WorldWideScience

Sample records for small-signal 3db bandwidth

  1. Small Signal Loudspeaker Impedance Emulator

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    from driver to driver. Therefore, a loudspeaker emulator capable of adjusting its impedance to that of a given driver is desired for measurement purposes. This paper proposes a loudspeaker emulator circuit for small signals. Simulations and experimental results are compared and show that it is possible...

  2. Analysis of small-signal intensity modulation of semiconductor lasers taking account of gain suppression

    Moustafa Ahmed; Ali El-Lafi

    2008-07-01

    This paper demonstrates theoretical characterization of intensity modulation of semiconductor lasers (SL’s). The study is based on a small-signal model to solve the laser rate equations taking into account suppression of optical gain. Analytical forms of the small-signal modulation response and modulation bandwidth are derived. Influences of the bias current, modulation index and modulation frequency as well as gain suppression on modulation characteristics are examined. Computer simulation of the model is applied to 1.55-m InGaAsP lasers. The results show that when the SL is biased far-above threshold, the increase of gain suppression increases both the modulation response and its peak frequency. The modulation bandwidth also increases but the laser damping rate decreases. Quantitative description of the relationships of both modulation bandwidth vs. relaxation frequency and maximum modulation bandwidth vs. nonlinear gain coefficient are presented.

  3. Transistor Small Signal Analysis under Radiation Effects

    A Small signal transistor parameters dedicate the operation of bipolar transistor before and after exposed to gamma radiation (1 Mrad up to 5 Mrads) and electron beam(1 MeV, 25 mA) with the same doses as a radiation sources, the electrical parameters of the device are changed. The circuit Model has been discussed.Parameters, such as internal emitter resistance (re), internal base resistance, internal collector resistance (re), emitter base photocurrent (Ippe) and base collector photocurrent (Ippe). These parameters affect on the operation of the device in its applications, which work as an effective element, such as current gain (hFE≡β)degradation it's and effective parameter in the device operation. Also the leakage currents (IcBO) and (IEBO) are most important parameters, Which increased with radiation doses. Theoretical representation of the change in the equivalent circuit for NPN and PNP bipolar transistor were discussed, the input and output parameters of the two types were discussed due to the change in small signal input resistance of the two types. The emitter resistance(re) were changed by the effect of gamma and electron beam irradiation, which makes a change in the role of matching impedances between transistor stages. Also the transistor stability factors S(Ico), S(VBE) and S(β are detected to indicate the transistor operations after exposed to radiation fields. In low doses the gain stability is modified due to recombination of induced charge generated during device fabrication. Also the load resistance values are connected to compensate the effect

  4. HVDC dynamic modelling for small signal analysis

    Yang, X.; Chen, C. [Shanghai Jiaotong Univ. (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2004-11-01

    The conventional quasi-steady model of HVDC is not able to describe the dynamic switching behaviour of HVDC converters. By means of the sampled-data modelling approach, a linear time-invariant (LTI) small-signal dynamic model is developed for the HVDC main circuit in the synchronous rotating d-q reference frame. The linearised model is validated by time-domain simulation, and it can be seen that the model represents the dynamic response of the static switching circuits to perturbations in operating points. The model is valid for analysing oscillations including high frequency modes such as subsynchronous oscillation (SSO) and high frequency instability. The model is applied in two cases: (i) SSO analysis where the results are compared with the quasi-steady approach that has shown its validation for normal SSO analysis; (ii) high frequency eigenvalue analysis for HVDC benchmark system in which the results of root locus analysis and simulation shows that increased gain of rectifier DC PI controller may result in high-frequency oscillatory instability. (author)

  5. Gain and bandwidth in stagger-tuned gyroklystrons

    An analytical theory describing the trade-off in the bandwidth and gain in multicavity, stagger-tuned gyroklystrons (GKLs) is developed. The assumption that the cavities are short and therefore the electron ballistic bunching proceeds in long drift sections (point-gap model) allows us to develop analytically both the small-signal and large-signal theories of stagger-tuned GKLs. The results for two-, three-, and four-cavity GKLs are presented which illustrate the bandwidth increase, the gain degradation, and the increase in gain-bandwidth product due to the stagger tuning. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Power system small signal stability analysis and control

    Mondal, Debasish; Sengupta, Aparajita

    2014-01-01

    Power System Small Signal Stability Analysis and Control presents a detailed analysis of the problem of severe outages due to the sustained growth of small signal oscillations in modern interconnected power systems. The ever-expanding nature of power systems and the rapid upgrade to smart grid technologies call for the implementation of robust and optimal controls. Power systems that are forced to operate close to their stability limit have resulted in the use of control devices by utility companies to improve the performance of the transmission system against commonly occurring power system

  7. Inclusion of small signal stability assessment to electromagnetic transient programs

    Lucas, J.R. [Moratuwa Univ. (Sri Lanka); Annakkage, U.D.; Karawita, C. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Muthumuni, D.; Jayasinghe, R.P. [Manitoba HVDC Research Centre, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Power system stability refers to the ability of an electrical power system to regain a state of operating equilibrium after being subjected to a physical disturbance. In this study, a small-signal stability (SSS) module was formulated for use with the transient simulation tool called PSCAD. The package was developed in an effort to provide small-signal stability assessment of case studies on PSCAD, and an adaptable simulation background for users to carry out conventional controller design without the need for an outside package. Once fully developed, the SSS module will be capable of incorporating all the system models available on PSCAD. Simulation results for the benchmark 12 bus system showed that it is a powerful and promising tool for carrying out small-signal analysis together with transient analysis, particularly for power system controller design to prevent instabilities. Validation has been carried out by comparison of Eigenvalues with SSAT and time domain responses with PSCAD/EMTDC. It was concluded that SSS could be effectively used to study the stability of a proposed power system before detailed simulation on an EMT type simulation is carried out. 11 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. P3DB: An Integrated Database for Plant Protein Phosphorylation

    Qiuming eYao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphorylation is widely recognized as the most pervasive, enzyme-catalyzed post-translational modification in eukaryotes. In particular, plants have purloined this signaling mechanism as evidenced by the two-fold higher frequency of protein kinases within the genome compared to other eukaryotes. While all aspects of plant protein phosphorylation research have grown in the past ten years; phosphorylation site mapping using high-resolution mass spectrometry has grown exponentially. In Arabidopsis alone there are thousands of experimentally-determined phosphorylation sites. To archive these events in a user-intuitive format we have developed P3DB, The Plant Protein Phosphorylation Database (p3db.org. This database is a repository for plant protein phosphorylation site data, currently hosting information on 32,963 non-redundant sites collated from 23 experimental studies from seven plant species. These data can be queried for a protein-of-interest using an integrated BLAST function to query similar sequences with known phosphorylation sites among the multiple plants currently investigated. Thus, this resource can help identify functionally-conserved phosphorylation sites in plants using a multi-system approach.

  9. A Small Signal Equivalent Circuit Model for Resonant Tunnelling Diode

    MA Long; HUANG Ying-Long; ZHANG Yang; WANG Liang-Chen; YANG Fu-Hua; ZENG Yi-Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ We report a resonant tunnelling diode (RTD) small signal equiwlent circuit model consisting of quantum capacitance and quantum inductance. The model is verified through the actual InAs/In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs RTD fabricated on an InP substrate. Model parameters are extracted by fitting the equivalent circuit model with ac measurement data in three different regions of RTD current-voltage (Ⅰ-Ⅴ) characteristics. The electron lifetime,representing the average time that the carriers remain in the quasibound states during the tunnelling process, is also calculated to be 2.09ps.

  10. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  11. Regulation of Arabidopsis root development by small signaling peptides

    Christina eDelay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant root systems arise de novo from a single embryonic root. Complex and highly coordinated developmental networks are required to ensure the formation of lateral organs maximises plant fitness. The Arabidopsis root is well suited to dissection of regulatory and developmental networks due to its highly ordered, predictable structure. A myriad of regulatory signalling networks control the development of plant roots, from the classical hormones such as auxin and cytokinin to short-range positional signalling molecules that relay information between neighbouring cells. Small signaling peptides are a growing class of regulatory molecules involved in many aspects of root development including meristem maintenance, the gravitropic response, lateral root development and vascular formation. Here, recent findings on the roles of regulatory peptides in these aspects of root development are discussed.

  12. Low-bandwidth authentication.

    Donnelly, Patrick Joseph; McIver, Lauren; Gaines, Brian R.; Anderson, Erik; Collins, Michael Joseph; Thomas,Kurt Adam; McDaniel, Austin

    2007-09-01

    Remotely-fielded unattended sensor networks generally must operate at very low power--in the milliwatt or microwatt range--and thus have extremely limited communications bandwidth. Such sensors might be asleep most of the time to conserve power, waking only occasionally to transmit a few bits. RFID tags for tracking or material control have similarly tight bandwidth constraints, and emerging nanotechnology devices will be even more limited. Since transmitted data is subject to spoofing, and since sensors might be located in uncontrolled environments vulnerable to physical tampering, the high-consequence data generated by such systems must be protected by cryptographically sound authentication mechanisms; but such mechanisms are often lacking in current sensor networks. One reason for this undesirable situation is that standard authentication methods become impractical or impossible when bandwidth is severely constrained; if messages are small, a standard digital signature or HMAC will be many times larger than the message itself, yet it might be possible to spare only a few extra bits per message for security. Furthermore, the authentication tags themselves are only one part of cryptographic overhead, as key management functions (distributing, changing, and revoking keys) consume still more bandwidth. To address this problem, we have developed algorithms that provide secure authentication while adding very little communication overhead. Such techniques will make it possible to add strong cryptographic guarantees of data integrity to a much wider range of systems.

  13. Bandwidth in bolometric interferometry

    Charlassier, R; Hamilton, J -Ch; Kaplan, J; Malu, S

    2009-01-01

    Bolometric Interferometry is a technology currently under development that will be first dedicated to the detection of B-mode polarization fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background. A bolometric interferometer will have to take advantage of the wide spectral detection band of its bolometers in order to be competitive with imaging experiments. A crucial concern is that interferometers are presumed to be importantly affected by a spoiling effect known as bandwidth smearing. In this paper, we investigate how the bandwidth modifies the work principle of a bolometric interferometer and how it affects its sensitivity to the CMB angular power spectra. We obtain analytical expressions for the broadband visibilities measured by broadband heterodyne and bolometric interferometers. We investigate how the visibilities must be reconstructed in a broadband bolometric interferometer and show that this critically depends on hardware properties of the modulation phase shifters. Using an angular power spectrum estimator ...

  14. Radio Interferometers with wide bandwidths

    Subrahmanyan, Ravi

    2003-01-01

    The Australia Telescope Compact Array and the Very Large Array are currently being upgraded to operate with wide bandwidths; interferometers dedicated to the measurement of cosmic microwave background anisotropies are being designed with large instantaneous bandwidths for high sensitivity. Interferometers with wide instantaneous bandwidths that do not operate with correlators capable of decomposing the bands into narrow channels suffer from `bandwidth smearing' effects in wide-field imaging. ...

  15. Small signal modulation characteristics of red-emitting (λ = 610 nm) III-nitride nanowire array lasers on (001) silicon

    Jahangir, Shafat

    2015-02-16

    The small signal modulation characteristics of an InGaN/GaN nanowire array edge- emitting laser on (001) silicon are reported. The emission wavelength is 610 nm. Lattice matched InAlN cladding layers were incorporated in the laser heterostructure for better mode confinement. The suitability of the nanowire lasers for use in plastic fiber communication systems with direct modulation is demonstrated through their modulation bandwidth of f-3dB,max = 3.1 GHz, very low values of chirp (0.8 Å) and α-parameter, and large differential gain (3.1 × 10-17 cm2).

  16. Small-signal theory of subterahertz overmoded surface wave oscillator with distributed wall loss

    Wang, Guangqiang; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Shuang; Wang, Xuefeng

    2015-09-01

    A small-signal theory of the overmoded surface wave oscillator (SWO) with distributed wall loss is presented in this letter. The wall loss considered here includes the surface resistance and surface roughness. The cold and hot characteristics of 0.14 THz SWO are studied by the small-signal theory. Numerical results show that as the increase of wall loss, the working frequency decreases slightly, the rise time and startup time of oscillation increase significantly, and the output power decreases dramatically. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation confirms the prediction by the small-signal theory.

  17. Intrinsic stability of an HBT based on a small signal equivalent circuit model

    Intrinsic stability of the heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) was analyzed and discussed based on a small signal equivalent circuit model. The stability factor of the HBT device was derived based on a compact T-type small signal equivalent circuit model of the HBT. The effect of the mainly small signal model parameters of the HBT on the stability of the HBT was thoroughly examined. The discipline of parameter optimum to improve the intrinsic stability of the HBT was achieved. The theoretic analysis results of the stability were also used to explain the experimental results of the stability of the HBT and they were verified by the experimental results. (semiconductor devices)

  18. Small Signal Model for VSC-HVDC Connected DFIG-Based Offshore Wind Farms

    Kai Liao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale offshore wind farms are integrated with onshore ac grids through the voltage source converter based high voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC transmission system. The impact on the stability of the ac grids will be significant. The small signal model of a wind farm connected with voltage source converter based dc transmission system is studied in this paper. A suitable model for small signal stability analysis is presented. The control system of wind generator and the HVDC system has also been modeled in this model for small signal stability analysis. The impact of the control parameters on the network stability is investigated.

  19. Small Signal Stability Analysis with Penetration of Grid-connected Wind Farm of PMSG Type

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of large scale grid-connected wind farm on direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) type are discussed on the small signal stability performances of power systems. Firstly, a simplified practical model of wind farm of PMSG type is derived for analyzing small signal stability. The rotor-flux- oriented control strategy is applied to the modelling of PMSG. Secondly, the framework of small signal stability analysis incorporating wind farm of PMSG type is built. Finally, the different simulation scenarios based on the IEEE 3-generator-9-bus test system as benchmark are designed to conduct the eigenvalue analysis and to assess the impacts of wind farm of PMSG type on power system small signal stability. Some conclusions are drawn with simulation results.

  20. Small-Signal Stability Analysis of Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    Knüppel, Thyge; Akhmatov, Vladislav; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygård; Jensen, Kim H.; Dixon, Andrew; Østergaard, Jacob

    Power system stability investigations of wind farms often cover the tasks of low-voltage-fault-ride-through, voltage and reactive power control, and power balancing, but not much attention has yet been paid to the task of small-signal stability. Small-signal stability analysis needs increasing...... generator network. A detailed aggregated wind turbine model is employed which includes all necessary control functions. It is shown that the wind urbines have very low participation in the inter-area power oscillation....

  1. Validation of Nonlinear Bipolar Transistor Model by Small-Signal Measurements

    Vidkjær, Jens; Porra, V.; Zhu, J.; Huttunen, T.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for the validity analysis of nonlinear transistor models is presented based on DC-and small-signal S-parameter measurements and realistic consideration of the measurement and de-embedding errors and singularities of the small-signal equivalent circuit. As an example, some analysis results for an extended Gummel Poon model are presented in the case of a UHF bipolar power transistor.

  2. Small-Signal Stability Analysis of Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    Knüppel, Thyge; Akhmatov, Vladislav; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygård; Jensen, Kim H.; Dixon, Andrew; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Power system stability investigations of wind farms often cover the tasks of low-voltage-fault-ride-through, voltage and reactive power control, and power balancing, but not much attention has yet been paid to the task of small-signal stability. Small-signal stability analysis needs increasing focus since the share of wind power increases substituting power generation from conventional power plants. Here, a study based on modal analysis is presented which investigate the effect of large scale...

  3. Validation of Nonlinear Bipolar Transistor Model by Small-Signal Measurements

    Vidkjær, Jens; Porra, V.; Zhu, J.;

    1992-01-01

    A new method for the validity analysis of nonlinear transistor models is presented based on DC-and small-signal S-parameter measurements and realistic consideration of the measurement and de-embedding errors and singularities of the small-signal equivalent circuit. As an example, some analysis...... results for an extended Gummel Poon model are presented in the case of a UHF bipolar power transistor....

  4. Cutter Connectivity Bandwidth Study

    2002-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how much bandwidth is required for cutters to meet emerging data transfer requirements. The Cutter Connectivity Business Solutions Team with guidance front the Commandant's 5 Innovation Council sponsored this study. Today, many Coast Guard administrative and business functions are being conducted via electronic means. Although our larger cutters can establish part-time connectivity using commercial satellite communications (SATCOM) while underway, there are numerous complaints regarding poor application performance. Additionally, smaller cutters do not have any standard means of underway connectivity. The R&D study shows the most important factor affecting web performance and enterprise applications onboard cutters was latency. Latency describes the time it takes the signal to reach the satellite and come back down through space. The latency due to use of higher orbit satellites is causing poor application performance and inefficient use of expensive SATCOM links. To improve performance, the CC must, (1) reduce latency by using alternate communications links such as low-earth orbit satellites, (2) tailor applications to the SATCOM link and/or (3) optimize protocols used for data communication to minimize time required by present applications to establish communications between the user and the host systems.

  5. Bandwidth of Gaussian weighted Chirp

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    1993-01-01

    Four major time duration and bandwidth expressions are calculated for a linearly frequency modulated sinusoid with Gaussian shaped envelope. This includes a Gaussian tone pulse. The bandwidth is found to be a nonlinear function of nominal time duration and nominal frequency excursion of the chirp...

  6. Small-signal modelling and control of photovoltaic based water pumping system.

    Ghosh, Arun; Ganesh Malla, Siva; Narayan Bhende, Chandrasekhar

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies small-signal modelling and control design for a photovoltaic (PV) based water pumping system without energy storage. First, the small-signal model is obtained and then, using this model, two proportional-integral (PI) controllers, where one controller is used to control the dc-link voltage and the other one to control the speed of induction motor, are designed to meet control goals such as settling time and peak overshoot of the closed loop responses. The loop robustness of the design is also studied. For a given set of system parameters, simulations are carried out to validate the modelling and the control design. PMID:25707717

  7. Network Bandwidth Utilization Forecast Model on High Bandwidth Network

    Yoo, Wucherl; Sim, Alex

    2014-07-07

    With the increasing number of geographically distributed scientific collaborations and the scale of the data size growth, it has become more challenging for users to achieve the best possible network performance on a shared network. We have developed a forecast model to predict expected bandwidth utilization for high-bandwidth wide area network. The forecast model can improve the efficiency of resource utilization and scheduling data movements on high-bandwidth network to accommodate ever increasing data volume for large-scale scientific data applications. Univariate model is developed with STL and ARIMA on SNMP path utilization data. Compared with traditional approach such as Box-Jenkins methodology, our forecast model reduces computation time by 83.2percent. It also shows resilience against abrupt network usage change. The accuracy of the forecast model is within the standard deviation of the monitored measurements.

  8. Massive Multi-Omics Microbiome Database (M3DB): A Scalable Data Warehouse and Analytics Platform for Microbiome Datasets

    Norris, Shaun W.; Bradley, Steven P.; Parikh, Hardik I.; Sheth, Nihar U.

    2015-01-01

    Massive Multi-Omics Microbiome Database (M3DB) is a data warehousing and analytics solution designed to handle diverse, complex, and unprecedented volumes of sequence and taxonomic classification data obtained in a typical microbiome project using NGS technologies. M3DB is a platform developed on Apache Hadoop, Apache Hive and PostgreSQL technologies. It enables users to store, analyze and manage high volumes of data, and also provides them the ability to query it in a fast and efficient mann...

  9. Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    none,

    2004-10-01

    ITP conducted a study on energy use and potential savings, or "bandwidth" study, in major steelmaking processes. Intended to provide a realistic estimate of the potential amount of energy that can be saved in an industrial process, the "bandwidth" refers to the difference between the amount of energy that would be consumed in a process using commercially available technology versus the minimum amount of energy needed to achieve those same results based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics. The Steel Industry Energy Bandwidth Study (PDF 133 KB) also estimates steel industry energy use in the year 2010, and uses that value as a basis for comparison against the minimum requirements. This energy savings opportunity for 2010 will aid focus on longer term R&D.

  10. Mining Industry Energy Bandwidth Study

    none,

    2007-07-01

    The Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) relies on analytical studies to identify large energy reduction opportunities in energy-intensive industries and uses these results to guide its R&D portfolio. The energy bandwidth illustrates the total energy-saving opportunity that exists in the industry if the current processes are improved by implementing more energy-efficient practices and by using advanced technologies. This bandwidth analysis report was conducted to assist the ITP Mining R&D program in identifying energy-saving opportunities in coal, metals, and mineral mining. These opportunities were analyzed in key mining processes of blasting, dewatering, drilling, digging, ventilation, materials handling, crushing, grinding, and separations.

  11. Investigation of high-frequency small-signal characteristics of FETs/HEMTs

    Hydrodynamic calculations of the components of small-signal admittance and impedance matrix are performed for InGaAs HEMT. Modifications of high-frequency small-signal response spectra in going (i) from ungated to gated structures and (ii) from a thermally equilibrium state without a stream to a nonequilibrium state with the stream of carriers in the FET/HEMT channel are considered. The main attention is paid to the spectral behaviour of the admittance and impedance in the THz frequency range related to the excitation of 2D and 3D plasma oscillations in the gated and ungated regions of the conducting channel of FET/HEMT, respectively. Accompanied effects related to plasma phenomena such as the competition of 2D and 3D plasma oscillations, amplification of 3D and Dyakonov–Shur instability of 2D plasma oscillations and resonant detection of external THz action are discussed. (paper)

  12. Small-Signal Stability of Wind Power System With Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygaard; Jensen, Kim Høj; Dixon, Andrew; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    presented which assesses the impact of full-load converter interfaced wind turbines on power system small-signal stability. The study is based on a 7 generator network with lightly damped inter-area modes. A detailed wind turbine (WT) model with all grid relevant control functions is used in the study. The......Small-signal stability analysis of power system oscillations is a well established field within power system analysis, but not much attention has yet been paid to systems with a high penetration of wind turbines and with large wind power plants (WPP). In this paper a comprehensive analysis is...... WT is, furthermore, equipped with a park level WPP voltage controller and comparisons are presented. The WT model for this work is a validated dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power WT. The study is based on modal analysis which is complemented with time domain simulations on the nonlinear...

  13. Resolving small signal measurements in experimental plasma environments using calibrated subtraction of noise signals

    Fimognari, P. J., E-mail: PJFimognari@XanthoTechnologies.com; Demers, D. R. [Xantho Technologies, LLC, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Chen, X. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Schoch, P. M. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The performance of many diagnostic and control systems within fusion and other fields of research are often detrimentally affected by spurious noise signals. This is particularly true for those (such as radiation or particle detectors) working with very small signals. Common sources of radiated and conducted noise in experimental fusion environments include the plasma itself and instrumentation. The noise complicates data analysis, as illustrated by noise on signals measured with the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) installed on the Madison Symmetric Torus. The noise is time-varying and often exceeds the secondary ion beam current (in contrast with previous applications). Analysis of the noise identifies the dominant source as photoelectric emission from the detectors induced by ultraviolet light from the plasma. This has led to the development of a calibrated subtraction technique, which largely removes the undesired temporal noise signals from data. The advantages of the technique for small signal measurement applications are demonstrated through improvements realized on HIBP fluctuation measurements.

  14. PolySac3DB: an annotated data base of 3 dimensional structures of polysaccharides

    Sarkar Anita

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polysaccharides are ubiquitously present in the living world. Their structural versatility makes them important and interesting components in numerous biological and technological processes ranging from structural stabilization to a variety of immunologically important molecular recognition events. The knowledge of polysaccharide three-dimensional (3D structure is important in studying carbohydrate-mediated host-pathogen interactions, interactions with other bio-macromolecules, drug design and vaccine development as well as material science applications or production of bio-ethanol. Description PolySac3DB is an annotated database that contains the 3D structural information of 157 polysaccharide entries that have been collected from an extensive screening of scientific literature. They have been systematically organized using standard names in the field of carbohydrate research into 18 categories representing polysaccharide families. Structure-related information includes the saccharides making up the repeat unit(s and their glycosidic linkages, the expanded 3D representation of the repeat unit, unit cell dimensions and space group, helix type, diffraction diagram(s (when applicable, experimental and/or simulation methods used for structure description, link to the abstract of the publication, reference and the atomic coordinate files for visualization and download. The database is accompanied by a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI. It features interactive displays of polysaccharide structures and customized search options for beginners and experts, respectively. The site also serves as an information portal for polysaccharide structure determination techniques. The web-interface also references external links where other carbohydrate-related resources are available. Conclusion PolySac3DB is established to maintain information on the detailed 3D structures of polysaccharides. All the data and features are available

  15. DYNAMIC BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION ALGORITHM UTILIZING FULL BAND

    Han Guodong; Wen Jianhua; Wu Jiangxing

    2006-01-01

    A kind of Dynamic Full Bandwidth Utilized (DFBU) allocation algorithm is introduced. This algorithm allows a single link to use bandwidth far beyond its fair share bandwidth in a multi-service packet transporting system. Three important parameters as the bound on maximum and minimum bandwidth, the maximum packet delay and the minimum band width utilization are discussed and analyzed. Results of experiments show that the DFBU-algorithm is capable of making a single link in the system to use all the spare bandwidth (up to full-bandwidth) while the performance of fairness and QoS requirement is still guaranteed.

