate greater than 105?0/s for frequencies above 10 kHz

  5. Large-bandwidth planar photonic crystal waveguides

    Sndergaard, Thomas; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    A general design principle is presented for making finite-height photonic crystal waveguides that support leakage-free guidance of light over large frequency intervals. The large bandwidth waveguides are designed by introducing line defects in photonic crystal slabs, where the material in the line...... defect has appropriate dispersion properties relative to the photonic crystal slab material surrounding the line defect. A three-dimensional theoretical analysis is given for large-bandwidth waveguide designs based on a silicon-air photonic crystal slab suspended in air. In one example, the leakage...

  6. Dealing Bandwidth to Mobile Clients Using Games

    Sofokleous, Anastasis A.; Angelides, Marios C.

    This chapter exploits a gaming approach to bandwidth sharing in a network of non-cooperative clients whose aim is to satisfy their selfish objectives and be served in the shortest time and who share limited knowledge of one another. The chapter models this problem as a game in which players consume the bandwidth of a video streaming server. The rest of this chapter is organized in four sections: the proceeding section presents resource allocation taxonomies, following that is a section on game theory, where our approach is sourced from, and its application to resource allocation. The penultimate section presents our gaming approach to resource allocation. The final section concludes.

  7. Optimization model for bandwidth allocation in a network virtualization environment

    Botero Vega, Juan Felipe; Hesselbach Serra, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Bandwidth allocation is one of the main problems in network virtualization. Mechanisms to allocate bandwidth may avoid bottlenecked virtual links. This paper proposes a model based on optimization theory, to distribute the bandwidth among virtual links looking for the minimization of the spare bandwidth in the substrate network.

  8. Investigation of spectral bandwidth of optical parametric amplification

    Hongjun, L.; Wei, Z.; Guofu, C.; Yishan, W.; Zhao, C.; Chi, R.

    2004-09-01

    The spectral bandwidth of three-wave-mixing optical parametric amplification has been investigated. A general mathematical model for evaluating the spectral bandwidth of optical parametric amplification is developed with parametric bandwidth and gain bandwidth via three-wave noncollinear interactions. The spectral bandwidth is determined by expanding the wave-vector mismatch in a Taylor series and retaining terms through second order. The model takes into account the effects of crystal length, noncollinear angle, group velocity, group-velocity dispersion and gain coefficient. The relation between parametric bandwidth and gain bandwidth is clearly defined. The model is applied to a BBO OPA, a LBO OPA and a CLBO OPA.

  9. Experiences in Traceroute and Bandwidth Change Analysis

    SLAC has been studying end-to-end WAN bandwidth availability and achievability for 2.5 years via IEPM-BW [1]. IEPM-BW performs network intensive tests every 90 minutes. Based on that experience we have also developed a light weight available bandwidth (ABwE [2]) measurement tool that can make a measurement within a second. We are now extending this to a WAN measurement and detection system (IEPM-LITE) aimed at more quickly detecting and troubleshooting network performance problems and also to be more friendly on lower performance paths. IEPM-LITE uses ping, forward traceroutes, and ABwE sensors to monitor, in close to real-time, Round Trip Times (RTT), changes in available bandwidth and routes to and from target hosts. This paper discusses the experiences, techniques and algorithms used to detect and report on significant traceroute and bandwidth changes. The ultimate aim is to develop a lightweight WAN network performance monitoring system that can detect, in near real time, significant changes and generate alerts

  10. Big Bandwidth Battle: Universal ADSL Looks Ahead.

    Hargadon, Tom

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the new Universal ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) standard, which promises simple, high-bandwidth access over standard telephone lines. Topics include varieties of DSL; voice and data capacities; adapters and installation for personal computers; Internet backbone capacity; and headend access. (LRW)

  11. High bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system

    Globig, Michael A. (Antioch, CA); Story, Thomas W. (Oakley, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A high bandwidth vapor density diagnostic system for measuring the density of an atomic vapor during one or more photoionization events. The system translates the measurements from a low frequency region to a high frequency, relatively noise-free region in the spectrum to provide improved signal to noise ratio.

  12. OPTIMAL BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION WITH BANDWIDTH RESERVATION AND ADAPTATION IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    Ali Amiri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient management of bandwidth in wireless networks is a critical factor for a successful communication system. Special features of wireless networks such user mobility and growth of wireless applications and their high bandwidth intensity create a major challenge to utilize bandwidth resources optimally. In this research, we propose a model for an adaptable network bandwidth management method that combines bandwidth reservation and bandwidth adaptation to reduce call blocking and dropping probabilities. The model is an integer program that determines whether or not to accept new calls and decides how to allocate bandwidth optimally in a way to maximize user satisfaction. The results of a simulation study show that the proposed method outperforms an existing method with respect to key performance measures such as call blocking and dropping probabilities and call time survivability. This survivability indicator is a new measure that is introduced for the first time in this paper. We also present a second tradeoff model to allow the network manager to control call dropping probability. The results of a second simulation study show that network users are better off if a zero call dropping policy is adopted as proposed in the first model.

  13. ANALYSIS OF MONTE CARLO SIMULATION SAMPLING TECHNIQUES ON SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY OF WIND GENERATOR- CONNECTED POWER SYSTEM

    TEMITOPE RAPHAEL AYODELE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulation using Simple Random Sampling (SRS technique is popularly known for its ability to handle complex uncertainty problems. However, to produce a reasonable result, it requires huge sample size. This makes it to be computationally expensive, time consuming and unfit for online power system applications. In this article, the performance of Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS technique is explored and compared with SRS in term of accuracy, robustness and speed for small signal stability application in a wind generator-connected power system. The analysis is performed using probabilistic techniques via eigenvalue analysis on two standard networks (Single Machine Infinite Bus and IEEE 16–machine 68 bus test system. The accuracy of the two sampling techniques is determined by comparing their different sample sizes with the IDEAL (conventional. The robustness is determined based on a significant variance reduction when the experiment is repeated 100 times with different sample sizes using the two sampling techniques in turn. Some of the results show that sample sizes generated from LHS for small signal stability application produces the same result as that of the IDEAL values starting from 100 sample size. This shows that about 100 sample size of random variable generated using LHS method is good enough to produce reasonable results for practical purpose in small signal stability application. It is also revealed that LHS has the least variance when the experiment is repeated 100 times compared to SRS techniques. This signifies the robustness of LHS over that of SRS techniques. 100 sample size of LHS produces the same result as that of the conventional method consisting of 50000 sample size. The reduced sample size required by LHS gives it computational speed advantage (about six times over the conventional method.

  14. Maximum-Bandwidth Node-Disjoint Paths

    Mostafa H. Dahshan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for finding the node-disjoint paths with maximum combined bandwidth in communication networks. This problem is an NP-complete problem which can be optimally solved in exponential time using integer linear programming (ILP. The presented method uses a maximum-cost variant of Dijkstra algorithm and a virtual-node representation to obtain the maximum-bandwidth node-disjoint path. Through several simulations, we compare the performance of our method to a modern heuristic technique and to the ILP solution. We show that, in a polynomial execution time, our proposed method produces results that are almost identical to ILP in a significantly lower execution time

  15. Reconstitution of Low Bandwidth Reaction History

    The goal of the Test Readiness Program is to transition to a 24 month test readiness posture and if approved move to an 18-month posture. One of the key components of the Test Readiness Program necessary to meet this goal is the reconstitution of the important diagnostics. Since the end of nuclear testing, the ability to field diagnostics on a nuclear test has deteriorated. Reconstitution of diagnostics before those who had experience in nuclear testing either retire or leave is essential to achieving a shorter test readiness posture. Also, the data recording systems have not been used since the end of testing. This report documents the reconstitution of one vital diagnostic: the low bandwidth reaction history diagnostic for FY04. Reaction history is one of the major diagnostics that has been used on all LLNL and LANL tests since the early days of nuclear testing. Reaction history refers to measuring the time history of the gamma and neutron output from a nuclear test. This gives direct information on the nuclear reactions taking place in the device. The reaction history measurements are one of the prime measurements the nuclear weapon scientists use to validate their models of device performance. All tests currently under consideration require the reaction history diagnostic. Thus moving to a shorter test readiness posture requires the reconstitution of the ability to make reaction history measurements. Reconstitution of reaction history was planned to be in two steps. Reaction history measurements that have been used in the past can be broadly placed into two categories. The most common type of reaction history and the one that has been performed on virtually all nuclear tests is termed low bandwidth reaction history. This measurement has a time response that is limited by the bandpass of kilometer length coaxial cables. When higher bandwidth has been required for specific measurements, fiber optic techniques have been used. This is referred to as high-bandwidth reaction history. The first step in the reconstitution of reaction history was thus naturally the reconstitution of the loW--bandwidth capability in FY04. This will be followed in FY06 by the reconstitution of the high bandwidth capability. The reconstitution of the loW--bandwidth reaction history measurement was done in several phases. First the status of legacy equipment has been ascertained. Existing detectors, cables, and recording systems have been inventoried, characterized and, for the most part, satisfied the specifications of the test program and are still useable. The ability to obtain replacement equipment is now available. Modern loW--bandwidth fiber optic recording equipment which was similar to systems used on the old tests, has been evaluated. The ability to characterize and calibrate detectors and other components has been reestablished. New scientists and engineers have been working with designated mentors. These mentors participated on numerous shots during the old test program. Finally as a proof test, two hypothetical test scenarios were proposed: one each from LLNL and LANL. The LANL event was called ALPHA and the LLNL event was called POPOUT. The reaction history diagnostics for these two hypothetical underground tests were completely laid out and analyzed to make sure that the diagnostic could be successfully fielded within a 24 month time frame. In addition as part of a training exercise a reaction history trailer was reconstituted. This system was configured using a combination of new and experienced technical personnel and data analysts in collaboration with LLNL and LANL event physicists

  16. Large-bandwidth planar photonic crystal waveguides

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    defect has appropriate dispersion properties relative to the photonic crystal slab material surrounding the line defect. A three-dimensional theoretical analysis is given for large-bandwidth waveguide designs based on a silicon-air photonic crystal slab suspended in air. In one example, the leakage......A general design principle is presented for making finite-height photonic crystal waveguides that support leakage-free guidance of light over large frequency intervals. The large bandwidth waveguides are designed by introducing line defects in photonic crystal slabs, where the material in the line......-free single-mode guidance is found for a large frequency interval covering 60% of the photonic band-gap....

  17. DBAS: A Deployable Bandwidth Aggregation System

    Habak, Karim; Harras, Khaled A

    2012-01-01

    The explosive increase in data demand coupled with the rapid deployment of various wireless access technologies have led to the increase of number of multi-homed or multi-interface enabled devices. Fully exploiting these interfaces has motivated researchers to propose numerous solutions that aggregate their available bandwidths to increase overall throughput and satisfy the end-user's growing data demand. These solutions, however, have faced a steep deployment barrier that we attempt to overcome in this paper. We propose a Deployable Bandwidth Aggregation System (DBAS) for multi-interface enabled devices. Our system does not introduce any intermediate hardware, modify current operating systems, modify socket implementations, nor require changes to current applications or legacy servers. The DBAS architecture is designed to automatically estimate the characteristics of applications and dynamically schedule various connections or packets to different interfaces. Since our main focus is deployability, we fully i...

  18. All-optical bandwidth-tailorable radar

    Zou, Weiwen; Long, Xin; Zhang, Siteng; Cui, Yuanjun; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Radar has been widely used in military, security, and rescue. Metamaterial cloak is employed in stealth targets to evade radar detection. Hence modern radar should be reconfigurable at multi-bands for detecting stealth targets, which might be realized based on microwave photonics. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical bandwidth-tailorable radar architecture. It is a coherent system utilizing one mode-locked laser for both signal generation and reception. Heterodyning of two individually filtered optical pulses that are pre-chirped via wavelength-to-time mapping generates wideband linearly-chirped radar signal. The working bands can be flexibly tailored with desired bandwidth at user-preferred carrier frequency. After modulated onto the pre-chirped optical pulse, radar echoes are time-stretched and frequency-compressed by several times. The digitization becomes much easier without loss of detection ability. We believe that the demonstration can innovate the radar's architecture with ultra-high range resolution.

  19. Combination Exchange Mechanisms for Efficient Bandwidth Allocation

    Jain, Rahul; Varaiya, Pravin P.

    2003-01-01

    The size, scale and multiple ownership of communication network resources makes it important to consider an economic framework wherein we can investigate the efficiency of network operation taking agents' incentives into account. Such a framework has been considered in the design and analysis of pricing mechanisms to regulate congestion and share bandwidth over short time scales. We consider time scales of a few months over which owners of communication links lease bandwi...

  20. Bandwidth selection: classical or plug-in?

    Loader, Clive R.

    1999-01-01

    Bandwidth selection for procedures such as kernel density estimation and local regression have been widely studied over the past decade. Substantial “evidence” has been collected to establish superior performance of modern plug-in methods in comparison to methods such as cross validation; this has ranged from detailed analysis of rates of convergence, to simulations, to superior performance on real datasets. ¶ In this work we take a detailed look at some of this evidence, ...

  1. Terahertz quantum cascade laser bandwidth prediction

    Agnew, G; Grier, A; Taimre, T; Lim, YL; Ikonic, Z.; Dean, P.; Khanna, SP; Lachab, M.; Valavanis, A.; Cooper, JD; Harrison, P.; Linfield, EH; Davies, AG; D Indjin; Rakic, AD

    2015-01-01

    Recent research shows that terahertz quantum cascade lasers are well-suited to high speed free space communication. The results of both theoretical and laboratory work indicate the devices are able to deliver bandwidths in the gigahertz to tens of gigahertz range without the burden of relaxation oscillations found in diode lasers. Using a novel rate equation model we explore the frequency response characteristics of a real device and report on the finding of a strongly peaked bias current-dep...

  2. Fixed Innovative Bandwidth Utilization in TDM EPON

    Muhammad Bilal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available PON can be used by two technologies, which were developed APONs (ATM Passive Optical Networks and EPONs (Ethernet Passive Optical Networks.With the development of services offered by the Internet, the last mile bottleneck problems continue to increase day by day. Many algorithms were developed for making TDM EPON efficient like IPACT, Scheduling, Priority swapping etc. These all algorithms have problems like starvation, QoS, latency and channel under-utilization. We focused the efficient bandwidth utilization in TDM EPON by managing time slots within ONUs and reducing latency, starvation and increasing quality of service. Our Fixed Innovative Bandwidth Algorithm is an intra-ONU bandwidth allocation algorithm, which is used to enhance the network performance by evaluating the parameters like channel underutilization, starvation, delay and Quality of Service. The issues which are lacking in the already made algorithms are being resolved with our proposed solution. The main problem is that the other solutions didn't use the time slots which are guaranteed to their classes efficiently. In FIB Algorithm this issue is being resolved.

  3. Gaussian entanglement distribution with GHz bandwidth

    Ast, Stefan; Mehmet, Moritz; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of Gaussian entanglement can be used to generate a mathematically-proven secure key for quantum cryptography. The distributed secret key rate is limited by the bandwidth of the nonlinear resonators used for entanglement generation, which is less than 100 MHz for current state-of-the-art setups. The development of an entanglement source with a higher bandwidth promises an increased measurement speed and a linear boost in the secure data rate. Here, we present the experimental realization of a continuous-variable entanglement source with a bandwidth of more than 1.25 GHz. The measured entanglement spectrum was quantified via the inseparability criterion introduced by Duan and coworkers with a critical value of 4 below which entanglement is certified. The measurements yielded an inseparability value of about 1.8 at a frequency of 300 MHz to about 2.8 at 1.2 GHz extending further to about 3.1 at 1.48 GHz. In the experiment we used two 2.6 mm long monolithic PPKTP crystal resonators to generate tw...

  4. Consequence and impact of electric utility industry restructuring on transient stability and small-signal stability analysis

    The electric utility industry is undergoing unprecedented changes in its structure worldwide. With the advent of an open market environment and competition in the industry, and restructuring of the industry into separate generation, transmission, and distribution entities, new issues in power system operation and planning are inevitable. One of the major consequences of this new electric utility environment is the greater emphasis on reliability and secure operation of the power system. This paper examines the impact of restructuring on power system dynamic analysis. It specifically addresses issues related to transient stability analysis and small-signal stability analysis. Four major topics to examine the effect on the nature of studies conducted are considered. These topics are (1) system adequacy and security, (2) system modeling data requirements, (3) system protection and control, and (4) system restoration. The consequences and impact of each of these topics on the nature of the studies conducted are examined and discussed. The emphasis on greater reliability has led to a clearer enunciation of standards, measurements, and guides in some countries. These requirements will result in: (1) more measurements on existing systems, (2) rigorous analysis of transient stability and small-signal stability to determine operating limits and plan systems, (3) greater emphasis on studies to verify coordination and proper performance of protection and controls, and (4) development of a detailed plan for system restoration in the case of wide-spread outages

  5. A study of Bandwidth Management in Computer Networks

    Devajit Mahanta,; Majidul Ahmed,; Utpal Jyoti Bora,

    2013-01-01

    Bandwidth management is one of the most widely misunderstood subjects in modern networking. Bandwidth Management is a lot like economics, because the complexities of how it works are beyond simple logic. Internet "bandwidth" is not a spectrum; traffic streams are one bit at a time. Bandwidth on the internet can only be conceptualized over time, and the amount of time that you talk about can greatly change the user experience. For reliable data transmission within computer network and internet...

  6. Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Strategy for Marine VHF Communications

    Ding Yuan-Ming; Zhang Fang

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve the efficient management of marine VHF communications bandwidth resources under the battlefield environment and to maximize the bandwidth utilization while ensuring high-priority business access channel, the context puts forward a kind of dynamic bandwidth allocation strategy based on business priorities. When the bandwidth resources are sufficient, the system can accommodate more business, otherwise it can call the dynamic allocation st...

  7. Bandwidth Constrained Multi-interface Networks

    D'Angelo, Gianlorenzo; di Stefano, Gabriele; Navarra, Alfredo

    In heterogeneous networks, devices can communicate by means of multiple wired or wireless interfaces. By switching among interfaces or by combining the available interfaces, each device might establish several connections. A connection is established when the devices at its endpoints share at least one active interface. Each interface is assumed to require an activation cost, and provides a communication bandwidth. In this paper, we consider the problem of activating the cheapest set of interfaces among a network G = (V,E) in order to guarantee a minimum bandwidth B of communication between two specified nodes. Nodes V represent the devices, edges E represent the connections that can be established. In practical cases, a bounded number k of different interfaces among all the devices can be considered. Despite this assumption, the problem turns out to be NP-hard even for small values of k and Δ, where Δ is the maximum degree of the network. In particular, the problem is NP-hard for any fixed k ≥ 2 and Δ ≥ 3, while it is polynomially solvable when k = 1, or Δ ≤ 2 and k = O(1). Moreover, we show that the problem is not approximable within ηlogB or Ω(loglog|V|) for any fixed k ≥ 3, Δ ≥ 3, and for a certain constant η, unless P={NP}. We then provide an approximation algorithm with ratio guarantee of b max , where b max is the maximum communication bandwidth allowed among all the available interfaces. Finally, we focus on particular cases by providing complexity results and polynomial algorithms for Δ ≤ 2.

  8. Bandwidth Efficient OFDM Transmitter Diversity Techniques

    King F. Lee

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Space-time block-coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM transmitter diversity techniques have been shown to be efficient means of achieving near-optimal diversity gain in frequency-selective fading channels. However, these known techniques all require a cyclic prefix to be added to the transmitted symbols, resulting in bandwidth expansion. In this paper, iterative space-time and space-frequency block-coded OFDM transmitter diversity techniques are proposed that exploit spatial diversity to improve spectral efficiency by eliminating the need for a cyclic prefix.

  9. Bandwidth Efficient OFDM Transmitter Diversity Techniques

    Lee, King F.; Williams, Douglas B.

    2004-12-01

    Space-time block-coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmitter diversity techniques have been shown to be efficient means of achieving near-optimal diversity gain in frequency-selective fading channels. However, these known techniques all require a cyclic prefix to be added to the transmitted symbols, resulting in bandwidth expansion. In this paper, iterative space-time and space-frequency block-coded OFDM transmitter diversity techniques are proposed that exploit spatial diversity to improve spectral efficiency by eliminating the need for a cyclic prefix.

  10. A passive available bandwidth estimation methodology

    Cabellos Aparicio, Alberto; Thompson, John; García, Francisco J.; Domingo Pascual, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    The Available Bandwidth (AB) of an end-to-end path is its remaining capacity and it is an important metric for several applications such as overlay routing and P2P networking. That is why many AB estimation tools have been published recently. Most of these tools use the Probe Rate Model, which requires sending packet trains at a rate matching the AB. Its main issue is that it congests the path under measurement. We present a different approach: a novel passive methodology to estimate the AB ...

  11. On the Bandwidth of the Plenoptic Function

    Minh N. Do; Marchand-Maillet, Davy; Vetterli, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The plenoptic function (POF) provides a powerful conceptual tool for describing a number of problems in image/video processing, vision, and graphics. For example, image based-rendering can be seen as sampling and interpolation of the POF. In such applications, it is important to characterize the bandwidth of the POF. We study a simple but representative model of the scene where bandlimited signals (e.g. texture images) are "painted" on smooth surfaces (e.g. of objects or walls). We show that ...

  12. Study on Small-Signal Impedance of Single-Walled Zigzag Carbon Nanotubes in Terahertz Frequency Regime

    Wang, C.; Cao, J. C.

    2013-08-01

    We theoretically study the static and dynamic transport properties of Mott-Gurney diodes based on semiconducting single-walled zigzag carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The electric field and velocity distribution of the diode under dc voltage is obtained by solving the steady-state drift-diffusion equations, which involve the negative differential velocity. The current-voltage characteristic of CNT diode exhibits a distinctive positive differential resistance. The high-frequency impedance is calculated with the small-signal analysis method. A major feature of the proposed CNT diode is that the bias- and tube index-dependent impedance show several negative windows in terahertz frequency range despite the positivity of the dc differential resistance. This property makes the CNT-based Mott-Gurney diode a promising candidate for the generation and amplification of terahertz signals within the desired frequency region.

  13. Self-field effects on small-signal gain in two-stage free-electron lasers

    S Jafari; H Mehdian; A Hasanbeigi

    2011-03-01

    Self-field effects, induced by charge and current densities of the electron beam, on gain in two-stage free-electron laser with nonuniform guide magnetic field is presented. The gain equation for small-signal has been derived analytically. The results of numerical calculations show a gain decrement for group I orbits and a gain enhancement for group II orbits, due to the self-field effects. The wiggler-induced self-magnetic field has a diamagnetic effect for group I orbits, whereas for group II, it has a paramagnetic effect. It is also found that using a nonuniform guide field, rather than a uniform one, causes the gain to increase.

  14. Millimeter-wave small-signal modeling with optimizing sensitive-parameters for metamorphic high electron mobility transistors

    In this paper, we present a simple and reliable technique for determining the small-signal equivalent circuit model parameters of the 0.1 µm metamorphic high electron mobility transistors (MHEMTs) in a millimeter-wave frequency range. The initial eight extrinsic parameters of the MHEMT are extracted using two S-parameter (scattering parameter) sets measured under the pinched-off and zero-biased cold field-effect transistor conditions by avoiding the forward gate biasing. Furthermore, highly calibration-sensitive values of the Rs, Ls and Cpd are optimized by using a gradient optimization method to improve the modeling accuracy. The accuracy enhancement of this procedure is successfully verified with an excellent correlation between the measured and calculated S-parameters up to 65 GHz

  15. Small-signal model parameter extraction for microwave SiGe HBTs based on Y- and Z-parameter characterization

    High frequency intrinsic small-signal model parameter extraction for microwave SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors is studied, with a focus on the main feedback elements including the emitter series resistor, internal and external base-collector capacitors as well as the base series resistor, all of which are important in determining the behavior of the device equivalent circuit. In accordance with the respective features of definition of the Y- and Z-parameters, a novel combined use of them succeeds in reasonably simplifying the device equivalent circuit and thus decoupling the extraction of base-collector capacitances from other model parameters. As a result, a very simple direct extraction method is proposed. The proposed method is applied for determining the SiGe HBT small-signal model parameters by taking numerically simulated Y- and Z-parameters as nominal 'measurement data' with the help of a Taurus-device simulator. The validity of the method is preliminarily confirmed by the observation of certain linear relations of device frequency behavior as predicted by the corresponding theoretical analysis. Furthermore, the extraction results can be used to reasonably account for the dependence of the extracted model parameters on device geometry and process parameters, reflecting the explicit physical meanings of parameters, and especially revealing the distributed nature of the base series resistor and its complex interactions with base-collector capacitors. Finally, the accuracy of our model parameter extraction method is further validated by comparing the modeled and simulated S-parameters as a function of frequency. (semiconductor devices)

  16. Bandwidth Allocation and Session Scheduling using SIP

    Jean-Marie Garcia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is a new signaling protocol designed to establish multimedia sessions in telecommunication networks. In this paper, we suggest the extension of SIP functionalities to coordinate QoS mechanisms deployed in IP networks, and especially in DiffServ domain. Indeed, the interaction between small and big TCP sessions may have dramatic consequences on small TCP sessions. Hence, we use SIP to achieve QoS management on a session basis, in which the over all activity of the user during the session is considered. The suggested mechanisms deal with two issues: first, session scheduling based on session duration and/or volume, and second bandwidth allocation on a per-flow basis using equivalent bandwidth estimation techniques. The proposed mechanisms are implemented in the SIP proxy server as QoS management algorithms, and they are validated by simulations.

  17. Bandwidth Estimation For Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET

    Rabia Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presents bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET, which uses some components of the two methods for the bandwidth estimation: 'Hello Bandwidth Estimation 'Listen Bandwidth Estimation. This paper also gives the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed method is based on the comparison of these two methods. Bandwidth estimation is an important issue in the Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET because bandwidth estimation in MANET is difficult, because each host has imprecise knowledge of the network status and links change dynamically. Therefore, an effective bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET is highly desirable. Ad hoc networks present unique advanced challenges, including the design of protocols for mobility management, effective routing, data transport, security, power management, and quality-of-service (QoS provisioning. Once these problems are solved, the practical use of MANETs will be realizable.

  18. Bandwidth and Noise in Spatiotemporally Modulated Mueller Matrix Polarimeters

    Vaughn, Israel Jacob

    Polarimetric systems design has seen recent utilization of linear systems theory for system descriptions. Although noise optimal systems have been shown, bandwidth performance has not been addressed in depth generally and is particularly lacking for Mueller matrix (active) polarimetric systems. Bandwidth must be considered in a systematic way for remote sensing polarimetric systems design. The systematic approach facilitates both understanding of fundamental constraints and design of higher bandwidth polarimetric systems. Fundamental bandwidth constraints result in production of polarimetric "artifacts" due to channel crosstalk upon Mueller matrix reconstruction. This dissertation analyzes bandwidth trade-offs in spatio-temporal channeled Mueller matrix polarimetric systems. Bandwidth is directly related to the geometric positioning of channels in the Fourier (channel) space, however channel positioning for polarimetric systems is constrained both physically and by design parameters like domain separability. We present the physical channel constraints and the constraints imposed when the carriers are separable between space and time. Polarimetric systems are also constrained by noise performance, and there is a trade-off between noise performance and bandwidth. I develop cost functions which account for the trade-off between noise and bandwidth for spatio-temporal polarimetric systems. The cost functions allow a systems designer to jointly optimize systems with good bandwidth and noise performance. Optimization is implemented for a candidate spatio-temporal system design, and high temporal bandwidth systems resulting from the optimization are presented. Systematic errors which impact the bandwidth performance and mitigation strategies for these systematic errors are also presented. Finally, a portable imaging Mueller matrix system is built and analyzed based on the theoretical bandwidth analysis and system bandwidth optimization. Temporal bandwidth performance is improved by 300% over a conventional dual rotating retarder Mueller matrix polarimeter. Reconstruction results from the physical instrument are presented, and issues with the implemented system design are discussed.

  19. Small signal audio design

    Self, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Learn to use inexpensive and readily available parts to obtain state-of-the-art performance in all the vital parameters of noise, distortion, crosstalk and so on. With ample coverage of preamplifiers and mixers and a new chapter on headphone amplifiers, this practical handbook provides an extensive repertoire of circuits that can be put together to make almost any type of audio system.A resource packed full of valuable information, with virtually every page revealing nuggets of specialized knowledge not found elsewhere. Essential points of theory that bear on practical performance are lucidly

  20. Bandwidth Extension of Constant-Q Bandpass Filter using Bandwidth Extension Techniques

    Megha Chitranshi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available CMOS spiral inductors suffer from a number of drawbacks including a low Q factor, a low self- resonant frequency, and a small and non-tunable inductance and require a large chip area. On the other hand active inductor offers many unique advantages over their spiral counterparts including small chip area, large and tunable inductance and high quality factor. These active inductors have been used successfully in many applications such as in radio frequency (RF front end integrated circuits, filters, and phase shifter and oscillator circuits. The effectiveness of these active inductors is however affected by a number of limitation including small dynamic range, a high noise level and high power consumption. High speed applications such as preamplifier of data transceiver require large bandwidth hence there is a need for technique that achieve larger bandwidth without increased power consumption and design complexity. In this paper, bandwidth extension techniques are used to extend the bandwidth of the bandpass filter. Active inductors are used in the designing of the bandpass filter. A swing independent quality factor, called constant-Q active inductor is used as an active element in the designing of the bandpass filter. Bandpass filter is implemented on both 0.5 m and 0.35 m CMOS process. Comparisons are made between resistive compensation technique and inductive series peaking technique. Simulation results shows that the bandwidth is improved by 72%.The operating frequency is also increases from 122.995 MHz to 194.276 MHz at 0.5 m technology and operating frequency increases from 163.641 MHz to 259.189 MHz at 0.35 m technology.

  1. A high-bandwidth spintronic position sensor

    Position sensing with resolution down to the scale of a single atom is of key importance in nanoscale science and engineering. However, only optical-sensing methods are currently capable of non-contact sensing at such resolution over a high bandwidth. Here, we report a new non-contact, non-optical position-sensing concept based on detecting changes in a high-gradient magnetic field of a microscale magnetic dipole by means of spintronic sensors. Experimental measurements show a sensitivity of up to 40 Ω/μm, a linear range greater than 10 μm and a noise floor of 0.5 pm/√( Hz). Also shown is the use of the sensor for position measurements for closed-loop control of a high-speed atomic force microscope with a frame rate of more than 1 frame/s. (paper)

  2. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... devices in their costumers household e.g. heat pumps. With these smart services, utility companies can do load balancing on the grid by shifting load using resources the customers have. The problem investigated in this paper is what bandwidth require-ments can be expected when implementing such network to...... utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...

  3. Small signal model parameters analysis of GaN and GaAs based HEMTs over temperature for microwave applications

    Alim, Mohammad A.; Rezazadeh, Ali A.; Gaquiere, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Thermal and small-signal model parameters analysis have been carried out on 0.5 μm × (2 × 100 μm) AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrate and 0.25 μm × (2 × 100 μm) AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on SiC substrate. Two different technologies are investigated in order to establish a detailed understanding of their capabilities in terms of frequency and temperature using on-wafer S-parameter measurement over the temperature range from -40 to 150 °C up to 50 GHz. The equivalent circuit parameters as well as their temperature-dependent behavior of the two technologies were analyzed and discussed for the first time. The principle elevation or degradation of transistor parameters with temperature demonstrates the great potential of GaN device for high frequency and high temperature applications. The result provides some valuable insights for future design optimizations of advanced GaN and a comparison of this with the GaAs technology.

  4. Flexible Network Bandwidth and Latency Provisioning in the Datacenter

    Jeyakumar, Vimalkumar; Kabbani, Abdul; Mogul, Jeffrey C.; Vahdat, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Predictably sharing the network is critical to achieving high utilization in the datacenter. Past work has focussed on providing bandwidth to endpoints, but often we want to allocate resources among multi-node services. In this paper, we present Parley, which provides service-centric minimum bandwidth guarantees, which can be composed hierarchically. Parley also supports service-centric weighted sharing of bandwidth in excess of these guarantees. Further, we show how to configure these polici...

  5. An Efficient Bandwidth Estimation Schemes used in Wireless Mesh Networks

    A.Sandeep Kumar ,Second Author

    2012-01-01

    wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has been widely used for the new generation wireless network. The capability of self-organization in WMNs reduces the complexity of wireless network deployment and maintenance. So, the perfect estimation of the bandwidth available of the mesh nodes is the required to admission control mechanism which provides QOs confirmation in wireless mesh networks. The bandwidth estimation of schemes do not give clear output. Here we are proposing bandwidth scheme estimation ...

  6. Compact antenna arrays with wide bandwidth and low sidelobe levels

    Strassner, II, Bernd H.

    2014-09-09

    Highly efficient, low cost, easily manufactured SAR antenna arrays with lightweight low profiles, large instantaneous bandwidths and low SLL are disclosed. The array topology provides all necessary circuitry within the available antenna aperture space and between the layers of material that comprise the aperture. Bandwidths of 15.2 GHz to 18.2 GHz, with 30 dB SLLs azimuthally and elevationally, and radiation efficiencies above 40% may be achieved. Operation over much larger bandwidths is possible as well.

  7. Bandwidth limitation of the Fabry Perot cavity antennas

    The bandwidth behavior of the Fabry Perot cavity antennas are considered on the basis of circuit theory. It is shown that the approaches of regenerative amplifier are applicable to resonator antenna. The equations for bandwidth limitation of the matched resonator antennas are obtained. It is experimentally confirmed that bandwidth of the Fabry Perot cavity antennas can be significantly enlarged by using properly selected partially reflective additional superstates

  8. Effective Bandwidth Utilization in IEEE802.11 for VOIP

    Bhanu, S Vijay; Balakrishnan, V

    2010-01-01

    Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) is one of the most important applications for the IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs). For network planners who are deploying VoIP over WLANs, one of the important issues is the VoIP capacity. VoIP bandwidth consumption over a WAN is one of the most important factors to consider when building a VoIP infrastructure. Failure to account for VoIP bandwidth requirements will severely limit the reliability of a VoIP system and place a huge burden on the WAN infrastructure. Less bandwidth utilization is the key reasons for reduced number of channel accesses in VOIP. But in the QoS point of view the free bandwidth of atleast 1-5% will improve the voice quality. This proposal utilizes the maximum bandwidth by leaving 1-5% free bandwidth. A Bandwidth Data rate Moderation (BDM) algorithm has been proposed which correlates the data rate specified in IEEE802.11b with the free bandwidth. At each time BDM will calculate the bandwidth utilization before sending the packet to i...

  9. Frequency Bandwidth Optimization of Left-Handed Metamaterial

    Chevalier, Christine T.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, left-handed metamaterials (LHM s) have been demonstrated with an effective negative index of refraction and with antiparallel group and phase velocities for microwave radiation over a narrow frequency bandwidth. In order to take advantage of these characteristics for practical applications, it will be beneficial to develop LHM s with increased frequency bandwidth response and lower losses. In this paper a commercial three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation code is used to explore the effects of geometry parameter variations on the frequency bandwidth of a LHM at microwave frequencies. Utilizing an optimizing routine in the code, a geometry was generated with a bandwidth more than twice as large as the original geometry.

  10. A study of Bandwidth Management in Computer Networks

    Devajit Mahanta,

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bandwidth management is one of the most widely misunderstood subjects in modern networking. Bandwidth Management is a lot like economics, because the complexities of how it works are beyond simple logic. Internet "bandwidth" is not a spectrum; traffic streams are one bit at a time. Bandwidth on the internet can only be conceptualized over time, and the amount of time that you talk about can greatly change the user experience. For reliable data transmission within computer network and internet forms the basis for management and control of bandwidth. Without bandwidth management, an user will not be able to handle all available bandwidth on the networks. It will be impossible to differentiate between various network traffics, and it will also be difficult to control which user or application has priority on the network. Applications which require specific quantity and quality of service may not be predicted in terms of available bandwidth, thus making some applications run poorly due to improper bandwidth allocation. This work focus on the development of an application to combat the challenges facing easy flow of data transmission problems in network design as organization network evolves. Here PHP Script, Apache Server and MySQL are the development tools used.

  11. PIC Simulation of Laser Plasma Interactions with Temporal Bandwidths

    Tsung, Frank; Weaver, J.; Lehmberg, R.

    2015-11-01

    We are performing particle-in-cell simulations using the code OSIRIS to study the effects of laser plasma interactions in the presence of temperal bandwidths under conditions relevant to current and future shock ignition experiments on the NIKE laser. Our simulations show that, for sufficiently large bandwidth, the saturation level, and the distribution of hot electrons, can be effected by the addition of temporal bandwidths (which can be accomplished in experiments using smoothing techniques such as SSD or ISI). We will show that temporal bandwidth along play an important role in the control of LPI's in these lasers and discuss future directions. This work is conducted under the auspices of NRL.

  12. Optimal resource allocation in random networks with transportation bandwidths

    We apply statistical physics to study the task of resource allocation in random sparse networks with limited bandwidths for the transportation of resources along the links. Recursive relations from the Bethe approximation are converted into useful algorithms. Bottlenecks emerge when the bandwidths are small, causing an increase in the fraction of idle links. For a given total bandwidth per node, the efficiency of allocation increases with the network connectivity. In the high connectivity limit, we find a phase transition at a critical bandwidth, above which clusters of balanced nodes appear, characterized by a profile of homogenized resource allocation similar to the Maxwell construction

  13. RECYCLING THE UNUSED BANDWIDTH USING PRIORITY BASED SCHEDULING ALGORITHM

    M. Durai Ganesh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available IEEE802.16 standard was designed to support the bandwidth demanding applications with quality of service (QOS. Bandwidth is reserved for each application to ensure the QOS for variable bit rate (VBR applications, however it is difficult for the subscriber station (SS to predict the amount of incoming data. To ensure the QOS guaranteed services, the SS may reserve more bandwidth than its demand. As a result, the reserved bandwidth may not be fully utilized all the time. In this paper we propose a scheme named bandwidth recycling to recycle the unused bandwidth without changing the existing bandwidth reservation. The idea of the proposed scheme is to allow other SSs to utilize the unused bandwidth when it is available. Thus the system throughput can be improved while maintaining the same QOS guaranteed services. Mathematical analysis and simulation are used to evaluate the proposed scheme. Simulation and analysis results confirm that the proposed scheme can recycle 35% of unused bandwidth on average. By analyzing factors affecting the recycling performance, scheduling algorithms are proposed to improve the overall throughput .the simulation results show that our proposed algorithm improves the over all throughput by 40% in a steady network.

  14. Schottky Heterodyne Receivers With Full Waveguide Bandwidth

    Hesler, Jeffrey; Crowe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Compact THz receivers with broad bandwidth and low noise have been developed for the frequency range from 100 GHz to 1 THz. These receivers meet the requirements for high-resolution spectroscopic studies of planetary atmospheres (including the Earth s) from spacecraft, as well as airborne and balloon platforms. The ongoing research is significant not only for the development of Schottky mixers, but also for the creation of a receiver system, including the LO chain. The new receivers meet the goals of high sensitivity, compact size, low total power requirement, and operation across complete waveguide bands. The exceptional performance makes these receivers ideal for the broader range of scientific and commercial applications. These include the extension of sophisticated test and measurement equipment to 1 THz and the development of low-cost imaging systems for security applications and industrial process monitoring. As a particular example, a WR-1.9SHM (400-600 GHz) has been developed (see Figure 1), with state-of-the-art noise temperature ranging from 1,000-1,800 K (DSB) over the full waveguide band. Also, a Vector Network Analyzer extender has been developed (see Figure 2) for the WR1.5 waveguide band (500 750 GHz) with 100-dB dynamic range.

  15. A Priority Based Bandwidth Reservation Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks

    K. Valarmathi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless mesh networks, when compared with traditional applications, multimedia application requires the need of inflexible Quality of services (QoS for high speed digital audio and videos. Under such a condition, the need of proper resource allocation is extremely handy. In this paper, we propose to develop a Priority Based Bandwidth Reservation Protocol (PBRP for wireless mesh networks. Our protocol consists of two phases namely Bandwidth Request phase and Bandwidth Reply phase. In the former Phase, a Bandwidth Request (BREQ message is forwarded from the node that requests the admission of a new traffic flow to its destination. In the later Phase, a Bandwidth Reply (BREP message proceeds backwards, hop-by-hop, from the destination node to the node that originated the request along the path laid down by the corresponding (BREQ message. The destination node precedes the reply according to the priority of traffic classes and reserves the bandwidth on the reply path. By simulation results, we show that our proposed protocol achieves high bandwidth utilization and throughput with reduced delay, when compared with existing technique.

  16. PIN photodiode bandwidth optimization in integrated CMOS process

    Fang, Fred; Franke, Matthias; Gaebler, Daniel; Sang Sool, Koo

    2011-05-01

    Silicon photodiode integrated with CMOS has been in extensive study for the past ten years due to its wide use in applications such as short-distance communication, VCD players, ambient light sensors and many other intelligent systems. In recent years, high speed blue-ray DVD is replacing conventional DVD due to its larger storage capacity and higher speed. In this work, the photodiode optimized for blue ray is fully integrated with standard 0.35um CMOS process and the bandwidth dependency upon thermal process and epitaxial material is investigated. It was found that the additional substrate thermal process can improve bandwidth for blue and red light but reduce bandwidth for infra-red. It is also found that higher level p-type epi doping does not impact bandwidth for blue light but reduces bandwidth for red and infra-red. The various mechanisms of bandwidth were discussed based on the experimental results. It indicated that the bandwidth of photodiodes depends on photo carriers travel time which can be explained by simple model of drift transport and diffusion transport. The design of photodiode should optimize the depletion region and reduce the carrier travel time.

  17. A Study of Bandwidth Measurement Technique in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Ajeet Kumar Singh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless mesh networks (WMNs have been proposed as a key technology for next generation wireless networking to provide last-mile broadband access. H ere we have given our observation and study for end to-end bandwidth estimation in WMNs. End-to-end Ban dwidth Estimation is an important metric for network management and monitoring. It can also impr ove the effectiveness of congestion control mechanism, audio/video stream adoration and dynamic overlay. In recent years, many techniques have been developed for bandwidth estimation in the wire d as well as the last-hop wireless networks, but th ey under-perform in WMNs. We investigate attributes th at can affect the bandwidth estimation in WNMs; we found existing techniques do not consider the effec t of attributes like CSMA/CA-based contending traff ic and high interference interference that leads to th e error full estimation. In this paper, we present an active bandwidth measu rement technique called Bandwidth Probe based on th e packet dispersion principle. It measures the steady state bandwidth of the system while considering th e effects of the FIFO cross and CSMA/CA-based contend ing traffic. It is also mitigating the effect of interference. We also show how to achieve the stati onary state behaviour of the system to limit the nu mber of probe packets. On simulation, Bandwidth Probe gi ves a accurate estimation of the available bandwidt h using average convergence time and lower intrusiven ess.

  18. A NOVEL µ-NEGATIVE METAMATERIAL WITH ENHANCED REJECTION BANDWIDTH

    Haider Raad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel planar µ-Negative (MNG metamaterial structure based on Split Ring Resonators (SRRs with improved rejection bandwidth is presented. A bridging technique is used to connect two SRR unit cells at the center to emulate a cascaded filter. The proposed structure achieved a -20 dB rejection bandwidth of 15.5% compared to 4.5% for the conventional SRRs which makes it a good candidate for integration with antennas and RF circuits that require large operational bandwidth.

  19. Broadening the potential bandwidth of piezoelectric transducers by partial depolarization

    Elastic waves are used more and more in a nondestructive way to probe the physical properties of materials. The resolution of the images or the accuracy of the measurements is directly associated with the ultrasonic signal bandwidth and amplitude a system can generate or detect. The authors propose a technique to broaden the potential bandwidth of piezoelectric generators and sensors, which is based on utilizing a nonuniformly-polarized piezoelectric material. Both simulated and experimental responses are shown. They are in good agreement and exhibit a useful bandwidth over several natural harmonics of the piezoelectric transducer. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  20. Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy.

    Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Montant, S; Manek-Hönninger, I; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Cormier, E; Salin, F

    2005-09-19

    We report on a novel approach of ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification around degeneracy. A bandwidth of up to 400 nm centered around 800 nm is amplified in a BBO crystal by using chirped pump pulses with a bandwitdth as broad as 10 nm. A supercontinuum signal is generated in a microstructured fiber, having to first order a quadratic chirp, which is necessary to ensure temporal overlap of the interacting waves over this broad bandwidth. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this approach for an octave-spanning parametric amplification. PMID:19498762

  1. Bandwidth allocation and pricing problem for a duopoly market

    You Peng-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses the Internet service provider (ISP bandwidth allocation and pricing problems for a duopoly bandwidth market with two competitive ISPs. According to the contracts between Internet subscribers and ISPs, Internet subscribers can enjoy their services up to their contracted bandwidth limits. However, in reality, many subscribers may experience the facts that their on-line requests are denied or their connection speeds are far below their contracted speed limits. One of the reasons is that ISPs accept too many subscribers as their subscribers. To avoid this problem, ISPs can set limits for their subscribers to enhance their service qualities. This paper develops constrained nonlinear programming to deal with this problem for two competitive ISPs. The condition for reaching the equilibrium between the two competitive firms is derived. The market equilibrium price and bandwidth resource allocations are derived as closed form solutions.

  2. Available Bandwidth Estimation Strategy Based on the Network Allocation Vector

    Hongtao Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Available bandwidth is of great importance to network Quality of Service assurance, network load balancing, streaming media rate control, routing, and congestion control, etc.. In this paper, the available bandwidth estimation strategy based on the Network Allocation Vector for Wireless Sensor Networks is proposed. According to the size of the average contention window, network nodes predict the probability of collision in process of frame transmission, and then estimate the number of retransmission. Through the collection of Hello packets periodically sent by neighbors, nodes obtain their Network Allocation Vector, and then estimate the available bandwidth. The simulation results show that the strategy is simple and effective, can accurately estimate the collision of data frames as well as the available bandwidth of Wireless Sensor Networks.

  3. MULTILAYER MICROSTRIP ANTENNA QUALITY FACTOR OPTIMIZATION FOR BANDWIDTH ENHANCEMENT

    M.C. SRIVASTAVA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The impedance bandwidth, one of the important characteristics of microstrip patch antennas, can be significantly improved by using a multilayer dielectric configuration. In this paper the focus is on bandwidth enhancement technique of a multilayer patch antenna for X-band applications. In order to enhance the bandwidth, antenna losses are contained by controlling those quality factors which can have a significant impact on the bandwidth for a given permittivity and thickness of the substrate. This has been achieved by conformal transformation of the multidielectric microstrip antenna. For the ease of analysis Wheelers transformation is used to map the complex permittivity of a multilayer substrate to a single layer. Method of Moments and Finite Difference Time Domain approaches are used for the computation of results.

  4. Penalizing function based bandwidth choice in nonparametric quantile regression

    Abberger, Klaus

    2001-01-01

    In nonparametric mean regression various methods for bandwidth choice exist. These methods can roughly be divided into plug-in methods and methods based on penalizing functions. This paper uses the approach based on penalizing functions and adapt it to nonparametric quantile regression estimation, where bandwidth choice is still an unsolved problem. Various criteria for bandwitdth choice are defined and compared in some simulation examples.

  5. Techniques for bandwidth measurements of optical guided-wave modulators

    Nikles, M.; Thévenaz, Luc; P. Robert

    1992-01-01

    High-speed optical guided-wave switches and modulators are promising components for present and future applications in lightwave communication and measurement systems, or more generally for optical signal processing purposes. Integrated electro-optic modulators with bandwidth extending over a few gigahertz and low drive voltages are now commercially available. Due to their potential applications, bandwidth characterization is an important feature of the metrology of these devices and is often...

  6. Opportunities for Bandwidth Adaptation in Microsoft Office Documents

    Lara, E.; Wallach, D.S.; Zwaenepoel, W.

    2000-01-01

    Microsoft Office, the most popular office productivity suite, produces large documents that can result in long download latencies for platforms with limited bandwidth. To reduce latency and improve the user's experience, these documents need to be adapted for transmission on a limited-bandwidth network. To identify opportunities for adaptation, we characterize documents created by three popular applications from the Microsoft Office suite: Word, PowerPoint, and Excel. Our study encompasses o...

  7. Challenges in Polybinary Modulation for Bandwidth Limited Optical Links

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Madsen, Peter; Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Cimoli, Bruno; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Optical links using traditional modulation formats are reaching a plateau in terms of capacity, mainly due to bandwidth limitations in the devices employed at the transmitter and receivers. Advanced modulation formats, which boost the spectral efficiency, provide a smooth migration path towards...... of the current research status of the key building blocks in polybinary systems. The results clearly show how polybinary modulation effectively reduces the bandwidth requirements on optical links while providing high spectral efficiency....

  8. Anamorphic transformation and its application to time-bandwidth compression

    Asghari, Mohammad H.; Jalali, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    A general method for compressing the modulation time-bandwidth product of analog signals is introduced and experimentally demonstrated. As one of its applications, this physics-based signal grooming performs feature-selective stretch, enabling a conventional digitizer to capture fast temporal features that were beyond its bandwidth. At the same time, the total digital data size is reduced. The compression is lossless and is achieved through a same-domain transformation of the signal's complex...

  9. Review of high bandwidth fiber optics radiation sensors

    This paper summarizes the use of fiber optics or guided optical systems for radiation sensors. It is limited a passive systems wherein electrical is not required at the sensor location. However, electrically powered light sources, receivers and/or recorders may still be required for detection and data storage in sensor system operation. This paper emphasizes sensor technologies that permit high bandwidth measurements of transient radiation levels, and will also discuss several low bandwidth applications. 60 refs

  10. On the Bandwidth of High-Impedance Frequency Selective Surfaces

    Costa, Filippo; Monorchio, Agostino; 10.1109/LAWP.2009.2038346

    2010-01-01

    In this letter, the bandwidth of high-impedance surfaces (HISs) is discussed by an equivalent circuit approach. Even if these surfaces have been employed for almost 10 years, it is sometimes unclear how to choose the shape of the frequency selective surface (FSS) on the top of the grounded slab in order to achieve the largest possible bandwidth. Here, we will show that the conventional approach describing the HIS as a parallel connection between the inductance given by the grounded dielectric substrate and the capacitance of the FSS may induce inaccurate results in the determination of the operating bandwidth of the structure. Indeed, in order to derive a more complete model and to provide a more accurate estimate of the operating bandwidth, it is also necessary to introduce the series inductance of the FSS.We will present the explicit expression for defining the bandwidth of a HIS, and we will show that the reduction of the FSS inductance results in the best choice for achieving wide operating bandwidth in c...

  11. An Ultra-Low Bandwidth Video Transmission System

    Percival, J. W.; White, R. L.

    We have developed a Progressive Video Transmission system that is suitable for use over ultra-low bandwidth connections, which we define as phone-grade connections of 28,800 bits per second (bps) or less. Our system is not designed for person-to-person videoconferencing. Rather, it is designed as a video frame browser for observatory video systems whose signals typically represent guide cameras, wavefront sensors, slit-viewing cameras, and so on. We have found that videoconferencing products are not suitable for ultra-low bandwidth connections or for video frames containing possibly significant scientific content because they often sacrifice image quality to maintain frame rate, require bandwidths of 100 kbps or more, and consume all available bandwidth between the client and server. Our system allows the user to control image quality, resolution and bandwidth on the fly, and uses a variety of compression techniques to achieve compression factors of about 5 with little apparent degradation of the images. The transmission is progressive, with the quality of each frame improving during its transmission. It supports multiple remote users, allowing each to work at their own baud and frame rates. A Tk-based GUI allows the user to control image quality and frame rate, select image size, set maximum bandwidth, save frames to disk, and change channels remotely. This system is in use at the WIYN Observatory.

  12. Demand-based bandwidth assignment MAC protocol for wireless LANs

    Murugan, K.; Dushyanth, B.; Gunasekaran, E.; Arivuthokai, S.; Bhuvaneswaran, R. S.; Shanmugavel, S.

    2004-04-01

    Wireless networks are being rapidly installed in enterprise networks. There are several issues that are critical with the current specifications and the prominent ones are bandwidth utilization, cell capacity, propagation delay, power efficiency and quality of service aspects of the IEEE802.11 Medium Access Control (MAC) layer. IEEE 802.11 specifications for wireless LAN use Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) scheme. Although this scheme is widely successful due to its simplicity, it is inefficient in utilizing the physical bandwidth. Wireless media being highly limited in bandwidth and power, a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) may help to increase the utilization of the channel bandwidth. Many satellite networks have used Demand Assignment Multiple Access-TDMA (DAMA-TDMA), where the time slots are allocated dynamically. In this paper, a variation of this protocol has been proposed, called as Demand Based Bandwidth Assignment (DBBA) protocol. One of the main challenges that this protocol resolves is to avoid collision to the maximum extent during the demand request contention period. In order to analyze the DBBA, a test bench has been developed to simulate the traffic. Based on the simulation result, it has been observed that the proposed DBBA protocol has higher bandwidth utilization, supports larger number of stations in one cell, lesser propagation delay, more power efficient and has the ability to provide better quality of service. Since there is no collision, the efficiency of the system can be increased without affecting the overall throughput of the system.

  13. An EC-branch in the decay of 27-s sup 2 sup 6 sup 3 Db evidence for the isotope sup 2 sup 6 sup 3 Rf

    Kratz, J V; Rieth, U; Kronenberg, A K; Kuczewski, B; Strub, E; Brchle, W; Schdel, M; Schausten, B; Trler, A; Gggeler, H W; Jost, D T; Gregorich, K E; Nitsche, H; Laue, C; Sudowe, R; Wilk, P A

    2003-01-01

    27-s sup 2 sup 6 sup 3 Db was produced in the sup 2 sup 4 sup 9 Bk ( sup 1 sup 8 O, 4n) reaction at 93 MeV.The activity was transported by a He/KCl-jet to the laboratory where it was collected for 15 min and then subjected to a chemical separation specific for group-4 elements. The activity was dissolved in 0.5 M unbuffered alpha-HiB and eluted from a cation-exchange column. The effluent was made 9 M in HCl and group-4 tetrachlorides were extracted into TBP/Cyclohexane which was evaporated to dryness on a Ta disc. The Ta discs were assayed for alpha and SF activity. A SF activity with a half life on the order of 20 min was observed and assigned to the nuclide sup 2 sup 6 sup 3 Rf. It is formed by electron-capture decay of sup 2 sup 6 sup 3 Db with a decay branch of 3 sup + sup 4 sub - sub 1 %.

  14. Bandwidth of adaptive optics system in atmospheric coherent laser communication

    Li, Jiawei; Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Jianqiu; Sun, Jianfeng; Chen, Weibiao

    2016-01-01

    The bit-error-rate performance of free space optical communication systems with binary phase shift keying modulation and coherent homodyne detection is performed. Besides the turbulence-induced wave-front phase error and the amplitude fluctuation, the servo bandwidth of adaptive optics system is investigated. It is shown that Greenwood frequency is large enough for the servo bandwidth of adaptive optics system when the detected photons per bit are more than 100. However, if the photons per bit are less than 70, the Greenwood frequency is only sufficient for weak scintillation. We should increase the servo bandwidth to almost twice the value of Greenwood frequency at least in order to obtain an acceptable BER performance when the scintillation index is larger than 0.7. In addition, we also investigate the aperture averaging effects when the receiving aperture is larger than the coherent length.

  15. INCREASING BANDWIDTH ON CELL BREATHING TECHNOLOGY USING RAT ALGORITHM

    S.Manikandan*

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a typical enterprise WLAN, it is difficult to identify and implement the types of network settings which cause poor performance where number of hosts may attain larger share of the available bandwidth in a access point within a limited boundary under the con cept of cell breathing technique. This approach can leads to unequal load sharing and diminished system performance. Our work can be focused on the process of regulating the bandwidth so that no user can access data more than the specified limit for a part icular access point and provide large bandwidth wherever needed. In this way the different users will get an efficient access over the network. We consider the RAT (Rate Access Technologies policy which leads to better system performance. The RAT policy h as been applied on home - grown centralized WLAN controller, ADWISER and reveals that the RAT policy definitely affords to be effective system performance

  16. Arbitrary-bandwidth Brillouin slow light in optical fibers.

    Gonzlez Herrez, Miguel; Song, Kwang Yong; Thvenaz, Luc

    2006-02-20

    Brillouin slow light in optical fibers is a promising technique for the development of all-optical buffers to be used in optical routers. The main drawback of this technique up to now has been its narrow bandwidth, normally restricted to 35 MHz in conventional single-mode optical fibers. In this paper we demonstrate experimentally that Brillouin slow light with an arbitrary large bandwidth can be readily obtained in conventional optical fibers using a simple and inexpensive pump spectral broadening technique. In our experiments, we show the delaying of 2.7 ns pulses over slightly more than one pulse length with only some residual broadening (<25%) of the pulse width. We see no limit to extend this technique to the delaying of GHz-bandwidth signals. PMID:19503463

  17. Performance Investigation of Virtual Private Networks with Different Bandwidth Allocations

    Ramaswamy Muthiah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Virtual Private Network (VPN provides private network connections over a publicly accessible shared network. The effective allocation of bandwidth for VPNs assumes significance in the present scenario due to varied traffic. Each VPN endpoint specifies bounds on the total amount of traffic that it is likely to send or receive at any time. The network provider tailors the VPN so that there is sufficient bandwidth for any traffic matrix that is consistent with these bounds. The approach incorporates the use of Ad-hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, with a view to accomplish an enhancement in the performance of the mobile networks. The NS2 based simulation results are evaluated in terms of its metrics for different bandwidth allocations, besides analyzing its performance in the event of exigencies such as link failures. The results highlight the suitability of the proposed strategy in the context of real time applications.

  18. Enhancement of bandwidth of planar microstrip antenna with meta materials

    Ahmed Al-Shaheen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a planar left-handed material pattern on the rectangular patch antenna mounted on the substrate is designed to enhance its horizontal radiation as well as to broaden its working bandwidth. The parametric study is done to study the effect of the ground plane slots width of 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 mm respectively on the return loss and bandwidth enhancement, the best value of g is 0.4 mm. Enhancement in the bandwidth is achieved by introducing the meta material phenomena instead of the single patch antenna is about 19.2 times with g = 0.4 mm.

  19. PRIORITY BASED BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Mary Cherian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the sensor network applications need real time communication and the need for deadline aware real time communication is becoming eminent in these applications. These applications have different dead line requirements also. The real time applications of wireless sensor networks are bandwidth sensitive and need higher share of bandwidth for higher priority data to meet the dead line requirements. In this paper we focus on the MAC layer modifications to meet the real time requirements of different priority data. Bandwidth partitioning among different priority transmissions is implemented through MAC layer modifications. The MAC layer implements a queuing model that supports lower transfer rate for lower priority packets and higher transfer rate for real time packets with higher priority, minimizing the end to end delay. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated with varying node distribution.

  20. CMOS BASED CURRENT FEEDBACK OP-AMP WITH IMPROVED BANDWIDTH

    Akshay Dubey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A current mode feedback operational amplifier designed using a complimentary MOS circuit technology has been discussed in this paper. A class AB amplifier has been used in the design and the design results in improvement of values of number of parameter when compared to the previously reported architecture. The circuit is designed using 0.35m technology. Bandwidth of the presented architecture was obtained, that was always greater than 50MHz. On the other hand , bandwidth in case of previously reported circuit was coming out to be always more than 2MHz. Thus in our proposed circuit, there is a considerable improvement in the bandwidth of the circuit. Also the Slew rate, which was improved from 5.2V/sec to 8.1V/ sec. Settling time of the proposed circuit has been reduced to 134 nsec which was of order of 212 nsec in case of the previous design.

  1. Performance Investigation of Virtual Private Networks with Different Bandwidth Allocations

    Natarajan, Mahalakshmi Chidambara; Nachiappan, Alamelu

    2010-01-01

    A Virtual Private Network (VPN) provides private network connections over a publicly accessible shared network. The effective allocation of bandwidth for VPNs assumes significance in the present scenario due to varied traffic. Each VPN endpoint specifies bounds on the total amount of traffic that it is likely to send or receive at any time. The network provider tailors the VPN so that there is sufficient bandwidth for any traffic matrix that is consistent with these bounds. The approach incorporates the use of Ad-hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol, with a view to accomplish an enhancement in the performance of the mobile networks. The NS2 based simulation results are evaluated in terms of its metrics for different bandwidth allocations, besides analyzing its performance in the event of exigencies such as link failures. The results highlight the suitability of the proposed strategy in the context of real time applications.

  2. Development of a bandwidth limiting neutron chopper for CSNS

    Wang, P.; Yang, B.; Cai, W. L.

    2015-08-01

    Bandwidth limiting neutron choppers are indispensable key equipments for the time-of-flight neutron scattering spectrometers of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). The main principle is to chop the neutron beam to limit the neutron wavelength bandwidth at the neutron detector. We have successfully developed a bandwidth limiting neutron chopper for CSNS in the CSNS advance research project II. The transmission rate of the neutron absorbing coating is less than 1×10-4 (for 1 angstrom neutron). The phase control accuracy is ±0.084° (±9.4 μs at 25 Hz). The dynamic balance grade is G1.0. Various experimental technical features have met the design requirements, and it also runs stably and reliably during the long-term tests.

  3. Development of a bandwidth limiting neutron chopper for CSNS

    Wang, P., E-mail: wangping@ihep.ac.cn [China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), Chinese Academy of Sciences - CAS, Dongguan 523803 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science (DINS), Dongguan 523808 (China); Yang, B.; Cai, W.L. [China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), Chinese Academy of Sciences - CAS, Dongguan 523803 (China); Dongguan Institute of Neutron Science (DINS), Dongguan 523808 (China)

    2015-08-21

    Bandwidth limiting neutron choppers are indispensable key equipments for the time-of-flight neutron scattering spectrometers of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). The main principle is to chop the neutron beam to limit the neutron wavelength bandwidth at the neutron detector. We have successfully developed a bandwidth limiting neutron chopper for CSNS in the CSNS advance research project II. The transmission rate of the neutron absorbing coating is less than 1×10{sup −4} (for 1 angstrom neutron). The phase control accuracy is ±0.084° (±9.4 μs at 25 Hz). The dynamic balance grade is G1.0. Various experimental technical features have met the design requirements, and it also runs stably and reliably during the long-term tests.

  4. Analysis of bandwidth measurement methodologies over WLAN systems

    Portoles-Comeras, Marc; Mangues-Bafalluy, Josep; Domingo-Pascual, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    WLAN devices have become a fundamental component of nowadays network deployments. However, even though traditional networking applications run mostly unchanged over wireless links, the actual interaction between these applications and the dynamics of wireless transmissions is not yet fully understood. An important example of such applications are bandwidth estimation tools. This area has become a mature research topic with well-developed results. Unfortunately recent studies have shown that the application of these results to WLAN links is not straightforward. The main reasons for this is that the assumptions taken to develop bandwidth measurements tools do not hold any longer in the presence of wireless links (e.g. non-FIFO scheduling). This paper builds from these observations and its main goal is to analyze the interaction between probe packets and WLAN transmissions in bandwidth estimation processes. The paper proposes an analytical model that better accounts for the particularities of WLAN links. The mod...

  5. Bandwidth-Conserving Multicast VoIP Teleconference System

    Teck-Kuen Chua

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Teleconferencing is an essential feature in any business telephone system. A teleconference allows associates to engage in a group discussion by conducting a virtual meeting while remaining at geographically dispersed locations. Teleconferencing increases productivity while reducing travel costs and saving travel time. In a VoIP telephone system, we face the significant challenge of providing a teleconference feature that can support a large-scale teleconference without using excessive bandwidth. This paper presents a new, bandwidth-efficient way of implementing a real-time VoIP teleconference system. This new method provides all of the features that existing teleconference systems provide, but this new approach consumes considerably less data bandwidth than existing systems require. The new system allows a network with a given capacity to accommodate almost double the number of conference participants that an existing system would allow.

  6. Fabrication of high frequency ultrasonic probe with wide bandwidth

    This paper is about fabrication of a wide band 2 MHz ultrasonic probe for NDT application. The piezoelectric material used is PZT. To achieve wide band operation, a backing layer is attached to the rear face and a matching/ protective layer is attached to the rear face. Backing layer is a mixture of epoxy and tungsten powder while matching layer is white alumina. The fabricated probe shows bandwidth of 53 % with centre frequency of 2.13 MHz. The pulse width at 50 % amplitude is 2.47 μs. A wide bandwidth probe was successfully fabricated. (author)

  7. EFFECTIVE BANDWIDTH FOR SELF-SIMILAR TRAFFIC IN ATM NETWORK

    Linawati Linawati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new approach to estimate the effective bandwidth for self-similar traffic in ATM network. In this approach we use the tail distribution of queue length based on FBM model. This approach is derived from the inequalities for Mills’ ratio. Then a comparison with Norros and Trinh&Miki schemes are analysed. The results demonstrate reasonable agreement between numerical and simulation results and between all schemes. Their bandwidth estimation tends closer for CLP improvement.

  8. Effective Bandwidth Utilization in IEEE802.11 for VOIP

    S. Vijay Bhanu; RM. Chandrasekaran; Balakrishnan, V.

    2010-01-01

    Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) is one of the most important applications for the IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs). For network planners who are deploying VoIP over WLANs, one of the important issues is the VoIP capacity. VoIP bandwidth consumption over a WAN is one of the most important factors to consider when building a VoIP infrastructure. Failure to account for VoIP bandwidth requirements will severely limit the reliability of a VoIP system and place a huge burden on ...

  9. Modulator-Based, High Bandwidth Optical Links for HEP Experiments

    Underwood, D.G.; Drake, G.; Fernando, W. S.; Stanek, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    As a concern with the reliability, bandwidth and mass of future optical links in LHC experiments, we are investigating CW lasers and light modulators as an alternative to VCSELs. These links will be particularly useful if they utilize light modulators which are very small, low power, high bandwidth, and are very radiation hard. We have constructed a test system with 3 such links, each operating at 10 Gb/s. We present the quality of these links (jitter, rise and fall time, BER) and eye mask ma...

  10. Small Bandwidth Asymptotics for Density-Weighted Average Derivatives

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    This paper proposes (apparently) novel standard error formulas for the density-weighted average derivative estimator of Powell, Stock, and Stoker (1989). Asymptotic validity of the standard errors developed in this paper does not require the use of higher-order kernels and the standard errors are...... errors developed in this paper coincide (approximately) with the nominal coverage rates across a nontrivial range of bandwidths....... "robust" in the sense that they accommodate (but do not require) bandwidths that are smaller than those for which conventional standard errors are valid. Moreover, the results of a Monte Carlo experiment suggest that the finite sample coverage rates of con…dence intervals constructed using the standard...

  11. Bandwidth Enhancement of Probe Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Parminder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstrip patch antenna becomes verypopular day by day because of its ease of analysis andfabrication, low cost, light weight, easy to feed and theirattractive radiation characteristics. Although patchantenna has numerous advantages, it has also somedrawbacks such as restricted bandwidth, and a potentialdecrease in radiation pattern. Different techniques forbandwidth enhancement of conventional rectangularmicrostrip antenna are proposed in this paper. Byincreasing the height of patch , increasing the substratethickness and decreasing the permittivity of substrate the%bandwidth is increased. HFSS Software is used for thesimulation and design calculation of microstrip patchantenna. The return loss, vswr curve, directivity and gainare evaluated.

  12. Regulating Bandwidth Flow Estimation and Control for Wired/Wireless Networks

    Pallavi Sharma; Vijay Singh Rathore

    2012-01-01

    In this topic, an analysis will be made on the problems faced by bandwidth constrained applications which comes under networking domain. For bandwidth constrained applications, a proper monitoring of available bandwidth is an important factor to avoid degradation in performance while execution. Such application example could be video or voice chat on Internet , which consumes more bandwidth and its overall performance is bandwidth constraint. After the implementation of 802.11e Wireless Senso...

  13. Plug-in Bandwidth Selection for Kernel Density Estimation with Discrete Data

    Chi-Yang Chu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes plug-in bandwidth selection for kernel density estimation with discrete data via minimization of mean summed square error. Simulation results show that the plug-in bandwidths perform well, relative to cross-validated bandwidths, in non-uniform designs. We further find that plug-in bandwidths are relatively small. Several empirical examples show that the plug-in bandwidths are typically similar in magnitude to their cross-validated counterparts.

  14. Energy and Bandwidth Constrained QoS Enabled Routing for MANETs

    N.Sumathi; C.P. Sumathi

    2013-01-01

    Mobile adhoc networks are rapid deployable self organizing networks. Their key characteristics aredynamic topology, high node mobility, low channel bandwidth and limited battery power. Hence, it isnecessary to minimize bandwidth and energy consumption. To transmit packets, available bandwidth isknown along the route from sender to receiver. Thus, bandwidth estimation is the main metric to supportQuality of Service (QoS). This work focuses on improving the accuracy of available bandwidth andin...

  15. A Practical Approach For Excess Bandwidth Distribution for EPONs

    Elrasad, Amr

    2014-03-09

    This paper introduces a novel approach called Delayed Excess Scheduling (DES), which practically reuse the excess bandwidth in EPONs system. DES is suitable for the industrial deployment as it requires no timing constraint and achieves better performance compared to the previously reported schemes.

  16. A Preliminary Evaluation of Bandwidth Allocation Model Dynamic Switching

    Rafael F. Reale

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bandwidth Allocation Models (BAMs are used in order to define Bandwidth Constraints (BCs in a per-class basis for MPLS/DS-TE networks and effectively define how network resources like bandwidth are obtained and shared by applications. The BAMs proposed (MAM – Maximum Allocation Model, RDM – Russian Dolls Model, G-RDM – Generic RDM and AllocTC-Sharing attempt to optimize the use of bandwidth resources on a per-link basis with different allocation and resource sharing characteristics. As such, the adoption of distinct BAMs and/or changes in network resource demands (network traffic profile may result in different network traffic allocation and operational behavior for distinct BAMs. This paper evaluates the resulting network characteristics (li nk utilization, preemption and flows blocking of using BAMs dynamically with different traffic scenarios. In brief, it is investigated the dynamics of BAM switching with distinct traffic scenarios. The paper presents initially the investigated BAMs in relation to their behavior and resource allocation characteristics. Then, distinct BAMs are compared using different traffic scenarios in order to investigate the impact of a dynamic change of the BAM configured in the network. Finally, the paper shows that the adoption of a dynamic BAM allocation strategy may result in benefits for network operation in terms of link utilization, preemption and flows blocking.

  17. A Bandwidth Characterization Tool For MPEG-2 File

    Kugali, Sandeep.; Manvi, S. S.; Sutagundar, A. V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the design and development of MPEG 2 Video Decoder to offer flexible and effective utilization of bandwidth services. The decoder is capable of decoding the MPEG 2 bit stream on a single host machine. The present decoder is designed to be simple, but yet effectively reconstruct the video from MPEG 2 bit stream.

  18. High speed and wide bandwidth delta-sigma ADCs

    Bolatkale, Muhammed; Makinwa, Kofi A A

    2014-01-01

    This book describes techniques for realizing wide bandwidth (125MHz) over-sampled analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in nanometer-CMOS processes.  The authors offer a clear and complete picture of system level challenges and practical design solutions in high-speed Delta-Sigma modulators.  Readers will be enabled to implement ADCs as continuous-time delta-sigma (CT∆Σ) modulators, offering simple resistive inputs, which do not require the use of power-hungry input buffers, as well as offering inherent anti-aliasing, which simplifies system integration. The authors focus on the design of high speed and wide-bandwidth ΔΣMs that make a step in bandwidth range which was previously only possible with Nyquist converters. More specifically, this book describes the stability, power efficiency, and linearity limits of ΔΣMs, aiming at a GHz sampling frequency.   • Provides overview of trends in Wide Bandwidth and High Dynamic Range analog-to-digital converters (ADCs); • Enables the design of a wide band...

  19. Bandwidth utilization maximization of scientific RF communication systems

    Rey, D. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryan, W. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Ross, M.

    1997-01-01

    A method for more efficiently utilizing the frequency bandwidth allocated for data transmission is presented. Current space and range communication systems use modulation and coding schemes that transmit 0.5 to 1.0 bits per second per Hertz of radio frequency bandwidth. The goal in this LDRD project is to increase the bandwidth utilization by employing advanced digital communications techniques. This is done with little or no increase in the transmit power which is usually very limited on airborne systems. Teaming with New Mexico State University, an implementation of trellis coded modulation (TCM), a coding and modulation scheme pioneered by Ungerboeck, was developed for this application and simulated on a computer. TCM provides a means for reliably transmitting data while simultaneously increasing bandwidth efficiency. The penalty is increased receiver complexity. In particular, the trellis decoder requires high-speed, application-specific digital signal processing (DSP) chips. A system solution based on the QualComm Viterbi decoder and the Graychip DSP receiver chips is presented.

  20. Gain-switched all-fiber laser with narrow bandwidth

    Larsen, Casper; Giesberts, M.; Nyga, S.; Fitzau, O.; Jungbluth, B.; Hoffmann, H. D.; Bang, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Gain-switching of a CW fiber laser is a simple and cost-effective approach to generate pulses using an all-fiber system. We report on the construction of a narrow bandwidth (below 0.1 nm) gain-switched fiber laser and optimize the pulse energy and pulse duration under this constraint. The extracted...

  1. Efficient Bandwidth Management for Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

    Elrasad, Amr Elsayed M.

    2016-05-15

    The increasing bandwidth demands in access networks motivates network operators, networking devices manufacturers, and standardization institutions to search for new approaches for access networks. These approaches should support higher bandwidth, longer distance between end user and network operator, and less energy consumption. Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) is a favorable choice for broadband access networks. EPONs support transmission rates up to 10 Gbps. EPONs also support distance between end users and central office up to 20 Km. Moreover, optical networks have the least energy consumption among all types of networks. In this dissertation, we focus on reducing delay and saving energy in EPONs. Reducing delay is essential for delay-sensitive traffic, while minimizing energy consumption is an environmental necessity and also reduces the network operating costs. We identify five challenges, namely excess bandwidth allocation, frame delineation, congestion resolution, large round trip time delay in long-reach EPONs (LR-EPONs), and energy saving. We provide a Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) approach for each challenge. We also propose a novel scheme that combines the features of the proposed approaches in one highly performing scheme. Our approach is to design novel DBA protocols that can further reduce the delay and be simultaneously simple and fair. We also present a dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for Green EPONs taking into consideration maximizing energy saving under target delay constraints. Regarding excess bandwidth allocation, we develop an effective DBA scheme called Delayed Excess Scheduling (DES). DES achieves significant delay and jitter reduction and is more suitable for industrial deployment due to its simplicity. Utilizing DES in hybrid TDM/WDM EPONs (TWDM-EPONs) is also investigated. We also study eliminating the wasted bandwidth due to frame delineation. We develop an interactive DBA scheme, Efficient Grant Sizing Interleaved Polling (EGSIP), to compensate the unutilized bandwidth due to frame delineation. Our solution achieves delay reduction ratio up to 90% at high load. We also develop a Congestion Aware Limited Time (CALT) DBA scheme to detect and resolve temporary congestion in EPONs. CALT smartly adapts the optical networking unit (ONU) maximum transmission window according to the detected congestion level. Numerical results show that CALT is more robust at high load compared to other related published schemes. Regarding LR-EPONs, the main concern is large round trip delay mitigation. We address two problems, namely bandwidth over-granting in Multi-Thread Polling (MTP) and on-the-fly void filling. We combine, with some modifications, EGSIP and DES to resolve bandwidth over-granting in MTP. We also manage to adaptively tune MTP active running threads along with the offered load. Regarding on-the-fly void filling, Our approach, Parallel Void Thread (PVT), achieves large delay reduction for delay-sensitive traffic. PVT is designed as a plus function to DBA and can be combined with almost all DBA schemes proposed before. The powerful feature of our proposed solutions is integrability. We integrate our solutions together and form a multi-feature, robust, fairly simple, and well performing DBA scheme over LR-TWDM-EPONs. Our final contribution is about energy saving under target delay constraints. We tackle the problem of downstream based sleep time sizing and scheduling under required delay constraints. Simulation results show that our approach adheres to delay constraints and achieves almost ideal energy saving ratio at the same time.

  2. Relaxor-PT single crystals for broad bandwidth, high power sonar projectors

    Sherlock, Nevin P.

    2010-06-01

    The high piezoelectric response of the ferroelectric relaxor (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 - xPbTiO3 (PMNT) in single crystal form has generated significant interest in producing broad bandwidth SONAR systems. Both the piezoelectric coefficient (d33 > 2000 pC/N) and coupling coefficient (k33 > 0.90) are superior to those of conventional piezoelectric ceramics. Within the context of a high power acoustic projector, its high losses and low temperature stability have limited its development. Second generation single crystals with compositions modified from the base PMNT have been recently developed to decrease the electromechanical losses and mitigate the thermal property dependence. In this work, the electromechanical properties were measured using single crystals which have been modified in various ways. The modified crystals exhibit electromechanically "hard" behavior with lower losses (tan delta = 0.1--0.2% and QM = 230--950) than unmodified PMNT (tan delta = 0.26% and QM = 190). The measured d33 values of modified single crystals (d33 = 760--1490 pm/V) are also lower than unmodified PMNT (d33 = 1540 pm/V), but the lower piezoelectric response is compensated by the greater stability of the modified single crystals. These modified single crystal properties were also compared to conventional high power piezoelectric ceramics ( d33 = 240 pm/V and QM = 1050) to show similar losses but significantly greater response in the modified PMNT single crystals. Although most piezoelectric materials are measured under small signal conditions (small signal defined by a completely linear relationship between the input and output signals), the high power nature of SONAR projectors demands that these modified single crystals also be evaluated under high power conditions. A test procedure was developed to measure the electromechanical properties of each material as a function of applied electric field over a frequency range which includes the resonance frequency. Modified single crystals showed twice the dynamic strain of unmodified PMNT as a function of electric field, and in many cases also showed greater maximum strain at failure (0.3% compared to 0.15% for unmodified PMNT). When QM was measured as a function of drive level, it was shown to sharply decrease under high dynamic strain. Modified single crystals with greater small signal QM values than unmodified PMNT maintain higher QM values under high drive, with Q M = 50--150 immediately prior to sample failure (Q M = 20 for base PMNT immediately prior to failure). The temperature dependence of modified PMNT single crystal electromechanical properties was also determined, and it was shown that modified crystals possess greater property stability than unmodified PMNT. While the base composition shows a limiting rhombohedral-tetragonal transition at 95 °C, modified single crystals using ternary PIN and PZT components show increased transition temperatures of 125 °C and 144 °C, respectively. The greater phase stability of the PIN ternary crystal was also examined through the coercive field, which was shown to be much greater than that of unmodified PMNT over the temperature range of interest (Ec = 5 kV/cm and 2 kV/cm, respectively, at room temperature). From the combined set of property measurements, the heat generation of each material was predicted for an arbitrary projector device. As a consequence of the lower losses, modified single crystals showed as little as 25% of the heat generation value for unmodified PMNT single crystals. Using this prediction as a performance metric, the crystals with the lowest heat generation were selected for device testing. Transducers with base PMNT and modified single crystals were designed using a finite element modeling approach. This model predicted approximately two octaves of bandwidth for the transducer geometry under investigation. A 5 dB decrease in acoustic output was observed when moving from base PMNT to highly modified crystals, but that result does not account for nonlinear material behavior. Transducers fabricated using modified PMNT were co

  3. Available Network Bandwidth Schema to Improve Performance in TCP Protocols

    Marcos Talau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The TCP congestion control mechanism in standard implementations presents several problems, for example, large queue lengths in network routers and packet losses, a misleading reduce of the transmission rate when there are link failures, among others. This paper proposes a schema to congestion control in TCP protocols, called NGWA, witch is based on the network bandwidth. The NGWA provides information considering the available bandwidth of the network infrastructure to the endpoints of the TCP connection.Hence, it helps in choosing a better transmission rate for TCP improving its performance. Simulation results show superior performance of the proposed scheme when compared to those obtained by TCP New Reno and standard TCP. A physical implementation in the Linux kernel was performed to prove the correct operation of the proposal.

  4. GHz bandwidth noise eater hybrid optical amplifier: design guidelines.

    Danion, Gwennaël; Bondu, François; Loas, Goulc'hen; Alouini, Mehdi

    2014-07-15

    This Letter describes the design of an optical amplifier system optimized to reduce the relative intensity noise (RIN) of the input signal, and discloses its performance in terms of intensity noise reduction and bandwidth, without phase noise degradation. This polarization-maintaining amplifier is composed of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) cascaded with a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The EDFA is sized to feed the SOA with a constant power corresponding to the optimal saturation level for noise reduction, through coherent population oscillations. When properly optimized, such an amplifier provides, simultaneously, 17 dB optical gain, 5.4 dB noise factor, and 20 dB reduction of the input-RIN across a 3 GHz bandwidth, without any electronics feedback loop. PMID:25121696

  5. Bandwidth and Energy Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Ashish Talikoti, Jayashree A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of sensor networks as one of thedominant technology trends in the coming decades has posednumerous problems regarding the Quality of Service (QoSparameter to researchers. These QoS parameters are oftenfound to be as limited resources. Hence to effectively utilizethese limited resources, we propose a technique to manage twoof the most basic QoS parameters of sensor networks, they arebandwidth and energy. We propose bandwidth management byimplementing rules that guide the data streams to a specificdata rate, so as to treat different data to its own credit. Tomanage energy we present GAF algorithm that effectivelyreduces energy consumption of the nodes keeping a constantlevel of routing fidelity. The simulation is run on NS-2.34 with35 nodes in total. The simulation results obtained show that thecombination of the both bandwidth and energy in managementperforms better than the existing protocols.