  16. OPTIMAL BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION WITH BANDWIDTH RESERVATION AND ADAPTATION IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    Ali Amiri

    2016-01-01

    Efficient management of bandwidth in wireless networks is a critical factor for a successful communication system. Special features of wireless networks such user mobility and growth of wireless applications and their high bandwidth intensity create a major challenge to utilize bandwidth resources optimally. In this research, we propose a model for an adaptable network bandwidth management method that combines bandwidth reservation and bandwidth adaptation to reduce call blocking ...

  17. Algorithms and Requirements for Measuring Network Bandwidth

    Jin, Guojun

    2002-12-08

    This report unveils new algorithms for actively measuring (not estimating) available bandwidths with very low intrusion, computing cross traffic, thus estimating the physical bandwidth, provides mathematical proof that the algorithms are accurate, and addresses conditions, requirements, and limitations for new and existing algorithms for measuring network bandwidths. The paper also discusses a number of important terminologies and issues for network bandwidth measurement, and introduces a fundamental parameter -Maximum Burst Size that is critical for implementing algorithms based on multiple packets.

  18. Dynamic bandwidth allocation in GPON networks

    Ozimkiewiez, J.; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars; Wessing, Henrik; Smolorz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Two Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation algorithms used for coordination of the available bandwidth between end users in a GPON network have been simulated using OPNET to determine and compare the performance, scalability and efficiency of status reporting and non status reporting dynamic bandwidth...

  19. Small-signal transient response and turn-on delay of polariton laser diodes

    Butté, Raphaël

    2016-03-01

    We present a theoretical description of the small-signal transient response of polariton laser diodes (pol-LDs) based on simplified coupled rate equations describing the exciton reservoir and the ground-state polariton populations. The analytic expressions derived for two pumping geometries, which are valid for all inorganic semiconductors suitable for the realization of pol-LDs, are compared to exact numerical calculations performed for the specific case of GaN-based devices. The two approaches show excellent agreement provided the current step transient remains within the small-signal limit. We report that the temporal attenuation of the envelopes of the oscillations matches half the value of the damping factor ({γ }{{d}}) of the pol-LDs, which is proportional to the square of the oscillation relaxation resonance frequency. An explicit expression for the dependence of {γ }{{d}} on both the exciton-photon detuning and the driving current (equivalently the optical pump power) is also obtained. In a further step, we derive the expression for the turn-on delay (t d) associated with the build-up of the exciton reservoir population up to its threshold value before coherent light emission occurs. We show that t d has the same functional form for the two pumping geometries. It is equal to the effective exciton lifetime ({τ }{x{eff}}) weighted by a logarithmic dependence on the initial and final driving currents. In addition, {τ }{x{eff}} is shown to be approximately equal to the exciton lifetime, which proves to be the main parameter governing the build-up of polariton lasing/condensation. Beyond electrically driven polariton lasers, we highlight that the temporal shape of the transients could also be easily tested by monitoring the time dependence of the output power of optically pumped polariton lasers subjected to a sudden increase in the continuous wave pump power within the small-signal limit.

  20. Small Signal Stability Improvement of Power Systems Using Optimal Load Responses in Competitive Electricity Markets

    Hu, Weihao; Su, Chi; Chen, Zhe;

    2011-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift some of their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. The optimal load response to an electricity price...... electricity price is proposed. A 17-bus power system with high wind power penetrations, which resembles the Eastern Danish power system, is chosen as the study case. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to electricity prices is an effective measure to improve the small signal stability of...

  1. Rapid Small-Signal Stability Assessment and Enhancement Following Changes in Topology

    Saric, AT; Stankovic, AM

    2015-05-01

    The paper proposes a scalable and tractable algorithm for dynamic topology optimization of power systems involving changes in branch on/off status, while respecting small-signal stability (SSS) constraints. A procedure for fast updates of the system matrices (in descriptor form) and without additional full matrix inversions is proposed. To additionally reduce the computation time, only critical eigenvalues (right-most or those in a specified damping ratio and frequency range) are calculated. A quadratic optimization approach is proposed for optimized generation re-dispatch to satisfy SSS constraints. The approach is applied to two (medium- and large-scale) real-world test power systems.

  2. Small signal modeling of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs with consideration of CPW capacitances

    Given the coplanar waveguide (CPW) effect on AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors at a high frequency, the traditional equivalent circuit model cannot accurately describe the electrical characteristics of the device. The admittance of CPW capacitances is large when the frequency is higher than 40 GHz; its impact on the device cannot be ignored. In this study, a small-signal equivalent circuit model considering CPW capacitance is provided. To verify the model, S-parameters are obtained from the modeling and measurements. A good agreement is observed between the simulation and measurement results, indicating the reliability of the model. (paper)

  3. A transfer function approach to the small-signal response of saturated semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Blumenthal, D. J.; Mørk, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the small-signal frequency response (SSFR) of a wavelength converter based on cross-gain modulation in a semiconductor optical amplifier with a finite waveguide loss is presented. We use a transfer function formalism to explain the resonant behavior of the frequency...... response. The limitations to the magnitude of the spectral overshoot are also accounted for. Operating with the data and CW signals in a co-propagating configuration, we End that the resonance only exists for a finite waveguide loss. In a counter-propagating scheme, a resonance can exist regardless of the...

  4. ANNs in Bias Dependant Small-Signal and Noise Modeling of Microwave FETs

    V. Marković

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an efficient procedure for determination of small-signal and noise behavior of microwave transistors for various bias conditions is proposed. An empirical transistor noise model based on an equivalent circuit (improvement of Pospieszalski’s noise model is considered. Since it is necessary to extract values of the model equivalent circuit for each bias point (which requires the measured data acquiring and repeated time consuming extraction procedures, it is proposed to use an artificial neural network to model the bias dependence of the equivalent circuit parameters. In that way, it is necessary to acquire the measured data and extract the equivalent circuit parameters only for several operating biases used for the network training. Once the neural network is trained, the device small-signal scattering and noise parameters are easily obtained for an arbitrary bias point from the device operating range without changes in the model. The proposed modeling approach is exemplified by modeling of a specific MESFET device in a packaged form.

  5. Research on a Small Signal Stability Region Boundary Model of the Interconnected Power System with Large-Scale Wind Power

    Wenying Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For the interconnected power system with large-scale wind power, the problem of the small signal stability has become the bottleneck of restricting the sending-out of wind power as well as the security and stability of the whole power system. Around this issue, this paper establishes a small signal stability region boundary model of the interconnected power system with large-scale wind power based on catastrophe theory, providing a new method for analyzing the small signal stability. Firstly, we analyzed the typical characteristics and the mathematic model of the interconnected power system with wind power and pointed out that conventional methods can’t directly identify the topological properties of small signal stability region boundaries. For this problem, adopting catastrophe theory, we established a small signal stability region boundary model of the interconnected power system with large-scale wind power in two-dimensional power injection space and extended it to multiple dimensions to obtain the boundary model in multidimensional power injection space. Thirdly, we analyzed qualitatively the topological property’s changes of the small signal stability region boundary caused by large-scale wind power integration. Finally, we built simulation models by DIgSILENT/PowerFactory software and the final simulation results verified the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed model.

  6. Bandwidth requirements for fine resolution squinted SAR

    DOERRY,ARMIN W.

    2000-03-01

    The conventional rule-of-thumb for Synthetic Aperture Radar is that an RF bandwidth of c/(2{rho}{sub r}) is required to image a scene at the desired slant-range resolution {rho}{sub r}, and perhaps a little more to account for window functions and sidelobe control. This formulation is based on the notion that the total bandwidth required is the same bandwidth that is required for a single pulse. What is neglected is that efficient processing of an entire synthetic aperture of pulses will often require different frequency content for each of the different pulses that makeup a synthetic aperture. Consequently, the total RF bandwidth required of a Synthetic Aperture Radar may then be substantially wider than the bandwidth of any single pulse. The actual RF bandwidth required depends strongly on flight geometry, owing to the desire for a radar to maintain a constant projection of the Fourier space collection surface onto the {omega}{sub y} axis. Long apertures required for fine azimuth resolution, and severe squint angles with steep depression angles may require total RF bandwidths well beyond the minimum bandwidth required of any single transmitted pulse, perhaps even by a factor of two or more. Accounting for this is crucial to designing efficient versatile high-performance imaging radars. This paper addresses how a data set conducive to efficient processing might increase the total RF bandwidth, and presents examples of how a fixed RF bandwidth might then limit SAR geometries.

  7. Cryogenic small-signal conversion with relaxation oscillations in Josephson junctions

    Furlan, M

    2006-01-01

    Broadband detection of small electronic signals from cryogenic devices, with the option of simple implementation for multiplexing, is often a highly desired, although non-trivial task. We investigate and demonstrate a small-signal analog-to-frequency conversion system based on relaxation oscillations in a single Josephson junction. Operation and stability conditions are derived, with special emphasis on noise analysis, showing the dominant noise sources to originate from fluctuation processes in the junction. At optimum conditions the circuit is found to deliver excellent noise performance over a broad dynamic range. Our simple models successfully apply within the regime of classical Josephson junction and circuit dynamics, which we confirm by experimental results. A discussion on possible applications includes a measurement of the response to a cryogenic radiation detector.

  8. Improvement of Small Signal Stability of SMIB System Using PSO and CSO based Power System Stabilizer

    Y. Raghuvamsi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a power system, Low Frequency Oscillations (LFOs are dangerous and make system unstable. These oscillations are referred to small signal stability and they are mainly due to lack of damping torque. This insufficient damping torque is because of high gain and low time constant of Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR. AVR is useful for maintaining the terminal voltage of synchronous machine as constant. While doing so, it will make the system damping torque as negative. For providing required damping torque thereby minimizing the LFOs, Power System Stabilizer is used in conjunction with AVR. In this paper for SMIB system, the stability is studied with the help of eigen values before and after placement of PSS with optimized PSS parameters using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO. The simulation work is performed in the MATLAB/SIMULINK and corresponding results are presented and analyzed.

  9. Electrostatic and Small-Signal Analysis of CMUTs With Circular and Square Anisotropic Plates.

    Funding la Cour, Mette; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2015-08-01

    Traditionally, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are modeled using the isotropic plate equation, and this leads to deviations between analytical calculations and finite element modeling (FEM). In this paper, the deflection is calculated for both circular and square plates using the full anisotropic plate equation. It is shown that the anisotropic calculations match excellently with FEM, whereas an isotropic approach causes up to 10% deviations in deflection. For circular plates, an exact solution can be found. For square plates using the Galerkin method, and utilizing the symmetry of the silicon crystal, a compact and accurate expression for the deflection can be obtained. The deviation from FEM in center deflection is multilayer plates is also applied to the CMUT. The deflection of a square plate was measured on fabricated CMUTs using a white light interferometer. Fitting the plate parameter for the anisotropic calculated deflection to the measurement, a deviation of 0.07% is seen. Electrostatic and small-signal dynamic analysis are performed using energy considerations including anisotropy. The stable position, effective spring constant, pullin distance, and pull-in voltage are found for both circular and square anisotropic plates, and the pressure dependence is included by comparison with the corresponding analysis for a parallel plate. Measurements on fabricated devices with both circular and square plates subjected to increasing bias voltage are performed, and it is observed that the models including anisotropic effects are within the uncertainty interval of the measurements. Finally, a lumped element small-signal model for both circular and square anisotropic plates is derived to describe the dynamics of the CMUT. PMID:26492637

  10. Multiple-bandwidth photoacoustic tomography

    Photoacoustic tomography, also referred to as optoacoustic tomography, employs short laser pulses to generate ultrasonic waves in biological tissues. The reconstructed images can be characterized by the convolution of the structure of samples, the laser pulse and the impulse response of the ultrasonic transducer used for detection. Although the laser-induced ultrasonic waves cover a wide spectral range, a single transducer can receive only part of the spectrum because of its limited bandwidth. To systematically analyse this problem, we constructed a photoacoustic tomographic system that uses multiple ultrasonic transducers simultaneously, each at a different central frequency. The photoacoustic images associated with the different transducers were compared and analysed. The system was tested by imaging both mouse brains and phantom samples. The vascular vessels in the brain were revealed by all of the transducers, but the image resolutions differed. The higher frequency detectors provided better image resolution while the lower frequency detectors delineated the major structural traits with a higher signal-noise ratio

  11. Improving the Bandwidth Utilization by Recycling the Unused Bandwidth in IEEE 802.16 Networks

    Gowri T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Physical and MAC layers have been specified in IEEE 802.16 networks. The quality of service is ensured by the bandwidth reservation. The subscriber station should reserve the bandwidth more than its demand. But the bandwidth is fully utilized by SS but not all the time. So the bandwidth has recycled by the process of recycling the unused bandwidth. The main objective of the proposed scheme is to utilize the unused bandwidth by recycling and maintain the QOS service. By recycling the throughput can be improved which maintains the QOS in the proposed scheme. During this recycling process to maintain the QOS services, the amount of reserved bandwidth is not changed. The proposed scheme can utilize the unused bandwidth up to 70% on average. Protocols and the scheduling algorithms are used to improve the utilization and throughput.

  12. Directing Traffic: Managing Internet Bandwidth Fairly

    Paine, Thomas A.; Griggs, Tyler J.

    2008-01-01

    Educational institutions today face budgetary restraints and scarce resources, complicating the decision of how to allot bandwidth for campus network users. Additionally, campus concerns over peer-to-peer networking (specifically outbound Internet traffic) have increased because of bandwidth and copyright issues. In this article, the authors…

  13. Bandwidth engineering of photonic crystal waveguide bends

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    An effective design principle has been applied to photonic crystal waveguide bends fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material using deep UV lithography resulting in a large increase in the low-loss bandwidth of the bends. Furthermore, it is experimentally demonstrated that the absolute bandwidth...

  14. Energy Bandwidth for Petroleum Refining Processes

    none,

    2006-10-01

    The petroleum refining energy bandwidth report analyzes the most energy-intensive unit operations used in U.S. refineries: crude oil distillation, fluid catalytic cracking, catalytic hydrotreating, catalytic reforming, and alkylation. The "bandwidth" provides a snapshot of the energy losses that can potentially be recovered through best practices and technology R&D.

  15. On Small-Signal Stability of Wind Power System with Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    Knüppel, Thyge; Akhmatov, Vladislav; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygård; Jensen, Kim H.; Dixon, Andrew; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Small-signal stability analysis of power system oscillations is a well established field within power system analysis, but not much attention has yet been paid to systems with a high penetration of wind turbines and with large wind power plants. In this paper an analysis is presented which assess the impact of full-load converter interfaced wind turbines on power system small-signal stability. The study is based on a 7 generator network with lightly damped inter-area modes. A detailed wind tu...

  16. Electron mobility characterization in OLEDs from ac small signal optical modulation

    Mu, Haichuan; Reddy, Indrani; Hunt, John; Severs, Phillip; Patil, Shirish

    2010-05-01

    This paper investigates the field dependence of electron mobility in tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium (Alq3) and bathocuproine (BCP) through ac small signal optical modulation on green light (ITO/PEDOT/NPD/Alq3/Ba/Ag) and blue light (ITO/PEDOT/NPD/BCP/Alq3/Ba/Ag) OLED. The electroluminescence (EL) transient time delay for the blue light OLED is much longer than for the green one. The electron mobility in BCP was extracted based on a Poole-Frenkel-like equation and EL transient time delay measurement, which is in the range (7-9) × 10-8 cm2 V-1 s-1 at an external electric field of 1530-1830 (V cm-1)1/2, comparable to the results from other published reports (Muckl et al 2000 Synth. Met. 111-112 91; Barth et al 2001 J. Appl. Phys. 89 3711; Nakamura H et al 1996 Int. Symp. on Inorganic and Organic Electroluminescence ed R H Mauch and H-E Gumlich (Berlin: Wissenschaft und Technik) p 95; Xie et al 2002 Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 1477). The difference in EL transient time delay and electron mobility for green and blue light OLEDs was demonstrated by the results of direct modulation. The electron transit time shows similar field dependence in both Alq3 layers in green and blue OLEDs. Unlike Alq3, the field dependence of electron mobility in BCP did not fit the conventional organic semiconductor characteristics μ∞exp(βE1/2), and the excitons formation at the NPD/BCP interface for the blue OLEDs was demonstrated through the EL spectrum.

  17. High-Bandwidth Hybrid Sensor (HYSENS) Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA has demonstrated the primary innovation of combining a precision MEMS gyro (BAE SiRRS01) with a high bandwidth angular rate sensor, ATA's ARS-14 resulting in a...

  18. Average Bandwidth Allocation Model of WFQ

    Tomáš Balogh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new iterative method for the calculation of average bandwidth assignment to traffic flows using a WFQ scheduler in IP based NGN networks. The bandwidth assignment calculation is based on the link speed, assigned weights, arrival rate, and average packet length or input rate of the traffic flows. We prove the model outcome with examples and simulation results using NS2 simulator.

  19. Large scale probabilistic available bandwidth estimation

    Thouin, Frederic; Rabbat, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The common utilization-based definition of available bandwidth and many of the existing tools to estimate it suffer from several important weaknesses: i) most tools report a point estimate of average available bandwidth over a measurement interval and do not provide a confidence interval; ii) the commonly adopted models used to relate the available bandwidth metric to the measured data are invalid in almost all practical scenarios; iii) existing tools do not scale well and are not suited to the task of multi-path estimation in large-scale networks; iv) almost all tools use ad-hoc techniques to address measurement noise; and v) tools do not provide enough flexibility in terms of accuracy, overhead, latency and reliability to adapt to the requirements of various applications. In this paper we propose a new definition for available bandwidth and a novel framework that addresses these issues. We define probabilistic available bandwidth (PAB) as the largest input rate at which we can send a traffic flow along a pa...

  20. Adaptable bandwidth planning using reinforcement learning

    Dirk Hetzer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the bandwidth allocation considering feedback of operational environment, adaptable bandwidth planning based on reinforcement learning is proposed. The approach is based on new constrained scheduling algorithms controlled by reinforcement learning techniques. Different constrained scheduling algorithms,, such as "conflict free scheduling with minimum duration", "partial displacement" and "pattern oriented scheduling" are defined and implemented. The scheduling algorithms are integrated into reinforcement learning strategies. These strategies include: - Q-learning for selection of optimal planning schedule using Q-values; - Informed Q-learning for exploitation and handling of prior-knowledge (patterns of network behaviour; - Relational Q-learning for improving of bandwidth allocation policies dynamically in operational networks considering actual network performance data. Scenarios based on integration of the scheduling algorithms and reinforcement learning techniques in the experimental monitoring and bandwidth planning system called QORE (QoS and resource optimisation are given. The proposed adaptable bandwidth planning is required for more efficient usage of network resources.

  1. Extraction of temperature dependences of small-signal model parameters in SiGe HBT HICUM model

    Ya-Bin, Sun; Jun, Fu; Yu-Dong, Wang; Wei, Zhou; Wei, Zhang; Zhi-Hong, Liu

    2016-04-01

    In this work, temperature dependences of small-signal model parameters in the SiGe HBT HICUM model are presented. Electrical elements in the small-signal equivalent circuit are first extracted at each temperature, then the temperature dependences are determined by the series of extracted temperature coefficients, based on the established temperature formulas for corresponding model parameters. The proposed method is validated by a 1 × 0.2 × 16 μm2 SiGe HBT over a wide temperature range (from 218 K to 473 K), and good matching is obtained between the extracted and modeled results. Therefore, we believe that the proposed extraction flow of model parameter temperature dependence is reliable for characterizing the transistor performance and guiding the circuit design over a wide temperature range. Project supported partially by the Important National Science & Technology Specific Projects, China (Grant No. 2013ZX02503003).

  2. On Small-Signal Stability of Wind Power System with Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    Knüppel, Thyge; Akhmatov, Vladislav; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygård; Jensen, Kim H.; Dixon, Andrew; Østergaard, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    the impact of full-load converter interfaced wind turbines on power system small-signal stability. The study is based on a 7 generator network with lightly damped inter-area modes. A detailed wind turbine model with all grid relevant control functions is used in the study. Furthermore is the wind......Small-signal stability analysis of power system oscillations is a well established field within power system analysis, but not much attention has yet been paid to systems with a high penetration of wind turbines and with large wind power plants. In this paper an analysis is presented which assess...... power plant (WPP) equipped with a WPP voltage controller and comparisons are presented. The models of wind turbine and WPP voltage controller are kindly provided by Siemens Wind Power A/S for this work. The study is based on modal analysis which are complemented with simulations on the nonlinear system....

  3. Transient and small signal stability of a two area HVAC power network interconnected with an HVDC link

    Azimoh, L.C.; Oyedokun, D.T.; Chowdhury, S.; Chowdhury, S.P.; Folly, K.A. [Cape Town Univ., Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Despite the fact that the conditions necessary for safe and stable operation of power networks are sometimes at variance with economic considerations, power system operators are responsible for supplying safe and economical electric power to customers. Customer demand cannot be met without a stable and reliable power supply. Therefore, power system stability is of crucial importance in this market. This paper presented an analysis of transient and small signal stability of a two-area multi-machine power system. Different aspects were investigated including the responses of generator speed, the terminal voltage, the rotor angle difference and power transmitted, after a transient perturbation of a single phase to ground fault. The study also examined the effect of small signal disturbance of power systems when a direct current (DC) link was interconnected with a weak alternating (AC) link. Using the two-area power system model, the small signal stabilities of three different transmission systems were investigated, notably a high voltage alternating current (HVAC) link; a high voltage direct current (HVDC) link; and the hybrid HVAC/HVDC link. The paper discussed the fundamentals of HVAC and HVDC transmission. Rotor angle stability was also presented. An HVAC/HVDC hybrid network model was described. Simulation results were also provided for power flow; transient stability analysis; and small signal stability analysis. It was concluded that the transient stability test demonstrated that the system is relatively stable and returns to pre-fault condition about 10 seconds after perturbation. The study showed that when a fault occurs in transmission lines, the system responds according to the nature of the fault and the strength of the system.. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs., 1 appendix.

  4. Simulation technique for available bandwidth estimation

    Sultanov, T G

    2010-01-01

    The paper proposes a method for measuring available bandwidth, based on testing network packets of various sizes (Variable Packet Size method, VPS). The boundaries of applicability of the model have been found, which are based on the accuracy of measurements of packet delays, also we have derived a formula of measuring the upper limit of bandwidth. The computer simulation has been performed and relationship between the measurement error of available bandwidth and the number of measurements has been found. Experimental verification with the use of RIPE Test Box measuring system has shown that the suggested method has advantages over existing measurement techniques. Pathload utility has been chosen as an alternative technique of measurement, and to ensure reliable results statistics by SNMP agent has been withdrawn directly from the router.

  5. Teleoperation over low bandwidth communication links

    Teleoperation is well established for many areas of hazardous environment working. Where such environments are well structured and contained, such as within a working plant, communications bandwidths need not be a constraining factor. However where the worksite is remote, large, poorly structured or damaged communications rapidly become a critical factor in the efficient deployment and use of teleoperation equipment. The paper justifies and describes means which we are exploring to reduce the required communications bandwidth for teleoperation whist retaining full functionality. Techniques involved include incorporation of local intelligence at the worksite, with bandwidth devoted to high-level up-link control signals and down-link feedback, and the use of highly compressed video feeding 'virtual reality type' HMDs to provide maximum system transparency for the operator. The work is drawing on previous experience with an 'anthropomorphic robot heat' for telepresence work, and proprietary algorithms capable of compressing full colour video to standard telephone modem data rates. (Author)

  6. Dealing Bandwidth to Mobile Clients Using Games

    Sofokleous, Anastasis A.; Angelides, Marios C.

    This chapter exploits a gaming approach to bandwidth sharing in a network of non-cooperative clients whose aim is to satisfy their selfish objectives and be served in the shortest time and who share limited knowledge of one another. The chapter models this problem as a game in which players consume the bandwidth of a video streaming server. The rest of this chapter is organized in four sections: the proceeding section presents resource allocation taxonomies, following that is a section on game theory, where our approach is sourced from, and its application to resource allocation. The penultimate section presents our gaming approach to resource allocation. The final section concludes.