  6. Two genetic algorithms for the bandwidth multicoloring problem

    Fijuljanin Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Bandwidth Multicoloring Problem (BMCP and the Bandwidth Coloring Problem (BCP are considered. The problems are solved by two genetic algorithms (GAs which use the integer encoding and standard genetic operators adapted to the problems. In both proposed implementations, all individuals are feasible by default, so search is directed into the promising regions. The first proposed method named GA1 is a constructive metaheuristic that construct solution, while the second named GA2 is an improving metaheuristic used to improve an existing solution. Genetic algorithms are tested on the publicly-available GEOM instances from the literature. Proposed GA1 has achieved a much better solution than the calculated upper bound for a given problem, and GA2 has significantly improved the solutions obtained by GA1. The obtained results are also compared with the results of the existing methods for solving BCP and BMCP.

  7. The Bandwidths of a Matrix. A Survey of Algorithms

    Mafteiu-Scai Liviu Octavian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bandwidth, average bandwidth, envelope, profile and antibandwidth of the matrices have been the subjects of study for at least 45 years. These problems have generated considerable interest over the years because of them practical relevance in areas like: solving the system of equations, finite element methods, circuit design, hypertext layout, chemical kinetics, numerical geophysics etc. In this paper a brief description of these problems are made in terms of their definitions, followed by a comparative study of them, using both approaches: matrix geometry and graph theory. Time evolution of the corresponding algorithms as well as a short description of them are made. The work also contains concrete real applications for which a large part of presented algorithms were developed.

  8. A wide-bandwidth and high-sensitivity robust microgyroscope

    This paper reports a microgyroscope design concept with the help of a 2 degrees of freedom (DoF) sense mode to achieve a wide bandwidth without sacrificing mechanical and electronic sensitivity and to obtain robust operation against variations under ambient conditions. The design concept is demonstrated with a tuning fork microgyroscope fabricated with an in-house silicon-on-glass micromachining process. When the fabricated gyroscope is operated with a relatively wide bandwidth of 1 kHz, measurements show a relatively high raw mechanical sensitivity of 131 µV (° s−1)−1. The variation in the amplified mechanical sensitivity (scale factor) of the gyroscope is measured to be less than 0.38% for large ambient pressure variations such as from 40 to 500 mTorr. The bias instability and angle random walk of the gyroscope are measured to be 131° h−1 and 1.15° h−1/2, respectively

  9. BANDWIDTH ENHANCEMENT USING PARASITIC PATCH FOR KU BAND

    Kalpesh B. Barad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available - A design of microstrip patch antenna with prime focused of increasing bandwidth using various techniques of probe feed, parasitic patch around the main patch and two layer of substrate. The simulation process has been done using HFSS (High frequency Structural Simulator. In this paper, authors cover six aspect of microstrip antenna designs. The first is analysis of single element narrowband rectangular microstrip antenna which operates at central frequency of 14.3 GHz. The second/third aspect is design of two gap/direct coupled patch along main patch. The fourth/fifth aspect is analysis and design of four gap/direct coupled parasitic patch along main patch and in sixth aspect is analysis and design of two layer of substrate in parasitic patch design. The properties of antenna such as bandwidth, S parameter, VSWR, Gain has been investigated and compared

  10. On Free-Electron Laser Growing Modes and their Bandwidth

    Webb, Stephen; Litvinenko, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Free-electron lasers play an increasing role in science, from generating unique femtosecond X- ray pulses for single short recording of the protein structures to amplifying feeble interactions in advanced cooling systems for high-energy hadron colliders. While modern Free-electron laser codes can describe their amplification mechanism, a deep analytical understanding of the mechanism is of extreme importance for a number of applications. Mode competition, their growth rates and amplification bandwidth are among the most important parameters of a free-electron laser. A dispersion relation, which defines these important characteristics, can be solved analytically only for a very few simple cases. In this letter we show that for a typical bell-shape energy distribution in electron beam there is no more that one growing mode. We also derive an analytical expression which determines the bandwidth of the free-electron laser.

  11. Bandwidth-sharing in LHCONE, an analysis of the problem

    Wildish, T.

    2015-12-01

    The LHC experiments have traditionally regarded the network as an unreliable resource, one which was expected to be a major source of errors and inefficiency at the time their original computing models were derived. Now, however, the network is seen as much more capable and reliable. Data are routinely transferred with high efficiency and low latency to wherever computing or storage resources are available to use or manage them. Although there was sufficient network bandwidth for the experiments’ needs during Run-1, they cannot rely on ever-increasing bandwidth as a solution to their data-transfer needs in the future. Sooner or later they need to consider the network as a finite resource that they interact with to manage their traffic, in much the same way as they manage their use of disk and CPU resources. There are several possible ways for the experiments to integrate management of the network in their software stacks, such as the use of virtual circuits with hard bandwidth guarantees or soft real-time flow-control, with somewhat less firm guarantees. Abstractly, these can all be considered as the users (the experiments, or groups of users within the experiment) expressing a request for a given bandwidth between two points for a given duration of time. The network fabric then grants some allocation to each user, dependent on the sum of all requests and the sum of available resources, and attempts to ensure the requirements are met (either deterministically or statistically). An unresolved question at this time is how to convert the users’ requests into an allocation. Simply put, how do we decide what fraction of a network's bandwidth to allocate to each user when the sum of requests exceeds the available bandwidth? The usual problems of any resourcescheduling system arise here, namely how to ensure the resource is used efficiently and fairly, while still satisfying the needs of the users. Simply fixing quotas on network paths for each user is likely to lead to inefficient use of the network. If one user cannot use their quota for some reason, that bandwidth is lost. Likewise, there is no incentive for the user to be efficient within their quota, they have nothing to gain by using less than their allocation. As with CPU farms, some sort of dynamic allocation is more likely to be useful. A promising approach for sharing bandwidth at LHCONE is the ’Progressive Second-Price auction’, where users are given a budget and are required to bid from that budget for the specific resources they want to reserve. The auction allows users to effectively determine among themselves the degree of sharing they are willing to accept based on the priorities of their traffic and their global share, as represented by their total budget. The network then implements those allocations using whatever mix of technologies is appropriate or available. This paper describes how the Progressive Second-Price auction works and how it can be applied to LHCONE. Practical questions are addressed, such as how are budgets set, what strategy should users use to manage their budget, how and how often should the auction be run, and how do we ensure that the goals of fairness and efficiency are met.

  12. Artificial bandwidth extension of spectral envelope along a Viterbi path

    Yağlı, Can; Turan, M. A. Tuğtekin; Erzin, Engin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hidden Markov model (HMM)-based wideband spectral envelope estimation method for the artificial bandwidth extension problem. The proposed HMM-based estimator decodes an optimal Viterbi path based on the temporal contour of the narrowband spectral envelope and then performs the minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimation of the wideband spectral envelope on this path. Experimental evaluations are performed to compare the proposed estimator to the state-of-the-art HM...

  13. Bandwidth Management in Wireless Home Networks for IPTV Solutions

    Tamás Jursonovics; Sándor Imre

    2013-01-01

    The optimal allocation of the retransmission bandwidth is essential for IPTV service providers to ensure maximal service quality. This paper highlights the relevance of the wireless transport in today’s IPTV solution and discusses how this new media affects the existing broadcast technologies. A new Markovian channel model is developed to address the optimization issues of the retransmission throughput, and a new method is presented which is evaluated by empirical measurements followed by mat...

  14. Heavy-traffic delay minimization in bandwidth-sharing networks

    Verloop, Maaike; Borst, Sem

    2006-01-01

    Bandwidth-sharing networks as considered by Massoulie & Roberts provide a natural modeling framework for describing the dynamic flow-level interaction among elastic data transfers. Although valuable stability results have been obtained, crucial performance metrics such as flow-level delays and throughputs in these models have remained intractable in all but a few special cases. In particular, it is not well understood to what extent flow-level delays and throughputs achieved by standard bandw...

  15. Terahertz bandwidth integrated radio frequency spectrum analyzer via nonlinear optics

    Ferrera, Marcello; Pasquazi, Alessia; Peccianti, Marco; Clerici, Matteo; Caspani, Lucia; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Morandotti, Roberto; Moss, David J

    2014-01-01

    We report an integrated all-optical radio frequency spectrum analyzer based on a ~ 4cm long doped silica glass waveguide, with a bandwidth greater than 2.5 THz. We use this device to characterize the intensity power spectrum of ultrahigh repetition rate mode-locked lasers at repetition rates up to 400 GHz, and observe dynamic noise related behavior not observable with other techniques.

  16. High-speed and broad optical bandwidth silicon modulator

    A high-speed silicon modulator with broad optical bandwidth is proposed based on a symmetrically configured Mach—Zehnder interferometer. Careful phase bias control and traveling-wave design are used to improve the high-speed performance. Over a broadband wavelength range, high-speed operation up to 30 Gbit/s with a 4.5 dB–5.5 dB extinction ratio is experimentally demonstrated with a low driving voltage of 3 V. (rapid communication)

  17. Analysis of bandwidth measurement methodologies over WLAN systems

    Portoles-Comeras, Marc; Cabellos-Aparicio, Albert; Mangues-Bafalluy, Josep; Domingo-Pascual, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    WLAN devices have become a fundamental component of nowadays network deployments. However, even though traditional networking applications run mostly unchanged over wireless links, the actual interaction between these applications and the dynamics of wireless transmissions is not yet fully understood. An important example of such applications are bandwidth estimation tools. This area has become a mature research topic with well-developed results. Unfortunately recent studies have shown that t...

  18. Online Incremental Learning for High Bandwidth Network Traffic Classification

    Loo, H. R.; Joseph, S. B.; M. N. Marsono

    2016-01-01

    Data stream mining techniques are able to classify evolving data streams such as network traffic in the presence of concept drift. In order to classify high bandwidth network traffic in real-time, data stream mining classifiers need to be implemented on reconfigurable high throughput platform, such as Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This paper proposes an algorithm for online network traffic classification based on the concept of incremental k-means clustering to continuously learn from...

  19. Designing large-bandwidth planar photonic crystal waveguides

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Søndergaard, Thomas

    Our waveguide design is characterized by first of all a large bandwidth, and secondly it is characterized by a relatively high group velocity giving a better modal dispersion match with the modes of standard waveguides used for coupling light into the planar crystal waveguide (PCW). We consider t...... dispersion properties for a PCW based on introducing a line defect in a photonic crystal with air-holes arranged periodically on a triangular lattice in silicon....

  20. Optimization of bandwidth in 60^o photonic crystal waveguide bends

    Xing, P. F.; Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpth, Anders; Kristensen, Martin

    A systematic scheme utilizing 2D and 3D finite-difference time-domain calculations to design 60^o photonic crystal waveguide bends is presented. The method results in an improved transmission bandwidth from 70 to 160 nm in 2D simulations, and from 50 to 100 nm in 3D simulations. The design...... principles involve displacements and enlargements of selected holes in the bend regions....

  1. Power--bandwidth limitations of an optical resonance

    Miller, Owen D; Anquillare, Emma; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin; Johnson, Steven G

    2015-01-01

    We present shape-independent upper limits to the power--bandwidth product for a single resonance in an optical scatterer, with the bound depending only on the material susceptibility. We show that quasistatic metallic scatterers can nearly reach the limits, and we apply our approach to the problem of designing $N$ independent, subwavelength scatterers to achieve flat, broadband response even if they individually exhibit narrow resonant peaks.

  2. Multivariate plug-in bandwidth for local linear regression

    Yang, Lijian; Tschernig, Rolf

    1997-01-01

    Optimal bandwidths for local polynomial regression usually involve functionals of the derivatives of the unknown regression function. In the multivariate case, estimates of these functionals are not readily available, primarily because estimating multivariate derivatives is complicated. In this paper, an estimator of multivariate second derivative is obtained via local quadratic regression with cross terms left out. This estimator has the optimal rate of convergence but is simpler and uses a ...

  3. Advanced Control Schemes for High-Bandwidth Multiphase Voltage Regulators

    Liu, Pei-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Advances in transistor-integration technology and multi-core technology of the latest microprocessors have driven transient requirements to become more and more stringent. Rather than relying on the bulky output capacitors as energy-storage devices, increasing the control bandwidth (BW) of the multiphase voltage regulator (VR) is a more cost-effective and space-saving approach. However, it is found that the stability margin of current-mode control in high-BW design is very sensitive to operat...

  4. An experimental study on bandwidth assurance in IP networks

    Cano Baños, María Dolores; Cerdán Cartagena, José Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Inside DiffServ, the Assured Forwarding per hop behavior defines a service that guarantees the contracted target rate to the users and allows consuming more bandwidth if the network load is low. In this paper we perform an experimental study, whose key contribution is that current techniques and commercial equipment do not meet the goals of the AF PHB service in a scalable way.

  5. Amplifier similariton laser with extra-broad bandwidth output pulse

    Korobko, D. A.; Okhotnikov, O. G.; Zolotovskii, I. O.

    2016-03-01

    We propose an advanced scheme of amplifier similariton laser providing an output pulse spectrum much wider than the gain bandwidth. The upgrade is an additional dispersive element introduced into the cavity to locally increase the peak pulse power. The proposed scheme demonstrates a drastic increase in the output pulse spectrum width, reduction of the pulse duration, and an increase in the output peak pulse power after compression.

  6. Managing high-bandwidth real-time data storage

    Bigelow, David D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brandt, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Hsing-Bung [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-09-23

    There exist certain systems which generate real-time data at high bandwidth, but do not necessarily require the long-term retention of that data in normal conditions. In some cases, the data may not actually be useful, and in others, there may be too much data to permanently retain in long-term storage whether it is useful or not. However, certain portions of the data may be identified as being vitally important from time to time, and must therefore be retained for further analysis or permanent storage without interrupting the ongoing collection of new data. We have developed a system, Mahanaxar, intended to address this problem. It provides quality of service guarantees for incoming real-time data streams and simultaneous access to already-recorded data on a best-effort basis utilizing any spare bandwidth. It has built in mechanisms for reliability and indexing, can scale upwards to meet increasing bandwidth requirements, and handles both small and large data elements equally well. We will show that a prototype version of this system provides better performance than a flat file (traditional filesystem) based version, particularly with regard to quality of service guarantees and hard real-time requirements.

  7. Improved Radiation and Bandwidth of Triangular and Star Patch Antenna

    M. Ramkumar Prabhu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a hexagonal shape Defected Ground Structure (DGS implemented on two element triangular patch microstrip antenna array. The radiation performance of the antenna is characterized by varying the geometry and dimension of the DGS and also by locating the DGS at specific position which were simulated. Simulation and measurement results have verified that the antenna with DGS had improved the antenna without DGS. Measurement results of the hexagonal DGS have axial ratio bandwidth enhancement of 10 MHz, return loss improvement of 35%, mutual coupling reduction of 3 dB and gain enhancement of 1 dB. A new wideband and small size star shaped patch antenna fed capacitively by a small diamond shape patch is proposed. To enhance the impedance bandwidth, posts are incorporated under the patch antenna. HFSS high frequency simulator is employed to analyze the proposed antenna and simulated results on the return loss, the E- and H-plane radiation patterns and Gain of the proposed antenna are presented at various frequencies. The antenna is able to achieve in the range of 4-8.8 GHz an impedance bandwidth of 81% for return loss of less than-10 dB.

  8. Bandwidth Enhancement and Radiation Properties of Slotted Antenna

    Deenanath Sahu,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The design of low-cost, wideband, printed inverted-F antennas (PIFAs that are suitable for portable devices operating at the 23 GHz band is described. The design specifications were extracted according to the constraints of high data rate wireless sensor devices. Reactive tuning through slot loading was applied to enforce degeneration of a higher resonance, and thus double the bandwidth in the band of interest. Three slotted antenna configurations are reported plus a baseline configuration; a thorough numerical characterisation of performance is provided. Fractional bandwidth (FBW in the range 2234% was achieved, which is almost quadruple that of existing implementations. The antennas exhibit total efficiencies around 80% and are elliptically polarised. A suitable figure-of-merit is suggested for performance comparisons; it attempts to capture overall antenna performance in a single quantity. Antenna performance depends heavily on electrical size, which depends on the size of the ground plane, since the RF ground is an integral part of the total radiator. The ground-effect study showed that wrong choice of size can force resonant modes to vanish. Best performance for a slotted PIFA was obtained with a ground plane measuring 0.20l _ 0.28l, significantly smaller than predicted in prior studies. Bandwidth augmentation through slot loading is supported by measurements. Fabricated antennas with sub-optimal ground plane sizes exhibit FBWs in the range 2023%

  9. Bandwidth switching is transient-free, avoids loss of loop lock

    1964-01-01

    A circuit, in a wide bandwidth mode, overcomes transient-producing capacitance switching by maintaining an equivalent voltage at all times. Bandwidth switching may be done at any time, and integrity of the loop lock is maintained.

  10. Small signal microwave amplifier design

    Grosch, Theodore

    2000-01-01

    This book explains techniques and examples for designing stable amplifiers for high-frequency applications in which the signal is small and the amplifier circuit is linear. An in-depth discussion of linear network theory provides the foundation needed to develop actual designs. Examples throughout the book will show you how to apply the knowledge gained in each chapter leading to the complex design of low noise amplifiers. Many exercises at the end of each chapter will help students to practice their skills. The solutions to these design problems are available in an accompanying solutions book

  11. Optimization of Inter-network Bandwidth Resources for Large-Scale Data Transmission

    Mu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve problems such as low resources utilization of data center backbone bandwidth and expensive daily expenses caused by the tidal effect in the transition of large-scale network data, the new optimization method of bandwidth resource for bulk data transfer is proposed. This method finishes the bulk data transfer by taking full advantage of the idle channel bandwidth. Firstly, the dynamic idle network bandwidth resource was switched into the static flow network; and then the max-...

  12. Re-use of Low Bandwidth Equipment for High Bit Rate Transmission Using Signal Slicing Technique

    Wagner, Christoph; Spolitis, S.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Bobrovs, V.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    : Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates.......: Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates....

  13. Bandwidth Improvement of EBG Resonator Antennas Using Double-Layer FSS

    Bernard Jecko; Lina Moustafa

    2008-01-01

    A double-layer frequency selective surface (FSS) is proposed as a means to enhance the bandwidth of an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) resonator antenna. Due to its inverted reflection phase variation and its wide selectivity bandwidth, the structure used in the radiating wall of the resonator allows increasing the radiating bandwidth of the last one. The resonator is fed by a patch feeding source placed inside the cavity at the proximity of its metallic ground. The antenna bandwidth is signif...

  14. Dynamic Bandwidth Management in Distributed VoD based on the User Class Using Agents

    H S Guruprasad; H D Maheshappa

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic bandwidth management algorithm in which more bandwidth is allocated for higher class users and also higher priority is given to the videos with higher popularity within a class using agent technology. The popularity and weight profile of the videos which is used for efficiently allocating bandwidth is periodically updated by a mobile agent. The proposed approach allocates more bandwidth for higher class users and gives higher priority for higher weight videos [po...

  15. Wide-bandwidth piezoelectric energy harvester with polymeric structure

    A polymer based energy harvester with wide bandwidth is designed, fabricated and tested in this work. A polymer based structure has a lower resonance frequency compared to a silicon based structure with the same dimensions due to the much lower stiffness of polymeric materials. Therefore, a polymeric energy harvester is more useful for situations with lower ambient vibration frequencies. Aluminum nitride pads are fabricated on an SU-8 membrane to convert mechanical vibration of the membrane to electrical voltage. A new and scalable microfabrication process flow is proposed to properly fabricate piezoelectric layers on SU-8 structures. The nonlinear stiffness due to the stretching strain in the membrane provides a wider harvestable frequency bandwidth than conventional linear oscillators. Wideband energy harvesters are more useful for practical applications due to uncontrollable ambient vibration frequency. The load-deflection equation of the device is calculated using finite element simulation. This equation is then used in an analytical solution to estimate the nonlinear effect of the structure. A bandwidth of ∼146 Hz is obtained for the fabricated device and a maximum open circuit voltage of 1.42 V, maximum power of 1.37 µW, and power density of 3.81 µW cm−2 were measured at terminal load of 357.4 kΩ under an excitation acceleration of 4 g. A power output of 10.1 µW and power density of 28.1 µW cm−2 was estimated using a synchronized switch harvesting on interface (SSHI) electrical interface with electrical quality factor of 5. In addition, the lumped element model has been employed to investigate the scaling effect on a polymeric circular diaphragm. (paper)

  16. Wide-bandwidth piezoelectric energy harvester with polymeric structure

    Rezaeisaray, Mehdi; El Gowini, Mohamed; Sameoto, Dan; Raboud, Don; Moussa, Walied

    2015-01-01

    A polymer based energy harvester with wide bandwidth is designed, fabricated and tested in this work. A polymer based structure has a lower resonance frequency compared to a silicon based structure with the same dimensions due to the much lower stiffness of polymeric materials. Therefore, a polymeric energy harvester is more useful for situations with lower ambient vibration frequencies. Aluminum nitride pads are fabricated on an SU-8 membrane to convert mechanical vibration of the membrane to electrical voltage. A new and scalable microfabrication process flow is proposed to properly fabricate piezoelectric layers on SU-8 structures. The nonlinear stiffness due to the stretching strain in the membrane provides a wider harvestable frequency bandwidth than conventional linear oscillators. Wideband energy harvesters are more useful for practical applications due to uncontrollable ambient vibration frequency. The load-deflection equation of the device is calculated using finite element simulation. This equation is then used in an analytical solution to estimate the nonlinear effect of the structure. A bandwidth of ~146 Hz is obtained for the fabricated device and a maximum open circuit voltage of 1.42 V, maximum power of 1.37 µW, and power density of 3.81 µW cm-2 were measured at terminal load of 357.4 kΩ under an excitation acceleration of 4 g. A power output of 10.1 µW and power density of 28.1 µW cm-2 was estimated using a synchronized switch harvesting on interface (SSHI) electrical interface with electrical quality factor of 5. In addition, the lumped element model has been employed to investigate the scaling effect on a polymeric circular diaphragm.

  17. Optimization of bandwidth of communication channels of corporate networks

    G. I. Bondarenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article contains overview of the organization of communication between applications on the corporate network. It is stated that the main digital channel (channel B - 64 kbit/s and the primary digital channel (channel E1 the digital stream - 2048 kbit/s are used as the main channels in corporate networks. Problem areas of the functioning of the corporate network are identified. There are the rent of communication channels, which is growing rapidly with increasing the quality and speed of data transmission, and optimal use of bandwidth of communication channels. Setting of task. Optimal use of transmission channels bandwidth and minimizing the rent cost of channels is possible in two ways - the use of compression techniques of voice and video information and the application of variable structure of channels by using various-speed transmission channels. Differential pulse code modulation, adaptive differential pulse code modulation are the modern methods of speech signals processing. Organization of various-speed channels is performed in the structure of the BCC (for speech signals or PCR (for video. Suggestions for optimizing the structure of the channel signals. Proposed method of various-speed channels formation by using the channel intervals appropriate BCC (octets in the structure of signals E1 as envelopes containing various-speed channels. Channels can be selected for synchronization procedure CRC to simplify recognition of channels in the structure of E1. In this case, the minimal speed in the channel is 4 kbit/s. Conclusions. The proposed structure of envelopes is based on octet channel intervals of standard group signal of the primary group plesiochronous hierarchy E1 when transferring various-speed digital signals maximum allows to use the bandwidth at a fixed structure of channel interval, it makes possible to agree on the structure of the various-speed signals with the existing in communication networks.

  18. Iterative Available Bandwidth Estimation for Mobile Transport Networks

    Ubeda Castellanos, Carlos; López Villa, Dimas; Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed; Elling, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Available bandwidth estimation has lately been proposed to be used for end-to-end resource management in existing and emerging mobile communication systems, whose transport networks could end up being the bottleneck rather than the air interface. Algorithms for admission control, handover and...... adaptive QoS management could take into account such estimations, which may lead to an overall system performance improvement. This paper introduces two new iterative algorithms (Zoom and Adaptive pathChirp) for network load monitoring that can be combined with a linear least squares fitting achieving...

  19. Systems for measuring response statistics of gigahertz bandwidth photomultipliers

    Abshire, J. B.; Rowe, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    New systems have been developed for measuring the average impulse response, the pulse-height spectrum, the transit-time statistics as a function of signal level, and the dark-count spectrum of gigahertz bandwidth photomultipliers. Measurements showed that the 0.53 microns pulse used as an optical test source had a 30 picoseconds and less than 70 ps pulse width. Calibration data showed the system resolution to be less than 20 ps for root mean square transit-time measurements. Test data for a static crossed-field photomultiplier showed 2-photoelectron resolution and less than 30-ps time jitter over the 1- to 100-photoelectron range.

  20. Low Bandwidth Vocoding using EM Sensor and Acoustic Signal Processing

    Ng, L C; Holzrichter, J F; Larson, P E

    2001-10-25

    Low-power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference [1]. By combining these data with the corresponding acoustic signal, we've demonstrated an almost 10-fold bandwidth reduction in speech compression, compared to a standard 2.4 kbps LPC10 protocol used in the STU-III (Secure Terminal Unit, third generation) telephone. This paper describes a potential EM sensor/acoustic based vocoder implementation.

  1. Broadband metasurfaces enabling arbitrarily large delay-bandwidth products

    Ginis, Vincent; Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces allow for advanced manipulation of optical signals by imposing phase discontinuities across flat interfaces. Unfortunately, these phase shifts remain restricted to values between 0 and 2 π , limiting the delay-bandwidth product of such sheets. Here, we develop an analytical tool to design metasurfaces that mimic three-dimensional materials of arbitrary thickness. In this way, we demonstrate how large phase discontinuities can be realized by combining several subwavelength Lorentzian resonances in the unit cell of the surface. Our methods open up the temporal response of metasurfaces and may lead to the construction of metasurfaces with a plethora of new optical functions.

  2. Bandwidth Extension Method Based on Spectral Envelope Estimation

    Bo Hang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In current communication system, high quality audio signal is supposed to be provided with low bit rate and low computational complexity. This paper proposed a novel audio coding bandwidth extension method, which can improve decoded audio quality with increasing only a few coding bits per frame and a little computational complexity. This method calculate high-frequency synthesis filter by using codebook mapping method, and transmit only quantified gain corrections in high-frequency part of multiplexing coding bit stream. The preliminary test show that this method can provide comparable audio quality with lower bit consumption and computational complexity compared to the high frequency regeneration of AMR-WB+.

  3. Bandwidth enhanced antennas for mobile terminals and multilayer ceramic packages

    Komulainen, M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this thesis, bandwidth (BW) enhanced antennas for mobile terminals and multilayer ceramic packages are presented. The thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part, electrically frequency-tunable mobile terminal antennas have been studied. The first three antennas presented were of a dual-band planar inverted-F type (PIFA) and were tuned to operate in frequency bands appropriate to the GSM850 (824–894 MHz), GSM900 (880–960 MHz), GSM1800 (1710–1880 MHz), GSM1900 (1850–1990...

  4. Narrow-Bandwidth Diode-Laser-Based Ultraviolet Light Source

    A compact, tunable and narrow-bandwidth laser source for ultraviolet radiation is presented. A grating stabilized diode laser at 1064 nm is frequency-stabilized to below 10 kHz by using a ultra low expansion (ULE) cavity. Injecting light of the diode laser into a tapered amplifier yields a power of 290 mW. In a first frequency-doubling stage, about 47 mW of green light at 532 nm is generated by using a periodically poled KTP crystal. Subsequent second-harmonic generation employing a BBO crystal leads to about 30 μW of ultraviolet light at 266 nm. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  5. Bandwidth allocation for video under quality of service constraints

    Anjum, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    We present queueing-based algorithms to calculate the bandwidth required for a video stream so that the three main Quality of Service constraints, i.e., end-to-end delay, jitter and packet loss, are ensured. Conversational and streaming video-based applications are becoming a major part of the everyday Internet usage. The quality of these applications (QoS), as experienced by the user, depends on three main metrics of the underlying network, namely, end-to-end delay, jitter and packet loss. These metrics are, in turn, directly related to the capacity of the links that the video traffic trave

  6. Influence of small oxygen additions on the small-signal-gain dynamics in the active medium of a pulsed electron-beam-controlled discharge CO laser

    The method for measuring the rate constants of the VV' exchange between CO and O2 molecules is developed. The method is based on a comparison of the measured and numerically calculated small-signal-gain (SSG) dynamics in the active medium of a pulsed electron-beam-controlled cryogenic CO laser. The SSG dynamics was measured in CO-He-O2 mixtures with the fixed CO:He = 1:4 ratio by varying the oxygen content from 0 to 4%. The SSG dynamics was measured by probing the active medium of the pulsed CO laser by a beam from a tunable cw CO laser. The mathematical model of the CO laser takes into account the influence of oxygen on energy exchange processes. The parameters of the analytic approximation for constants of the near-resonance VV' exchange CO(v)+O2(u=0) → CO(v-1)+O2(u=1) are determined by the developed method for quantum vibrational numbers v = 18-24. In particular, the rate constant for v = 20 is (3.1±0.5)x10-12 cm3 s-1 at the gas temperature of 150 K. The extrapolation of the obtained analytic expression for rate constants in gases at room temperature gives the reasonable agreement with the measurements performed earlier for v = 12 and 13. (active media. lasers)

  7. Improving microwave antenna gain and bandwidth with phase compensation metasurface

    Ke Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metasurface, as a planar version of artificial metamaterial, provide an effective way to manipulate electromagnetic wave propagation. Here, we present a transparent metasurface for compensating the out-of-phase radiation from a microstrip patch antenna to improve its radiation gain and bandwidth. Based on the equivalence principle of Huygens’ surface, we propose metasurface composed of both inductive and capacitive resonant elements which could produce high transmission with variable phase characteristics. Such metasurface mounted on a patch antenna can transform the spherical-like phase profile generated from the patch into an in-phase planar one. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and validated the squeezed radiation pattern with suppressed sidelobes as well as enhanced impedance bandwidth due to strong near-field coupling. As operating at around 5.7 GHz, the proposed antenna may have potential application in wireless communication systems especially for point-to-point data transmission. It is believed that the design methodology could also be scaled to other frequency bands such as millimeter or terahertz wave.

  8. A Bandwidth Allocation Model Provisioning Framework with Autonomic Characteristics

    Rafael F. Reale

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bandwidth Allocation Models (MAM, RDM, G-RDM and AllocTC-Sharing are managementalternatives currently available which propose different resource (bandwidth allocation strategies inmultiservice networks. The BAM adoption by a network is typically a management choice andconfiguration task executed by the network operations and management system setup in a static or nearlystatic way. This paper proposes and explores the alternative ofallowing BAM definition and configurationon a more dynamic way. In effect, one of the basic motivations towards BAM dynamic allocation is the factthat multiservice networks characteristics (traffic loadmay change considerably in daily networkoperation and, as such, some dynamics in BAM allocation should be introduced in order to improveperformance. A framework is presented supporting BAM dynamicallocation. The framework adopts anOpenFlow-based software-defined networking (SDN implementation approach in order to supportscalability issues with a centralized controller and managementnetwork view. The framework architecturealso supports the implementation of some autonomic characteristics which, in brief, look for improving andfacilitating the decision-making process involved with BAM provisioning in a multiservice network. Aproof of concept is presented evaluating different BAM performance under different traffic loads in order todemonstrate the framework strategy adopted.

  9. Bandwidth Optimization in Centralized WLANs for Different Traffic Types

    Haines RJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Allocating bandwidth between different forms of coexisting traffic (such as web-browsing, streaming, and telephony within a wireless LAN is a challenging and interesting problem. Centralized coordination functions in wireless LANs offer several advantages over distributed approaches, having the benefit of a system overview at the controller, but obtaining a stable configuration of bandwidth allocation for the system is nontrivial. We present, review, and compare different mechanisms to achieve this end, and a number of different means of obtaining the configurations themselves. We describe an analytical model of the system under consideration and present two mathematical approaches to derive solutions for any system configuration and deployment, along with an adaptive feedback-based solution. We also describe a comprehensive simulation-based model for the problem, and a prototype that allows comparison of these approaches. Our investigations demonstrate that a self-adaptive dynamic approach far outperforms any static scheme, and that using a mathematical model to produce the configurations themselves confers several advantages.

  10. An exponential time 2-approximation algorithm for bandwidth

    Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Furer, Martin [PENNSYLVANIA STATE U; Gaspers, Serge [U OF MONTPELLIER, FRANCE

    2009-01-01

    The bandwidth of a graph G on n vertices is the minimum b such that the vertices of G can be labeled from 1 to n such that the labels of every pair of adjacent vertices differ by at most b. In this paper, we present a 2-approximation algorithm for the Bandwidth problem that takes worst-case {Omicron}(1.9797{sup n}) = {Omicron}(3{sup 0.6217n}) time and uses polynomial space. This improves both the previous best 2- and 3-approximation algorithms of Cygan et al. which have an {Omicron}*(3{sup n}) and {Omicron}*(2{sup n}) worst-case time bounds, respectively. Our algorithm is based on constructing bucket decompositions of the input graph. A bucket decomposition partitions the vertex set of a graph into ordered sets (called buckets) of (almost) equal sizes such that all edges are either incident on vertices in the same bucket or on vertices in two consecutive buckets. The idea is to find the smallest bucket size for which there exists a bucket decomposition. The algorithm uses a simple divide-and-conquer strategy along with dynamic programming to achieve this improved time bound.

  11. Bandwidth Estimation to Provide QoS Routing in MANET

    Ms. Swati Kamra,

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, the provision of quality of service (QoS guarantees is much more challenging than in wire line networks, mainly due to node mobility, multi-hop communications, contention for channel access, and a lack of central coordination. QoS guarantees are required by most multimedia and other time- or error-sensitive applications. The difficulties in the provision of such guarantees have limited the usefulness of MANETs. However, in the last decade, much research attention has focused on providing QoS assurances in MANET protocols. The QoS routing protocol is an integral part of any QoS solution. We propose a QoS routing protocol is the use of the approximate bandwidth estimation to react to network traffic. Our approach implements Admission control and feedback scheme by using two bandwidth estimation methods (Hello and Listen. We simulate our QoS- routing protocol for nodes running the IEEE 802.11 medium access control. Results of our experiments show those Comparisons among Hello and Listen Methods with the Qos metrics.

  12. Bandwidth Extension of Telephone Speech Aided by Data Embedding

    David Malah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for bandwidth extension of telephone speech, aided by data embedding, is presented. The proposed system uses the transmitted analog narrowband speech signal as a carrier of the side information needed to carry out the bandwidth extension. The upper band of the wideband speech is reconstructed at the receiving end from two components: a synthetic wideband excitation signal, generated from the narrowband telephone speech and a wideband spectral envelope, parametrically represented and transmitted as embedded data in the telephone speech. We propose a novel data embedding scheme, in which the scalar Costa scheme is combined with an auditory masking model allowing high rate transparent embedding, while maintaining a low bit error rate. The signal is transformed to the frequency domain via the discrete Hartley transform (DHT and is partitioned into subbands. Data is embedded in an adaptively chosen subset of subbands by modifying the DHT coefficients. In our simulations, high quality wideband speech was obtained from speech transmitted over a telephone line (characterized by spectral magnitude distortion, dispersion, and noise, in which side information data is transparently embedded at the rate of 600 information bits/second and with a bit error rate of approximately 3⋅10−4. In a listening test, the reconstructed wideband speech was preferred (at different degrees over conventional telephone speech in 92.5% of the test utterances.

  13. Bandwidth Extension of Telephone Speech Aided by Data Embedding

    Sagi Ariel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for bandwidth extension of telephone speech, aided by data embedding, is presented. The proposed system uses the transmitted analog narrowband speech signal as a carrier of the side information needed to carry out the bandwidth extension. The upper band of the wideband speech is reconstructed at the receiving end from two components: a synthetic wideband excitation signal, generated from the narrowband telephone speech and a wideband spectral envelope, parametrically represented and transmitted as embedded data in the telephone speech. We propose a novel data embedding scheme, in which the scalar Costa scheme is combined with an auditory masking model allowing high rate transparent embedding, while maintaining a low bit error rate. The signal is transformed to the frequency domain via the discrete Hartley transform (DHT and is partitioned into subbands. Data is embedded in an adaptively chosen subset of subbands by modifying the DHT coefficients. In our simulations, high quality wideband speech was obtained from speech transmitted over a telephone line (characterized by spectral magnitude distortion, dispersion, and noise, in which side information data is transparently embedded at the rate of 600 information bits/second and with a bit error rate of approximately . In a listening test, the reconstructed wideband speech was preferred (at different degrees over conventional telephone speech in of the test utterances.

  14. Punctured Turbo Codes for Bandwidth-efficient Transmission

    Shobha Rekh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Turbo codes are the error-coding schemes applied nowadays in wireless networks. In navalapplications, the information is mostly sent through wireless networks and the data is moreprone to noise. Since very important data has to be communicated, it is necessary to get backthe original data in the receiver. In military applications also, the soldiers wear electronic jacketswhich are connected by wireless networks. In such applications, the data loss is not affordableand there is also a need to utilise the bandwidth efficiently through puncturing by means ofwhich certain bits are deleted before transmission from the output of encoder. By means of thispunctured turbo codes, bandwidth-efficient coding is achieved. Hence, it is necessary to designturbo codes with an efficient puncturing pattern so that the performance of the punctured codeis also improved in spite of deletion of few bits before transmission. This paper deals in choosingthe puncturing patterns that lead to systematic rate-compatible punctured turbo codes (RCPTCswhich also give a reduction in bit-error rate. The design criterion for choosing the best puncturingpatterns is based on the minimum weight of code words and their multiplicities. The best puncturingpattern chosen is tested for its performance by simulating turbo codes for an additive whiteGaussian noise (AWGN channel. Compared with the existing puncturing pattern, the patternproposed is able to achieve a gain of 0.5 dB at a bit-error rate of 10-3.

  15. Modulator-Based, High Bandwidth Optical Links for HEP Experiments

    Underwood, D G; Fernando, W S; Stanek, R W

    2012-01-01

    As a concern with the reliability, bandwidth and mass of future optical links in LHC experiments, we are investigating CW lasers and light modulators as an alternative to VCSELs. These links will be particularly useful if they utilize light modulators which are very small, low power, high bandwidth, and are very radiation hard. We have constructed a test system with 3 such links, each operating at 10 Gb/s. We present the quality of these links (jitter, rise and fall time, BER) and eye mask margins (10GbE) for 3 different types of modulators: LiNbO3-based, InP-based, and Si-based. We present the results of radiation hardness measurements with up to ~1012 protons/cm2 and ~65 krad total ionizing dose (TID), confirming no single event effects (SEE) at 10 Gb/s with either of the 3 types of modulators. These optical links will be an integral part of intelligent tracking systems at various scales from coupled sensors through intra-module and off detector communication. We have used a Si-based photonic transceiver to...

  16. Improving microwave antenna gain and bandwidth with phase compensation metasurface

    Chen, Ke; Yang, Zhongjie; Feng, Yijun; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian

    2015-06-01

    Metasurface, as a planar version of artificial metamaterial, provide an effective way to manipulate electromagnetic wave propagation. Here, we present a transparent metasurface for compensating the out-of-phase radiation from a microstrip patch antenna to improve its radiation gain and bandwidth. Based on the equivalence principle of Huygens' surface, we propose metasurface composed of both inductive and capacitive resonant elements which could produce high transmission with variable phase characteristics. Such metasurface mounted on a patch antenna can transform the spherical-like phase profile generated from the patch into an in-phase planar one. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and validated the squeezed radiation pattern with suppressed sidelobes as well as enhanced impedance bandwidth due to strong near-field coupling. As operating at around 5.7 GHz, the proposed antenna may have potential application in wireless communication systems especially for point-to-point data transmission. It is believed that the design methodology could also be scaled to other frequency bands such as millimeter or terahertz wave.

  17. Analysis of Bandwidth Recycling in IEEE 802.16 Network Using PSA, RB-RFA & HSA

    Nilesh M. Verulkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.16 network protocol is designed to provide a Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX. Due to limited bandwidth and an expensive radio spectrum available for communication, it is necessary to use one bandwidth more than one time in a same network when it became unused. For that purpose Bandwidth Recycling concept is introduced. The spectrum (bandwidth is specifically allocated by agency to various users, but many times it is seen that the spectrum is not fully utilized by the users in the specific interval. This unused bandwidth can be allocated to other users who demands for more bandwidth for that specific interval without changing existing bandwidth scheme. In this paper we analyse different algorithms which does the recycling of bandwidth as per need is presented. To recycle the unused bandwidth priority based scheduling (PSA algorithm has been developed & to improve the recycling effectiveness rejected bandwidth request first algorithm (RBRFA and history based scheduling algorithm (HSA are outlined. By implementing these all algorithm in Netbean (Version 7.4 Simulator, we have evaluated the performance of our system. Our simulation and analysis result confirmed that the proposed system can recycle unused bandwidth.

  18. Study and Analysis of Bandwidth Flow Estimation Techniques for Wired/Wireless Networks

    Pallavi Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this topic, an analysis will be made on bandwidth flow estimation technique which comes under networking domain. Correct bandwidth constrained applications and tools are required for proper bandwidth estimation. A proper monitoring of available bandwidth is required during execution to avoid degradation in performance. A several measurement tools have been proposed in the last few years. After the implementation of 802.11e Wireless Sensor Networks are capable to provide good level of QoS but research works are not much for improving performance of bandwidth constraint applications by checking sufficiency of bandwidth available in transmission route. In this topic we will do the analysis of bandwidth flow estimation technique for wired/wireless networks and we will do comparisons of existing estimation tools.