  7. 47 CFR 87.135 - Bandwidth of emission.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bandwidth of emission. 87.135 Section 87.135... Technical Requirements § 87.135 Bandwidth of emission. (a) Occupied bandwidth is the width of a frequency... equal to 0.5 percent of the total mean power of a given emission. (b) The authorized bandwidth is...

  8. Dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm for full-band utilization

    Han Guodong; Wang Hui; Wu Jiangxing

    2006-01-01

    To improve and optimize the bandwidth utilization for multi-service packet transporting system, a kind of Dynamic Full Bandwidth Utilized (DFBU) allocation algorithm allowing a single link to use far beyond its fair share bandwidth is presented. Three important parameters as the bound on max and minimum bandwidth, the maximum packet delay and the minimum bandwidth utilization are discussed and analyzed. Results of experiments show that the DFBU-algorithm is capable of making a single link in the system use all the spare bandwidth (up to full-bandwidth) while the performance of fairness and QoS requirement is still guaranteed.

  9. Bandwidth Enhancement Techniques of Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    ARCHANA SHARMA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly reviews the historical background of dielectric resonator antenna and its bandwidth enhancement techniques. The main focus is on a compact DRA that can offer broad band operation. It has been illustrated that dual resonance and multi resonance operation can be much effective to give wide band characteristics of DRA.

  10. Dynamic resource management using bandwidth brokers

    Yu Chengzhi; Song Hantao; Hou Xianjun; Pan Chengsheng

    2006-01-01

    The admission control issue in the design of a centralized bandwidth broker model for dynamic control and management of QoS provisioning is studied. A two-phase differentiated flow treatment based dynamic admission control scheme under the centralized bandwidth broker model is proposed. In the proposed scheme, the flow requests are classified into two classes and get differentiated treatment according to their QoS demands. We demonstrate that this admission control scheme can not only improve the resource utilization but also guarantee the flows' QoS. Furthermore, the admission control is divided into two phases: edge admission control and interior admissio-n control. During the interior phase, the PoQ scheme is adopted, which enhances the call processing capability of the bandwidth broker. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can result in lower flow blocking probability and higher resource utilization. And it also reduces the number of QoS state accesses/updates, thereby increasing the overall call processing capability of the bandwidth broker.

  11. ANALYSIS OF MONTE CARLO SIMULATION SAMPLING TECHNIQUES ON SMALL SIGNAL STABILITY OF WIND GENERATOR- CONNECTED POWER SYSTEM

    TEMITOPE RAPHAEL AYODELE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulation using Simple Random Sampling (SRS technique is popularly known for its ability to handle complex uncertainty problems. However, to produce a reasonable result, it requires huge sample size. This makes it to be computationally expensive, time consuming and unfit for online power system applications. In this article, the performance of Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS technique is explored and compared with SRS in term of accuracy, robustness and speed for small signal stability application in a wind generator-connected power system. The analysis is performed using probabilistic techniques via eigenvalue analysis on two standard networks (Single Machine Infinite Bus and IEEE 16–machine 68 bus test system. The accuracy of the two sampling techniques is determined by comparing their different sample sizes with the IDEAL (conventional. The robustness is determined based on a significant variance reduction when the experiment is repeated 100 times with different sample sizes using the two sampling techniques in turn. Some of the results show that sample sizes generated from LHS for small signal stability application produces the same result as that of the IDEAL values starting from 100 sample size. This shows that about 100 sample size of random variable generated using LHS method is good enough to produce reasonable results for practical purpose in small signal stability application. It is also revealed that LHS has the least variance when the experiment is repeated 100 times compared to SRS techniques. This signifies the robustness of LHS over that of SRS techniques. 100 sample size of LHS produces the same result as that of the conventional method consisting of 50000 sample size. The reduced sample size required by LHS gives it computational speed advantage (about six times over the conventional method.

  12. Impact of Wind Power Plants with Full Converter Wind Turbines on Power System Small-Signal Stability

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nygaard Nielsen, Jørgen; Dixon, Andrew

    system, the rotor speed of the synchronous machines will eventually return to its steady state if the power system is small-signal stable. The dynamic properties of a WPP are fundamentally dierent from those of a synchronous machine, and the interaction of WPPs with the synchronous machines in power...... level and mode of operation. The participation of the WT mechanical system in the inter-area modes were found to be orders of magnitudes smaller than the participation of the synchronous generators. The reactive power controller of the WPP and the WT were found have the highest participation among the...

  13. DBAS: A Deployable Bandwidth Aggregation System

    Habak, Karim; Harras, Khaled A

    2012-01-01

    The explosive increase in data demand coupled with the rapid deployment of various wireless access technologies have led to the increase of number of multi-homed or multi-interface enabled devices. Fully exploiting these interfaces has motivated researchers to propose numerous solutions that aggregate their available bandwidths to increase overall throughput and satisfy the end-user's growing data demand. These solutions, however, have faced a steep deployment barrier that we attempt to overcome in this paper. We propose a Deployable Bandwidth Aggregation System (DBAS) for multi-interface enabled devices. Our system does not introduce any intermediate hardware, modify current operating systems, modify socket implementations, nor require changes to current applications or legacy servers. The DBAS architecture is designed to automatically estimate the characteristics of applications and dynamically schedule various connections or packets to different interfaces. Since our main focus is deployability, we fully i...

  14. All-optical bandwidth-tailorable radar

    Zou, Weiwen; Long, Xin; Zhang, Siteng; Cui, Yuanjun; Chen, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Radar has been widely used in military, security, and rescue. Metamaterial cloak is employed in stealth targets to evade radar detection. Hence modern radar should be reconfigurable at multi-bands for detecting stealth targets, which might be realized based on microwave photonics. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical bandwidth-tailorable radar architecture. It is a coherent system utilizing one mode-locked laser for both signal generation and reception. Heterodyning of two individually filtered optical pulses that are pre-chirped via wavelength-to-time mapping generates wideband linearly-chirped radar signal. The working bands can be flexibly tailored with desired bandwidth at user-preferred carrier frequency. After modulated onto the pre-chirped optical pulse, radar echoes are time-stretched and frequency-compressed by several times. The digitization becomes much easier without loss of detection ability. We believe that the demonstration can innovate the radar's architecture with ultra-high range resolution.

  15. Reconstitution of Low Bandwidth Reaction History

    The goal of the Test Readiness Program is to transition to a 24 month test readiness posture and if approved move to an 18-month posture. One of the key components of the Test Readiness Program necessary to meet this goal is the reconstitution of the important diagnostics. Since the end of nuclear testing, the ability to field diagnostics on a nuclear test has deteriorated. Reconstitution of diagnostics before those who had experience in nuclear testing either retire or leave is essential to achieving a shorter test readiness posture. Also, the data recording systems have not been used since the end of testing. This report documents the reconstitution of one vital diagnostic: the low bandwidth reaction history diagnostic for FY04. Reaction history is one of the major diagnostics that has been used on all LLNL and LANL tests since the early days of nuclear testing. Reaction history refers to measuring the time history of the gamma and neutron output from a nuclear test. This gives direct information on the nuclear reactions taking place in the device. The reaction history measurements are one of the prime measurements the nuclear weapon scientists use to validate their models of device performance. All tests currently under consideration require the reaction history diagnostic. Thus moving to a shorter test readiness posture requires the reconstitution of the ability to make reaction history measurements. Reconstitution of reaction history was planned to be in two steps. Reaction history measurements that have been used in the past can be broadly placed into two categories. The most common type of reaction history and the one that has been performed on virtually all nuclear tests is termed low bandwidth reaction history. This measurement has a time response that is limited by the bandpass of kilometer length coaxial cables. When higher bandwidth has been required for specific measurements, fiber optic techniques have been used. This is referred to as high-bandwidth

  16. Large-bandwidth planar photonic crystal waveguides

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    defect has appropriate dispersion properties relative to the photonic crystal slab material surrounding the line defect. A three-dimensional theoretical analysis is given for large-bandwidth waveguide designs based on a silicon-air photonic crystal slab suspended in air. In one example, the leakage......A general design principle is presented for making finite-height photonic crystal waveguides that support leakage-free guidance of light over large frequency intervals. The large bandwidth waveguides are designed by introducing line defects in photonic crystal slabs, where the material in the line......-free single-mode guidance is found for a large frequency interval covering 60% of the photonic band-gap....

  17. Maximum-Bandwidth Node-Disjoint Paths

    Mostafa H. Dahshan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for finding the node-disjoint paths with maximum combined bandwidth in communication networks. This problem is an NP-complete problem which can be optimally solved in exponential time using integer linear programming (ILP. The presented method uses a maximum-cost variant of Dijkstra algorithm and a virtual-node representation to obtain the maximum-bandwidth node-disjoint path. Through several simulations, we compare the performance of our method to a modern heuristic technique and to the ILP solution. We show that, in a polynomial execution time, our proposed method produces results that are almost identical to ILP in a significantly lower execution time

  18. Creating memory bandwidth contention with best intentions

    Chiramel, George John

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous System Architecture (HSA) is a computing system architecture that integrates central processing unit (CPU) and graphics processing unit (GPU) with a shared off-chip main memory. On one hand, sharing the memory reduces the communication latency between CPU and GPU but on the other hand, sharing can lead to contention for shared resources. The programs which execute concurrently on the GPU and CPU cores, share the off-chip memory bandwidth. This sharing can result in contention fo...

  19. Terahertz quantum cascade laser bandwidth prediction

    Agnew, G; Grier, A; Taimre, T; Lim, YL; Ikonic, Z.; Dean, P.; Khanna, SP; Lachab, M.; Valavanis, A.; Cooper, JD; Harrison, P.; Linfield, EH; Davies, AG; D Indjin; Rakic, AD

    2015-01-01

    Recent research shows that terahertz quantum cascade lasers are well-suited to high speed free space communication. The results of both theoretical and laboratory work indicate the devices are able to deliver bandwidths in the gigahertz to tens of gigahertz range without the burden of relaxation oscillations found in diode lasers. Using a novel rate equation model we explore the frequency response characteristics of a real device and report on the finding of a strongly peaked bias current-dep...

  20. Digital demodulator for wide bandwidth SAR

    Jørgensen, Jørn Hjelm

    2000-01-01

    A novel approach to the design of efficient digital quadrature demodulators for wide bandwidth SAR systems is described. Efficiency is obtained by setting the intermediate frequency to 1/4 the ADC sampling frequency. One channel is made filter-free by synchronizing the local oscillator with the...... output decimator. The filter required by the other channel is optimized through global search using the system level performance metrics integrated sidelobe level ratio (ISLR) and peak sidelobe level ratio (PSLR)....

  1. Measuring Bandwidth for Super Computer Workloads

    Madheswari, A. Neela; Banu, R. S. D. Wahida

    2010-01-01

    Parallel computing plays a major role in almost all the fields from research to major concern problem solving purposes. Many researches are till now focusing towards the area of parallel processing. Nowadays it extends its usage towards the end user application such as GPU as well as multi-core processor development. The bandwidth measurement is essential for resource management and for studying the various performance factors of the existing super computer systems which will be helpful for b...

  2. Gaussian entanglement distribution with GHz bandwidth

    Ast, Stefan; Mehmet, Moritz; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of Gaussian entanglement can be used to generate a mathematically-proven secure key for quantum cryptography. The distributed secret key rate is limited by the bandwidth of the nonlinear resonators used for entanglement generation, which is less than 100 MHz for current state-of-the-art setups. The development of an entanglement source with a higher bandwidth promises an increased measurement speed and a linear boost in the secure data rate. Here, we present the experimental realization of a continuous-variable entanglement source with a bandwidth of more than 1.25 GHz. The measured entanglement spectrum was quantified via the inseparability criterion introduced by Duan and coworkers with a critical value of 4 below which entanglement is certified. The measurements yielded an inseparability value of about 1.8 at a frequency of 300 MHz to about 2.8 at 1.2 GHz extending further to about 3.1 at 1.48 GHz. In the experiment we used two 2.6 mm long monolithic PPKTP crystal resonators to generate tw...

  3. Impacts of the SSSC control modes on small-signal and transient stability of a power system

    Castro, M.S.; Ayres, H.M.; da Costa, V.F.; da Silva, L.C.P. [Department of Energy Control and Systems, State University of Campinas-Brazil, UNICAMP/FEEC/DSCE, Av. Albert Einstein, 400, Campinas-SP 13083-852 (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    In order to accomplish specific compensation objectives a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) may be controlled by several ways. The most common control modes of the SSSC are: (1) constant voltage mode, (2) constant impedance emulation mode, and (3) constant power control mode. Moreover, to improve the dynamic performance of the system, a SSSC may be equipped with supplementary controllers, such as damping controls. Therefore, this paper investigates the impacts of different SSSC control modes on small-signal and transient stability of a power system. The performance of different input signals to the power oscillation damping (POD) controller is also assessed. The stability analysis and the design of the SSSC controllers are based on modal analysis, non-linear simulations, pole placement technique, and time and frequency response techniques. The results obtained allow to conclude that the usage of the SSSC in the constant impedance emulation mode is the most beneficial strategy to improve both the small-signal and transient stability. (author)

  4. Investigating the role of fuel cells in improving the transient and small signal stability of power systems

    Khatibi, M. [Islamic Azad Univ., Abhar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hamidreza Radmand, H. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shayanfar, H. [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Center of Excellence for Power System Automation and Operation

    2010-10-15

    The installation of distributed generation (DG) units has increased in recent years due to technological advances, changing economics and regulatory environments. The use of DG will change the conventional structure of power systems, particularly when high penetration levels will affect the dynamic behaviour of the whole power system. This paper examined the role of fuel cells in improving a power system's transient and dynamic stability. Dynamic modeling and simulations were used to determine the influence of fuel cells on the transient and small signal stability of power systems. The type of the fuel cell was found to play an important role in obtaining an appropriate dynamic model, since the internal chemical reactions change. The study showed that a suitable dynamic model and a proper control scheme of the fuel cell in a DG power system can improve the transient and small signal stability of the overall system in fault situations. Results of several case studies were compared to provide greater insight into the importance of fuel cells and their accurate dynamic modeling and control. 24 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Consequence and impact of electric utility industry restructuring on transient stability and small-signal stability analysis

    The electric utility industry is undergoing unprecedented changes in its structure worldwide. With the advent of an open market environment and competition in the industry, and restructuring of the industry into separate generation, transmission, and distribution entities, new issues in power system operation and planning are inevitable. One of the major consequences of this new electric utility environment is the greater emphasis on reliability and secure operation of the power system. This paper examines the impact of restructuring on power system dynamic analysis. It specifically addresses issues related to transient stability analysis and small-signal stability analysis. Four major topics to examine the effect on the nature of studies conducted are considered. These topics are (1) system adequacy and security, (2) system modeling data requirements, (3) system protection and control, and (4) system restoration. The consequences and impact of each of these topics on the nature of the studies conducted are examined and discussed. The emphasis on greater reliability has led to a clearer enunciation of standards, measurements, and guides in some countries. These requirements will result in: (1) more measurements on existing systems, (2) rigorous analysis of transient stability and small-signal stability to determine operating limits and plan systems, (3) greater emphasis on studies to verify coordination and proper performance of protection and controls, and (4) development of a detailed plan for system restoration in the case of wide-spread outages

  6. Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Strategy for Marine VHF Communications

    Ding Yuan-Ming; Zhang Fang

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve the efficient management of marine VHF communications bandwidth resources under the battlefield environment and to maximize the bandwidth utilization while ensuring high-priority business access channel, the context puts forward a kind of dynamic bandwidth allocation strategy based on business priorities. When the bandwidth resources are sufficient, the system can accommodate more business, otherwise it can call the dynamic allocation st...

  7. Bandwidth Constrained Multi-interface Networks

    D'Angelo, Gianlorenzo; di Stefano, Gabriele; Navarra, Alfredo

    In heterogeneous networks, devices can communicate by means of multiple wired or wireless interfaces. By switching among interfaces or by combining the available interfaces, each device might establish several connections. A connection is established when the devices at its endpoints share at least one active interface. Each interface is assumed to require an activation cost, and provides a communication bandwidth. In this paper, we consider the problem of activating the cheapest set of interfaces among a network G = (V,E) in order to guarantee a minimum bandwidth B of communication between two specified nodes. Nodes V represent the devices, edges E represent the connections that can be established. In practical cases, a bounded number k of different interfaces among all the devices can be considered. Despite this assumption, the problem turns out to be NP-hard even for small values of k and Δ, where Δ is the maximum degree of the network. In particular, the problem is NP-hard for any fixed k ≥ 2 and Δ ≥ 3, while it is polynomially solvable when k = 1, or Δ ≤ 2 and k = O(1). Moreover, we show that the problem is not approximable within ηlogB or Ω(loglog|V|) for any fixed k ≥ 3, Δ ≥ 3, and for a certain constant η, unless P={NP}. We then provide an approximation algorithm with ratio guarantee of b max , where b max is the maximum communication bandwidth allowed among all the available interfaces. Finally, we focus on particular cases by providing complexity results and polynomial algorithms for Δ ≤ 2.

  8. Bandwidth Efficient OFDM Transmitter Diversity Techniques

    King F. Lee

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Space-time block-coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM transmitter diversity techniques have been shown to be efficient means of achieving near-optimal diversity gain in frequency-selective fading channels. However, these known techniques all require a cyclic prefix to be added to the transmitted symbols, resulting in bandwidth expansion. In this paper, iterative space-time and space-frequency block-coded OFDM transmitter diversity techniques are proposed that exploit spatial diversity to improve spectral efficiency by eliminating the need for a cyclic prefix.

  9. Polybinary modulation for bandwidth limited optical links

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Jurado-Navas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Optical links using traditional modulation formats are reaching a plateau in terms of capacity, mainly due to bandwidth limitations in the devices employed at the transmitter and receivers. Advanced modulation formats, which boost the spectral efficiency, provide a smooth migration path towards...... form of partial response modulation, employs simple codification and filtering at the transmitter to drastically increase the spectral efficiency. At the receiver side, poly binary modulation requires low complexity direct detection and very little digital signal processing. This talk will review the...

  10. Self-field effects on small-signal gain in two-stage free-electron lasers

    S Jafari; H Mehdian; A Hasanbeigi

    2011-03-01

    Self-field effects, induced by charge and current densities of the electron beam, on gain in two-stage free-electron laser with nonuniform guide magnetic field is presented. The gain equation for small-signal has been derived analytically. The results of numerical calculations show a gain decrement for group I orbits and a gain enhancement for group II orbits, due to the self-field effects. The wiggler-induced self-magnetic field has a diamagnetic effect for group I orbits, whereas for group II, it has a paramagnetic effect. It is also found that using a nonuniform guide field, rather than a uniform one, causes the gain to increase.

  11. Analytical expressions for intermodulation distortion of a MESFET small-signal amplifier using the nonlinear Volterra series

    Ahmad, Imad S.; Rao Gudimetla, V. S.

    2002-12-01

    Using the nonlinear Volterra series representation, analytical expressions for the third-order intermodulation distortion power and intercept point for a MESFET small-signal amplifier are derived when its equivalent circuit is bilateral and includes the gate-to-drain capacitance ( Cgd) explicitly as a nonlinear element. Previously developed analytical expressions treated Cgd as a linear element or incorporated it as a part of gate-to-source and drain-to-source capacitances ( Cgs and Cds). These new analytical expressions are then compared with experimental data and good agreement is obtained. The analytical expressions are also used to study the variation of intermodulation distortion with input power and frequency, and the effect of the individual nonlinear elements in the MESFET's equivalent circuit.

  12. A Direct Parameter- Extraction Method for GalnP/GaAs Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors Small- Signal Model

    SHI Xin-zhi; LIU Hai-wen; SUN Xiao-wei; CHE Yan-feng; CHENG Zhi-qun; LI Zheng-fan

    2005-01-01

    An accurate and broad-band method for heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) small-signal model parameters-extraction is presented in this paper. An equivalent circuit for the HBT under a forward-bias condition is proposed for extraction of access resistance and parasitic inductance.This method differs from previous ones by extracting the equivalent circuit parameters without using special test structure or global numerical optimization techniques. The main advantage of this method is that a unique and physically meaningful set of intrinsic parameters is extracted from impedance and admittance representation of the measured S-parameters in the frequency range of 1-12 GHz under different bias conditions. The method yields a deviation of less than 5 % between measured and modeled S-parameters.

  13. Small-signal modeling with direct parameter extraction for impact ionization effect in high-electron-mobility transistors

    Impact ionization affects the radio-frequency (RF) behavior of high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs), which have narrow-bandgap semiconductor channels, and this necessitates complex parameter extraction procedures for HEMT modeling. In this paper, an enhanced small-signal equivalent circuit model is developed to investigate the impact ionization, and an improved method is presented in detail for direct extraction of intrinsic parameters using two-step measurements in low-frequency and high-frequency regimes. The practicability of the enhanced model and the proposed direct parameter extraction method are verified by comparing the simulated S-parameters with published experimental data from an InAs/AlSb HEMT operating over a wide frequency range. The results demonstrate that the enhanced model with optimal intrinsic parameter values that were obtained by the direct extraction approach can effectively characterize the effects of impact ionization on the RF performance of HEMTs

  14. Soft Switched Synchronous Rectifier with Phase-Shifted Full Bridge Converter and Its Small-Signal Analysis

    2006-01-01

    By using the output inductors and body capacitances without adding any component compared with hard switching synchronous rectifier,the topology of a soft switched synchronous rectifier with phase-shifted full bridge zero voltage switching DC/DC converter is proposed. The converter efficiency is maximized due to soft switching of the full bridge MOSFETs and the synchronous MOSFETs, and also the low conduction loss of synchronous MOSFET. The operation principles of the circuit are analyzed in detail and the small-signal model is derived, also the converter dynamic characteristics are analyzed. Frequency responses of transfer functions under different values of transformer primary leakage inductance are discussed. The experimental results were obtained from a 400 V input and 100 A/12 V output DC/DC converter operating at 100 kHz. The results show that the converter efficiency is 2% higher in rated power than traditional diode rectifier.

  15. Small-Signal Modeling, Stability Analysis and Design Optimization of Single-Phase Delay-Based PLLs

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vidal, Ana;

    2016-01-01

    not be exactly 90 under off-nominal grid frequencies, which results in errors in the estimated quantities by the TD-PLL. To alleviate this issue, an improved version of TD-PLL, called the non-frequency dependent TD-PLL (NTD-PLL), has recently been proposed. The NTD-PLL uses another T=4 delay unit in...... its feedback path to make the PLL immune to grid frequency variations. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the accurate small-signal modeling of the TD-PLL and NTD-PLL has not yet been carried out, and no detailed analysis of their performance has been presented. The main aim of this paper is to...... address these issues and explore new methods to enhance their performance. The stability analysis, control design guidelines and performance comparison with the state-of-the-art PLLs are presented as well....

  16. Small-Signal Modeling, Analysis and Testing of Parallel Three-Phase-Inverters with A Novel Autonomous Current Sharing Controller

    Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2015-01-01

    active or reactive power, instead it uses a virtual impedance loop and a SFR phase-locked loop. The small-signal model of the system was developed for the autonomous operation of inverter-based microgrid with the proposed controller. The developed model shows large stability margin and fast transient...... response of the system. This model can help identifying the origin of each of the modes and possible feedback signals for design of controllers to improve the system stability. Experimental results from two parallel 2.2 kVA inverters verify the effectiveness of the novel control approach.......A novel simple and effective autonomous currentsharing controller for parallel three-phase inverters is employed in this paper. The novel controller is able to endow to the system high speed response and precision in contrast to the conventional droop control as it does not require calculating any...

  17. Direct analytical parameter extraction for SiGe HBTs T-topology small-signal equivalent circuit

    Sun, Yabin; Fu, Jun; Wang, Yudong; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Zhihong

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an accurate direct analytical method to extract the model parameters in SiGe HBT T-topology small-signal equivalent circuit is presented. After the pad parasitics and extrinsic circuit elements are determined and removed from the measured S-parameter, the admittance matrix of intrinsic HBT in common-emitter configuration is derived in the form of non-linear rational function, as a function of angular frequency. Eight constants are accurately obtained based on the non-linear rational function fitting over the whole range of frequencies. Then the intrinsic circuit elements are directly determined in an analytical closed-form manner without any numerical optimization or special test structure. The proposed technique is successfully validated with several sized SiGe HBTs from 100 MHz to 20.89 GHz, and excellent agreement is obtained between the measured and simulated S-parameters over the whole frequency range.