  19. Bandwidth optimization of individual hop for robust data streaming on emergency medical application

    A. K. M. Fazlul Haque

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new bandwidth estimation method for individual hop for high-speed, non-invasive, and faster convergence transmission in multiple medical data networks. Available Bandwidth Estimation Technique for individual Hops (ABETH has been developed employing parameters like Hop (H, Capacity (C, Bandwidth (B, Available Bandwidth (AB etc. Bandwidth estimation techniques, tools and methods are considered to develop the technique and it represents an effective combination of different other existing techniques aiming to exploit the positive aspects of them. More precisely, the technique which is implied in the method modifies and integrates the one recent tool SPRUCE which estimates available bandwidth and the IP layer capacity estimation formula which measures capacity. This technique provides a linear combination of capacity versus bandwidth which satisfies the link utilization demand.

  20. Spacer Optimization and Accurate Small-Signal Modeling of 90nm Gate Underlap SOI-MOSFETs for Low Power GHz Applications

    Indra Vijay Singh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the significance of gate-source/drain extension region (also known as underlap design optimization in 90nm single gate (SG Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI MOSFET for low power GHz frequency applications. Using an optimal spacer s (≅ 0.8×LG, where LG is gate length, it has been found that the device exhibits intrinsic gain of ≅ 25 dB in low-moderate inversion region (VOD =VGS – VTH ≤ 90 mV, where VOD, VGS and VTH are the overdrive, gate and threshold voltages, respectively at operating frequency of 20 GHz. An accurate (including non-quasi-static and extrinsic parasitics effects small-signal model for the optimized device has been presented. The comparison of Y-parameters of 2D ATLAS with overall modeled value (up to 20 GHz has shown an excellent matching (with an average error of ≤5%, whereas results from quasi-static (QS predictive technology model (PTM differ significantly (>20%. Optimized underlap device shows transit frequency fT and maximum frequency of oscillation fMAX, ~108 and ~130 GHz respectively, with noise figure (NF ~2.8 dB and exhibits unilateral power gain (ULG ~38 dB (VOD =90mV, drain-to-source current IDS ≅ 0.64mA and drain-to-source voltage VDS = 1V at 20 GHz. Comparison with limited measured data suggest that simulated results are in well conformity, which suggest the possibility of use of underlap device technology in the design of key blocks such as low noise amplifier LNA and mixer for GHz applications. Key Words: Gate Underlap, silicon-on-Insulator, Non-Quasi-Static, Transconductance-to-Net-Charge Ratio (TCR, Low Power.

  1. Graphene metascreen for designing compact infrared absorbers with enhanced bandwidth

    Chen, Pai-Yen

    2015-03-31

    We propose a compact, wideband terahertz and infrared absorber, comprising a patterned graphene sheet on a thin metal-backed dielectric slab. This graphene-based nanostructure can achieve a low or negative effective permeability, necessary for realizing the perfect absorption. The dual-reactive property found in both the plasmonic graphene sheet and the grounded highpermittivity slab introduces extra poles into the equivalent circuit model of the system, thereby resulting in a dual-band or broadband magnetic resonance that enhances the absorption bandwidth. More interestingly, the two-dimensional patterned graphene sheet significantly simplifies the design and fabrication processes for achieving resonant magnetic response, and allows the frequency-reconfigurable operation via electrostatic gating.

  2. Optical preparation and measurement of atomic coherence at gigahertz bandwidth

    We detail a method for the preparation of atomic coherence in a high-density atomic vapour of 87Rb, utilizing a coherent preparation scheme of off-resonant gigahertz bandwidth pulses. The scheme is found to be faster and more effective than techniques based on resonant interaction, such as coherent population trapping and population inversion. A numerical simulation of the preparation scheme is developed, and its efficiency in preparing coherent states is found to be close to unity at the entrance to the medium. The medium is then probed non-invasively with a laser field, the polarization of which is dependent upon the relative phase of the atomic coherence produced by the preparation fields. (paper)

  3. Graphene metascreen for designing compact infrared absorbers with enhanced bandwidth.

    Chen, Pai-Yen; Farhat, Mohamed; Bağcı, Hakan

    2015-04-24

    We propose a compact, wideband terahertz and infrared absorber, comprising a patterned graphene sheet on a thin metal-backed dielectric slab. This graphene-based nanostructure can achieve a low or negative effective permeability, necessary for realizing the perfect absorption. The dual-reactive property found in both the plasmonic graphene sheet and the grounded high-permittivity slab introduces extra poles into the equivalent circuit model of the system, thereby resulting in a dual-band or broadband magnetic resonance that enhances the absorption bandwidth. More interestingly, the two-dimensional patterned graphene sheet significantly simplifies the design and fabrication processes for achieving resonant magnetic response, and allows the frequency-reconfigurable operation via electrostatic gating. PMID:25824491

  4. Ultrawide Bandwidth Receiver Based on a Multivariate Generalized Gaussian Distribution

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2015-04-01

    Multivariate generalized Gaussian density (MGGD) is used to approximate the multiple access interference (MAI) and additive white Gaussian noise in pulse-based ultrawide bandwidth (UWB) system. The MGGD probability density function (pdf) is shown to be a better approximation of a UWB system as compared to multivariate Gaussian, multivariate Laplacian and multivariate Gaussian-Laplacian mixture (GLM). The similarity between the simulated and the approximated pdf is measured with the help of modified Kullback-Leibler distance (KLD). It is also shown that MGGD has the smallest KLD as compared to Gaussian, Laplacian and GLM densities. A receiver based on the principles of minimum bit error rate is designed for the MGGD pdf. As the requirement is stringent, the adaptive implementation of the receiver is also carried out in this paper. Training sequence of the desired user is the only requirement when implementing the detector adaptively. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  5. Performance evaluation of a high-bandwidth timing module

    The ability to generate highly precise timing signals is essential for the operation of particle accelerators, particularly so in future linear colliders. As a tool to generate precise fixed delays, a module called TD-2.1 has been developed for use at the ATF (Accelerator Test Facility). TD-2.1 is an improved version of a previous module called TD-2, developed for the TRISTAN accelerator. The new version can be used at clock frequencies of up to 1.5 GHz, almost three times the bandwidth of the previous version. Since TD-2.1 is applied in many places to synchronize the ATF accelerator operation, high reliability and stability (low jitter) are essential. The long-term stability and timing jitter of the module were evaluated. The jitter was found to be around 5 ps within the operating range. Stable operation of the module was verified in long-term tests. (author)

  6. Multi-rate asynchronous sampling of bandwidth-limited signals

    Feldster, Alfred; Horowitz, Moshe; Rosenthal, Amir; Zach, Shlomo; Singer, Lea

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally an optical system for under-sampling several bandwidth limited signals with carrier frequencies that are not known apriori that can be located anywhere within a very broad frequency region between 0-18 GHz. The system is based on under-sampling asynchronously at three different sampling rates. The pulses required for the under-sampling are generated by a combination of an electrical comb generator and an electro-absorption modulator. To reduce loss and improve performance the implementation of the optical system is based on a wavelength division multiplexing technique. An accurate reconstruction of both the phase and the amplitude of the signals was obtained when two chirped signals generated simultaneously were sampled.

  7. Development of high frequency and wide bandwidth Johnson noise thermometry

    Crossno, Jesse; Liu, Xiaomeng; Kim, Philip [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Ohki, Thomas A.; Fong, Kin Chung, E-mail: kc.fong@bbn.com [Quantum Information Processing Group, Raytheon BBN Technologies, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2015-01-12

    We develop a high frequency, wide bandwidth radiometer operating at room temperature, which augments the traditional technique of Johnson noise thermometry for nanoscale thermal transport studies. Employing low noise amplifiers and an analog multiplier operating at 2?GHz, auto- and cross-correlated Johnson noise measurements are performed in the temperature range of 3 to 300?K, achieving a sensitivity of 5.5?mK (110?ppm) in 1?s of integration time. This setup allows us to measure the thermal conductance of a boron nitride encapsulated monolayer graphene device over a wide temperature range. Our data show a high power law (T???4) deviation from the Wiedemann-Franz law above T???100?K.

  8. Development of high frequency and wide bandwidth Johnson noise thermometry

    We develop a high frequency, wide bandwidth radiometer operating at room temperature, which augments the traditional technique of Johnson noise thermometry for nanoscale thermal transport studies. Employing low noise amplifiers and an analog multiplier operating at 2 GHz, auto- and cross-correlated Johnson noise measurements are performed in the temperature range of 3 to 300 K, achieving a sensitivity of 5.5 mK (110 ppm) in 1 s of integration time. This setup allows us to measure the thermal conductance of a boron nitride encapsulated monolayer graphene device over a wide temperature range. Our data show a high power law (T ∼ 4) deviation from the Wiedemann-Franz law above T ∼ 100 K

  9. Adaptive slope compensation for high bandwidth digital current mode controller

    Taeed, Fazel; Nymand, Morten

    converter duty cycle. The adaptive slope compensation provides optimum controller operation in term of bandwidth over wide range of operating points. In this paper operation principle of the controller is discussed. The proposed controller is implemented in an FPGA to control a 100 W buck converter. The......An adaptive slope compensation method for digital current mode control of dc-dc converters is proposed in this paper. The compensation slope is used for stabilizing the inner current loop in peak current mode control. In this method, the compensation slope is adapted with the variations in...... experimental results of measured loop-gain at different operating points are presented to validate the theoretical performance of the controller....

  10. Bandwidth Efficient Hybrid Synchronization for Wireless Sensor Network

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    Data collection and transmission are the fundamental operations of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A key challenge in effective data collection and transmission is to schedule and synchronize the activities of the nodes with the global clock. This paper proposes the Bandwidth Efficient Hybrid...... Synchronization Data Aggregation Algorithm (BESDA) using spanning tree mechanism (SPT). It uses static sink and mobile nodes in the network. BESDA considers the synchronization of a local clock of node with global clock of the network. In the initial stage algorithm established the hierarchical structure in the...... network and then perform the pair-wise synchronization. With the mobility of node, the structure frequently changes causing an increase in energy consumption. To mitigate the problem BESDA aggregate data with the notion of a global timescale throughout the network and schedule based time-division multiple...

  11. Auction-based Bandwidth Allocation Mechanisms for Wireless Future Internet

    Dramitinos, Emmanouil

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of the Future Internet is the efficient utilization of (wireless) network resources. In order for the - demanding in terms of QoS - Future Internet services to be provided, the current trend is evolving towards an "integrated" wireless network access model that enables users to enjoy mobility, seamless access and high quality of service in an all-IP network on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis. The term "integrated" is used to denote that the Future Internet wireless "last mile" is expected to comprise multiple heterogeneous geographically coexisting wireless networks, each having different capacity and coverage radius. The efficient management of the wireless access network resources is crucial due to their scarcity that renders wireless access a potential bottleneck for the provision of high quality services. In this paper we propose an auction mechanism for allocating the bandwidth of such a network so that efficiency is attained, i.e. social welfare is maximized. In particular, we propose a...

  12. Adaptive Data Filtering of Inertial Sensors with Variable Bandwidth

    Mushfiqul Alam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system-based inertial sensors, i.e., accelerometers and angular rate sensors, are commonly used as a cost-effective solution for the purposes of navigation in a broad spectrum of terrestrial and aerospace applications. These tri-axial inertial sensors form an inertial measurement unit (IMU, which is a core unit of navigation systems. Even if MEMS sensors have an advantage in their size, cost, weight and power consumption, they suffer from bias instability, noisy output and insufficient resolution. Furthermore, the sensor’s behavior can be significantly affected by strong vibration when it operates in harsh environments. All of these constitute conditions require treatment through data processing. As long as the navigation solution is primarily based on using only inertial data, this paper proposes a novel concept in adaptive data pre-processing by using a variable bandwidth filtering. This approach utilizes sinusoidal estimation to continuously adapt the filtering bandwidth of the accelerometer’s data in order to reduce the effects of vibration and sensor noise before attitude estimation is processed. Low frequency vibration generally limits the conditions under which the accelerometers can be used to aid the attitude estimation process, which is primarily based on angular rate data and, thus, decreases its accuracy. In contrast, the proposed pre-processing technique enables using accelerometers as an aiding source by effective data smoothing, even when they are affected by low frequency vibration. Verification of the proposed concept is performed on simulation and real-flight data obtained on an ultra-light aircraft. The results of both types of experiments confirm the suitability of the concept for inertial data pre-processing.

  13. Adaptive data filtering of inertial sensors with variable bandwidth.

    Alam, Mushfiqul; Rohac, Jan

    2015-01-01

    MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system)-based inertial sensors, i.e., accelerometers and angular rate sensors, are commonly used as a cost-effective solution for the purposes of navigation in a broad spectrum of terrestrial and aerospace applications. These tri-axial inertial sensors form an inertial measurement unit (IMU), which is a core unit of navigation systems. Even if MEMS sensors have an advantage in their size, cost, weight and power consumption, they suffer from bias instability, noisy output and insufficient resolution. Furthermore, the sensor's behavior can be significantly affected by strong vibration when it operates in harsh environments. All of these constitute conditions require treatment through data processing. As long as the navigation solution is primarily based on using only inertial data, this paper proposes a novel concept in adaptive data pre-processing by using a variable bandwidth filtering. This approach utilizes sinusoidal estimation to continuously adapt the filtering bandwidth of the accelerometer's data in order to reduce the effects of vibration and sensor noise before attitude estimation is processed. Low frequency vibration generally limits the conditions under which the accelerometers can be used to aid the attitude estimation process, which is primarily based on angular rate data and, thus, decreases its accuracy. In contrast, the proposed pre-processing technique enables using accelerometers as an aiding source by effective data smoothing, even when they are affected by low frequency vibration. Verification of the proposed concept is performed on simulation and real-flight data obtained on an ultra-light aircraft. The results of both types of experiments confirm the suitability of the concept for inertial data pre-processing. PMID:25648711

  14. Dynamic Bandwidth Management in Distributed VoD based on the User Class Using Agents

    Guruprasad, H S

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic bandwidth management algorithm in which more bandwidth is allocated for higher class users and also higher priority is given to the videos with higher popularity within a class using agent technology. The popularity and weight profile of the videos which is used for efficiently allocating bandwidth is periodically updated by a mobile agent. The proposed approach allocates more bandwidth for higher class users and gives higher priority for higher weight videos [popular videos] so that they can be served with high QoS, reduces the load on the central multimedia server and maximizes the channel utilization between the neighboring proxy servers and the central multimedia server and lower video rejection ratio. The simulation results prove the reduction of load on central multimedia server by load sharing among the neighboring proxy servers, maximum bandwidth utilization, and more bandwidth allocation for higher class users.

  15. The evolution and limits of spectral bandwidth in free electron lasers

    We study the bandwidths in free electron lasers (FELs) under different circumstances; for weakly saturated FELs in storage rings, the bandwidth is given be the formula derived in the super mode theory, while it is given by the Fourier transform of the electron pulse length in the strongly saturated FELs in linacs. The limiting bandwidth for the case of a DC beam is given by a Schawlow-Townes formula, but the approach to the limit is very slow. 14 refs

  16. Bandwidth-Aware Scheduling of Workflow Application on Multiple Grid Sites

    Prajapati, Harshadkumar B.; Vipul A. Shah

    2014-01-01

    Bandwidth-aware workflow scheduling is required to improve the performance of a workflow application in a multisite Grid environment, as the data movement cost between two low-bandwidth sites can adversely affect the makespan of the application. Pegasus WMS, an open-source and freely available WMS, cannot fully utilize its workflow mapping capability due to unavailability of integration of any bandwidth monitoring infrastructure in it. This paper develops the integration of Network Weather Se...

  17. Minimum cost maximum flow algorithm for upstream bandwidth allocation in OFDMA passive optical networks

    Wu, Yating; Kuang, Bin; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Qianwu; Wang, Min

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a minimum cost maximum flow (MCMF) based upstream bandwidth allocation algorithm, which supports differentiated QoS for orthogonal frequency division multiple access passive optical networks (OFDMA-PONs). We define a utility function as the metric to characterize the satisfaction degree of an ONU on the obtained bandwidth. The bandwidth allocation problem is then formulated as maximizing the sum of the weighted total utility functions of all ONUs. By constructing a flow network graph, we obtain the optimized bandwidth allocation using the MCMF algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme improves the performance in terms of mean packet delay, packet loss ratio and throughput.

  18. Comb-based radio-frequency photonic filtering with 20 ns bandwidth reconfiguration.

    Wu, Rui; Song, Minhyup; Leaird, Daniel E; Weiner, Andrew M

    2013-08-01

    We present a scheme to generate a 10 GHz optical frequency comb that is bandwidth reconfigurable on a time scale of tens of nanoseconds via electronic control of the drive signal to a phase modulator. When such a comb is used as the source for a radio-frequency (RF) photonic filter employing dispersive propagation, the RF filter bandwidth varies in inverse proportion to the optical bandwidth. As a result we are able to demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, bandwidth-reconfigurable RF filtering with transition times under 20 ns. The reconfiguration speed is determined by the response time of a programmable RF variable attenuator. PMID:23903127

  19. Analysis of Bandwidth Recycling in IEEE 802.16 Network Using PSA, RB-RFA & HSA

    Nilesh M. Verulkar; Dr. Umesh S. Bhadade

    2014-01-01

    IEEE 802.16 network protocol is designed to provide a Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX). Due to limited bandwidth and an expensive radio spectrum available for communication, it is necessary to use one bandwidth more than one time in a same network when it became unused. For that purpose “Bandwidth Recycling” concept is introduced. The spectrum (bandwidth) is specifically allocated by agency to various users, but many times it is seen that the spectrum is not fully utili...

  20. Locking Bandwidth of an Optically-Injected Multi-Section Tunable Laser

    Stolz, C. A.; Labukhin, D.; Zakhleniuk, N.; Loudon, R.; Adams, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    Multi-section tunable lasers with optical injection are simulated using the travelling wave approach. By investigating the trajectory of the system the dynamical state can be obtained. The locking bandwidth for a large injection regime and the dynamics outside the locking bandwidth for small injection strengths are presented. It can be seen that the locking bandwidth becomes symmetric around zero detuning for high injection strengths. The dynamics outside the locking bandwidth for small injection strengths are comparable to a single-section single-mode semiconductor laser and it is shown that the stability map exhibits similar patterns.

  1. High-Bandwidth Photon-Counting Detectors with Enhanced Near-Infrared Response Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-range optical telecommunications (LROT) impose challenging requirements on detector array sensitivity at 1064nm and arrays timing bandwidth. Large photonic...

  2. Mechanism of bandwidth improvement in passively cooled SMA position actuators

    The heating of shape memory alloy (SMA) materials leads to a thermally driven phase change which can be used to do work. An SMA wire can be thermally cycled by controlling electric current through the wire, creating an electro-mechanical actuator. Such actuators are typically heated electrically and cooled through convection. The thermal time constants and lack of active cooling limit the operating frequencies. In this work, the bandwidth of a still-air-cooled SMA wire controlled with a PID controller is improved through optimization of the controller gains. Results confirm that optimization can improve the ability of the actuator to operate at a given frequency. Overshoot is observed in the optimal controllers at low frequencies. This is a result of hysteresis in the wire's contractiontemperature characteristic, since different input temperatures can achieve the same output value. The optimal controllers generate overshoot during heating, in order to cause the system to operate at a point on the hysteresis curve where faster cooling can be achieved. The optimization results in a controller which effectively takes advantage of the multi-valued nature of the hysteresis to improve performance

  3. High-bandwidth piezoresistive force probes with integrated thermal actuation

    We present high-speed force probes with on-chip actuation and sensing for the measurement of pN-scale forces at the microsecond timescale. We achieve a high resonant frequency in water (1–100 kHz) with requisite low spring constants (0.3–40 pN nm−1) and low integrated force noise (1–100 pN) by targeting probe dimensions on the order of 300 nm thick, 1–2 μm wide and 30–200 μm long. Forces are measured using silicon piezoresistors, while the probes are actuated thermally with an aluminum unimorph and silicon heater. The piezoresistive sensors are designed using the open-source numerical optimization code that incorporates constraints on operating temperature. Parylene passivation enables operation in ionic media and we demonstrate simultaneous actuation and sensing. The improved design and fabrication techniques that we describe enable a 10–20-fold improvement in force resolution or measurement bandwidth over prior piezoresistive cantilevers of comparable thickness. (paper)

  4. Numerical Models of Broad-Bandwidth Nanosecond Optical Parametric Oscillators

    Bowers, M.S.; Gehr. R.J.; Smith, A.V.

    1998-10-22

    We present three new methods for modeling broad-bandwidth, nanosecond optitcal parametric oscillators in the plane-wave approximation. Each accounts for the group-velocity differences that determine the operating linewidth of unseeded optical parametric oscillators, and each allows the signal and idler waves to develop from quantum noise. The first two methods are based on split-step integration methods in which nonlinear mixing and propagation are calculated separately on alternate steps. One method relies on Fourier transforming handle propagation, wiih mixing integrated over a the fields between t and u to Az step: the other transforms between z and k= in the propagation step, with mixing integrated over At. The third method is based on expansion of the three optical fields in terms of their respective longitudinal empty cavity modes, taking into account the cavity boundary condi- tions. Equations describing the time development of the mode amplitudes are solved to yield the time dependence of the three output fields. These plane-wave models exclude diffractive effects, but can be readily extended to include them.

  5. Review of single transient oscillographic recorders with gigahertz bandwidth

    In laser driven inertial confinement fusion research, at Livermore, we are diagnosing many phenomena that occur in a time frame that exceeds the capabilities of even the most advanced, present day oscillographic recording instruments. Many of the by-products of the interaction between the laser beam and fuel pellet are monitored to determine the specifics of the fusion process. By the use of appropriate detectors, we convert the information contained in the radiated by-products to electrical signals which are recorded on high bandwidth oscillographic recorders. Our present range of recording capabilities for one x-ray diagnostic measurement in use at Livermore is shown. A commonly used configuration consists of an XRD-31 x-ray detector connected to a direct access Tektronix R7912 transient digitizer using 1/2 in. diameter air dielectric coaxial cable. This configuration gives a system fwhm of approximately 335 ps. Our premier configuration, on the other hand, consists of an improved response detector and a French Thomson-CSF TSN-660 oscilloscope with a shorter length of coaxial cable (typically 20 feet). The system fwhm in this case is less than 120 ps which is our fastest oscillographic recording system at the present time

  6. Extraction of spatial information for low-bandwidth telerehabilitation applications

    Kok Kiong Tan, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine applications, based on two-dimensional (2D video conferencing technology, have been around for the past 15 to 20 yr. They have been demonstrated to be acceptable for face-to-face consultations and useful for visual examination of wounds and abrasions. However, certain telerehabilitation assessments need the use of spatial information in order to accurately assess the patient’s condition and sending three-dimensional video data over low-bandwidth networks is extremely challenging. This article proposes an innovative way of extracting the key spatial information from the patient’s movement during telerehabilitation assessment based on 2D video and then presenting the extracted data by using graph plots alongside the video to help physicians in assessments with minimum burden on existing video data transfer. Some common rehabilitation scenarios are chosen for illustrations, and experiments are conducted based on skeletal tracking and color detection algorithms using the Microsoft Kinect sensor. Extracted data are analyzed in detail and their usability discussed.

  7. Bandwidth of a Nonlinear Harvester with Optimized Electrical Load

    Many researchers have investigated the possibility of amplifying ambient vibrations and converting the associated kinetic energy into usable electric energy. The vast majority of vibration harvesting devices use mechanical oscillators to boost the amplitude of vibration; however, this can result in a rather narrow band of excitation over which the harvesting device is effective. One approach proposed to overcome this limitation is to substitute the conventional linear oscillator with an oscillator featuring a non-linear compliance characteristic: these mechanisms produce broader frequency responses. The design and optimization of nonlinear energy harvesting devices is however not trivial and there is no consensus among the publish works that the benefits of non-linear oscillators can be realized in the energy harvesting context. This work attempts to further develop understanding of nonlinear energy harvesters by investigating the optimum resistive load. The definition of an optimal load for the nonlinear device is first considered, given due consideration to bandwidth and stability of the operating point, and comparisons with linear devices is shown. Finally, the issue of multiple solutions in the frequency response is addressed

  8. Spatial frequency bandwidth used in the recognition of facial images.

    Näsänen, R

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out what spatial frequency information human observers use in the recognition of face images. Signal-to-noise ratio thresholds for the recognition of facial images were measured as a function of the centre spatial frequency of narrow-band additive spatial noise. The relative sensitivity of recognition to different spatial frequencies was derived from these results. The maximum sensitivity was found at 8-13 c/face width and the bandwidth was just under two octaves. Qualitatively similar results were obtained with stimuli in which Fourier phase was randomised within a narrow band of different centre spatial frequencies. This resulted in a considerable increase of energy threshold around 8 c/face width and less elsewhere. Further, contrast energy thresholds were measured as a function of the centre spatial frequency of band-pass filtered face images. As a function of object spatial frequency (c/face width), energy threshold first decreased and then increased. The lowest energy thresholds found around 10 c/face width were lower than the energy threshold for unfiltered images. This is what one would expect if face recognition is narrow-band, since band-pass filtered images of optimal centre spatial frequency do not contain unused contrast energy at low and high spatial frequencies. In conclusion, the results suggest that the recognition of facial images is tuned to a relatively narrow band (object spatial frequencies. PMID:10748918

  9. QoS routing via multiple paths using bandwidth reservation

    Rao, N.S.V.; Batsell, S.G.

    1998-01-01

    The authors address the problem of computing a multipath, consisting of possibly overlapping paths, to transmit data from the source node s to the destination node d over a computer network while ensuring deterministic bounds on end-to-end delay or delivery rate.They consider two generic routing problems within the framework wherein bandwidth can be reserved, and guaranteed, once reserved, on various links of the communication network. The first problem requires that a message of finite length be transmitted from s to d within {tau} units of time. The second problem requires that a sequential message of r units be transmitted at a rate of {eta} such that maximum time difference between two units that are received out of order is no more than q. They propose a polynomial-time algorithm to the first problem based on an adaptation of the classical Ford-Fulkerson`s method. They present simulation results to illustrate the applicability of the proposed algorithm. They show the second problem to be NP-complete, and propose a polynomial-time approximately solution.

  10. QoS routing via multiple paths using bandwidth reservation

    Rao, N.S.V.; Batsell, S.G.

    1997-11-01

    The authors address the problem of computing a multipath, consisting of possibly overlapping paths, to transmit data from the source node s to the destination node d over a computer network while ensuring deterministic bounds on end-to-end delay or delivery rate. They consider two generic routing problems within the framework wherein bandwidth can be reserved, and guaranteed, once reserved, on various links of the communication network. The first problem requires that a message of finite length be transmitted from s to d within {tau} units of time. The second problem requires that a sequential message of r units be transmitted at a rate of {eta} such that maximum time difference between two units that are received out of order is no more than q. They propose a polynomial-time algorithm to the first problem based on an adaptation of the classical Ford-Fulkerson`s method. They present simulation results to illustrate the applicability of the proposed algorithm. They show the second problem to be NP-complete and propose a polynomial-time approximate solution.

  11. High resolution, high bandwidth global shutter CMOS area scan sensors

    Faramarzpour, Naser; Sonder, Matthias; Li, Binqiao

    2013-10-01

    Global shuttering, sometimes also known as electronic shuttering, enables the use of CMOS sensors in a vast range of applications. Teledyne DALSA Global shutter sensors are able to integrate light synchronously across millions of pixels with microsecond accuracy. Teledyne DALSA offers 5 transistor global shutter pixels in variety of resolutions, pitches and noise and full-well combinations. One of the recent generations of these pixels is implemented in 12 mega pixel area scan device at 6 um pitch and that images up to 70 frames per second with 58 dB dynamic range. These square pixels include microlens and optional color filters. These sensors also offer exposure control, anti-blooming and high dynamic range operation by introduction of a drain and a PPD reset gate to the pixel. The state of the art sense node design of Teledyne DALSA's 5T pixel offers exceptional shutter rejection ratio. The architecture is consistent with the requirements to use stitching to achieve very large area scan devices. Parallel or serial digital output is provided on these sensors using on-chip, column-wise analog to digital converters. Flexible ADC bit depth combined with windowing (adjustable region of interest, ROI) allows these sensors to run with variety of resolution/bandwidth combinations. The low power, state of the art LVDS I/O technology allows for overall power consumptions of less than 2W at full performance conditions.

  12. Social value of high bandwidth networks: creative performance and education.

    Mansell, Robin; Foresta, Don

    2016-03-01

    This paper considers limitations of existing network technologies for distributed theatrical performance in the creative arts and for symmetrical real-time interaction in online learning environments. It examines the experience of a multidisciplinary research consortium that aimed to introduce a solution to latency and other network problems experienced by users in these sectors. The solution builds on the Multicast protocol, Access Grid, an environment supported by very high bandwidth networks. The solution is intended to offer high-quality image and sound, interaction with other network platforms, maximum user control of multipoint transmissions, and open programming tools that are flexible and modifiable for specific uses. A case study is presented drawing upon an extended period of participant observation by the authors. This provides a basis for an examination of the challenges of promoting technological innovation in a multidisciplinary project. We highlight the kinds of technical advances and cultural and organizational changes that would be required to meet demanding quality standards, the way a research consortium planned to engage in experimentation and learning, and factors making it difficult to achieve an open platform that is responsive to the needs of users in the creative arts and education sectors. PMID:26809576

  13. A scanning SQUID microscope with 200 MHz bandwidth

    We developed a scanning DC SQUID microscope with novel readout electronics capable of wideband sensing of RF magnetic fields from 50 to 200 MHz and simultaneously providing closed-loop response at kHz frequencies. To overcome the 20 MHz bandwidth limitation of traditional closed-loop SQUIDs, a flux-modulated closed-loop simultaneously locks the SQUID quasi-static flux and flux-biases the SQUID for amplification of the RF flux up to Φ0/4 in amplitude. Demodulating the SQUID voltage with a double lock-in technique yields a signal representative of both the amplitude and phase of the RF flux. This provides 80 dB of a linear dynamic range with a flux noise density of 4 μΦ0 Hz−1/2 at 200 MHz for a Y Ba2Cu3O7 bi-crystal SQUID at 77 K. We describe the electronics’ performance and present images for RF magnetic field of the travelling wave in a coplanar waveguide, the standing wave in an open-circuited microstrip, and a surface mounted device antenna. (paper)

  14. Numerical models of broad-bandwidth nanosecond optical parametric oscillators

    We present three new methods for modeling broad-bandwidth, nanosecond optical parametric oscillators in the plane-wave approximation. Each accounts for the group-velocity differences that determine the operating linewidth of unseeded optical parametric oscillators, and each allows the signal and the idler waves to develop from quantum noise. The first two methods are based on split-step integration methods in which nonlinear mixing and propagation are calculated separately on alternate steps. One method relies on Fourier transforming the fields between t and ω to handle propagation, with mixing integrated over a Δz step; the other transforms between z and kz in the propagation step, with mixing integrated over Δt. The third method is based on expansion of the three optical fields in terms of their respective longitudinal empty cavity modes, taking into account the cavity boundary conditions. Equations describing the time development of the mode amplitudes are solved to yield the time dependence of the three output fields. These models exclude diffraction and group-velocity dispersion but can be readily extended to include them. copyright 1999 Optical Society of America

  15. Design optimization of the distributed modal filtering rod fiber for increasing single mode bandwidth

    Jrgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rbner; Laurila, Marko; Lgsgaard, Jesper; Alkeskjold, Thomas T.

    2012-01-01

    . Large preform tolerances are compensated during the fiber draw resulting in ultra low NA fibers with very large cores. In this paper, design optimization of the SM bandwidth of the DMF rod fiber is presented. Analysis of band gap properties results in a fourfold increase of the SM bandwidth compared to...

  16. Investigation of Diagonal Antenna-Chassis Mode in Mobile Terminal LTE MIMO Antennas for Bandwidth Enhancement

    Zhang, Shuai; Zhao, Kun; Ying, Zhinong; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    A diagonal antenna-chassis mode is investigated in long-term evolution multiple-input-multiple-output (LTE MIMO) antennas. The MIMO bandwidth is defined in this paper as the overlap range of the low-envelope correlation coefficient, high total efficiency, and -6-dB impedance matching bandwidths. ...

  17. A Hybrid OFDM-TDM Architecture with Decentralized Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation for PONs

    Cevik, Taner

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges of passive optical networks is to achieve a fair arbitration mechanism that will prevent possible collisions from occurring at the upstream channel when multiple users attempt to access the common fiber at the same time. Therefore, in this study we mainly focus on fair bandwidth allocation among users, and present a hybrid Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed/Time Division Multiplexed architecture with a dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme that provides satisfying service qualities to the users depending on their varying bandwidth requirements. Unnecessary delays in centralized schemes occurring during bandwidth assignment stage are eliminated by utilizing a decentralized approach. Instead of sending bandwidth demands to the optical line terminal (OLT) which is the only competent authority, each optical network unit (ONU) runs the same bandwidth demand determination algorithm. ONUs inform each other via signaling channel about the status of their queues. This information is fed to the bandwidth determination algorithm which is run by each ONU in a distributed manner. Furthermore, Light Load Penalty, which is a phenomenon in optical communications, is mitigated by limiting the amount of bandwidth that an ONU can demand. PMID:24194684

  18. Bandwidth Management in Universities in Zimbabwe: Towards a Responsible User Base through Effective Policy Implementation

    Chitanana, Lockias

    2012-01-01

    This research was undertaken to investigate the issue of how to maximise or make efficient use of bandwidth. In particular, the research sought to find out about what universities in Zimbabwe are doing to manage their bandwidth. It was, therefore, appropriate to survey a sample of five universities and to catalogue their experiences. Results show…

  19. A Survey of Bandwidth Utilization: Case Study of Federal University of Technology Minna

    Haq, A.; Bello Salau, H.; Aibinu, A. M.; Onwuka, E. N.

    2013-12-01

    The effective utilization of the limited scarce bandwidth resources allocated by a spectrum regulator usually the Nigerian Communications Commissions (NCC) in Nigeria universities is paramount in maximizing the usage of the expensive scarce bandwidth resources. A significant bandwidth allocation is needed in order to meet up with the challenges of the day and the task of networking, communicating and reaching the word in our universities. Therefore, bandwidth management becomes necessary and essential. This paper contributes in that direction by surveying the bandwidth utilization at Federal University of Technology Minna campus with the hope of proffering a general solution that can be adopted in Nigerian universities for effective bandwidth management. Also, factors that hindered the development of most Nigeria universities are also examined. The federal university of technology minna which is structured like all other universities in the country in terms of the bandwidth requirement was choosing as a case study for this research work. Furthermore, some policies which can be adopted in order to effectively manage the scarce bandwidth resources in Nigerian universities are also proposed.

  20. Design and enhancement bandwidth rectangular patch antenna using single trapezoidal slot technique

    Karim A. Hamad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Microstrip patch antennas has some drawbacks of low efficiency, narrow bandwidth (3-6 % of the central frequency, its bandwidth is limited to a few percent which is not enough for most of the wireless communication systems nowadays. In this paper one of the efficient methods used for the enhancement of patch antenna Bandwidth is the loading of microstrip patch Antenna with a trapezoidal slot. Microstrip patch antenna that meets the requirement of operation at 2.4 GHZ, the proposed configurations is simulated and analyzed using (CST- 2010 software package. The VSWR, input impedance‚ radiation patterns and S11 performance are used for the analysis of the different configurations. The simulated results for trapezoidal slot give bandwidth of 287.2 MHZ (11.93% fractional bandwidth. Feed point on the patch that gives a good Match of 50 ohm.

  1. Effects of large laser bandwidth on stimulated Raman scattering instability in underdense plasma

    Zhao, Yao; Yu, Lu-Le; Zheng, Jun; Weng, Su-Ming [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ren, Chuang [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Liu, Chuan-Sheng [East-West Space Science Center, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, USA and Chao Kuang Piu College, University of Macau, Macau 999078 (China); Sheng, Zheng-Ming, E-mail: zmsheng@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhengming.sheng@strath.ac.uk [Key Laboratory for Laser Plasmas (MoE) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    The effects of laser bandwidth on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) instability in underdense plasma are studied by particle-in-cell simulations. In the simulations, sinusoidal frequency modulation of the incident laser pulse is used. By changing the size of bandwidth, it is shown that the linear growth of SRS can be suppressed considerably, provided the laser bandwidth is much larger than the SRS linear growth rate. Simulations also show that by choosing the proper frequency modulation parameters or decreasing the linear growth rate of SRS, the inhibitory effects become more obvious. The plasma electron temperature tends to weaken the bandwidth effects especially when it is over a keV level. The laser bandwidth can only increase the time duration for linear growth but cannot diminish the instability completely.

  2. Energy and Bandwidth Constrained QoS Enabled Routing for MANETs

    N.Sumathi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile adhoc networks are rapid deployable self organizing networks. Their key characteristics aredynamic topology, high node mobility, low channel bandwidth and limited battery power. Hence, it isnecessary to minimize bandwidth and energy consumption. To transmit packets, available bandwidth isknown along the route from sender to receiver. Thus, bandwidth estimation is the main metric to supportQuality of Service (QoS. This work focuses on improving the accuracy of available bandwidth andincorporating a QoS-aware scheme into the route discovery procedure. It is also important to limit theenergy consumed by nodes. Probability based overhearing method is proposed to reduce energy spent onoverhearing nodes. This experiment is implemented in NS2 simulator and the performance of the network isanalyzed in terms of QoS parameters.

  3. Fixed tile rate codec for bandwidth saving in video processors

    Lachine, Vladimir; Dinh, Chon-Tam Le; Le, Dinh Kha; Wong, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents an image compression circuit for bandwidth saving in video display processors. This is intra frame tile based compression algorithm offering visually lossless quality for compression rates between 1.5 and 2.5. RGB and YCbCr (4:4:4, 4:2:2 and 4:2:0) video formats are supported for 8/10 bits video signals. The Band Width Compressor (BWC) consists of Lossless Compressor (LC) and Quantization Compressor (QC) that generate output bit streams for tiles of pixels. Size of output bit stream generated for a tile by the LC may be less or greater than a required size of output memory block. The QC generates bit stream that always fits output memory block of the required size. The output bit stream generated by the LC is transmitted if its size is less than the required size of the output memory block. Otherwise, the output bit stream generated by the QC is transmitted. The LC works on pixel basis. A difference between original and predicted pixel's values for each pixel of a tile is encoded as prefix and suffix. The prefix is encoded by means of variable length code, and suffix is encoded as is. The QC divides a tile of pixels on a set of blocks and quantizes pixels of each block independently of the other blocks. The number of quantization bits for all pixels of a block depends on standard deviation calculated over the block. A difference between pixel's value and average value over the block is quantized and transmitted.

  4. Broad-Bandwidth FPGA-Based Digital Polyphase Spectrometer

    Jamot, Robert F.; Monroe, Ryan M.

    2012-01-01

    With present concern for ecological sustainability ever increasing, it is desirable to model the composition of Earth s upper atmosphere accurately with regards to certain helpful and harmful chemicals, such as greenhouse gases and ozone. The microwave limb sounder (MLS) is an instrument designed to map the global day-to-day concentrations of key atmospheric constituents continuously. One important component in MLS is the spectrometer, which processes the raw data provided by the receivers into frequency-domain information that cannot only be transmitted more efficiently, but also processed directly once received. The present-generation spectrometer is fully analog. The goal is to include a fully digital spectrometer in the next-generation sensor. In a digital spectrometer, incoming analog data must be converted into a digital format, processed through a Fourier transform, and finally accumulated to reduce the impact of input noise. While the final design will be placed on an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the building of these chips is prohibitively expensive. To that end, this design was constructed on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). A family of state-of-the-art digital Fourier transform spectrometers has been developed, with a combination of high bandwidth and fine resolution. Analog signals consisting of radiation emitted by constituents in planetary atmospheres or galactic sources are downconverted and subsequently digitized by a pair of interleaved analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). This 6-Gsps (gigasample per second) digital representation of the analog signal is then processed through an FPGA-based streaming fast Fourier transform (FFT). Digital spectrometers have many advantages over previously used analog spectrometers, especially in terms of accuracy and resolution, both of which are particularly important for the type of scientific questions to be addressed with next-generation radiometers.

  5. High-Density, High-Bandwidth, Multilevel Holographic Memory

    Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2008-01-01

    A proposed holographic memory system would be capable of storing data at unprecedentedly high density, and its data transfer performance in both reading and writing would be characterized by exceptionally high bandwidth. The capabilities of the proposed system would greatly exceed even those of a state-of-the art memory system, based on binary holograms (in which each pixel value represents 0 or 1), that can hold .1 terabyte of data and can support a reading or writing rate as high as 1 Gb/s. The storage capacity of the state-of-theart system cannot be increased without also increasing the volume and mass of the system. However, in principle, the storage capacity could be increased greatly, without significantly increasing the volume and mass, if multilevel holograms were used instead of binary holograms. For example, a 3-bit (8-level) hologram could store 8 terabytes, or an 8-bit (256-level) hologram could store 256 terabytes, in a system having little or no more size and mass than does the state-of-the-art 1-terabyte binary holographic memory. The proposed system would utilize multilevel holograms. The system would include lasers, imaging lenses and other beam-forming optics, a block photorefractive crystal wherein the holograms would be formed, and two multilevel spatial light modulators in the form of commercially available deformable-mirror-device spatial light modulators (DMDSLMs) made for use in high speed input conversion of data up to 12 bits. For readout, the system would also include two arrays of complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) photodetectors matching the spatial light modulators. The system would further include a reference-beam sterring device (equivalent of a scanning mirror), containing no sliding parts, that could be either a liquid-crystal phased-array device or a microscopic mirror actuated by a high-speed microelectromechanical system. Time-multiplexing and the multilevel nature of the DMDSLM would be exploited to enable writing and reading of multilevel holograms. The DMDSLM would also enable transfer of data at a rate of 7.6 Gb/s or perhaps somewhat higher.

  6. Real-Time Virtual Instruments for Remote Sensor Monitoring Using Low Bandwidth Wireless Networks

    Biruk Gebre

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of a peer-to-peer virtual instrumentation system for remote acquisition, analysis and transmission of data on low bandwidth networks is described. The objective of this system is to collect high frequency/high bandwidth data from multiple sensors placed at remote locations and adaptively adjust the resolution of this data so that it can be transmitted on bandwidth limited networks to a central monitoring and command center. This is achieved by adaptively re-sampling (decimating the data from the sensors at the remote location before transmission. The decimation is adjusted to the available bandwidth of the communications network which is characterized in real-time. As a result, the system allows users at the remote command center to view high bandwidth data (at a lower resolution with user-aware and minimized latency. This technique is applied to an eight hydrophone data acquisition system that requires a 25.6 Mbps connection for the transmission of the full data set using a wireless connection with 1 3.5 Mbps variable bandwidth. This technique can be used for applications that require monitoring of high bandwidth data from remote sensors in research and education fields such as remote scientific instruments and visually driven control applications.

  7. On the Observance of Approximate Invariance of Effective Bandwidth with Finite Number of Sources

    Kishore Angrishi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The effective bandwidth is a descriptor in the context of stochastic models for statistical sharing of resources. One of the most interesting properties of effective bandwidth is that it does not change when passing a network node under many sources limiting regime (infinitely many sources. This is referred as the “invariance property” of effective bandwidth. Numerical simulations have suggested that in some cases, the “invariance property” of effective bandwidths holds already for a surprisingly small number of competing flows even in the presence of aggressive TCP traffic. The real question, though, is: how many input processes are needed for reasonable convergence over the scale of interest? This work addresses this question using recent results from the large deviations theory under many sources limiting regime and the theory of statistical network calculus. We also show that as the number of arrival flows increases, the bound on the departure process’ effective bandwidth converges exponentially fast to that of the effective bandwidth of the arrival. The advantage of identifying the minimum number of independent multiplexing flows at each network node to observe approximate invariance of effective bandwidth is that the task of network resources dimensioning can be greatly simplified.

  8. Optimization of Quantum-Dot Molecular Beam Epitaxy for Broad Spectral Bandwidth Devices

    Majid, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    The optimization of the key growth parameters for broad spectral bandwidth devices based on quantum dots is reported. A combination of atomic force microscopy, photoluminescence of test samples, and optoelectronic characterization of superluminescent diodes (SLDs) is used to optimize the growth conditions to obtain high-quality devices with large spectral bandwidth, radiative efficiency (due to a reduced defective-dot density), and thus output power. The defective-dot density is highlighted as being responsible for the degradation of device performance. An SLD device with 160 nm of bandwidth centered at 1230 nm is demonstrated.

  9. Study of TCP Available Bandwidth Using NS2 and Its Forecasting Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Sanchez Vizcaino, Francisco Domingo; Hernandez Benet, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    On the one hand, the available bandwidth in a bandwidth-limited medium as the wireless medium is a highly demanded topic of study. On the other hand, the Transport Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the most used transport protocols on the Internet. The available bandwidth study and TCP constitute the most typical scenario in the Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN). This Thesis locates the study in the 2.4GHz frequency band where Primary Users can be present modifying the behaviour of the WLAN ...

  10. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Chemical Manufacturing

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. chemical manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in the production of 74 individual chemicals, representing 57% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual chemicals and for 15 subsectors of chemicals manufacturing are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  11. Bandwidth-tunable band-rejection filter based on helicoidal fiber grating pair of opposite helicities.

    Shin, Woojin; Yu, Bong-Ahn; Noh, Young-Chul; Lee, Jongmin; Ko, Do-Kyeong; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2007-05-15

    We have developed a new type of all-fiber band-rejection filter consisting of a helicoidal long-period fiber grating pair of opposite helicities, which provides highly flexible spectral control over the rejection bandwidth. The detailed fabrication method and operation principles of the proposed bandwidth-tunable band-rejection filter are described. The proposed device enables unique rejection bandwidth tuning over more than 14 nm at the rejection level of 15 dB, with low insertion loss and polarization-dependent loss achieved by adjusting torsion stress. PMID:17440538

  12. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Savings Opportunities in U.S. Petroleum Refining

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. petroleum refining. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in nine individual process areas, representing 68% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; these potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  13. Acousto-optics bandwidth broadening in a Bragg cell based on arbitrary synthesized signal methods.

    Peled, Itay; Kaminsky, Ron; Kotler, Zvi

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present the advantages of driving a multichannel acousto-optical deflector (AOD) with a digitally synthesized multifrequency RF signal. We demonstrate a significant bandwidth broadening of ∼40% by providing well-tuned phase control of the array transducers. Moreover, using a multifrequency, complex signal, we manage to suppress the harmonic deflections and return most of the spurious energy to the main beam. This method allows us to operate the AOD with more than an octave of bandwidth with negligible spurious energy going to the harmonic beams and a total bandwidth broadening of over 70%. PMID:26192666

  14. Breaking the energy-bandwidth limit of electro-optic modulators: theory and a device proposal

    Lin, Hongtao; Liu, Jifeng; Zhang, Lin; Michel, Jurgen; Hu, Juejun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we quantitatively analyzed the trade-off between energy per bit for switching and modulation bandwidth of classical electro-optic modulators. A formally simple energy-bandwidth limit (Eq. 10) is derived for electro-optic modulators based on intra-cavity index modulation. To overcome this limit, we propose a dual cavity modulator device which uses a coupling modulation scheme operating at high bandwidth (> 200 GHz) not limited by cavity photon lifetime and simultaneously features an ultra-low switching energy of 0.26 aJ, representing over three orders of magnitude energy consumption reduction compared to state-of-the-art electro-optic modulators.

  15. Multi-rate synchronous optical undersampling of several bandwidth-limited signals.

    Fleyer, M; Horowitz, M; Feldtser, A; Smulakovsky, V

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrate experimentally an optical system for undersampling several bandwidth-limited signals with carrier frequencies that are not known apriori and can be located within a broad frequency region of 0-20 GHz. The system is based on undersampling synchronously at three different rates. The optical undersampling down-converts the entire system bandwidth into a low frequency region called baseband. The synchronous sampling at several rates enables to accurately reconstruct signals even in cases in which different signals overlap in the baseband region of all sampling channels. Reconstruction of three simultaneously generated chirped signals, each with a bandwidth of about 200 MHz, was experimentally demonstrated. PMID:20721083

  16. High bandwidth based on a tapped delay line equalization in visible light communications

    Zhang, Minglun; Guo, Xujing; Zhu, Hetian; Wang, Chao; Bai, Xiaonan; Zhai, Xiangwen

    2015-08-01

    In the visible light communication, the white LED bandwidth severely limits the transmission rate of information. This paper presents an analog pre-equalization technology to compensate for the bandwidth of white LED. The technology not only can debug according to the actual channel changing, but also avoid the high costs of using FPGA technology. The pre-equalization technology is implemented by an analog circuit of tapped-delay-line, in the circuit we select an appropriate delay line and a digital to analog converter. In our LED visible light communication system, we can achieve a bandwidth of 150MHz which was proved theoretically in the paper.

  17. Increased spectral bandwidths in nonlinear conversion processes by use of multicrystal designs.

    Brown, M

    1998-10-15

    The fourth-harmonic generation of broadband 243-nm radiation is reported. The broadband radiation is achieved by implementation of a multicrystal design to overcome spectral bandwidth limitations, and a plane-wave analysis is developed that shows increased spectral bandwidths for these designs. The fourth harmonic of a Cr:LiSAF laser operating at 972 nm is generated in beta-barium borate (BBO). The results demonstrate a spectral bandwidth at 243 nm more than five times broader than that which is expected from a single BBO crystal of equivalent length. PMID:18091854

  18. Bandwidth efficient cluster-based data aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in the design of Wireless Sensor Network (WSNs) is the proper utilization of resources that are scarce. The critical challenge is to maximize the bandwidth utilization in data gathering and forwarding from sensor nodes to the sink. The main design objective is to utilize the...... available bandwidth efficiently. The proposed Bandwidth Efficient Cluster- based Data Aggregation (BECDA) algorithm presents the solution for the effective data gathering with in-network aggregation. It considers the network with heterogeneous nodes in terms of energy and mobile sink to aggregate the data...

  19. Non-Real-Time Network Traffic in Software-Defined Networking: A Link Bandwidth Prediction-Based Algorithm

    Longfei Dai; Wenguo Yang; Suixiang Gao; Yinben Xia; Mingming Zhu; Zhigang Ji

    2014-01-01

    Network traffic control is the process of managing, prioritizing, controlling or reducing the network traffic by the network scheduler. High utilization of link bandwidth is very significant for network control and maintenance in Software-Defined Networking (SDN). When we get the accurate link bandwidth predictions for T time periods of the future in a specific network topology, the residual link bandwidth could be determined by the link bandwidth capacity and corresponding prediction values....

  20. Bandwidth Controllable Tunable Filter for Hyper-/Multi-Spectral Imager Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal introduces a fast speed bandwidth controllable tunable filter for hyper-/multi-spectral (HS/MS) imagers. It dynamically passes a variable...

  1. TORQUE RIPPLES MINIMIZATION ON DTC CONTROLLED INDUCTION MOTOR WITH ADAPTIVE BANDWIDTH APPROACH

    Fatih Korkmaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Field oriented control (FOC and direct torque control (DTC, also called vector control, are most famous control methods in high-performance motor applications. If we want to specify the basic handicaps of both methods: the FOC has parameter dependence while the DTC has high torque ripples. This paper proposes a new adaptive bandwidth approach to reduce torque ripples in DTC controlled induction motor drives. With the proposed method, instead of fixed bandwidth, adaptive bandwidth approach is investigated in hysteresis controllers on the DTC method. Both the conventional DTC(C-DTC method and adaptive bandwidth DTC (AB-DTC for induction motor are simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK and the results are presented and discussed to verify the proposed control. The comparisons have shown that, torque ripples have been reduced remarkably with the proposed AB-DTC method.

  2. A wide bandwidth analog front-end circuit for 60-GHz wireless communication receiver

    Furuta, M.; Okuni, H.; Hosoya, M.; Sai, A.; Matsuno, J.; Saigusa, S.; Itakura, T.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an analog front-end circuit for a 60-GHz wireless communication receiver. The feature of the proposed analog front-end circuit is a bandwidth more than 1-GHz wide. To expand the bandwidth of a low-pass filter and a voltage gain amplifier, a technique to reduce the parasitic capacitance of a transconductance amplifier is proposed. Since the bandwidth is also limited by on-resistance of the ADC sampling switch, a switch separation technique for reduction of the on-resistance is also proposed. In a high-speed ADC, the SNDR is limited by the sampling jitter. The developed high resolution VCO auto tuning effectively reduces the jitter of PLL. The prototype is fabricated in 65nm CMOS. The analog front-end circuit achieves over 1-GHz bandwidth and 27.2-dB SNDR with 224 mW Power consumption.

  3. A 750MHz and a 8GHz High Bandwidth Digital FFT Spectrometer Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The scope of this project is to to develop a wide bandwidth, low power, and compact single board digital Fast Fourier Transform spectrometer (FFTS) optimized for...

  4. Experimental Demonstration of a Bandwidth Scalable LAN Emulation over EPON Employing OFDMA

    Deng, Lei; Zhao, Ying; Yu, Xianbin; Arlunno, Valeria; Borkowski, Robert; Li, Deming; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel EPON system supporting bandwidth scalable local area network emulation by using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access technology. Added to the EPON traffic, 250Mbps and 500Mbps OFDM LAN traffics are experimentally emulated....

  5. Continuous-wave non-classical light with GHz squeezing bandwidth

    Ast, Stefan; Mehmet, Moritz; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Eberle, Tobias; Schnabel, Roman

    2012-01-01

    Squeezed states can be employed for entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum key distribution, where the secure key rate is proportional to the bandwidth of the squeezing. We produced a non-classical continuous-wave laser field at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm, which showed squeezing over a bandwidth of more than 2 GHz. The experimental setup used parametric down-conversion via a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal (PPKTP). We did not use any resonant enhancement for the funda- mental wavelength, which should in principle allow a production of squeezed light over the full phase-matching bandwidth of several nanometers. We measured the squeezing to be up to 0.3 dB below the vacuum noise from 50 MHz to 2 GHz limited by the measuring bandwidth of the homodyne detector. The squeezing strength was possibly limited by thermal lensing inside the non-linear crystal.

  6. A Novel Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm with Correction-based the Multiple Traffic Prediction in EPON

    Ziyi Fu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available According to the upstream TDM in the system of Ethernet passive optical network (EPON, this paper proposes a novel dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm which supports the mechanism with correction-based the multiple services estimation. To improve the real-time performance of the bandwidth allocation, this algorithm forecasts the traffic of high priority services, and then pre-allocate bandwidth for various priority services is corrected according to Gaussian distribution characteristics, which will make traffic prediction closer to the real traffic. The simulation results show that proposed algorithm is better than the existing DBA algorithm. Not only can it meet the delay requirement of high priority services, but also control the delay abnormity of low priority services. In addition, with rectification scheme, it obviously improves the bandwidth utilization.

  7. Ultra-low Noise, High Bandwidth, 1550nm HgCdTe APD Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To meet the demands of future high-capacity free space optical communications links, a high bandwidth, near infrared (NIR), single photon sensitive optoelectronic...

  8. High-Bandwidth Photon-Counting Detectors with Enhanced Near-Infrared Response Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Laser optical communications offer the potential to dramatically increase the link bandwidth and decrease the emitter power in long-range space communications....

  9. New scintillators for fiber optics: system sensitivity and bandwidth as a function of fiber length

    Long-wavelength liquid scintillators have been developed for fiber-optic plasma-diagnostic experiments. Relative system sensitivity and bandwidth data as a function of fiber length for several scintillator systems will be presented

  10. Coarse-Grain Bandwidth Estimation Techniques for Large-Scale Space Network

    Cheung, Kar-Ming; Jennings, Esther

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a top-down analysis and simulation approach to size the bandwidths of a store-andforward network for a given network topology, a mission traffic scenario, and a set of data types with different latency requirements. We use these techniques to estimate the wide area network (WAN) bandwidths of the ground links for different architecture options of the proposed Integrated Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Network.

  11. Tuning gain and bandwidth of traveling wave tubes using metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures

    Lipton, Robert, E-mail: lipton@math.lsu.edu; Polizzi, Anthony, E-mail: polizzi@math.lsu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803-4918 (United States)

    2014-10-14

    We employ metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures for tuning the gain and bandwidth of short traveling wave tubes. The interaction structures are made from metal rings of uniform cross section, which are periodically deployed along the length of the traveling wave tube. The aspect ratio of the ring cross sections is adjusted to control both gain and bandwidth. The frequency of operation is controlled by the filling fraction of the ring cross section with respect to the size of the period cell.

  12. Correlations between pressure and bandwidth effects in metal-insulator transitions in manganites

    Cui, Congwu; Trevor A. Tyson

    2003-01-01

    The effect of pressure on the metal-insulator transition in manganites with a broad range of bandwidths is investigated. A critical pressure is found at which the metal-insulator transition temperature, T$_{MI}$, reaches a maximum value in every sample studied. The origin of this universal pressure and the relation between the pressure effect and the bandwidth on the metal-insulator transition are discussed.

  13. Combined Subcarrier Switch Off and Power Loading for 80 MHz Bandwidth WLANs

    Punyal, Oscar; Gross, James

    2011-01-01

    Next generation wireless local area networks, like the upcoming IEEE 802.11ac, strive for large frequency band-widths to cope with the rising traffic demands. Bandwidths of 80 MHz or even 160 MHz are being considered, where a significant frequency diversity among OFDM subcarriers is likely to exist. With a potentially large number of highly attenuated subcarriers it is not clear if the system should better avoid their usage for payload transmission. Such an approach can improve the error perf...

  14. Tuning gain and bandwidth of traveling wave tubes using metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures

    We employ metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures for tuning the gain and bandwidth of short traveling wave tubes. The interaction structures are made from metal rings of uniform cross section, which are periodically deployed along the length of the traveling wave tube. The aspect ratio of the ring cross sections is adjusted to control both gain and bandwidth. The frequency of operation is controlled by the filling fraction of the ring cross section with respect to the size of the period cell.

  15. Gap-Coupling: A Potential Method for Enhancing the Bandwidth of Microstrip Antennas

    Singh, G.; Kumar, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a technical review on gap-coupled microstrip antennas is presented. The gap-coupled microstrip antennas give a large bandwidth as compared to the conventional microstrip antennas. The method of bandwidth enhancement using gap-coupled microstrip antennas has been elaborated. The gap-coupled microstrip antennas also produce two resonances. The dual frequency operation of the gap-coupled microstrip antenna is also described. A research overview of gap-coupled microstrip antennas, ...

  16. A plug-in rule for bandwidth selection in circular density estimation

    Oliveira, M.; Crujeiras, R.M.; Rodríguez-Casal, A.

    2012-01-01

    A new plug-in rule procedure for bandwidth selection in kernel circular density estimation is introduced. The performance of this proposal is checked throughout a simulation study considering a variety of circular distributions exhibiting multimodality, peakedness and/or skewness. The plug-in rule behaviour is also compared with other existing bandwidth selectors. The method is illustrated with two classical datasets of cross-beds layers and animal orientation.

  17. Bandwidth and Gain Enhancement of Patch Antenna with Stacked Parasitic Strips Based on LTCC Technology

    Li Li; Yong Zhang; Jinhong Wang; Wei Zhao; Shuang Liu; Ruimin Xu

    2014-01-01

    A compact patch antenna with stacked parasitic strips (SPSs) based on low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology is presented. By adding three pairs of SPSs above the traditional patch antenna, multiple resonant modes are excited to broaden the bandwidth. At the same time, the SPSs act as directors to guide the antenna radiation toward broadside direction to enhance the gain. The measured results show that the prototype antenna achieves an impedance bandwidth of 16% for S11

  18. The bandwidth of consolidation into visual short-term memory (VSTM) depends on the visual feature

    Miller, James R.; Becker, Mark W.; Liu, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the nature of the bandwidth limit in the consolidation of visual information into visual short-term memory. In the first two experiments, we examined whether previous results showing differential consolidation bandwidth for color and orientation resulted from methodological differences by testing the consolidation of color information with methods used in prior orientation experiments. We briefly presented two color patches with masks, either sequentially or simultaneously, fo...

  19. Effects of dislocations on small signal high frequency hot electron mobility in n-GaN at low and high temperatures under high magnetic fields including hot phonon effect

    Chakraborty, A., E-mail: juimaha@yahoo.co [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India); Sarkar, C.K. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India)

    2011-04-01

    The small signal high-frequency ac mobility of hot electrons in n-GaN in the extreme quantum limit at low- and high-temperatures has been calculated considering the non-equilibrium phonon distribution as well as the thermal phonon distributions. The energy loss rate has been calculated considering the dominance of the piezo electric coupling scattering and the polar optical phonon scattering while the momentum loss rate has been calculated considering the acoustic phonon scattering via deformation potential and the piezo electric coupling and the dislocation scattering.

  20. Varactor-tuned superconducting filter with constant absolute bandwidth at VHF-band

    Li, Bo [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Cao, Bisong, E-mail: bscao@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Guo, Xubo; Zhang, Xiaoping [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Yidong [Superconductor Technology Co., Ltd, Beijing 100085 (China); Wei, Bin; Jiang, Linan [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A four-pole superconducting tunable filter at VHF-band with constant absolute bandwidth is proposed. • The novel resonator consists of a spiral-in-spiral-out (SISO) microstrip line with one end shorted to ground and the other loaded with a varactor diode. • Both combline and interdigital constructions for coupling are introduced, and tuned to meet the constant bandwidth requirements. • The measurements show bandwidth variation is less than 1.3% while tuning from 247.28 to 266.58 MHz, and a high Q{sub u} of 1600–5500 is archived. - Abstract: A four-pole superconducting tunable filter at VHF-band with constant absolute bandwidth is proposed. The resonator consists of a spiral-in-spiral-out (SISO) resonator with one end shorted to ground and the other end loaded with a varactor diode. Both combline and interdigital constructions for coupling are introduced, and tuned to meet the constant bandwidth requirement. The fabricated device has a compact size, a tuning range of 7.3% from 247.28 to 266.58, a 3-dB bandwidth of 2.32 ± 0.03 MHz. The insertion loss ranges from 0.5 to 1.6 dB, yielding a high unloaded Q of 1600–5500. The simulated and measured results show an excellent agreement.

  1. Accounting for filter bandwidth improves the quantitative accuracy of bioluminescence tomography

    Taylor, Shelley L.; Mason, Suzannah K. G.; Glinton, Sophie L.; Cobbold, Mark; Dehghani, Hamid

    2015-09-01

    Bioluminescence imaging is a noninvasive technique whereby surface weighted images of luminescent probes within animals are used to characterize cell count and function. Traditionally, data are collected over the entire emission spectrum of the source using no filters and are used to evaluate cell count/function over the entire spectrum. Alternatively, multispectral data over several wavelengths can be incorporated to perform tomographic reconstruction of source location and intensity. However, bandpass filters used for multispectral data acquisition have a specific bandwidth, which is ignored in the reconstruction. In this work, ignoring the bandwidth is shown to introduce a dependence of the recovered source intensity on the bandwidth of the filters. A method of accounting for the bandwidth of filters used during multispectral data acquisition is presented and its efficacy in increasing the quantitative accuracy of bioluminescence tomography is demonstrated through simulation and experiment. It is demonstrated that while using filters with a large bandwidth can dramatically decrease the data acquisition time, if not accounted for, errors of up to 200% in quantitative accuracy are introduced in two-dimensional planar imaging, even after normalization. For tomographic imaging, the use of this method to account for filter bandwidth dramatically improves the quantitative accuracy.

  2. Compression of Video Tracking and Bandwidth Balancing Routing in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Yin Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a tremendous growth in multimedia applications over wireless networks. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks(WMSNs have become the premier choice in many research communities and industry. Many state-of-art applications, such as surveillance, traffic monitoring, and remote heath care are essentially video tracking and transmission in WMSNs. The transmission speed is constrained by the big file size of video data and fixed bandwidth allocation in constant routing paths. In this paper, we present a CamShift based algorithm to compress the tracking of videos. Then we propose a bandwidth balancing strategy in which each sensor node is able to dynamically select the node for the next hop with the highest potential bandwidth capacity to resume communication. Key to this strategy is that each node merely maintains two parameters that contain its historical bandwidth varying trend and then predict its near future bandwidth capacity. Then, the forwarding node selects the next hop with the highest potential bandwidth capacity. Simulations demonstrate that our approach significantly increases the data received by the sink node and decreases the delay on video transmission in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network environments.

  3. On Bandwidth Characteristics of Tuning Fork Micro-Gyroscope with Mechanically Coupled Sense Mode

    Yunfang Ni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The bandwidth characteristics of a tuning fork micro-gyroscope with mechanically coupled sense mode were investigated in this paper to provide some references for mechanical bandwidth design. The concept of sense mode mechanical coupling is introduced first. Theoretical frequency response analyses were then carried out on the mechanical part of the gyroscope. Equations representing the relationships between the differential output signal and the frequency of the input angular rate were deduced in full frequency range and further simplified in low frequency range. Based on these equations, bandwidth characteristics under ideal and non-ideal conditions are discussed. Analytical results show that under ideal conditions, the bandwidth characteristics of a tuning fork micro-gyroscope are similar to those of a single mass micro-gyroscope, but under non-ideal conditions, especially when sense mass and/or stiffness are asymmetric, the bandwidth characteristics would be quite different because the in-phase mode would participate in the anti-phase vibration response. Experimental verifications were carried out on two micro-gyroscope prototypes designed in our laboratory. The deduced equations and analytical results can be used in guiding the mechanical bandwidth design of tuning fork micro-gyroscopes with mechanically coupled sense mode.

  4. Wide bandwidth chaotic signal generation in a monolithically integrated semiconductor laser via optical injection

    Yin, Xue-Mei; Zhong, Zhu-Qiang; Zhao, Ling-Juan; Lu, Dan; Qiu, Hai-Ying; Xia, Guang-Qiong; Wu, Zheng-Mao

    2015-11-01

    Wide bandwidth chaotic signal generation in a three-section monolithically integrated semiconductor laser (MISL) under external optical injection is investigated experimentally. Through evaluating the effective bandwidth of chaotic signals, the influences of the optical injection on the bandwidth of chaotic signal from the MISL are analyzed. The experimental results indicate that, for the currents of the DFB section (IDFB) and the phase section (IP) are fixed at 70.00 mA and 34.00 mA, respectively, the effective bandwidth of chaos signal generated by the solitary MISL reaches its maximum value of 14.36 GHz when the current of the amplification section (IA) takes 23.22 mA. After an external optical injection is introduced into the MISL, the effective bandwidth of the generated chaotic signal can be beyond 2.5 times of the maximum value. Furthermore, the effects of the injection strength and the frequency detuning on the effective bandwidth of the generated chaotic signal are also discussed.

  5. Thermal characterization of DC and small-signal parameters of 150 nm and 250 nm gate-length AlGaN/GaN HEMTs grown on a SiC substrate

    Alim, Mohammad A.; Rezazadeh, Ali A.; Gaquiere, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigated the temperature effects on the performance of the AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with a 150 nm and 250 nm gate length on a SiC substrate over a temperature range of ?40 to 150 C including experimental characterization, modelling and analysis by on-wafer measurements up to 50 GHz. All the DC and small signal parameter variations with ambient temperature on the same set of devices have been reported for the first time. The temperature coefficient of all the DC and small signal parameters as well as f t and f max were reported. Some of the extracted equivalent circuit parameters with the theoretical data of the evolution of electrical parameters and the relevant physical equations involved have been compared using the same biasing condition for further accuracy. The theoretical results are shown to be consistent with the extracted data. Some results are also experimentally verified with previous works cited in the paper. The results provide some valuable insights for the underlying physics of the device parameters affected by temperature.

  6. Maximum Bandwidth Enhancement of Current Mirror using Series-Resistor and Dynamic Body Bias Technique

    V. Niranjan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new approach for enhancing the bandwidth of a low voltage CMOS current mirror. The proposed approach is based on utilizing body effect in a MOS transistor by connecting its gate and bulk terminals together for signal input. This results in boosting the effective transconductance of MOS transistor along with reduction of the threshold voltage. The proposed approach does not affect the DC gain of the current mirror. We demonstrate that the proposed approach features compatibility with widely used series-resistor technique for enhancing the current mirror bandwidth and both techniques have been employed simultaneously for maximum bandwidth enhancement. An important consequence of using both techniques simultaneously is the reduction of the series-resistor value for achieving the same bandwidth. This reduction in value is very attractive because a smaller resistor results in smaller chip area and less noise. PSpice simulation results using 180 nm CMOS technology from TSMC are included to prove the unique results. The proposed current mirror operates at 1Volt consuming only 102 µW and maximum bandwidth extension ratio of 1.85 has been obtained using the proposed approach. Simulation results are in good agreement with analytical predictions.

  7. Optimization of Inter-network Bandwidth Resources for Large-Scale Data Transmission

    Mu Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve problems such as low resources utilization of data center backbone bandwidth and expensive daily expenses caused by the tidal effect in the transition of large-scale network data, the new optimization method of bandwidth resource for bulk data transfer is proposed. This method finishes the bulk data transfer by taking full advantage of the idle channel bandwidth. Firstly, the dynamic idle network bandwidth resource was switched into the static flow network; and then the max-min fair multi-commodity flow model is built on the basis of static network; finally, the iterative technique is used to solve the programming model for getting the maximum transport flows and the corresponding transmission path of bulk data transfer. The simulation method was used to test this optimization project. The results show that the optimization method proposed by the paper can significantly improve the utilization of data center backbone bandwidth resource, and the maximum amount of data transmission and the speed of data transfer have been obviously increased

  8. Studies of bandwidth dependence of laser plasma instabilities driven by the Nike laser

    Weaver, J.; Kehne, D.; Obenschain, S.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Brown, C. M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    2012-10-01

    Experiments at the Nike laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory are exploring the influence of laser bandwidth on laser plasma instabilities (LPI) driven by a deep ultraviolet pump (248 nm) that incorporates beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). In early ISI studies with longer wavelength Nd:glass lasers (1054 nm and 527 nm),footnotetextObenschain, PRL 62(1989);Mostovych, PRL 62(1987);Peyser, Phys. Fluids B 3(1991). stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and the two plasmon decay instability were reduced when wide bandwidth ISI (δν/ν˜0.03-0.19%) pulses irradiated targets at moderate to high intensities (10^14-10^15 W/cm^2). The current studies will compare the emission signatures of LPI from planar CH targets during Nike operation at large bandwidth (δν˜1THz) to observations for narrower bandwidth operation (δν˜0.1-0.3THz). These studies will help clarify the relative importance of the short wavelength and wide bandwidth to the increased LPI intensity thresholds observed at Nike. New pulse shapes are being used to generate plasmas with larger electron density scale-lengths that are closer to conditions during pellet implosions for direct drive inertial confinement fusion.

  9. Frequency and bandwidth conversion of single photons in a room-temperature diamond quantum memory

    Fisher, Kent A. G.; England, Duncan G.; Maclean, Jean-Philippe W.; Bustard, Philip J.; Resch, Kevin J.; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2016-04-01

    The spectral manipulation of photons is essential for linking components in a quantum network. Large frequency shifts are needed for conversion between optical and telecommunication frequencies, while smaller shifts are useful for frequency-multiplexing quantum systems, in the same way that wavelength division multiplexing is used in classical communications. Here we demonstrate frequency and bandwidth conversion of single photons in a room-temperature diamond quantum memory. Heralded 723.5 nm photons, with 4.1 nm bandwidth, are stored as optical phonons in the diamond via a Raman transition. Upon retrieval from the diamond memory, the spectral shape of the photons is determined by a tunable read pulse through the reverse Raman transition. We report central frequency tunability over 4.2 times the input bandwidth, and bandwidth modulation between 0.5 and 1.9 times the input bandwidth. Our results demonstrate the potential for diamond, and Raman memories in general, as an integrated platform for photon storage and spectral conversion.

  10. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Kerpez Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  11. Analysis of blocking rate and bandwidth usage of mobile IPTV services in wireless cellular networks.

    Li, Mingfu

    2014-01-01

    Mobile IPTV services over wireless cellular networks become more and more popular, owing to the significant growth in access bandwidth of wireless cellular networks such as 3G/4G and WiMAX. However, the spectrum resources of wireless cellular networks is rare. How to enhance the spectral efficiency of mobile networks becomes an important issue. Unicast, broadcast, and multicast are the most important transport schemes for offering mobile IPTV services over wireless cellular networks. Therefore, bandwidth usages and blocking rates of unicast, broadcast, and multicast IPTV services were analyzed and compared in this paper. Simulations were also conducted to validate the analytical results. Numerical results demonstrate that the presented analysis is correct, and multicast scheme achieves the best bandwidth usage and blocking rate performance, relative to the other two schemes. PMID:25379521

  12. Bandwidth Impacts of Localizing Peer-to-Peer IP Video Traffic in Access and Aggregation Networks

    Kenneth Kerpez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.

  13. Hexagonal Nonradiating Edge-Coupled Patch Configuration for Bandwidth Enhancement of Patch Antenna

    Krishn Kant Joshi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available For increasing the impedance bandwidth of patch antenna two novel configurations are described for the ISM band applications. A hexagonal patch structure is used in both of the configurations. First structure uses six additional patches which are gap-coupled to the each nonradiating edge of the original hexagonal patch whereas in the second configuration fractals are used in each of the hexagonal of first order. HFSS is used for the simulation. The simulation result shows that with a regular hexagonal patch which gives 6% of impedance bandwidth, a slight improvement in bandwidth with respect to square patch can be achieved. Further with the two novel configurations up to 15.5% of the impedance is achieved. The result shows that the fractal configuration is suitable for the circularly polarized radiation. The simulated gain over the operating band is found to be more than 9-dB.

  14. Bandwidth and resolution of super-resolution imaging with perforated solids

    Liang, Zixian; Li, Jensen

    2011-12-01

    Recent experiments on acoustic superlens and hyperlens found anisotropic metamaterials constructed from periodic perforated solids can be used for super-resolution imaging. Here, we present a theoretical study on the operational bandwidth of these imaging devices using the emerging framework of transformation acoustics. Within the transformation approach, both the microstructural superlens and hyperlens can be discussed using the transfer matrix method on the same footing. We show that the geometrical structure of the periodic metamaterials induces that an acoustics hyperlens has a very wide operational frequency bandwidth with its subwavelength resolution limited by the ratio of image magnification while an acoustics superlens has a very deep subwavelength resolution limited only by the periodicity of the perforations but intrinsically working at a narrow frequency bandwidth. Such investigation will become useful for designing future transformation acoustical imaging devices.

  15. Bandwidth and resolution of super-resolution imaging with perforated solids

    Zixian Liang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent experiments on acoustic superlens and hyperlens found anisotropic metamaterials constructed from periodic perforated solids can be used for super-resolution imaging. Here, we present a theoretical study on the operational bandwidth of these imaging devices using the emerging framework of transformation acoustics. Within the transformation approach, both the microstructural superlens and hyperlens can be discussed using the transfer matrix method on the same footing. We show that the geometrical structure of the periodic metamaterials induces that an acoustics hyperlens has a very wide operational frequency bandwidth with its subwavelength resolution limited by the ratio of image magnification while an acoustics superlens has a very deep subwavelength resolution limited only by the periodicity of the perforations but intrinsically working at a narrow frequency bandwidth. Such investigation will become useful for designing future transformation acoustical imaging devices.

  16. Estimating individual listeners auditory-filter bandwidth in simultaneous and non-simultaneous masking

    Buchholz, Jrg; Caminade, Sabine; Strelcyk, Olaf; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Frequency selectivity in the human auditory system is often measured using simultaneous masking of tones presented in notched noise. Based on such masking data, the equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB) of the auditory filters can be derived by applying the power spectrum model of masking and...... assuming a rounded-exponential filter shape. If a forward masking paradigm is used instead of simultaneous masking, filter estimates typically show significantly sharper tuning. This difference in frequency selectivity has commonly been related to spectral suppression mechanisms observed in the cochlea....... Considering bandwidth estimates from previous studies based on forward masking, only average data across a number of subjects have been considered. The present study is concerned with bandwidth estimates in simultaneous and forward masking in individual normal-hearing subjects. In order to investigate the...

  17. MHBCDA: Mobility and Heterogeneity aware Bandwidth Efficient Cluster based Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    of reduced reliability. In the mobile environment, it is necessary to consider the techniques which minimize the communication cost with efficient bandwidth utilization by decreasing the packet count reached at the sink. This paper proposes the mobility and heterogeneity aware bandwidth efficient...... Cluster-based Data Aggregation (MHBCDA) algorithm for the randomly distributed nodes. It considers the mobile sink based packet aggregation for the heterogeneous WSN. It uses predefined region for the aggregation at cluster head to minimize computation and communication cost. The MHBCDA is energy and...... bandwidth efficient. It exploits correlation of data packets generated by varying the packet generation rate. It prevents transmission of redundant data packets by improving energy consumption by 4.11% and prolongs the network life by 34.45% as compared with state-of-the-art solutions....

  18. Optical Sideband Generation: a Longitudinal Electron Beam Diagnostic Beyond the Laser Bandwidth Resolution Limit

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Tilborg, J. van; Matlis, N. H.; Plateau, G. R.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-06-01

    Electro-optic sampling (EOS) is widely used as a technique to measure THz-domain electric field pulses such asthe self-fields of femtosecond electron beams. We present an EOS-based approach for single-shot spectral measurement that excels in simplicity (compatible with fiber integration) and bandwidth coverage (overcomes the laser bandwidth limitation), allowing few-fs electron beams or single-cycle THz pulses to be characterized with conventional picosecond probes. It is shown that the EOS-induced optical sidebands on the narrow-bandwidth optical probe are spectrally-shifted replicas of the THz pulse. An experimental demonstration on a 0-3 THz source is presented.

  19. High bandwidth surface-illuminated InGaAs/InP uni-travelling-carrier photodetector

    Uni-traveling-carrier photodiodes (UTC-PDs) with ultrafast response and high saturation output are reported. A gradient doping layer and a narrow InP cliff layer were introduced to enhance the saturation and bandwidth characteristics. We measured the dark current, photo response, bandwidth, and saturation current of the fabricated UTC devices. For a 15-μm-diameter device, the dark current was 3.5 nA at a reverse bias of 1 V, and the 3-dB bandwidth was 17.2 GHz at a reverse bias of 5 V, which are comparable to the theoretically values. The maximum responsivity at 1.55 μm was 0.32 A/W. The saturation output current was over 19.0 mA without bias

  20. Bandwidth Efficient Multicasting Operation in AODV Protocol for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    Gurpreet Singh Bagga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Multicasting technique provides an important service for improving throughput, bandwidth and delay of distributed systems and applications. In unicast and broadcast transmissions there is wastage of bandwidth, so multicasting transmission approach is used to deliver the data from sender to group of destinations. Reactive routing protocol is used for the route establishment from source to destination only when it is required. AODV and DSR are the reactive routing protocols which uses flooding approach for establishing the route from source to destination. In this approach network resource like bandwidth, node energy has been wasted. To overcome this problem, flooding approach will be replaced with the multicasting approach and outcomes are efficient in reducing delay, improving throughput.

  1. Design and Bandwidth Analysis of Fault-Tolerant Multistage Interconnection Networks

    R. Aggarwal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of a suitable interconnection network for inter-processor communication is one of the key issues of the system performance. In this study a new irregular interconnection network IABN (Irregular Augmented Baseline has been proposed. IABN is designed by modifying existing ABN (Augmented Baseline Network. ABN is a regular multi-path network with limited fault tolerance. IABN provides three times more paths between any pair of source-destination in comparison to ABN. The ABN and IABN MINs are analyzed and compared in terms of performance parameters namely Bandwidth, Cost and Bandwidth per unit Cost. The proposed network IABN provides much better fault-tolerance and almost double bandwidth at the expanse of little more cost than ABN.

  2. Comparison of Available Bandwidth Estimation Techniques in Packet-Switched Mobile Networks

    López Villa, Dimas; Ubeda Castellanos, Carlos; Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed; Elling, Jan; Wigard, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    The relative contribution of the transport network towards the per-user capacity in mobile telecommunication systems is becoming very important due to the ever increasing air-interface data rates. Thus, resource management procedures such as admission, load and handover control can make use of...... information regarding the available bandwidth in the transport network, as it could end up being the bottleneck rather than the air interface. This paper provides a comparative study of three well known available bandwidth estimation techniques, i.e. TOPP, SLoPS and pathChirp, taking into account the...... statistical conditions of the available bandwidth and assessing the variability of their estimations. Simulation-based studies on a mobile transport network show that pathChirp outperforms TOPP and SLoPS, both in terms of accuracy and efficiency....