  18. Bandwidth reconfigurable microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    Xiao, Yongchuan; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Youdi; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Xindong; Liu, Caixia; Ruan, Shengping; Chen, Weiyou

    2015-01-01

    A bandwidth reconfigurable microwave photonic filter is proposed and numerically analyzed employing Brillouin gain spectrum narrowing and broadening. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) process is used to convert the phase modulation to intensity modulation to generate filter passband. Due to the fact that the passband is formed by mapping the Brillouin gain spectrum, bandwidth reconfiguration can be implemented by changing Brillouin gain linewidth. In this paper, both bandwidth reduction and increase are included in a single system and the details of gain spectrum narrowing and broadening are demonstrated. Theoretically, nearly 60% bandwidth reduction and hundreds times of bandwidth increase are achieved as compared to the case without gain spectrum process.

  19. Bandwidth Allocation and Session Scheduling using SIP

    Jean-Marie Garcia

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is a new signaling protocol designed to establish multimedia sessions in telecommunication networks. In this paper, we suggest the extension of SIP functionalities to coordinate QoS mechanisms deployed in IP networks, and especially in DiffServ domain. Indeed, the interaction between small and big TCP sessions may have dramatic consequences on small TCP sessions. Hence, we use SIP to achieve QoS management on a session basis, in which the over all activity of the user during the session is considered. The suggested mechanisms deal with two issues: first, session scheduling based on session duration and/or volume, and second bandwidth allocation on a per-flow basis using equivalent bandwidth estimation techniques. The proposed mechanisms are implemented in the SIP proxy server as QoS management algorithms, and they are validated by simulations.

  20. Bandwidth sharing networks with multiscale traffic

    Mathieu Feuillet

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In multi-class communication networks, traffic surges due to one class of users can significantly degrade the performance for other classes. During these transient periods, it is thus of crucial importance to implement priority mechanisms that conserve the quality of service experienced by the affected classes, while ensuring that the temporarily unstable class is not entirely neglected. In this paper, we examine the complex interaction occurring between several classes of traffic when classes obtain bandwidth proportionally to their incoming traffic. We characterize the evolution of the performance measures of the network from the moment the initial surge takes place until the system reaches its equilibrium. Using a time-space-transition-scaling, we show that the trajectories of the temporarily unstable class can be described by a differential equation, while those of the stable classes retain their stochastic nature. In particular, we show that the temporarily unstable class evolves at a time-scale which is much slower than that of the stable classes. Although the time-scales decouple, the dynamics of the temporarily unstable and the stable classes continue to influence one another. We further proceed to characterize the obtained differential equations for several simple network examples. In particular, the macroscopic asymptotic behavior of the unstable class allows us to gain important qualitative insights on how the bandwidth allocation affects performance. We illustrate these results on several toy examples and we finally build a penalization rule using these results for a network integrating streaming and surging elastic traffic.

  1. Bandwidth Estimation For Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET

    Rabia Ali

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we presents bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET, which uses some components of the two methods for the bandwidth estimation: 'Hello Bandwidth Estimation 'Listen Bandwidth Estimation. This paper also gives the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed method is based on the comparison of these two methods. Bandwidth estimation is an important issue in the Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET because bandwidth estimation in MANET is difficult, because each host has imprecise knowledge of the network status and links change dynamically. Therefore, an effective bandwidth estimation scheme for MANET is highly desirable. Ad hoc networks present unique advanced challenges, including the design of protocols for mobility management, effective routing, data transport, security, power management, and quality-of-service (QoS provisioning. Once these problems are solved, the practical use of MANETs will be realizable.

  2. Bandwidth and Noise in Spatiotemporally Modulated Mueller Matrix Polarimeters

    Vaughn, Israel Jacob

    Polarimetric systems design has seen recent utilization of linear systems theory for system descriptions. Although noise optimal systems have been shown, bandwidth performance has not been addressed in depth generally and is particularly lacking for Mueller matrix (active) polarimetric systems. Bandwidth must be considered in a systematic way for remote sensing polarimetric systems design. The systematic approach facilitates both understanding of fundamental constraints and design of higher bandwidth polarimetric systems. Fundamental bandwidth constraints result in production of polarimetric "artifacts" due to channel crosstalk upon Mueller matrix reconstruction. This dissertation analyzes bandwidth trade-offs in spatio-temporal channeled Mueller matrix polarimetric systems. Bandwidth is directly related to the geometric positioning of channels in the Fourier (channel) space, however channel positioning for polarimetric systems is constrained both physically and by design parameters like domain separability. We present the physical channel constraints and the constraints imposed when the carriers are separable between space and time. Polarimetric systems are also constrained by noise performance, and there is a trade-off between noise performance and bandwidth. I develop cost functions which account for the trade-off between noise and bandwidth for spatio-temporal polarimetric systems. The cost functions allow a systems designer to jointly optimize systems with good bandwidth and noise performance. Optimization is implemented for a candidate spatio-temporal system design, and high temporal bandwidth systems resulting from the optimization are presented. Systematic errors which impact the bandwidth performance and mitigation strategies for these systematic errors are also presented. Finally, a portable imaging Mueller matrix system is built and analyzed based on the theoretical bandwidth analysis and system bandwidth optimization. Temporal bandwidth performance is

  3. Small signal audio design

    Self, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Learn to use inexpensive and readily available parts to obtain state-of-the-art performance in all the vital parameters of noise, distortion, crosstalk and so on. With ample coverage of preamplifiers and mixers and a new chapter on headphone amplifiers, this practical handbook provides an extensive repertoire of circuits that can be put together to make almost any type of audio system.A resource packed full of valuable information, with virtually every page revealing nuggets of specialized knowledge not found elsewhere. Essential points of theory that bear on practical performance are lucidly

  4. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... devices in their costumers household e.g. heat pumps. With these smart services, utility companies can do load balancing on the grid by shifting load using resources the customers have. The problem investigated in this paper is what bandwidth require-ments can be expected when implementing such network to...... utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...

  5. A high-bandwidth spintronic position sensor

    Position sensing with resolution down to the scale of a single atom is of key importance in nanoscale science and engineering. However, only optical-sensing methods are currently capable of non-contact sensing at such resolution over a high bandwidth. Here, we report a new non-contact, non-optical position-sensing concept based on detecting changes in a high-gradient magnetic field of a microscale magnetic dipole by means of spintronic sensors. Experimental measurements show a sensitivity of up to 40 Ω/μm, a linear range greater than 10 μm and a noise floor of 0.5 pm/√( Hz). Also shown is the use of the sensor for position measurements for closed-loop control of a high-speed atomic force microscope with a frame rate of more than 1 frame/s. (paper)

  6. Design and Implementation of Controller for Boost DC-DC Converter Using PI-LPF Based on Small Signal Model

    Slamet Kasbi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Boost DC-DC converters are used in many renewable energy sources including photovoltaic and fuel cell. They are also used in Uninterrupted Power Supply, inverters, electric vehicles and robots. In this paper a boost converter was built and its controller was developed using proportional integral (PI action for current loop and low pass filter (LPF for voltage loop. The controller was derived analytically based on small signal model. Experiment results show that the boost controller functions well in regulating the output voltage under a variation of load. During the start up without any load it can elevate input voltage from 119.6V to output voltage of 241.6V. The developed controller can regulate the output voltage smoothly under load variation from no load to sudden load of 352W. When a large sudden load change happens from 0W to 1042W the output voltage experiences small drop before it is recovered to 241.6V. It can be concluded that the developed control system satisfies the design specification.

  7. Small signal model parameters analysis of GaN and GaAs based HEMTs over temperature for microwave applications

    Alim, Mohammad A.; Rezazadeh, Ali A.; Gaquiere, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Thermal and small-signal model parameters analysis have been carried out on 0.5 μm × (2 × 100 μm) AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrate and 0.25 μm × (2 × 100 μm) AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on SiC substrate. Two different technologies are investigated in order to establish a detailed understanding of their capabilities in terms of frequency and temperature using on-wafer S-parameter measurement over the temperature range from -40 to 150 °C up to 50 GHz. The equivalent circuit parameters as well as their temperature-dependent behavior of the two technologies were analyzed and discussed for the first time. The principle elevation or degradation of transistor parameters with temperature demonstrates the great potential of GaN device for high frequency and high temperature applications. The result provides some valuable insights for future design optimizations of advanced GaN and a comparison of this with the GaAs technology.

  8. An Efficient Bandwidth Estimation Schemes used in Wireless Mesh Networks

    A.Sandeep Kumar ,Second Author

    2012-01-01

    wireless mesh networks (WMNs) has been widely used for the new generation wireless network. The capability of self-organization in WMNs reduces the complexity of wireless network deployment and maintenance. So, the perfect estimation of the bandwidth available of the mesh nodes is the required to admission control mechanism which provides QOs confirmation in wireless mesh networks. The bandwidth estimation of schemes do not give clear output. Here we are proposing bandwidth scheme estimation ...

  9. Frequency Bandwidth Optimization of Left-Handed Metamaterial

    Chevalier, Christine T.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, left-handed metamaterials (LHM s) have been demonstrated with an effective negative index of refraction and with antiparallel group and phase velocities for microwave radiation over a narrow frequency bandwidth. In order to take advantage of these characteristics for practical applications, it will be beneficial to develop LHM s with increased frequency bandwidth response and lower losses. In this paper a commercial three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation code is used to explore the effects of geometry parameter variations on the frequency bandwidth of a LHM at microwave frequencies. Utilizing an optimizing routine in the code, a geometry was generated with a bandwidth more than twice as large as the original geometry.

  10. PIC Simulation of Laser Plasma Interactions with Temporal Bandwidths

    Tsung, Frank; Weaver, J.; Lehmberg, R.

    2015-11-01

    We are performing particle-in-cell simulations using the code OSIRIS to study the effects of laser plasma interactions in the presence of temperal bandwidths under conditions relevant to current and future shock ignition experiments on the NIKE laser. Our simulations show that, for sufficiently large bandwidth, the saturation level, and the distribution of hot electrons, can be effected by the addition of temporal bandwidths (which can be accomplished in experiments using smoothing techniques such as SSD or ISI). We will show that temporal bandwidth along play an important role in the control of LPI's in these lasers and discuss future directions. This work is conducted under the auspices of NRL.

  11. Schottky Heterodyne Receivers With Full Waveguide Bandwidth

    Hesler, Jeffrey; Crowe, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Compact THz receivers with broad bandwidth and low noise have been developed for the frequency range from 100 GHz to 1 THz. These receivers meet the requirements for high-resolution spectroscopic studies of planetary atmospheres (including the Earth s) from spacecraft, as well as airborne and balloon platforms. The ongoing research is significant not only for the development of Schottky mixers, but also for the creation of a receiver system, including the LO chain. The new receivers meet the goals of high sensitivity, compact size, low total power requirement, and operation across complete waveguide bands. The exceptional performance makes these receivers ideal for the broader range of scientific and commercial applications. These include the extension of sophisticated test and measurement equipment to 1 THz and the development of low-cost imaging systems for security applications and industrial process monitoring. As a particular example, a WR-1.9SHM (400-600 GHz) has been developed (see Figure 1), with state-of-the-art noise temperature ranging from 1,000-1,800 K (DSB) over the full waveguide band. Also, a Vector Network Analyzer extender has been developed (see Figure 2) for the WR1.5 waveguide band (500 750 GHz) with 100-dB dynamic range.

  12. E-Readiness Assessment Model for Low Bandwidth Environment

    Nazir Ahmad Suhail

    Full Text Available This paper reports on assessment of an e-readiness model for low bandwidth environment. The main focus of the model is on technological (bandwidth related critical factors that are barrier to the adoption of technology mediated learning in developing cou ...

  13. Modeling of Bandwidth Aggregation over Heterogeneous Wireless Access Networks

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Dittmann, Lars

    2012-01-01

    transfer deals with the problem on how to effectively aggregate the bandwidth by simultaneous usage of heterogeneous networks that a host is attached to in order to improve the throughput. This paper deals with a simulation based analysis of bandwidth aggregation techniques and their impact on higher layer...

  14. Evaluation of dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms in GPON networks

    Ozimkiewicz, J.; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Dittmann, Lars;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, two approaches for Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation in GPON networks are proposed, and validated through simulations in the OPNET modeler. One approach address a Status Reporting scheme, where the bandwidth allocation originates from the client request. The second use a centralized Non...... services....

  15. 47 CFR 101.515 - Emissions and bandwidth.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emissions and bandwidth. 101.515 Section 101... FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.515 Emissions and bandwidth. Different types of emissions may be authorized if the applicant describes fully the...

  16. A Study of Bandwidth Measurement Technique in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Ajeet Kumar Singh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless mesh networks (WMNs have been proposed as a key technology for next generation wireless networking to provide last-mile broadband access. H ere we have given our observation and study for end to-end bandwidth estimation in WMNs. End-to-end Ban dwidth Estimation is an important metric for network management and monitoring. It can also impr ove the effectiveness of congestion control mechanism, audio/video stream adoration and dynamic overlay. In recent years, many techniques have been developed for bandwidth estimation in the wire d as well as the last-hop wireless networks, but th ey under-perform in WMNs. We investigate attributes th at can affect the bandwidth estimation in WNMs; we found existing techniques do not consider the effec t of attributes like CSMA/CA-based contending traff ic and high interference interference that leads to th e error full estimation. In this paper, we present an active bandwidth measu rement technique called Bandwidth Probe based on th e packet dispersion principle. It measures the steady state bandwidth of the system while considering th e effects of the FIFO cross and CSMA/CA-based contend ing traffic. It is also mitigating the effect of interference. We also show how to achieve the stati onary state behaviour of the system to limit the nu mber of probe packets. On simulation, Bandwidth Probe gi ves a accurate estimation of the available bandwidt h using average convergence time and lower intrusiven ess.

  17. Utility-based bandwidth allocation algorithm for heterogeneous wireless networks

    CHAI Rong; WANG XiuJuan; CHEN QianBin; SVENSSON Tommy

    2013-01-01

    In next generation wireless network (NGWN), mobile users are capable of connecting to the core network through various heterogeneous wireless access networks, such as cellular network, wireless metropolitan area network (WMAN), wireless local area network (WLAN), and ad hoc network. NGWN is expected to provide high-bandwidth connectivity with guaranteed quality-of-service to mobile users in a seamless manner; however, this desired function demands seamless coordination of the heterogeneous radio access network (RAN) technologies. In recent years, some researches have been conducted to design radio resource management (RRM) architectures and algorithms for NGWN; however, few studies stress the problem of joint network performance optimization, which is an essential goal for a cooperative service providing scenario. Furthermore, while some authors consider the competition among the service providers, the QoS requirements of users and the resource competition within access networks are not fully considered. In this paper, we present an interworking integrated network architecture, which is responsible for monitoring the status information of different radio access technologies (RATs) and executing the resource allocation algorithm. Within this architecture, the problem of joint bandwidth allocation for heterogeneous integrated networks is formulated based on utility function theory and bankruptcy game theory. The proposed bandwidth allocation scheme comprises two successive stages, i.e., service bandwidth allocation and user bandwidth allocation. At the service bandwidth allocation stage, the optimal amount of bandwidth for different types of services in each network is allocated based on the criterion of joint utility maximization. At the user bandwidth allocation stage, the service bandwidth in each network is optimally allocated among users in the network according to bankruptcy game theory. Numerical results demonstrate the efficiency of

  18. 3600 digital phase detector with 100-kHz bandwidth

    The general availability of digital circuit components with propagation delay times of a few nanoseconds makes a digital phase detector with good bandwidth feasible. Such a circuit has a distinct advantage over its analog counterpart because of its linearity over wide range of phase shift. A phase detector that is being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project is described. The specifications are 100-kHz bandwidth, linearity of +- 10 over +- 1800 of phase shift, and 0.660 resolution. To date, the circuit has achieved the bandwidth and resolution. The linearity is approximately +- 30 over +- 1800 phase shift

  19. Microwave photonic bandstop filter with wide tunability and adjustable bandwidth.

    Li, Wei; Yang, Chengwu; Wang, Ling; Yuan, Zhilin; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Ming; Zhu, Ninghua

    2015-12-28

    A microwave photonic bandstop filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this work. The filter exhibits promising performance combination of reconfigurability, frequency tunability, and bandwidth adjustment. The phase modulation on two orthogonal polarization states produces a bandpass and a lowpass MPF, respectively. The key concept of destructive interference between the bandpass and lowpass MPF enables the reconfiguration of MPF from bandpass to bandstop. By adjusting the wavelength of two orthogonally polarized optical carriers and the bandwidth of an optical bandpass filter, the bandstop filter is tunable in terms of center frequency and bandwidth. PMID:26832021

  20. Ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification at degeneracy.

    Limpert, J; Aguergaray, C; Montant, S; Manek-Hönninger, I; Petit, S; Descamps, D; Cormier, E; Salin, F

    2005-09-19

    We report on a novel approach of ultra-broad bandwidth parametric amplification around degeneracy. A bandwidth of up to 400 nm centered around 800 nm is amplified in a BBO crystal by using chirped pump pulses with a bandwitdth as broad as 10 nm. A supercontinuum signal is generated in a microstructured fiber, having to first order a quadratic chirp, which is necessary to ensure temporal overlap of the interacting waves over this broad bandwidth. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of this approach for an octave-spanning parametric amplification. PMID:19498762

  1. Relaxor-PT single crystals for broad bandwidth, high power sonar projectors

    Sherlock, Nevin P.

    2010-06-01

    The high piezoelectric response of the ferroelectric relaxor (1 - x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3 - xPbTiO3 (PMNT) in single crystal form has generated significant interest in producing broad bandwidth SONAR systems. Both the piezoelectric coefficient (d33 > 2000 pC/N) and coupling coefficient (k33 > 0.90) are superior to those of conventional piezoelectric ceramics. Within the context of a high power acoustic projector, its high losses and low temperature stability have limited its development. Second generation single crystals with compositions modified from the base PMNT have been recently developed to decrease the electromechanical losses and mitigate the thermal property dependence. In this work, the electromechanical properties were measured using single crystals which have been modified in various ways. The modified crystals exhibit electromechanically "hard" behavior with lower losses (tan delta = 0.1--0.2% and QM = 230--950) than unmodified PMNT (tan delta = 0.26% and QM = 190). The measured d33 values of modified single crystals (d33 = 760--1490 pm/V) are also lower than unmodified PMNT (d33 = 1540 pm/V), but the lower piezoelectric response is compensated by the greater stability of the modified single crystals. These modified single crystal properties were also compared to conventional high power piezoelectric ceramics ( d33 = 240 pm/V and QM = 1050) to show similar losses but significantly greater response in the modified PMNT single crystals. Although most piezoelectric materials are measured under small signal conditions (small signal defined by a completely linear relationship between the input and output signals), the high power nature of SONAR projectors demands that these modified single crystals also be evaluated under high power conditions. A test procedure was developed to measure the electromechanical properties of each material as a function of applied electric field over a frequency range which includes the resonance frequency. Modified single crystals

  2. Application of small-signal modeling and measurement techniques to the stability analysis of an integrated switching-mode power system. [onboard Dynamics Explorer Satellite

    Wong, R. C.; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.; Rodriguez, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    Small-signal modeling techniques are used in a system stability analysis of a breadboard version of a complete functional electrical power system. The system consists of a regulated switching dc-to-dc converter, a solar-cell-array simulator, a solar-array EMI filter, battery chargers and linear shunt regulators. Loss mechanisms in the converter power stage, including switching-time effects in the semiconductor elements, are incorporated into the modeling procedure to provide an accurate representation of the system without requiring frequency-domain measurements to determine the damping factor. The small-signal system model is validated by the use of special measurement techniques which are adapted to the poor signal-to-noise ratio encountered in switching-mode systems. The complete electrical power system with the solar-array EMI filter is shown to be stable over the intended range of operation.

  3. Small-Signal Modeling of the PVR-Based AD Scheme and Controller Design for Three-Phase Standalone DG System

    Shen, Pan; Han, Yang; Lu, Chang;

    2016-01-01

    controllers are based on an enhanced proportional resonant (PR) structure to achieve zero steady-state error, and multi-resonant harmonic compensator (MRHC) plus PR controller to prevent low-order load current harmonics to distort the output voltage. The proposed small-signal model of the islanded DG system...... with multi-loop control strategy in the stationary reference frame is presented. Moreover, an enhanced delay compensation (EDC) scheme based on two integrators of the discrete PR controller is presented to improve stability margins with a higher accuracy compared with the existing methods. Then, a......This paper presents the small-signal state-space modeling and a new multifunctional multi-loop control strategy for three-phase inverter-based islanded DG systems under unbalanced and/or nonlinear load conditions. The proposed control methodology utilizes the parallel virtual resistance (PVR...

  4. An Improved Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm for Ethernet PON

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes an improved Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) algorithm for EPON, which combines static and traditional dynamic allocation schemes. Simulation result shows that the proposed algorithm may effectively improve the performance of packet delay.

  5. MULTILAYER MICROSTRIP ANTENNA QUALITY FACTOR OPTIMIZATION FOR BANDWIDTH ENHANCEMENT

    M.C. SRIVASTAVA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The impedance bandwidth, one of the important characteristics of microstrip patch antennas, can be significantly improved by using a multilayer dielectric configuration. In this paper the focus is on bandwidth enhancement technique of a multilayer patch antenna for X-band applications. In order to enhance the bandwidth, antenna losses are contained by controlling those quality factors which can have a significant impact on the bandwidth for a given permittivity and thickness of the substrate. This has been achieved by conformal transformation of the multidielectric microstrip antenna. For the ease of analysis Wheelers transformation is used to map the complex permittivity of a multilayer substrate to a single layer. Method of Moments and Finite Difference Time Domain approaches are used for the computation of results.

  6. Available Bandwidth Estimation Strategy Based on the Network Allocation Vector

    Hongtao Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Available bandwidth is of great importance to network Quality of Service assurance, network load balancing, streaming media rate control, routing, and congestion control, etc.. In this paper, the available bandwidth estimation strategy based on the Network Allocation Vector for Wireless Sensor Networks is proposed. According to the size of the average contention window, network nodes predict the probability of collision in process of frame transmission, and then estimate the number of retransmission. Through the collection of Hello packets periodically sent by neighbors, nodes obtain their Network Allocation Vector, and then estimate the available bandwidth. The simulation results show that the strategy is simple and effective, can accurately estimate the collision of data frames as well as the available bandwidth of Wireless Sensor Networks.

  7. Bandwidth allocation and pricing problem for a duopoly market

    You Peng-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses the Internet service provider (ISP bandwidth allocation and pricing problems for a duopoly bandwidth market with two competitive ISPs. According to the contracts between Internet subscribers and ISPs, Internet subscribers can enjoy their services up to their contracted bandwidth limits. However, in reality, many subscribers may experience the facts that their on-line requests are denied or their connection speeds are far below their contracted speed limits. One of the reasons is that ISPs accept too many subscribers as their subscribers. To avoid this problem, ISPs can set limits for their subscribers to enhance their service qualities. This paper develops constrained nonlinear programming to deal with this problem for two competitive ISPs. The condition for reaching the equilibrium between the two competitive firms is derived. The market equilibrium price and bandwidth resource allocations are derived as closed form solutions.

  8. Review of high bandwidth fiber optics radiation sensors

    This paper summarizes the use of fiber optics or guided optical systems for radiation sensors. It is limited a passive systems wherein electrical is not required at the sensor location. However, electrically powered light sources, receivers and/or recorders may still be required for detection and data storage in sensor system operation. This paper emphasizes sensor technologies that permit high bandwidth measurements of transient radiation levels, and will also discuss several low bandwidth applications. 60 refs

  9. A Bandwidth Allocation Model Provisioning Framework with Autonomic Characteristics

    Rafael F. Reale; Romildo M. da S. Bezerra; Martins, Joberto S. B.

    2013-01-01

    The Bandwidth Allocation Models (MAM, RDM, G-RDM and AllocTC-Sharing) are managementalternatives currently available which propose different resource (bandwidth) allocation strategies inmultiservice networks. The BAM adoption by a network is typically a management choice andconfiguration task executed by the network operations and management system setup in a static or nearlystatic way. This paper proposes and explores the alternative ofallowing BAM definition and configurationon a more dynam...

  10. Performance Investigation of Virtual Private Networks with Different Bandwidth Allocations

    Ramaswamy Muthiah; Mahalakshmi Chidambara Natarajan; Alamelu Nachiappan

    2010-01-01

    A Virtual Private Network (VPN) provides private network connections over a publicly accessible shared network. The effective allocation of bandwidth for VPNs assumes significance in the present scenario due to varied traffic. Each VPN endpoint specifies bounds on the total amount of traffic that it is likely to send or receive at any time. The network provider tailors the VPN so that there is sufficient bandwidth for any traffic matrix that is consistent with these bounds. The approach incor...