  3. Narrowing the filter-cavity bandwidth in gravitational-wave detectors via optomechanical interaction.

    Ma, Yiqiu; Danilishin, Shtefan L; Zhao, Chunnong; Miao, Haixing; Korth, W Zach; Chen, Yanbei; Ward, Robert L; Blair, D G

    2014-10-10

    We propose using optomechanical interaction to narrow the bandwidth of filter cavities for achieving frequency-dependent squeezing in advanced gravitational-wave detectors, inspired by the idea of optomechanically induced transparency. This can allow us to achieve a cavity bandwidth on the order of 100 Hz using small-scale cavities. Additionally, in contrast to a passive Fabry-Prot cavity, the resulting cavity bandwidth can be dynamically tuned, which is useful for adaptively optimizing the detector sensitivity when switching amongst different operational modes. The experimental challenge for its implementation is a stringent requirement for very low thermal noise of the mechanical oscillator, which would need a superb mechanical quality factor and a very low temperature. We consider one possible setup to relieve this requirement by using optical dilution to enhance the mechanical quality factor. PMID:25375698

  4. RF MEMS suspended band-stop resonator and filter for frequency and bandwidth continuous fine tuning

    We firstly propose the concept of a frequency and bandwidth fine-tuning method using an RF MEMS-based suspended tunable band-stop resonator. We experimentally show the feasibility of the continuously tuned resonator, including a second-order filter, which consists of cascaded resonators to achieve center frequency and bandwidth fine tuning. The structure consists of a freestanding half-wavelength (λ/2) resonator connected to a large displacement comb actuator. The lateral movement of the λ/2 resonator over the main transmission line produces different electromagnetic decoupling values from the main transmission line. The decoupled energy leads to continuous center frequency and bandwidth tuning using the band-stop resonator circuit for fine-tuning applications. The freestanding λ/2 resonator plays the role of a variable capacitor as well as a decoupling resonator in the proposed structure. The fabricated tunable filter shows suitability for Ku-band wireless communication system applications with continuous reconfiguration

  5. Broadband parametric amplification with impedance engineering: Beyond the gain-bandwidth product

    Roy, Tanay; Kundu, Suman; Chand, Madhavi; Vadiraj, A. M.; Ranadive, A.; Nehra, N.; Patankar, Meghan P.; Aumentado, J.; Clerk, A. A.; Vijay, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present an impedance engineered Josephson parametric amplifier capable of providing bandwidth beyond the traditional gain-bandwidth product. We achieve this by introducing a positive linear slope in the imaginary component of the input impedance seen by the Josephson oscillator using a ? / 2 transformer. Our theoretical model predicts an extremely flat gain profile with a bandwidth enhancement proportional to the square root of amplitude gain. We experimentally demonstrate a nearly flat 20 dB gain over a 640 MHz band, along with a mean 1-dB compression point of -110 dBm and near quantum-limited noise. The results are in a good agreement with our theoretical model.

  6. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    Sujingqin; Lanqin, L; Wenyi, W; Feng, J; Xiaofeng, W; Xiaomin, Z [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P. O. Box 919-988, Mianyang, China, 621900 (China); Bin, L [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu. China, 610031 (China)], E-mail: sujingqin@tom.com

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP.

  7. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    Su, J.; Liu, L.; Luo, B.; Wang, W.; Jing, F.; Wei, X.; Zhang, X.

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP.

  8. Amplifying modeling for broad bandwidth pulse in Nd:glass based on hybrid-broaden mechanism

    In this paper, the cross relaxation time is proposed to combine the homogeneous and inhomogeneous broaden mechanism for broad bandwidth pulse amplification model. The corresponding velocity equation, which can describe the response of inverse population on upper and low energy level of gain media to different frequency of pulse, is also put forward. The gain saturation and energy relaxation effect are also included in the velocity equation. Code named CPAP has been developed to simulate the amplifying process of broad bandwidth pulse in multi-pass laser system. The amplifying capability of multi-pass laser system is evaluated and gain narrowing and temporal shape distortion are also investigated when bandwidth of pulse and cross relaxation time of gain media are different. Results can benefit the design of high-energy PW laser system in LFRC, CAEP

  9. Practical security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with finite sampling bandwidth effects

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Lin, Dakai; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-02-01

    Practical security of the continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system with finite sampling bandwidth of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at the receiver's side is investigated. We find that the finite sampling bandwidth effects may decrease the lower bound of secret key rate without awareness of the legitimate communicators. This leaves security loopholes for Eve to attack the system. In addition, this effect may restrains the linear relationship of secret key bit rate with repetition rate of the system; subsequently, there is a saturation value for the secret key bit rate with the repetition rate. To resist such kind of effects, we propose a dual sampling detection approach in which two ADCs are employed so that the finite sampling bandwidth effects are removed.

  10. Investigating the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on fundus imaging in rats

    Li, Hao; Liu, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hao F.

    2015-10-01

    Rodent models are indispensable in studying various retinal diseases. Noninvasive, high-resolution retinal imaging of rodent models is highly desired for longitudinally investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. However, due to severe aberrations, the retinal image quality in rodents can be much worse than that in humans. We numerically and experimentally investigated the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on retinal imaging. We confirmed that the rat retinal image quality decreased with increasing illumination bandwidth. We achieved the retinal image resolution of 10 μm using a 19 nm illumination bandwidth centered at 580 nm in a home-built fundus camera. Furthermore, we observed higher chromatic aberration in albino rat eyes than in pigmented rat eyes. This study provides a design guide for high-resolution fundus camera for rodents. Our method is also beneficial to dispersion compensation in multiwavelength retinal imaging applications.

  11. Optimal Bandwidth and Power Allocation for Sum Ergodic Capacity under Fading Channels in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Gong, Xiaowen; Tellambura, Chintha

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies optimal bandwidth and power allocation in a cognitive radio network where multiple secondary users (SUs) share the licensed spectrum of a primary user (PU) under fading channels using the frequency division multiple access scheme. The sum ergodic capacity of all the SUs is taken as the performance metric of the network. Besides all combinations of the peak/average transmit power constraints at the SUs and the peak/average interference power constraint imposed by the PU, total bandwidth constraint of the licensed spectrum is also taken into account. Optimal bandwidth allocation is derived in closed-form for any given power allocation. The structures of optimal power allocations are also derived under all possible combinations of the aforementioned power constraints. These structures indicate the possible numbers of users that transmit at nonzero power but below their corresponding peak powers, and show that other users do not transmit or transmit at their corresponding peak power. Based on t...

  12. Narrow Bandwidth 850-nm Fiber Bragg Gratings in Few-Mode Polymer Optical Fibers

    Stefani, Alessio; Yuan, Wu; Markos, Christos; Bang, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We report on the inscription and characterization of narrow bandwidth fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) with 850-nm resonance wavelength in polymer optical fibers (POFs). We use two fibers: an in-house fabricated microstructured POF (mPOF) with relative hole size of 0.5 and a commercial step-index POF......, which supports six modes at 850 nm. The gratings have been written with the phase-mask technique and a 325-nm HeCd laser. The mPOF grating has a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) bandwidth of 0.29 nm and the step-index POF has a bandwidth of 0.17 nm. For both fibers, the static tensile strain...

  13. Dynamic Online Bandwidth Adjustment Scheme Based on Kalai-Smorodinsky Bargaining Solution

    Kim, Sungwook

    Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a cost effective method to provide integrated multimedia services. Usually heterogeneous multimedia data can be categorized into different types according to the required Quality of Service (QoS). Therefore, VPN should support the prioritization among different services. In order to support multiple types of services with different QoS requirements, efficient bandwidth management algorithms are important issues. In this paper, I employ the Kalai-Smorodinsky Bargaining Solution (KSBS) for the development of an adaptive bandwidth adjustment algorithm. In addition, to effectively manage the bandwidth in VPNs, the proposed control paradigm is realized in a dynamic online approach, which is practical for real network operations. The simulations show that the proposed scheme can significantly improve the system performances.

  14. The biophysical basis of the high-bandwidth information encoding in cortical neurons

    Andreas Neef

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A cortical neuron receives continuously fluctuating input through thousands of synapses. It encodes and relays this input to thousands of downstream neurons using action potentials. Therefore, the dynamics, with which those discrete action potentials are generated, represents a fundamental bottleneck for the flow of information in neural populations. In the last decade it became clear that the bandwidth of information encoding in neural populations in the cerebral cortex is much higher than it had been previously predicted by simulations with conductance based models (Fourcaud-Trocme et al., 2003; Naundorf et al., 2005, 2006; Kondgen et al., 2008; Higgs and Spain, 2009; Tchumatchenko et al., 2011. The biophysical basis of this experimentally observed large bandwidth is not understood, as even basic parameters such as sodium channel surface density and kinetics are still under debate(Kole et al., 2008; Baranauskas et al., 2013. The work presented here uses high resolution electrophysiology and fluorescence microscopy to quantify sodium channel properties and distributions in neurons. In combination with numerical modelling of active and passive neurons, we identify contributions to the ability to encode information with a high bandwidth. A characterization of sodium channels properties in the cell bodies of cortical pyramidal cells allowed us to conclude that each square micrometer contains 20 to 30 sodium channels. By combining current clamp and immunofluorescence in cultured hippocampal neurons we could achieve semi-quantitative fluorescence labeling and obtained estimates for the axonal density of sodium channels. We found the bandwidth of information encoding to be similar between cultured neurons and neurons in slices. Using cultured neurons as a model system, we studied the maturation of neuronal properties in the first weeks in culture. In parallel to the increased bandwidth, other neuronal properties changed: the axonal sodium channel density, the dendritic morphology and the sub-micrometer organization of axon initial segment structure(Xu et al., 2013; Zhong et al.. The presentation details, how those properties influenced the bandwidth of information encoding.

  15. Absorption line shape recovery beyond the detection bandwidth limit: application to the Boltzmann constant determination

    Rohart, Franois; Sow, Papa Lat Tabara; Tokunaga, Sean K; Chardonnet, Christian; Darqui, Benot; Dinesan, H; Fasci, E; Castrillo, A; Gianfrani, L; Daussy, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical model of the influence of detection bandwidth properties on observed line shapes in laser absorption spectroscopy is described. The model predicts artificial frequency shifts, extra broadenings and line asymmetries which must be taken into account in order to obtain accurate line parameters. The theoretical model is validated by experiments performed on H2O and NH3 molecular lines recorded by precision laser spectroscopy. Particular emphasis is put on the detection bandwidth adjustments required to perform a spectroscopic determination of the Boltzmann constant at the 1 ppm level of accuracy.

  16. An Open Slot Antenna with Bandwidth Extension for WLAN/UWB Applications

    Jing-Ya Deng; Tian-Qi Fan; Yan Zhang; Xiang Wen; Guo-Qiang Liu; Li-Xin Guo

    2015-01-01

    An open slot antenna with extended bandwidth for WLAN and UWB applications is proposed. The radiating structure is composed of a rectangular microstrip patch antenna exciting an L-shaped slot etched on the ground plane. The feed position is optimized to get better impedance match for the higher range of the UWB spectrum, while a step in the slot, realized in the ground plane, is employed to extend the lower limit of the bandwidth so as to cover the 2.4 GHz WLAN frequency band. Using these des...

  17. Compact FSS absorber design using resistively loaded quadruple hexagonal loops for bandwidth enhancement

    Zabri, S. N.; Cahill, R.; Schuchinsky, A.

    2015-01-01

    This letter presents the design of a thin microwave absorber which exhibits a -10 dB reflectivity bandwidth of 108% at normal incidence and 16% for simultaneous suppression of TE and TM polarised waves over the angular range 0-45° is presented. The structure consists of a 3 mm-thick metal backed frequency selective surface (FSS) with four resistively loaded hexagonal loop elements in each unit cell. The surface resistivity and width of the loops are carefully chosen to maximise the bandwidth ...

  18. An FPGA-Based Adaptable 200?MHz Bandwidth Channel Sounder for Wireless Communication Channel Characterisation

    Victor Dunn; Yanyan Yang; Somboon Toautachone; Kenneth Stuart; David L. Ndzi

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a fast adaptable FPGA-based wideband channel sounder with signal bandwidths of up to 200 MHz and channel sampling rates up to 5.4 kHz. The application of FPGA allows the user to vary the number of real-time channel response averages, channel sampling interval, and duration of measurement. The waveform, bandwidth, and frequency resolution of the sounder can be adapted for any channel under investigation. The design approach and technology used has led to...

  19. Confidentiality & Authentication Mechanism for Biometric Information Transmitted over Low Bandwidth & Unreliable channel

    Raju Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The security of bio-metric information finger print, retina mapping, DNA mapping and some otherchemical and biological modified genes related information - transfer through low bandwidth andunreliable or covert channel is challenging task. Therefore, Security of biometric information is essentialrequirement in this fast developing communication world. Thus, in this paper, we propose efficient andeffective mechanism for confidentiality and authentication for biometric information transmitted by usingarithmetic encoding representation over low bandwidth and unreliable channel. It enhances the speed ofencryption, decryption and authentication process. It uses arithmetic encoding scheme and public keycryptography e.g. modified version of RSA algorithm called RSA-2 algorithm.

  20. Confidentiality & Authentication Mechanism for Biometric Information Transmitted over Low Bandwidth & Unreliable channel

    Singh, Raju

    2011-01-01

    The security of bio-metric information - finger print, retina mapping, DNA mapping and some other chemical and biological modified genes related information - transfer through low bandwidth and unreliable or covert channel is challenging task. Therefore, Security of biometric information is essential requirement in this fast developing communication world. Thus, in this paper, we propose efficient and effective mechanism for confidentiality and authentication for biometric information transmitted by using arithmetic encoding representation over low bandwidth and unreliable channel. It enhances the speed of encryption, decryption and authentication process. It uses arithmetic encoding scheme and public key cryptography e.g. modified version of RSA algorithm called RSA-2 algorithm.

  1. Coherence bandwidth characterization in an urban microcell at 62.4 GHz

    Sánchez, M. G.; Hammoudeh, A. M.; Grindrod, E.; Kermoal, Jean Philippe

    2000-01-01

    Results of experiments made at 62.4 GHz in an urban mobile radio environment to characterize the coherence bandwidth are presented. The correlation coefficients between signal envelopes separated in frequency are measured and expressed as functions of distance from the base station. Due to the hi...... this parameter from the frequency correlation function obtained at each position may yield incorrect results. The coherence bandwidths for correlation levels of 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 are given. A ray-tracing tool has been used to assist in interpreting experimental results....

  2. Optical Characteristics of a Multichannel Hybrid Integrated Light Source for Ultra-High-Bandwidth Optical Interconnections

    Takanori Shimizu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The optical characteristics of a multi-channel hybrid integrated light source were described for an optical interconnection with a bandwidth of over 10 Tbit/s. The power uniformity of the relative intensity of a 1000-channel light source was shown, and the minimum standard deviation s of the optical power of the 200 output ports at each 25-channel laser diode (LD array was estimated to be 0.49 dB. This hybrid integrated light source is expected to be easily adaptable to a photonics-electronics convergence system for ultra-high-bandwidth interchip interconnections.

  3. A large bandwidth photonic delay line using passive cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators

    This paper investigated the design and the characterization of a photonic delay line based on passive cascaded silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microrings. We considered the compromise of group delay, bandwidth and insertion loss. A 3-stage double channel side-coupled integrated spaced sequence of resonator (SCISSOR) device was optimized by shifting the resonance of each microring and fabricated with electron beam lithography and dry etching. The group delay was measured to be 17 ps for non-return-to-zero signals at different bit rates and the bandwidth of 78 GHz was achieved. The experiment result agreed well with our simulation. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  4. QoS Study Based On IEEE 802.16 Bandwidth Scheduling Strategy

    Jun Tu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available on the basis of presenting the existing problems of the QoS multimedia services in IEEE802.16, this paper analyzes the disadvantage and advantage of current bandwidth scheduling strategy based on IEEE802.16. Then an improvement strategy of IEEE802.16 PMP network model is proposed based on existing strict priority scheduling strategy. Finally, through the simulation data, it proves that the strategy can ensure the QoS performance and fairness of bandwidth allocation between various multimedia communication services.  

  5. Slow light in tunable low dispersion wide bandwidth photonic crystal waveguides infiltrated with magnetic fluids

    Guillan-Lorenzo, Omar; Diaz-Otero, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the properties of a photonic crystal waveguide as a device capable of producing slow light along a wide bandwidth. The proposed structure consists of a square lattice of hollow silicon cylinders rotated 45 immersed on a colloidal suspension of magnetic nanoparticles; this arrangement produces "U-type" group index-frequency curves. The cylinder inner radius is carefully chosen to maximize the normalized delay bandwidth product (NDBP) and the concentration of the magnetic fluid is changed in order to make the device tunable in frequency.

  6. Gap-Coupling: A Potential Method for Enhancing the Bandwidth of Microstrip Antennas

    G. Singh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a technical review on gap-coupled microstrip antennas is presented. The gap-coupled microstrip antennas give a large bandwidth as compared to the conventional microstrip antennas. The method of bandwidth enhancement using gap-coupled microstrip antennas has been elaborated. The gap-coupled microstrip antennas also produce two resonances. The dual frequency operation of the gap-coupled microstrip antenna is also described. A research overview of gap-coupled microstrip antennas, challenges, types of gap-coupled microstrip antennas as well as numerical methods of calculating various parameters of the gap-coupled microstrip antennas are discussed in this paper.

  7. Gain-switched, Yb-doped, all-fiber laser with narrow bandwidth

    Larsen, Casper; Giesberts, Martin; Nyga, Sebastian; Fitzau, Oliver; Hoffmann, Hans Dieter; Bang, Ole

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that an all-fiber, narrow bandwidth, high pulse energy pulsed laser can be constructed from commercially available components by applying gain-switching. After single-stage amplification the pulses are frequency doubled in ppSLT with high efficiency.......We demonstrate that an all-fiber, narrow bandwidth, high pulse energy pulsed laser can be constructed from commercially available components by applying gain-switching. After single-stage amplification the pulses are frequency doubled in ppSLT with high efficiency....

  8. Pulse generation without gain-bandwidth limitation in a laser with self-similar evolution

    Chong, A.; H. Liu; Nie, B.; Bale, B. G.; Wabnitz, S.; Renninger, W. H.; Dantus, M.; Wise, F.W.

    2012-01-01

    With existing techniques for mode-locking, the bandwidth of ultrashort pulses from a laser is determined primarily by the spectrum of the gain medium. Lasers with self-similar evolution of the pulse in the gain medium can tolerate strong spectral breathing, which is stabilized by nonlinear attraction to the parabolic self-similar pulse. Here we show that this property can be exploited in a fiber laser to eliminate the gain-bandwidth limitation to the pulse duration. Broad (∼200 nm) spectra ar...

  9. Complexity and bandwidth enhancement in unidirectionally coupled semiconductor lasers with time-delayed optical feedback

    Kanno, Kazutaka; Uchida, Atsushi; Bunsen, Masatoshi

    2016-03-01

    We numerically investigate the frequency bandwidth and the autocorrelation characteristics of chaotic temporal wave forms in unidirectionally coupled semiconductor lasers with time-delayed optical feedback. We evaluate the complexity of the chaotic temporal wave forms by using Lyapunov exponents. We found that larger maximum Lyapunov exponents can be obtained for smaller peak values of the autocorrelation function at the delay time of the optical feedback. On the contrary, the maximum Lyapunov exponent is independent from the frequency bandwidth of the chaotic temporal wave forms.

  10. An efficient Bandwidth Demand Estimation for Delay Reduction in IEEE 802.16j MMR WiMAX Networks

    Fath Elrahman Ismael

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.16j MMR WiMAX networks allow the number of hops between the user andthe MMR-BS to be more than two hops. The standard bandwidth request procedure inWiMAX network introduces much delay to the user data and acknowledgement of theTCP packet that affects the performance and throughput of the network. In this paper,we propose a new scheduling scheme to reduce the bandwidth request delay in MMRnetworks. In this scheme, the MMR-BS allocates bandwidth to its direct subordinate RSswithout bandwidth request using Grey prediction algorithm to estimate the requiredbandwidth of each of its subordinate RS. Using this architecture, the access RS canallocate its subordinate MSs the required bandwidth without notification to the MMR-BS.Our scheduling architecture with efficient bandwidth demand estimation able to reducedelay significantly.

  11. A new bandwidth adaptive non-local kernel regression algorithm for image/video restoration and its GPU realization

    Wang, C.; Chan, SC

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new bandwidth adaptive nonlocal kernel regression (BA-NLKR) algorithm for image and video restoration. NLKR is a recent approach for improving the performance of conventional steering kernel regression (SKR) and local polynomial regression (LPR) in image/video processing. Its bandwidth, which controls the amount of smoothing, however is chosen empirically. The proposed algorithm incorporates the intersecting confidence intervals (ICI) bandwidth selection method into the ...

  12. BANDWIDTH ENHANCED E- SHAPED MICROSTRIP ANTENNA WITH PAIR OF WIDE SLITS

    Shushant Kumar Jain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A single-layer single-patch wideband microstrip antenna could be developed, and impedance bandwidth greater than 30% can easily be achieved for a microstrip antenna with a probe feed, A broad-band design of a probe-fed rectangular patch antenna with a pair of wide slits is studied, and the simulated, radiation characteristics are studied. The proposed design is with an air substrate of thickness about 8% of the wavelength of the center operating frequency, the proposed antenna have an impedance bandwidth about 31.32%, with respect to center frequency. For frequencies within the impedance bandwidth, good radiation characteristics are also observed, with a peak antenna gain about 9.3 dBi.  in this paper the wide slits are inserted at one of the radiating edges of the rectangular patch and increasing the length, width of slits and reducing the distance between them upto the specific limit the, proposed design has achieved the wide impedance bandwidth and good radiation characteristics details of the proposed antenna and Some simulation results obtained by IE3D and are given.

  13. Low-Bandwidth Channel Quality Indication for OFDMA Frequency Domain Packet Scheduling

    Kolding, Troels E.; Frederiksen, Frank; Pokhariyal, Akhilesh

     In this paper, we study methods for lowering the bandwidth needed for the UE to transmit channel quality indication (CQI) for time and frequency domain scheduling (FDPS) in OFDMA. We consider smart compression methods, such as threshold based indication, to only include scheduler-relevant inform...

  14. A low-noise PLL design achieved by optimizing the loop bandwidth

    This paper describes a low-noise phase-locked loop (PLL) design method to achieve minimum jitter. Based on the phase noise properties extracted from the transistor, and the low-pass or high-pass transfer characteristics of different noise sources to the output, an optimal loop bandwidth design method, derived from a continuous-time PLL model, further improves the jitter characteristics of the PLL. The described method not only finds the optimal loop-bandwidth to minimize the overall PLL jitter, but also achieves optimal loop-bandwidth by changing the value of the resistor or charge pump current. In addition, a phase-domain behavioral model in ADS is presented for accurately predicting improved jitter performance of a PLL at system level. A prototype PLL designed in a 0.18μm CMOS technology is used to investigate the accuracy of the theoretical predictions. The simulation shows significant performance improvement by using the proposed method. The simulated RMS and peak-to-peak jitter of the PLL at the optimal loop-bandwidth are 10.262 ps and 46.851 ps, respectively. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. 4Bs or Not 4Bs: Bricks, Bytes, Brains, and Bandwidth

    Treat, Tod

    2011-01-01

    The effective integration of planning to include bricks, bytes, brains, and bandwidth (the 4Bs) represents an opportunity for community colleges to extend their capacity as knowledge-intensive organizations, coupling knowledge, technology, and learning. Integration is important to ensure that the interplay among organizations, agents within them,…

  16. Towards Bandwidth Scalable Transceiver Technology for Optical Metro-Access Networks

    Spolitis, Sandis; Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs; Wagner, Christoph; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment is creating a challenge for telecommunications network operators: exponential increase of the power consumption at the central offices and a never ending quest for equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. In this paper, we report on flexible s...

  17. Experimental demonstration of an improved EPON architecture using OFDMA for bandwidth scalable LAN emulation

    Deng, Lei; Zhao, Ying; Yu, Xianbin; Arlunno, Valeria; Borkowski, Robert; Liu, Deming; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an improved Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) architecture supporting bandwidth-scalable physical layer local area network (LAN) emulation. Due to the use of orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) technology for the LAN traffic transmission, there i...

  18. A New Bandwidth Interval Based Forecasting Method for Enrollments Using Fuzzy Time Series

    Hemant Kumar Pathak; Prachi Singh

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the concept of (4/3)? bandwidth interval based forecasting. The historical enrollments of the university of Alabama are used to illustrate the proposed method. In this paper we use the new simplified technique to find the fuzzy logical relations.

  19. Understanding the Theory and Practice of Molecular Spectroscopy: The Effects of Spectral Bandwidth

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Steer, Ronald P.

    2010-01-01

    The near-UV spectrum of benzene is used to illustrate the effects of variations in instrument spectral bandwidth on absorbance and molar absorptivity measurements and on the independence of values of quantities such as the oscillator strength that are based on integrated absorptivity. Excel-based computer simulations are provided that help develop…

  20. An Improved QoS Multipath Routing Using Bandwidth Estimation and Rate Adaptation

    S. Suganya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs are composed of nodes which communicate with one another without network infrastructure. Their advantage being that they can be used in isolation or along with wired infrastructure, usually via a gateway node to ensure traffic relay for both networks. Quality of Service (QoS is harder to ensure in ad hoc networks than in other network types, as wireless bandwidth is shared by adjacent nodes with network topology changing as nodes move. Most QoS protocols are implemented for specific scenarios and consider parameters such as network topologies, bandwidth, mobility, security and so on. This work proposes a novel multipath routing protocol which is an extension of AOMDV by discovering routes based on available bandwidth and rate adaptation. The method with Hello message box is used to calculate available bandwidth for a route. Relative Fairness and Optimized Throughput is an approach for rate adaptation in this paper which is to ensure fairness and allow nodes to adapt transmission rates and contention windows to channel quality. In sequence this is determined by calculating the access probability of a channel for each node in a distributed manner approximating successful and failed transmissions.

  1. Modulation bandwidth enhancement of white-LED-based visible light communications using electrical equalizations

    Kwon, D. H.; Yang, S. H.; Han, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the modulation capability of LEDs, there have been many studies about convergence technology to combine illumination and communication. The visible light communication (VLC) system has several advantages such as high security, immunity to RF interference and lower additional cost than comparing to LEDs just for illumination. However, modulation bandwidth of LEDs is not enough for various wireless communication systems. Since the commercial LEDs are designed only for lighting systems; we need an effort to enhance the modulation characteristics of LEDs. When the area of LED is increased, internal junction capacitance of LED is also increased depending on the area of LEDs and then the RC delay time of LED is increased. As a result, the modulation bandwidth of LEDs is limited by large RC delay time. In addition, frequency response of commercial white LED is degraded by the slow response time of the used yellow phosphor. Thus, modulation bandwidth of VLC system is limited to several MHz which is not enough to accommodate high data rate transmission. In this paper, we designed equalization circuit using RLC component for compensating the white LEDs frequency response. Also, we used blue filtering to improve frequency response of white LEDs, which is degraded by yellow phosphorescent component. Power loss by optical filtering and distance is compensated by convex lens. Consequently, we extend the modulation bandwidth of VLC system from 3 MHz to more than 180 MHz, and it allows NRZ-OOK data transmission up to 400 Mbps at 50 cm.

  2. TOLPA (Tripod Omnidirectional Low Profile Antenna): a vertically polarized antenna with 90% bandwidth

    Zürcher, J.-F.

    2013-01-01

    A new vertically polarized omnidirectional antenna, inspired by an old design, has been studied, optimized, realized and measured. With a radiation pattern similar to the classical monopole on a ground plane, the proposed antenna concept provides a much larger bandwidth and a very low profile. This antenna has numerous potential applications for mobile communications, UWB and others.

  3. Note: Expanding the bandwidth of the ultra-low current amplifier using an artificial negative capacitor

    Xie, Kai; Liu, Yan; Li, XiaoPing; Guo, Lixin; Zhang, Hanlu

    2016-04-01

    The bandwidth and low noise characteristics are often contradictory in ultra-low current amplifier, because an inevitable parasitic capacitance is paralleled with the high value feedback resistor. In order to expand the amplifier's bandwidth, a novel approach was proposed by introducing an artificial negative capacitor to cancel the parasitic capacitance. The theory of the negative capacitance and the performance of the improved amplifier circuit with the negative capacitor are presented in this manuscript. The test was conducted by modifying an ultra-low current amplifier with a trans-impedance gain of 50 GΩ. The results show that the maximum bandwidth was expanded from 18.7 Hz to 3.3 kHz with more than 150 times of increase when the parasitic capacitance (˜0.17 pF) was cancelled. Meanwhile, the rise time decreased from 18.7 ms to 0.26 ms with no overshot. Any desired bandwidth or rise time within these ranges can be obtained by adjusting the ratio of cancellation of the parasitic and negative capacitance. This approach is especially suitable for the demand of rapid response to weak current, such as transient ion-beam detector, mass spectrometry analysis, and fast scanning microscope.

  4. Electroencephalographic effects of ketamine on power, cross-frequency coupling and connectivity in the alpha bandwidth

    Stefanie Blain-Moraes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of propofol-induced unconsciousness have identified characteristic properties of electroencephalographic alpha rhythms that may be mediated by drug activity at -aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors in the thalamus. However, the effect of ketamine, a non-GABAergic anesthetic drug, on alpha oscillations has not been systematically evaluated. We analyzed the electroencephalogram of 28 surgical patients during consciousness and ketamine-induced unconsciousness with a focus on frontal power, frontal cross-frequency coupling, frontal-parietal functional connectivity (measured by coherence and phase lag index, and frontal-to-parietal directional connectivity (measured by directed phase lag index in the alpha bandwidth. Unlike past studies of propofol, ketamine-induced unconsciousness was not associated with increases in the power of frontal alpha rhythms, characteristic cross-frequency coupling patterns of frontal alpha power and slow-oscillation phase, or decreases in coherence in the alpha bandwidth. Like past studies of propofol using undirected and directed phase lag index, ketamine reduced frontal-parietal (functional and frontal-to-parietal (directional connectivity in the alpha bandwidth. These results suggest that directional connectivity changes in the alpha bandwidth may be state-related markers of unconsciousness induced by both GABAergic and non-GABAergic anesthetics.

  5. Performance of a High-Concentration Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier with 100 nm Amplification Bandwidth

    Increasing demand for higher bandwidth has driven the need for higher Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) channels. One of the requirements to achieve this is a broadband amplifier. This paper reports the performance of a broadband, compact, high-concentration and silica-based erbium-doped fiber amplifier. The amplifier optimized to a 2.15 m long erbium-doped fiber with erbium ion concentration of 2000 ppm. The gain spectrum of the amplifier has a measured amplification bandwidth of 100 nm using a 980 nm laser diode with power of 150 mW. This silica-based EDFA shows lower noise figure, higher gain and wider bandwidth in shorter wavelengths compared to Bismuth-based EDFA with higher erbium ion concentration of 3250 ppm at equivalent EDF length. The silica-based EDF shows peak gain at 22 dB and amplification bandwidth between 1520 nm and 1620 nm. The lowest noise figure is 5 dB. The gain is further improved with the implementation of enhanced EDFA configurations.

  6. Dual Polarized near Field Probe Based on OMJ in Waveguide Technology Achieving More Than Octave Bandwidth

    Foged, L. J.; Giacomini, A.; Morbidini, R.; Schirosi, V.; Pivnenko, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    correction techniques for high-order probes are feasible [6], they are highly demanding in terms of implementation complexity as well as in terms of calibration and post-processing time. In this paper, a new OMJ designed entirely in waveguide and capable of covering more than an octave bandwidth is presented...

  7. Speeding up the Algorithm for Finding Optimal Kernel Bandwidth in Spike Train Analysis

    Šanda, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2010), s. 73-75. ISSN 1801-5603 Grant ostatní: Univerzita Karlova(CZ) SVV-2010-265-513 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neural coding * kernel bandwidth estimation * parallel computing Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  8. The research of methods to improve the control bandwidth for liquid crystal beam steering system

    Hao, Ya-jing; Huang, Yong-mei; Wu, Qiong-yan; Xiao, Wen-ben

    2013-08-01

    The liquid crystal beam steering technology with low driving voltage, high diffraction efficiency and without the effect of mechanical inertia?is regard as a potential technology in the field of non-mechanical beam steering. Liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM) can be applied as a beam steering control device in laser communication, and it can realize the programmable control in real time. And compared with fast steering mirror (FSM), which is widely used at present, LCSLM is smaller, lighter and lower power consumptive in a non-mechanical way, so it's convenient to control. But the system bandwidth is a restricted problem in the research. In this article, the principle of beam steering with LCSLM is introduced firstly. A beam steering bench is set up using reflective pure-phase LCSLM from BNS. The offset of beam spot is detected by the CCD and a classic PI close-loop control experiment is designed to test the system bandwidth. And then the factors which restricted the control bandwidth are analyzed. Considering the effect of the CCD' frame rate, the PSD with higher frame rate is used in the control system and the data model of the liquid crystal is tested. A controller is designed based on the data model and the bandwidth is improved observably.

  9. Efficient Bandwidth Allocation for Integrated Services in Broadband Wireless ATM Networks

    Liu, Hong; Dittmann, Lars; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Danielsen, Per Lander

    1999-01-01

    An efficient bandwidth allocation scheme is proposed for supporting intergrated services in wireless ATM networks. These include CBR, VBR amd ABR types of traffic. The proposed scheme is based om A-PRMA for carrying ATM traffic in a dynamic TDMA type access system. It allows mobile users to adjust...

  10. Bandwidth Dependence of Laser Plasma Instabilities Driven by the Nike KrF Laser

    Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C. M.; Obenschain, S.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Phillips, L.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E.; Manka, C.; Feldman, U.

    2011-10-01

    The Nike krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser at the Naval Research Laboratory operates in the deep UV (248 nm) and employs beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). In the first ISI studies at longer wavelengths (1054 nm and 527 nm) [Obenschain, PRL 62, 768(1989);Mostovych, PRL, 59, 1193(1987); Peyser, Phys. Fluids B 3, 1479(1991)], stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and the two plasmon decay instability were reduced when wide bandwidth ISI (δν / ν ~ 0.03-0.19%) pulses irradiated targets at moderate to high intensities (1014-1015W/cm2) . Recent Nike work showed that the threshold for quarter critical instabilities increased with the expected wavelength scaling, without accounting for the large bandwidth (δν ~ 1-3 THz). New experiments will compare laser plasma instabilities (LPI) driven by narrower bandwidth pulses to those observed with the standard operation. The bandwidth of KrF lasers can be reduced by adding narrow filters (etalons or gratings) in the initial stages of the laser. This talk will discuss the method used to narrow the output spectrum of Nike, the laser performance for this new operating mode, and target observations of LPI in planar CH targets. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  11. The effect of noise fluctuation and spectral bandwidth on gap detection.

    Hall, Joseph W; Buss, Emily; Ozmeral, Erol J; Grose, John H

    2016-04-01

    Experiment 1 investigated gap detection for random and low-fluctuation noise (LFN) markers as a function of bandwidth (25-1600 Hz), level [40 or 75 dB sound pressure level (SPL)], and center frequency (500-4000 Hz). Gap thresholds for random noise improved as bandwidth increased from 25 to 1600 Hz, but there were only minor effects related to center frequency and level. For narrow bandwidths, thresholds were lower for LFN than random markers; this difference extended to higher bandwidths at the higher center frequencies and was particularly large at high stimulus level. Effects of frequency and level were broadly consistent with the idea that peripheral filtering can increase fluctuation in the encoded LFN stimulus. Experiment 2 tested gap detection for 200-Hz-wide noise bands centered on 2000 Hz, using high-pass maskers to examine spread of excitation effects. Such effects were absent or minor for random noise markers and the 40-dB-SPL LFN markers. In contrast, some high-pass maskers substantially worsened performance for the 75-dB-SPL LFN markers. These results were consistent with an interpretation that relatively acute gap detection for the high-level LFN gap markers resulted from spread of excitation to higher-frequency auditory filters where the magnitude and phase characteristics of the LFN stimuli are better preserved. PMID:27106308

  12. Design of a smart material electro-hydraulic actuator with improved frequency bandwidth

    Larson, John P.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2012-04-01

    Smart material electro-hydraulic actuators utilize fluid rectification by one-way valves to convert the small, high-frequency, high-force motions of smart materials such as piezoelectrics and magnetostrictives into useful motions of a hydraulic cylinder. These actuators have potential to replace centralized hydraulic pumps and lines with lightweight, compact, power-by-wire systems. This paper presents the design and testing of an improved actuator system. To increase the frequency bandwidth of operation, a lumped-parameter model is developed and validated based on experimental study of a pump with a performance capacity of 18.4 W. The critical parameters for pump performance are identified and their effect on pump performance assessed. The geometry of the hydraulic manifold that integrates the smart material pump and the output hydraulic cylinder is found to be critical for determining the effective system bandwidth.

  13. Tunable bandwidth of pass-band metamaterial filter based on coupling of localized surface plasmon resonance

    Han, Bing; Dong, Beibei; Nan, Jingyu; Zhong, Min

    2015-12-01

    A broad pass-band compound structure metamaterial is designed which consists of periodic two metallic particles and hole arrays. The operating bandwidth of the designed structure reaches to ?f ? 33.8 THz. Physical mechanisms are analyzed and validated based on calculated electric field distribution that the interaction and coupled of LSP modes between two metallic particles leads to the bandwidth increased and resonance frequency blue-shifted, while the interaction and coupled between metallic particle and metallic arrays results in the reduced of the pass-band. The pass-band can be expanded through reducing the permittivity of dielectric layer or reducing the width of the metallic particle (a). The effect of the angles of incidence on the pass-band is also analyzed for normal, 15, 30 and 45.

  14. Enhancing the Bandwidth of Gravitational-Wave Detectors with Unstable Optomechanical Filters

    Miao, Haixing; Ma, Yiqiu; Zhao, Chunnong; Chen, Yanbei

    2015-11-01

    Advanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors use optical cavities to resonantly enhance their shot-noise-limited sensitivity. Because of positive dispersion of these cavitiessignals at different frequencies pick up different phases, there is a tradeoff between the detector bandwidth and peak sensitivity, which is a universal feature for quantum measurement devices having resonant cavities. We consider embedding an active unstable filter inside the interferometer to compensate the phase, and using feedback control to stabilize the entire system. We show that this scheme in principle can enhance the bandwidth without sacrificing the peak sensitivity. However, the unstable filter under our current consideration is a cavity-assisted optomechanical device operating in the instability regime, and the thermal fluctuation of the mechanical oscillator puts a very stringent requirement on the environmental temperature and the mechanical quality factor.

  15. Optimization of Connector Position Offset for Bandwidth Enhancement of a Multimode Optical Fiber Link

    Rawat, Banmali

    2000-01-01

    The multimode fiber bandwidth enhancement techniques to meet the Gigabit Ethernet standards for local area networks (LAN) of the Kennedy Space Center and other NASA centers have been discussed. Connector with lateral offset coupling between single mode launch fiber cable and the multimode fiber cable has been thoroughly investigated. An optimization of connector position offset for 8 km long optical fiber link at 1300 nm with 9 micrometer diameter single mode fiber (SMF) and 50 micrometer diameter multimode fiber (MMF) coupling has been obtained. The optimization is done in terms of bandwidth, eye-pattern, and bit pattern measurements. It is simpler, is a highly practical approach and is cheaper as no additional cost to manufacture the offset type of connectors is involved.

  16. Narrow-bandwidth solar upconversion: design principles, efficiency limits, and case studies

    Briggs, Justin A; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2013-01-01

    We employ a detailed balance approach to model a single-junction solar cell with a realistic narrow-band, non-unity-quantum-yield upconverter. As upconverter bandwidths are increased from 0 to 0.5 eV, maximum cell efficiencies increase from the Shockley-Queisser limit of 30.58% to over 43%. Such efficiency enhancements are calculated for upconverters with near-infrared spectral absorption bands, readily accessible with existing upconverters. While our model shows that current bimolecular and lanthanide-based upconverting materials will improve cell efficiencies by <1%, cell efficiencies can increase by several absolute percent with increased upconverter quantum yield - even without an increased absorption bandwidth. By examining the efficiency limits of a highly realistic solar cell-upconverter system, our model provides a platform for optimizing future solar upconverter designs.

  17. Angular spectrum-based wave-propagation method with compact space bandwidth for large propagation distances.

    Kozacki, Tomasz; Falaggis, Konstantinos

    2015-07-15

    Rigorous propagation methods enable diffraction calculations at high NA. However, for the case of large propagation distances and full NA calculations of a signal, common solutions require zero padding or upsampling. This Letter overcomes these problems by introducing a sampling scheme based on compact space bandwidth product representation, which adjusts the sampling frequency of input and propagated field according to the evolution of the generalized space bandwidth product. This sampling concept allows proposing a novel AS method enabling high efficiency, high accuracy, and high-NA diffraction computations at larger propagation distances without need of zero padding or upsampling. The method has several advantages: (1) high accuracy for larger propagation distances; (2) reduced sampling with minimal computation effort; (3) zooming capability; and (4) both focusing and defocusing propagations possible. PMID:26176484

  18. Blended Learning Resources in Constrained Bandwidth Environment: Considerations for Network and Multimedia Optimization

    Jude Lubega

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of multimedia teaching and learning approach at higher education is well recognized by researchers, as it is a powerful tool to increase the perceived level of user satisfaction, leading to enhance the blended learning process. However, the learning process can be improved significantly by delivering the content using visual media (video, audio, and graphics. On the other hand, such multimedia contents require larger bandwidth for transmission over the Internet, which is limited in developing environments where demand always exceeds the resource. This paper constructs a framework comprising of network optimization and multimedia optimization, as two main components, aimed to improve the multimedia performance in the context of constrained bandwidth environment.

  19. Single-Shot Rotational Raman Thermometry for Turbulent Flames Using a Low-Resolution Bandwidth Technique

    Kojima, Jun; Nguyen, Quang-Viet

    2007-01-01

    An alternative optical thermometry technique that utilizes the low-resolution (order 10(exp 1)/cm) pure-rotational spontaneous Raman scattering of air is developed to aid single-shot multiscalar measurements in turbulent combustion studies. Temperature measurements are realized by correlating the measured envelope bandwidth of the pure-rotational manifold of the N2/O2 spectrum with a theoretical prediction of a species-weighted bandwidth. By coupling this thermometry technique with conventional vibrational Raman scattering for species determination, we demonstrate quantitative spatially resolved, single-shot measurements of the temperature and fuel/oxidizer concentrations in a high-pressure turbulent Cf4-air flame. Our technique provides not only an effective means of validating other temperature measurement methods, but also serves as a secondary thermometry technique in cases where the anti-Stokes vibrational N2 Raman signals are too low for a conventional vibrational temperature analysis.

  20. Single-shot rotational Raman thermometry for turbulent flames using a low-resolution bandwidth technique

    An alternative optical thermometry technique that utilizes the low-resolution (order 101 cm−1) pure-rotational spontaneous Raman scattering of air is developed to aid single-shot multiscalar measurements in turbulent combustion studies. Temperature measurements are realized by correlating the measured envelope bandwidth of the pure-rotational manifold of the N2/O2 spectrum with a theoretical prediction of a species-weighted bandwidth. By coupling this thermometry technique with conventional vibrational Raman scattering for species determination, we demonstrate quantitative spatially resolved, single-shot measurements of the temperature and fuel/oxidizer concentrations in a high-pressure turbulent CH4–air flame. Our technique provides not only an effective means of validating other temperature measurement methods, but also serves as a secondary thermometry technique in cases where the anti-Stokes vibrational N2 Raman signals are too low for a conventional vibrational temperature analysis

  1. Extremely large bandwidth and ultralow-dispersion slow light in photonic crystal waveguides with magnetically controllability

    Pu, Shengli; Wang, Haotian; Wang, Ning; Zeng, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    and c are the period of the lattice and the light speed in vacuum, respectively). Simultaneously, the normalized delay-bandwidth product is relatively large and almost invariant with magnetic field strength. It is indicated that using magnetic fluid as one of the constitutive materials of the photonic......A line-defect waveguide within a two-dimensional magnetic-fluid-based photonic crystal with 45o-rotated square lattice is presented to have excellent slow light properties. The bandwidth centered at $$ \\lambda_{0} $$ = 1,550 nm of our designed W1 waveguide is around 66 nm, which is very large than...... crystal structures can enable the magnetically fine tunability of the slow light in online mode. The concept and results of this work may give a guideline for studying and realizing tunable slow light based on the external-stimulus-responsive materials....

  2. High-fidelity polarization storage in a gigahertz bandwidth quantum memory

    We demonstrate a dual-rail optical Raman memory inside a polarization interferometer; this enables us to store polarization-encoded information at GHz bandwidths in a room-temperature atomic ensemble. By performing full process tomography on the system, we measure up to 97 ± 1% process fidelity for the storage and retrieval process. At longer storage times, the process fidelity remains high, despite a loss of efficiency. The fidelity is 86 ± 4% for 1.5 μs storage time, which is 5000 times the pulse duration. Hence, high fidelity is combined with a large time-bandwidth product. This high performance, with an experimentally simple setup, demonstrates the suitability of the Raman memory for integration into large-scale quantum networks. (paper)

  3. Bandwidth enhancement for parametric amplifiers operated in chirped multi-beam mode

    Terranova, F; Pegoraro, F

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the bandwidth enhancement that can be achieved in multi-Joule OPCPA systems exploiting the tunability of parametric amplification. In particular, we consider a pair of single pass amplifiers based on DKDP, pumped by the second harmonic of Nd:glass and tuned to amplify adjacent regions of the signal spectrum. We demonstrate that a bandwidth enhancement up to 50% is possible in two configurations; in the first case, one of the two amplifiers is operated near its non-collinear broadband limit; to allow for effective recombination and recompression of the outgoing signals this configuration requires filtering and phase manipulation of the spectral tail of the amplified pulses. In the second case, effective recombination can be achieved simply by spectral filtering: in this configuration, the optimization of the parameters of the amplifiers (pulse, crystal orientation and crystal length) does not follow the recipes of non-collinear OPCPA.

  4. Pickup design for high bandwidth bunch arrival-time monitors in free-electron lasers

    Angelovski, Aleksandar; Penirschke, Andreas; Jakoby, Rolf [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Mikrowellentechnik und Photonik; Kuhl, Alexander; Schnepp, Sascha [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Graduate School of Computational Engineering; Bock, Marie Kristin; Bousonville, Michael; Schlarb, Holger [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Weiland, Thomas [TU Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder

    2012-07-01

    The increased demands for low bunch charge operation mode in the free-electron lasers (FELs) require an upgrade of the existing synchronization equipment. As a part of the laser-based synchronization system, the bunch arrival-time monitors (BAMs) should have a sub-10 femtosecond precision for high and low bunch charge operation. In order to fulfill the resolution demands for both modes of operation, the bandwidth of such a BAM should be increased up to a cutoff frequency of 40 GHz. In this talk, we present the design and the realization of high bandwidth cone-shaped pickup electrodes as a part of the BAM for the FEL in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL). The proposed pickup was simulated with CST STUDIO SUITE, and a non-hermetic model was built up for radio frequency (rf) measurements.

  5. Pickup design for high bandwidth bunch arrival-time monitors in free-electron lasers

    The increased demands for low bunch charge operation mode in the free-electron lasers (FELs) require an upgrade of the existing synchronization equipment. As a part of the laser-based synchronization system, the bunch arrival-time monitors (BAMs) should have a sub-10 femtosecond precision for high and low bunch charge operation. In order to fulfill the resolution demands for both modes of operation, the bandwidth of such a BAM should be increased up to a cutoff frequency of 40 GHz. In this talk, we present the design and the realization of high bandwidth cone-shaped pickup electrodes as a part of the BAM for the FEL in Hamburg (FLASH) and the European X-ray free-electron laser (European XFEL). The proposed pickup was simulated with CST STUDIO SUITE, and a non-hermetic model was built up for radio frequency (rf) measurements.

  6. Enhancing the Bandwidth of Gravitational-Wave Detectors with Unstable Optomechanical Filters.

    Miao, Haixing; Ma, Yiqiu; Zhao, Chunnong; Chen, Yanbei

    2015-11-20

    Advanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors use optical cavities to resonantly enhance their shot-noise-limited sensitivity. Because of positive dispersion of these cavities-signals at different frequencies pick up different phases, there is a tradeoff between the detector bandwidth and peak sensitivity, which is a universal feature for quantum measurement devices having resonant cavities. We consider embedding an active unstable filter inside the interferometer to compensate the phase, and using feedback control to stabilize the entire system. We show that this scheme in principle can enhance the bandwidth without sacrificing the peak sensitivity. However, the unstable filter under our current consideration is a cavity-assisted optomechanical device operating in the instability regime, and the thermal fluctuation of the mechanical oscillator puts a very stringent requirement on the environmental temperature and the mechanical quality factor. PMID:26636839

  7. Improving bandwidth rectangular patch antenna using different thickness of dielectric substrate

    Karim A. Hamad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Microstrip patch antenna has some drawbacks of low efficiency, narrow band (<5%, and surface wave losses. In this paper the solution method was used different thickness of dielectric substrate (h= 4, 6 and 8 mm to increase bandwidth, the simulated results for rectangular give bandwidth of (200 MHZ in case (h=6mm.A rectangular micro strip patch antenna that meets the requirement of operation at (2.4 GHZ, the proposed configurations are simulated and analyzed using microwave office 2000 software package. The VSWR, input impedance, radiation patterns and S11 performance are used for the analysis of the different configurations. Feed point on the patch that gives a good match of 50 ohm, input impedance was found by a method of trial and error.

  8. Anamorphic Spectrum Transform and its Application to Time-Bandwidth Compression

    Asghari, Mohammad H

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical transform for compressing the time-bandwidth product of analog signals is introduced. As one of its applications, this physics-based signal grooming allows a conventional digitizer to sample and digitize the analog signal with variable resolution. The net result is that frequency components that were beyond the digitizer bandwidth can now be captured and, at the same time, the total digital data volume is reduced. This analog compression is loss-less and is made possible because the proposed transformation, performed prior to sampling, causes more samples to be allocated to higher frequencies, where they are needed, and less to lower frequencies, where they are redundant. Our method is inspired by operation of Fovea centralis in human eye and by anamorphic transformation in visual arts. The proposed transform can also be performed in digital domain as a data compression algorithm to alleviate the storage and transmission bottlenecks of big data.

  9. Wideband Spectroscopy: The Design and Implementation of a 3 GHz Bandwidth, 8192 Channel, Polyphase Digital Spectrometer

    Monroe, Ryan M.

    2011-01-01

    A family of state-of-the-art digital Fourier transform spectrometers has been developed, with a combination of high bandwidth and fine resolution unavailable elsewhere. Analog signals consisting of radiation emitted by constituents in planetary atmospheres or galactic sources are downconverted and subsequently digitized by a pair of interleaved Analog-to-Digital Converters, (ADC). This 6 Gsps (giga-sample per second) digital representation of the analog signal is then processed through an FPGA-based streaming Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), the key development described below. Digital spectrometers have many advantages over previously used analog spectrometers, especially in terms of accuracy and resolution, both of which are particularly important for the type of scientific questions to be addressed with next-generation radiometers. the implementation, results and underlying math for this spectrometer, as well as, potential for future extension to even higher bandwidth, resolution and channel orthogonality, needed to support proposed future advanced atmospheric science and radioastronomy, are discussed.

  10. Interference and Bandwidth Adjusted (ETX) in Wireless Multi-hop Networks

    Javaid, Nadeem; Djouani, Karim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new quality link metric, interference and bandwidth adjusted ETX (IBETX) for wireless multi-hop networks. As MAC layer affects the link performance and consequently the route quality, the metric therefore, tackles the issue by achieving twofold MAC-awareness. Firstly, interference is calculated using cross-layered approach by sending probes to MAC layer. Secondly, the nominal bit rate information is provided to all nodes in the same contention domain by considering the bandwidth sharing mechanism of 802.11. Like ETX, our metric also calculates link delivery ratios that directly affect throughput and selects those routes that bypass dense regions in the network. Simulation results by NS-2 show that IBETX gives 19% higher throughput than ETX and 10% higher than Expected Throughput (ETP). Our metric also succeeds to reduce average end-to-end delay up to 16% less than Expected Link Performance (ELP) and 24% less than ETX.

  11. Holographic mode-selective launch for bandwidth enhancement in multimode fiber.

    Amphawan, Angela

    2011-05-01

    With rapidly growing bandwidth demands in Local Area Networks, it is imperative to support next generation speeds beyond 40 Gbit/s. Various holographic optimization techniques using spatial light modulators have recently been explored for adaptive channel impulse response improvement of MMF links. Most of these experiments are algorithmic-oriented. In this paper, a set of lenses and a spatial light modulator, acting as a binary amplitude filter, played the pivotal role in generating the input modal electric field into a graded-index MMF, rather than algorithms. By using a priori theoretical information to generate the incident modal electric field at the MMF, the bandwidth was increased by up to 3.4 times. PMID:21643160

  12. Temperature dependence of the receiver noise temperature and IF bandwidth of superconducting hot electron bolometer mixers

    In this paper we study the temperature dependence of the receiver noise temperature and IF noise bandwidth of superconducting hot electron bolometer (HEB) mixers. Three superconducting NbN HEB devices of different transition temperatures (Tc) are measured at 0.85 THz and 1.4 THz at different bath temperatures (Tbath) between 4 K and 9 K. Measurement results demonstrate that the receiver noise temperature of superconducting NbN HEB devices is nearly constant for Tbath/Tc, less than 0.8, which is consistent with the simulation based on a distributed hot-spot model. In addition, the IF noise bandwidth appears independent of Tbath/Tc, indicating the dominance of phonon cooling in the investigated HEB devices. (paper)

  13. The Mutual Interaction effects between Array Antenna Parameters and Receiving Signals Bandwidth

    Shahad D. Sateaa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a single complex adaptive weight in each element channel of an adaptive array antenna is sufficient for processing of narrowband signals. The ability of an adaptive array antenna to null interference deteriorates rapidly as the interference bandwidth increases. The performance of narrowband adaptive array antenna with LMCV Beamforming algorithm is examined. The interaction effects between received signal angle of arrival and array parameters like the interelement spacing and the number of array element and the received signal bandwidth were studied. The output Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR and Interference to Noise Ratio (INR are used as performance parameters for evaluation of these effects. It is found that the amount of degradation in the output SINR is increased significantly with the increase of array interelement spacing, number of array elements and when the angle of arrival of received signals are closet to end fire.

  14. MEMS based Nonlinear Monostable Electromagnetic Vibrational Energy Harvester for Wider Bandwidth

    Mallick, D.; Amann, A.; Roy, S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports a wideband vibrational energy harvesting scheme using a MEMS based nonlinear electromagnetic transducer. The nonlinearity is incorporated in the proposed device through the stretching strain in addition to the bending of the fixed-guided configured beams of the designed structure. The thin spring structure is fabricated on Silicon-On-Insulator substrate with device layer thickness of 50 m. The MEMS spring structure is packaged and characterized with wire wound copper coil (NE1) and micro fabricated double layer copper coil (NE2) for comparison. Measurement results show that ∼80 Hz half power bandwidth is obtained for the fabricated devices with maximum load powers of 2.8 W (NE1) and 0.4 W (NE2) respectively at 0.5g which improves the ‘power-bandwidth gain’ to one of the highest among reported works.

  15. Bandwidth widening in nonlinear electromagnetic vibrational generator by combined effect of bistability and stretching

    This work reports the novel concept of frequency response widening of vibrational energy harvesters exploiting the combined effects of bistable and monostable nonlinearities in a single device. The bistability is introduced into the system by repulsive arrangement of magnets, while monostable nonlinear force through the stretching is incorporated by large deformation of two-end-fixed cantilevers. The simulation results show wider bandwidth in the bistability and stretching combined configuration compared to the bistable only or the monostable stretching only configuration

  16. Compression of Video Tracking and Bandwidth Balancing Routing in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Wang, Yin; Yang, Jianjun; Shen, Ju; Guo, Juan; Hua, Kun

    2014-01-01

    There has been a tremendous growth in multimedia applications over wireless networks. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks(WMSNs) have become the premier choice in many research communities and industry. Many state-of-art applications, such as surveillance, traffic monitoring, and remote heath care are essentially video tracking and transmission in WMSNs. The transmission speed is constrained by big size of video data and fixed bandwidth allocation in constant routing path. In this paper, we p...

  17. Compression of Video Tracking and Bandwidth Balancing Routing in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    Yin Wang; Jianjun Yang; Ju Shen; Bryson Payne; Juan Guo; Kun Hua

    2015-01-01

    There has been a tremendous growth in multimedia applications over wireless networks. Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks(WMSNs) have become the premier choice in many research communities and industry. Many state-of-art applications, such as surveillance, traffic monitoring, and remote heath care are essentially video tracking and transmission in WMSNs. The transmission speed is constrained by the big file size of video data and fixed bandwidth allocation in constant routing paths. In this p...

  18. Robustness and Actuator Bandwidth of MRP-Based Sliding Mode Control for Spacecraft Attitude Control Problems

    Keum, Jung-Hoon; Ra, Sung-Woong

    2009-12-01

    Nonlinear sliding surface design in variable structure systems for spacecraft attitude control problems is studied. A robustness analysis is performed for regular form of system, and calculation of actuator bandwidth is presented by reviewing sliding surface dynamics. To achieve non-singular attitude description and minimal parameterization, spacecraft attitude control problems are considered based on modified Rodrigues parameters (MRP). It is shown that the derived controller ensures the sliding motion in pre-determined region irrespective of unmodeled effects and disturbances.

  19. Bandwidth and resolution of super-resolution imaging with perforated solids

    Zixian Liang; Jensen Li

    2011-01-01

    Recent experiments on acoustic superlens and hyperlens found anisotropic metamaterials constructed from periodic perforated solids can be used for super-resolution imaging. Here, we present a theoretical study on the operational bandwidth of these imaging devices using the emerging framework of transformation acoustics. Within the transformation approach, both the microstructural superlens and hyperlens can be discussed using the transfer matrix method on the same footing. We show that the ge...

  20. Design of equalized ROADMs devices with flexible bandwidth based on LCoS technology

    Carrero Mora, Mónica; Martín Minguez, Alfredo; Rodríguez Horche, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the theory, design, applications and performance of a new Reconfigurable Add-drop Multiplexer (ROADM) with flexible bandwidth allocation. The device can address several wavelengths at the input to four output fibers, according to the holograms stored in a SLM (Spatial Light Modulator), where all the outputs are equalized in power. All combinations of the input wavelengths are possible at the different output fibers. Each fiber has assigned all the signals with the same ba...

  1. Relationship between tinnitus pitch and edge of hearing loss in individuals with a narrow tinnitus bandwidth

    Sereda, Magdalena; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; Hall, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Psychoacoustic measures of tinnitus, in particular dominant tinnitus pitch and its relationship to the shape of the audiogram, are important in determining and verifying pathophysiological mechanisms of the condition. Our previous study postulated that this relationship might vary between different groups of people with tinnitus. For a small subset of participants with narrow tinnitus bandwidth, pitch was associated with the audiometric edge, consistent with the tonotopic reorganiz...

  2. Blast-pressure measurement with a high-bandwidth fibre optic pressure sensor

    MacPherson, W. N.; Gander, M. J.; Barton, J. S.; Jones, J. D. C.; Owen, C. L.; Watson, A. J.; Allen, R. M.

    2000-02-01

    A sensor to measure rapidly changing pressures in an explosive air blast requires high bandwidth and high spatial resolution. For such an application a low-cost, electrically isolated sensor is particularly attractive. We describe an optical fibre-based pressure sensor that meets these requirements. The sensor is subjected to an experimental explosive-blast measurement test and the results are discussed with respect to the sensor performance and compared with a simple blast-wave model and conventional pressure transducers.

  3. Fluid model for a network operating under a fair bandwidth-sharing policy

    Kelly, F P; WILLIAMS, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    We consider a model of Internet congestion control that represents the randomly varying number of flows present in a network where bandwidth is shared fairly between document transfers. We study critical fluid models obtained as formal limits under law of large numbers scalings when the average load on at least one resource is equal to its capacity. We establish convergence to equilibria for fluid models and identify the invariant manifold. The form of the invariant manifold gives insight int...

  4. On Approaching the Ultimate Limits of Photon-Efficient and Bandwidth-Efficient Optical Communication

    Dolinar, Sam; Birnbaum, Kevin M.; Erkmen, Baris I.; Moision, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that ideal free-space optical communication at the quantum limit can have unbounded photon information efficiency (PIE), measured in bits per photon. High PIE comes at a price of low dimensional information efficiency (DIE), measured in bits per spatio-temporal-polarization mode. If only temporal modes are used, then DIE translates directly to bandwidth efficiency. In this paper, the DIE vs. PIE tradeoffs for known modulations and receiver structures are compared to the ultim...

  5. Exact diagonalization study of double quantum dots in parallel geometry in zero-bandwidth limit

    Haroon; Ahsan, M. A. H.

    2016-01-01

    Exact eigenstates of the parallel coupled double quantum dots attached to the non-interacting leads taken in zero-bandwidth limit are analytically obtained in each particle and spin sector. The ground state of the half-filled system is identified from a four dimensional subspace of the twenty dimensional Hilbert space for different values of tunable parameters of the system viz. the energy levels of the quantum dots, the interdot tunneling matrix-element, the ondot and interdot Coulomb intera...

  6. A Synthetic Bandwidth Method for High-Resolution SAR Based on PGA in the Range Dimension

    Jincheng Li; Jie Chen; Wei Liu; Pengbo Wang; Chunsheng Li

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic bandwidth technique is an effective method to achieve ultra-high range resolution in an SAR system. There are mainly two challenges in its implementation. The first one is the estimation and compensation of system errors, such as the timing deviation and the amplitude-phase error. Due to precision limitation of the radar instrument, construction of the sub-band signals becomes much more complicated with these errors. The second challenge lies in the combination method, that is h...

  7. Optimal Closest Policy with QoS and Bandwidth Constraints for Placing Replicas in Tree Networks

    Rehn-Sonigo, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the replica placement problem on fully homogeneous tree networks known as the Replica Placement optimization problem. The client requests are known beforehand, while the number and location of the servers are to be determined. We investigate the latter problem using the Closest access policy when adding QoS and bandwidth constraints. We propose an optimal algorithm in two passes using dynamic programming.

  8. 14 GHz bandwidth MSM photodiode AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT monolithic integrated optoelectronic receiver

    Hurm, Volker; Ludwig, Manfred; Rosenzweig, Josef; Benz, Willi; Berroth, Manfred; Bosch, Roland; Bronner, Wolfgang; Hlsmann, Axel; Khler, Klaus; Raynor, Brian; Schneider, Joachim

    1993-01-01

    A monolithic optoelectronic receiver consisting of an MSM photodiode and a two-stage amplifer has been fabricated using an enhancement/depletion 0.3 ?m recessed-gate AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT process. The band-width of 14.3 GHz implies suitability for transmission rates of up 20 Gbit/s. The transimpendance is 670 ? (into 50 ?) and the projected sensitivity is 16.4 dBm (BER = 10 -9).

  9. Impact of transient CSMA/CA access delays on active bandwidth measurements

    Portoles-Comeras, Marc; Cabellos-Aparicio, Albert; Mangues-Bafalluy, Josep; Banchs, Albert; Domingo- Pascual, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    WLAN devices based on CSMA/CA access schemes have become a fundamental component of network deployments. In such wireless scenarios, traditional networking applications, tools, and protocols, with their built-in measurement techniques, are usually run unchanged. However, their actual interaction with the dynamics of underlying wireless systems is not yet fully understood. A relevant example of such built-in techniques is bandwidth measurement. When considering WLAN env...

  10. Influence of carrier dynamics on the modulation bandwidth of quantum-dot based nanocavity devices

    Lorke, Michael; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the modulation response of quantum-dot based nanocavity light emitting devices. For high Purcell enhancement factors, our theory predicts the possibility of decreasing the modulation bandwidth with increasing scattering rate into the lasing quantum-dot state. This cou...... counterintuitive effect is investigated using a microscopic semiconductor model. The resulting guidelines for possible optimizations of quantum-dot based nanocavity laser devices are given....

  11. A nonlinear integral operator encountered in the bandwidth sharing of a star-shaped network

    Fayolle, Guy; Lasgouttes, Jean-Marc

    2000-01-01

    We consider a symmetrical star-shaped network, in which bandwidth is shared among the active connections according to the "min" policy. Starting from a chaos propagation hypothesis, valid when the system is large enough, one can write equilibrium equations for an arbitrary link of the network. This paper describes an approach based on functional analysis of nonlinear integral operators, which allows to characterize quantitatively the behaviour of the network under heavy load conditions.

  12. Beam Tilt and Angular Dispersion in Broad-Bandwidth, Nanosecond Optical Parametric Oscillators

    Alford, W.J.; Arisholm, G.; Gehr, R.J.; Schmitt, R.L.; Smith. A.V.

    1999-01-26

    We show that the signal and idler beams generated by certain types of unseeded, nanosecond optical parametric oscillators are tilted and angularly dispersed and have anomalously large bandwidths. This effect is demonstrated in both laboratory measurements and a numerical model. We show how the optical cavity design influences the tilts and how they can be eliminated or minimized. We also determine the conditions necessary to injection seed these parametric oscillators.

  13. Optical memory bandwidth and multiplexing capacity in the erbium telecommunication window

    We study the bandwidth and multiplexing capacity of an erbium-doped optical memory for quantum storage purposes. We concentrate on the protocol revival of a silenced echo because it has the largest potential multiplexing capacity. Our analysis is applicable to other protocols that involve strong optical excitation. We show that the memory performance is limited by instantaneous spectral diffusion and we describe how this effect can be minimized to achieve optimal performance. (paper)

  14. Access Point Density and Bandwidth Partitioning in Ultra Dense Wireless Networks

    Stefanatos, Stelios; Alexiou, Angeliki

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of system parameters such as access point density and bandwidth partitioning on the performance of randomly deployed, interference-limited, dense wireless networks. While much progress has been achieved in analyzing randomly deployed networks via tools from stochastic geometry, most existing works either assume a very large user density compared to that of access points which does not hold in a dense network, and/or consider only the user signal-to-interference-...

  15. Potential Upgrade of the CMS Tracker Analog Readout Optical Links using Bandwidth Efficient Digital Modulation

    Dris, Stefanos; Gill, K; Grabit, R; Ricci, D; Troska, J; Vasey, F

    2007-01-01

    The potential application of advanced digital communication schemes in a future upgrade of the CMS Tracker readout optical links is currently being investigated at CERN. We show experimentally that multi-Gbit/s data rates are possible over the current 40 MSamples/s analog optical links by employing techniques similar to those used in ADSL. The concept involves using one or more digitally-modulated sinusoidal carriers in order to make efficient use of the available bandwidth.

  16. Optimal Bandwidth and Power Allocation for Sum Ergodic Capacity under Fading Channels in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Gong, Xiaowen; Vorobyov, Sergiy A.; Tellambura, Chintha

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies optimal bandwidth and power allocation in a cognitive radio network where multiple secondary users (SUs) share the licensed spectrum of a primary user (PU) under fading channels using the frequency division multiple access scheme. The sum ergodic capacity of all the SUs is taken as the performance metric of the network. Besides all combinations of the peak/average transmit power constraints at the SUs and the peak/average interference power constraint imposed by the PU, tot...

  17. Multiuser Resource Allocation Optimization Using Bandwidth-Power Product in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Tachwali, Yahia; Lo, B.F.; Akyildiz, Ian; Agustí Comes, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of resource allocation optimization is studied for a single-cell multiuser cognitive radio network in the presence of primary user networks. The spectral access of the cognitive radio network is based on Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA). A joint bandwidth and power allocation is performed so that users' rate requirements are satisfied, and the integrity of primary user communication is preserved. In this work, two unique challenges are addressed...

  18. Blended Learning Resources in Constrained Bandwidth Environment: Considerations for Network and Multimedia Optimization

    Jude Lubega; Nazir Ahmad Suhail; Gilbert Maiga

    2013-01-01

    The potential of multimedia teaching and learning approach at higher education is well recognized by researchers, as it is a powerful tool to increase the perceived level of user satisfaction, leading to enhance the blended learning process. However, the learning process can be improved significantly by delivering the content using visual media (video, audio, and graphics). On the other hand, such multimedia contents require larger bandwidth for transmission over the Internet, which is limit...

  19. BwMan: bandwidth manager for elastic services in the cloud

    Liu, Ying; Xhagjika, Vamis; Vlassov, Vladimir; Shishtawy, Ahmad Al

    2014-01-01

    The flexibility of Cloud computing allows elastic services to adapt to changes in workload patterns in order to achieve desired Service Level Objectives (SLOs) at a reduced cost. Typically, the service adapts to changes in workload by adding or removing service instances (VMs), which for stateful services will require moving data among instances. The SLOs of a distributed Cloud-based service are sensitive to the available network bandwidth, which is usually shared by multiple activities in a ...

  20. Single period profit maximization problem for intermediaries in telecommunication networks under stochastic bandwidth demand

    Turan, Hasan Hüseyin; Turan, Hasan Huseyin; Kasap, Nihat; Seraslan, Mehmet Nahit

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade telecommunications has become very competitive environment with many vendors, carriers, and services. Intermediaries are one of the main players in the telecom network market and they may acquire network capacity from market of telecommunication backbone providers who offer different pricing and quality of service schemes and sell purchased capacity to end-users in order to earn some profit. Unfortunately, customers’ bandwidth demands are not known in advance. Therefore...

  1. Buffer and Bandwidth Management for the Expedited Forwarding Traffic Class in Differentiated Services Networks

    Georgoulas, S; Pavlou, G; Flegkas, P; Trimintzios, P

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses issues related to buffer and bandwidth management for the Expedited Forwarding (EF) traffic class in IP Differentiated Services (DiffServ) networks. We are concerned with edge nodes connecting a number of end-users with premium traffic contracts to the core network and we examine buffer requirements in those nodes. Our results suggest that even in the case of EF traffic class, an amount buffering is essential to provide certain levels of Bit Error Rate (BER) while achievi...

  2. Investigation of Bandwidth Requirement of Smart Meter Network Using OPNET Modeler

    Rahman, M; Amanullah Mto

    2013-01-01

    Smart meter networks are the backbone for smart electrical distribution grid. Smart meter network requires the bidirectional communications medium and interoperability capability. As thousands of meters are interconnected in the smart meter network, it is vital to select an appropriate communication bandwidth to facilitate real-time two-way information flows and this will also allow further uptake of greenhouse-friendly technology options and enhance energy security. Optimized Network Enginee...

  3. Dynamic bandwidth allocation policy for multiple QoS multimedia traffic in ATM networks

    Chandramathi, Soundararajan; Shanmugavel, Subbaiah

    2001-11-01

    In ATM Networks, real time VBR traffic, which is inherently bursty in nature, requires dynamic bandwidth allocation. There are algorithms proposed in the literature where the bandwidth is allocated in linear proportion to the requirements. But, these algorithms lead to unequal growth in the queue size and reduction in the network performance. Minmax algorithm is one such algorithm which maintains a fair distribution of buffer lengths across the sources of a class, and performs better for homogeneous sources when compared to other dynamic allocation schemes. Nevertheless, this algorithm can be applied only when the sources demand same QoS parameter. To overcome such an inadequacy, we propose a novel method of dynamic bandwidth allocation, viz., Modified Minmax Algorithm (MMA), for multiple QoS sources. Unlike other models, MMA takes cell loss ratio (CLR) also into account besides the buffer occupancies and arrival rates. The performance of MMA has been evaluated using multiple QoS sources simulated for this purpose. The results are encouraging, for it gives better QoS performance (by an order of one) for hetrogeneous sources with different QoS values. Results on the evaluation of the performance of delay and jitter for various buffer sizes are also presented in this paper.

  4. Bandwidth Enhancement of a U-Slot Patch Antenna Using Embedded HIS Structure

    Pramod Kumar Singhal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new generation of antenna that applies metamaterial as a base construction. With the use of dual band high impedance surface (HIS structures, the bandwidth, return loss, and gain of U-slot patch antenna is improved at resonant frequencies 2.24 GHz and 5.8 GHz. The proposed new modified U-slot antenna has dual band impedance bandwidth from about 2.1886 to 2.27 GHz and 5.6149 to 7.2259 GHz. From the simulation result it was found that the upper frequency band of the proposed antenna lies in the band of $5.725 sim 5.825$ GHz regulated by IEEE 802.11a (upper band and can be used for bluetooth and WLAN applications. We perform this analysis on structures which composed of rectangular lattice patches periodic arrangements. All the dimensions and shapes of the unit cell geometry are optimized in order to get a broad bandwidth and high return loss. The lattice structure comprises of an array of $7 imes 5$ rectangular patches embedded in the substrate.

  5. Modern Fiber Optic Submarine Cable Telecommunication Systems Planning for Explosive Bandwidth Needs at Different Deployment Depths

    Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The explosive bandwidth needs, especially in the inter data center market, have pushed transmission data rates to 100 Gbit/sec and beyond. Current terrestrial fibers are inadequate for long haul, high bandwidth deployments. To solve these problems a new fiber is introduced for terrestrial high bandwidth deployments: different polymeric core fibers with enlarged effective area with a significant optical signal to noise ratio improvement over other conventional terrestrial single mode fibers. To ensure the new fiber may be deployed robustly a new coating structure was employed. A rigorous cable structure was then chosen for evaluation. Based on experimental data, both the deep ocean water temperature and pressure are tailored as functions of the water depth. As well as the product of the transmitted bit rate and the repeater spacing is processed over wide ranges of the affecting parameters. It is taken into account the estimation of the total cost of the submarine fiber cable system for transmission technique under considerations. The system capacity as well as the spectral losses, and the dispersion effects are parametrically investigated over wide range ranges of the set of affecting parameters {wavelength, ocean depth (and consequently the ocean pressure and temperature, and the chemical structure}.

  6. Multi-path Probabilistic Available Bandwidth Estimation through Bayesian Active Learning

    Thouin, Frederic; Rabbat, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Knowing the largest rate at which data can be sent on an end-to-end path such that the egress rate is equal to the ingress rate with high probability can be very practical when choosing transmission rates in video streaming or selecting peers in peer-to-peer applications. We introduce probabilistic available bandwidth, which is defined in terms of ingress rates and egress rates of traffic on a path, rather than in terms of capacity and utilization of the constituent links of the path like the standard available bandwidth metric. In this paper, we describe a distributed algorithm, based on a probabilistic graphical model and Bayesian active learning, for simultaneously estimating the probabilistic available bandwidth of multiple paths through a network. Our procedure exploits the fact that each packet train provides information not only about the path it traverses, but also about any path that shares a link with the monitored path. Simulations and PlanetLab experiments indicate that this process can dramatical...

  7. Optimal bandwidth-aware VM allocation for Infrastructure-as-a-Service

    Dutta, Debojyoti; Post, Ian; Shinde, Rajendra

    2012-01-01

    Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) providers need to offer richer services to be competitive while optimizing their resource usage to keep costs down. Richer service offerings include new resource request models involving bandwidth guarantees between virtual machines (VMs). Thus we consider the following problem: given a VM request graph (where nodes are VMs and edges represent virtual network connectivity between the VMs) and a real data center topology, find an allocation of VMs to servers that satisfies the bandwidth guarantees for every virtual network edge---which maps to a path in the physical network---and minimizes congestion of the network. Previous work has shown that for arbitrary networks and requests, finding the optimal embedding satisfying bandwidth requests is $\\mathcal{NP}$-hard. However, in most data center architectures, the routing protocols employed are based on a spanning tree of the physical network. In this paper, we prove that the problem remains $\\mathcal{NP}$-hard even when the phys...

  8. Available Link Bandwidth Based Network Selection in Multi-access Networks

    Kiran Ahuja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In a heterogeneous wireless environment, one of the important aspects of seamless communication for ubiquitous computing is the dynamic selection of the best access network. The problem of access network selection has been addressed through various decision methods based on available network information. Available link bandwidth is one of the important information parameters, which can be used as criterion for network selection. In this paper, we consider available bandwidth as a dynamic parameter to select the network in heterogeneous environment. First, we propose a bootstrap approximation based technique to estimate available bandwidth and then utilize it for the selection of the best suitable network in the heterogeneous environment consisting of 2G and 3G standards based wireless networks. The proposed algorithm is implemented in temporal and spatial domains to check its robustness. Estimation time with varying size of files is used as the performance metric. Through numerical results, it is shown that the proposed algorithm gives improved performance as compared to the existing algorithm.

  9. Power-Bandwidth Tradeoff in Multiuser Relay Channels with Opportunistic Scheduling

    Oyman, Ozgur

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand the key merits of multihop relaying techniques jointly in terms of their energy efficiency and spectral efficiency advantages in the presence of multiuser diversity gains from opportunistic (i.e., channel-aware) scheduling and identify the regimes and conditions in which relay-assisted multiuser communication provides a clear advantage over direct multiuser communication. For this purpose, we use Shannon-theoretic tools to analyze the tradeoff between energy efficiency and spectral efficiency (known as the power-bandwidth tradeoff) over a fading multiuser relay channel with $K$ users in the asymptotic regime of large (but finite) number of users (i.e., dense network). Benefiting from the extreme-value theoretic results of \\cite{Oyman_isit07}, we characterize the power-bandwidth tradeoff and the associated energy and spectral efficiency measures of the bandwidth-limited high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and power-limited low SNR regimes, and utilize them in investigating ...

  10. Bandwidth enhancement of transformation optics-based cloak with reduced parameters

    Rajput, Archana; Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, dispersive cloak design with broad bandwidth and minimal scattering cross section is proposed by appropriately selecting a radial permeability for each shell in a discretized reduced cloak. The dispersive medium is constructed by artificially varying the inner radius of the cloak with frequency, and this variation results into unique material properties at every frequency. The variation of inner radius of the cloak with frequency is artificial since the actual physical dimension of inner radius remains invariant. The relation between bandwidth and geometrical parameters of cloak is obtained by ensuring that transformation media must satisfy the condition that group velocity must remain less than the speed of light along every direction for a finite frequency range. The proposed cloak provides bandwidth with respect to the center frequency for reduction in total scattering cross section, and at the design frequency, the minimum scattering cross section obtained is . The proposed dispersive cloak design is verified by numerical full-wave simulations results which also confirm good cloaking performance.

  11. A new metasurface reflective structure for simultaneous enhancement of antenna bandwidth and gain

    A new bi-layered metasurface reflective structure (MRS) on a high-permittivity, low-loss, ceramic-filled, bio-plastic, sandwich-structured, dielectric substrate is proposed for the simultaneous enhancement of the bandwidth and gain of a dual band patch antenna. By incorporating the MRS with a 4 mm air gap between the MRS and the antenna, the bandwidth and gain of the dual band patch antenna are significantly enhanced. The reflection coefficient (S11 < −10 dB) bandwidth of the proposed MRS-loaded antenna increased by 240% (178%), and the average peak gain improved by 595% (128%) compared to the antenna alone in the lower (upper) band. Incremental improvements of the magnitude and directional patterns have been observed from the measured radiation patterns at the three resonant frequencies of 0.9 GHz, 3.7 GHz and 4.5 GHz. The effects of different configurations of the radiating patch and the ground plane on the reflection coefficient have been analyzed. In addition, the voltage standing wave ratio and input impedance have also been validated using a Smith chart. (paper)

  12. A Novel Approach for Gain and Bandwidth Re-Configurability in Helical Antenna

    Rahul Yadav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Pi-wall shaped partial cavity backed 1½ turn helical antenna has been designed. The helix turns are kept low to provide compact design. The gain and bandwidth re-configurability is achieved by placing the helix in center of the Pi-wall shaped partial cavity which thus can be rotated about its axis providing reflections from the walls at various rotation angle. The rotational angles of the helix are varied with the incremental step size of 45o in anticlockwise direction. The odd number of turns will provide asymmetry of the helix with respect to the cavity walls and will thus excite various resonant bands as the helix is rotated inside the designed cavity. A Computer Simulation Tool is used for the design verification. The antenna is operating in the range of 5-15 GHz and has a peak gain of 7.5 dB and a highest bandwidth of 3.69 GHz. The Pi-shaped partial cavity is fabricated with lightweight aluminum metal and the helix is made of copper. Slight geometrical modification was made during the process of fabrication to improve the bandwidth response of the antenna. The antenna being conformal and robust in design may find its application for personal wireless communication and rough terrain areas.

  13. Bandwidth provisioning in infrastructure-based wireless networks employing directional antennas

    Hasiviswanthan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhao, Bo [PENN STATE UNIV.; Vasudevan, Sudarshan [UNIV OF MASS AMHERST; Yrgaonkar, Bhuvan [PENN STATE UNIV.

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by the widespread proliferation of wireless networks employing directional antennas, we study the problem of provisioning bandwidth in such networks. Given a set of subscribers and one or more access points possessing directional antennas, we formalize the problem of orienting these antennas in two fundamental settings: (1) subscriber-centric, where the objective is to fairly allocate bandwidth among the subscribers and (2) provider-centric, where the objective is to maximize the revenue generated by satisfying the bandwidth requirements of subscribers. For both the problems, we first design algorithms for a network with only one access point working under the assumption that the number of antennas does not exceed the number of noninterfering channels. Using the well-regarded lexicographic max-min fair allocation as the objective for a subscriber-centric network, we present an optimum dynamic programming algorithm. For a provider-centric network, the allocation problem turns out to be NP-hard. We present a greedy heuristic based algorithm that guarantees almost half of the optimum revenue. We later enhance both these algorithms to operate in more general networks with multiple access points and no restrictions on the relative numbers of antennas and channels. A simulation-based evaluation using OPNET demonstrates the efficacy of our approaches and provides us further in insights into these problems.

  14. All-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar.

    Zou, Weiwen; Zhang, Hao; Long, Xin; Zhang, Siteng; Cui, Yuanjun; Chen, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Radar has been widely used for military, security, and rescue purposes, and modern radar should be reconfigurable at multi-bands and have programmable central frequencies and considerable bandwidth agility. Microwave photonics or photonics-assisted radio-frequency technology is a unique solution to providing such capabilities. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar architecture that provides a coherent system and utilizes one mode-locked laser for both signal generation and reception. Heterodyning of two individually filtered optical pulses that are pre-chirped via wavelength-to-time mapping generates a wideband linearly chirped radar signal. The working bands can be flexibly tailored with the desired bandwidth at a user-preferred carrier frequency. Radar echoes are first modulated onto the pre-chirped optical pulse, which is also used for signal generation, and then stretched in time or compressed in frequency several fold based on the time-stretch principle. Thus, digitization is facilitated without loss of detection ability. We believe that our results demonstrate an innovative radar architecture with an ultra-high-range resolution. PMID:26795596

  15. A Real-time Data Compression for Massive Data Transmission Over High Delay-bandwidth Network

    Zheng Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet dropout and retransmission have become a more and more serious problem in high delay-bandwidth network, it is difficult for traditional streaming compression to deal with reorder packets, people have to use stateless compression, but it can only achieve very low compression ratio. In this study, we introduce a novel Orderless Tolerance Compression Algorithm (OTCA. The algorithm works effectively with orderless packets which is caused by the packet retransmission, through allowing variable delay in the dictionary construction. OTCA performs better compression ratio than stateless compression and low decoding latency than that of streaming compression and excels delay-dictionary compression in both compression ratio and decoding latency especially in high bandwidth network. We conduct extensive experiments to establish the potential improvement for packet compression techniques, using many data files including the Calgary corpus and the Canterbury corpus. Experimental results of the OTCA show that it is a good compromise proposal for transfer massive data over high delay-bandwidth networks.