  11. Limits To Certainty in QoS Pricing and Bandwidth

    Gideon, Carolyn; Camp, L Jean

    2001-01-01

    Advanced services require more reliable bandwidth than currently provided by the Internet Protocol, even with the reliability enhancements provided by TCP. More reliable bandwidth will be provided through QoS (quality of service), as currently discussed widely. Yet QoS has some implications beyond providing ubiquitous access to advance Internet service, which are of interest from a policy perspective. In particular, what are the implications for price of Internet services? Further, how will t...

  12. Available Bandwidth Estimation Strategy Based on the Network Allocation Vector

    Hongtao Liu; Lianglun Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Available bandwidth is of great importance to network Quality of Service assurance, network load balancing, streaming media rate control, routing, and congestion control, etc.. In this paper, the available bandwidth estimation strategy based on the Network Allocation Vector for Wireless Sensor Networks is proposed. According to the size of the average contention window, network nodes predict the probability of collision in process of frame transmission, and then estimate the number of retrans...

  13. Open-Loop Wide-Bandwidth Phase Modulation Techniques

    Nitin Nidhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing growth in the bandwidth of wireless communication channels requires the transmitter to be wide-bandwidth and power-efficient. Polar and outphasing transmitter topologies are two promising candidates for such applications, in future. Both these architectures require a wide-bandwidth phase modulator. Open-loop phase modulation presents a viable solution for achieving wide-bandwidth operation. An overview of prior art and recent approaches for phase modulation is presented in this paper. Phase quantization noise cancellation was recently introduced to lower the out-of-band noise in a digital phase modulator. A detailed analysis on the impact of timing and quantization of the cancellation signal is presented. Noise generated by the transmitter in the receive band frequency poses another challenge for wide-bandwidth transmitter design. Addition of a noise transfer function notch, in a digital phase modulator, to reduce the noise in the receive band during phase modulation is described in this paper.

  14. Analysis of bandwidth measurement methodologies over WLAN systems

    Portoles-Comeras, Marc; Mangues-Bafalluy, Josep; Domingo-Pascual, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    WLAN devices have become a fundamental component of nowadays network deployments. However, even though traditional networking applications run mostly unchanged over wireless links, the actual interaction between these applications and the dynamics of wireless transmissions is not yet fully understood. An important example of such applications are bandwidth estimation tools. This area has become a mature research topic with well-developed results. Unfortunately recent studies have shown that the application of these results to WLAN links is not straightforward. The main reasons for this is that the assumptions taken to develop bandwidth measurements tools do not hold any longer in the presence of wireless links (e.g. non-FIFO scheduling). This paper builds from these observations and its main goal is to analyze the interaction between probe packets and WLAN transmissions in bandwidth estimation processes. The paper proposes an analytical model that better accounts for the particularities of WLAN links. The mod...

  15. Benefits of Bandwidth Feedback in Learning a Complex Gymnastic Skill

    Sadowski, Jerzy; Mastalerz, Andrzej; Niznikowski, Tomasz

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two different frequencies of feedback during the process of learning a complex gymnastic skill, the round-off salto backward tucked. Thirty male acrobats participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to two groups: B - bandwidth feedback (n=15) or C - 100% feedback (n=15). Group B was provided with error information regarding the key elements of movement techniques only (bandwidth feedback). Our research demonstrates the advantage of augmented feedback information related to errors in the key elements. Information about errors in the key elements during learning a complex gymnastic skill prevents the gymnast from becoming overwhelmed, which promotes better motor control. These results provide support for the generalisation of bandwidth feedback principles to a complex task. Our research shows that the guidance hypothesis can also be tested in practical settings for a complex movement task. PMID:24146719

  16. Performance Investigation of Virtual Private Networks with Different Bandwidth Allocations

    Ramaswamy Muthiah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A Virtual Private Network (VPN provides private network connections over a publicly accessible shared network. The effective allocation of bandwidth for VPNs assumes significance in the present scenario due to varied traffic. Each VPN endpoint specifies bounds on the total amount of traffic that it is likely to send or receive at any time. The network provider tailors the VPN so that there is sufficient bandwidth for any traffic matrix that is consistent with these bounds. The approach incorporates the use of Ad-hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV protocol, with a view to accomplish an enhancement in the performance of the mobile networks. The NS2 based simulation results are evaluated in terms of its metrics for different bandwidth allocations, besides analyzing its performance in the event of exigencies such as link failures. The results highlight the suitability of the proposed strategy in the context of real time applications.

  17. Performance Investigation of Virtual Private Networks with Different Bandwidth Allocations

    Natarajan, Mahalakshmi Chidambara; Nachiappan, Alamelu

    2010-01-01

    A Virtual Private Network (VPN) provides private network connections over a publicly accessible shared network. The effective allocation of bandwidth for VPNs assumes significance in the present scenario due to varied traffic. Each VPN endpoint specifies bounds on the total amount of traffic that it is likely to send or receive at any time. The network provider tailors the VPN so that there is sufficient bandwidth for any traffic matrix that is consistent with these bounds. The approach incorporates the use of Ad-hoc On demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol, with a view to accomplish an enhancement in the performance of the mobile networks. The NS2 based simulation results are evaluated in terms of its metrics for different bandwidth allocations, besides analyzing its performance in the event of exigencies such as link failures. The results highlight the suitability of the proposed strategy in the context of real time applications.

  18. The bandwidth of optimized nonlinear vibration-based energy harvesters

    In an attempt to improve the performance of vibration-based energy harvesters, many authors suggest that nonlinearities can be exploited to increase the bandwidths of linear devices. Nevertheless, the complex dependence of the response upon the input excitation has made a realistic comparison of linear harvesters with nonlinear energy harvesters challenging. In a previous work it has been demonstrated that for a given frequency of excitation, it is possible to achieve the same maximum power for a nonlinear harvester as that for a linear harvester, provided that the resistance and the linear stiffness of both are optimized. This work focuses on the bandwidths of linear and nonlinear harvesters and shows which device is more suitable for harvesting energy from vibrations. The work considers different levels of excitation as well as different frequencies of excitation. In addition, the effect of the mechanical damping of the oscillator on the power bandwidth is shown for both the linear and nonlinear cases. (paper)

  19. INCREASING BANDWIDTH ON CELL BREATHING TECHNOLOGY USING RAT ALGORITHM

    S.Manikandan*

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a typical enterprise WLAN, it is difficult to identify and implement the types of network settings which cause poor performance where number of hosts may attain larger share of the available bandwidth in a access point within a limited boundary under the con cept of cell breathing technique. This approach can leads to unequal load sharing and diminished system performance. Our work can be focused on the process of regulating the bandwidth so that no user can access data more than the specified limit for a part icular access point and provide large bandwidth wherever needed. In this way the different users will get an efficient access over the network. We consider the RAT (Rate Access Technologies policy which leads to better system performance. The RAT policy h as been applied on home - grown centralized WLAN controller, ADWISER and reveals that the RAT policy definitely affords to be effective system performance

  20. Analysis of DC Characteristics and Small Signal Equivalent Circuit Parameters of GaAs Metal-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors with Different Gate Lengths and Different Gate Contours by Two-Dimensional Device Simulations

    Meng, C. C.; Su, J. Y.; Yang, S. M.

    2005-09-01

    The gate length and gate contour of a GaAs metal-semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) device play important roles in determining the small signal circuit parameters and large signal breakdown voltage behavior. GaAs MESFETs with different gate lengths and gate contours were studied by the two-dimensional (2-D) semiconductor device simulations to investigate the dependence of small signal circuit parameters and breakdown voltage on gate length and gate contour. The results show that gate length affects small-signal circuit parameter Cgs while gate contour affects Cgd. The breakdown voltage has strong dependence on gate contour and little dependence on gate length.

  1. Bandwidth Enhancement of Probe Fed Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Parminder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microstrip patch antenna becomes verypopular day by day because of its ease of analysis andfabrication, low cost, light weight, easy to feed and theirattractive radiation characteristics. Although patchantenna has numerous advantages, it has also somedrawbacks such as restricted bandwidth, and a potentialdecrease in radiation pattern. Different techniques forbandwidth enhancement of conventional rectangularmicrostrip antenna are proposed in this paper. Byincreasing the height of patch , increasing the substratethickness and decreasing the permittivity of substrate the%bandwidth is increased. HFSS Software is used for thesimulation and design calculation of microstrip patchantenna. The return loss, vswr curve, directivity and gainare evaluated.

  2. Small Bandwidth Asymptotics for Density-Weighted Average Derivatives

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    This paper proposes (apparently) novel standard error formulas for the density-weighted average derivative estimator of Powell, Stock, and Stoker (1989). Asymptotic validity of the standard errors developed in this paper does not require the use of higher-order kernels and the standard errors are...... errors developed in this paper coincide (approximately) with the nominal coverage rates across a nontrivial range of bandwidths....... "robust" in the sense that they accommodate (but do not require) bandwidths that are smaller than those for which conventional standard errors are valid. Moreover, the results of a Monte Carlo experiment suggest that the finite sample coverage rates of con…dence intervals constructed using the standard...

  3. Programmable bandwidth management in software-defined EPON architecture

    Li, Chengjun; Guo, Wei; Wang, Wei; Hu, Weisheng; Xia, Ming

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a software-defined EPON architecture which replaces the hardware-implemented DBA module with reprogrammable DBA module. The DBA module allows pluggable bandwidth allocation algorithms among multiple ONUs adaptive to traffic profiles and network states. We also introduce a bandwidth management scheme executed at the controller to manage the customized DBA algorithms for all date queues of ONUs. Our performance investigation verifies the effectiveness of this new EPON architecture, and numerical results show that software-defined EPONs can achieve less traffic delay and provide better support to service differentiation in comparison with traditional EPONs.

  4. Performance Analysis of a DEKF for Available Bandwidth Measurement

    Diego Santoro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a characterisation analysis of a measurement algorithm based on a Discrete-time Extended Kalman Filter (DEKF, which has recently been proposed for the estimation and tracking of end-to-end available bandwidth. The analysis is carried out by means of simulations for different rates of variations of the available bandwidth and permits assessing the performance of the measurement algorithm for different values of the filter parameters, that is, the covariance matrixes of the measurement and process noise.

  5. 120 nm Bandwidth Erbium-doped Fiber Amplifier

    姜淳; 曾庆济; 肖石林

    2002-01-01

    A new dual band erbium-doped fiber amplifier configuration that provides 120 nm of optical bandwidth is simulated. This configuration employs a split-band architecture in which optical signals are splitted using a 1550/1610 nm port filter into two independent sub-bands which then pass in parallel through separate branches of the optical amplifier. Each branch may be optimized for the sub-band that traverses it. The independent sub-bands are combined and flattened before output, resulting in a 120 nm bandwidth gain-flattened optical amplifier.

  6. Design of InAlAs/InGaAs PHEMTs and small-signal modeling from 0.5 to 110 GHz

    90-nm T-shaped gate InP-based In0.52Al0.48As/In0.6Ga0.4As pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors were designed and fabricated with a gate-width of 2 × 30 μm, a source—drain space of 2.5 μm, and a source—gate space of 0.75 μm. DC, RF and small-signal model characterizations were demonstrated. The maximum saturation current density was measured to be 755 mA/mm biased at Vgs = 0.6 V and Vds = 1.5 V. The maximum extrinsic transconductance was measured to be 1006 mS/mm biased at Vgs = −0.1 V and Vds = 1.5 V. The extrapolated current gain cutoff frequency and maximum oscillation frequency based on S-parameters measured from 0.5 to 110 GHz were 180 and 264 GHz, respectively. The inflection point (the stability factor k = 1) where the slope from −10 dB/decade (MSG) to −20 dB/decade (MAG) was measured to be 83 GHz. The small-signal model of this device was also established, and the S-parameters of the model are consistent with those measured from 0.5–110 GHz. (semiconductor devices)

  7. Design of InAlAs/InGaAs PHEMTs and small-signal modeling from 0.5 to 110 GHz

    Zhiming, Wang; Xin, Lü; Xiaobin, Luo; Yuxing, Cui; Xiguo, Sun; Jianghui, Mo; Xingchang, Fu; Liang, Li; Dawei, He

    2015-02-01

    90-nm T-shaped gate InP-based In0.52Al0.48As/In0.6Ga0.4As pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors were designed and fabricated with a gate-width of 2 × 30 μm, a source—drain space of 2.5 μm, and a source—gate space of 0.75 μm. DC, RF and small-signal model characterizations were demonstrated. The maximum saturation current density was measured to be 755 mA/mm biased at Vgs = 0.6 V and Vds = 1.5 V. The maximum extrinsic transconductance was measured to be 1006 mS/mm biased at Vgs = -0.1 V and Vds = 1.5 V. The extrapolated current gain cutoff frequency and maximum oscillation frequency based on S-parameters measured from 0.5 to 110 GHz were 180 and 264 GHz, respectively. The inflection point (the stability factor k = 1) where the slope from -10 dB/decade (MSG) to -20 dB/decade (MAG) was measured to be 83 GHz. The small-signal model of this device was also established, and the S-parameters of the model are consistent with those measured from 0.5-110 GHz.

  8. Influence of gate metal engineering on small-signal and noise behaviour of silicon nanowire MOSFET for low-noise amplifiers

    Gupta, Neha; Chaujar, Rishu

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the small-signal behaviour and RF noise performance of gate electrode workfunction engineered (GEWE) silicon nanowire (SiNW) MOSFET, and the results so obtained are simultaneously compared with SiNW and conventional MOSFET at THz frequency range. This work examines reflection and transmission coefficients, noise conductance, minimum noise figure and cross-correlation factor. Results reveal significant reduction in input/output reflection coefficient and an increase in forward/reverse transmission coefficient owing to improved transconductance in GEWE-SiNW in comparison with conventional counterparts. It is also observed that minimum noise figure and noise conductance of GEWE-SiNW is reduced by 17.4 and 31.2 %, respectively, in comparison with SiNW, thus fortifying its potential application for low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) at radio frequencies. Moreover, the efficacy of gate metal workfunction engineering is also studied and the results validate that tuning of workfunction difference results further improvement in device small-signal behaviour and noise performance.

  9. 47 CFR 74.535 - Emission and bandwidth.

    2010-10-01

    ... bandwidth: As specified by the following equation but in no event less than 50 decibels: A = 35 + 0.8(G − 50) + 10 Log10 B. (Attenuation greater than 80 decibels is not required.) Where: A = Attenuation (in decibels) below the mean output power level. G = Percent removed from the carrier frequency. B =...

  10. Microstrip Patch Antenna Bandwidth Enhancement Using AMC/EBG Structures

    R. C. Hadarig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A microstrip patch antenna with bandwidth enhancement by means of artificial magnetic conductor (AMC/electromagnetic band-gap structure (EGB is presented. The electrical characteristics of the embedded structure are evaluated using MoM simulations. The manufactured prototypes are characterized in terms of return loss, gain, and radiation pattern measurements in an anechoic chamber.

  11. Iterative Available Bandwidth Estimation for Mobile Transport Networks

    Ubeda Castellanos, Carlos; López Villa, Dimas; Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed; Elling, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Available bandwidth estimation has lately been proposed to be used for end-to-end resource management in existing and emerging mobile communication systems, whose transport networks could end up being the bottleneck rather than the air interface. Algorithms for admission control, handover and...

  12. A Preliminary Evaluation of Bandwidth Allocation Model Dynamic Switching

    Rafael F. Reale

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bandwidth Allocation Models (BAMs are used in order to define Bandwidth Constraints (BCs in a per-class basis for MPLS/DS-TE networks and effectively define how network resources like bandwidth are obtained and shared by applications. The BAMs proposed (MAM – Maximum Allocation Model, RDM – Russian Dolls Model, G-RDM – Generic RDM and AllocTC-Sharing attempt to optimize the use of bandwidth resources on a per-link basis with different allocation and resource sharing characteristics. As such, the adoption of distinct BAMs and/or changes in network resource demands (network traffic profile may result in different network traffic allocation and operational behavior for distinct BAMs. This paper evaluates the resulting network characteristics (li nk utilization, preemption and flows blocking of using BAMs dynamically with different traffic scenarios. In brief, it is investigated the dynamics of BAM switching with distinct traffic scenarios. The paper presents initially the investigated BAMs in relation to their behavior and resource allocation characteristics. Then, distinct BAMs are compared using different traffic scenarios in order to investigate the impact of a dynamic change of the BAM configured in the network. Finally, the paper shows that the adoption of a dynamic BAM allocation strategy may result in benefits for network operation in terms of link utilization, preemption and flows blocking.

  13. Bandwidth utilization maximization of scientific RF communication systems

    Rey, D. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ryan, W. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Ross, M.

    1997-01-01

    A method for more efficiently utilizing the frequency bandwidth allocated for data transmission is presented. Current space and range communication systems use modulation and coding schemes that transmit 0.5 to 1.0 bits per second per Hertz of radio frequency bandwidth. The goal in this LDRD project is to increase the bandwidth utilization by employing advanced digital communications techniques. This is done with little or no increase in the transmit power which is usually very limited on airborne systems. Teaming with New Mexico State University, an implementation of trellis coded modulation (TCM), a coding and modulation scheme pioneered by Ungerboeck, was developed for this application and simulated on a computer. TCM provides a means for reliably transmitting data while simultaneously increasing bandwidth efficiency. The penalty is increased receiver complexity. In particular, the trellis decoder requires high-speed, application-specific digital signal processing (DSP) chips. A system solution based on the QualComm Viterbi decoder and the Graychip DSP receiver chips is presented.

  14. A Practical Approach For Excess Bandwidth Distribution for EPONs

    Elrasad, Amr

    2014-03-09

    This paper introduces a novel approach called Delayed Excess Scheduling (DES), which practically reuse the excess bandwidth in EPONs system. DES is suitable for the industrial deployment as it requires no timing constraint and achieves better performance compared to the previously reported schemes.

  15. Bandwidth trading under misaligned objectives: decentralized measurement-based control

    Mandjes, M.R.H.; Ramakrishnan, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the interplay between a profit-maximizing network and a number of users competing for the finite bandwidth on each link. In our setting, the objectives of the network and the users are ‘misaligned’, in that the prices that optimize the network’s profit do not maximize the aggregat

  16. High speed and wide bandwidth delta-sigma ADCs

    Bolatkale, Muhammed; Makinwa, Kofi A A

    2014-01-01

    This book describes techniques for realizing wide bandwidth (125MHz) over-sampled analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) in nanometer-CMOS processes.  The authors offer a clear and complete picture of system level challenges and practical design solutions in high-speed Delta-Sigma modulators.  Readers will be enabled to implement ADCs as continuous-time delta-sigma (CT∆Σ) modulators, offering simple resistive inputs, which do not require the use of power-hungry input buffers, as well as offering inherent anti-aliasing, which simplifies system integration. The authors focus on the design of high speed and wide-bandwidth ΔΣMs that make a step in bandwidth range which was previously only possible with Nyquist converters. More specifically, this book describes the stability, power efficiency, and linearity limits of ΔΣMs, aiming at a GHz sampling frequency.   • Provides overview of trends in Wide Bandwidth and High Dynamic Range analog-to-digital converters (ADCs); • Enables the design of a wide band...

  17. Bandwidth Efficient Hybrid Synchronization for Wireless Sensor Network

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2015-01-01

    Data collection and transmission are the fundamental operations of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A key challenge in effective data collection and transmission is to schedule and synchronize the activities of the nodes with the global clock. This paper proposes the Bandwidth Efficient Hybrid...

  18. Gain-switched all-fiber laser with narrow bandwidth

    Larsen, Casper; Giesberts, M.; Nyga, S.;

    2013-01-01

    Gain-switching of a CW fiber laser is a simple and cost-effective approach to generate pulses using an all-fiber system. We report on the construction of a narrow bandwidth (below 0.1 nm) gain-switched fiber laser and optimize the pulse energy and pulse duration under this constraint. The extracted...

  19. Efficient Bandwidth Management for Ethernet Passive Optical Networks

    Elrasad, Amr Elsayed M.

    2016-05-15

    The increasing bandwidth demands in access networks motivates network operators, networking devices manufacturers, and standardization institutions to search for new approaches for access networks. These approaches should support higher bandwidth, longer distance between end user and network operator, and less energy consumption. Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) is a favorable choice for broadband access networks. EPONs support transmission rates up to 10 Gbps. EPONs also support distance between end users and central office up to 20 Km. Moreover, optical networks have the least energy consumption among all types of networks. In this dissertation, we focus on reducing delay and saving energy in EPONs. Reducing delay is essential for delay-sensitive traffic, while minimizing energy consumption is an environmental necessity and also reduces the network operating costs. We identify five challenges, namely excess bandwidth allocation, frame delineation, congestion resolution, large round trip time delay in long-reach EPONs (LR-EPONs), and energy saving. We provide a Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) approach for each challenge. We also propose a novel scheme that combines the features of the proposed approaches in one highly performing scheme. Our approach is to design novel DBA protocols that can further reduce the delay and be simultaneously simple and fair. We also present a dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for Green EPONs taking into consideration maximizing energy saving under target delay constraints. Regarding excess bandwidth allocation, we develop an effective DBA scheme called Delayed Excess Scheduling (DES). DES achieves significant delay and jitter reduction and is more suitable for industrial deployment due to its simplicity. Utilizing DES in hybrid TDM/WDM EPONs (TWDM-EPONs) is also investigated. We also study eliminating the wasted bandwidth due to frame delineation. We develop an interactive DBA scheme, Efficient Grant Sizing Interleaved

  20. Influence of subthreshold nonlinearities on signal-to-noise ratio and timing precision for small signals in neurons: minimal model analysis.

    Svirskis, Gytis; Rinzel, John

    2003-02-01

    Subthreshold voltage- and time-dependent conductances can subserve different roles in signal integration and action potential generation. Here, we use minimal models to demonstrate how a non-inactivating low-threshold outward current (I(KLT)) can enhance the precision of small-signal integration. Our integrate-and-fire models have only a few biophysical parameters, enabling a parametric study of I(KLT) effects. I(KLT) increases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for firing when a subthreshold 'signal' EPSP is delivered in the presence of weak random input. The increased SNR is due to the suppression of spontaneous firings to random input. In accordance, SNR grows as the EPSP amplitude increases. SNR also grows as the unitary synaptic current's time constant increases, leading to more effective suppression of spontaneous activity. Spike-triggered reverse correlation of the injected current indicates that, to reach spike threshold, a cell with I(KLT) requires a briefer time course of injected current. Consistent with this narrowed integration time window, I(KI.T) enhances phase-locking. measured as vector strength, to a weak noisy and periodically modulated stimulus. Thus subthreshold negative feedback mediated by I(KLT) enhances temporal processing. An alternative suppression mechanism is voltage- and time-dependent inactivation of a low-threshold inward current. This feature in an integrate-and-fire model also shows SNR enhancement, in comparison with a case when the inward current is non-inactivating. Small-signal detection can be significantly improved in noisy neuronal systems by subthreshold negative feedback, serving to suppress false positives. PMID:12613555

  1. On Free-Electron Laser Growing Modes and their Bandwidth

    Webb, Stephen; Litvinenko, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Free-electron lasers play an increasing role in science, from generating unique femtosecond X- ray pulses for single short recording of the protein structures to amplifying feeble interactions in advanced cooling systems for high-energy hadron colliders. While modern Free-electron laser codes can describe their amplification mechanism, a deep analytical understanding of the mechanism is of extreme importance for a number of applications. Mode competition, their growth rates and amplification bandwidth are among the most important parameters of a free-electron laser. A dispersion relation, which defines these important characteristics, can be solved analytically only for a very few simple cases. In this letter we show that for a typical bell-shape energy distribution in electron beam there is no more that one growing mode. We also derive an analytical expression which determines the bandwidth of the free-electron laser.

  2. Two genetic algorithms for the bandwidth multicoloring problem

    Fijuljanin Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Bandwidth Multicoloring Problem (BMCP and the Bandwidth Coloring Problem (BCP are considered. The problems are solved by two genetic algorithms (GAs which use the integer encoding and standard genetic operators adapted to the problems. In both proposed implementations, all individuals are feasible by default, so search is directed into the promising regions. The first proposed method named GA1 is a constructive metaheuristic that construct solution, while the second named GA2 is an improving metaheuristic used to improve an existing solution. Genetic algorithms are tested on the publicly-available GEOM instances from the literature. Proposed GA1 has achieved a much better solution than the calculated upper bound for a given problem, and GA2 has significantly improved the solutions obtained by GA1. The obtained results are also compared with the results of the existing methods for solving BCP and BMCP.