  16. Estimated Bandwidth Distribution with Admission Control for Enhanced QoS Multicast Routing in MANETs

    P.Revathi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless networks become more widely used to support advanced services. Traditional approaches to guarantee quality of service (QoS work well only with predictable channel and network access. The Multicast transmission is a more efficient mechanism when compared to uni-casting in supporting group communication applications and hence is an important aspect of future network developments. To enable high QoS for all admitted traffic, the Admission Control monitors the wireless channel and dynamically adapts admission control decisions to enable high network utilization while preventing congestion. Mobile Adhoc networks can provide multimedia users with mobility, if efficient QoS multicast strategies were developed. In load balancing QoS Multicast Routing QMR, constant available bandwidth for the link is assumed. A cross-layer framework to support QoS multicasting is extended for more effective than QMR. The extension reflects good packet delivery ratios associated with lower control overhead and lower packet delivery delay. If minimum real-time requirements are not met, these unusable packets waste scarce bandwidth and hinder other traffic, compounding the problem. Whereas the dynamically adapted mobility with control overhead monitors the high QoS for all admitted traffic, and the bandwidth for each node is enhanced to reflect the good packet delivery ratio associated with lower control overhead and lower packet delivery delay.

  17. Modern Fiber Optic Submarine Cable Telecommunication Systems Planning for Explosive Bandwidth Needs at Different Deployment Depths

    Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The explosive bandwidth needs, especially in the inter data center market, have pushed transmission data rates to 100 Gbit/sec and beyond. Current terrestrial fibers are inadequate for long haul, high bandwidth deployments. To solve these problems a new fiber is introduced for terrestrial high bandwidth deployments: different polymeric core fibers with enlarged effective area with a significant optical signal to noise ratio improvement over other conventional terrestrial single mode fibers. To ensure the new fiber may be deployed robustly a new coating structure was employed. A rigorous cable structure was then chosen for evaluation. Based on experimental data, both the deep ocean water temperature and pressure are tailored as functions of the water depth. As well as the product of the transmitted bit rate and the repeater spacing is processed over wide ranges of the affecting parameters. It is taken into account the estimation of the total cost of the submarine fiber cable system for transmission technique under considerations. The system capacity as well as the spectral losses, and the dispersion effects are parametrically investigated over wide range ranges of the set of affecting parameters {wavelength, ocean depth (and consequently the ocean pressure and temperature, and the chemical structure}.

  18. Bandwidth and power allocation for two-way relaying in overlay cognitive radio systems

    Alsharoa, Ahmad M.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the problem of both bandwidth and power allocation for two-way multiple relay systems in overlay cognitive radio (CR) setup is investigated. In the CR overlay mode, primary users (PUs) cooperate with cognitive users (CUs) for mutual benefits. In our framework, we propose that the CUs are allowed to allocate a part of the PUs spectrum to perform their cognitive transmission. In return, acting as an amplify-and-forward two-way relays, they are used to support PUs to achieve their target data rates over the remaining bandwidth. More specifically, CUs acts as relays for the PUs and gain some spectrum as long as they respect a specific power budget and primary quality-of-service constraints. In this context, we first derive closed-form expressions for optimal transmit power allocated to PUs and CUs in order to maximize the cognitive objective. Then, we employ a strong optimization tool based on particle swarm optimization algorithm to find the optimal relay amplification gains and optimal cognitive released bandwidths as well. Our numerical results illustrate the performance of our proposed algorithm for different utility metrics and analyze the impact of some system parameters on the achieved performance.

  19. A constant loop bandwidth fractional-N frequency synthesizer for GNSS receivers

    A constant loop bandwidth fractional-N frequency synthesizer for portable civilian global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers implemented in a 130 nm 1P6M CMOS process is introduced. Via discrete working regions, the LC-VCO obtains a wide tuning range with a simple structure and small VCO gain. Spur suppression technology is proposed to minimize the phase offset introduced by PFD and charge pumps. The optimized bandwidth is maintained by an auto loop calibration module to adjust the charge pump current when the PLL output frequency changes or the temperature varies. Measurement results show that this synthesizer attains an in-band phase noise lower than −93 dBc at a 10 kHz offset and a spur less than −70 dBc; the bandwidth varies by ± 3% for all the GNSS signals. The whole synthesizer consumes 4.5 mA current from a 1 V supply, and its area (without the LO tested buffer) is 0.5 mm2. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  20. Balancing high gain and bandwidth in multilayer organic photodetectors with tailored carrier blocking layers

    We present detailed studies of the high photocurrent gain behavior in multilayer organic photodiodes containing tailored carrier blocking layers we reported earlier in a Letter [W. T. Hammond and J. Xue, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 073302 (2010)], in which a high photocurrent gain of up to 500 was attributed to the accumulation of photogenerated holes at the anode/organic active layer interface and the subsequent drastic increase in secondary electron injection from the anode. Here, we show that both the hole-blocking layer structure and layer thickness strongly influence the magnitude of the photocurrent gain. Temporal studies revealed that the frequency response of such devices is limited by three different processes with lifetimes of 10 μs, 202 μs, and 2.72 ms for the removal of confined holes, which limit the 3 dB bandwidth of these devices to 1.4 kHz. Furthermore, the composition in the mixed organic donor-acceptor photoactive layer affects both gain and bandwidth, which is attributed to the varying charge transport characteristics, and the optimal gain-bandwidth product is achieved with approximately 30% donor content. Finally, these devices show a high dynamic range of more than seven orders of magnitude, although the photocurrent shows a sublinear dependence on the incident optical power

  1. All-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar

    Zou, Weiwen; Zhang, Hao; Long, Xin; Zhang, Siteng; Cui, Yuanjun; Chen, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Radar has been widely used for military, security, and rescue purposes, and modern radar should be reconfigurable at multi-bands and have programmable central frequencies and considerable bandwidth agility. Microwave photonics or photonics-assisted radio-frequency technology is a unique solution to providing such capabilities. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical central-frequency-programmable and bandwidth-tailorable radar architecture that provides a coherent system and utilizes one mode-locked laser for both signal generation and reception. Heterodyning of two individually filtered optical pulses that are pre-chirped via wavelength-to-time mapping generates a wideband linearly chirped radar signal. The working bands can be flexibly tailored with the desired bandwidth at a user-preferred carrier frequency. Radar echoes are first modulated onto the pre-chirped optical pulse, which is also used for signal generation, and then stretched in time or compressed in frequency several fold based on the time-stretch principle. Thus, digitization is facilitated without loss of detection ability. We believe that our results demonstrate an innovative radar architecture with an ultra-high-range resolution.

  2. Wide-frequency-bandwidth whisker-inspired MEMS vector hydrophone encapsulated with parylene

    Wang, Renxin; Liu, Yuan; Bai, Bing; Guo, Nan; Guo, Jing; Wang, Xubo; Liu, Mengran; Zhang, Guojun; Zhang, Binzhen; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-02-01

    In order to eliminate polyurethane hat resonance frequency intervention and reduce fluid influence, a whisker-inspired MEMS vector hydrophone (WIVH) encapsulated with parylene is proposed to broaden frequency bandwidth and improve sensitivity-frequency response performance, compared to the lateral line-inspired MEMS vector hydrophone (LLIVH). Parylene that is conformally deposited on the device surface replaces polyurethane encapsulating hat and silicone oil existing in current encapsulation technology. The main advantage of WIVH as demonstrated by modelling and characterization is the enhanced bandwidth response, which is the critical factor in hydrophone design. Acoustic pressure gradient properties of the WIVH and LLIVH are analyzed to demonstrate the influence of the polyurethane hat. The interactions of the parylene membrane with fluid and the influences on vibrating performance are also investigated. Resonance measurement and sensitivity-frequency response analysis demonstrate the frequency bandwidth of the WIVH could be extended twice compared to that of the LLIVH. Moreover, the WIVH is proved to act as a typical pressure gradient hydrophone with an increment of 6 dB per octave in the linear region.

  3. A dispersive nanoSQUID magnetometer for ultra-low noise, high bandwidth flux detection

    We describe a dispersive nanoSQUID (nanoscale superconducting quantum interference device) magnetometer comprised of two variable thickness aluminum weak-link Josephson junctions shunted in parallel with an on-chip capacitor. This arrangement forms a nonlinear oscillator with a tunable 4–8 GHz resonant frequency with a quality factor Q = 30 when coupled directly to a 50 Ω transmission line. In the presence of a near-resonant microwave carrier signal, a low frequency flux input generates sidebands that are readily detected using microwave reflectometry. If the carrier excitation is sufficiently strong, then the magnetometer also exhibits parametric gain, resulting in a minimum effective flux noise of 30 nΦ0 Hz−1/2 with 20 MHz of instantaneous bandwidth. If the magnetometer is followed with a near-quantum-noise-limited Josephson parametric amplifier, we can increase the bandwidth to 60 MHz without compromising sensitivity. This combination of high sensitivity and wide bandwidth with no on-chip dissipation makes this device ideal for local sensing of spin dynamics, both classical and quantum. (paper)

  4. A novel bandwidth allocation scheme for QoS routing in mobile ad hoc networks

    Wu, Bin; Kuo, Geng-Sheng

    2004-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to propose a novel bandwidth allocation scheme for facilitating quality of service (QoS) routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In a MANET using time division multiple access (TDMA), each node communicates with its neighbors in the same time slot. In general, finding a route with the maximum end-to-end bandwidth subject to the constraint of collision-free transmission is an NP-complete problem. This paper proposed a sub-optimal solution to this problem. The solution is based on a centrally controlled bandwidth allocation scheme to properly assign the available time slots to each intermediate link. The advantage of our proposed scheme is that the resource utilization of MANET is maximized and the end-to-end QoS is guaranteed during the route establishment period. Performance analyses show that when using the proposed scheme with AODV to perform QoS routing, it achieves about 25% throughput higher than its best-effort counterpart if the node is moving at 5mps speed.

  5. Time Slot Assignment for Maximum Bandwidth in a Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Yasushi Wakahara

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Time slot assignment is essential to provide the calculated bandwidth in a TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access-based mobile ad hoc network (MANET, which is a focus of attention of this paper because of its collision-free packet transmission with QoS(Quality of Service support. In this paper, a new time slot assignment algorithm-SAGO (Slot Assignment by Global Overview is proposed, by which more available bandwidth can be obtained than conventional approximate solutions. SAGO assigns time slots from a global overview, that is, time slot assignment is based on the usage of global information such as finding of bottleneck of a route, tentative bandwidth evaluation of a route and assignment of time slot according to the order of their free times in the concerned links. In addition, SAGOs effectiveness is proved by simulation results.

  6. Delay-constrained and bandwidth-guaranteed QoS routing in TDMA/CDMA ad hoc networks

    Wu, Huayi; Huang, Chuanhe; Jia, Xiaohua; Bai, Baohua

    2004-04-01

    This paper proposes a QoS routing with delay constrained and bandwidth guaranteed in TDMA/CDMA ad hoc networks. Because the wireless bandwidth is shared among adjacent nodes and the network topology changes as the nodes move, quality of service is more difficult to guarantee in ad hoc networks than in most other type of networks. QoS routing requires finding not only a route from a source to a destination, but also a route that satisfies the end-to-end QoS requirement, often given in terms of bandwidth or delay. We improve a distributed algorithm to realize the control of delays and give the method to calculate the bandwidth of a path that can be used to judge whether the bandwidth of the path satisfies the requirement. In TDMA/CDMA ad hoc networks, this is a new scheme to satisfy not only delay constrained but also bandwidth guaranteed. Some simulations have been conducted and the simulation results have demonstrated the deference of call success rate between our algorithm and other existing global algorithm or other localized algorithms that only consider delay constrained or bandwidth guaranteed.

  7. Characterizing the Effective Bandwidth of Nonlinear Vibratory Energy Harvesters Possessing Multiple Stable Equilibria

    Panyam Mohan Ram, Meghashyam

    In the last few years, advances in micro-fabrication technologies have lead to the development of low-power electronic devices spanning critical fields related to sensing, data transmission, and medical implants. Unfortunately, effective utilization of these devices is currently hindered by their reliance on batteries. In many of these applications, batteries may not be a viable choice as they have a fixed storage capacity and need to be constantly replaced or recharged. In light of such challenges, several novel concepts for micro-power generation have been recently introduced to harness, otherwise, wasted ambient energy from the environment and maintain these low-power devices. Vibratory energy harvesting is one such concept which has received significant attention in recent years. While linear vibratory energy harvesters have been well studied in the literature and their performance metrics have been established, recent research has focused on deliberate introduction of stiffness nonlinearities into the design of these devices. It has been shown that, nonlinear energy harvesters have a wider steady-state frequency bandwidth as compared to their linear counterparts, leading to the premise that they can used to improve performance, and decrease sensitivity to variations in the design and excitation parameters. This dissertation aims to investigate this premise by developing an analytical framework to study the influence of stiffness nonlinearities on the performance and effective bandwidth of nonlinear vibratory energy harvesters. To achieve this goal, the dissertation is divided into three parts. The first part investigates the performance of bi-stable energy harvesters possessing a symmetric quartic potential energy function under harmonic excitations and carries out a detailed analysis to define their effective frequency bandwidth. The second part investigates the relative performance of mono- and bi-stable energy harvesters under optimal electric loading conditions. The third part investigates the response and performance of tri-stable energy harvesters possessing a symmetric hexic potential function under harmonic excitations and provides a detailed analysis to approximate their effective frequency bandwidth. As a platform to achieve these objectives, a piezoelectric nonlinear energy harvester consisting of a uni-morph cantilever beam is considered. Stiffness nonlinearities are introduced into the harvester's design by applying a static magnetic field near the tip of the beam. Experimental studies performed on the proposed harvester are presented to validate some of the theoretical findings. Since nonlinear energy harvesters exhibit complex and non-unique responses, it is demonstrated that a careful choice of the design parameters namely, the shape of the potential function and the electromechanical coupling is necessary to widen their effective frequency bandwidth. Specifically, it is shown that, decreasing the electromechanical coupling and/or designing the potential energy function to have shallow wells, widens the effective frequency bandwidth for a given excitation level. However, this comes at the expense of the output power which decreases under these design conditions. It is also shown that the ratio between the mechanical period and time constant of the harvesting circuit has negligible influence on the effective frequency bandwidth but has considerable effect on the associated magnitude of the output power.

  8. Effects of Restricted Launch Conditions for the Enhancement of Bandwidth-Distance Product of Multimode Fiber Links

    Andrawis, Alfred S.

    2000-01-01

    Several techniques had been proposed to enhance multimode fiber bandwidth-distance product. Single mode-to-multimode offset launch condition technique had been experimented with at Kennedy Space Center. Significant enhancement in multimode fiber link bandwidth is achieved using this technique. It is found that close to three-fold bandwidth enhancement can be achieved compared to standard zero offset launch technique. Moreover, significant reduction in modal noise has been observed as a function of offset launch displacement. However, significant reduction in the overall signal-to-noise ratio is also observed due to signal attenuation due to mode radiation from fiber core to its cladding.

  9. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

    Sabine Brueske, Caroline Kramer, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. pulp and paper manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas, representing 52% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity

  10. Bandwidth Study on Energy Use and Potential Energy Saving Opportunities in U.S. Iron and Steel Manufacturing

    Keith Jamison, Caroline Kramer, Sabine Brueske, Aaron Fisher

    2015-06-01

    Energy bandwidth studies of U.S. manufacturing sectors can serve as foundational references in framing the range (or bandwidth) of potential energy savings opportunities. This bandwidth study examines energy consumption and potential energy savings opportunities in U.S. iron and steel manufacturing. The study relies on multiple sources to estimate the energy used in six individual process areas and select subareas, representing 82% of sector-wide energy consumption. Energy savings opportunities for individual processes and subareas are based on technologies currently in use or under development; the potential savings are then extrapolated to estimate sector-wide energy savings opportunity.

  11. Modeling small-signal response of GaN-based metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor gate stack in spill-over regime: Effect of barrier resistance and interface states

    We provide theoretical and simulation analysis of the small signal response of SiO2/AlGaN/GaN metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) capacitors from depletion to spill over region, where the AlGaN/SiO2 interface is accumulated with free electrons. A lumped element model of the gate stack, including the response of traps at the III-N/dielectric interface, is proposed and represented in terms of equivalent parallel capacitance, Cp, and conductance, Gp. Cp -voltage and Gp -voltage dependences are modelled taking into account bias dependent AlGaN barrier dynamic resistance Rbr and the effective channel resistance. In particular, in the spill-over region, the drop of Cp with the frequency increase can be explained even without taking into account the response of interface traps, solely by considering the intrinsic response of the gate stack (i.e., no trap effects) and the decrease of Rbr with the applied forward bias. Furthermore, we show the limitations of the conductance method for the evaluation of the density of interface traps, Dit, from the Gp/? vs. angular frequency ? curves. A peak in Gp/? vs. ? occurs even without traps, merely due to the intrinsic frequency response of gate stack. Moreover, the amplitude of the Gp/? vs. ? peak saturates at high Dit, which can lead to underestimation of Dit. Understanding the complex interplay between the intrinsic gate stack response and the effect of interface traps is relevant for the development of normally on and normally off MIS high electron mobility transistors with stable threshold voltage

  12. Plasma Sensor for High Bandwidth Mass-Flow Measurements at High Mach Numbers with RF Link Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal is aimed at the development of a miniature high bandwidth (1 MHz class) plasma sensor for flow measurements at high enthalpies. This device uses a...

  13. A multiprocessor computer simulation model employing a feedback scheduler/allocator for memory space and bandwidth matching and TMR processing

    Bradley, D. B.; Irwin, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A computer simulation model for a multiprocessor computer is developed that is useful for studying the problem of matching multiprocessor's memory space, memory bandwidth and numbers and speeds of processors with aggregate job set characteristics. The model assumes an input work load of a set of recurrent jobs. The model includes a feedback scheduler/allocator which attempts to improve system performance through higher memory bandwidth utilization by matching individual job requirements for space and bandwidth with space availability and estimates of bandwidth availability at the times of memory allocation. The simulation model includes provisions for specifying precedence relations among the jobs in a job set, and provisions for specifying precedence execution of TMR (Triple Modular Redundant and SIMPLEX (non redundant) jobs.

  14. Impact of bandwidth for various services in heterogeneous network and quality of service via communication technologies in Malaysian higher educational

    Mohd Nazri ISMAIL; ZIN, Abdullah Mohd

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on heterogeneous services and communication technologies for retrieving and sending information between students and lecturers in Malaysian higher educational institutes. It intends to investigate pattern and significant level of various services implementation, convergence of communication technologies and bandwidth capacity for last mile users (students and lecturers). It is designed to determine which communication technologies, services, bandwidth capacity and QoS will ...

  15. Damping effect of the inner band electrons on the optical absorption and bandwidth of metal nanoparticles

    Conflicts and discrepancies around nanoparticle (NP) size effect on the optical properties of metal NPs of sizes below the mean free path of electron can be traced to the internal damping effect of the hybrid resonance of the inner band (IB) and the conduction band (CB) electrons of the noble metals. We present a scheme to show how alternative mathematical formulation of the physics of interaction between the CB and the IB electrons of NP sizes <50 nm justifies this and resolves the conflicts. While a number of controversies exist between classical and quantum theories over the phenomenological factors to attribute to the NP size effect on the absorption bandwidth, this article shows that the bandwidth behavior can be well predicted from a different treatment of the IB damping effect, without invoking any of the controversial phenomenological factors. It finds that the IB damping effect is mainly frequency dependent and only partly size dependent and shows how its influence on the surface plasmon resonance can be modeled to show the influence of NP size on the absorption properties. Through the model, it is revealed that strong coupling of IB and CB electrons drastically alters the absorption spectra, splitting it into distinctive dipole and quadrupole modes and even introduce a behavioral switch. It finds a strong overlap between the IB and the CB absorptions for Au and Cu but not Ag, which is sensitive to the NP environment. The CB modes shift with the changing refractive index of the medium in a way that can allow their independent excitation, free of influence of the IB electrons. Through a hybrid of parameters, the model further finds that metal NP sizes can be established not only by their spectral absorption peak locations but also from a proper correlation of the peak location and the bandwidth (FWHM).

  16. High frequency bandwidth polarization and strain control using a fractional derivative inverse model

    The present paper proposes an inverse dynamical model based on fractional derivatives in order to simulate the electrical field versus the polarization field E(P) as well as the electrical field versus the mechanical strain E(S) of ferroelectric hysteresis. By considering a fractional derivative term, the frequency bandwidth of the inverse model is greatly increased. As a consequence, the model became suited for the usual inverse model applications, such as adaptive inverse control of piezoelectric actuators, high-speed positioning or high precision positioning. The proposed high-accuracy inverse model rendered it possible to avoid standard feedback mechanisms that usually exhibit restrain frequency bandwidths due mainly to high frequency noise. Starting from a quasi-static inverse model, and based on a simple mechanism related to the dry-friction concept, a polarization fractional derivative term was added in order to take into account the dynamical effects. The order of the fractional derivative was, using a direct model P(E) and experimental data on a large frequency bandwidth (10?3 Hz 2 Hz), found to be equal to 0.5. A quadratic relation was used to link the ferroelectric strain and the polarization field. Moreover, a dynamical strain control based on an inverse dynamic polarization field contribution was proposed. Experimental procedures were developed to verify the accuracy of the polarization as well as of the strain control. Good results were obtained and exposed for sinus and triangular polarization-imposed waveforms. Various frequencies and amplitudes were tested in both cases

  17. Three-Axis Attitude Estimation With a High-Bandwidth Angular Rate Sensor

    Bayard, David S.; Green, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    A continuing challenge for modern instrument pointing control systems is to meet the increasingly stringent pointing performance requirements imposed by emerging advanced scientific, defense, and civilian payloads. Instruments such as adaptive optics telescopes, space interferometers, and optical communications make unprecedented demands on precision pointing capabilities. A cost-effective method was developed for increasing the pointing performance for this class of NASA applications. The solution was to develop an attitude estimator that fuses star tracker and gyro measurements with a high-bandwidth angular rotation sensor (ARS). An ARS is a rate sensor whose bandwidth extends well beyond that of the gyro, typically up to 1,000 Hz or higher. The most promising ARS sensor technology is based on a magnetohydrodynamic concept, and has recently become available commercially. The key idea is that the sensor fusion of the star tracker, gyro, and ARS provides a high-bandwidth attitude estimate suitable for supporting pointing control with a fast-steering mirror or other type of tip/tilt correction for increased performance. The ARS is relatively inexpensive and can be bolted directly next to the gyro and star tracker on the spacecraft bus. The high-bandwidth attitude estimator fuses an ARS sensor with a standard three-axis suite comprised of a gyro and star tracker. The estimation architecture is based on a dual-complementary filter (DCF) structure. The DCF takes a frequency- weighted combination of the sensors such that each sensor is most heavily weighted in a frequency region where it has the lowest noise. An important property of the DCF is that it avoids the need to model disturbance torques in the filter mechanization. This is important because the disturbance torques are generally not known in applications. This property represents an advantage over the prior art because it overcomes a weakness of the Kalman filter that arises when fusing more than one rate measurement. An additional advantage over prior art is that, computationally, the DCF requires significantly fewer real-time calculations than a Kalman filter formulation. There are essentially two reasons for this: the DCF state is not augmented with angular rate, and measurement updates occur at the slower gyro rate instead of the faster ARS sampling rate. Finally, the DCF has a simple and compelling architecture. The DCF is exactly equivalent to flying two identical attitude observers, one at low rate and one at high rate. These attitude observers are exactly of the form currently flown on typical three-axis spacecraft.

  18. Temperature dependence of nu3 and nu4 bandwidths and complex refractive indices for crystalline methane

    Ngoh, M. A.; Khanna, R. K.; Fox, K.

    1993-01-01

    Infrared spectra of thin films of pure CH4 have been measured for a range of temperatures from 22 to 68 K. The bandwidth for the fundamental nu3 near 3000/cm varies from 12.7 to 33.2/cm, while that for nu4 near 1300/cm varies from 6.2 to 16.0/cm. The real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction also exhibit significant dependence on temperature. These broadband measurements at low temperatures are useful for an understanding of clouds and hazes in the atmosphere of Uranus, clouds and ices in the atmosphere of Titan, and ices on the surfaces of Pluto and Triton.

  19. Applied techniques for high bandwidth data transfers across wide area networks

    Large distributed systems such as Computational/Data Grids require large amounts of data to be co-located with the computing facilities for processing. From their work developing a scalable distributed network cache, the authors have gained experience with techniques necessary to achieve high data throughput over high bandwidth Wide Area Networks (WAN). The authors discuss several hardware and software design techniques, and then describe their application to an implementation of an enhanced FTP protocol called GridFTP. The authors describe results from the Supercomputing 2000 conference

  20. Metamaterial composite bandpass filter with an ultra-broadband rejection bandwidth of up to 240 terahertz

    Strikwerda, Andrew; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Lorenzen, Dennis Lund; Krabbe, Alexander; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2014-01-01

    present equations—and discuss their scaling laws—which detail the f and full width at half max (Δf) of the pass band, as well as the required geometric dimensions for their fabrication using standard UV photolithography and easily achievable fabrication linewidths. With these equations, the geometric...... as photoconductive antennas and difference frequency generation. The composite structure shown here expands the usable bandwidth to exceed that of current THz sources. To highlight the applicability of this combination, we demonstrate a series of bandpass filters with only a single pass band, with a...

  1. A Low Power High Bandwidth Four Quadrant Analog Multiplier in 32 NM CNFET Technology

    Vitrag Sheth

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor (CNFET is a promising new technology that overcomes several limitations of traditional silicon integrated circuit technology. In recent years, the potential of CNFET for analog circuit applications has been explored. This paper proposes a novel four quadrant analog multiplier design using CNFETs. The simulation based on 32nm CNFET technology shows that the proposed multiplier has very low harmonic distortion (<0.45%, large input range (±400mV, large bandwidth (~50GHz and low power consumption (~247µW, while operating at a supply voltage of ±0.9V.

  2. Task Mapping and Bandwidth Reservation for Mixed Hard/Soft Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems

    Saraswat, Prabhat Kumar; Pop, Paul; Madsen, Jan

    reserved for the servers determines the quality of service (QoS) for soft tasks. CBS enforces temporal isolation, such that soft task overruns do not affect the timing guarantees of hard tasks. Transient faults in hard tasks are tolerated using checkpointing with rollback recovery. We have proposed a Tabu...... Search-based approach for task mapping and CBS bandwidth reservation, such that the deadlines for the hard tasks are satisfied, even in the case of transient faults, and the QoS for the soft tasks is maximized. Researchers have used fixed execution time models, such as the worst-case execution times for...

  3. Routing and signaling schemes for bandwidth-variable (BV) optical networks

    Zheng, Xiaoping; Hua, Nan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Haijiao; Zhang, Hanyi

    2011-11-01

    Two kinds of routing and signaling schemes for bandwidth-variable (BV) optical networks are compared in the paper. One is the fix routing (FR) together with an extension to the traditional RSVP-TE (RSVP-bBV) , another is adaptive routing (AR) together with an extension to the traditional RSVP-TE (RSVP-fBV). Both are implemented on Tsinghua large-scale ASON test-bed. Experiment results show that the both schemes have different characteristics of blocking probability, and FR+ RSVP-bBV is more suitable to high dynamic BV optical networks than AR+ RSVP-fBV.

  4. IPTV Resource and Performance Management using End-to-End Available Bandwidth Estimation Techniques

    Meskill, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Over-The-Top IPTV services have seen a huge increase in popularity in recent years. This fact coupled with the ever increasing resource requirements of IPTV services has created a necessity for e�cient and e�ective management of these IPTV services. This thesis presents contributions and �ndings into the use of end-to-end Available Bandwidth estimation to help govern Over-The-Top IPTV service delivery. An ex- amination is presented of the conditions under which end-to-end Avail...

  5. Efficient broad- and tunable-bandwidth optical extinction via aspect-ratio-tailored silver nanodisks

    Anquillare, Emma L; Hsu, Chia Wei; DeLacy, Brendan G; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-01-01

    Sub-wavelength resonators typically exhibit a narrow-bandwidth response to optical excitations. We computationally design and experimentally synthesize tailored distributions of silver nanodisks to extinguish light over broad, tunable frequency windows. We show that metallic nanodisks are two- to twenty-times more efficient in absorbing and scattering light than common structures. Per-volume efficiency increases away from the plasma frequency of the underlying metal. We measure broadband extinction per volume that closely approaches theoretical predictions over three representative visible-range wavelength windows, confirming the high efficiency of nanodisks and demonstrating the collective power of computational design and experimental precision for developing new photonics technologies.

  6. BHCDA: Bandwidth Efficient Heterogeneity aware Cluster based Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    to utilize the available bandwidth efficiently with reduced packet delivery ratio and throughput. BHCDA presents the solution for effective data gathering with in-network aggregation. It considers the network with heterogeneous nodes in terms of energy and mobile sink to aggregate the data packets....... It embodies the optimal approach by Intra and inter-cluster aggregation on the randomly distributed nodes with variable data generation rate while routing data to sink. It uses the correlation of data within the packet for applying the aggregation function on data generated by nodes. BHCDA shows...

  7. A Bandwidth-Efficient Service for Local Information Dissemination in Sparse to Dense Roadways

    Garcia-Lozano, Estrella; Campo, Celeste; Garcia-Rubio, Carlos; Cortes-Martin, Alberto; Rodriguez-Carrion, Alicia; Noriega-Vivas, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Thanks to the research on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs), we will be able to deploy applications on roadways that will contribute to energy efficiency through a better planning of long trips. With this goal in mind, we have designed a gas/charging station advertising system, which takes advantage of the broadcast nature of the network. We have found that reducing the number of total sent packets is important, as it allows for a better use of the available bandwidth. We have designed improvements for a distance-based flooding scheme, so that it can support the advertising application with good results in sparse to dense roadway scenarios. PMID:23881130

  8. Fiber optics sensor for sub-nanometric displacement and wide bandwidth systems

    Perret, Luc; Chassagne, Luc; Topsu, Suat; Ruaux, Pascal; Cagneau, Barthélemy; Alayli, Yasser

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report fiber optics sensor with sub-nanometric resolution and wide bandwidth. It relies on an increase of the reception fibers number and on low-noise electronics. Moreover, a reference channel has been implemented using a semi-reflective plate to eliminate the source fluctuations and the fiber sensor was isolated to limit external influence of temperature and pressure. Thus we achieve both a sub-nanometric resolution on a 400 ms integration time and a long-term drift as low...

  9. Lossless video compression in an FPGA for reducing DDR memory bandwidth usage

    Fagerheim, Fredrik Jacobsen; Hafskjold, Stian Røed

    2013-01-01

    We show that a hardware implementation of a lossless image compression schemecan be used as means for lowering DDR memory bandwidth usage from a videostream. A prediction scheme based on LOCO-I is used to reduce correlative redundancybetween sequential pixels, before the data is encoded by Golomb coding.The data packages after source coding contain a continuous stream of prefix codes,in order to eliminate the header data imposed by more advanced packing schemes.This in turn results in a highe...

  10. Raman-induced slow-light delay of THz-bandwidth pulses

    Bustard, Philip J.; Heshami, Khabat; England, Duncan G.; Spanner, Michael; Sussman, Benjamin J.

    2016-04-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to generate optically controlled delays based on off-resonant Raman absorption. Dispersion in a transparency window between two neighboring, optically activated Raman absorption lines is used to reduce the group velocity of broadband 765 nm pulses. We implement this approach in a potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) waveguide at room temperature, and demonstrate Raman-induced delays of up to 140 fs for a 650-fs duration, 1.8-THz bandwidth, pulse. Our approach should be applicable to single-photon signals, offers wavelength tunability, and is a step toward processing ultrafast photons.

  11. Towards Coordinated Bandwidth Adaptations for Hundred-Scale 3D Tele-Immersive Systems

    Hosseini, Mohammad; Kurillo, Gregorij; Etesami, Seyed Rasoul; Yu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    3D tele-immersion improves the state of collaboration among geographically distributed participants. Unlike the traditional 2D videos, a 3D tele-immersive system employs multiple 3D cameras based in each physical site to cover a much larger field of view, generating a very large amount of stream data. One of the major challenges is how to efficiently transmit these bulky 3D streaming data to bandwidth-constrained sites. In this paper, we study an adaptive Human Visual System (HVS) -compliant ...

  12. Nonclassical correlations between terahertz-bandwidth photons mediated by rotational quanta in hydrogen molecules.

    Bustard, Philip J; Erskine, Jennifer; England, Duncan G; Nunn, Josh; Hockett, Paul; Lausten, Rune; Spanner, Michael; Sussman, Benjamin J

    2015-03-15

    Quantum photonics offers much promise for the development of new technologies. The ability to control the interaction of light and matter at the level of single quantum excitations is a prerequisite for the construction of potentially powerful devices. Here we use the rotational levels of a room temperature ensemble of hydrogen molecules to couple two distinct optical modes at the single photon level using femtosecond pulses with 2 THz bandwidth. We observe photon correlations that violate a Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, thereby verifying the creation of a nonclassical state. This work demonstrates the rich potential of molecules for use in ultrafast quantum photonic devices. PMID:25768147

  13. Electric field and temperature measurement using ultra wide bandwidth pigtailed electro-optic probes.

    Bernier, Maxime; Gaborit, Gwenaël; Duvillaret, Lionel; Paupert, Alain; Lasserre, Jean-Louis

    2008-05-01

    We present pigtailed electro-optic probes that allow a simultaneous measurement of high frequency electric fields and temperature using a unique laser probe beam. This has been achieved by the development of a novel probe design associated with a fully automated servo-controlled optical bench, initially developed to stabilize the electric field sensor response. The developed electro-optic probes present a stable response in outdoors conditions over a time duration exceeding 1 h, a frequency bandwidth from kHz to tens of GHz with a sensitivity of 0.7 Vm(-1)Hz(-(1/2)), and a temperature accuracy of 40 mK. PMID:18449315

  14. Engineering the CernVM-Filesystem as a High Bandwidth Distributed Filesystem for Auxiliary Physics Data

    Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Bockelman, B. [Nebraska U.; Blomer, J. [CERN; Herner, K. [Fermilab; Levshina, T. [Fermilab; Slyz, M. [Fermilab

    2015-12-23

    A common use pattern in the computing models of particle physics experiments is running many distributed applications that read from a shared set of data files. We refer to this data is auxiliary data, to distinguish it from (a) event data from the detector (which tends to be different for every job), and (b) conditions data about the detector (which tends to be the same for each job in a batch of jobs). Relatively speaking, conditions data also tends to be relatively small per job where both event data and auxiliary data are larger per job. Unlike event data, auxiliary data comes from a limited working set of shared files. Since there is spatial locality of the auxiliary data access, the use case appears to be identical to that of the CernVM- Filesystem (CVMFS). However, we show that distributing auxiliary data through CVMFS causes the existing CVMFS infrastructure to perform poorly. We utilize a CVMFS client feature called 'alien cache' to cache data on existing local high-bandwidth data servers that were engineered for storing event data. This cache is shared between the worker nodes at a site and replaces caching CVMFS files on both the worker node local disks and on the site's local squids. We have tested this alien cache with the dCache NFSv4.1 interface, Lustre, and the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) FUSE interface, and measured performance. In addition, we use high-bandwidth data servers at central sites to perform the CVMFS Stratum 1 function instead of the low-bandwidth web servers deployed for the CVMFS software distribution function. We have tested this using the dCache HTTP interface. As a result, we have a design for an end-to-end high-bandwidth distributed caching read-only filesystem, using existing client software already widely deployed to grid worker nodes and existing file servers already widely installed at grid sites. Files are published in a central place and are soon available on demand throughout the grid and cached locally on the site with a convenient POSIX interface. This paper discusses the details of the architecture and reports performance measurements.

  15. On cascades of resonators for high-bandwidth integrated optical interconnection networks.

    Small, Benjamin A; Lee, Benjamin G; Bergman, Keren

    2006-10-30

    The power penalty characteristics of high-speed optical signals transmitted through a variety of filters based on multiple microring resonator devices are analyzed by numerical simulation. The technique used here has been verified with single-ring experimental measurements. Butterworth and Chebyshev filters are investigated, as are serial cascades of resonant devices. Although the power penalty is generally not prohibitive, it is a parameter which cannot be ignored for the design of complex high-bandwidth photonic interconnect systems that utilize microring resonators as filters and switches. PMID:19529492

  16. A Low Power High Bandwidth Four Quadrant Analog Multiplier in 32 NM CNFET Technology

    Ishit Makwana

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Nano tube Field Effect Transistor (CNFET is a promising new technology that overcomes several limitations of traditional silicon integrated circuit technology. In recent years, the potential of CNFET for analog circuit applications has been explored. This paper proposes a novel four quadrant analog multiplier design using CNFETs. The simulation based on 32nm CNFET technology shows that the proposed multiplier has very low harmonic distortion (<0.45%, large input range (±400mV, large bandwidth (~50GHz and low power consumption (~247µW, while operating at a supply voltage of ±0.9V.

  17. A Bandwidth-Efficient Service for Local Information Dissemination in Sparse to Dense Roadways

    Patricia Noriega-Vivas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the research on Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs, we will be able to deploy applications on roadways that will contribute to energy efficiency through a better planning of long trips. With this goal in mind, we have designed a gas/charging station advertising system, which takes advantage of the broadcast nature of the network. We have found that reducing the number of total sent packets is important, as it allows for a better use of the available bandwidth. We have designed improvements for a distance-based flooding scheme, so that it can support the advertising application with good results in sparse to dense roadway scenarios.

  18. Proposal of a Planar Directional UWB Antenna for Any Desired Operational Bandwidth

    Peyrot-Solís, Marco A.; Galvan-Tejada, Giselle M.; Hildeberto Jardon-Aguilar

    2014-01-01

    A novel planar directional UWB antenna is proposed. The antenna design evolves from an oblique elliptic cone antenna by applying the planar-solid correspondence to two axes. Through a simple equation, this antenna can be designed, to operate at a specific lower cutoff frequency with a bandwidth larger than 10 GHz for a reflection coefficient magnitude lower than −10 dB. This characteristic provides the antenna with a good versatility. The directional radiation pattern has an average gain of 6...

  19. Engineering the CernVM-Filesystem as a High Bandwidth Distributed Filesystem for Auxiliary Physics Data

    Dykstra, D.; Bockelman, B.; Blomer, J.; Herner, K.; Levshina, T.; Slyz, M.

    2015-12-01

    A common use pattern in the computing models of particle physics experiments is running many distributed applications that read from a shared set of data files. We refer to this data is auxiliary data, to distinguish it from (a) event data from the detector (which tends to be different for every job), and (b) conditions data about the detector (which tends to be the same for each job in a batch of jobs). Relatively speaking, conditions data also tends to be relatively small per job where both event data and auxiliary data are larger per job. Unlike event data, auxiliary data comes from a limited working set of shared files. Since there is spatial locality of the auxiliary data access, the use case appears to be identical to that of the CernVM- Filesystem (CVMFS). However, we show that distributing auxiliary data through CVMFS causes the existing CVMFS infrastructure to perform poorly. We utilize a CVMFS client feature called "alien cache" to cache data on existing local high-bandwidth data servers that were engineered for storing event data. This cache is shared between the worker nodes at a site and replaces caching CVMFS files on both the worker node local disks and on the site's local squids. We have tested this alien cache with the dCache NFSv4.1 interface, Lustre, and the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) FUSE interface, and measured performance. In addition, we use high-bandwidth data servers at central sites to perform the CVMFS Stratum 1 function instead of the low-bandwidth web servers deployed for the CVMFS software distribution function. We have tested this using the dCache HTTP interface. As a result, we have a design for an end-to-end high-bandwidth distributed caching read-only filesystem, using existing client software already widely deployed to grid worker nodes and existing file servers already widely installed at grid sites. Files are published in a central place and are soon available on demand throughout the grid and cached locally on the site with a convenient POSIX interface. This paper discusses the details of the architecture and reports performance measurements.

  20. Energy-bandwidth trade-off in all-optical photonic crystal microcavity switches

    Heuck, Mikkel; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    specific example of a switching application, we investigate the demultiplexing of an optical time division multiplexed signal. To quantify the energy-bandwidth trade-off, we introduce a figure of merit for the detection of the demultiplexed signal. In such investigations it is crucial to consider...... patterning effects, which occur on time scales that are longer than the bit period. Our analysis is based on a coupled mode theory, which allows for an extensive investigation of the influence of the system parameters on the switching dynamics. The analysis is shown to provide new insights into the ultrafast...