  3. Bandwidth-sharing in LHCONE, an analysis of the problem

    Wildish, T.

    2015-12-01

    The LHC experiments have traditionally regarded the network as an unreliable resource, one which was expected to be a major source of errors and inefficiency at the time their original computing models were derived. Now, however, the network is seen as much more capable and reliable. Data are routinely transferred with high efficiency and low latency to wherever computing or storage resources are available to use or manage them. Although there was sufficient network bandwidth for the experiments’ needs during Run-1, they cannot rely on ever-increasing bandwidth as a solution to their data-transfer needs in the future. Sooner or later they need to consider the network as a finite resource that they interact with to manage their traffic, in much the same way as they manage their use of disk and CPU resources. There are several possible ways for the experiments to integrate management of the network in their software stacks, such as the use of virtual circuits with hard bandwidth guarantees or soft real-time flow-control, with somewhat less firm guarantees. Abstractly, these can all be considered as the users (the experiments, or groups of users within the experiment) expressing a request for a given bandwidth between two points for a given duration of time. The network fabric then grants some allocation to each user, dependent on the sum of all requests and the sum of available resources, and attempts to ensure the requirements are met (either deterministically or statistically). An unresolved question at this time is how to convert the users’ requests into an allocation. Simply put, how do we decide what fraction of a network's bandwidth to allocate to each user when the sum of requests exceeds the available bandwidth? The usual problems of any resourcescheduling system arise here, namely how to ensure the resource is used efficiently and fairly, while still satisfying the needs of the users. Simply fixing quotas on network paths for each user is likely to lead

  4. Conical Emission Patterns by Femtosecond Pulses with Different Spectral Bandwidths

    LI Yue-Xun; ZENG Zhi-Nan; GE Xiao-Chun; CHEN Xiao-Wei; LI Ru-Xin; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Different conical emission (CE) patterns are obtained experimentally at various incident powers and beam sizes of pump laser pulses with pulse durations of 7fs, 44fs and lOOfs.The results show that it is the incident power but not the incident power density that determines a certain CE pattern.In addition, the critical powers for similar CE patterns are nearly the same for the laser pulses with the same spectral bandwidth.Furthermore, as far as a certain CE pattern is concerned, the wider the spectral bandwidth of pump laser pulse is, the higher the critical power is.This will hopefully provide new insights for the generation of CE pattern in optical medium.

  5. Optical interconnect technologies for high-bandwidth ICT systems

    Chujo, Norio; Takai, Toshiaki; Mizushima, Akiko; Arimoto, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yasunobu; Yamashita, Hiroki; Matsushima, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The bandwidth of information and communication technology (ICT) systems is increasing and is predicted to reach more than 10 Tb/s. However, an electrical interconnect cannot achieve such bandwidth because of its density limits. To solve this problem, we propose two types of high-density optical fiber wiring for backplanes and circuit boards such as interface boards and switch boards. One type uses routed ribbon fiber in a circuit board because it has the ability to be formed into complex shapes to avoid interfering with the LSI and electrical components on the board. The backplane is required to exhibit high density and flexibility, so the second type uses loose fiber. We developed a 9.6-Tb/s optical interconnect demonstration system using embedded optical modules, optical backplane, and optical connector in a network apparatus chassis. We achieved 25-Gb/s transmission between FPGAs via the optical backplane.

  6. The Bandwidths of a Matrix. A Survey of Algorithms

    Mafteiu-Scai Liviu Octavian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The bandwidth, average bandwidth, envelope, profile and antibandwidth of the matrices have been the subjects of study for at least 45 years. These problems have generated considerable interest over the years because of them practical relevance in areas like: solving the system of equations, finite element methods, circuit design, hypertext layout, chemical kinetics, numerical geophysics etc. In this paper a brief description of these problems are made in terms of their definitions, followed by a comparative study of them, using both approaches: matrix geometry and graph theory. Time evolution of the corresponding algorithms as well as a short description of them are made. The work also contains concrete real applications for which a large part of presented algorithms were developed.

  7. Exploiting material softening in hard PZTs for resonant bandwidth enhancement

    Leadenham, S.; Moura, A.; Erturk, A.

    2016-04-01

    Intentionally designed nonlinearities have been employed by several research groups to enhance the frequency bandwidth of vibration energy harvesters. Another type of nonlinear resonance behavior emerges from the piezoelectric constitutive behavior for high excitation levels and is manifested in the form of softening stiffness. This material nonlinearity does not result in the jump phenomenon in soft piezoelectric ceramics, e.g. PZT-5A and PZT-5H, due to their large internal dissipation. This paper explores the potential for wideband energy harvesting using a hard (relatively high quality factor) PZT-8 bimorph by exploiting its material softening. A wide range of base excitation experiments conducted for a set of resistive electrical loads confirms the frequency bandwidth enhancement.

  8. Variable bandwidth and one-step local M-estimator

    范剑青; 蒋建成

    2000-01-01

    A robust version of local linear regression smoothers augmented with variable bandwidth is studied. The proposed method inherits the advantages of local polynomial regression and overcomes the shortcoming of lack of robustness of least-squares techniques. The use of variable bandwidth enhances the flexibility of the resulting local M- estimators and makes them possible to cope well with spatially inho-mogeneous curves, heteroscedastic errors and nonuniform design densities. Under appropriate regularity conditions, it is shown that the proposed estimators exist and are asymptotically normal. Based on the robust estimation equation, one-step local M-estimators are introduced to reduce computational burden. It is demonstrated that the one-step local M-estimators share the same asymptotic distributions as the fully iterative M-estimators, as long as the initial estimators are good enough. In other words, the one-step local M-estimators reduce significantly the computation cost of the fully iterative M-estim

  9. Wide bandwidth transimpedance amplifier for extremely high sensitivity continuous measurements

    Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco

    2007-09-01

    This article presents a wide bandwidth transimpedance amplifier based on the series of an integrator and a differentiator stage, having an additional feedback loop to discharge the standing current from the device under test (DUT) to ensure an unlimited measuring time opportunity when compared to switched discharge configurations while maintaining a large signal amplification over the full bandwidth. The amplifier shows a flat response from 0.6Hzto1.4MHz, the capability to operate with leakage currents from the DUT as high as tens of nanoamperes, and rail-to-rail dynamic range for sinusoidal current signals independent of the DUT leakage current. Also available is a monitor output of the stationary current to track experimental slow drifts. The circuit is ideal for noise spectral and impedance measurements of nanodevices and biomolecules when in the presence of a physiological medium and in all cases where high sensitivity current measurements are requested such as in scanning probe microscopy systems.

  10. Long-pulse-width narrow-bandwidth solid state laser

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd A.

    1997-01-01

    A long pulse laser system emits 500-1000 ns quasi-rectangular pulses at 527 nm with near diffraction-limited divergence and near transform-limited bandwidth. The system consists of one or more flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass zig-zag amplifiers, a very low threshold stimulated-Brillouin-scattering (SBS) phase conjugator system, and a free-running single frequency Nd:YLF master oscillator. Completely passive polarization switching provides eight amplifier gain passes. Multiple frequency output can be generated by using SBS cells having different pressures of a gaseous SBS medium or different SBS materials. This long pulse, low divergence, narrow-bandwidth, multi-frequency output laser system is ideally suited for use as an illuminator for long range speckle imaging applications. Because of its high average power and high beam quality, this system has application in any process which would benefit from a long pulse format, including material processing and medical applications.

  11. Novel Design of Microstrip Antenna with Improved Bandwidth

    Km. Kamakshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel design of broadband patch antenna is presented in this paper. The broadband property of the proposed antenna is achieved by choosing a proper selection of dimensions and positions of slot and notch on the radiating patch. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna is found to be 30.5% with operating frequency band from 1.56 GHz to 2.12 GHz. Antenna characteristics are observed for different inclination angles “α” and its effect on bandwidths is also reported. The maximum gain of the antenna is found to be 9.86 dBi and it achieves broadside radiation pattern in the direction of maximum radiation over the operating band. The proposed antenna structure is simulated, fabricated, and tested for obtaining the desired performance. The simulated results are verified with experimental results which are in good agreement.

  12. Transportation dynamic on coupled networks with limited bandwidth

    Li, Ming; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The communication networks in real world often couple with each other to save costs, which results in any network does not have a stand-alone function and efficiency. To investigate this, in this paper we propose a transportation model on two coupled networks with bandwidth sharing. We find that the free-flow state and the congestion state can coexist in the two coupled networks, and the free-flow path and congestion path can coexist in each network. Considering three bandwidth-sharing mechanisms, random, assortative and disassortative couplings, we also find that the transportation capacity of the network only depends on the coupling mechanism, and the fraction of coupled links only affects the performance of the system in the congestion state, such as the traveling time. In addition, with assortative coupling, the traffic capacity of the system will decrease significantly. However, the disassortative coupling has little influence on the transportation capacity of the system, which provides a good strategy t...

  13. Available Network Bandwidth Schema to Improve Performance in TCP Protocols

    Marcos Talau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The TCP congestion control mechanism in standard implementations presents several problems, for example, large queue lengths in network routers and packet losses, a misleading reduce of the transmission rate when there are link failures, among others. This paper proposes a schema to congestion control in TCP protocols, called NGWA, witch is based on the network bandwidth. The NGWA provides information considering the available bandwidth of the network infrastructure to the endpoints of the TCP connection.Hence, it helps in choosing a better transmission rate for TCP improving its performance. Simulation results show superior performance of the proposed scheme when compared to those obtained by TCP New Reno and standard TCP. A physical implementation in the Linux kernel was performed to prove the correct operation of the proposal.

  14. A Construction of Systematic MDS Codes with Minimum Repair Bandwidth

    Wu, Yunnan

    2009-01-01

    In a distributed storage system based on erasure coding, an important problem is the \\emph{repair problem}: If a node storing a coded piece fails, in order to maintain the same level of reliability, we need to create a new encoded piece and store it at a new node. This paper presents a construction of systematic $(n,k)$-MDS codes for $2k\\le n$ that achieves the minimum repair bandwidth when repairing from $k+1$ nodes.

  15. Designing large-bandwidth planar photonic crystal waveguides

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Søndergaard, Thomas

    Our waveguide design is characterized by first of all a large bandwidth, and secondly it is characterized by a relatively high group velocity giving a better modal dispersion match with the modes of standard waveguides used for coupling light into the planar crystal waveguide (PCW). We consider t...... dispersion properties for a PCW based on introducing a line defect in a photonic crystal with air-holes arranged periodically on a triangular lattice in silicon....

  16. Power--bandwidth limitations of an optical resonance

    Miller, Owen D; Anquillare, Emma; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin; Johnson, Steven G

    2015-01-01

    We present shape-independent upper limits to the power--bandwidth product for a single resonance in an optical scatterer, with the bound depending only on the material susceptibility. We show that quasistatic metallic scatterers can nearly reach the limits, and we apply our approach to the problem of designing $N$ independent, subwavelength scatterers to achieve flat, broadband response even if they individually exhibit narrow resonant peaks.

  17. Improving microwave antenna gain and bandwidth with phase compensation metasurface

    Ke Chen; Zhongjie Yang; Yijun Feng; Bo Zhu; Junming Zhao; Tian Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Metasurface, as a planar version of artificial metamaterial, provide an effective way to manipulate electromagnetic wave propagation. Here, we present a transparent metasurface for compensating the out-of-phase radiation from a microstrip patch antenna to improve its radiation gain and bandwidth. Based on the equivalence principle of Huygens’ surface, we propose metasurface composed of both inductive and capacitive resonant elements which could produce high transmission with variable phase ch...

  18. Bandwidth Management in Wireless Home Networks for IPTV Solutions

    Tamás Jursonovics; Sándor Imre

    2013-01-01

    The optimal allocation of the retransmission bandwidth is essential for IPTV service providers to ensure maximal service quality. This paper highlights the relevance of the wireless transport in today’s IPTV solution and discusses how this new media affects the existing broadcast technologies. A new Markovian channel model is developed to address the optimization issues of the retransmission throughput, and a new method is presented which is evaluated by empirical measurements followed by mat...

  19. Biometric recognition system using low bandwidth ECG signals

    Matos, André Cigarro; Lourenço, André Ribeiro; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2013-01-01

    Biometric recognition has recently emerged as part of applications where the privacy of the information is crucial, as in the health care field. This paper presents a biometric recognition system based on the Electrocardiographic signal (ECG). The proposed system is based on a state-of-the-art recognition method which extracts information from the frequency domain. In this paper we propose a new method to increase the spectral resolution of low bandwidth ECG signals due to the limited bandwid...

  20. BECSI: Bandwidth Efficient Certificate Status Information Distribution Mechanism for VANETs

    Carlos Gañán; Muñoz, Jose L.; Oscar Esparza; Jonathan Loo; Jorge Mata-Díaz; Juanjo Alins

    2013-01-01

    Certificate revocation is a challenging task, especiallyin mobile network environments such as vehicular ad Hoc networks (VANETs).According to the IEEE 1609.2 security standard for VANETs, public keyinfrastructure (PKI) will provide this functionality by means of certificate revocation lists (CRLs).When a certificate authority (CA)needs to revoke a certificate, itglobally distributes CRLs.Transmitting these lists pose a problem as they require high update frequencies and a lot of bandwidth. I...

  1. Terahertz bandwidth integrated radio frequency spectrum analyzer via nonlinear optics

    Ferrera, Marcello; Pasquazi, Alessia; Peccianti, Marco; Clerici, Matteo; Caspani, Lucia; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Morandotti, Roberto; Moss, David J

    2014-01-01

    We report an integrated all-optical radio frequency spectrum analyzer based on a ~ 4cm long doped silica glass waveguide, with a bandwidth greater than 2.5 THz. We use this device to characterize the intensity power spectrum of ultrahigh repetition rate mode-locked lasers at repetition rates up to 400 GHz, and observe dynamic noise related behavior not observable with other techniques.

  2. Artificial bandwidth extension of spectral envelope along a Viterbi path

    Yağlı, Can; Turan, M. A. Tuğtekin; Erzin, Engin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hidden Markov model (HMM)-based wideband spectral envelope estimation method for the artificial bandwidth extension problem. The proposed HMM-based estimator decodes an optimal Viterbi path based on the temporal contour of the narrowband spectral envelope and then performs the minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimation of the wideband spectral envelope on this path. Experimental evaluations are performed to compare the proposed estimator to the state-of-the-art HM...

  3. An experimental study on bandwidth assurance in IP networks

    Cano Baños, María Dolores; Cerdán Cartagena, José Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Inside DiffServ, the Assured Forwarding per hop behavior defines a service that guarantees the contracted target rate to the users and allows consuming more bandwidth if the network load is low. In this paper we perform an experimental study, whose key contribution is that current techniques and commercial equipment do not meet the goals of the AF PHB service in a scalable way.

  4. Bandwidth Enhancement Technique of the Meandered Monopole Antenna

    Chien-Jen Wang; Dai-Heng Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    A small dual-band monopole antenna with coplanar waveguide (CPW) feeding structure is presented in this paper. The antenna is composed of a meandered monopole, an extended conductor tail, and an asymmetrical ground plane. Tuning geometrical structure of the ground plane excites an additional resonant frequency band and thus enhances the impedance bandwidth of the meandered monopole antenna. Unlike the conventional monopole antenna, the new resonant mode is excited by a slot trace of the CPW t...

  5. Amplifier similariton laser with extra-broad bandwidth output pulse

    Korobko, D. A.; Okhotnikov, O. G.; Zolotovskii, I. O.

    2016-03-01

    We propose an advanced scheme of amplifier similariton laser providing an output pulse spectrum much wider than the gain bandwidth. The upgrade is an additional dispersive element introduced into the cavity to locally increase the peak pulse power. The proposed scheme demonstrates a drastic increase in the output pulse spectrum width, reduction of the pulse duration, and an increase in the output peak pulse power after compression.

  6. Advanced Control Schemes for High-Bandwidth Multiphase Voltage Regulators

    Liu, Pei-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Advances in transistor-integration technology and multi-core technology of the latest microprocessors have driven transient requirements to become more and more stringent. Rather than relying on the bulky output capacitors as energy-storage devices, increasing the control bandwidth (BW) of the multiphase voltage regulator (VR) is a more cost-effective and space-saving approach. However, it is found that the stability margin of current-mode control in high-BW design is very sensitive to operat...

  7. Improved Radiation and Bandwidth of Triangular and Star Patch Antenna

    M. Ramkumar Prabhu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a hexagonal shape Defected Ground Structure (DGS implemented on two element triangular patch microstrip antenna array. The radiation performance of the antenna is characterized by varying the geometry and dimension of the DGS and also by locating the DGS at specific position which were simulated. Simulation and measurement results have verified that the antenna with DGS had improved the antenna without DGS. Measurement results of the hexagonal DGS have axial ratio bandwidth enhancement of 10 MHz, return loss improvement of 35%, mutual coupling reduction of 3 dB and gain enhancement of 1 dB. A new wideband and small size star shaped patch antenna fed capacitively by a small diamond shape patch is proposed. To enhance the impedance bandwidth, posts are incorporated under the patch antenna. HFSS high frequency simulator is employed to analyze the proposed antenna and simulated results on the return loss, the E- and H-plane radiation patterns and Gain of the proposed antenna are presented at various frequencies. The antenna is able to achieve in the range of 4-8.8 GHz an impedance bandwidth of 81% for return loss of less than-10 dB.

  8. Cost-Bandwidth Tradeoff In Distributed Storage Systems

    Akhlaghi, Soroush; Ghanavati, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    Distributed storage systems are mainly justified due to the limited amount of storage capacity and improving the reliability through distributing data over multiple storage nodes. On the other hand, it may happen the data is stored in unreliable nodes, while it is desired the end user to have a reliable access to the stored data. So, in an event that a node is damaged, to prevent the system reliability to regress, it is necessary to regenerate a new node with the same amount of stored data as the damaged node to retain the number of storage nodes, thereby having the previous reliability. This requires the new node to connect to some of existing nodes and downloads the required information, thereby occupying some bandwidth, called the repair bandwidth. On the other hand, it is more likely the cost of downloading varies across different nodes. This paper aims at investigating the theoretical cost-bandwidth tradeoff, and more importantly, it is demonstrated that any point on this curve can be achieved through th...

  9. Allocating Bandwidth in Datacenter Networks:A Survey

    陈丽; 李葆春; 李波

    2014-01-01

    Datacenters have played an increasingly essential role as the underlying infrastructure in cloud computing. As implied by the essence of cloud computing, resources in these datacenters are shared by multiple competing entities, which can be either tenants that rent virtual machines (VMs) in a public cloud such as Amazon EC2, or applications that embrace data parallel frameworks like MapReduce in a private cloud maintained by Google. It has been generally observed that with traditional transport-layer protocols allocating link bandwidth in datacenters, network traffic from competing applications interferes with each other, resulting in a severe lack of predictability and fairness of application performance. Such a critical issue has drawn a substantial amount of recent research attention on bandwidth allocation in datacenter networks, with a number of new mechanisms proposed to efficiently and fairly share a datacenter network among competing entities. In this article, we present an extensive survey of existing bandwidth allocation mechanisms in the literature, covering the scenarios of both public and private clouds. We thoroughly investigate their underlying design principles, evaluate the trade-off involved in their design choices and summarize them in a unified design space, with the hope of conveying some meaningful insights for better designs in the future.

  10. Managing high-bandwidth real-time data storage

    Bigelow, David D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brandt, Scott A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, John M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Hsing-Bung [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-09-23

    There exist certain systems which generate real-time data at high bandwidth, but do not necessarily require the long-term retention of that data in normal conditions. In some cases, the data may not actually be useful, and in others, there may be too much data to permanently retain in long-term storage whether it is useful or not. However, certain portions of the data may be identified as being vitally important from time to time, and must therefore be retained for further analysis or permanent storage without interrupting the ongoing collection of new data. We have developed a system, Mahanaxar, intended to address this problem. It provides quality of service guarantees for incoming real-time data streams and simultaneous access to already-recorded data on a best-effort basis utilizing any spare bandwidth. It has built in mechanisms for reliability and indexing, can scale upwards to meet increasing bandwidth requirements, and handles both small and large data elements equally well. We will show that a prototype version of this system provides better performance than a flat file (traditional filesystem) based version, particularly with regard to quality of service guarantees and hard real-time requirements.

  11. Large-bandwidth data acquisition network for XFEL facility, SACLA

    The SACLA (SPring-8 Angstrom Compact Free Electron Laser) facility consists of an accelerator building, an undulator building and an experimental facility. SACLA is designed to produce X-ray with a wavelength as short as 0.06 nm and with a repetition rate of 60 Hz. X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) experiments demands large bandwidth network for data acquisition (DAQ). At SACLA the experimental data rate is to be up to 5.8 Giga bit per second (Gbps). Some of the experiments demands preprocessing and on-line analysis by high-performance computers. In order to fulfill these requirements, a dedicated network system for DAQ and data analysis has been developed. A DAQ network consists of a dedicated 10 Gbps Ethernet (10 GbE) physical layer to secure the data bandwidth and a 1 GbE layer for instrument controls. The DAQ network is connected to a primary storage and indirectly to a PC cluster for data preprocessing. A fire-wall system with virtual private network (VPN) features is also implemented in order to secure remote access from off-site institutes. The use of a large-bandwidth data transfer technique allows the efficient transfer of pre-processed data from SACLA to an off-site supercomputer

  12. Bandwidth Enhancement Technique of the Meandered Monopole Antenna

    Chien-Jen Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A small dual-band monopole antenna with coplanar waveguide (CPW feeding structure is presented in this paper. The antenna is composed of a meandered monopole, an extended conductor tail, and an asymmetrical ground plane. Tuning geometrical structure of the ground plane excites an additional resonant frequency band and thus enhances the impedance bandwidth of the meandered monopole antenna. Unlike the conventional monopole antenna, the new resonant mode is excited by a slot trace of the CPW transmission line. The radiation performance of the slot mode is as similar as that of the monopole. The parametrical effect of the size of the one-side ground plane on impedance matching condition has been derived by the simulation. The measured impedance bandwidths, which are defined by the reflection coefficient of −6 dB, are 186 MHz (863–1049 MHz, 19.4% at the lower resonant band and 1320 MHz (1490–2810 MHz, 61.3% at the upper band. From the results of the reflection coefficients of the proposed monopole antenna, the operated bandwidths of the commercial wireless communication systems, such as GSM 900, DCS, IMT-2000, UMTS, WLAN, LTE 2300, and LTE 2500, are covered for uses.

  13. Small signal microwave amplifier design

    Grosch, Theodore

    2000-01-01

    This book explains techniques and examples for designing stable amplifiers for high-frequency applications in which the signal is small and the amplifier circuit is linear. An in-depth discussion of linear network theory provides the foundation needed to develop actual designs. Examples throughout the book will show you how to apply the knowledge gained in each chapter leading to the complex design of low noise amplifiers. Many exercises at the end of each chapter will help students to practice their skills. The solutions to these design problems are available in an accompanying solutions book

  14. Bandwidth Improvement of EBG Resonator Antennas Using Double-Layer FSS

    Bernard Jecko; Lina Moustafa

    2008-01-01

    A double-layer frequency selective surface (FSS) is proposed as a means to enhance the bandwidth of an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) resonator antenna. Due to its inverted reflection phase variation and its wide selectivity bandwidth, the structure used in the radiating wall of the resonator allows increasing the radiating bandwidth of the last one. The resonator is fed by a patch feeding source placed inside the cavity at the proximity of its metallic ground. The antenna bandwidth is signif...

  15. Re-use of Low Bandwidth Equipment for High Bit Rate Transmission Using Signal Slicing Technique

    Wagner, Christoph; Spolitis, S.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José;

    : Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates.......: Massive fiber-to-the-home network deployment requires never ending equipment upgrades operating at higher bandwidth. We show effective signal slicing method, which can reuse low bandwidth opto-electronical components for optical communications at higher bit rates....

  16. A General Kernel Functional Estimator with Generalized Bandwidth : Strong Consistency and Applications

    Weißbach, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    We consider the problem of uniform asymptotics in kernel functional estimation where the bandwidth can depend on the data. In a unified approach we investigate kernel estimates of the density and the hazard rate for uncensored and right-censored observations. The model allows for the fixed bandwidth as well as for various variable bandwidths, e.g. the nearest neighbor bandwidth. An elementary proof for the strong consistency of the generalized estimator is given that builds on the local conve...

  17. Optimization of bandwidth of communication channels of corporate networks

    G. I. Bondarenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article contains overview of the organization of communication between applications on the corporate network. It is stated that the main digital channel (channel B - 64 kbit/s and the primary digital channel (channel E1 the digital stream - 2048 kbit/s are used as the main channels in corporate networks. Problem areas of the functioning of the corporate network are identified. There are the rent of communication channels, which is growing rapidly with increasing the quality and speed of data transmission, and optimal use of bandwidth of communication channels. Setting of task. Optimal use of transmission channels bandwidth and minimizing the rent cost of channels is possible in two ways - the use of compression techniques of voice and video information and the application of variable structure of channels by using various-speed transmission channels. Differential pulse code modulation, adaptive differential pulse code modulation are the modern methods of speech signals processing. Organization of various-speed channels is performed in the structure of the BCC (for speech signals or PCR (for video. Suggestions for optimizing the structure of the channel signals. Proposed method of various-speed channels formation by using the channel intervals appropriate BCC (octets in the structure of signals E1 as envelopes containing various-speed channels. Channels can be selected for synchronization procedure CRC to simplify recognition of channels in the structure of E1. In this case, the minimal speed in the channel is 4 kbit/s. Conclusions. The proposed structure of envelopes is based on octet channel intervals of standard group signal of the primary group plesiochronous hierarchy E1 when transferring various-speed digital signals maximum allows to use the bandwidth at a fixed structure of channel interval, it makes possible to agree on the structure of the various-speed signals with the existing in communication networks.

  18. Wide-bandwidth piezoelectric energy harvester with polymeric structure

    A polymer based energy harvester with wide bandwidth is designed, fabricated and tested in this work. A polymer based structure has a lower resonance frequency compared to a silicon based structure with the same dimensions due to the much lower stiffness of polymeric materials. Therefore, a polymeric energy harvester is more useful for situations with lower ambient vibration frequencies. Aluminum nitride pads are fabricated on an SU-8 membrane to convert mechanical vibration of the membrane to electrical voltage. A new and scalable microfabrication process flow is proposed to properly fabricate piezoelectric layers on SU-8 structures. The nonlinear stiffness due to the stretching strain in the membrane provides a wider harvestable frequency bandwidth than conventional linear oscillators. Wideband energy harvesters are more useful for practical applications due to uncontrollable ambient vibration frequency. The load-deflection equation of the device is calculated using finite element simulation. This equation is then used in an analytical solution to estimate the nonlinear effect of the structure. A bandwidth of ∼146 Hz is obtained for the fabricated device and a maximum open circuit voltage of 1.42 V, maximum power of 1.37 µW, and power density of 3.81 µW cm−2 were measured at terminal load of 357.4 kΩ under an excitation acceleration of 4 g. A power output of 10.1 µW and power density of 28.1 µW cm−2 was estimated using a synchronized switch harvesting on interface (SSHI) electrical interface with electrical quality factor of 5. In addition, the lumped element model has been employed to investigate the scaling effect on a polymeric circular diaphragm. (paper)

  19. Low Bandwidth Vocoding using EM Sensor and Acoustic Signal Processing

    Low-power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference [1]. By combining these data with the corresponding acoustic signal, we've demonstrated an almost 10-fold bandwidth reduction in speech compression, compared to a standard 2.4 kbps LPC10 protocol used in the STU-III (Secure Terminal Unit, third generation) telephone. This paper describes a potential EM sensor/acoustic based vocoder implementation

  20. Narrow-Bandwidth Diode-Laser-Based Ultraviolet Light Source

    A compact, tunable and narrow-bandwidth laser source for ultraviolet radiation is presented. A grating stabilized diode laser at 1064 nm is frequency-stabilized to below 10 kHz by using a ultra low expansion (ULE) cavity. Injecting light of the diode laser into a tapered amplifier yields a power of 290 mW. In a first frequency-doubling stage, about 47 mW of green light at 532 nm is generated by using a periodically poled KTP crystal. Subsequent second-harmonic generation employing a BBO crystal leads to about 30 μW of ultraviolet light at 266 nm. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  1. Bandwidth Extension Method Based on Spectral Envelope Estimation

    Bo Hang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In current communication system, high quality audio signal is supposed to be provided with low bit rate and low computational complexity. This paper proposed a novel audio coding bandwidth extension method, which can improve decoded audio quality with increasing only a few coding bits per frame and a little computational complexity. This method calculate high-frequency synthesis filter by using codebook mapping method, and transmit only quantified gain corrections in high-frequency part of multiplexing coding bit stream. The preliminary test show that this method can provide comparable audio quality with lower bit consumption and computational complexity compared to the high frequency regeneration of AMR-WB+.

  2. Bandwidth allocation for video under quality of service constraints

    Anjum, Bushra

    2014-01-01

    We present queueing-based algorithms to calculate the bandwidth required for a video stream so that the three main Quality of Service constraints, i.e., end-to-end delay, jitter and packet loss, are ensured. Conversational and streaming video-based applications are becoming a major part of the everyday Internet usage. The quality of these applications (QoS), as experienced by the user, depends on three main metrics of the underlying network, namely, end-to-end delay, jitter and packet loss. These metrics are, in turn, directly related to the capacity of the links that the video traffic trave

  3. Systems for measuring response statistics of gigahertz bandwidth photomultipliers

    Abshire, J. B.; Rowe, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    New systems have been developed for measuring the average impulse response, the pulse-height spectrum, the transit-time statistics as a function of signal level, and the dark-count spectrum of gigahertz bandwidth photomultipliers. Measurements showed that the 0.53 microns pulse used as an optical test source had a 30 picoseconds and less than 70 ps pulse width. Calibration data showed the system resolution to be less than 20 ps for root mean square transit-time measurements. Test data for a static crossed-field photomultiplier showed 2-photoelectron resolution and less than 30-ps time jitter over the 1- to 100-photoelectron range.

  4. Efficient and Fair Bandwidth Allocation AQM Scheme for Wireless Networks

    Rafe Alasem

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous Wireless Networks are considered nowadays as one of the potential areas in research and development. The traffic management’s schemes that have been used at the fusion points between the different wireless networks are classical and conventional. This paper is focused on developing a novel scheme to overcome the problem of traffic congestion in the fusion point router interconnected the heterogeneous wireless networks. The paper proposed an EF-AQM algorithm which provides an efficient and fair allocation of bandwidth among different established flows. Finally, the proposed scheme developed, tested and validated through a set of experiments to demonstrate the relative merits and capabilities of a proposed scheme

  5. Low Bandwidth Vocoding using EM Sensor and Acoustic Signal Processing

    Ng, L C; Holzrichter, J F; Larson, P E

    2001-10-25

    Low-power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference [1]. By combining these data with the corresponding acoustic signal, we've demonstrated an almost 10-fold bandwidth reduction in speech compression, compared to a standard 2.4 kbps LPC10 protocol used in the STU-III (Secure Terminal Unit, third generation) telephone. This paper describes a potential EM sensor/acoustic based vocoder implementation.

  6. Routing Bandwidth Guaranteed Paths with Restoration in Label Switched Networks

    Norden, Samphel; Buddhikot, Milind M.; Waldvogel, Marcel; Suri, Subhash

    2001-01-01

    A Network Service Provider (NSP) operating a label-switched networks such as ATM or Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks, sets up end-to-end bandwidth-guaranteed Label-Switched Paths (LSPs) to satisfy the connectivity requirements of its client networks. To make such a service highly available, the NSP may set up one or more backup LSPs for every active LSP. The backup LSPs are activated when the corresponding active LSP fails. Accordingly, the problem of LSP routing with and withou...

  7. Modulator reliability and bandwidth improvement: replacing tetrodes with MOSFETs

    Three types of power MOS field effect transistors were studied with the intent of replacing a parallel pair of vacuum tube tetrodes in a linear modulator. The tetrodes have the shortest lifetimes of any other tubes in the system. The FETs offer definite performance advantages when compared to bipolar transistors and definite cost advantages when compared to vacuum tubes. Replacement of the tetrodes does however require careful consideration of voltage, current and to a lesser extent bandwidth capability in order to enhance overall modulator reliability without compromising present performance

  8. Small signal AC-surface photovoltage technique for non-contact monitoring of near surface doping and recombination-generation in the depletion layer[Alternating Current

    Marinskiy, D.; Lagowski, J.; Wilson, M.; Savtchouk, A.; Jastrzebski, L.; DeBusk, D.

    2000-07-01

    Small signal non-contact ac-SPV method for monitoring near surface doping (NSD) in silicon has recently been introduced in commercial diagnostic tools. High chopping frequency light with a submicron penetration depth is used to generate small SPV signal and this signal is in turn monitored using a transparent pickup electrode. This technique has the advantage of producing fast, non-destructive full wafer measurement. Under certain conditions, the magnitude of this ac-SPV signal is inversely proportional to the depletion layer capacitance. if a depletion layer barrier height is known this allows the calculation of the concentration of ionized donors or acceptors in the depletion layer. NSD measurements by ac-SPV method were typically done for doping concentrations up to about 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3}. Only recently this range has been extended to 10{sup 18} cm{sup {minus}3}, making it a very attractive technique for monitoring low and medium dose implants and especially for wafer scale mapping of implant uniformity and activation efficiency. In addition, the frequency dependence of the SPV signal provides a mean for evaluating the minority carrier lifetime in the near surface region of bulk and epitaxial wafers. The influence of surface/interface traps upon small ac-SPV signal has never been fully understood. This paper quantifies the role of interface traps in the monitoring of NSD. The effect of typical surface treatments such as HF, SC1 and SC1+SC2 wafer cleans are examined.

  9. A Bandwidth Allocation Model Provisioning Framework with Autonomic Characteristics

    Rafael F. Reale

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bandwidth Allocation Models (MAM, RDM, G-RDM and AllocTC-Sharing are managementalternatives currently available which propose different resource (bandwidth allocation strategies inmultiservice networks. The BAM adoption by a network is typically a management choice andconfiguration task executed by the network operations and management system setup in a static or nearlystatic way. This paper proposes and explores the alternative ofallowing BAM definition and configurationon a more dynamic way. In effect, one of the basic motivations towards BAM dynamic allocation is the factthat multiservice networks characteristics (traffic loadmay change considerably in daily networkoperation and, as such, some dynamics in BAM allocation should be introduced in order to improveperformance. A framework is presented supporting BAM dynamicallocation. The framework adopts anOpenFlow-based software-defined networking (SDN implementation approach in order to supportscalability issues with a centralized controller and managementnetwork view. The framework architecturealso supports the implementation of some autonomic characteristics which, in brief, look for improving andfacilitating the decision-making process involved with BAM provisioning in a multiservice network. Aproof of concept is presented evaluating different BAM performance under different traffic loads in order todemonstrate the framework strategy adopted.

  10. Bandwidth Extension of Telephone Speech Aided by Data Embedding

    David Malah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for bandwidth extension of telephone speech, aided by data embedding, is presented. The proposed system uses the transmitted analog narrowband speech signal as a carrier of the side information needed to carry out the bandwidth extension. The upper band of the wideband speech is reconstructed at the receiving end from two components: a synthetic wideband excitation signal, generated from the narrowband telephone speech and a wideband spectral envelope, parametrically represented and transmitted as embedded data in the telephone speech. We propose a novel data embedding scheme, in which the scalar Costa scheme is combined with an auditory masking model allowing high rate transparent embedding, while maintaining a low bit error rate. The signal is transformed to the frequency domain via the discrete Hartley transform (DHT and is partitioned into subbands. Data is embedded in an adaptively chosen subset of subbands by modifying the DHT coefficients. In our simulations, high quality wideband speech was obtained from speech transmitted over a telephone line (characterized by spectral magnitude distortion, dispersion, and noise, in which side information data is transparently embedded at the rate of 600 information bits/second and with a bit error rate of approximately 3⋅10−4. In a listening test, the reconstructed wideband speech was preferred (at different degrees over conventional telephone speech in 92.5% of the test utterances.

  11. Bandwidth Extension of Telephone Speech Aided by Data Embedding

    Sagi Ariel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for bandwidth extension of telephone speech, aided by data embedding, is presented. The proposed system uses the transmitted analog narrowband speech signal as a carrier of the side information needed to carry out the bandwidth extension. The upper band of the wideband speech is reconstructed at the receiving end from two components: a synthetic wideband excitation signal, generated from the narrowband telephone speech and a wideband spectral envelope, parametrically represented and transmitted as embedded data in the telephone speech. We propose a novel data embedding scheme, in which the scalar Costa scheme is combined with an auditory masking model allowing high rate transparent embedding, while maintaining a low bit error rate. The signal is transformed to the frequency domain via the discrete Hartley transform (DHT and is partitioned into subbands. Data is embedded in an adaptively chosen subset of subbands by modifying the DHT coefficients. In our simulations, high quality wideband speech was obtained from speech transmitted over a telephone line (characterized by spectral magnitude distortion, dispersion, and noise, in which side information data is transparently embedded at the rate of 600 information bits/second and with a bit error rate of approximately . In a listening test, the reconstructed wideband speech was preferred (at different degrees over conventional telephone speech in of the test utterances.

  12. Punctured Turbo Codes for Bandwidth-efficient Transmission

    Shobha Rekh

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Turbo codes are the error-coding schemes applied nowadays in wireless networks. In navalapplications, the information is mostly sent through wireless networks and the data is moreprone to noise. Since very important data has to be communicated, it is necessary to get backthe original data in the receiver. In military applications also, the soldiers wear electronic jacketswhich are connected by wireless networks. In such applications, the data loss is not affordableand there is also a need to utilise the bandwidth efficiently through puncturing by means ofwhich certain bits are deleted before transmission from the output of encoder. By means of thispunctured turbo codes, bandwidth-efficient coding is achieved. Hence, it is necessary to designturbo codes with an efficient puncturing pattern so that the performance of the punctured codeis also improved in spite of deletion of few bits before transmission. This paper deals in choosingthe puncturing patterns that lead to systematic rate-compatible punctured turbo codes (RCPTCswhich also give a reduction in bit-error rate. The design criterion for choosing the best puncturingpatterns is based on the minimum weight of code words and their multiplicities. The best puncturingpattern chosen is tested for its performance by simulating turbo codes for an additive whiteGaussian noise (AWGN channel. Compared with the existing puncturing pattern, the patternproposed is able to achieve a gain of 0.5 dB at a bit-error rate of 10-3.

  13. Improving microwave antenna gain and bandwidth with phase compensation metasurface

    Chen, Ke; Yang, Zhongjie; Feng, Yijun, E-mail: yjfeng@nju.edu.cn; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian [Department of Electronic Engineering, School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Metasurface, as a planar version of artificial metamaterial, provide an effective way to manipulate electromagnetic wave propagation. Here, we present a transparent metasurface for compensating the out-of-phase radiation from a microstrip patch antenna to improve its radiation gain and bandwidth. Based on the equivalence principle of Huygens’ surface, we propose metasurface composed of both inductive and capacitive resonant elements which could produce high transmission with variable phase characteristics. Such metasurface mounted on a patch antenna can transform the spherical-like phase profile generated from the patch into an in-phase planar one. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and validated the squeezed radiation pattern with suppressed sidelobes as well as enhanced impedance bandwidth due to strong near-field coupling. As operating at around 5.7 GHz, the proposed antenna may have potential application in wireless communication systems especially for point-to-point data transmission. It is believed that the design methodology could also be scaled to other frequency bands such as millimeter or terahertz wave.

  14. Improving microwave antenna gain and bandwidth with phase compensation metasurface

    Ke Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metasurface, as a planar version of artificial metamaterial, provide an effective way to manipulate electromagnetic wave propagation. Here, we present a transparent metasurface for compensating the out-of-phase radiation from a microstrip patch antenna to improve its radiation gain and bandwidth. Based on the equivalence principle of Huygens’ surface, we propose metasurface composed of both inductive and capacitive resonant elements which could produce high transmission with variable phase characteristics. Such metasurface mounted on a patch antenna can transform the spherical-like phase profile generated from the patch into an in-phase planar one. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and validated the squeezed radiation pattern with suppressed sidelobes as well as enhanced impedance bandwidth due to strong near-field coupling. As operating at around 5.7 GHz, the proposed antenna may have potential application in wireless communication systems especially for point-to-point data transmission. It is believed that the design methodology could also be scaled to other frequency bands such as millimeter or terahertz wave.

  15. Unmanned Aircraft System Control and ATC Communications Bandwidth Requirements

    Henriksen, Steve

    2008-01-01

    There are significant activities taking place to establish the procedures and requirements for safe and routine operation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Among the barriers to overcome in achieving this goal is the lack of sufficient frequency spectrum necessary for the UAS control and air traffic control (ATC) communications links. This shortcoming is compounded by the fact that the UAS control communications links will likely be required to operate in protected frequency spectrum, just as ATC communications links are, because they relate to "safety and regularity of flight." To support future International Telecommunications Union (ITU) World Radio Conference (WRC) agenda items concerning new frequency allocations for UAS communications links, and to augment the Future Communications Study (FCS) Technology Evaluation Group efforts, NASA Glenn Research Center has sponsored a task to estimate the UAS control and ATC communications bandwidth requirements for safe, reliable, and routine operation of UAS in the NAS. This report describes the process and results of that task. The study focused on long-term bandwidth requirements for UAS approximately through 2030.

  16. An exponential time 2-approximation algorithm for bandwidth

    Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Furer, Martin [PENNSYLVANIA STATE U; Gaspers, Serge [U OF MONTPELLIER, FRANCE

    2009-01-01

    The bandwidth of a graph G on n vertices is the minimum b such that the vertices of G can be labeled from 1 to n such that the labels of every pair of adjacent vertices differ by at most b. In this paper, we present a 2-approximation algorithm for the Bandwidth problem that takes worst-case {Omicron}(1.9797{sup n}) = {Omicron}(3{sup 0.6217n}) time and uses polynomial space. This improves both the previous best 2- and 3-approximation algorithms of Cygan et al. which have an {Omicron}*(3{sup n}) and {Omicron}*(2{sup n}) worst-case time bounds, respectively. Our algorithm is based on constructing bucket decompositions of the input graph. A bucket decomposition partitions the vertex set of a graph into ordered sets (called buckets) of (almost) equal sizes such that all edges are either incident on vertices in the same bucket or on vertices in two consecutive buckets. The idea is to find the smallest bucket size for which there exists a bucket decomposition. The algorithm uses a simple divide-and-conquer strategy along with dynamic programming to achieve this improved time bound.

  17. Bandwidth Optimization in Centralized WLANs for Different Traffic Types

    R. J. Haines

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Allocating bandwidth between different forms of coexisting traffic (such as web-browsing, streaming, and telephony within a wireless LAN is a challenging and interesting problem. Centralized coordination functions in wireless LANs offer several advantages over distributed approaches, having the benefit of a system overview at the controller, but obtaining a stable configuration of bandwidth allocation for the system is nontrivial. We present, review, and compare different mechanisms to achieve this end, and a number of different means of obtaining the configurations themselves. We describe an analytical model of the system under consideration and present two mathematical approaches to derive solutions for any system configuration and deployment, along with an adaptive feedback-based solution. We also describe a comprehensive simulation-based model for the problem, and a prototype that allows comparison of these approaches. Our investigations demonstrate that a self-adaptive dynamic approach far outperforms any static scheme, and that using a mathematical model to produce the configurations themselves confers several advantages.

  18. Bandwidth Optimization in Centralized WLANs for Different Traffic Types

    Haines RJ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Allocating bandwidth between different forms of coexisting traffic (such as web-browsing, streaming, and telephony within a wireless LAN is a challenging and interesting problem. Centralized coordination functions in wireless LANs offer several advantages over distributed approaches, having the benefit of a system overview at the controller, but obtaining a stable configuration of bandwidth allocation for the system is nontrivial. We present, review, and compare different mechanisms to achieve this end, and a number of different means of obtaining the configurations themselves. We describe an analytical model of the system under consideration and present two mathematical approaches to derive solutions for any system configuration and deployment, along with an adaptive feedback-based solution. We also describe a comprehensive simulation-based model for the problem, and a prototype that allows comparison of these approaches. Our investigations demonstrate that a self-adaptive dynamic approach far outperforms any static scheme, and that using a mathematical model to produce the configurations themselves confers several advantages.

  19. Bandwidth characteristics for the stepped conical-zoned antenna

    Wiltse, James C.

    2002-07-01

    The stepped conical zoned lens antenna has better overall efficiency than a true lens, and provides an excellent antenna pattern. It also exhibits somewhat different bandwidth characteristics than the Fresnel zone plate antenna. This paper examines the frequency behavior in detail, particularly for microwave and millimeter-wave applications. For the usual zone plate antenna employed at microwave or millimeter wavelengths, path length adjustment (i.e., phase correction) is accomplished by cutting different depths (grooves) in a dielectric plate or by using two or more dielectrics having different dielectric constants. The new design uses a tilted cut in a flat dielectric plate, which more accurately matches the shape of a true lens and produces much lower phase error. The construction is still linear (i.e. spherical or hyperboloidal curves do not have to be cut), and can be made, for example, by a milling machine with a tilted bit. For a circular zone plate, the lens is a stepped conical shape. The phase correction steps are small, usually a few degrees, which is much smaller than for the typical Fresnel zone plate. The bandwidth characteristics are calculated for specific cases.

  20. BECSI: Bandwidth Efficient Certificate Status Information Distribution Mechanism for VANETs

    Carlos Gañán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Certificate revocation is a challenging task, especiallyin mobile network environments such as vehicular ad Hoc networks (VANETs.According to the IEEE 1609.2 security standard for VANETs, public keyinfrastructure (PKI will provide this functionality by means of certificate revocation lists (CRLs.When a certificate authority (CAneeds to revoke a certificate, itglobally distributes CRLs.Transmitting these lists pose a problem as they require high update frequencies and a lot of bandwidth. In this article, we propose BECSI, aBandwidth Efficient Certificate Status Informationmechanism to efficiently distributecertificate status information (CSI in VANETs.By means of Merkle hash trees (MHT, BECSI allowsto retrieve authenticated CSI not onlyfrom the infrastructure but also from vehicles actingas mobile repositories.Since these MHTs are significantly smaller than the CRLs, BECSIreduces the load on the CSI repositories and improves the response time for the vehicles.Additionally, BECSI improves the freshness of the CSIby combining the use of delta-CRLs with MHTs.Thus, vehicles that have cached the most current CRLcan download delta-CRLs to have a complete list of revoked certificates.Once a vehicle has the whole list of revoked certificates, it can act as mobile repository.

  1. Variable bandwidth and one-step local M-estimator

    2000-01-01

    A robust version of local linear regression smoothers augmented with variable bandwidth is studied. The proposed method inherits the advantages of local polynomial regression and overcomes the shortcoming of lack of robustness of least-squares techniques. The use of variable bandwidth enhances the flexibility of the resulting local M-estimators and makes them possible to cope well with spatially inhomogeneous curves, heteroscedastic errors and nonuniform design densities. Under appropriate regularity conditions, it is shown that the proposed estimators exist and are asymptotically normal. Based on the robust estimation equation, one-step local M-estimators are introduced to reduce computational burden. It is demonstrated that the one-step local M-estimators share the same asymptotic distributions as the fully iterative M-estimators, as long as the initial estimators are good enough. In other words, the one-step local M-estimators reduce significantly the computation cost of the fully iterative M-estimators without deteriorating their performance. This fact is also illustrated via simulations.

  2. Improving microwave antenna gain and bandwidth with phase compensation metasurface

    Metasurface, as a planar version of artificial metamaterial, provide an effective way to manipulate electromagnetic wave propagation. Here, we present a transparent metasurface for compensating the out-of-phase radiation from a microstrip patch antenna to improve its radiation gain and bandwidth. Based on the equivalence principle of Huygens’ surface, we propose metasurface composed of both inductive and capacitive resonant elements which could produce high transmission with variable phase characteristics. Such metasurface mounted on a patch antenna can transform the spherical-like phase profile generated from the patch into an in-phase planar one. A prototype antenna has been fabricated and validated the squeezed radiation pattern with suppressed sidelobes as well as enhanced impedance bandwidth due to strong near-field coupling. As operating at around 5.7 GHz, the proposed antenna may have potential application in wireless communication systems especially for point-to-point data transmission. It is believed that the design methodology could also be scaled to other frequency bands such as millimeter or terahertz wave

  3. Study and Analysis of Bandwidth Flow Estimation Techniques for Wired/Wireless Networks

    Pallavi Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this topic, an analysis will be made on bandwidth flow estimation technique which comes under networking domain. Correct bandwidth constrained applications and tools are required for proper bandwidth estimation. A proper monitoring of available bandwidth is required during execution to avoid degradation in performance. A several measurement tools have been proposed in the last few years. After the implementation of 802.11e Wireless Sensor Networks are capable to provide good level of QoS but research works are not much for improving performance of bandwidth constraint applications by checking sufficiency of bandwidth available in transmission route. In this topic we will do the analysis of bandwidth flow estimation technique for wired/wireless networks and we will do comparisons of existing estimation tools.

  4. The yeast three-hybrid system as an experimental platform to identify proteins interacting with small signaling molecules in plant cells: Potential and limitations

    Stéphanie eCottier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical genetics is a powerful scientific strategy that utilizes small bioactive molecules as experimental tools to unravel biological processes. Bioactive compounds occurring in nature represent an enormous diversity of structures that can be used to dissect functions of biological systems. Once the bioactivity of a natural or synthetic compound has been critically evaluated the challenge remains to identify its molecular target and mode of action, which usually is a time consuming and labor-intensive process. To facilitate this task, we decided to implement the yeast three-hybrid (Y3H technology as a general experimental platform to scan the whole Arabidopsis proteome for targets of small signaling molecules. The Y3H technology is based on the yeast two-hybrid system and allows direct cloning of proteins that interact in vivo with a synthetic hybrid ligand, which comprises the biologically active molecule of interest covalently linked to methotrexate (Mtx. In yeast nucleus the hybrid ligand connects two fusion proteins: the Mtx part binding to dihydrofolate reductase fused to a DNA binding domain (encoded in the yeast strain, and the bioactive molecule part binding to its potential protein target fused to a DNA activating domain (encoded on a cDNA expression vector. During cDNA library screening, the formation of this ternary, transcriptional activator complex leads to reporter gene activation in yeast cells, and thereby allows selection of the putative targets of small bioactive molecules of interest. Here we present the strategy and experimental details for construction and application of a Y3H platform, including chemical synthesis of different hybrid ligands, construction of suitable cDNA libraries, the choice of yeast strains, and appropriate screening conditions. Based on the results obtained and the current literature we discussed the perspectives and limitations of the Y3H approach for identifying targets of small bioactive molecules.

  5. UNIFORM—PRICE AUCTION FOR BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION IN THE INTERNET

    WeiJiaolong; ZhangChi

    2002-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that auctioning which is the pricing approach with minimal information requirement is a proper tool to manage scare network resources.Previous works focus on vickrey auction which is incentive compatible in classic auction theory.In the beginning of this letter,the faults of the most representative auction-based mechanisms are discussed.And then a new method called Uniform-Price Auction(UPA),which has the simplest auctiopn rule is proposed and its incentive compatibility in the network environment is also proved.Finally,the basic mode is extended to support applications which require minimum bandwidth guarantees for a given time period by introducing derivative market.and a market mechanism for network resource allocation which is predictable,riskless,and simple for eng-users is completed.

  6. UNIFORM-PRICE AUCTION FOR BANDWIDTH ALLOCATION IN THE INTERNET

    Wei Jiaolong; Zhang Chi

    2002-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that auctioning which is the pricing approach with minimal information requirement is a proper tool to manage scare network resources. Previous works focus on Vickrey auction which is incentive compatible in classic auction theory. In the beginning of this letter, the faults of the most representative auction-based mechanisms are discussed. And then a new method called Uniform-Price Auction (UPA), which has the simplest auction rule is proposed and its incentive compatibility in the network environment is also proved. Finally, the basic mode is extended to support applications which require minimum bandwidth guarantees for a given time period by introducing derivative market, and a market mechanism for network resource allocation which is predictable, riskless, and simple for end-users is completed.

  7. Bandwidth Reservation Using Velocity and Handoff Statistics for Cellular Networks

    Chuan-Lin Zhang; Kam Yiu Lam; Wei-Jia Jia

    2006-01-01

    The percentages of blocking and forced termination rates as parameters representing quality of services (QoS)requirements are presented. The relation between the connection statistics of mobile users in a cell and the handoff number and new call number in next duration in each cell is explored. Based on the relation, statistic reservation tactics are raised.The amount of bandwidth for new calls and handoffs of each cell in next period is determined by using the strategy. Using this method can guarantee the communication system suits mobile connection request dynamic. The QoS parameters:forced termination rate and blocking rate can be maintained steadily though they may change with the offered load. Some numerical experiments demonstrate this is a practical method with affordable overhead.

  8. Adaptive slope compensation for high bandwidth digital current mode controller

    Taeed, Fazel; Nymand, Morten

    converter duty cycle. The adaptive slope compensation provides optimum controller operation in term of bandwidth over wide range of operating points. In this paper operation principle of the controller is discussed. The proposed controller is implemented in an FPGA to control a 100 W buck converter. The......An adaptive slope compensation method for digital current mode control of dc-dc converters is proposed in this paper. The compensation slope is used for stabilizing the inner current loop in peak current mode control. In this method, the compensation slope is adapted with the variations in...... experimental results of measured loop-gain at different operating points are presented to validate the theoretical performance of the controller....

  9. Multi-rate asynchronous sampling of bandwidth-limited signals

    Feldster, Alfred; Horowitz, Moshe; Rosenthal, Amir; Zach, Shlomo; Singer, Lea

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally an optical system for under-sampling several bandwidth limited signals with carrier frequencies that are not known apriori that can be located anywhere within a very broad frequency region between 0-18 GHz. The system is based on under-sampling asynchronously at three different sampling rates. The pulses required for the under-sampling are generated by a combination of an electrical comb generator and an electro-absorption modulator. To reduce loss and improve performance the implementation of the optical system is based on a wavelength division multiplexing technique. An accurate reconstruction of both the phase and the amplitude of the signals was obtained when two chirped signals generated simultaneously were sampled.

  10. High bandwidth absorption spectroscopy with a dispersed supercontinuum source.

    Hult, Johan; Watt, Rosalynne S; Kaminski, Clemens F

    2007-09-01

    An optical gas sensor is presented, making use of a dispersed supercontinuum source, capable of acquiring broad bandwidth spectra at ultrahigh wavelength sweep and repetition rates. Wavelength sweeps from 1100 nm to 1700 nm can be performed in 800 ns at a spectral resolution of 40 pm. This is comparable to line-widths of molecular spectra at atmospheric pressure. Quantitative measurements are presented of CH(4) employing 80 nm wide sweeps over the P- Q- and R-branches of the 2nu(3) transition near 1665 nm, at rates exceeding 100 kHz. The effective acquisition rate is determined by the amount of averaging required, and the effect of this averaging on observed precision is investigated. PMID:19547496

  11. Graphene metascreen for designing compact infrared absorbers with enhanced bandwidth

    Chen, Pai-Yen

    2015-03-31

    We propose a compact, wideband terahertz and infrared absorber, comprising a patterned graphene sheet on a thin metal-backed dielectric slab. This graphene-based nanostructure can achieve a low or negative effective permeability, necessary for realizing the perfect absorption. The dual-reactive property found in both the plasmonic graphene sheet and the grounded highpermittivity slab introduces extra poles into the equivalent circuit model of the system, thereby resulting in a dual-band or broadband magnetic resonance that enhances the absorption bandwidth. More interestingly, the two-dimensional patterned graphene sheet significantly simplifies the design and fabrication processes for achieving resonant magnetic response, and allows the frequency-reconfigurable operation via electrostatic gating.

  12. Auction-based Bandwidth Allocation Mechanisms for Wireless Future Internet

    Dramitinos, Emmanouil

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of the Future Internet is the efficient utilization of (wireless) network resources. In order for the - demanding in terms of QoS - Future Internet services to be provided, the current trend is evolving towards an "integrated" wireless network access model that enables users to enjoy mobility, seamless access and high quality of service in an all-IP network on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis. The term "integrated" is used to denote that the Future Internet wireless "last mile" is expected to comprise multiple heterogeneous geographically coexisting wireless networks, each having different capacity and coverage radius. The efficient management of the wireless access network resources is crucial due to their scarcity that renders wireless access a potential bottleneck for the provision of high quality services. In this paper we propose an auction mechanism for allocating the bandwidth of such a network so that efficiency is attained, i.e. social welfare is maximized. In particular, we propose a...

  13. Techniques in molecular spectroscopy: from broad bandwidth to high resolution

    Cossel, Kevin C.

    This thesis presents a range of different experiments all seeking to extended the capabilities of molecular spectroscopy and enable new applications. The new technique of cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy (CE-DFCS) provides a unique combination of broad bandwidth, high resolution, and high sensitivity that can be useful for a wide range of applications. Previous demonstrations of CE-DFCS were confined to the visible or near-infrared and operated over a limited bandwidth: for many applications it is desirable to increase the spectral coverage and to extend to the mid-infrared where strong, fundamental vibrational modes of molecules occur. There are several key requirements for CE-DFCS: a frequency comb source that provides broad bandwidth and high resolution, an optical cavity for high sensitivity, and a detection system capable of multiplex detection of the comb spectrum transmitted through the cavity. We first discuss comb sources with emphasis on the coherence properties of spectral broadening in nonlinear fiber and the development of a high-power frequency comb source in the mid-infrared based on an optical-parametric oscillator (OPO). To take advantage of this new mid-infrared comb source for spectroscopy, we also discuss the development of a rapid-scan Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS). We then discuss the first demonstration of CE-DFCS with spectrally broadened light from a highly nonlinear fiber with the application to measurements of impurities in semiconductor manufacturing gases. We also cover our efforts towards extending CE-DFCS to the mid-infrared using the mid-infrared OPO and FTS to measure ppb levels of various gases important for breath analysis and atmospheric chemistry and highlight some future applications of this system. In addition to the study of neutral molecules, broad-bandwidth and high-resolution spectra of molecular ions are useful for astrochemistry where many of the observed molecules are ionic, for studying

  14. Development of high frequency and wide bandwidth Johnson noise thermometry

    We develop a high frequency, wide bandwidth radiometer operating at room temperature, which augments the traditional technique of Johnson noise thermometry for nanoscale thermal transport studies. Employing low noise amplifiers and an analog multiplier operating at 2 GHz, auto- and cross-correlated Johnson noise measurements are performed in the temperature range of 3 to 300 K, achieving a sensitivity of 5.5 mK (110 ppm) in 1 s of integration time. This setup allows us to measure the thermal conductance of a boron nitride encapsulated monolayer graphene device over a wide temperature range. Our data show a high power law (T ∼ 4) deviation from the Wiedemann-Franz law above T ∼ 100 K

  15. Ultrawide Bandwidth Receiver Based on a Multivariate Generalized Gaussian Distribution

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2015-04-01

    Multivariate generalized Gaussian density (MGGD) is used to approximate the multiple access interference (MAI) and additive white Gaussian noise in pulse-based ultrawide bandwidth (UWB) system. The MGGD probability density function (pdf) is shown to be a better approximation of a UWB system as compared to multivariate Gaussian, multivariate Laplacian and multivariate Gaussian-Laplacian mixture (GLM). The similarity between the simulated and the approximated pdf is measured with the help of modified Kullback-Leibler distance (KLD). It is also shown that MGGD has the smallest KLD as compared to Gaussian, Laplacian and GLM densities. A receiver based on the principles of minimum bit error rate is designed for the MGGD pdf. As the requirement is stringent, the adaptive implementation of the receiver is also carried out in this paper. Training sequence of the desired user is the only requirement when implementing the detector adaptively. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  16. Fibre Bragg grating based accelerometer with extended bandwidth

    Basumallick, Nandini; Biswas, Palas; Chakraborty, Rajib; Chakraborty, Sushanta; Dasgupta, Kamal; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath

    2016-03-01

    We have shown experimentally that the operable bandwidth of a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) based accelerometer can be extended significantly, without compromising its sensitivity, using a post-signal processing technique which involves frequency domain weighting. It has been demonstrated that using the above technique acceleration can be correctly interpreted even when the operating frequency encroaches on the region where the frequency response of the sensor is non-uniform. Two different excitation signals, which we often encounter in structural health monitoring applications, e.g. (i) a signal composed of multi-frequency components and (ii) a sinusoidal excitation with a frequency sweep, have been considered in our experiment. The results obtained have been compared with a piezo accelerometer.

  17. Adaptive Data Filtering of Inertial Sensors with Variable Bandwidth

    Mushfiqul Alam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system-based inertial sensors, i.e., accelerometers and angular rate sensors, are commonly used as a cost-effective solution for the purposes of navigation in a broad spectrum of terrestrial and aerospace applications. These tri-axial inertial sensors form an inertial measurement unit (IMU, which is a core unit of navigation systems. Even if MEMS sensors have an advantage in their size, cost, weight and power consumption, they suffer from bias instability, noisy output and insufficient resolution. Furthermore, the sensor’s behavior can be significantly affected by strong vibration when it operates in harsh environments. All of these constitute conditions require treatment through data processing. As long as the navigation solution is primarily based on using only inertial data, this paper proposes a novel concept in adaptive data pre-processing by using a variable bandwidth filtering. This approach utilizes sinusoidal estimation to continuously adapt the filtering bandwidth of the accelerometer’s data in order to reduce the effects of vibration and sensor noise before attitude estimation is processed. Low frequency vibration generally limits the conditions under which the accelerometers can be used to aid the attitude estimation process, which is primarily based on angular rate data and, thus, decreases its accuracy. In contrast, the proposed pre-processing technique enables using accelerometers as an aiding source by effective data smoothing, even when they are affected by low frequency vibration. Verification of the proposed concept is performed on simulation and real-flight data obtained on an ultra-light aircraft. The results of both types of experiments confirm the suitability of the concept for inertial data pre-processing.

  18. Adaptive data filtering of inertial sensors with variable bandwidth.

    Alam, Mushfiqul; Rohac, Jan

    2015-01-01

    MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system)-based inertial sensors, i.e., accelerometers and angular rate sensors, are commonly used as a cost-effective solution for the purposes of navigation in a broad spectrum of terrestrial and aerospace applications. These tri-axial inertial sensors form an inertial measurement unit (IMU), which is a core unit of navigation systems. Even if MEMS sensors have an advantage in their size, cost, weight and power consumption, they suffer from bias instability, noisy output and insufficient resolution. Furthermore, the sensor's behavior can be significantly affected by strong vibration when it operates in harsh environments. All of these constitute conditions require treatment through data processing. As long as the navigation solution is primarily based on using only inertial data, this paper proposes a novel concept in adaptive data pre-processing by using a variable bandwidth filtering. This approach utilizes sinusoidal estimation to continuously adapt the filtering bandwidth of the accelerometer's data in order to reduce the effects of vibration and sensor noise before attitude estimation is processed. Low frequency vibration generally limits the conditions under which the accelerometers can be used to aid the attitude estimation process, which is primarily based on angular rate data and, thus, decreases its accuracy. In contrast, the proposed pre-processing technique enables using accelerometers as an aiding source by effective data smoothing, even when they are affected by low frequency vibration. Verification of the proposed concept is performed on simulation and real-flight data obtained on an ultra-light aircraft. The results of both types of experiments confirm the suitability of the concept for inertial data pre-processing. PMID:25648711

  19. Bandwidth-Aware Scheduling of Workflow Application on Multiple Grid Sites

    Harshadkumar B. Prajapati; Shah, Vipul A.

    2014-01-01

    Bandwidth-aware workflow scheduling is required to improve the performance of a workflow application in a multisite Grid environment, as the data movement cost between two low-bandwidth sites can adversely affect the makespan of the application. Pegasus WMS, an open-source and freely available WMS, cannot fully utilize its workflow mapping capability due to unavailability of integration of any bandwidth monitoring infrastructure in it. This paper develops the integration of Network Weather Se...

  20. Effect of Free Bandwidth on VoIP Performance in 802.11b WLAN Networks

    Narbutt, Miroslaw; Davis, Mark

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally study the relationship between bandwidth utilization in the wireless LAN and the quality of VoIP calls transmitted over the wireless medium. Specifically we evaluate how the amount of free bandwidth decreases as the number of calls increases and how this influences transmission impairments (i.e. delay, loss and jitter) and thus degrades call quality. We show that the amount of free bandwidth is a good indicator for predicting VoIP call quality.

  1. Real-Time Virtual Instruments for Remote Sensor Monitoring Using Low Bandwidth Wireless Networks

    Biruk Gebre; Liwen Guo; Nishit Patel; Kishore Pochiraju

    2008-01-01

    The development of a peer-to-peer virtual instrumentation system for remote acquisition, analysis and transmission of data on low bandwidth networks is described. The objective of this system is to collect high frequency/high bandwidth data from multiple sensors placed at remote locations and adaptively adjust the resolution of this data so that it can be transmitted on bandwidth limited networks to a central monitoring and command center. This is achieved by adaptively re-sampling (decimatin...

  2. The Prediction of Bandwidth On Need Computer Network Through Artificial Neural Network Method of Backpropagation

    Ikhthison Mekongga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The need for bandwidth has been increasing recently. This is because the development of internet infrastructure is also increasing so that we need an economic and efficient provider system. This can be achieved through good planning and a proper system. The prediction of the bandwidth consumption is one of the factors that support the planning for an efficient internet service provider system. Bandwidth consumption is predicted using ANN. ANN is an information processing system which has similar characteristics as the biologic al neural network.  ANN  is  chosen  to  predict  the  consumption  of  the  bandwidth  because  ANN  has  good  approachability  to  non-linearity.  The variable used in ANN is the historical load data. A bandwidth consumption information system was built using neural networks  with a backpropagation algorithm to make the use of bandwidth more efficient in the future both in the rental rate of the bandwidth and in the usage of the bandwidth.Keywords: Forecasting, Bandwidth, Backpropagation

  3. A Novel Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment Algorithm for Multi-Services EPONs

    CHEN Xue; ZHANG Yang; HUANG Xiang; DENG Yu; SUN Shu-he

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel Dynamic Bandwidth Assignment (DBA) algorithm for Ethernet-based Passive Optical Networks (EPON) which offers multiple kinds of services. To satisfy crucial Quality of Service (QoS) requirement for Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) service and achieve fair and high bandwidth utilization simultaneously, the algorithm integrates periodic, for TDM service, and polling granting for Ethernet service. Detailed simulation shows that the algorithm guarantees carrier-grade QoS for TDM service, high bandwidth utilization and good fairness of bandwidth assignment among Optical Network Units (ONU).

  4. Bandwidth allocation strategy for traffic systems of scale-free network

    In this Letter, the bandwidth resource allocation strategy is considered for traffic systems of complex networks. With a finite resource of bandwidth, an allocation strategy with preference parameter α is proposed considering the links importance. The performance of bandwidth allocation strategy is studied for the local routing protocol and the shortest path protocol. When important links are slightly favored in the bandwidth allocation, the system can achieve the optimal traffic performance for the two routing protocols. For the shortest path protocol, we also give a method to estimate the network traffic capacity theoretically.

  5. High-Bandwidth Photon-Counting Detectors with Enhanced Near-Infrared Response Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-range optical telecommunications (LROT) impose challenging requirements on detector array sensitivity at 1064nm and arrays timing bandwidth. Large photonic...

  6. Theoretical and experimental investigation of ac space-charge effect on gain and bandwidth of two- and three-cavity gyroklystrons with TE{sub 011} operating mode

    Keyer, A.P.; Aksenova, L.A.; Agapova, M.V.; Myasnikov, V.E.; Musatov, V.S.; Popov, L.G. [Tory Co., Moscow (Russian Federation); Sokolov, E.V.; Zasypkin, E.V. [Inst. of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-01

    Both a small signal approach for ac space-charge effects on beam bunching in the gyroklystron drift tube and nonlinear self-consistent field slow-time scale ballistic theory are applied to investigate the wideband gyroklystron gain including the beam velocity spread effects. The analysis of ac space-charge effects on beam bunching, based on the parameters of existing electron guns, results in the possibility of the wideband amplification in the tremendously high gain gyroklystron using the drift tube of the {approximately}20{lambda} length or more. The test results of the IAP two-stage, 16kV, 3A, 20dB gyroklystron operating in TE{sub 011} mode are presented and discussed. Also, the test results of the Tory TE{sub 011} three-stage, 50kV, 14A gyroklystron are discussed. Having the first drift tube of the {approximately}10k{lambda} length, this gyroklystron demonstrates the 40dB gain, the 1.3% bandwidth, and the 230kW output saturated power.

  7. Spatial frequency bandwidth used in the recognition of facial images.

    Näsänen, R

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out what spatial frequency information human observers use in the recognition of face images. Signal-to-noise ratio thresholds for the recognition of facial images were measured as a function of the centre spatial frequency of narrow-band additive spatial noise. The relative sensitivity of recognition to different spatial frequencies was derived from these results. The maximum sensitivity was found at 8-13 c/face width and the bandwidth was just under two octaves. Qualitatively similar results were obtained with stimuli in which Fourier phase was randomised within a narrow band of different centre spatial frequencies. This resulted in a considerable increase of energy threshold around 8 c/face width and less elsewhere. Further, contrast energy thresholds were measured as a function of the centre spatial frequency of band-pass filtered face images. As a function of object spatial frequency (c/face width), energy threshold first decreased and then increased. The lowest energy thresholds found around 10 c/face width were lower than the energy threshold for unfiltered images. This is what one would expect if face recognition is narrow-band, since band-pass filtered images of optimal centre spatial frequency do not contain unused contrast energy at low and high spatial frequencies. In conclusion, the results suggest that the recognition of facial images is tuned to a relatively narrow band (object spatial frequencies. PMID:10748918

  8. Automatic Bandwidth Adjustment for Content Distribution in MPLS Networks

    D. Moltchanov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates of real-time traffic may experience changes in their statistical characteristics often manifesting non stationary behavior. In multi protocol label switching (MPLS networks this type of the traffic is assigned constant amount of resources. This may result in ineffective usage of resources when the load is below than expected or inappropriate performance when the load is higher. In this paper we propose new algorithm for dynamic resource adaptation to temporarily changing traffic conditions. Assuming that network nodes may reallocate resources on-demand using automatic bandwidth adjustment capability of MPLS framework, the proposed algorithm, implemented at ingress MPLS nodes, dynamically decides which amount of resources is currently sufficient to handle arriving traffic with given performance metrics. This decision is then communicated to interior MPLS nodes along the label switched path. As a basic tool of the algorithm we use change-point statistical test that signals time instants at which statistical characteristics of traffic aggregates change. The major advantage of the proposed approach is that it is fully autonomous, that is, network nodes do not need any support from hosts in terms of resource reservation requests. The proposed algorithm is well suited for traffic patterns experiencing high variability, especially, for non stationary type of the traffic.

  9. A scanning SQUID microscope with 200 MHz bandwidth

    We developed a scanning DC SQUID microscope with novel readout electronics capable of wideband sensing of RF magnetic fields from 50 to 200 MHz and simultaneously providing closed-loop response at kHz frequencies. To overcome the 20 MHz bandwidth limitation of traditional closed-loop SQUIDs, a flux-modulated closed-loop simultaneously locks the SQUID quasi-static flux and flux-biases the SQUID for amplification of the RF flux up to Φ0/4 in amplitude. Demodulating the SQUID voltage with a double lock-in technique yields a signal representative of both the amplitude and phase of the RF flux. This provides 80 dB of a linear dynamic range with a flux noise density of 4 μΦ0 Hz−1/2 at 200 MHz for a Y Ba2Cu3O7 bi-crystal SQUID at 77 K. We describe the electronics’ performance and present images for RF magnetic field of the travelling wave in a coplanar waveguide, the standing wave in an open-circuited microstrip, and a surface mounted device antenna. (paper)

  10. High resolution, high bandwidth global shutter CMOS area scan sensors

    Faramarzpour, Naser; Sonder, Matthias; Li, Binqiao

    2013-10-01

    Global shuttering, sometimes also known as electronic shuttering, enables the use of CMOS sensors in a vast range of applications. Teledyne DALSA Global shutter sensors are able to integrate light synchronously across millions of pixels with microsecond accuracy. Teledyne DALSA offers 5 transistor global shutter pixels in variety of resolutions, pitches and noise and full-well combinations. One of the recent generations of these pixels is implemented in 12 mega pixel area scan device at 6 um pitch and that images up to 70 frames per second with 58 dB dynamic range. These square pixels include microlens and optional color filters. These sensors also offer exposure control, anti-blooming and high dynamic range operation by introduction of a drain and a PPD reset gate to the pixel. The state of the art sense node design of Teledyne DALSA's 5T pixel offers exceptional shutter rejection ratio. The architecture is consistent with the requirements to use stitching to achieve very large area scan devices. Parallel or serial digital output is provided on these sensors using on-chip, column-wise analog to digital converters. Flexible ADC bit depth combined with windowing (adjustable region of interest, ROI) allows these sensors to run with variety of resolution/bandwidth combinations. The low power, state of the art LVDS I/O technology allows for overall power consumptions of less than 2W at full performance conditions.